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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended November 30, 2019
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                 to                 .
Commission File No. 001-09195
KB HOME
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
95-3666267
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
10990 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90024
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (310) 231-4000
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
 Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock (par value $1.00 per share)
 
KBH
 
New York Stock Exchange
Rights to Purchase Series A Participating Cumulative Preferred Stock
 
 
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes    No  
The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on May 31, 2019 was $2,414,644,120, including 7,859,975 shares held by the registrant’s grantor stock ownership trust and excluding 24,264,256 shares held in treasury.
There were 89,606,551 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $1.00 per share, outstanding on December 31, 2019. The registrant’s grantor stock ownership trust held an additional 7,630,582 shares of the registrant’s common stock on that date.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (incorporated into Part III).




KB HOME
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED NOVEMBER 30, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
Number
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Information about our Executive Officers
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
Item 15.
Item 16.




PART I

Item 1.
BUSINESS
General
KB Home is one of the largest and most recognized homebuilding companies in the U.S. We have been building homes for over 60 years, with more than 600,000 homes delivered since our founding in 1957. We build a variety of new homes designed primarily for first-time and first move-up, as well as second move-up and active adult homebuyers, including attached and detached single-family residential homes, townhomes and condominiums. We offer homes in development communities, at urban in-fill locations and as part of mixed-use projects. Our homebuilding operations represent the majority of our business, accounting for 99.7% of our total revenues in 2019. Our financial services operations, which accounted for the remaining .3% of our total revenues in 2019, offer various insurance products to our homebuyers in the markets where we build homes and provide title services in certain of those markets. Our financial services operations also provide mortgage banking services, including residential consumer mortgage loan (“mortgage loan”) originations, to our homebuyers indirectly through KBHS Home Loans, LLC (“KBHS”), an unconsolidated joint venture we formed with Stearns Ventures, LLC (“Stearns”).
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “we,” “our” and “us” used in this report refer to KB Home, a Delaware corporation, and its predecessors and subsidiaries. We also use the following terms in our business with the corresponding meanings: “home” is a single-family residence, whether it is a single-family home or other type of residential property; “homes delivered” are homes for which the sale has closed and title has passed to a customer; “community” is a single development in which new homes are constructed as part of an integrated plan; and “community count” is the number of communities we have open for sales with at least five homes/lots left to sell.
The following charts present homes delivered, homebuilding revenues, homebuilding operating income and pretax income for the years ended November 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019:

kbh-113020_chartx26573a04.jpgkbh-113020_chartx27679a04.jpg

1



chart-36acbaabd00f9761efaa04.jpgchart-973a27efa99931fd77aa04.jpg

Markets
Reflecting the geographic reach of our homebuilding business, we have ongoing operations in the eight states and 42 major markets presented below. We also operate in various submarkets within these major markets. We may refer to these markets and submarkets collectively as our “served markets.” For reporting purposes, we organize our homebuilding operations into four segments — West Coast, Southwest, Central and Southeast.
Segment    
 
States
 
Major Market(s)
 
 
 
 
 
West Coast
 
California
 
Contra Costa County, Elk Grove, Fresno, Los Angeles, Hollister, Madera, Modesto, Oakland, Orange County, Riverside, Sacramento, Salinas, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Rosa-Petaluma, Stockton, Vallejo, Ventura and Yuba City
 
 
Washington
 
Olympia and Seattle
Southwest
 
Arizona
 
Phoenix and Tucson
 
 
Nevada
 
Las Vegas
Central
 
Colorado
 
Denver and Loveland
 
 
Texas
 
Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio
Southeast
 
Florida
 
Daytona Beach, Fort Myers, Jacksonville, Lakeland, Melbourne, Orlando, Sarasota and Tampa
 
 
North Carolina
 
Raleigh
Segment Operating Information. The following table presents certain operating information for our homebuilding reporting segments for the years ended November 30, 2019, 2018 and 2017 (dollars in millions, except average selling price):

2



 
Years Ended November 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
West Coast:
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
3,214

 
3,152

 
3,387

Percentage of total homes delivered
27
%
 
28
%
 
31
%
Average selling price
$
592,300

 
$
661,500

 
$
644,900

Homebuilding revenues (a)
$
1,912.2

 
$
2,085.3

 
$
2,186.4

Southwest:
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
2,346

 
2,301

 
1,837

Percentage of total homes delivered
20
%
 
20
%
 
17
%
Average selling price
$
322,000

 
$
307,300

 
$
290,200

Homebuilding revenues (a)
$
764.8

 
$
707.1

 
$
533.1

Central:
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
4,291

 
4,113

 
4,136

Percentage of total homes delivered
36
%
 
36
%
 
38
%
Average selling price
$
293,500

 
$
297,400

 
$
284,800

Homebuilding revenues (a)
$
1,267.9

 
$
1,239.3

 
$
1,188.8

Southeast:
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
2,020

 
1,751

 
1,549

Percentage of total homes delivered
17
%
 
16
%
 
14
%
Average selling price
$
293,200

 
$
286,600

 
$
284,100

Homebuilding revenues (a)
$
592.8

 
$
502.1

 
$
448.0

Total:
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
11,871

 
11,317

 
10,909

Average selling price
$
380,000

 
$
399,200

 
$
397,400

Homebuilding revenues (a)
$
4,537.7

 
$
4,533.8

 
$
4,356.3

(a)
Homebuilding revenues include revenues from housing and, if applicable, land sales.
Additional financial and operational information related to our homebuilding reporting segments, including revenues, operating income (loss), pretax income (loss), inventories and assets, is provided below in Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and in Note 2 – Segment Information in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Business Strategy
Our core business strategy, which we have evolved from KB2020 to KB Edge™, is to expand our scale primarily within our current geographic footprint to achieve a top-five position in each of our served markets (based on homes delivered). KB Edge is a systematic, fact-based and process-driven approach to homebuilding that is grounded in gaining a detailed understanding of consumers’ location and product preferences and product price-to-value perceptions. In our business, we use the term “product” to mean and encompass a home’s floor plan design and interior/exterior style, amenities, functions and features.
KB Edge consists of the following key principles with respect to customers, land, products and operations:
Customers. With our customer-centered, Built-to-Order™ homebuying process, we provide each of our homebuyers with a highly personalized experience where they can make a wide range of structural and design choices for their future new home. Our community teams of sales representatives, design consultants and other personnel partner closely with each homebuyer through each major step in the design, construction and closing of their KB home. We believe this highly interactive, “customer-first” experience that puts our homebuyers firmly in control of designing a home with the particular features and amenities they want based on how they live and what they value, at an affordable price, promotes customer

3



satisfaction and gives us a meaningful and distinct competitive advantage over other homebuilders and resale and rental homes.
Land. We seek to manage our working capital and reduce our operating risks by primarily acquiring entitled land parcels within attractive submarkets as identified by our market research activities. We typically focus on metropolitan areas with favorable long-term economic and population growth prospects that we believe have the potential to sustain a minimum of 800 homes delivered per year, and target land parcels that meet our investment return standards. Identified consumer preferences and home sales activity largely direct where our land acquisition teams search for available land. We focus on investments that provide a one- to two-year supply of land or lots per product line, per community, and individual assets that are generally between 50 to 200 lots in size. Our primary focus continues to be our existing geographic footprint, encompassing markets we identified for their long-term economic and demographic growth potential. We leverage the relationships we have with land owners, developers and brokers to find and acquire land parcels, and use our experience in working with municipalities to efficiently obtain development approvals.
Products. We offer our customers a base product with a standardized set of functions and features that is generally priced to be affordable for the local area’s median household income level. As noted above, with our Built-to-Order approach, our customers have the opportunity to select their lot location within a community, floor plan, elevation and structural options, and to personalize their homes with numerous interior design options and upgrades in our design studios. Our design studios, generally centrally located within our served markets, are a key component of our Built-to-Order process, and the mix of design options and upgrades they offer are primarily based on the preferences identified by our market survey and purchase frequency data. We utilize a centralized internal architectural group that designs homes to meet or exceed customers’ price-to-value expectations while being as efficient as possible to construct. To enhance the simplicity and efficiency of our products and processes, our architectural group has developed a core series of high-frequency, flexible floor plans and elevations that we can offer across many of our served markets. Our standardized plans allow us to more effectively shift with local demand and developable land attributes, help us to better understand the cost to build our products and enable us to compare and implement best practices across divisions and communities. We also incorporate energy-efficient features into our product designs to help lower our homebuyers’ total cost of homeownership and reduce our homes’ impact on the environment, as further discussed below.
Operations. In addition to differentiating us from other high-production homebuilders, our Built-to-Order process helps drive low-cost production. We generally commence construction of a home only after we have a signed purchase contract with a homebuyer and have obtained preliminary credit approval or other evidence of the homebuyer’s financial ability to purchase the home, and seek to build a backlog of sold homes. By maintaining a substantial backlog, along with centralized scheduling and standardized reporting processes, we have established a disciplined and scalable operational platform that helps us sustain an even-flow production of pre-sold homes. This reduces our inventory risk, promotes construction efficiencies and enhances our relationships with independent subcontractors and other business partners, and provides us with greater visibility and predictability on future deliveries as we grow.
There may be market-driven circumstances where we believe it is necessary or appropriate to temporarily deviate from certain of the above principles. These deviations may include starting construction on a small number of homes in a community before corresponding purchase contracts are signed with homebuyers to more quickly meet customer delivery expectations and generate revenues; or acquiring land parcels in peripheral neighborhoods of a core metropolitan area that otherwise fit our growth strategy and meet our investment return standards. In addition, other circumstances could arise in the future that may lead us to make specific short-term shifts from these principles.
Returns-Focused Growth Plan. In 2016, we implemented a Returns-Focused Growth Plan designed to generate higher revenues and improve our homebuilding operating income margin, return on invested capital, return on equity and leverage ratio, and to achieve certain related financial targets by the end of our 2019 fiscal year, principally through executing on our core business strategy, as discussed above, and improving our asset efficiency.
The 2019 financial targets under our Returns-Focused Growth Plan were as follows:
Housing revenues greater than $5.0 billion.
Homebuilding operating income margin, excluding inventory-related charges, of 8.0% to 9.0%.
Return on invested capital in excess of 10.0%.
Return on equity of 10.0% to 15.0%.

4



Net debt to capital ratio of 40% to 50%, which we lowered in 2018 to a net debt to capital ratio of 35% to 45%, and further tightened in 2019 to a debt to capital ratio of 35% to 45%.
As further discussed below under Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this report, we achieved most of our Returns-Focused Growth Plan objectives, and intend to continue to follow its primary tenets in 2020 and beyond. This includes working to improve our asset efficiency by, among other things, calibrating home sales rates and selling prices at each of our communities to enhance profitability; further controlling our direct construction costs within our communities; accelerating inventory turns; structuring land acquisitions to minimize upfront costs, as further discussed below under “Community Development and Land Inventory Management”; reactivating communities that have been held for future development; and deploying excess cash flow from operations to help fuel additional revenue growth and/or reduce debt. The anticipated associated revenue and pretax income growth from this strategic approach should help drive the utilization of our deferred tax assets, which totaled $364.5 million at November 30, 2019, and allow us to realize substantial tax cash savings through 2020 that can be productively deployed in our business and/or to enhance our capital structure.
Promotional Marketing Strategy. To emphasize the distinct combination of innovative design, personalization, affordability and partnership we offer to our homebuyers and our focus on providing the highest possible degree of customer satisfaction, we have, since 2018, centered our external brand identity and messaging around the concept of Built on Relationships®. Built on Relationships also encapsulates the importance of other key relationships – with suppliers, trade contractors, land sellers and municipalities – to the success of our business.
Our intense customer focus drives, among other things, how and where we acquire land for our new home communities; the design and selection of our products; our investments in, and choice of suppliers of, advanced materials, systems, equipment and technologies intended to enhance the performance and resource efficiency of our homes; and our community development and home construction methods and processes, as described in this report. In addition, we aim to present our homebuyers with a simple path to owning their unique new home with the assistance of our community team members who partner closely with homebuyers through each major step in the design, construction and closing of their home. We believe our approach sets us apart from most other homebuilders and from resale homes, and is particularly well suited for the current as well as future generations of first-time buyers – historically our core customer demographic.
Homebuyer Profile. We focus on bracketing within a range around the median household income in a submarket in order to position our product and pricing to be attainable for the largest demand segments of that submarket. Across our portfolio, we offer an array of products, from smaller, higher density homes, with average selling prices typically suited for first-time homebuyers, to larger homes in premium locations with additional amenities, with higher average selling prices that generally attract a first or second move-up homebuyer. We also offer a variety of single-story floorplans that typically appeal to an active adult homebuyer age 55 and over, as well as multi-story floorplans that attract a wide range of homebuyers. For more than a decade, approximately 75% of our annual deliveries have been to first-time and first move-up homebuyers; in 2019, it was 77% of our deliveries, as shown in the following chart:
chart-47967f99769f25522dea04.jpg
To help elevate the KB Home brand in the marketplace, particularly for the growing number of millennial homebuyers, our promotional marketing efforts increasingly involve digital marketing, including interactive Internet-based applications, social media outlets and other evolving communication technologies.
Customer Service. Our on-site construction supervisors perform regular pre-closing quality checks and our sales representatives maintain regular contact with our homebuyers during the home construction process in an effort to ensure our homes meet our

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standards and our homebuyers’ expectations. We also have employees who are responsible for responding to homebuyers’ post-closing needs, including warranty claims. Information about our limited warranty program is provided in Note 16 – Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Operational Structure. We operate our homebuilding business through divisions with experienced management teams who have in-depth local knowledge of their particular served markets, which helps us acquire land in preferred locations; develop communities with products that meet local demand; and understand local regulatory environments. Our division management teams exercise considerable autonomy in identifying land acquisition opportunities; developing land and communities; implementing product, marketing and sales strategies; and controlling costs. To help maintain consistent execution within the organization, our division management teams and other employees are continuously trained on KB Edge principles and are evaluated, in part, based on their achievement of relevant operational objectives.
Our corporate management and support personnel develop and oversee the implementation of company-wide strategic initiatives, our overall operational policies and internal control standards, and perform various centralized functions, including architecture; purchasing and national contracts; treasury and cash management; land acquisition approval; risk and litigation management; accounting and financial reporting; internal audit and compliance activities; information technology systems; marketing; and investor and media relations.
Community Development and Land Inventory Management
Developable land for the production of homes is a core resource for our business. Based on our current strategic plans, we seek to own or control land sufficient to meet our forecasted production goals for the next three to five years. In 2020, we intend to continue to invest in and develop land positions within attractive submarkets and selectively acquire or control additional land that meets our investment return standards. However, we may periodically sell certain land interests or monetize land previously held for future development.
Our community development process generally consists of four phases: land acquisition, land development into finished lots for a community (if necessary), home construction and delivery of completed homes to homebuyers. Historically, our community development process has typically ranged from six to 18 months in our West Coast homebuilding reporting segment, with a somewhat shorter duration in our other homebuilding reporting segments. The development process in our West Coast homebuilding reporting segment is typically longer than in our other segments due to the municipal and regulatory requirements that are generally more stringent in California. Our community development process varies based on, among other things, the extent and speed of required government approvals and utility service activations, the overall size of a particular community, the scope of necessary site preparation activities, the type of product(s) that will be offered, weather conditions, time of year, promotional marketing results, the availability of construction resources, consumer demand, local and general economic and housing market conditions, and other factors.
Although they vary significantly in size and complexity, our single-family residential home communities typically consist of 50 to 200 lots per product line, with lots ranging in size from 2,000 to 9,000 square feet. In our communities, we typically offer three to 15 home design choices. We also generally build one to three model homes at each community so that prospective homebuyers can preview the various products available. Depending on the community, we may offer premium lots containing more square footage, better views and/or location benefits. Some of our communities consist of multiple-story structures that encompass several attached condominium-style units.
Land Acquisition and Land Development. We continuously evaluate land acquisition opportunities against our investment return standards, while also balancing competing needs for financial strength, liquidity and land inventory for future growth. When we acquire land, we generally focus on parcels with lots that are entitled for residential construction and are either physically developed to start home construction (referred to as “finished lots”) or partially finished. However, depending on market conditions and available opportunities, we may acquire undeveloped and/or unentitled land. We may also invest in land that requires us to repurpose and re-entitle the property for residential use, such as in-fill developments. We expect that the overall balance of undeveloped, unentitled, entitled, partially finished and finished lots in our inventory will vary over time, and in implementing our strategic growth initiatives, we may acquire a greater proportion of undeveloped or unentitled land in the future if and as the availability of reasonably priced land with finished or partially finished lots diminishes.
We generally structure our land acquisition and land development activities to minimize, or defer the timing of, expenditures in order to reduce both the market risks associated with holding land and our working capital and financial commitments, including interest and other carrying costs. We typically use contracts that, in exchange for a small initial option payment or earnest money deposit, give us an option or similar right to acquire land at a future date, usually at a pre-determined price and pending our satisfaction with the feasibility of developing and selling homes on the land and/or an underlying land seller’s completion of certain obligations, such as securing entitlements, developing infrastructure or finishing lots. We refer to land subject to such option or

6



similar contractual rights as being “controlled.” Our decision to exercise a particular land option or similar right is based on the results of our due diligence and continued market viability analysis after entering into such a contract. Information related to our land option contracts and other similar contracts is provided in Note 7 – Inventory Impairments and Land Option Contract Abandonments and Note 8 – Variable Interest Entities in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
The following table presents the number of inventory lots we owned, in various stages of development, or controlled under land option contracts or other similar contracts by homebuilding reporting segment as of November 30, 2019 and 2018:
 
Homes Completed or Under
Construction and Land
Under Development
 
Land Held for Future
Development or Sale
 
Land Under
Option (a)
 
Total Land
Owned or
Under Option
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
West Coast
8,586

 
8,671

 
918

 
1,291

 
3,338

 
2,718

 
12,842

 
12,680

Southwest
6,841

 
7,730

 
384

 
435

 
2,801

 
1,650

 
10,026

 
9,815

Central
14,712

 
14,821

 
84

 
105

 
8,141

 
7,311

 
22,937

 
22,237

Southeast
4,991

 
4,377

 
1,523

 
2,052

 
3,379

 
2,466

 
9,893

 
8,895

Total
35,130

 
35,599

 
2,909

 
3,883

 
17,659

 
14,145

 
55,698

 
53,627

(a)
Land under option as of November 30, 2019 and 2018 excludes 9,212 and 11,185 lots, respectively, under contract where the associated deposits were refundable at our discretion.
The following charts present the percentage of inventory lots we owned or had under land option contracts or other similar contracts by homebuilding reporting segment and the percentage of total lots we owned and had under option, including 9,212 lots under contract where the associated deposits were refundable at our discretion, as of November 30, 2019:
kbh-113020_chartx28861a04.jpgkbh-113020_chartx29785a04.jpg
Home Construction and Deliveries. Following the acquisition of land and, if necessary, the development of the land into finished lots, we typically begin constructing model homes and marketing homes for sale. To minimize the costs and risks of unsold homes in production, we generally commence construction of a home only after we have a signed purchase contract with a homebuyer and have obtained preliminary credit approval or other evidence of the homebuyer’s financial ability to purchase the home. Other than model homes, our inventories typically do not consist of completed unsold homes. However, cancellations of home purchase contracts prior to the delivery of the underlying homes, the construction of attached products with some unsold units, or specific marketing or other strategic considerations will result in our having unsold completed or partially completed homes in our inventory. Our construction cycle time from home sale to delivery is typically five to six months.
We act as the general contractor for the majority of our communities, and engage outside general contractors in all other instances. We, or the outside general contractors we engage, contract with a variety of independent subcontractors, who are typically locally based, to perform all land development and home construction work through their own employees or subcontractors. We do not self-perform any land development or home construction work. These independent subcontractors also supply some of the building materials required for such production activities. Our contracts with these independent subcontractors require that they comply with all laws applicable to their work, including wage and safety laws, meet performance standards, and follow local building codes and permits.
Raw Materials. Outside of land, the principal raw materials used in our production process are concrete and forest products. Other primary materials used in home construction include drywall, and plumbing and electrical items. We source all of our

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building materials from third parties. We attempt to enhance the efficiency of our operations by using, where practical, standardized materials that are commercially available on competitive terms from a variety of outside sources. In addition, we have national and regional purchasing programs for certain building materials, appliances, fixtures and other items that allow us to benefit from large-quantity purchase discounts and, where available, participate in outside manufacturer or supplier rebate programs. When possible, we arrange for bulk purchases of these products at favorable prices from such manufacturers and suppliers.
Backlog
Our “backlog” consists of homes that are under a purchase contract but have not yet been delivered to a homebuyer. Ending backlog represents the number of homes in backlog from the previous period plus the number of net orders (new orders for homes less cancellations) generated during the current period minus the number of homes delivered during the current period. Our backlog at any given time will be affected by cancellations, homes delivered and our community count. Backlog value represents potential future housing revenues from homes in backlog. Our cancellation rates and the factors affecting such rates are further discussed below in both Item 1A – Risk Factors and Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this report.
The following charts present our ending backlog (number of homes and value) by homebuilding reporting segment as of November 30, 2018 and 2019:
kbh-113020_chartx30653a04.jpgkbh-113020_chartx32131a04.jpg
Employees
At December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had approximately 2,140 and 2,005 full-time employees, respectively. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement.
Competition, Seasonality, Delivery Mix and Other Factors
Competition. The homebuilding industry and housing market are highly competitive with respect to selling homes; contracting for construction services, such as carpentry, roofing, electrical and plumbing; and acquiring attractive developable land, though the intensity of competition can vary and fluctuate between and within individual markets and submarkets. We compete for homebuyers, construction resources and desirable land against numerous homebuilders, ranging from regional and national firms to small local enterprises. As to homebuyers, we primarily compete with other homebuilders on the basis of selling price, community location and amenities, availability of financing options, home designs, reputation, home construction cycle time, and the design options and upgrades that can be included in a home. In some cases, this competition occurs within larger residential development

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projects containing separate sections other homebuilders design, plan and develop. We also compete for homebuyers against housing alternatives to new homes, including resale homes, apartments, single-family rentals and other rental housing.
In markets experiencing heavy construction activity, including areas recovering from earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes or other natural disasters, there can be severe craft and skilled trade shortages that limit independent subcontractors’ ability to supply construction services to us, which in turn tends to drive up our costs and/or extend our production schedules. Elevated construction activity, and reallocations of staff for public safety priorities after natural disasters or otherwise, has also contributed to measurable increases in the amount of time needed to obtain governmental approvals or utility service activations and, combined with tariffs recently imposed or increased by the U.S. and other governments, the cost of certain raw building materials, such as steel, Canadian lumber, drywall and concrete, input commodities or finished products. Since 2013, we also have seen higher prices for desirable land amid heightened competition with homebuilders and other developers and investors (both domestic and international), particularly in the land-constrained areas where we operate. We expect these upward cost trends to continue in 2020, if and as housing market activity grows and there is greater competition for these resources.
Seasonality. Our performance is affected by seasonal demand trends for housing. Traditionally, there has been more consumer demand for home purchases and we tend to generate more net orders in the spring and early summer months (corresponding to most of our second quarter and part of our third quarter) than at other times of the year. This “selling season” demand results in our delivering more homes and generating higher revenues from late summer through the fall months (corresponding to part of our third quarter and all of our fourth quarter), as illustrated in the following table:
 
First Quarter
 
Second Quarter
 
Third Quarter
 
Fourth Quarter
Net Orders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
21
%
 
32
%
 
26
%
 
21
%
2018
25
%
 
32
%
 
25
%
 
18
%
2017
24
%
 
31
%
 
24
%
 
21
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homes Delivered
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
18
%
 
23
%
 
26
%
 
33
%
2018
20
%
 
24
%
 
26
%
 
30
%
2017
20
%
 
24
%
 
25
%
 
31
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Housing Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
18
%
 
23
%
 
25
%
 
34
%
2018
19
%
 
24
%
 
27
%
 
30
%
2017
19
%
 
23
%
 
26
%
 
32
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Delivery Mix and Other Factors. In addition to the overall volume of homes we sell and deliver, our results in a given period are significantly affected by the geographic mix of markets and submarkets in which we operate; the number and characteristics of the communities we have open for sales in those markets and submarkets; and the products we sell from those communities during the period. While there are some similarities, there are differences within and between our served markets in terms of the quantity, size and nature of the communities we operate and the products we offer to consumers. These differences reflect, among other things, local homebuyer preferences; household demographics (e.g., large families or working professionals; income levels); geographic context (e.g., urban or suburban; availability of reasonably priced finished lots; development constraints; residential density); and the shifts that can occur in these factors over time. These factors in each of our served markets will affect the costs we incur and the time it takes to locate, acquire rights to and develop land, open communities for sales, and market and build homes; the size of our homes; our selling prices (including the contribution from homebuyers’ purchases of design options and upgrades); the pace at which we sell and deliver homes and close out communities; and our housing gross profits and housing gross profit margins. Therefore, our results in any given period will fluctuate compared to other periods based on the proportion of homes delivered from areas with higher or lower selling prices and on the corresponding land and overhead costs incurred to generate those deliveries, as well as from our overall community count.

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Financing
Our operations have historically been funded by internally generated cash flows, public equity and debt issuances, land option contracts and other similar contracts, land seller financing, and performance bonds and letters of credit. We also have the ability to borrow funds under our unsecured revolving credit facility with various banks (“Credit Facility”). Depending on market conditions and available opportunities, we may obtain project financing, or secure external financing with community or other inventory assets that we own or control. By “project financing,” we mean loans that are specifically obtained for, or secured by, particular communities or other inventory assets. We may also arrange or engage in bank loan, project debt or other financial transactions and/or expand the capacity of the Credit Facility or our unsecured letter of credit facility with certain financial institutions (“LOC Facility”) or enter into additional such facilities.
Environmental Compliance Matters and Sustainability
As part of our due diligence process for land acquisitions, we often use third-party environmental consultants to investigate potential environmental risks, and we require disclosures, representations and warranties from land sellers regarding environmental risks. We may acquire property that requires us to incur environmental clean-up costs after conducting appropriate due diligence. In such instances, we take steps prior to our acquisition of the land to gain reasonable assurance as to the precise scope of work required and the costs associated with removal, site restoration and/or monitoring. To the extent contamination or other environmental issues have occurred in the past, we will attempt to recover restoration costs from third parties, such as the generators of hazardous waste, land sellers or others in the prior chain of title and/or their insurers. Based on these practices, we anticipate that it is unlikely that environmental clean-up costs will have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements. However, despite these efforts, there can be no assurance that we will avoid material liabilities relating to the existence or removal of toxic wastes, site restoration, monitoring or other environmental matters affecting properties currently or previously owned or controlled by us, and no estimate of any potential liabilities can be made. We have not been notified by any governmental agency of any claim that any of the properties owned or formerly owned by us are identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (or similar state or local agency) as being a “Superfund” (or similar state or local) clean-up site requiring remediation, which could have a material effect on our future consolidated financial statements. Costs associated with the use of environmental consultants are not material to our consolidated financial statements.
We have made a dedicated effort to further differentiate ourselves from other homebuilders and resale homes through our ongoing commitment to become a leading national company in environmental sustainability. We continually seek out and utilize innovative technologies and systems to further improve the energy and water efficiency of our homes, as well as engage in campaigns and other educational efforts, sometimes together with other companies, organizations and groups, to increase consumer awareness of the importance and impact of sustainability in selecting a home and the products within a home. Under our commitment to sustainability, we, among other things:
build energy- and water-efficient new homes. Overall, we have built approximately 137,000 ENERGY STAR® certified homes, a milestone that exceeds any other homebuilder;
developed a KB Home Energy Performance Guide®, or EPG®, that informs our homebuyers of the relative energy efficiency and the related estimated monthly energy costs of each of our homes as designed, compared to typical new and existing homes;
include in our product offerings advanced home automation technologies, components (e.g., smart appliances) and systems that can increase convenience for our homebuyers; and
unveiled in 2019 the KB Home ProjeKt: Where Tomorrow Lives™, a collaboratively designed sustainable concept home that showcased, during the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, a vision for the future of the American home.
For several years, we have been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for our sustainability achievements, and have earned awards under all of the agency’s programs aimed at homebuilders: ENERGY STAR, which sets energy efficiency standards; WaterSense®, which establishes water efficiency standards; and Indoor airPLUS®, which focuses on indoor air quality. In 2019, we received the ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year — Sustained Excellence Award for the ninth consecutive year, and the WaterSense Sustained Excellence Award for water efficiency for the fifth consecutive year.
More information about our sustainability commitment can be found in our annual sustainability reports, which we have published on our website since 2008. We intend to continue to research, evaluate and utilize new or improved products and construction and business practices consistent with our commitment and believe our sustainability initiatives can help put us in a better position, compared to resale homes and homebuilders with less-developed programs, to comply with evolving local, state

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and federal rules and regulations intended to protect natural resources and to address climate change and similar environmental concerns.
Access to Our Information
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, beneficial ownership reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and proxy statements, as well as all amendments to those reports are available free of charge through our investor relations website at investor.kbhome.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). They can also be found at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We will also provide these reports in electronic or paper format free of charge upon request made to our investor relations department at investorrelations@kbhome.com or at our principal executive offices. We intend for our investor relations website to be the primary location where investors and the general public can obtain announcements regarding, and can learn more about, our financial and operational performance, business plans and prospects, our board of directors, our senior executive management team, and our corporate governance policies, including our articles of incorporation, by-laws, corporate governance principles, board committee charters, and ethics policy. We may from time to time choose to disclose or post important information about our business on or through our investor relations website, and/or through other electronic channels, including social media outlets, such as Facebook® (Facebook.com/KBHome) and Twitter® (Twitter.com/KBHome), and other evolving communication technologies. The content available on or through our primary website at www.kbhome.com, our investor relations website, including our sustainability reports, or social media outlets and other evolving communication technologies is not incorporated by reference in this report or in any other filing we make with the SEC, and our references to such content are intended to be inactive textual or oral references only.
Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Although we have operated through a number of varying economic cycles, there are several risks that could affect our ability to conduct our business, which we discuss below. If any of these risks materialize, they could, among other things, (a) materially and adversely impact our results of operations and consolidated financial statements; and (b) cause our results to differ materially from the forward-looking and other statements we make in our SEC filings; in our news releases and other public reports and communications, including those we post on or make available through our websites or other electronic channels; or orally through our personnel and representatives. These risks, and other factors outside of our control, could also create or increase volatility in our common stock’s market price.
The risk factors described below are not our only salient risks. Political events, war, terrorism, civil unrest, weather or other natural/environmental disasters, and other risks that are currently unknown or seen as immaterial, could also have a material adverse impact on our business, consolidated financial statements and/or common stock’s market price.
Demand Risks. The following could negatively affect consumer demand for our products, thereby unfavorably impacting our net orders, homes delivered, average selling prices, revenues and/or profitability:
Soft or negative economic or housing market conditions. Adverse conditions in our served markets or nationally could be caused or worsened by factors outside of our control, including, for example, U.S. trade disputes with other countries or a federal government shutdown, and financial markets’ reactions thereto.
Reduced employment levels and job and wage growth. Recent strong employment and wage growth trends may weaken or reverse in 2020. If they do, our core first-time and first move-up homebuyer segments could be particularly affected, impacting us more severely than homebuilders that target a different buyer demographic.
Lower population growth, household formations or other unfavorable demographic changes. These may be driven by, among other things, birth rate changes, economic factors or U.S. immigration policies.
Diminished consumer confidence, whether generally or as to purchasing a home. Consumers may be reluctant to purchase a home compared to housing alternatives (such as renting apartments or homes, or remaining in their existing home) due to location or lifestyle preferences, affordability perceptions (particularly in markets experiencing rapid home price appreciation), employment instability or otherwise.
Tightened availability or affordability of mortgage loans and homeowner insurance coverage. Most of our buyers need a mortgage loan to purchase their home. Their ability to obtain a mortgage loan is largely subject to prevailing interest rates, lenders’ credit standards and appraisals, and the availability of government-supported programs, such as those from the Federal Housing Administration, the Veterans Administration, Federal National Mortgage Association (also known as Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (also known as Freddie Mac). If mortgage interest

11



rates increase, credit standards are tightened, appraisals for our homes are lowered, or mortgage loan programs are curtailed, potential buyers of our homes may not be able to obtain necessary mortgage financing.
Insurance companies are increasingly drawing back from issuing, or are measurably raising premiums for, homeowner insurance policies in areas that have experienced, or are thought to be at risk of experiencing, significant wildfires, hurricanes, flooding or other natural disasters. If potential homebuyers are unable to obtain affordable homeowner insurance coverage, they may decide not to pursue purchasing a home or may cancel a home purchase contract with us.
Poor lender performance. We depend on third-party lenders, including our KBHS partner Stearns, to provide mortgage loans to our homebuyers, unlike homebuilders with a wholly-owned mortgage lender. These lenders may be unable or unwilling to complete, timely or at all, the loan originations they start for our homebuyers. Poorly performing lenders can significantly delay home closings, disrupting our production schedules and delivery forecasts, or cause home purchase contract cancellations. While KBHS was not materially affected by Stearns’ parent company’s successfully completed bankruptcy process in 2019 (as discussed in Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this report), if KBHS performs poorly and our customers use another lender, the income from and value of our KBHS equity interest would decline.
Adverse tax law changes. If federal or state laws are changed to eliminate or reduce the income tax benefits associated with homeownership, such as personal tax deductions for mortgage loan interest costs and real estate taxes, the after-tax cost of homeownership could measurably increase and diminish consumer interest in buying a home, as could increases in personal income tax rates.
Competition. We face significant competition for customers from other homebuilders, sellers of resale homes and other housing industry participants, including rental-housing operators. This competitive environment may, among other things, cause us to lower our home selling prices or offer incentives to attract or retain buyers.
Seasonality. As discussed in Item 1 – Business in this report, we historically have experienced fluctuations in our quarterly operating results with measurably more homes delivered and revenues generated in our third and fourth fiscal quarters. However, this pattern may not continue in the future at all or to the same degree as in the past.
Supply Risks. The following could negatively affect our ability to increase our owned and controlled lot inventory, community count, operational scale and market share, and to grow our business, if at all:
Lack of available land. Securing sufficient developable land that meets our investment return standards is critical for us to meet our strategic goals and profitably expand our business’ scale. Land availability depends on several factors, including geographical/topographical/governmental constraints, sellers’ business relationships and reputation within the residential real estate community, and competition from other parties, some of which can bid more for land. We expect to continue to face fierce competition for desirable land in our served markets in 2020, pressuring its availability and increasing its cost.
Insufficient financial resources. Our business needs considerable cash to, among other things, acquire and develop land, build homes and provide customer service. We expect to meet our needs with existing cash, future operational cash flow, our Credit Facility and LOC Facility, or outside sources, including project financing. However, outside financing may be unavailable, costly and/or considerably dilute stockholders. For instance:
Tight capital or financial market conditions may hinder our ability to obtain external financing, or use or expand our Credit Facility and LOC Facility, on favorable terms or at all. Also, if a rating agency downgrades our credit rating or outlook, external financing may be difficult and costly for us to obtain.
Noncompliance with our Credit Facility and senior notes’ covenants (see Note 14 – Notes Payable in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report) may restrict our ability to borrow; accelerate repayment of our debt, which may not be feasible for us; or cause our lenders to impose significant fees or cease lending to us.
As described in Note 14 – Notes Payable in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report, if a change of control or fundamental change occurs before our senior notes mature, we may need to offer to purchase certain of them. This may require us to refinance or restructure our debt, which we may be unable to do at all or on favorable terms.
Our high debt and debt-to-capital levels could require us to dedicate substantial cash flow to debt service; inhibit our ability to respond to business changes or adjust our debt maturity schedule; curb execution on our current strategies; and/or make us more vulnerable in a downturn than our less-leveraged competitors. Our next senior note

12



maturity is our $450.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 7.00% senior notes due December 15, 2021 (“7.00% Senior Notes due 2021”).
Decreased land inventory value. Our land inventory’s value depends on market conditions, including our estimates of applicable future demand and revenue generation. If conditions deteriorate during the typically significant amount of time between our acquiring ownership/control of land and delivering homes on that land; if we cannot sell land held for sale at its estimated fair value; or if we make strategic changes, we may need to record inventory-related charges. We may also record charges if we decide to sell land at a loss or activate or sell land held for future development.
In addition, our business could be negatively affected if our home sales, homes delivered or backlog-to-homes delivered conversion rate falls; if often-volatile building materials prices or subcontractor rates increase, which has been the trend over the past few years; or if our community openings are delayed due to, among other things, prolonged development, our strategic adjustments, or protracted government approvals or utility service activations from staff or resource cuts or reallocations for public safety priorities (e.g., earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes or other natural disasters).
Trade disputes and defective materials. The federal government has imposed new or increased import tariffs, and other countries have implemented retaliatory measures, raising the cost and reducing the supply of several home construction items. In addition, shortages or rising prices of building materials may ensue from manufacturing defects, resulting in recalls of materials. If such disputes continue or recalls occur, our costs and supply chain disruptions could increase further.
Poor subcontractor availability and performance. Independent subcontractors perform essentially all of our land development and home construction work. Though we supervise such activities at our community sites, we have no control over our subcontractors’ availability or work methods. If qualified subcontractors are not available (due to general shortages in a tight labor market, competition from other builders or otherwise), or do not timely perform, we may incur production delays and other inefficiencies, or higher costs for substitute services. Also, if our subcontractors’ work or materials quality does not meet our standards, we could face more home warranty and construction defect claims, and they or their insurers may not be able to cover the associated repair costs.
Responsibility for duties owed to subcontractors’ employees. Governmental agencies have at times sought to hold contractors like us responsible for subcontractors’ employment-related obligations to their workforces. For instance, under California law, regulators or others could assert that we are responsible for wages and benefits that our subcontractors fail to pay to their employees, or, in certain circumstances, it could be alleged that employees of our subcontractors should be deemed to be our employees. Further efforts to impose such external labor-related obligations on us could create substantial exposure for us in situations beyond our control.
Strategy Risks. Our strategies, and any related initiatives or actions, and any changes thereto, may not be successful in achieving our goals or generate any growth, earnings or returns. We may not achieve positive operational or financial results, or results equal to or better than we did in any prior period or in comparison to other homebuilders. Among other strategic risks, our business is presently concentrated in California, Florida, Nevada and Texas. Poor conditions in any of those markets could have a measurable negative impact on our results, and the impact could be larger for us than for other less-concentrated homebuilders. At the same time, we may not be successful in generating positive results from our recent expansion into the Seattle, Washington market, or if we choose to enter into any other new markets, based on our relative inexperience with the local homebuilding and economic environment and the need to make a significant investment to achieve effective scale and profitable returns, which we may not be able to accomplish.
Adverse conditions in California would have particular significance to our business. We generate the highest proportion of our revenues from and make significant inventory investments in our California operations. However, we may be constrained or delayed in entitling land and selling and delivering homes in California, and incur higher development or construction costs, from water conservation or wildfire protection measures (including precautionary and event-induced electricity blackouts, temporary or extended local or regional evacuations, development moratoriums in high-risk areas, and community resiliency design requirements) that are intended to address severe drought and climatic conditions that have arisen in recent years. In addition, as large-scale wildfires and flooding due to such conditions in California, as well as hurricanes, heavy rains and other climate change-driven natural disasters in other of our served markets, become more frequent and intense, we may experience greater disruption to our land development and homebuilding activities, delaying orders and home deliveries, among other impacts.
Also, California’s highly regulated and litigious business environment has made the state an increasingly challenging and uncertain place for us to operate. This includes the implementing regulations under the state’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32) intended to lower greenhouse gas emissions. For instance, we will incur higher construction costs because of a state law requirement that effectively requires that all new homes permitted to build in 2020 and beyond have solar power systems, and we may be unable to offset (through customer leases) or cover such costs through selling price increases due to competition and

13



consumer affordability concerns. In addition, California and certain of its local governments are considering or have implemented restrictions on or disincentives with respect to the creation or size of new suburban and exurban residential communities generally in favor of higher-density, urban developments that can be attractive to some buyers, but in many cases are on smaller parcels with higher building costs and more complicated entitlement requirements and may be subject to greater local opposition and/or additional site remediation work. State and local municipalities have also considered banning natural gas use in new homes, among other possible steps as part of their approaches to reduce greenhouse gases. Depending on their scope, these efforts could significantly increase our land acquisition and development costs and, along with increasing competition from other homebuilders and investors for available developable land, limit our California operations’ growth, while making new homes less affordable to potential buyers in the state. Partially offsetting these trends, California’s governor and certain legislators have taken positions to promote new housing construction, including the adoption of the Housing Crisis Act of 2019 (SB 330) intended to expedite the approval process for housing development in order to address the housing shortage in California.
Warranty Risks. Our homebuilding business is subject to warranty and construction defect claims. Though we have insurance coverage to partially reduce our exposure, it is limited and costly, in part due to a shrinking provider market, and we have high self-insured retentions that are expected to increase. We self-insure some of our risk through a wholly-owned insurance subsidiary.
Due to our dependence on independent subcontractors to perform our homebuilding activities and inherent uncertainties, including obtaining recoveries from responsible subcontractors and/or their or our insurers, our recorded warranty and other liabilities may be inadequate to address future claims, which, among other things, could require us to record charges to increase such liabilities. We may also record charges to reflect our then-current claims experience, including the actual costs incurred. Home warranty and other construction defect issues may also generate negative publicity, including on social media and the Internet, that detracts from our reputation and efforts to sell homes.
Deferred Tax Asset Recovery and Tax Position Risks. At November 30, 2019, we had deferred tax assets of $383.7 million, net of a $19.2 million valuation allowance. Realizing our deferred tax assets depends on our generating sufficient future taxable income, which may not occur. Also, our deferred tax assets’ value can increase or decrease with: (a) changes in the federal corporate income tax rate; in 2018, we recorded a $112.5 million non-cash charge to our provision for income taxes primarily due to the federal corporate rate being reduced from 35% to 21% under the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”); (b) our undergoing a “change of ownership” under federal tax rules, which would significantly reduce and possibly eliminate their value; and (c) adjustments in statutory or taxing authority treatment of such assets. We have filed our tax returns based on certain positions we believe are appropriate, and we may owe additional taxes if taxing authorities disagree with those positions.
Human Capital Risks. Our directors, officers and employees are important resources. If we cannot attract, retain and develop talent at reasonable pay and benefits levels, which is becoming increasingly challenging in the current tight labor market, or, alternatively, if we need to implement personnel or compensation reductions, our performance, profitability and ability to achieve our strategic goals could be significantly impaired. In addition, in many of our served markets, we need to have personnel with certain professional licenses, including building contractor and real estate brokerage licenses. Our home selling and construction activities may be severely disrupted or delayed if we do not have sufficient licensed individuals in our workforce.
Information Technology and Information Security Risks. We use information technology (“IT”) resources to carry out important operational activities and maintain our business records. Third parties maintain many of our IT resources, including disaster recovery and business continuity services, under agreements with security and service level standards.
Our systems have faced a variety of phishing, denial-of-service and other attacks. We have administrative, physical and technical controls and processes in place to address cybersecurity risks and help protect our IT resources, including employee training and third-party assessments. We also rely on our service providers, Stearns and other mortgage lenders with whom we share some personal identifying and confidential information to secure our information and the homebuyer information they collect from us. Our IT security costs, including cybersecurity insurance, are significant and will likely rise in tandem with the sophistication and frequency of system attacks.
However, our, Stearns’ and our service providers’ measures may be inadequate and possibly have operational or security vulnerabilities that could go undetected for some period of time. If our IT resources are compromised by an intentional attack, natural or man-made disaster, electricity blackout, IT failure or systems misconfiguration, service provider error, mis-managed user access protocols, personnel action, or otherwise, we may be severely limited in conducting our business and achieving our strategic goals for an extended period, experience internal control failures or lose access to operational assets or funds. A substantial disruption, or security breach suffered by Stearns/KBHS or a service provider, could damage our reputation and result in the loss of customers or revenues, in sensitive personal information being publicly disclosed or misused and/or legal proceedings against us. We may incur significant expenses to resolve such issues.
We have invested significant resources over the past few years to develop and implement a new custom enterprise resource planning system designed to improve the efficiency of our internal operational and administrative activities. There are inherent

14



risks in undertaking this type of broad-based IT project and we have experienced complications and delays during the implementation process. We expect these will continue as we progress and expand the scope of the system in 2020 and that we will incur appreciable additional costs in doing so. In addition, the testing and use of the new system during this rollout could increase our exposure to the security risks and consequences discussed in the foregoing paragraph.
Legal and Compliance Risks. We are subject to substantial legal and regulatory requirements as to land development (including governmental permits, taxes and fees), the homebuilding process, worksite health and safety and environmental protection (from the effects of climate change or otherwise), which can delay our operational activities, raise our costs and/or prohibit or restrict homebuilding in some areas. For example, certain of our Texas operations are subject to rules mandating enhanced flood management practices stemming from recent large hurricanes and rainstorms. These requirements often provide broad discretion to government authorities, and they could be interpreted or revised in ways unfavorable to us. The costs to comply, or associated with any noncompliance, are, or can be, significant.
Under environmental laws, we may be responsible for removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances even where we were not aware of their presence or for land we previously owned. The actual or potential presence of those substances on or near our properties may prevent us from performing land development or selling homes. Also, we have been, and we may in the future be, involved in federal, state and local air and water quality agency investigations or proceedings for potential noncompliance with their rules, including rules governing discharges of materials into the air and waterways; stormwater discharges from community sites; and wetlands and listed species habitat protection, and we could incur penalties and/or be restricted from developing or building at certain community locations during or as a result of such agencies’ investigations or findings.
Additionally, we are involved in legal, arbitral or regulatory proceedings or investigations incidental to our business, the outcome or settlement of which could result in material claims, losses, monetary damage awards, penalties, or other direct or indirect payments recorded against our earnings, or injunctions, consent decrees or other voluntary or involuntary restrictions or adjustments to our business operations or practices. Any adverse results could be beyond our expectations, insurance coverages and/or accruals at particular points in time. Unfavorable outcomes, as well as unfavorable investor, analyst or news reports related to our industry, company, personnel or operations, may also generate negative publicity, including on social media and the Internet, damaging our reputation and resulting in the loss of customers or revenues.
To reduce the risks and expected significant costs of defending intra-corporate proceedings in multiple venues and to help ensure that such matters are considered within a well-established body of law, our By-laws provide that, subject to certain exceptions, Delaware state courts are the exclusive forum for specified internal corporate affairs actions. This may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in their favored forum. At the same time, if a court were to allow for an alternative forum, or we waive the provision’s application, for a particular matter, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving an otherwise relevant action in another jurisdiction(s).
The European Union and state governments, notably California and Nevada, have recently enacted or enhanced data privacy regulations, and other governments are considering establishing similar or stronger protections. These regulations impose certain obligations for securing, and potentially removing, specified personal information in our systems, and for apprising individuals of the information we have collected about them. We have incurred costs in an effort to comply with these requirements, and our costs may increase significantly if new requirements are enacted and based on how individuals exercise their rights. However, any noncompliance could result in our incurring substantial penalties and reputational damage.
KBHS’ operations are heavily regulated. If Stearns, which oversees KBHS’ operations, or KBHS is found to have violated regulations, or mortgage investors demand KBHS repurchase mortgage loans it has sold to them, or cover their losses, for claimed contract breaches, KBHS could face significant liabilities, which, if they exceed its reserves, could result in our recognizing losses on our KBHS equity interest.
Our financial results may be materially affected by the adoption of new or amended financial accounting standards, including those relating to revenue recognition and lease accounting, and regulatory or outside auditor guidance or interpretations.
Item 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
Item 2.
PROPERTIES
None.

15



Item 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Our legal proceedings are discussed in Note 17 – Legal Matters in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Item 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
Information about our Executive Officers
The following table presents certain information regarding our executive officers as of December 31, 2019:
Name
 
Age
 
Present Position
 
Year
Assumed
Present
Position
 
Years
at
KB
Home
 
Other Positions and Other
Business Experience within the
Last Five Years
 
From – To
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jeffrey T. Mezger
 
64
 
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer (a)
 
2016
 
26
 
President and Chief Executive Officer (a)
 
2006-2016
Jeff J. Kaminski
 
58
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
2010
 
9
 
 
 
 
Matthew W. Mandino
 
55
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
 
2018
 
8
 
Regional President, Southwest


Division President, Colorado
 
2016-2018

2011-2016
Albert Z. Praw
 
71
 
Executive Vice President, Real Estate and Business Development
 
2011
 
23
 
 
 
 
Brian J. Woram
 
59
 
Executive Vice President and General Counsel
 
2010
 
9
 
 
 
 

(a)
Mr. Mezger has served as a director since 2006. He was elected Chairman of our board of directors in August 2016.

There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers or between any of our executive officers and any of our directors.

PART II
Item 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “KBH.” As of December 31, 2019, there were 552 holders of record of our common stock.
Information regarding the shares of our common stock that may be issued under our equity compensation plans is provided below in Item 12 – Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters in this report.
The following table summarizes our purchases of our own equity securities during the three months ended November 30, 2019:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Number of Shares That May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
September 1-30
 

 
$

 

 
2,193,947

October 1-31
 

 

 

 
2,193,947

November 1-30
 
107,800

 
36.58

 

 
2,193,947

Total
 
107,800

 
$
36.58

 

 
 
In May 2018, our board of directors authorized us to repurchase a total of up to 4,000,000 shares of our outstanding common

16



stock.  This authorization reaffirmed and incorporated the then-current balance of 1,627,000 shares that remained under a prior board-approved share repurchase program. In 2018, we repurchased 1,806,053 shares of our common stock pursuant to this authorization, at a total cost of $35.0 million. As of November 30, 2019, we had 2,193,947 shares authorized for repurchase.
The shares purchased during the three months ended November 30, 2019 were previously issued shares delivered to us by employees to satisfy withholding taxes on the vesting of restricted stock awards. These transactions are not considered repurchases under the board of directors’ authorization.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the five-year cumulative total return of KB Home common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones US Home Construction Index for the periods ended November 30:

Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Return
Among KB Home, S&P 500 Index and
Dow Jones US Home Construction Index

kbh-113020_chartx58580a01a05.jpg
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
KB Home
$
100

 
$
81

 
$
92

 
$
182

 
$
123

 
$
205

S&P 500 Index
100

 
103

 
111

 
136

 
145

 
168

Dow Jones US Home Construction Index
100

 
114

 
100

 
179

 
128

 
186

The above graph is based on the KB Home common stock and index prices calculated as of the last trading day before December 1 of the year-end periods presented. The closing price of KB Home common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $34.58 per share on November 30, 2019 and $21.11 per share on November 30, 2018. The performance of our common stock as presented above reflects past performance only and is not indicative of future performance. Total return assumes $100 invested at market close on November 30, 2014 in KB Home common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones US Home Construction Index, including reinvestment of dividends.

17



Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The data in this table should be read in conjunction with Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in this report.
KB HOME
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(Dollars In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts and Average Selling Price)
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homebuilding
$
4,537,658

 
$
4,533,795

 
$
4,356,265

 
$
3,582,943

 
$
3,020,987

Financial services
15,089

 
13,207

 
12,264

 
11,703

 
11,043

Total
$
4,552,747

 
$
4,547,002

 
$
4,368,529

 
$
3,594,646

 
$
3,032,030

Operating income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homebuilding
$
331,380

 
$
345,721

 
$
283,403

 
$
152,401

 
$
138,621

Financial services
10,756

 
9,363

 
8,834

 
7,886

 
7,332

Total
$
342,136

 
$
355,084

 
$
292,237

 
$
160,287

 
$
145,953

Pretax income
$
348,175

 
$
367,965

 
$
289,995

 
$
149,315

 
$
127,043

Net income (a)
268,775

 
170,365

 
180,595

 
105,615

 
84,643

Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.04

 
$
1.93

 
$
2.09

 
$
1.23

 
$
.92

Diluted
2.85

 
1.71

 
1.85

 
1.12

 
.85

Cash dividends declared per share
.23

 
.10

 
.10

 
.10

 
.10

Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homebuilding
$
4,977,086

 
$
5,061,191

 
$
5,029,158

 
$
5,121,125

 
$
5,072,877

Financial services
38,396

 
12,380

 
12,357

 
10,499

 
14,028

Total
$
5,015,482

 
$
5,073,571

 
$
5,041,515

 
$
5,131,624

 
$
5,086,905

Notes payable
$
1,748,747

 
$
2,060,263

 
$
2,324,845

 
$
2,640,149

 
$
2,601,754

Stockholders’ equity
2,383,122

 
2,087,500

 
1,926,311

 
1,723,145

 
1,690,834

Stockholders’ equity per share
26.60

 
24.01

 
22.13

 
20.25

 
18.32

Homebuilding Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homes delivered
11,871

 
11,317

 
10,909

 
9,829

 
8,196

Average selling price
$
380,000

 
$
399,200

 
$
397,400

 
$
363,800

 
$
354,800

Net orders
12,841

 
11,014

 
10,900

 
10,283

 
9,253

Ending backlog — homes
5,078

 
4,108

 
4,411

 
4,420

 
3,966

Average community count
250

 
223

 
233

 
238

 
244

(a)
Net income for the year ended November 30, 2018 included a non-cash charge of $112.5 million to income tax expense for TCJA-related impacts.


18



Item 7.
MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our discussion and analysis below is focused on our 2019 and 2018 financial results, including comparisons of our year-over-year performance between these years. Discussion and analysis of our 2017 fiscal year specifically, as well as the year-over-year comparison of our 2018 financial performance to 2017, are located in Part II, Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on January 24, 2019, which is available on our investor relations website at investor.kbhome.com and the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview. Revenues are generated from our homebuilding and financial services operations. The following table presents a summary of our consolidated results of operations (dollars in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
Variance
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2019 vs 2018
 
2018 vs 2017
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homebuilding
$
4,537,658

 
$
4,533,795

 
$
4,356,265

 
 %
 
4
 %
Financial services
15,089

 
13,207

 
12,264

 
14

 
8

Total
$
4,552,747

 
$
4,547,002

 
$
4,368,529

 
 %
 
4
 %
Pretax income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homebuilding
$
325,189

 
$
351,301

 
$
276,927

 
(7
)%
 
27
 %
Financial services
22,986

 
16,664

 
13,068

 
38

 
28

Total
348,175

 
367,965

 
289,995

 
(5
)
 
27

Income tax expense
(79,400
)
 
(197,600
)
 
(109,400
)
 
60

 
(81
)
Net income
$
268,775

 
$
170,365

 
$
180,595

 
58
 %
 
(6
)%
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.04

 
$
1.93

 
$
2.09

 
58
 %
 
(8
)%
Diluted
$
2.85

 
$
1.71

 
$
1.85

 
67
 %
 
(8
)%
Housing market conditions were generally healthy in 2019, with strong employment levels, relatively high consumer confidence and a limited supply of homes available for sale. During the year, we continued to execute on our long-standing, customer-centric operating strategy and our Returns-Focused Growth Plan.
Within our homebuilding operations, housing revenues of $4.51 billion for 2019 were in line with the prior year, as a 5% increase in homes delivered was offset by a 5% decrease in the overall average selling price of those homes. Homebuilding operating income for 2019 decreased 4% year over year to $331.4 million, and, as a percentage of homebuilding revenues, declined 30 basis points to 7.3%. Our housing gross profits for 2019 grew 5% from 2018 mainly due to an 80 basis point increase in our housing gross profit margin to 18.3%.
The increase in our housing gross profit margin for 2019 primarily reflected lower amortization of previously capitalized interest, accounting changes from our adoption of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”), effective December 1, 2018, and a decrease in inventory-related charges. This was partly offset by higher construction and land costs, the impact of fewer homes delivered from certain communities in our West Coast homebuilding reporting segment with relatively high average selling prices and housing gross profit margins as compared to the previous year, and an increase in sales incentives as a result of pricing pressure on our net orders in the 2018 fourth quarter and 2019 first quarter due to weaker market conditions during those periods. Our selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of housing revenues increased 120 basis points from the prior year to 11.0%, primarily reflecting our adoption of ASC 606 and higher marketing expenses to support new community openings. Further information regarding the accounting impacts from our adoption of ASC

19



606 is provided in Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Our net income and diluted earnings per share for 2019 were up 58% and 67%, respectively, year over year, and included a $6.8 million loss on the early extinguishment of debt. In 2018, our net income and diluted earnings per share included a non-cash charge of $112.5 million for TCJA-related impacts.
Progress on Returns-Focused Growth Plan Targets. We initiated our three-year Returns-Focused Growth Plan in 2016 and, based on the business environment and our outlook at that time, established robust financial targets for 2019. The following table presents these targets and our actual results for the years ended November 30, 2019 and 2016 (dollars in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Years Ended November 30,
Returns-Focused Growth Plan Financial Metrics
 
2019 Targets
 
2019
 
2016
Housing revenues
 
> $5.0 billion
 
$
4,510,814

 
$
3,575,548

Homebuilding operating income margin, excluding inventory-related charges
 
8% to 9%
 
7.7
%
 
5.7
%
Return on invested capital (a)
 
> 10%
 
9.5
%
 
5.2
%
Return on equity (a)
 
10.0% to 15.0%
 
12.2
%
 
6.3
%
Debt to capital ratio (b)
 
35.0% to 45.0%
 
42.3
%
 
60.5
%
(a)
The calculation of return on invested capital is described below under “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” Return on equity is calculated as net income for the most recent 12-month period divided by average stockholders’ equity for the trailing five quarters.
(b)
Our original 2019 target was a net debt to capital ratio in the range of 40% to 50%, which we lowered to a range of 35% to 45% during 2018. In the 2019 second quarter, we further tightened our financial target to a debt to capital ratio in the range of 35% to 45%.
We made significant progress toward achieving our Returns-Focused Growth Plan targets through the variable economic and industry conditions during the three-year period from 2016 to 2019, with all metrics showing measurable improvement over that span. In addition to substantially increasing our scale, with a 26% rise in housing revenues from 2016 to 2019, we generated significant cash flow, fueling our ability to invest $5.03 billion in land and land development, repay nearly $850.0 million of senior notes, and return cash to our stockholders in the form of dividends and share repurchases during the same period.
While we achieved our return on equity and debt to capital ratio targets for 2019, our housing revenues were below the target, largely due to our backlog at the beginning of the year (“beginning backlog”) being down 7% from the previous year, reflecting lower net sales in the latter part of 2018 stemming from restrained buyer demand that primarily resulted from affordability concerns driven by price appreciation trends and rising mortgage interest rates preceding and during that period. Also impacting our 2019 revenues were a lower proportion of homes delivered from our West Coast homebuilding reporting segment and a decline in this segment’s average selling price that stemmed from a mix shift toward lower-priced inland California markets and coastal communities at more affordable price points. This housing revenue result led to homebuilding operating income margin, excluding inventory-related charges, and return on invested capital results that were slightly below their respective 2019 targets.
We plan to continue to follow the primary tenets of our Returns-Focused Growth Plan in 2020 and believe we are well positioned to make further improvements as discussed below under “Outlook.”

20



Net Orders, Backlog and Community Count. The following table presents information concerning our net orders, cancellation rate, ending backlog, and community count for the years ended November 30, 2019 and 2018 (dollars in thousands):
 
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
 
2019
 
2018
Net orders
 
12,841

 
11,014

Net order value (a)
 
$
4,890,153

 
$
4,291,481

Cancellation rate (b)
 
19
%
 
22
%
Ending backlog — homes
 
5,078

 
4,108

Ending backlog — value
 
$
1,813,707

 
$
1,434,368

Ending community count
 
251

 
240

Average community count
 
250

 
223

(a)
Net order value represents the potential future housing revenues associated with net orders generated during a period, as well as homebuyer selections of lot and product premiums and design studio options and upgrades for homes in backlog during the same period.
(b)
Cancellation rate represents the total number of contracts for new homes cancelled during a period divided by the total (gross) orders for new homes generated during the same period.
Net Orders. In 2019, net orders from our homebuilding operations increased 17% from 2018, reflecting 12% growth in our overall average community count and a 5% increase in monthly net orders per community to 4.3. The year-over-year growth in our average community count is discussed below under “Community Count.” The value of our 2019 net orders rose 14% from 2018 as a result of the growth in net orders partly offset by a 2% decrease in the overall average selling price of those orders. The year-over-year increase in net orders and overall net order value reflected improvements in all four of our homebuilding reporting segments, with net order value increases ranging from 9% in our Southeast segment to 23% in our Southwest segment. In our West Coast segment, our largest segment based on housing revenues, net order value rose 10% due to a 19% increase in net orders stemming from the segment’s higher average community count, partly offset by a 7% decrease in the average selling price of those orders due to a shift in product and geographic mix toward our lower-priced inland California markets and coastal communities at more affordable price points.
Backlog. The number of homes in our backlog at November 30, 2019 increased 24% from the previous year. The potential future housing revenues in our backlog at November 30, 2019 grew 26% year over year, reflecting the higher number of homes in our backlog and a 2% increase in the average selling price of those homes. The increases in the number of homes in backlog and our backlog value reflected growth in each of our four homebuilding reporting segments. Substantially all of the homes in our backlog at November 30, 2019 are expected to be delivered during the year ending November 30, 2020.
Community Count. Our average community count for 2019 grew 12% from the previous year, with increases in all four of our homebuilding reporting segments, ranging from 1% in our Central segment to 24% in our West Coast segment. Our ending community count for 2019 rose 5% from the prior year. The year-over-year increases in both our average and ending community counts reflect the investments in land and land development we have made over the past several quarters.
We invested $1.62 billion in land and land development in 2019 to support home delivery and revenue growth in 2020 and beyond. In 2018, such investments totaled $1.89 billion. Approximately 39% of our total investment in 2019 related to land acquisitions, compared to approximately 50% in 2018.

21



HOMEBUILDING
The following table presents a summary of certain financial and operational data for our homebuilding operations (dollars in thousands, except average selling price):
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Housing
$
4,510,814

 
$
4,517,244

 
$
4,335,205

Land
26,844

 
16,551

 
21,060

Total
4,537,658

 
4,533,795

 
4,356,265

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Construction and land costs
 
 
 
 
 
Housing
(3,683,174
)
 
(3,728,917
)
 
(3,627,732
)
Land
(25,754
)
 
(15,003
)
 
(18,736
)
Total
(3,708,928
)
 
(3,743,920
)
 
(3,646,468
)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(497,350
)
 
(444,154
)
 
(426,394
)
Total
(4,206,278
)
 
(4,188,074
)
 
(4,072,862
)
Operating income
$
331,380

 
$
345,721

 
$
283,403

Homes delivered
11,871

 
11,317

 
10,909

Average selling price
$
380,000

 
$
399,200

 
$
397,400

Housing gross profit margin as a percentage of housing revenues
18.3
%
 
17.5
%
 
16.3
%
Housing gross profit margin excluding inventory-related charges as a percentage of housing revenues
18.7
%
 
18.1
%
 
16.9
%
Adjusted housing gross profit margin as a percentage of housing revenues
22.2
%
 
22.5
%
 
21.8
%
Selling, general and administrative expense as a percentage of housing revenues
11.0
%
 
9.8
%
 
9.8
%
Operating income as a percentage of homebuilding revenues
7.3
%
 
7.6
%
 
6.5
%
The following tables present homes delivered, net orders, cancellation rates as a percentage of gross orders, net order value, average community count, and ending backlog (number of homes and value) by homebuilding reporting segment (dollars in thousands):
 
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
 
Homes Delivered
 
Net Orders
 
Cancellation Rates
Segment
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
West Coast
 
3,214

 
3,152

 
3,542

 
2,985

 
19
%
 
20
%
Southwest
 
2,346

 
2,301

 
2,658

 
2,139

 
13

 
17

Central
 
4,291

 
4,113

 
4,565

 
4,045

 
21

 
27

Southeast
 
2,020

 
1,751

 
2,076

 
1,845

 
23

 
21

Total
 
11,871

 
11,317

 
12,841

 
11,014

 
19
%
 
22
%


22



 
 
Years Ended November 30,
 
 
Net Order Value
 
Average Community Count
Segment
 
2019
 
2018
 
Variance
 
2019
 
2018
 
Variance
West Coast
 
$
2,087,293

 
$
1,893,597

 
10
%
 
67

 
54

 
24
%
Southwest
 
842,335

 
682,172

 
23

 
41

 
34

 
21

Central
 
1,362,580

 
1,169,397

 
17

 
92

 
91

 
1

Southeast
 
597,945

 
546,315

 
9

 
50

 
44

 
14

Total
 
$
4,890,153

 
$
4,291,481

 
14
%
 
250

 
223

 
12
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
November 30,
 
 
Backlog – Homes
 
Backlog – Value
Segment
 
2019
 
2018
 
Variance
 
2019
 
2018
 
Variance
West Coast
 
1,043

 
715

 
46
%
 
$
598,299

 
$
414,564

 
44
%
Southwest
 
1,238

 
926

 
34

 
389,597

 
302,614

 
29

Central
 
1,988

 
1,714

 
16

 
590,936

 
487,921

 
21

Southeast
 
809

 
753

 
7

 
234,875

 
229,269

 
2

Total
 
5,078

 
4,108

 
24
%
 
$
1,813,707

 
$
1,434,368

 
26
%
Revenues. Homebuilding revenues of $4.54 billion in 2019 were essentially flat with 2018, reflecting housing revenues that were even with the previous year and an increase in land sale revenues.
Housing revenues in 2019 were on par with the previous year, as a 5% increase in homes delivered was offset by a 5% decrease in the overall average selling price of those homes. The year-over-year increase in homes delivered in 2019 reflected a 17% rise in our net orders during the year as our beginning backlog was down 7%, reflecting lower net sales in the latter part of 2018 stemming from restrained buyer demand that primarily resulted from affordability concerns driven by price appreciation trends and rising mortgage interest rates preceding and during that period. The overall average selling price of our homes delivered decreased in 2019 as compared to 2018, mainly due to a 10% decline in our West Coast homebuilding reporting segment that resulted from fewer homes delivered from certain communities with relatively high average selling prices, and a community mix shift toward lower-priced inland California markets and coastal communities at more affordable price points.
Land sale revenues for 2019 increased 62% from 2018. Generally, land sale revenues fluctuate with our decisions to maintain or decrease our land ownership position in certain markets based upon the volume of our holdings, our business strategy, the strength and number of developers and other land buyers in particular markets at given points in time, the availability of opportunities to sell land at acceptable prices and prevailing market conditions.
Operating Income. Our homebuilding operating income decreased 4% in 2019, as compared to the previous year, due to an increase in housing gross profits that was more than offset by an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses. Our homebuilding operating income included total inventory-related charges of $17.3 million in 2019 and $29.0 million in 2018, as discussed in Note 7 – Inventory Impairments and Land Option Contract Abandonments in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report. Excluding inventory-related charges, our homebuilding operating income as a percentage of homebuilding revenues was 7.7% in 2019 and 8.3% in 2018.
In 2019, housing gross profits rose by $39.3 million, or 5%, to $827.6 million from $788.3 million in 2018. The year-over-year increase in 2019 reflected the higher volume of homes delivered and an increase in the housing gross profit margin. Housing gross profits for 2019 and 2018 included the respective inventory-related charges described above.
Our housing gross profit margin for 2019 increased 80 basis points from the previous year, primarily due to the favorable impacts of lower amortization of previously capitalized interest as a percentage of housing revenues (approximately 90 basis points), our adoption of ASC 606 (approximately 70 basis points), and a decrease in inventory-related charges (approximately 20 basis points). These items were partly offset by higher construction and land costs (approximately 70 basis points), an increase in sales incentives as a result of pricing pressure on our net orders in the 2018 fourth quarter and 2019 first quarter due to weaker market conditions during those periods (approximately 20 basis points), and higher fixed community-level expenses supporting community count growth (approximately 10 basis points). Our housing gross profit margin for 2019 was also negatively impacted in part by fewer homes delivered from certain West Coast homebuilding reporting segment communities with relatively high average selling prices and housing gross profit margins as compared to the previous year.

23



Excluding the amortization of previously capitalized interest associated with housing operations of $156.1 million and $197.9 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively, and the above-mentioned inventory-related charges in the applicable periods, our adjusted housing gross profit margin decreased 30 basis points to 22.2% in 2019 from 22.5% in 2018. The calculation of adjusted housing gross profit margin, which we believe provides a clearer measure of the performance of our business, is described below under “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Selling, general and administrative expenses rose 12% in 2019 from the prior year, primarily due to our adoption of ASC 606 and increased marketing expenses to support new community openings. As a percentage of housing revenues, our selling, general and administrative expenses rose 120 basis points in 2019 as compared to 2018.
Interest Income. Interest income, which is generated from short-term investments, totaled $2.2 million in 2019 and $3.5 million in 2018. Generally, increases and decreases in interest income are attributable to changes in the interest-bearing average balances of short-term investments and fluctuations in interest rates.
Interest Expense. Interest expense results principally from our borrowings to finance land acquisitions, land development, home construction and other operating and capital needs. All interest incurred during 2019 and 2018 was capitalized as the average amount of our inventory qualifying for interest capitalization was higher than our average debt level for the period. As a result, we had no interest expense for 2019 or 2018.
Interest incurred declined 4% to $143.4 million in 2019, from $149.7 million in 2018, due to our lower average debt level, partly offset by a higher average interest rate. The lower average debt level in 2019 primarily reflected the repayment of certain senior notes during the year. The amount of interest incurred generally fluctuates based on the average amount of debt outstanding for the period and/or the interest rate on that debt.
Interest amortized to construction and land costs associated with housing operations totaled $156.1 million in 2019 and $197.9 million in 2018. The year-over-year decrease in interest amortized in 2019 mainly reflected the reduction in our interest incurred and the growth in our active inventory, which enabled us to allocate the lower level of interest over a larger population of owned lots. As a percentage of housing revenues, the amortization of previously capitalized interest associated with housing operations was 3.5% for 2019 and 4.4% for 2018. Interest amortized to construction and land costs in 2019 and 2018 included $.7 million and $4.8 million, respectively, of amortization of previously capitalized interest related to land sales that occurred during those years.
Equity in Income (Loss) of Unconsolidated Joint Ventures. Our equity in loss of unconsolidated joint ventures totaled $1.5 million in 2019, compared to equity in income of unconsolidated joint ventures of $2.1 million in 2018. Further information regarding our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures is provided in Note 9 – Investments in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Loss on Early Extinguishment of Debt. Our $6.8 million loss on early extinguishment of debt in 2019 was associated with our optional redemption of $350.0 million in aggregate principal amount of our 8.00% senior notes due 2020 (“8.00% Senior Notes due 2020”) prior to their maturity date.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This report contains information about our adjusted housing gross profit margin, adjusted income tax expense, adjusted net income, adjusted diluted earnings per share, adjusted effective tax rate, return on invested capital, and ratio of net debt to capital, none of which are calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). We believe these non-GAAP financial measures are relevant and useful to investors in understanding our operations and the leverage employed in our operations, and may be helpful in comparing us with other companies in the homebuilding industry to the extent they provide similar information. However, because they are not calculated in accordance with GAAP, these non-GAAP financial measures may not be completely comparable to other companies in the homebuilding industry and, thus, should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to operating performance and/or financial measures prescribed by GAAP. Rather, these non-GAAP financial measures should be used to supplement their respective most directly comparable GAAP financial measures in order to provide a greater understanding of the factors and trends affecting our operations.
Adjusted Housing Gross Profit Margin. The following table reconciles our housing gross profit margin calculated in accordance with GAAP to the non-GAAP financial measure of our adjusted housing gross profit margin (dollars in thousands):

24



 
Years Ended November 30,
 
2019