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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year endedDecember 31, 2022For the transition period from                to

Commission File Number 1-9210
Occidental Petroleum Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organizationDelaware
I.R.S. Employer Identification No.95-4035997
Address of principal executive offices5 Greenway Plaza, Suite 110Houston,Texas
Zip Code77046
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code(713)215-7000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.20 par value OXYNew York Stock Exchange
Warrants to Purchase Common Stock, $0.20 par value
OXY WSNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ☐   No  ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes ☑   No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes ☑   No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated FilerEmerging Growth Company
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes ☐   No  

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant was approximately $53.0 billion computed by reference to the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange of $58.88 per share of Common Stock on June 30, 2022.

As of January 31, 2023, there were 900,072,447 shares of Common Stock outstanding, par value $0.20 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement, relating to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.







TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGE
Part I 
Items 1 and 2.
Human Capital Resources
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 3.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II  
Item 5.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevented Inspections
Part III  
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV 
Item 15.
Item 16.



ABBREVIATIONS USED WITHIN THIS DOCUMENT
AAPGAmerican Association of Petroleum Geologists
AOCAdministrative Order on Consent
AnadarkoAnadarko Petroleum Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries
Anadarko AcquisitionA transaction pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated May 9, 2019, in which Occidental acquired all of the outstanding shares of Anadarko on August 8, 2019, and in which a wholly owned subsidiary of Occidental merged with and into Anadarko
AndesAndes Petroleum Ecuador Ltd.
AROasset retirement obligations
Bcfbillions of cubic feet
Bcf/dbillions of cubic feet per day
Berkshire HathawayBerkshire Hathaway Inc.
BLMU.S. Bureau of Land Management
the BoardOccidental Board of Directors
Boebarrels of oil equivalent
BOEMU.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
CCUScarbon capture, utilization and storage
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CO2
carbon dioxide
COGCC
Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission
Common Stock Warrantsa distribution of warrants to holders of Occidental common stock
CROCEcash returns on capital employed
CROCEIcash return on capital employed incentive
DACdirect air capture
DASSDiamond Alkali Superfund Site
DD&Adepreciation, depletion and amortization
DELDolphin Energy Limited
DIB
diversity, inclusion and belonging
DOJU.S. Department of Justice
DSCCDiamond Alkali Chemicals Company
EDCethylene dichloride
EORenhanced oil recovery
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPSearnings per share
ERGEmployee Resource Group
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
GAAPGenerally accepted accounting principles
GHGgreenhouse gas
HSEhealth, safety and environmental
Kerr-McGee
Kerr-McGee Corporation and certain of its subsidiaries
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
LIFOlast-in, first-out
OCIother comprehensive income
MaxusMaxus Energy Corporation
Mbblthousands of barrels
Mbbl/dthousands of barrels per day
Mboethousands of barrels equivalent



ABBREVIATIONS USED WITHIN THIS DOCUMENT
Mboe/dthousands of barrels equivalent per day
Mcfthousand cubic feet
MMbblmillions of barrels
MMbtumillion British thermal units
MMcfmillions of cubic feet
NAVnet asset value
NEPANational Environmental Policy Act
NGLnatural gas liquids
NPLNational Priorities List
NYMEXNew York Mercantile Exchange
NYSENew York Stock Exchange
OccidentalOccidental Petroleum Corporation, a Delaware corporation and one or more entities in which it owns a controlling interest (subsidiaries)
OEPCOccidental Exploration and Production Company
OLCVOccidental’s low-carbon ventures businesses
OPECOrganization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Optionsstock options
OTCOver-the-Counter
OUOperable Unit
OxyChemOccidental Chemical Corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries
the Planstockholder-approved 2015 Long-Term Incentive Plan, as amended and restated, for certain employees and directors
PP&Eproperty, plant & equipment
PSCproduction sharing contracts
PUDproved undeveloped
PVCpolyvinyl chloride
RCFrevolving credit facility
Reserves CommitteeCorporate Reserves Review Committee
RODRecord of Decision
RSUsrestricted stock units
Ryder ScottRyder Scott Company, L.P.
S&P 500
Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SOFR
Secured Overnight Financing Rate
SonatrachThe national oil and gas company of Algeria
STEPStrategic Technical Excellence Program
the TrustMaxus Liquidating Trust
TSRItotal shareholder return incentive
UAEUnited Arab Emirates
VCM
Vinyl chloride monomer
WESWestern Midstream Partners, LP
WTIWest Texas Intermediate
Zero CouponsZero Coupon senior notes due 2036
2022 Form 10-KOccidental’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022


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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
Part I
ITEMS 1 AND 2. BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES

In this Form 10-K, “Occidental”, “we”, “our” and “the Company” refers to Occidental Petroleum Corporation, a Delaware corporation incorporated in 1986, or Occidental and one or more entities in which it owns a controlling interest (subsidiaries). Occidental conducts its operations through its various subsidiaries and affiliates. Occidental’s executive offices are located at 5 Greenway Plaza, Suite 110, Houston, Texas 77046; telephone (713) 215-7000.

GENERAL

Occidental’s principal businesses consist of three reporting segments: oil and gas, chemical and midstream and marketing. The oil and gas segment explores for, develops and produces oil (which includes condensate), NGL and natural gas. The chemical segment primarily manufactures and markets basic chemicals and vinyls. The midstream and marketing segment purchases, markets, gathers, processes, transports and stores oil, NGL, natural gas, CO2 and power. It also optimizes its transportation and storage capacity, and invests in entities that conduct similar activities, such as WES.
The midstream and marketing segment also includes OLCV. OLCV seeks to leverage Occidental’s legacy of carbon management expertise to develop CCUS projects, including the commercialization of DAC technology, and invests in other low-carbon technologies intended to reduce GHG emissions from its operations and strategically partner with other industries to help reduce their emissions.

HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES

Occidental’s culture is built upon the following core values:

Lead with Passion
Outperform Expectations
Deliver Results Responsibly
Unleash Opportunities
Commit to Good

Occidental’s human capital resources and programs are managed by its Human Resources department, with support from business leaders across the company. Occidental’s senior management team plays a key role in setting and monitoring Occidental’s culture, values and broader human capital management practices, with oversight by Occidental’s Board of Directors, the Sustainability and Shareholder Engagement Committee of the Board and the Environmental, Health & Safety Committee of the Board. The Sustainability and Shareholder Engagement Committee periodically receives briefings on Occidental’s human capital strategy and the Environmental, Health & Safety Committee receives briefings on employee and contractor health and safety statistics and related matters, including workforce health and safety initiatives. Senior management and the Board also engage regularly on workforce-related topics.
To enhance senior leadership’s engagement with employees, Occidental hosts quarterly executive virtual conversations where Occidental’s President and CEO, Vicki Hollub, and other executive officers review recent financial and operational performance as well as topics pertinent to employees. Occidental’s CEO also answers employee questions during these conversations. The quarterly executive virtual conversations form one piece of Occidental’s employee outreach and engagement, which consists of newsletters, focus groups and employee resource groups, among other channels and tools.

DIVERSITY, INCLUSION AND BELONGING
The intent of Occidental’s DIB culture is to create an environment where employees’ differences are appreciated, celebrated and encouraged. Occidental conducted a robust survey across the organization, the results of which were reviewed by the Board and became a basis for Occidental’s core values.
The Company’s human capital resources extend across several regions. Occidental has attracted, and continues to recruit, a diverse workforce of exceptional talent, including employees from many nations. This diversity enriches Occidental’s culture, its employees' experiences on the job and contributes to an innovative and effective business model that encourages local communities to thrive. DIB powers Occidental’s innovation and spirit of excellence, as well as its knowledge and results. Embedding DIB into Occidental’s culture enhances collaboration, performance and growth and helps uphold its organizational values.
The DIB Advisory Board, which is chaired by Occidental’s President and CEO and includes members of senior leadership, provides DIB governance and oversight to ensure that Occidental’s integrated DIB strategy is executed and aligns with the Company’s mission, vision and strategic objectives. The DIB Ambassador Committee, which is chaired by Occidental’s Vice President of Diversity and Inclusion, consists of a diverse group of employee representatives from all

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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
business segments, domestic and international. This committee leads company-wide initiatives to raise DIB awareness through educational resources and programs. Educational sessions are available to the entire workforce for continued growth and development on topics such as inclusive leadership, diversity advocacy, recognizing and addressing micro aggressions, overcoming unconscious bias and psychological safety at work.
Occidental’s senior management, together with the support of Occidental’s DIB Advisory Board and the DIB Ambassador Committee, works to leverage employees’ varied backgrounds, unique experiences and points of view to spark innovation, empower growth, outperform expectations and maximize results.
In October 2022, as part of Occidental’s integrated DIB strategy, the Human Resources department launched eight new Employee Resource Groups. An ERG is a group of employees who actively engage in communicating or gathering around a central purpose, mission, background or activity. ERGs can help advance inclusion and a sense of belonging of employees with a common set of interests and/or goals. The mission and goals of ERGs are fully aligned with Occidental’s expectation to be an employer, partner, and neighbor of choice. Each ERG is inclusive of all employees—everyone can benefit from and participate in an ERG, either as a member or an ally. Occidental’s ERGs are as follows:

Allyship
Black Employee Network
Early Career Network
FRIEND (Friends, Relatives and Individuals Empowering Neurodiversity)
Hispanic Network
Mental Health Matters
Mosaic (Multicultural) Network
Out (LGBT+) Network
Veterans Network
Women of Oxy Network

TALENT ATTRACTION AND RETENTION
Occidental recruits candidates through job fairs, professional societies and campus recruiting, including expanded recruiting at historically black colleges and universities.
In 2022, Occidental began to return to in-person interviews, and the university relations team worked with universities and their staff to ensure that any in-person interviews and events were conducted safely. In addition, all college internships were in-person with appropriate health and safety precautions as senior leadership continued to monitor federal, state and local guidance and public health data.
In response to employee feedback received by the Human Resources department, to attract and retain talent, Occidental implemented the Balanced Workplace Program in 2022 under which eligible office-based employees may opt to work three days in the office and two days at home each week. The program affords employees more flexibility and promotes increased balance. The Human Resources department solicited feedback from employees participating in the Balanced Workplace Program regarding their experience and to gauge interest in other work arrangements. Following review of such feedback, in June 2022, the Human Resources department began conducting a fully remote pilot program for employees in certain functions.
In 2021, Occidental implemented its global Strategic Technical Excellence Program to recruit, develop and retain highly skilled and valued geoscientists, engineers, scientists and other petrotechnical professionals who will collectively drive innovation, advance performance and inspire the future of energy. STEP is a highly valued program for technical contributors to focus and advance on a technical, non-managerial career path and provides a competitive advantage for Occidental through the optimum application of technology. The Chief Petrotechnical Officer leads all aspects of STEP and reports directly to Occidental’s President and CEO.
Occidental also offers employees development opportunities, competitive compensation and attractive benefits, as discussed further below.

DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING
Occidental employees have access to extensive development and training opportunities and programs to expand their personal and professional skills and knowledge. Occidental’s approach to education includes:

Leadership/management training to develop leadership skills at all levels;
Self-directed learning and development, including web-based and instructor-led training;
An employee development library;
Mentoring programs;
Employee resource groups; and
Educational assistance to support employees’ continuing education.

In January 2022, Occidental expanded its development and training opportunities and programs from 94 on-demand professional development classes to over 3,000 on-demand classes with over 26,000 types of learning materials (videos, audio books, etc.).
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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
In May 2022, Occidental launched its new domestic mentoring program, EMPower. The purpose of this program is to provide an avenue for enhancing critical business skills, broadening employee networks, and engaging our employees. This program is available for all domestic employees. EMPower is intended to help employees reach their potential through training and empowerment, allowing employees to advance in their careers and develop critical skills.

EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS
In addition to prioritizing employee engagement and development, Occidental’s compensation and benefits program is designed to attract and retain the talent necessary to achieve its business strategy. The compensation and benefits program recognizes and rewards strong company and individual performance with competitive base salaries, an annual bonus program, recognition awards, long-term performance incentives and advancement opportunities. In 2022, Occidental awarded a one-time special bonus to recognize the innovative and dedicated work of the company’s employees and resulting strong operational and financial performance. The Company’s compensation and benefits program is routinely reviewed and benchmarked to ensure competitiveness and to provide the benefits that matter most to current and future employees.
Occidental strives to give employees the tools and resources they need to succeed both professionally and personally and to foster a safe and collaborative work environment. To that end, Occidental offers, and regularly evaluates, its comprehensive health, welfare and retirement and savings benefits plans, professional memberships and work/life balance benefits. It also provides programs to enhance and support employees’ overall well-being, including their physical, mental, social and financial health.
In January 2022, Occidental introduced a new benefit service provider that provides a health care concierge service to help families manage and navigate medical, in-home care, housing, and social/emotional support, for their own or their families’ complex care needs. Furthermore, to make the most of employees’ benefits, it is important employees are aware of all that the company has to offer to help employees live well and work well. In the fall of 2022, members of the company’s Employee Benefits department presented a Total Rewards Roadshow and traveled to numerous Occidental sites to connect with employees, answer questions and share valuable information about benefits.

MENTAL HEALTH
Addressing well-being is imperative to ensure that Occidental’s employees stay resilient, healthy and productive. In 2021, Occidental launched the global well-being campaign “Commit to You” to educate employees and leaders about how its benefits can support them under the four pillars of well-being: mental, physical, social and financial.
In 2022, Occidental prioritized the importance of mental health and well-being through manager and employee programs and events. One program, sponsored by OxyHealth and the Mental Health Matters ERG, was a "Talk Saves Lives" conversation with the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention to learn about common risk factors, how to spot warning signs in others, and how to keep employees, loved ones, and those in the community safe. Most recently, on January 1, 2023, the company launched an enhanced mental health benefit through Lyra Health. Lyra Health provides mental and emotional healthcare that is effective, convenient and personalized to all employees globally.
Occidental continues to be a member of One Mind at Work, an employer coalition dedicated to implementing a gold standard for workplace mental health by combating stigma, improving access to treatment and prevention services and fostering a psychologically safe culture. In 2022, Occidental’s CEO and the Chairman of One Mind at Work participated in a video broadcast for employees about breaking down the stigma around mental health challenges at work and what Occidental employees can expect as we transition into an organization where mental health is an accepted and visible part of its well-being.

HEALTH AND SAFETY
The health and safety of Occidental’s workforce and communities is a top priority. In 2022, the Board approved updates to the company’s longstanding Health, Safety and Environmental Principles (as revised, the HSE and Sustainability Principles) that management recommended based on engagement with shareholders, employees and other stakeholders. The HSE and Sustainability Principles reinforce the alignment among Occidental’s core values, goals and strategies, underpin the operational management system, and help to guide Occidentals global workforce. Occidental endeavors to apply these principles to improve workplace and contractor safety, prevent and mitigate incidents, and safeguard people and the environment in the communities where it operates. In addition to complying with applicable HSE laws, regulations, policies and procedures, employees and contractors are empowered and expected to stop any job or activity if they observe conditions that may give rise to a safety or environmental incident, and they are often recognized for doing so.

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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
WORKFORCE COMPOSITION
The below table approximates regional distribution of Occidental’s employees as of December 31, 2022:

North AmericaMiddle EastLatin America
Other (a)
Total (b)
Union416800 50— 1,266
Non-Union7,8422,62412112010,707
Total8,2583,42417112011,973
(a)Other headcount included North Africa, Europe and Asia.
(b)Included approximately 2,800 employees in OxyChem.

The below table approximates the self-reported gender and ethnicity, excluding non-specified ethnicities, of Occidental’s domestic leadership and other employees as of December 31, 2022. Executive and senior officials and managers are considered top leadership while first- and mid-level officials and managers are considered junior leadership. Individual contributors are excluded from the leadership categories but included in all employee percentages.

MaleFemaleWhitenon-White
All employees78 %22 %66 %34 %
All leadership78 %22 %75 %25 %
Top leadership83 %17 %85 %15 %
Junior leadership78 %22 %75 %25 %

We have also publicly disclosed the Consolidated EEO-1 Report that Occidental submitted in 2022 to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for the 2021 fiscal year, which can be found on the sustainability section of our website.

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

For environmental regulation information, including associated costs, see the information under Environmental Liabilities and Expenditures in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section under Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K, Risk Factors under Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10K and in Note 12 - Environmental Liabilities and Expenditures and Note 13 - Lawsuits, Claims, Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Occidental’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports are available free of charge on its website, www.oxy.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after Occidental electronically files the material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of Occidental’s annual report will be made available, free of charge, upon written request.
From time to time, Occidental has made and expects in the future to use its website as a channel of distribution of material information regarding the Company. Financial and other material information regarding the Company is routinely posted on Occidental’s website and accessible at www.oxy.com/investors/.
Information contained on Occidental’s website is not part of or incorporated into this Form 10-K or any other filings with the SEC.
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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES

OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS

GENERAL
Occidental primarily conducts its ongoing exploration and production activities in the United States, the Middle East and North Africa. Within the United States, Occidental has operations primarily in Texas, New Mexico and Colorado, as well as offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Internationally, Occidental primarily conducts operations in the UAE, Oman and Algeria. Refer to the Oil and Gas Acreage section in Supplemental Oil and Gas Information under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further disclosure of Occidental’s holdings of developed and undeveloped oil and gas acreage.

COMPETITION
As a producer of oil, NGL and natural gas, Occidental competes with numerous other domestic and international public, private and government producers. Oil, NGL and natural gas are sensitive to prevailing global and local market conditions, as well as anticipated market conditions. Occidental’s competitive strategy relies on producing hydrocarbons in a capital efficient manner through developing conventional and unconventional fields, and utilizing primary, secondary (waterflood) and tertiary (CO2 and steam flood) recovery techniques in areas where Occidental has a competitive advantage as a result of its successful operations or investments in shared infrastructure. Occidental also competes to develop and produce its worldwide oil and gas reserves safely, sustainably and cost-effectively, maintain a skilled workforce and use high quality service providers. Occidental believes that its core competencies in CO2 separation, transportation, use, recycling and storage in EOR provide a competitive advantage over its peers as the world transitions to a less carbon-intensive economy and seeks to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

PROVED RESERVES AND SALES VOLUMES
The table below shows Occidental’s year-end oil, NGL and natural gas proved reserves. See the information under Oil and Gas Segment in the Management's Discussion and Analysis section under Part II, Item 7, of this Form 10-K for details regarding Occidental’s proved reserves, the reserves estimation process, sales and production volumes, production costs and other reserves-related data.

COMPARATIVE OIL AND GAS PROVED RESERVES AND SALES VOLUMES
Oil and NGL is in MMbbl; natural gas is in Bcf.

202220212020
OilNGLGasBoe
(a)
OilNGLGasBoe
(a)
OilNGLGasBoe
(a)
Proved Reserves (b)
United States1,639 654 4,073 2,972 1,466 564 3,419 2,600 1,144 384 2,446 1,936 
International274 192 2,277 845 305 202 2,431 912 331 215 2,573 975 
Total1,913 846 6,350 3,817 1,771 766 5,850 3,512 1,475 599 5,019 2,911 
Sales Volumes
United States185 83 445 342 182 79 477 341 205 81 561 380 
International41 12 164 81 44 12 172 85 59 13 195 104 
Total226 95 609 423 226 91 649 426 264 94 756 484 
(a)Natural gas volumes are converted to Boe at six Mcf of gas per one barrel of oil. Conversion to Boe does not necessarily result in price equivalency.
(b)Excluded reserves and sales volumes related to Occidental’s discontinued operations.
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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL OPERATIONS

GENERAL
OxyChem owns and operates manufacturing plants at 21 domestic sites in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, New Jersey, Ohio, Tennessee and Texas and at two international sites in Canada and Chile.

COMPETITION
OxyChem competes with numerous other domestic and international chemical producers. OxyChem’s market position was first or second in the United States in 2022 for the principal basic chemical products it manufactured and marketed as well as for VCM. OxyChem ranks in the top three producers of PVC in the United States. OxyChem’s competitive strategy is to be a low-cost producer of its products in order to compete on price.
OxyChem produced the following products:

Principal ProductsMajor UsesAnnual Capacity
Basic Chemicals
Chlorine
Raw material for EDC, water treatment and pharmaceuticals3.2 million tons
Caustic soda
Pulp, paper and aluminum production
3.3 million tons
Chlorinated organics
Refrigerants(a), silicones and pharmaceuticals
1 billion pounds
Potassium chemicals
Fertilizers, batteries, soaps, detergents and specialty glass
0.4 million tons
EDC
Raw material for VCM
2.1 billion pounds
Chlorinated isocyanurates
Swimming pool sanitation and disinfecting products
150 million pounds
Sodium silicates
Catalysts, soaps, detergents and paint pigments
0.6 million tons
Calcium chloride
Ice melting, dust control, road stabilization and oil field services
0.7 million tons
Vinyls
VCM
Precursor for PVC
6.2 billion pounds
PVC
Piping, building materials and automotive and medical products
3.7 billion pounds
Ethylene
Raw material for VCM
1.3 billion pounds(b)
(a)Included 4CPe, a raw material used in making next generation refrigerants with low global warming and zero ozone depletion potential.
(b)Amount is gross production capacity for 50/50 joint venture with Orbia.

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BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES
MIDSTREAM AND MARKETING OPERATIONS

GENERAL
Occidental’s midstream and marketing operations primarily support and enhance its oil and gas and chemical businesses. The midstream and marketing segment strives to optimize the use of its gathering, processing, transportation, storage and terminal commitments and to provide access to domestic and international markets. To generate returns, the segment evaluates opportunities across the value chain to provide services to Occidental subsidiaries, as well as third parties. The midstream and marketing segment operates or contracts for services on gathering systems, gas plants, co-generation facilities and storage facilities and invests in entities that conduct similar activities, such as WES and DEL, which are accounted for as equity method investments. WES owns gathering systems, plants and pipelines and earns revenue from fee-based and service-based contracts with Occidental and third parties. DEL owns and operates a pipeline that connects its gas processing and compression plant in Qatar and its receiving facilities in the UAE, and uses its network of DEL-owned and other existing leased pipelines to supply natural gas across the UAE and to Oman. The midstream segment includes Al Hosn Gas, a processing facility in the UAE that removes sulfur from natural gas and processes the natural gas and sulfur for sale. The midstream and marketing segment also includes OLCV businesses.

LOW-CARBON BUSINESS
Leveraging Occidental’s carbon management expertise, OLCV primarily focuses on advancing carbon removal and CCUS projects, including developing and commercializing DAC technology. OLCV also invests in third-party entities that are developing technologies that advance other low-carbon initiatives, including NET Power, a clean energy technology company.

COMPETITION
Occidental’s midstream and marketing businesses operate in competitive and highly regulated markets. Occidental competes for capacity and infrastructure for the gathering, processing, transportation, storage and delivery of its products, which are sold at current market prices or on a forward basis to refiners, end users and other market participants. Occidental’s marketing business competes with other market participants on exchange platforms and through other bilateral transactions with direct counterparties. OLCV and its businesses and investees also face a broad range of competitors including state-owned enterprises; multinational companies in the energy, infrastructure, manufacturing, transportation, technology and financial sectors; and startup companies, with nascent markets for low-carbon products and CO2 removal credits that are subject to rapidly changing laws, regulations, policies and reporting and verification mechanisms that can significantly impact the financing, construction and operation of projects and the development of markets.
Occidental’s midstream and marketing operations are conducted in the locations described below as of December 31, 2022:
LocationDescription
Capacity (a)
Gas Plants
Texas, New Mexico and Colorado
Occidental and third-party-operated natural gas/CO2 gathering, compression and processing systems
2.2 Bcf/d
Texas, Rocky Mountains and OtherEquity investment in WES - gas processing facilities5.0 Bcf/d
UAENatural gas processing facilities for Al Hosn Gas1.3 Bcf/d
Pipelines and Gathering Systems
Texas, New Mexico and Colorado
CO2 fields and pipeline systems transporting CO2 to oil and gas producing locations
2.8 Bcf/d
Qatar, UAE and OmanEquity investment in the DEL natural gas pipeline3.2 Bcf/d
United StatesEquity investment in WES involved in gathering and transportation14,712 miles of pipeline
Power Generation
Texas and LouisianaOccidental-operated power and steam generation facilities1,218 megawatts of electricity and 1.6 million pounds of steam per hour
OLCV
TexasOccidental-owned solar generation facility16.8 megawatts of electricity
TexasEquity investment in a zero-emission natural gas generation demonstration facilityup to 50 megawatts of electricity
Canada
Equity investment in developing DAC technology, which captures CO2 directly from the atmosphere
N/A
(a)Amounts are gross, including interests held by third parties. Gas capacities are expressed in Bcf/d.
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RISK FACTORS

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Risks related to government regulations and the environment

Governmental actions and political instability may adversely affect Occidental’s businesses and results of operations.
Occidental’s businesses are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the actions and decisions of many federal, state, local and international governments and political interests. As a result, Occidental faces risks of:

New or amended laws and regulations, or new or different applications or interpretations of existing laws and regulations, including those related to drilling, manufacturing or production processes (including flaring and well stimulation techniques such as hydraulic fracturing and acidization), pipelines, labor and employment, taxes, royalty rates, permitted production rates, entitlements, import, export and use of raw materials, equipment or products, use or increased use of land, water and other natural resources, air emissions (including restrictions, taxes or fees on emissions of methane, CO2,or other substances), water recycling and disposal, waste minimization and disposal, public and occupational health and safety, the manufacturing of chemicals, asset integrity management, the marketing or export of commodities, security, environmental protection, and climate change-related and sustainability initiatives, all of which may restrict or prohibit activities of Occidental or its contractors or customers, increase Occidental’s costs or reduce demand for Occidental’s products.
Violation of certain governmental laws and regulations, which may result in strict, joint and several liability and the imposition of significant administrative, civil or criminal fines and penalties and may also result in liability for remedial actions or assessments. Litigation, orders or other proceedings asserting strict, joint and several liability under such laws and regulations may seek to impose significant administrative, civil or criminal fines and penalties, damages or remedial actions or to require significant changes to, or even closure of, facilities or operations;
Refusal of, or delay in, the extension or grant of exploration, development or production contracts; and
Development delays and cost overruns due to approval delays for, or denial of, drilling, construction, environmental and other regulatory approvals, permits and authorizations
.
In November 2021, Congress passed and President Biden signed the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act reinstated the federal Superfund excise taxes on various chemicals that OxyChem manufactures. These excise taxes could lead to higher costs and impact margins. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act also authorized the U.S. government to award grants for CCUS research, development and demonstration; carbon transport and storage infrastructure and permitting; carbon utilization and market development; and carbon removal. These grant programs were developed during 2022 and the awarding of grants in 2023 or future years could affect the selection and deployment of competing low-carbon technologies and the financing and market acceptance of proposed projects.
In August 2022, Congress passed and President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act, which expanded policy support and incentives for deployment of DAC, CCUS, hydrogen and other low-carbon projects, including several enhancements to federal tax credits. The Inflation Reduction Act also established an escalating methane emissions fee that the EPA will impose on certain upstream and midstream oil and gas operations per metric ton of methane emissions above certain thresholds commencing in 2024. The impact of this fee on Occidental will depend on implementing regulations that are expected to be issued in 2023.
In November 2021, the U.S. Department of the Interior released its Report on the Federal Oil and Gas Leasing Program, recommending increasing royalty rates and rents for drilling programs on federal public lands and in federal offshore waters, in addition to prioritizing leasing in areas with known resource potential and in proximity to existing oil and gas infrastructure and avoiding leasing in areas with competing uses such as recreation, wildlife habitat, conservation and historical and cultural resources. If the U.S. Department of the Interior were to issue regulations implementing these recommendations, Occidental’s subsidiaries could incur increased federal royalties and face restrictions on future potential drilling sites or infrastructure on federal lands.
In January 2022, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia invalidated the results of the BOEM oil and gas lease sale 257 in the Gulf of Mexico, in which an Occidental subsidiary was the high bidder on 30 additional new blocks located nearby to its existing host platforms, ruling that the BOEM’s environmental analysis of GHG emissions was inadequate under NEPA. The U.S. Department of the Interior, which oversees federal oil and gas development, is currently reviewing the decision. In August 2022, Congress reinstated the lease sale in the IRA, and the Occidental subsidiary received the leases in October 2022. Motions to dismiss are pending in the legal challenge to the lease sale. The BOEM’s authorization to hold lease sales expired in July 2022. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has issued a proposed 2023-2028 Five-Year Program which is subject to environmental review and public comment, and must be approved before future lease sales can occur.
In June 2022, advocacy groups filed a petition in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia against the BLM seeking to invalidate numerous drilling permits for oil and gas wells on federal lands in New Mexico and Wyoming, and potentially other states, that were approved by the BLM during the Biden Administration, including certain permits obtained by Occidental subsidiaries. The plaintiffs allege that the BLM failed to comply with various statutes, including NEPA, the Endangered Species Act and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, by not adequately addressing GHG emissions
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and climate change in the environmental documents underlying the approvals. Occidental, other producers and multiple trade associations have intervened and the BLM is preparing an administrative record. Similar cases challenge permits issued to other operators with respect to the BLM’s consideration of GHG and other air emissions under NEPA and other statutes.
In January 2023, the White House Council on Environmental Quality issued interim guidance to federal agencies for evaluating GHG emissions under NEPA that applies to certain federal actions such as oil and gas leasing and permitting on federal lands. The interim guidance, which is subject to public comment until March 2023, recommends that agencies quantify a project’s reasonably foreseeable direct and indirect GHG emissions and assign a monetary impact of the GHGs by applying a social cost of carbon selected by the government.
Although the foregoing BOEM proposed Five-Year Program for offshore leasing, the White House Council on Environmental Quality guidance and lawsuits do not affect Occidental’s existing production or planned 2023 drilling and completions activity, restrictions or uncertainty regarding federal lease sales and permits and associated royalty and regulatory requirements could impact the future ability to develop resources efficiently on federal lands and in federal waters.
Significant areas of the Permian Basin in West Texas and Southeast New Mexico are subject to current or proposed land use restrictions under the Endangered Species Act. In August 2022, in response to a lawsuit by advocacy groups, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service agreed to decide before the end of June 2023 whether to add the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard to the list of threatened and endangered species. In November 2022, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published a final rule listing the Lesser Prairie Chicken as endangered. Although Occidental has entered into voluntary conservation agreements with respect to these and other species and their associated habitat in the Permian Basin, listing of such species may impose significant operational requirements and costs and increase the potential for litigation and enforcement actions.
In January 2021, the COGCC adopted new regulations that impose siting requirements or “setbacks” on certain oil and gas drilling locations based on the distance of a proposed well pad to occupied structures. Pursuant to the regulations, well pads cannot be located within 500 feet of an occupied structure without the consent of the property owner. As part of the permitting process, the COGCC will consider a series of siting requirements for all drilling locations located between 500 feet and 2,000 feet of an occupied structure. Alternatively, the operator may seek a waiver from each owner and tenant within the designated distance. Occidental has a dedicated, multidisciplinary stakeholder relations team that conducts regulatory and community outreach with respect to its permit applications and operations in Colorado. Under these new regulations and through thoughtful surface location planning, Occidental has obtained COGCC approval for five Oil and Gas Development Plans, inclusive of 12 well pad and facility locations and approximately 150 wells. In addition to the approximately 150 wells approved through the Oil and Gas Development Plan process, during the third quarter of 2022, Occidental became the first oil and gas operator in Colorado to obtain COGCC approval for the first Comprehensive Area Plan under the new COGCC rules. This comprehensive plan will support nine well pads and approximately 140 new wells and will provide for substantial future development in a geographically remote area on Colorado’s eastern plains. Oil and Gas Development Plans associated with the Comprehensive Area Plan will be submitted in 2023. While, as of December 31, 2022, Occidental is permitted, or had permit applications submitted to applicable regulatory agencies, for nearly all planned 2023 drilling and completions activity in the DJ Basin, any significant delays could result in changes to our development program in the DJ Basin and our ability to establish new proved undeveloped locations by meeting the SEC’s “reasonably certain” threshold for adding PUD reserves.
Texas and New Mexico have experienced an increase in seismic activity, with events measuring magnitude 3 or greater in each state. In the fourth quarter of 2021, both states issued new guidelines for operators to prevent or mitigate seismic activity, focused on produced water disposal wells. These guidelines also require operators to implement response plans for activities within agency-designated seismic response areas. These states have curtailed water disposal and suspended permits in seismic response areas, particularly in deep disposal wells. Occidental does not operate deep disposal wells in the seismic response areas established by the state agencies to date, and its shallow disposal wells have been authorized to operate at agency-approved volume limits. Occidental also has central water treatment and recycling facilities that reduce the need for disposal of produced water. While Occidental’s ability to drill and complete wells or to dispose of surplus produced water has not been impacted by these seismic guidelines to date, increased seismicity, or regulatory responses to seismic events, could impact the location, timing and cost of Occidental’s development program and existing operations in seismic response areas.
In 2016, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) was amended to expand the EPA’s authority to evaluate and regulate new and existing chemicals. The EPA is currently evaluating, or developing regulations with respect to, certain chemicals that OxyChem produces or uses in its chemical manufacturing operations. In April 2022, the EPA issued a proposed rule with respect to one chemical used in OxyChem’s manufacturing operations, but the EPA has not issued final regulations under the 2016 TSCA amendments with respect to any of these chemicals to date. Depending on the scope of any such final regulations, or of future TSCA regulations, OxyChem’s ability to use certain chemicals or to manufacture or sell certain of its products could be restricted and its costs could increase.
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In addition, Occidental has experienced and may continue to experience adverse consequences, such as risk of loss or production limitations, because certain of its international operations are located in countries affected by political instability, nationalizations, corruption, armed conflict, terrorism, insurgency, civil unrest, security problems, labor unrest, OPEC production restrictions, equipment import restrictions and sanctions. Exposure to such risks may increase if a greater percentage of Occidental’s future oil and gas production or revenue comes from international sources.

Climate change and further regulation of GHG and other air emissions may adversely affect Occidental’s businesses and results of operations.
Continuing political, social and industry attention to climate change has resulted in both existing and pending international agreements and national, regional and local legislation and regulatory programs to reduce GHG emissions. The Biden Administration has identified climate change as a priority and has described a variety of avenues to prohibit or restrict oil and gas development activities in certain areas. In addition to the governmental actions described above, in February 2021, the Biden Administration established an Interagency Working Group to assign a price to the impact of each metric ton of GHG emissions that federal agencies could use to assess the benefits of more stringent GHG regulations and policy support for low-carbon projects. The Interagency Working Group set an interim value of $51 per metric ton of CO2 emissions at a 3% discount rate, and is expected to issue an updated value in April 2023.
In June 2021, Congress and President Biden reinstated the methane provisions of EPA’s 2012 and 2016 regulations, an action that Occidental supported. In November 2021, the White House Office of Domestic Climate Policy issued a U.S. Methane Emissions Reduction Action Plan that solicited public comment on the EPA’s proposed framework to expand federal regulation of methane and volatile organic compound emissions from a broader set of new upstream and midstream oil and gas operations, as well as various existing operations.
In November 2022, the EPA issued a supplemental proposal that would, through a combination of direct EPA regulation and state implementation plans, expand leak detection and repair programs, require rapid reporting and correction of larger emission sources, require emission controls for new and existing wells and facilities and certain types of activities, require replacement or conversion of certain emitting equipment such as pneumatic controllers, and encourage the use of advanced technologies to detect and measure methane emissions. Provisions applicable to emission sources built or modified after November 2021 would apply upon publication of the final rule, expected in 2023, provisions applicable to existing sources would take effect in 2028, and state plans to implement the rule would be due in 2025. The EPA has also requested public comments on the implementation of the IRA’s methane fee, and on the future expansion of the methane and volatile organic compound regulations to cover additional potential emission sources from abandoned but unplugged wells and certain pipeline and trucking activities. In November 2022, the BLM also proposed regulations to restrict venting and flaring from oil and gas operations on federal lands which are expected to be issued in 2023.
In June 2022, the EPA proposed to amend its GHG Reporting Rule to incorporate additional oil and gas sources and equipment, revise existing emissions estimation methodologies and calculations, and increase data collection, particularly for new or modified emissions sources. The EPA has proposed the amendments to apply to 2023 emissions that must be reported in the first quarter of 2024. These proposed amendments could increase Occidental’s reported estimated emissions from certain sources or types of equipment in its U.S. oil and gas operations. The EPA also proposed changes to the reporting that Occidental submits as a CO2 supplier and for the injection of CO2, as well as a new reporting category for sequestration of CO2 associated with enhanced oil recovery. The IRA also directed the EPA to update its GHG Reporting Rule to require greater use of measurements or empirical data, instead of emissions factors, by the third quarter of 2024.
Several state governments have also established rules aimed at reducing GHG emissions, some including GHG cap and trade programs and others directly regulating equipment that emits GHGs, including methane, and other compounds. Most of these cap and trade programs work by requiring major sources of emissions, such as electric power plants, or major producers of fuels, including refineries and natural gas processing plants, to acquire and surrender emission allowances. Other U.S. states where Occidental operates, including Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, adopted or proposed new regulations, policies or strategies in 2021 and 2022 that increase inspection, recordkeeping, reporting, enforcement and controls on flaring, venting and equipment that emit methane and other compounds at oil and gas facilities. In certain instances, these states anticipate tying the processing and active status of oil and gas permits, including drilling permits, to air emissions and compliance. For example, Colorado has established GHG intensity targets for DJ Basin operators in 2025, 2027 and 2030, which Occidental currently meets.
These and other governmental actions relating to GHG and other air emissions are expected to require Occidental to incur increased operating and maintenance costs including higher rates charged by service providers and costs to purchase, operate and maintain emissions control systems, acquire emission allowances, pay taxes or fees for methane or carbon emissions and comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements; and they could prevent Occidental from conducting oil and gas development activities in certain areas. They could also promote the use of alternative sources of energy and thereby decrease demand for oil, NGL and natural gas and other products that Occidental’s businesses produce, and could also materially impact OLCV’s current or future operations and strategy. Any such legislation or regulatory programs could also increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, oil, NGL, natural gas or other products produced by Occidental’s businesses and lower the value of its reserves. Consequently, governmental actions designed to reduce GHG emissions could have an adverse effect on Occidental’s businesses, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and reserves.
It is difficult to predict the timing, certainty and scope of such government actions and their ultimate effect on Occidental, which could depend on, among other things, the type and extent of GHG emissions reductions required, the availability and price of emission allowances or credits, the availability and price of alternative fuel sources, the energy sectors covered and
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Occidental’s ability to recover the costs incurred through its operating agreements or the pricing of its oil, NGL, natural gas and other products and whether service providers are able to pass increased costs through to Occidental.
There also have been efforts in the investment community, including investment advisers, financial institutions and certain sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds, as well as political actors and other stakeholders, promoting divestment of fossil fuel equities, reducing access to capital markets and pressuring lenders to limit funding or increase the cost of lending to companies engaged in the extraction of fossil fuel reserves. Additionally, institutional lenders who provide financing to oil and gas companies have become more attentive to sustainable lending practices, and some of them may substantially reduce, or elect not to provide, funding for oil and gas companies. Such environmental initiatives aimed at limiting climate change and reducing air emissions could adversely affect Occidental’s business activities, operations and ability to access capital, cause the market value of its securities to decrease or its cost of capital to increase, and adversely affect its reputation. Finally, increasing attention to climate change risks has resulted in an increased possibility of governmental investigations and additional private litigation against Occidental without regard to causation or its contribution to the asserted damage, which could increase its costs or otherwise adversely affect our businesses.

Compliance costs and liabilities associated with health, safety and environmental laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s or its subsidiaries’ businesses, financial condition and results of operations.
Occidental and its subsidiaries and their respective operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations relating to public and occupational health, safety and environmental protection, including those governing air and GHG emissions, water use and discharges, waste management and protection of wildlife and ecosystems. The requirements of these laws and regulations are becoming increasingly complex, stringent and expensive to implement. Costs of compliance with these laws and regulations are significant and can be unpredictable. These laws sometimes provide for strict liability for events that pose an impact or threat to public health and safety or to the environment, including for funding or performance of remediation and, in some cases, compensation for alleged personal injury, property damage, natural resource damages, punitive damages, civil penalties, injunctive relief and government oversight costs. Strict liability can render Occidental or its subsidiaries liable for damages without regard to their degree of care or fault. Some environmental laws provide for joint and several strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances or materials, and, as a result, Occidental or its subsidiaries could be liable for the actions of others.
Occidental and its subsidiaries use and generate hazardous substances or materials in their respective operations. In addition, many of their current and former properties are, or have been, used for industrial purposes. Accordingly, Occidental or its subsidiaries have been, and could become, subject to significant liabilities relating to the investigation, assessment and remediation of potentially contaminated properties and to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as a result of exposures to, or releases of, hazardous substances or materials. As of the date of this filing, Occidental believes its range of reasonably possibly additional losses of its subsidiaries beyond those amounts currently recorded for environmental remediation could be up to $2.7 billion on a consolidated basis. For additional discussion of some of these matters, see Note 12 – Environmental Liabilities and Expenditures and Note 13 - Lawsuits, Claims, Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
In addition, stricter enforcement or changing interpretations of existing laws and regulations, the enactment of new laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new or increased requirements could require Occidental or its subsidiaries to incur costs or become the basis for new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on their respective businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

Occidental’s businesses may experience catastrophic events.
The occurrence of severe weather events such as hurricanes, floods, freezes and heat waves, droughts, earthquakes or other acts of nature, pandemics, well blowouts, fires, explosions, pipeline ruptures, chemical releases, oil releases, including maritime releases, releases into navigable waters and groundwater contamination, material or mechanical failure, power outages, industrial accidents, physical or cyber attacks, abnormally pressured or structured formations and other events that cause operations to cease or be curtailed may negatively affect Occidental’s businesses and the communities in which it operates. Coastal operations are particularly susceptible to disruption from severe weather events. Any of these risks could adversely affect Occidental’s ability to conduct operations or result in substantial losses as a result of:

Damage to and destruction of property and equipment, including property and equipment owned by third-parties which its operations rely upon;
Damage to natural resources;
Pollution and other environmental damage, including spillage or mishandling of recovered chemicals or fluids;
Regulatory investigations, fines and penalties;
Loss of well location, acreage, expected production and related reserves;
Suspension or delay of its operations;
Substantial liability claims; and
Significant repair and remediation costs that increase its break-even economics.

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Third-party insurance may not provide adequate coverage or Occidental or its subsidiaries may be self-insured with respect to the related losses. In addition, under certain circumstances, Occidental or its subsidiaries may be liable for environmental conditions on properties that they currently own, lease or operate that were caused by previous owners or operators of those properties. As a result, Occidental or its subsidiaries may incur substantial liabilities to third parties or governmental entities for environmental matters for which they do not have insurance coverage, which could reduce or eliminate funds available for exploration, development, acquisitions or other investments in their respective businesses, or cause them to incur losses.

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting adverse economic conditions have had, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on Occidental’s businesses and operations and financial condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused, and any resurgence of the pandemic could again cause, disrupted global supply chains and significant volatility in the financial markets. Current crude oil, NGL and natural gas demand and prices could be negatively impacted by a resurgence of COVID-19 cases, slow vaccine distribution in certain large international economies or the recurrence or tightening of travel restrictions and stay-at-home orders. If reduced demand for and lower prices of crude oil, NGL and natural gas persist for a prolonged period, Occidental’s operations, financial condition, cash flows, level of expenditures and the quantity of estimated proved reserves that may be attributed to its properties may be materially and adversely affected. Occidental has not experienced any significant disruptions as a result of any new COVID-19 variants, and it continues to monitor national, state and local government directives where we have operations or offices. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects Occidental’s businesses, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, many of which are outside of its control. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to adversely affect Occidental’s businesses, results of operations and financial condition, it may also have the effect of heightening the other risks described herein.

Risks related to Occidental’s businesses and operations

Volatile global and local commodity pricing strongly affect Occidental’s results of operations.
Occidental’s financial results correlate closely to the prices it obtains for its products, particularly oil and, to a lesser extent, NGL, natural gas and its chemical products.
Prices for oil, NGL and natural gas fluctuate widely. Historically, the markets for oil, NGL and natural gas have been volatile and may continue to be volatile in the future. If the prices of oil, NGL or natural gas continue to be volatile or decline, Occidental’s operations, financial condition, cash flows, level of expenditures and the quantity of estimated proved reserves that may be attributed to its properties may be materially and adversely affected. Prices are set by global and local market forces which are not in Occidental’s control. These factors include, among others:

Worldwide and domestic supplies of, and demand for, oil, NGL, natural gas and refined products;
The cost of exploring for, developing, producing, refining and marketing oil, NGL, natural gas and refined products;
Operational impacts such as production disruptions, technological advances and regional market conditions, including available transportation capacity and infrastructure constraints in producing areas;
Changes in weather patterns and climate;
The impacts of the members of OPEC and other non-OPEC member-producing nations that may agree to and maintain production levels;
The ongoing global impact of the Russia-Ukraine war;
The worldwide military and political environment, including uncertainty or instability resulting from an escalation or outbreak of armed hostilities or acts of terrorism in the United States or elsewhere;
The price and availability of and demand for alternative and competing fuels and emissions reducing technology;
Technological advances affecting energy consumption and supply;
Government policies and support and market demand for low-carbon technologies;
Domestic and international governmental regulations and taxes, including those that restrict the export of hydrocarbons;
Shareholder activism or activities by non-governmental organizations to restrict the exploration, development and production of oil, NGL and natural gas;
Additional or increased nationalization and expropriation activities by international governments;
The impact and uncertainty of world health events, including the COVID-19 pandemic and the spread of new variants;
The effect of releases from the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve;
Volatility in commodity markets;
The effect of energy conservation efforts; and
Global inventory levels and general economic conditions.

The long-term effects of these and other conditions on the prices of oil, NGL, natural gas and chemical products are uncertain and there can be no assurance that the demand or pricing for Occidental’s products will follow historic patterns in
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the near term. Prolonged or substantial decline, or sustained market uncertainty, in these commodity prices may have the following effects on Occidental’s business:

Adversely affect Occidental’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, ability to reduce debt, access to and cost of capital, and ability to finance planned capital expenditures, pay dividends and repurchase shares;
Reduce the amount of oil, NGL and natural gas that Occidental can produce economically;
Cause Occidental to delay or postpone some of its capital projects;
Reduce Occidental’s revenues, operating income or cash flows;
Reduce the amounts of Occidental’s estimated proved oil, NGL and natural gas reserves;
Reduce the carrying value of Occidental’s oil and natural gas properties due to recognizing impairments of proved properties, unproved properties and exploration assets;
Reduce the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows relating to oil, NGL and natural gas reserves; and
Adversely affect the ability of Occidental’s partners to fund their working interest capital requirements.

Generally, Occidental’s historical practice has been to remain exposed to the market prices of commodities. As of December 31, 2022, there were no active commodity hedges in place. Management may choose to put hedges in place in the future for oil, NGL and natural gas commodities. Commodity price risk management activities may prevent Occidental from fully benefiting from price increases and may expose it to regulatory, counterparty credit and other risks.
The prices obtained for Occidental’s chemical products correlate to the strength of the United States and global economies, as well as chemical industry expansion and contraction cycles. Occidental also depends on feedstocks and energy to produce chemicals, which are commodities subject to significant price fluctuations.

Occidental may experience delays, cost overruns, losses or other unrealized expectations in development efforts and exploration activities.
Oil, NGL and natural gas exploration and production activities are subject to numerous risks beyond Occidental’s control, including the risk that drilling will not result in commercially viable oil, NGL and natural gas production. In its development and exploration activities, Occidental bears the risks of:

Equipment failures;
Construction delays;
Escalating costs or competition for services, materials, supplies or labor;
Increasing prices as a result of broad inflation
Property or border disputes;
Disappointing drilling results or reservoir performance;
Title problems and other associated risks that may affect its ability to profitably grow production, replace reserves and achieve its targeted returns;
Actions by third-party operators of its properties;
Permit delays and costs of drilling wells on lands subject to complex development terms and circumstances; and
Oil, NGL and natural gas gathering, transportation and processing availability, restrictions or limitations.

Exploration is inherently risky and is subject to delays, misinterpretation of geologic or engineering data, unexpected geologic conditions or finding reserves of disappointing quality or quantity, which may result in significant losses.

Claims, litigation, government investigations and other proceedings may adversely affect Occidental’s business, consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Occidental is subject to actual and threatened claims, litigation, reviews, investigations, and other proceedings, including proceedings by governments and regulatory authorities, involving a wide range of issues, including regarding our drilling, manufacturing or production processes, commercial disputes, environmental compliance, public health and safety and taxes. The outcomes of these matters are inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties. Determining legal reserves or possible losses from such matters involves judgment and may not reflect the full range of uncertainties and unpredictable outcomes. Until the final resolution of such matters, Occidental may be exposed to losses in excess of the amount recorded, and such amounts could be material. Should any of our estimates and assumptions change or prove to have been incorrect, it could have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s business, consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
For additional discussion of some of these matters, see Note 12 – Environmental Liabilities and Expenditures and Note 13 - Lawsuits, Claims, Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

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Disruptions in the political, regulatory, economic, and social environments of the countries in which Occidental operates could adversely affect its reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Occidental’s non-US operations accounted for approximately 15% of its consolidated revenue in 2022, 16% in 2021 and 19% in 2020. Instability and unforeseen changes in any of the markets in which Occidental operates could result in business disruptions or operational challenges that may adversely affect the demand for Occidental’s products and services, or its reputation, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

■    Uncertain or volatile political, social, and economic conditions;
■    Social unrest, acts of terrorism, war, or other armed conflict;
■    Public health crises and other catastrophic events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;
■    Confiscatory taxation or other adverse tax policies;
■    Theft of, or lack of sufficient legal protection for, proprietary technology and other intellectual property;
■    Unexpected changes in legal and regulatory requirements, including changes in interpretation or enforcement of existing laws;
■    Restrictions on the repatriation of income or capital;
■    Currency exchange controls;
■    Inflation; and
■    Currency exchange, rate fluctuations and devaluations.

Occidental’s oil and gas business operates in highly competitive environments, which affect, among other things, its ability to source production and replace reserves.
Results of operations, reserves replacement and the level of oil and gas production depend, in part, on Occidental’s ability to profitably acquire additional reserves. Occidental has many competitors (including national oil companies), some of which: (i) are larger and better funded; (ii) may be willing to accept greater risks; (iii) have greater access to capital; (iv) have substantially larger staffs; or (v) have special competencies. Competition for access to reserves may make it more difficult to find attractive investment opportunities or require delay of reserve replacement efforts. Further, during periods of low product prices, any cash conservation efforts may delay production growth and reserve replacement efforts. Also, there is substantial competition for capital available for investment in the oil and natural gas industry. Occidental’s failure to acquire properties, potentially grow production, replace reserves and attract and retain qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on its cash flows and results of operations.
In addition, Occidental’s acquisition activities carry risks that it may: (i) not fully realize anticipated benefits due to less-than-expected reserves or production or changed circumstances, such as declines in oil, NGL and natural gas prices; (ii) bear unexpected integration costs or experience other integration difficulties; (iii) experience share price declines based on the market’s evaluation of the activity; or (iv) be subject to liabilities that are greater than anticipated.

Occidental’s oil and gas reserves are estimates based on professional judgments and may be subject to revision.
Reported oil and gas reserves are an estimate based on periodic review of reservoir characteristics and recoverability, including production decline rates, operating performance and economic feasibility at the prescribed weighted average commodity prices, future operating costs and capital expenditures, workover and remedial costs, assumed effects of regulation by governmental agencies, the quantity, quality and interpretation of relevant data, taxes and availability of funds. The procedures and methods for estimating the reserves by Occidental’s internal engineers were reviewed by independent petroleum consultants; however, there are inherent uncertainties in estimating reserves. Actual production, revenues, expenditures, oil, NGL and natural gas prices and taxes with respect to Occidental’s reserves may vary from estimates and the variance may be material. Additional regulation around GHG emissions and future costs related to a less carbon-intensive economy could result in a shortened oil and gas reservoir reserve life as the underlying reserves become uneconomical. If Occidental were required to make significant negative reserve revisions, its results of operations and stock price could be adversely affected.
In addition, the discounted cash flows included in this Form 10-K should not be construed as the fair value of the reserves attributable to Occidental’s properties. The estimated discounted future net cash flows from proved reserves are based on an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within the year in accordance with SEC regulations. Actual future prices and costs may differ materially from SEC regulation-compliant prices and costs used for purposes of estimating future discounted net cash flows from proved reserves. Also, actual future net cash flows may differ from these discounted net cash flows due to the amount and timing of actual production, availability of financing for capital expenditures necessary to develop Occidental’s undeveloped reserves, supply and demand for oil, NGL and natural gas, increases or decreases in consumption of oil, NGL and natural gas and changes in governmental regulations or taxation.

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Occidental’s future results could be adversely affected if it is unable to execute new business strategies effectively.
Occidental’s results of operations depend on the extent to which it can execute new business strategies effectively relative to both the societal transition to a less carbon-intensive economy and laws, regulations and governmental and private actions regarding the environment and climate change. Occidental’s strategies seek to advance its goals of achieving net-zero emissions (i) from its operations and energy use before 2040, with an ambition to do so before 2035, and (ii) from its total carbon inventory, including the use of its sold products, with an ambition to do so before 2050. Occidental’s strategies and goals are subject to business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond its control. Additionally, Occidental may be forced to develop or implement new technologies at substantial costs to achieve its strategies. Effective execution of these goals may require substantial new capital, which might not be available to Occidental in the amounts or at the times expected. In addition, raising such capital may increase its leverage or overall costs of doing business. These uncertainties and costs could cause Occidental to not be able to fully implement or realize the anticipated results and benefits of its business strategies.
Certain of Occidental’s emissions goals are dependent upon the successful implementation of new and existing technologies on an industrial scale. These technologies are in various stages of development or implementation and may require more capital, or take longer to develop, than currently expected. Further, these carbon management technologies are in competition with technologies being developed by other companies. The carbon management solutions are not well established and, while Occidental believes it has access to the technologies and the expertise necessary to develop these solutions on an industrial scale, Occidental may not ultimately succeed in achieving its GHG emissions reduction and net-zero goals.
Occidental’s strategy to include carbon management in its product line is also dependent upon demand for carbon sequestration and related CO2 removal credits, offsets or other attributes. If this market does not develop, or if the regulatory environment does not support carbon management activities, Occidental may not be successful in entering this industry.

Occidental’s aspirations, goals and initiatives related to carbon management and overall sustainability expose it to numerous risks.
Occidental continues to develop new technologies and strategies to position it to meet its emissions reduction and net-zero goals. Occidental’s efforts to research, establish, accomplish and accurately report on our emissions goals, targets and strategies expose it to numerous operational, reputational, financial, legal and other risks. Occidental’s ability to reach our target emissions is subject to a multitude of factors and conditions, many of which are out of its control. Examples of such factors include evolving government regulation and voluntary protocols for reporting or verification of emissions, capture or sequestration, the pace of changes in technology, the successful development and deployment of existing or new technologies and business solutions on a commercial scale, the availability, timing and cost of equipment, manufactured goods and services, and the availability of requisite financing and federal and state incentive programs.
In addition, historical, current and forward-looking sustainability-related statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. There are multiple proposed or recently adopted changes to various GHG reporting regulations and protocols, including from the EPA, as noted earlier, as well as the SEC, the GHG Protocol and certain countries and states, as well as for additional controls, fees or taxes on emissions. In March 2022, for example, the SEC proposed climate disclosure rules that would require public companies to significantly increase disclosure of GHG emissions and strategies, targets, costs and risks associated with climate change and the energy transition. While Occidental has reported voluntarily on its net-zero pathway and associated goals and targets, as well as GHG emissions estimates, the proposed rules would require both significant additional disclosure and integration of such disclosure directly into financial reporting processes. Occidental and numerous other stakeholders submitted comments to the SEC on the proposed rules. The SEC is expected to issue final rules in 2023. Given the potential significance of these changes for estimation, reporting and verification of GHG emissions, establishing and reporting on goals targets, and estimating and disclosing costs of emissions reduction and the energy transition, Occidental may be required or elect to modify or update reported emissions and its current set of GHG goals and targets to reflect such new or changed regulations and protocols, although we currently expect to retain our overarching net-zero goals and to continue to implement emissions reduction plans that we believe will complement our investments in DAC, CCUS and other low-carbon technologies and infrastructure.
Occidental may face increased scrutiny from the investment community, customers, other stakeholders and the media related to its emissions reduction and net-zero goals and strategies. If Occidental’s emissions goals and strategies to achieve them do not meet evolving investor or other stakeholder expectations or standards, Occidental’s reputation, ability to attract and retain employees and attractiveness as an investment, business partner, supplier or acquirer could be negatively impacted. Similarly, Occidental’s failure or perceived failure to fulfill its emissions goals and targets, to comply with ethical, health, safety, environmental, social, governance or other standards, regulations, or expectations, or to satisfy various reporting standards with respect to these matters effectively could have the same negative impacts and further expose Occidental to government enforcement actions and private litigation. Even if Occidental achieves its goals, targets and objectives, it may not realize all of the benefits that it expected at the time the goals were established.

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RISK FACTORS

Occidental has previously recorded impairments of its proved and unproved oil and gas properties and will continue to assess further impairments in the future.
Occidental has recorded impairments of its proved and unproved oil and gas properties resulting from prolonged declines in oil and gas prices and may record such impairments in the future. Past impairments included pre-tax impairment and related charges to both proved and unproved oil and gas properties and a lower of cost or net realizable value adjustment for crude inventory. If there is an adverse downturn of the macroeconomic conditions and if such downturn is expected to or does persist for a prolonged period of time, Occidental’s oil and gas properties may be subject to further testing for impairment, which could result in additional non-cash asset impairments. Such impairments could be material to the financial statements.
Future costs associated with reducing emissions and carbon impacts, as well as impacts resulting from other risk factors described herein, could lead to impairments in the future, if such costs significantly increase Occidental’s breakeven economics.

Occidental uses CO2 for its EOR operations. Occidental’s production from these operations may decline if Occidental is not able to obtain sufficient amounts of CO2.
Occidental’s CO2 EOR operations are critical to Occidental’s long-term strategy. Oil production from Occidental’s CO2 EOR projects depends largely on having access to sufficient amounts of naturally occurring or anthropogenic (human-made) CO2. Occidental’s ability to produce oil from its CO2 EOR projects would be hindered if the supply of CO2 was limited due to, among other things, problems with current CO2 producing wells and facilities, including compression equipment, catastrophic pipeline failure or the ability to economically purchase naturally occurring or anthropogenic CO2. This could have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Future oil production from its CO2 EOR operations is dependent on the timing, volumes and location of CO2 injection and, in particular, Occidental’s ability to obtain sufficient volumes of CO2. Market conditions may cause the delay or cancellation of the development of naturally occurring CO2 sources or construction of plants that produce anthropogenic CO2 as a byproduct that can be purchased, thus limiting the amount of CO2 available for use in Occidental’s CO2 EOR operations.

Occidental is exposed to cyber-related risks.
The oil and gas industry is increasingly dependent on digital and industrial control technologies to conduct certain exploration, development and production activities. Occidental relies on digital and industrial control systems, related infrastructure, technologies and networks to run its business and to control and manage its oil and gas, chemicals, marketing and pipeline operations. Use of the internet, cloud services, mobile communication systems and other public networks exposes Occidental’s business and that of other third parties with whom Occidental does business to cyber attacks. Cyber attacks on businesses have escalated in recent years.
Information and industrial control technology system failures, network disruptions and breaches of data security could disrupt our operations by causing delays, impeding processing of transactions and reporting financial results, leading to the unintentional disclosure of company, partner, customer or employee information or could damage our reputation. A cyber attack involving our information or industrial control systems and related infrastructure, or that of our business associates, could negatively impact our operations in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, the following:

Unauthorized access to seismic data, reserves information, strategic information or other sensitive or proprietary information could have a negative impact on Occidental’s ability to compete for oil and natural gas resources;
Data corruption, communication or systems interruption or other operational disruption during drilling activities could result in delays and failure to reach the intended target or cause a drilling incident;
Data corruption, communication or systems interruption or operational disruptions of production-related infrastructure could result in a loss of production or accidental discharge;
A cyber attack on OxyChem’s operations could result in a disruption of the manufacturing and marketing of its products or a potential HSE hazard;
A cyber attack on a vendor or service provider could result in supply chain disruptions, which could delay or halt our construction and development projects;
A cyber attack on third-party gathering, pipeline, processing, terminal or other infrastructure systems could delay or prevent Occidental from producing, transporting, processing and marketing its production;
A cyber attack involving commodities exchanges or financial institutions could slow or halt commodities trading, thus preventing Occidental from marketing its production or engaging in hedging activities;
A cyber attack that halts activities at a power generation facility or refinery using natural gas as feedstock could have a significant impact on the natural gas market;
A cyber attack on a communications network or power grid could cause operational disruption;
A cyber attack on Occidental’s automated and surveillance systems could cause a loss in production and potential HSE hazards;
A deliberate corruption of Occidental’s financial or operating data could result in events of non-compliance which could then lead to regulatory fines or penalties; and
A cyber attack resulting in the loss or disclosure of, or damage to, Occidental’s or any of its customer’s or supplier’s data or confidential information could harm its business by damaging its reputation, subjecting Occidental to
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RISK FACTORS

potential financial or legal liability and requiring it to incur significant costs, including costs to repair or restore its systems and data or to take other remedial steps.

Although Occidental has implemented controls and multiple layers of security that it believes are reasonable to mitigate the risks of a cyber attack, there can be no assurance that such cyber security measures will be sufficient to prevent security breaches of its systems from occurring, and if a breach occurs, it may remain undetected for an extended period of time. Further, Occidental has no control over the comparable systems of the third parties with whom it does business. While Occidental has experienced cyber attacks in the past, Occidental has not suffered any material losses. However, if in the future Occidental’s cyber security measures are compromised or prove insufficient, the potential consequences to Occidental’s businesses and the communities in which it operates could be significant. As cyber attacks continue to evolve in magnitude and sophistication, Occidental may be required to expend additional resources in order to continue to enhance its cyber security measures and to investigate and remediate any digital and operational systems, related infrastructure, technologies and network security vulnerabilities, which would increase its costs. A system failure or data security breach, or a series of such failures or breaches, could have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Occidental’s oil and gas reserve additions may not continue at the same rate and a failure to replace reserves may negatively affect Occidental’s business.
Producing oil and natural gas reservoirs generally are characterized by declining production rates that vary depending upon reservoir characteristics and other factors. Unless Occidental conducts successful exploration or development activities, acquires properties containing proved reserves, or both, proved reserves will generally decline and negatively impact our business. The value of Occidental’s securities and its ability to raise capital will be adversely impacted if it is not able to replace reserves that are depleted by production or replace our declining production with new production by successfully allocating annual capital to maintain our reserves and production base. Occidental expects infill development projects, extensions, discoveries and improved recovery to continue as main sources for reserve additions but factors such as geology, government regulations and permits, the effectiveness of development plans and the ability to make the necessary capital investments or acquire capital are partially or fully outside management’s control and could cause results to differ materially from expectations.

Occidental’s operations and financial results could be significantly negatively impacted by its offshore operations.
Occidental is vulnerable to risks associated with offshore operations that could negatively impact its operations and financial results. Certain Occidental subsidiaries conduct offshore operations primarily in the Gulf of Mexico and their operations and financial results are vulnerable to certain unique risks associated with operating offshore, including conditions relating to the following:

Hurricanes and other adverse weather conditions;
Geological complexities and water depths associated with such operations;
Limited number of partners available to participate in projects;
Oilfield service costs and availability;
Compliance with HSE and other laws and regulations;
Terrorist attacks or piracy;
Remediation and other costs and regulatory changes resulting from oil spills, emissions or releases of hazardous substances or materials;
Failure of equipment or facilities; and
Response capabilities for personnel, equipment or environmental incidents.

In addition, certain Occidental subsidiaries conduct some of their exploration in deep waters (greater than 1,000 feet) where operations, support services and decommissioning activities are more difficult and costly than in shallower waters. The deep waters in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as international deep-water locations, lack the physical and oilfield service infrastructure present in shallower waters. As a result, deep-water operations may require significant time between a discovery and the time that Occidental can market its production, thereby increasing the risk involved with these operations.

Anadarko’s Tronox settlement may not be deductible for income tax purposes; Occidental may be required to repay the tax refund Anadarko received in 2016 related to the deduction of the Tronox settlement payment, which may have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
In April 2014, Anadarko and Kerr-McGee entered into a settlement agreement for $5.2 billion, resolving, among other things, all claims that were or could have been asserted in connection with the May 2009 lawsuit filed by Tronox against Anadarko and Kerr-McGee in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. After the settlement became effective in January 2015, Anadarko paid $5.2 billion and deducted this payment on its 2015 federal income tax return. Due
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RISK FACTORS

to the deduction, Anadarko had a net operating loss carryback for 2015, which resulted in a tentative tax refund of $881 million in 2016.
The IRS audited Anadarko’s tax position regarding the deductibility of the payment and in September 2018 issued a statutory notice of deficiency rejecting Anadarko’s refund claim. Anadarko disagreed and filed a petition with the U.S. Tax Court to dispute the disallowance in November 2018. In December 2022, the parties filed competing motions for partial summary judgment. The motions are not fully briefed. Trial is set for May 2023. Occidental expects to continue pursuing resolution. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 740’s guidance on the accounting for uncertain tax positions, as of December 31, 2022, Occidental had recorded no tax benefit on the tentative cash tax refund. If the payment is ultimately determined not to be deductible, Occidental would be required to repay the tentative refund received plus interest totaling approximately $1.8 billion as of December 31, 2022, which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and consolidated balance sheets. Occidental’s Consolidated Financial Statements include an uncertain tax position for the approximate repayment of $1.4 billion ($1.4 billion federal and $28 million in state taxes) plus accrued interest of approximately $415 million. This amount is not covered by insurance. For additional information on income taxes, see Note 10 - Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Occidental’s indebtedness may make it more vulnerable to economic downturns and adverse developments in its businesses. Downgrades in Occidental’s credit ratings or future increases in interest rates may negatively impact Occidental’s cost of capital, and ability to access capital markets.
Occidental’s level of indebtedness could increase its vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions, economic downturns and adverse developments in its businesses or limit Occidental’s flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in its business and the industries in which it operates. From time to time, Occidental has relied on access to capital markets for funding. Occidental’s ability to obtain additional financing or refinancing will be subject to a number of factors, including general economic and market conditions, Occidental’s performance, investor sentiment and its ability to meet existing debt compliance requirements. If Occidental is unable to generate sufficient funds from its operations to satisfy its capital requirements, including its existing debt obligations, or to raise additional capital on acceptable terms, Occidental’s business could be adversely affected. As of the date of this filing, Occidental’s long-term debt was rated BB+ by Fitch Ratings, Ba1 by Moody’s Investors Service and BB+ by Standard and Poor’s.

One of Occidental’s subsidiaries acts as the general partner of WES, a publicly traded master limited partnership, which may involve potential legal liability.
One of Occidental’s subsidiaries acts as the general partner of WES, a publicly traded master limited partnership. Its general partner interest in WES may increase the possibility that it could be subject to claims of breach of duties owed to WES, including claims of conflict of interest. Any such claims could increase Occidental’s costs and any liability resulting from such claims could have a material adverse effect on Occidental’s financial condition, operating results or cash flows.


ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Occidental has elected to use a $1 million threshold for disclosing certain proceedings arising under federal, state or local environmental laws when a governmental authority is a party and potential monetary sanctions are involved. Occidental believes proceedings under this threshold are not material to Occidental's business and financial condition. In January 2023, the U.S. District Court for the District of New Mexico entered a consent decree under which two Occidental subsidiaries settled a previously-reported citizen suit alleging violations of certain federal air quality regulations, which the subsidiaries deny, by paying a civil penalty of $500,000 to the U.S. Department of the Treasury and depositing an additional $500,000 with the U.S. District Court for the District of New Mexico to fund a supplemental environmental project in lieu of penalties, among other terms. For information regarding other legal proceedings, see the information under Lawsuits, Claims, Commitments and Contingencies in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis section of this Form 10-K and in Note 13 - Lawsuits, Claims, Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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OTHER INFORMATION
INFORMATION ABOUT EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Each executive officer holds his or her office from the date of election by the Board of Directors until the first board meeting held after the next Annual Meeting of Stockholders or until his or her removal or departure or a successor is duly elected, if earlier.
The following table sets forth the executive officers of Occidental as of February 27, 2023:

Name
Current Title
Age as of February 27, 2023
Positions with Occidental and Employment History
Peter J. Bennett
Vice President
55
President, Commercial Development U.S. Onshore Resources and Carbon Management since October 2020; President and General Manager of Permian Resources and the Rockies, 2020; Senior Vice President, Permian Resources, 2018-2020; President and General Manager - Permian Resources New Mexico, 2017-2018; Chief Transformation Officer, 2016-2017.
Christopher O. Champion
Vice President,
Chief Accounting Officer and Controller
53
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller since August 2019; Anadarko Petroleum Corporation: Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller, 2017-2019, Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller, 2015-2017.
Kenneth Dillon
Senior Vice President
63
Senior Vice President since December 2016; President – International Oil and Gas Operations since June 2016.
Vicki Hollub
President and Chief Executive Officer
63
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director since April 2016.
Richard A. Jackson
Senior Vice President
47
President Operations U.S. Onshore Resources and Carbon Management since October 2020; President and General Manager, EOR and Oxy Low Carbon Ventures, LLC, 2020; President Low Carbon Ventures, 2019-2020; Senior Vice President, Operation Support, 2018-2019; Vice President, Investor Relations, 2017-2018; President and General Manager Permian Resources Delaware Basin, 2014-2017.
Sylvia J. Kerrigan
Senior Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
57
Senior Vice President and Chief Legal Officer since October 2022; Executive Director of the Kay Bailey Hutchison Energy Center for Business, Law and Policy at The University of Texas, 2017-2022; Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Marathon Oil Corporation, 2009-2017.
Robert L. Peterson
Senior Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer
52
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since April 2020; Senior Vice President, Permian EOR, 2019-2020; Vice President Permian Strategy, 2018-2019; Director Permian Business Area, 2017-2018; President OxyChem, 2014-2017.

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MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY
Part II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

MARKET INFORMATION, HOLDERS AND DIVIDEND POLICY

Occidental’s common stock is listed and traded on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “OXY.” The common stock was held by approximately 24,400 stockholders of record as of January 31, 2023, which does not include beneficial owners for whom Cede and Co. or others act as nominees.
Occidental declared dividends of $0.52 per share for the year ended December 31, 2022. In February 2023, the Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly dividend of $0.18 per share on common stock, an increase of five cents from the previous quarter, payable in April 2023. The declaration of future dividends is a business decision made by the Board of Directors from time to time and will depend on Occidental’s financial condition and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.

SHARE REPURCHASE ACTIVITIES

Occidental’s share repurchase activities for the year ended December 31, 2022, were as follows:

PeriodTotal
Number
of Shares Purchased
(a)
Average
Price
Paid
per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
Maximum Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
(b)
First Quarter 2022730,746 $50.05 $3,000 
Second Quarter 202211,679,732 58.3811,190,640 2,350 
Third Quarter 202228,571,576 63.0228,409,099 562 
October 1 - 31, 20222,330,221 67.352,205,352 414 
November 1 - 30, 20225,993,013 70.685,859,478  
December 1 - 31, 2022   
Fourth Quarter 20228,323,234 69.758,064,830  
Total 202249,305,288 62.8647,664,569  
(a)Included purchases of 1,640,719 shares from the trustee of Occidental's defined contribution savings plan that are not part of publicly announced plans or programs.
(b)Represented the value remaining in Occidental's share repurchase plan. In February 2022, Occidental announced an authorization to repurchase up to $3.0 billion of Occidental's shares of common stock. The plan was completed in the fourth quarter of 2022. In February 2023, the Board authorized a new share repurchase program of up to $3.0 billion of Occidental’s shares of common stock.


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MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY
PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The following graph compares the yearly percentage change in Occidental’s cumulative total return on its common stock with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500, which includes Occidental, with that of Occidental’s peer group over the five-year period ended December 31, 2022. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the beginning of the five-year period shown in the graph below and that all dividends were reinvested in: (i) Occidental common stock, (ii) the stock of the companies in the S&P 500 and (iii) each of the peer group companies’ common stock weighted by their relative market capitalization within the peer group.
Occidental’s peer group consists of BP p.l.c., Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, EOG Resources, Inc., ExxonMobil Corporation, Shell, and TotalEnergies.
oxy-20221231_g2.jpg
Fiscal Year Ended December 31,201720182019202020212022
Occidental$100 $87 $62 $29 $49 $107 
Peer Group$100 $92 $98 $65 $96 $149 
S&P 500$100 $96 $126 $149 $191 $157 

The information provided in this Performance Graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Exchange Act, other than as provided in Item 201 to Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act, or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act except to the extent Occidental specifically requests that it be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporates it by reference.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion should be read together with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included in this Form 10-K in Item 8 and the information set forth in Risk Factors under Part 1, Item 1A. The following sections include a discussion of results for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 as well as certain 2020 results. The comparative results for fiscal 2021 with fiscal 2020 generally have not been included in this Form 10-K, but may be found in “Part II - Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.

INDEXPAGE
Current Business Outlook and Strategy
Segment Results of Operations and Items Affecting Comparability
Income Taxes

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

CURRENT BUSINESS OUTLOOK AND STRATEGY

GENERAL
Occidental’s operations, financial condition, cash flows and levels of expenditures are highly dependent on oil prices and, to a lesser extent, NGL and natural gas prices, the Midland-to-Gulf-Coast oil spreads, chemical product prices and inflationary pressures in the macro-economic environment. In 2022, as compared to 2021, the average annual price per barrel of WTI crude increased to $94.23 from $67.91 and the average annual Brent price per barrel increased to $98.83 from $70.78. The return of oil demand to its pre-pandemic levels, the ongoing global impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and the limited increase in supply in 2022 have resulted in an increase in benchmark oil prices year-over-year. Occidental does not operate or own assets in either Russia or Ukraine. It is expected that the price of oil will be volatile for the foreseeable future given the current geopolitical risks, the ongoing global impact of the Russia-Ukraine war, and uncertainty around the global economy, oil demand in China as it emerges from its zero-COVID policy, production levels in OPEC and non-OPEC oil producing countries and further releases from or additions to the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
Occidental works to manage inflation impacts by capitalizing on operational efficiencies, locking in pricing on longer term contracts and working closely with vendors to secure the supply of critical materials. As of December 31, 2022, substantially all of Occidental's outstanding debt is fixed rate.

STRATEGY
Occidental is focused on delivering a unique shareholder value proposition with its portfolio of oil and gas, chemicals and midstream and marketing assets and its ongoing development of carbon management and storage solutions and GHG emissions reduction efforts. Occidental conducts its operations with a priority on HSE, sustainability and social responsibility. Occidental aims to maximize shareholder returns through a combination of:

Returning capital to shareholders, while redeeming a portion of preferred equity to continue improving Occidental’s financial position;
Enhancing its existing asset base with new investments in its core cash-generative oil and gas and chemical businesses as well as emerging low-carbon businesses with a focus on its net-zero pathway;
Advancing technologies and business solutions to help drive a sustainable low-carbon future; and
Further reducing long-term financial leverage.

OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY
Occidental's operational priorities for 2022 were to maximize operational efficiencies by investing $4.5 billion in high return assets to generate long-term sustainable free cash flow that will provide cash flow stability throughout the commodity cycle. Occidental set new operational records and efficiency benchmarks in the Permian, Rockies, Gulf of Mexico, Oman and UAE. OxyChem generated record earnings, beating its previous record set in 2021. With the increase in commodity prices and Occidental’s focus on its operational efficiencies, Occidental’s higher cash flow allowed it to reduce its leverage and advance its shareholder return framework.

DEBT AND INTEREST RATE SWAPS
Strong cash flow in 2022 allowed Occidental to continue its deleveraging efforts. In 2022, Occidental reduced its debt principal by more than $10.5 billion, leaving less than $18.0 billion outstanding as of December 31, 2022, and meeting its near-term debt reduction goal. As of December 31, 2022, Occidental had debt maturities of approximately $22 million in 2023, $1.1 billion in 2024 and $1.2 billion in 2025. The current maturity of $22 million was paid in January 2023, leaving no debt maturing in 2023.
Occidental’s $673 million Zero Coupons can be put to Occidental in October of each year, in whole or in part, for the then accreted value of the outstanding Zero Coupons. The Zero Coupons can next be put to Occidental in October 2023, which, if put in whole, would require a payment of approximately $344 million at such date. Occidental currently has the intent and ability to meet this obligation, including, if necessary, using amounts available under the RCF should the put right be exercised.
In the year ended December 31, 2022, Occidental settled all outstanding interest rate swaps with $255 million in cash and the application of $144 million collateral, leaving none outstanding as of December 31, 2022.

DEBT RATINGS
As of the date of this filing, Occidental’s long-term debt was rated BB+ by Fitch Ratings, Ba1 by Moody’s Investors Service and BB+ by Standard and Poor’s. Occidental believes the deleveraging performed to date may lead to future ratings upgrades, but cannot determine the timing of any potential ratings change. Any downgrade in credit ratings could impact Occidental's ability to access capital markets and increase its cost of capital. Occidental’s non-investment grade debt rating may require Occidental or its subsidiaries to provide financial assurance in the form of cash, letters of credit, surety bonds or other acceptable support under certain contractual arrangements.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

SHAREHOLDER RETURN FRAMEWORK
Capital is returned to shareholders through Occidental’s dividend and share repurchases. Occidental’s current dividend is $0.18 per share per quarter, or $0.72 on an annualized basis. During the fourth quarter of 2022, Occidental completed its $3.0 billion share repurchase program. In February 2023, the Board authorized a new share repurchase program of up to $3.0 billion of Occidental’s shares of common stock. Occidental anticipates that a higher percentage of excess free cash flow is expected to be allocated to shareholder returns in 2023 with the intention to begin redeeming the preferred stock. Occidental’s preferred stock includes a mandatory redemption provision that obligates Occidental to redeem the preferred at 110% of the par value on a dollar-for-dollar basis for every dollar distributed to common shareholders above $4.00 per share, on a trailing 12-month basis.

SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP STRATEGY
In 2020, Occidental was the first U.S. oil and gas company to announce goals to achieve net-zero GHG emissions for its total emissions inventory including use of sold products. These goals include achieving net-zero GHG emissions (i) from its operations and energy use before 2040, with an ambition to do so before 2035, and (ii) from its total carbon inventory, including the use of its sold products, with an ambition to do so before 2050. In 2020, Occidental also set various interim targets, including 2025 carbon and methane intensity targets, and Occidental was the first U.S. oil and gas company to endorse the World Bank’s initiative for zero routine flaring by 2030. In 2022, the Board of Directors adopted Occidental’s updated HSE and Sustainability Principles, based on engagement with shareholders, employees and other stakeholders. The Principles reinforce the alignment among Occidental’s core values, goals and strategies, underpin our operational management system, and help to guide our workforce across our businesses.
Occidental seeks to meet its sustainability and environmental goals through its development and commercialization of technologies that lower both GHG emissions from industrial processes and existing atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Occidental believes that carbon removal technologies, including DAC and CCUS, can, with incentives necessary for their development and deployment, provide essential CO2 reductions to assist the world’s transition to a less carbon-intensive economy. During 2022, Occidental undertook the following actions, among others, toward advancing its low-carbon strategy:

Achieved zero routine flaring of gas across its U.S. oil and gas operations, 8 years ahead of the World Bank’s 2030 target;
Reduced estimated methane emissions by 33% from the 2020 baseline;
Began construction activities for DAC 1 in the Permian;
Acquired interests in approximately 265,000 net acres of pore space access along the U.S. Gulf Coast; and
Invested approximately $530 million in low-carbon businesses, technologies, and net-zero pathway advancements, including the aforementioned pore space.

The future costs associated with emissions reduction, carbon removal and CCUS to meet its long-term net-zero GHG goals may be substantial and execution of its plans and net-zero pathway depends on securing third-party capital investments. Occidental is pursuing multiple pathways to fund these projects including project financing, long-term carbon removal or CCUS agreements, and identifying business opportunities with stakeholders in carbon-intensive industries

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
Occidental seeks to meet its strategic goals by continually measuring its success against key performance indicators that drive total stockholder return. In addition to efficient capital allocation and deployment discussed below in the section titled Oil and Gas Segment - Business Strategy, Occidental believes its most significant performance indicators are:
OPERATIONAL
Total spend per barrel - In 2023, Occidental will continue to focus on controlling total costs from a per-barrel perspective. Total spend per barrel is the sum of capital spending, general and administrative expenses, other operating and non-operating expenses and oil and gas lease operating costs divided by global oil, NGL and natural gas sales volumes.
Daily production - Occidental seeks to maximize field operability and minimize production down-time.
FINANCIAL
CROCE - CROCE is calculated as (i) the cash flows from operating activities, before changes in working capital, plus distributions from WES classified as investing cash flows, divided by (ii) the average of the opening and closing balances of total equity plus total debt.
Maintain and improve financial leverage to a level consistent with investment grade credit metrics.
SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
Specific interim emissions reduction and emissions intensity targets to advance our goal of net-zero operational and energy use emissions before 2040, with an ambition to achieve before 2035.
Milestones in specific carbon removal and CCUS projects that advance our net-zero total emissions inventory, including use of sold products, with an ambition to achieve before 2050.
Facilitate deployment of carbon removal, CCUS and other solutions to advance total carbon impact past 2050.
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OIL AND GAS SEGMENT

BUSINESS STRATEGY
Occidental’s oil and gas segment focuses on long-term value creation and leadership in sustainability, health, safety and the environment. In each core operating area, Occidental’s operations benefit from scale, technical expertise, decades of high-margin inventory, environmental and safety leadership and commercial and governmental collaboration. These attributes allow Occidental to bring additional production quickly to market, extend the life of older fields at lower costs and provide low-cost returns-driven growth opportunities with advanced technology.
Occidental is one of the largest U.S. producers of liquids, which includes oil and NGL, allowing Occidental to maximize cash margins on a per barrel basis. The advantages that Occidental’s portfolio provides, coupled with its advanced subsurface characterization ability and the proven ability to execute, position Occidental for full-cycle success in the years ahead. The oil and gas segment maximizes efficiencies to deliver lower breakeven costs and generate excess free cash flow. The oil and gas segment strives to achieve low development and operating costs to maximize full-cycle value of the assets.
The oil and gas business implements Occidental’s strategy primarily by:

Operating and developing areas where reserves are known to exist and optimizing capital intensity in core areas, primarily in the Permian Basin, DJ Basin, Gulf of Mexico, UAE, Oman and Algeria;
Maintaining a disciplined and prudent approach to capital expenditures with a focus on high-return, short and mid-cycle, cash-flow-generating opportunities and an emphasis on creating value and further enhancing Occidental’s existing positions;
Focusing Occidental’s subsurface characterization and technical activities on unconventional opportunities, primarily in the Permian Basin and Rockies;
Using secondary and tertiary recovery techniques in mature fields; and
Focusing on cost-reduction efficiencies and innovative technologies to reduce carbon emissions.

In 2022, oil and gas capital expenditures were approximately $3.8 billion and primarily focused on Occidental’s assets in the Permian Basin, DJ Basin, Gulf of Mexico and Oman. In 2023, Occidental plans to spend $4.3 billion to $4.7 billion to develop its oil and gas assets.

OIL AND GAS PRICE ENVIRONMENT
Oil and gas prices are the major variables that drive the industry’s financial performance. The following table presents the average daily WTI and Brent prices for oil and NYMEX natural gas prices for 2022 and 2021:

20222021% Change
WTI Oil ($/Bbl)$94.23 $67.91 39 %
Brent Oil ($/Bbl)$98.83 $70.78 40 %
NYMEX Natural Gas ($/Mcf)$6.35 $3.61 76 %

The following table presents Occidental’s average realized prices for continuing operations as a percentage of WTI, Brent and NYMEX for 2022 and 2021:

20222021
Worldwide oil as a percentage of average WTI100 %97 %
Worldwide oil as a percentage of average Brent95 %93 %
Worldwide NGL as a percentage of average WTI38 %44 %
Worldwide NGL as a percentage of average Brent36 %42 %
Domestic natural gas as a percentage of NYMEX86 %91 %

Prices and differentials can vary significantly, even on a short-term basis, making it difficult to predict realized prices with a reliable degree of certainty.
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DOMESTIC INTERESTS
BUSINESS REVIEW
Occidental conducts its domestic operations through land leases, subsurface mineral rights it owns, or a combination of both. Occidental’s domestic oil and gas leases have a primary term ranging from one to 10 years, which is extended through the end of production once it commences. Occidental has leasehold and mineral interests in 9.5 million net acres, of which approximately 52% is leased, 47% is owned subsurface mineral rights and 1% is owned land with mineral rights. Approximately $3.6 billion to $4.0 billion of Occidental’s worldwide capital budget is expected to be allocated to its domestic operations in 2023.

DOMESTIC ASSETS (a)
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1. Powder River Basin
2. DJ Basin
3. Permian Basin
4. Gulf of Mexico
(a)Map represents geographic outlines of the respective basins.

The Permian Basin
The Permian Basin extends throughout West Texas and Southeast New Mexico and is one of the largest and most active oil basins in the United States, accounting for more than 43% of total United States oil production in 2022. Overall in 2022, Occidental’s production in the Permian Basin was approximately 513 Mboe/d.
Occidental manages its Permian Basin operations through two businesses: Permian Resources, which includes unconventional opportunities, and Permian EOR, which utilizes secondary and tertiary recovery techniques. Occidental had a leading position in the Permian Basin, producing approximately 8% of the total oil in the basin in 2022. By exploiting the natural synergies between Permian Resources and Permian EOR, Occidental is able to deliver unique short- and long-term advantages, efficiencies and expertise across its Permian Basin operations.
The Permian Resources unconventional business is focused on developing and producing unconventional reservoir targets using horizontal drilling technology. The development programs are designed to create long-term value from primary development by maximizing the recovery of oil, utilizing sustainable practices and providing strong financial returns. Occidental’s unconventional oil and gas operations in Permian Resources include approximately 1.4 million net acres. In 2022, our activities were focused in the core development areas with emphasis on maintaining the industry leading capital intensity through optimized surface infrastructure and customized well designs. Overall, in 2022, Permian Resources produced from approximately 3,300 gross wells and added 387 MMboe to Occidental’s proved reserves through development and extensions of proved areas.
The Permian Basin’s concentration of large conventional reservoirs, strong CO2 flooding performance and the expansive CO2 transportation and processing infrastructure has resulted in decades of high-value enhanced oil production. With 34 active CO2 floods and over 50 years of experience, Occidental is the industry leader in Permian Basin CO2 flooding, which can increase ultimate oil recovery by 10% to 25%. Technology improvements, such as the recent trend toward vertical
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expansion of the CO2 flooded interval into residual oil zone targets, continue to yield more recovery from existing projects, and Permian EOR produced from approximately 13,000 gross wells in 2022.
Significant opportunities also remain to gain additional recovery by expanding Occidental’s existing CO2 projects into new portions of reservoirs that have only been waterflooded. Permian EOR has a large inventory of future CO2 projects, which could be developed over the next 20 years or accelerated, depending on market conditions.
In 2022, Occidental spent approximately $2.3 billion of capital in the Permian Basin, of which approximately 93% was spent on Permian Resources assets.

Rockies and Other Domestic
In 2022, Occidental produced approximately 277 Mboe/d net in the Rockies and Other Domestic locations. Production in the DJ Basin is derived from 2,000 operated vertical wells and 2,400 operated horizontal wells primarily focused in the Niobrara and Codell formations. The DJ Basin, including the North DJ Basin, comprises approximately 800,000 total net acres and provides competitive economics, low breakeven costs and free cash flow generation through Occidental’s contiguous acreage position and royalty uplift.
In the DJ Basin, horizontal drilling results in the field continue to be strong, with improved operational efficiencies in drilling and completions. In 2022, Occidental drilled 68 operated horizontal wells and completed 54 operated horizontal wells.
Occidental is focusing on obtaining the necessary state, local and federal permits required to construct facilities and drill and complete wells in the DJ Basin. In January 2021, the COGCC adopted new regulations that impose siting requirements, or “setbacks,” on certain oil and gas drilling locations based on the distance of a proposed well pad to occupied structures. Under these new regulations and through thoughtful surface location planning, Occidental obtained COGCC approval for five Oil and Gas Development Plans, inclusive of 12 well pad and facility locations and approximately 150 wells. In addition to the approximately 150 wells approved through the Oil and Gas Development Plan process, during the third quarter of 2022, Occidental became the first oil and gas operator in Colorado to obtain COGCC approval for the first Comprehensive Area Plan under the new COGCC rules. This comprehensive plan will support nine well pads and approximately 140 new wells and will provide for substantial future development in a geographically remote area on Colorado’s eastern plains. Oil and Gas Development Plans associated with the Comprehensive Area Plan will be submitted in 2023.
As of December 31, 2022, Occidental is permitted, or had permit applications submitted to applicable regulatory agencies, for nearly all planned 2023 drilling and completions activity in the DJ Basin. In 2023, Occidental plans to submit state and local permits with the goal of building operational inventory and maintaining its social license to operate in Colorado. Occidental has a dedicated stakeholder relations team that conducts regulatory and community outreach with respect to its permit applications and operations in Colorado with a focus on building trust and fostering open communication with those that live and work near our operations.
Occidental has gained efficiencies in the permitting process and will continue to look for additional opportunities to do so. As discussed above, Occidental does not anticipate significant near-term changes to our development program in the DJ Basin based on these regulations. However, if Occidental is unable to obtain new drilling permits to develop a significant portion of the company’s undeveloped acreage in the DJ Basin, the company’s DJ Basin assets may be subject to testing for impairment, and if deemed to be impaired, such impairment could be material to our financial statements.
Occidental has interest in over 300,000 net acres in the Powder River Basin, mainly located in Converse County and Campbell County, Wyoming. The field contains the Turner, Niobrara, Mowry and Parkman formations that hold both liquids and natural gas. In 2022, Occidental drilled 19 operated horizontal wells and completed 14 horizontal wells in the Powder River Basin. The company plans to run one continuous operated drilling rig in 2023 with targeted completion activity throughout the year.
Occidental holds approximately 4.6 million net acres in other domestic locations, which consist of legacy acreage and fee minerals outside of Occidental’s core operated areas including parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Louisiana, Texas, West Virginia and Wyoming.

OFFSHORE DOMESTIC ASSETS
Gulf of Mexico
Occidental is the fourth-largest oil and gas producer in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, operating 10 strategically located deep-water floating platforms, the highest number among all the deep water operators, and producing from 18 active fields while owning a working interest across 252 blocks, including approximately 1.0 million net acres. Occidental’s position is one of the largest portfolios in the Gulf of Mexico.
Occidental further operates two marine shore-bases in Galveston, Texas, and Port Fourchon, Louisiana, as well as two helicopter bases in Louisiana that all provide back up and redundancy to each other to support the Gulf operations. A central logistics base with an integrated training center is located in Broussard, Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico operations and development are managed and supported with engineering and technical staff from The Woodlands, Texas, office tower.
In 2022, Occidental increased net production to 147 Mboe/d from approximately 88 gross wells, investing over $450 million in capital, including exploration capital, primarily directed towards drilling activity in its new Horn Mountain West subsea development, Lucius and Holstein facilities, drilling five wells using one floating drill ship, one platform rig and several service rigs. Occidental successfully and safely initiated first production from its new Horn Mountain West field and tied back to the Horn Mountain facility, increasing production at the platform by over 34 Mboe/d from three subsea oil wells,
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on budget and three months ahead of schedule. In the fourth quarter of 2022, the new Caesar-Tonga Subsea Expansion project was also started several months ahead of schedule, debottlenecking the prolific giant Caesar-Tonga field and thus enabling future field expansion projects. Major subsea-pumping projects supporting the Marco Polo/K2 field and the Marlin/King field were progressed as well as extensive 4D seismic shoots in the Holstein field and elsewhere, setting up a runway of future development opportunities.
Operational excellence and efficiency continued as the prime objective in 2022 and gathered further momentum, reducing overall base production decline rates through the implementation of several successful well stimulations and artificial lift projects. Platform operating efficiencies were significantly improved and machinery uptimes were increased all through subordinated focus and condition monitoring initiatives as well as multiple upgrade projects. Continued optimum sequencing of annual platform turn-arounds provided further operational efficiencies, avoiding around two hundred days per year of shut-ins.
During 2022, all necessary regulatory permits for new wells and existing operations were obtained timely without any operational delays. Occidental was further awarded 30 new leases from BOEM’s Lease Sale 257 and was the second most successful bidder.
Occidental’s Gulf of Mexico assets continued to be among the lowest carbon emissions operations in the industry with zero routine flaring and zero cold venting.
The following table shows key areas of ongoing development in the Gulf of Mexico, along with the corresponding working interest in those areas.

Working Interest
Horn Mountain100 %
Holstein100 %
Marlin100 %
Lucius67 %
K2 Complex42 %
Caesar Tonga34 %
Constellation33 %

In 2023, Occidental expects to continue development and expansion of its existing assets across the Gulf of Mexico, to safely deliver high-margin production while continuing to add to its drill well inventory on existing leases through expansion and infrastructure led exploration opportunities around existing infrastructure. Occidental plans to conduct development and exploration activities in 2023 using one to two floating drill ships, one platform rig and several other well service vessels and continue to optimize its extensive portfolio of lease working interests.


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INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS
BUSINESS REVIEW
Occidental conducts its ongoing international operations in two sub-regions: the Middle East and North Africa. Its activities include oil, NGL and natural gas production through direct working-interests, PSAs and PSCs. Under the PSCs, Occidental records a share of production and reserves to recover certain development and production costs and an additional share for profit. These contracts do not transfer any right of ownership to Occidental and reserves reported from these arrangements are based on Occidental’s economic interest as defined in the contracts. Occidental’s share of production and reserves from these contracts decreases when product prices rise and increases when prices decline. Overall, Occidental’s net economic benefit from these contracts is greater when product prices are higher. Approximately $0.5 billion of Occidental’s worldwide capital budget is expected to be allocated to its international operations in 2023.

MIDDLE EAST / NORTH AFRICA ASSETS
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1.Algeria

2.Oman

3.Qatar

4.UAE

Algeria
Occidental’s interest in Algeria involves development and production rights in 18 fields within Blocks 404a and 208, which are located in the Berkine Basin in Algeria’s Sahara Desert and are governed by an agreement amongst Occidental, Sonatrach and other partners. Occidental is responsible for 24.5% of the development and production costs. The El Merk central processing facility in Block 208 processes produced oil, NGL and natural gas, while the Hassi Berkine South and Ourhoud central processing facilities in Block 404a process produced oil. The rights to produce from the Block 404a fields expire between May 2023 and 2036, and the rights to produce from the Block 208 fields expire in 2032.
In 2022, net production in Algeria was 45 Mbbl/d, two gross development wells were drilled and annual net capital expenditures were $25 million.
In July 2022, Occidental signed a new PSC with Sonatrach and other partners which, upon approval by the Algerian government, will be for a new 25-year term for all of the fields under the current hydrocarbon agreement. With respect to the new PSC, Occidental is responsible for 35% of the development and production costs, and government approval is expected in the first half of 2023.

Oman
In Oman, Occidental is the operator of Block 9, Block 27, Block 53 (Mukhaizna Field), Block 62 and Block 65 and has additional interests in Blocks 30, 51 and 72, which are under the Exploration phase. The working interest and contract expiration year for each of the respective blocks are shown in the table below. Occidental holds 6.0 million gross acres and has 10,000 potential well inventory locations. In 2022, Occidental’s share of production was 65 Mboe/d.
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Working InterestBlock Expiration (Year)
Block 950 %2030
Block 2765 %2035
Block 5347 %2035
Block 62100 %2028
Block 6551 %2037
Blocks 30, 51 and 72100 %Exploration Phase

Occidental has produced over 754 million gross barrels from Block 9 since the beginning of its operation through successful exploration, continuous drilling improvements and EOR projects. The Mukhaizna Field in Block 53 is a major pattern steam flood project for EOR that utilizes some of the largest mechanical vapor compressors ever built. Since assuming operations in the Mukhaizna Field in 2005, Occidental has drilled close to 3,580 new wells and has produced over 575 million gross barrels. In 2022, Occidental declared commerciality for Block 65 and invested capital of $362 million across all of the Oman blocks to drill 92 wells and execute facilities projects to support development and EOR activities.
In 2023, Occidental will continue to enhance production by adding extended and dual laterals, stimulating wells with the OXY JETTINGTM wellbore stimulation system, and expanding thermal conformance. Occidental will also continue to execute projects in Oman targeting emissions reductions.

Qatar
In Qatar, Occidental partners in the Dolphin Energy Project, an investment that is comprised of two separate economic interests. Occidental has a 24.5% interest in the upstream operations (Dolphin) to develop and produce NGL, natural gas and condensate from Qatar’s North Field through mid-2032. Occidental also has a 24.5% interest in DEL, which operates a pipeline and is discussed further in the midstream and marketing segment section in this Form 10-K under Pipeline. In 2022, Occidental’s net share of production from Dolphin was 37 Mboe/d.

UAE
In 2011, Occidental acquired a 40% participating interest in the Shah gas field (Al Hosn Gas), joining with the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, which expires in 2041. In 2022, Occidental’s net share of production from Al Hosn Gas was 227 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) of natural gas and 35 Mbbl/d of NGL and condensate. Al Hosn Gas includes gas processing facilities which are discussed further in the midstream and marketing segment section in this Form 10-K under Gas Processing, Gathering and CO2.
In 2019 and 2020, Occidental acquired 9-year exploration concessions and, subject to a declaration of commerciality, 35-year production concessions for Onshore Block 3 and Block 5, which cover an area approximately 1.5 million acres and 1.0 million acres, respectively, and are adjacent to Al Hosn Gas. In 2022 and 2021, Occidental announced multi-zone oil and gas discoveries in Onshore Block 3.
In 2023, Occidental plans to complete an expansion project that commenced in 2022 to increase the production capacity of the Al Hosn Gas processing facilities from 1.28 Bcf/d to 1.45 Bcf/d and continue further exploration and appraisal activities in Onshore Block 3 and Block 5.


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PROVED RESERVES
Proved oil, NGL and natural gas reserves were estimated using the unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within the year, unless prices were defined by contractual arrangements. Oil, NGL and natural gas prices used for this purpose were based on posted benchmark prices and adjusted for price differentials including gravity, quality and transportation costs.
The following table shows the 2022, 2021 and 2020 calculated first-day-of-the-month average prices for both WTI and Brent oil prices, as well as the Henry Hub gas prices measured in MMbtu:

202220212020
WTI Oil ($/Bbl)$93.67 $66.56 $39.57 
Brent Oil ($/Bbl)$97.77 $69.24 $43.41 
Henry Hub Natural Gas ($/MMbtu)$6.36 $3.60 $1.98 
Mt. Belvieu NGL ($/Bbl)$47.81 $44.22 $18.74 

Occidental had proved reserves from continuing operations at year-end 2022 of 3,817 MMboe, compared to the year-end 2021 amount of 3,512 MMboe. Proved developed reserves represented approximately 71% and 75% of Occidental’s total proved reserves at year-end 2022 and 2021, respectively. The following table shows the breakout of Occidental’s proved reserves from continuing operations by commodity as a percentage of total proved reserves:

20222021
Oil50 %50 %
NGL22 %22 %
Natural gas28 %28 %

Occidental does not have any reserves from non-traditional sources. For further information regarding Occidental’s proved reserves, see the Supplemental Oil and Gas Information section in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

CHANGES IN PROVED RESERVES
Changes in Occidental’s 2022 reserves were as follows:

MMboe2022
Revisions of previous estimates474 
Improved recovery89 
Extensions and discoveries176 
Purchases10 
Sales(21)
Production(423)
Total 305 

Occidental’s ability to add reserves, other than through purchases, depends on the success of infill development, extension, discovery and improved recovery projects, each of which depends on reservoir characteristics, technology improvements and oil and natural gas prices, as well as capital and operating costs. Many of these factors are outside management’s control and may negatively or positively affect Occidental’s reserves.

Revisions of Previous Estimates
Revisions can include upward or downward changes to previous proved reserve estimates for existing fields due to the evaluation or interpretation of geologic, production decline or operating performance data. In addition, product price changes affect proved reserves recorded by Occidental. For example, lower prices may decrease the economically recoverable reserves, particularly for domestic properties, because the reduced margin limits the expected life of the operations. Offsetting this effect, lower prices increase Occidental’s share of proved reserves under PSCs because more oil is required to recover costs. Conversely, when prices rise, Occidental’s share of proved reserves decreases for PSCs and economically recoverable reserves may increase for other operations. Reserve estimation rules require that estimated ultimate recoveries be much more likely to increase or remain constant than to decrease, as changes are made due to increased availability of technical data.
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In 2022, Occidental’s revisions of previous estimates of proved reserves were positive 474 MMboe. These revisions were primarily due to 335 MMboe of positive revisions related to additions associated with infill development projects, mainly in the Permian Basin (232 MMboe) and the DJ Basin (94 MMboe). An additional 136 MMboe of positive revisions were related price revisions. The positive price revisions were primarily associated with the Permian Basin (147 MMboe), the Gulf of Mexico (8 MMboe) and the DJ Basin (4 MMboe), which were partially offset by negative price revisions of 29 MMboe on international PSCs.
Further positive revisions of 93 MMboe were associated with updates based on reservoir performance and 5 MMBoe were associated with management changes in development plans. The positive revisions were offset by negative revisions associated with various other cost and interest related revisions (95 MMboe).

Improved Recovery
In 2022, Occidental added proved reserves of 89 MMboe related to improved recovery, primarily in the Permian EOR, which accounted for 87% of the improved recovery reserve additions. These properties comprise conventional projects, which are characterized by the deployment of EOR development methods, largely employing application of CO2 flood, waterflood or steam flood. These types of conventional EOR development methods can be applied through existing wells, though additional drilling is frequently required to fully optimize the development configuration. Waterflooding is the technique of injecting water into the formation to displace the oil to the offsetting oil production wells. The use of either CO2 or steam flooding depends on the geology of the formation, the evaluation of engineering data, availability and cost of either CO2 or steam and other economic factors. Both techniques work similarly to lower viscosity causing the oil to move more easily to the producing wells. The remaining improved recovery additions were due to secondary and tertiary projects for certain international assets.

Extensions and Discoveries
Occidental also added proved reserves from extensions and discoveries, which are dependent on successful exploration and exploitation programs. In 2022, extensions and discoveries added 176 MMboe primarily related to the recognition of proved reserves in the Permian Basin (155 MMboe) and Powder River Basin (7 MMboe).

Purchases of Proved Reserves
In 2022, Occidental purchased proved reserves of 10 MMboe primarily consisting of proved reserves in the Permian Basin.

Sales of Proved Reserves
In 2022, Occidental sold 21 MMboe in proved reserves related to the divestitures of certain non-strategic assets in the Permian Basin.

Proved Undeveloped Reserves
Occidental had PUD reserves at year-end 2022 of 1,119 MMboe, compared to the year-end 2021 amount of 865 MMboe.

Changes in PUD reserves were as follows:

MMboe2022
Revisions of previous estimates270 
Improved recovery49 
Extensions and discoveries107 
Purchases1 
Sales(10)
Transfer to proved developed reserves(163)
Total254 

Revisions of previous estimates were a positive 270 MMboe. Approximately 263 MMboe of the positive revisions were related to additions associated with infill development projects in the Permian Basin (170 MMboe) and the DJ Basin (93 MMboe). Additionally, the revisions included positive price revisions of 24 MMboe. The positive price revisions were primarily associated with the Permian Basin. The remaining positive revisions were associated with various updates based on reservoir performance. The positive revisions were offset by negative revisions associated with various other cost and interest related revisions (21 MMboe).
Extensions and discoveries added 107 MMboe primarily related to the recognition of proved reserves in the Permian Basin (100 MMboe). Total improved recovery additions of 49 MMboe were primarily the result of conventional projects in the Permian EOR (44 MMboe) and secondary and tertiary projects in international assets (5 MMboe). The 2022 additions to
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PUD reserves were partially offset by transfers to proved developed reserves of 163 MMboe. The transfers were primarily associated with the Permian Basin (89 MMboe), the DJ Basin (40 MMboe) and Gulf of Mexico (21 MMboe).
In 2022, Occidental incurred approximately $1.2 billion to convert PUD reserves to proved developed reserves, and in 2022 Occidental converted approximately 19% of its PUD reserves to proved developed, when adjusted for revisions and sales. As of December 31, 2022, Occidental had 1,119 MMboe of PUD reserves of which 73% were associated with domestic onshore, 4% with Gulf of Mexico and 23% with international assets. Occidental’s most active development areas are located in the Permian B