10-K 1 nc201710k.htm 10-K Document


 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
 
þ
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
or
¨
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File No. 1-9172
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
34-1505819
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
5875 Landerbrook Drive, Suite 220, Cleveland, Ohio
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
44124-4069
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (440) 229-5151
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, Par Value $1.00 Per Share
 
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Class B Common Stock, Par Value $1.00 Per Share
(Title of class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
     YES ¨    NO þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
     YES ¨    NO þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
     YES þ     NO £
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
     YES þ     NO £
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer þ 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company ¨
Emerging growth company¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act)
     YES ¨    NO þ
Aggregate market value of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2017 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter): $300,826,762
Number of shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding at February 23, 2018: 5,362,773
Number of shares of Class B Common Stock outstanding at February 23, 2018: 1,570,146
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Company's Proxy Statement for its 2018 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
 
 
 
 
 



NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



PART I
Item 1. BUSINESS
General

NACCO Industries, Inc. (“NACCO” or the “Company”) is the public holding company for The North American Coal Corporation.  The North American Coal Corporation and its affiliated companies (collectively, “NACoal”) operate surface mines that supply coal primarily to power generation companies under long-term contracts, and provide other value-added services to natural resource companies.  In addition, its North American Mining ("NAM") business maintains and operates draglines and other equipment under contracts with sellers of aggregates.  NACoal’s service-based business model aligns its operating goals with customers’ objectives. 
Additional information relating to financial and operating data on a segment basis (including NACCO and Other) and by geographic region is set forth under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in Part II of this Form 10-K and in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Form 10-K.
NACCO was incorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1986 in connection with the formation of a holding company structure for a predecessor corporation organized in 1913. As of December 31, 2017, the Company and its subsidiaries had approximately 2,300 employees, including approximately 1,900 employees at the Company’s unconsolidated mining operations.
The Company makes its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports available, free of charge, through its website, www.nacco.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Significant Events

On September 29, 2017, the Company spun-off Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company ("HBBHC"), a former wholly owned subsidiary. As a result of the spin-off, NACCO stockholders received one share of HBBHC Class A common stock and one share of HBBHC Class B common stock for each share of NACCO Class A or Class B common stock owned on the record date for the spin-off. The financial position, results of operations and cash flows of HBBHC are reflected as discontinued operations for all periods presented through the date of the spin-off.   

On September 28, 2017, prior to the spin-off, HBBHC paid NACCO a one-time $35.0 million cash dividend. This payment was in addition to $3.0 million in dividends HBBHC paid to NACCO from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017.
During 2017 and the fourth quarter of 2016, NACoal expanded its existing mining services by adding new customers in Florida.

On June 28, 2017, Southern Company and its subsidiary, Mississippi Power, suspended operations involving the coal gasifier portion of the Kemper County energy facility. Liberty Fuels Company, LLC ("Liberty"), an unconsolidated mining operation, was the sole supplier of coal to fuel the gasifier under its contract with Mississippi Power. On February 8, 2018, Mississippi Power instructed Liberty to permanently cease all mining and delivery of lignite and to commence mine reclamation. The terms of the contract specify that Mississippi Power is responsible for all mine closure costs. Under the contract, Liberty is specified as the contractor to complete final mine closure and will receive compensation for these services. The customer’s decision to close the mine does not negatively impact NACCO’s earnings outlook for Liberty during 2018, but it does unfavorably affect North American Coal’s long-term earnings potential from this mine.

During 2015, Bisti Fuels Company, LLC ("Bisti"), a wholly owned subsidiary of NACoal, entered into a 15-year contract mining agreement with Navajo Transitional Energy Company, LLC ("NTEC"). Under the agreement, Bisti became NTEC's contract miner at NTEC's Navajo Mine, a surface coal mine located within the Navajo Nation near Fruitland, San Juan County, New Mexico on January 1, 2017.

Centennial Natural Resources, LLC ("Centennial") ceased active mining operations at the end of 2015. During 2016 and 2017, the Company's NACoal subsidiary recorded non-cash impairment charges of $17.4 million and $1.0 million, respectively. The carrying value of coal land and real estate and the assets held for sale were zero as of December 31, 2017.



1



North American Coal
General
NACoal operates surface mines that supply coal primarily to power generation companies under long-term contracts, and provides other value-added services to natural resource companies.  In addition, its NAM business maintains and operates draglines and other equipment under contracts with sellers of aggregates. 

Coal is surface mined from NACoal's mines in North Dakota, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and on the Navajo Nation in New Mexico. NACoal has the following operating coal mining subsidiaries: Bisti, Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC (“Caddo Creek”), Camino Real Fuels, LLC (“Camino Real”), The Coteau Properties Company (“Coteau”), Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC (“Coyote Creek”), Demery Resources Company, LLC (“Demery”), The Falkirk Mining Company (“Falkirk”), Mississippi Lignite Mining Company (“MLMC”) and The Sabine Mining Company (“Sabine”). Liberty ceased all mining and delivery of lignite in 2017 and will commence mine reclamation in 2018.

Coteau, Coyote, Falkirk, MLMC and Sabine supply lignite coal for power generation. Bisti and Camino Real supply sub-bituminous coal for power generation. Caddo Creek and Demery supply lignite coal for the production of activated carbon. Each of these mines are mine-mouth operations that deliver their coal production to adjacent or nearby power plants, synfuels plants or activated carbon processing facilities under long-term supply contracts. With the exception of Camino Real, each mine is the exclusive supplier to its customers' facilities.

All of the operating coal mining subsidiaries other than MLMC are unconsolidated. The unconsolidated coal mining subsidiaries were formed to develop, construct and/or operate surface coal mines under long-term contracts and are capitalized primarily with debt financing provided by or supported by their respective customers, and without recourse to NACCO and NACoal.

The contracts with the customers of the unconsolidated subsidiaries eliminate exposure to spot coal market price fluctuations and are based on a "management fee" approach, whereby compensation includes reimbursement of all operating costs, plus a fee based on the amount of coal or limerock delivered. The fees earned adjust over time in line with various indices which reflect general U.S. inflation rates. 

MLMC is a consolidated entity because NACoal pays all operating costs and provides the capital for the mine. MLMC sells coal to its customer at a contractually agreed upon price which adjusts monthly, primarily based on changes in the level of established indices which reflect general U.S. inflation rates.  MLMC's customer, KMRC RH, LLC until April 30, 2016 and Choctaw Generation Limited Partnership, LLLP subsequent to April 30, 2016, accounted for approximately 60%, 69% and 57% of NACoal's revenues for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Centennial, which ceased coal production at the end of 2015, is also a consolidated entity.

NAM provides value-added services for independently owned limerock quarries and is reimbursed by its customers based on actual costs plus a management fee per unit of limerock delivered. The financial results for NAM are included in the consolidated mining operations or unconsolidated mining operations based on each entity's structure. NAM's largest customer, Cemex Construction Materials of Florida, LLC ("Cemex"), accounted for approximately 18% and 16% of NACoal's revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

NACoal also provides coal handling, processing and drying services for a number of customers. For example, NoDak Energy Services, LLC ("NoDak") operates and maintains a coal processing facility for a customer's power plant. North American Coal Royalty Company provides surface and mineral acquisition and lease maintenance services related to the Company's operations.

NACoal's total coal reserves approximate 1.9 billion tons (including the unconsolidated coal mining subsidiaries), with approximately 1.0 billion tons committed to customers pursuant to long-term contracts. At December 31, 2017, NACoal's operating mines consisted both of mines where the reserves were acquired (whether in fee or through leases) and developed by NACoal, as well as mines where reserves are owned or leased by the customers of the mines and developed by NACoal.

2


Sales, Marketing and Operations
The principal coal customers of NACoal are electric utilities, an independent power provider, producers of activated carbon and a synfuels plant. The total coal severed by mine (in millions of tons) for the three years ended December 31 and the weighted average prices per ton delivered for the three years ended December 31 are as follows:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Unconsolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
Coteau
14.7

 
14.1

 
14.3

Falkirk
7.2

 
7.2

 
8.0

Sabine
3.8

 
4.2

 
3.6

Bisti
3.7

 

 

Camino Real
2.4

 
1.8

 
0.6

Coyote Creek
2.1

 
1.6

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other
0.8

 
0.6

 
0.6

Consolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
Mississippi Lignite Mining Company
2.4

 
2.8

 
3.0

Centennial Natural Resources

 

 
0.4

Total tons severed
37.1

 
32.3

 
30.5

Price per ton delivered
$
22.89

 
$
22.14

 
$
23.63


The contracts under which certain of the unconsolidated subsidiaries operate provide that, under certain conditions, including default, the customer(s) involved may elect or be obligated to acquire the assets (subject to the liabilities) or the capital stock of the NACoal mining subsidiary for an amount effectively equal to book value. NACoal does not know of any conditions of default that currently exist.
Seasonality
NACoal has experienced limited variability in its results due to the effect of seasonality; however, variations in coal demand can occur as a result of the timing of planned or unplanned outage days at NACoal's customers' facilities. Variations in coal demand can also occur as a result of changes in market prices of competing fuels such as natural gas and wind power and demand for electricity, which can fluctuate based on changes in weather patterns.

3


The location, mine type, reserve data, coal quality characteristics, sales tonnage and contract expiration date for the mines operated by NACoal were as follows:

COAL MINING OPERATIONS ON AN “AS RECEIVED” BASIS
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proven and Probable Reserves (a)(b)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Committed
Under
Contract
 
Uncommitted
 
Total
 
Tons
Delivered
(Millions)
 
Owned
Reserves
(%)
 
Leased
Reserves
(%)
 
Total
Committed
and
Uncommitted
(Millions of
Tons)
 
Tons
Delivered
(Millions)
 
Contract
Expires
Mine/Reserve
Type of Mine
 
(Millions of Tons)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unconsolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Freedom Mine (c)-
The Coteau Properties Company
Surface Lignite
 
452.2

 

 
452.2

 
14.7

 
3
%
 
97
%
 
459.5

 
14.1

 
2022
(d)
Falkirk Mine (c)-
The Falkirk Mining Company
Surface Lignite
 
374.3

 

 
374.3

 
7.2

 
1
%
 
99
%
 
381.0

 
7.2

 
2045
 
South Hallsville No. 1 Mine (c)-
The Sabine Mining Company
Surface Lignite
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
3.6

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
4.2

 
2035
 
Five Forks Mine (c)-
Demery Resources Company, LLC
Surface Lignite
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.4

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.2

 
2030
 
Marshall Mine (c)-
Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC
Surface Lignite
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.2

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.2

 
2044
 
Eagle Pass Mine (c)-
Camino Real Fuels, LLC
Surface
Sub-bituminous
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
2.4

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
1.8

 
2018
 
Liberty Mine (c)(f)-
Liberty Fuels Company, LLC
Surface Lignite
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.4

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
0.3

 
2055
(f)
Coyote Creek Mine (c)-
Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC
Surface Lignite
 
74.9

 

 
74.9

 
2.2

 
0
%
 
100
%
 
77.3

 
1.5

 
2040
 
Navajo Mine (c)- Bisti Fuels Company
Surface
Sub-bituminous
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
3.7

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(g)

 
2031
 
Consolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Red Hills Mine-
Mississippi Lignite Mining Company
Surface Lignite
 
108.9

 
125.5

 
234.4

 
2.4

 
33
%
 
67
%
 
229.4

 
3.0

 
2032
 
Centennial Natural Resources
Surface Bituminous
 

 
51.4

 
51.4

 

 
30
%
 
70
%
 
57.7

 

 
(h)
 
Total Developed
 
 
1,010.3

 
176.9

 
1,187.2

 
37.2

 
 
 
 
 
1,204.9

 
32.5

 
 
 
Undeveloped Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.
 
 
 
North Dakota
 
 

 
243.7

 
243.7

 

 
 
 
100
%
 
243.7

 

 
 
 
Texas
 
 

 
222.5

 
222.5

 

 
 
 
100
%
 
222.5

 

 
 
 
Eastern (i)
 
 

 
15.3

 
15.3

 

 
 
 
100
%
 
28.7

 

 
 
 
Mississippi
 
 

 
187.8

 
187.8

 

 
 
 
100
%
 
187.8

 

 
 
 
Total Undeveloped
 
 

 
669.3

 
669.3

 

 
 
 
 
 
682.7

 

 
 
 
Total Developed/Undeveloped
 
 
1,010.3

 
846.2

 
1,856.5

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1,887.6

 
 
 
 
 


4


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Coal Quality (As received)
Mine/Reserve
 
Type of Mine
 
Coal Formation or
Coal Seam(s)
 
Average Seam
Thickness (feet)
 
Average
Depth (feet)
 
BTUs/lb
 
Sulfur
(%)
 
Ash
 (%)
 
Moisture (%)
Unconsolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Freedom Mine (c)-
The Coteau Properties Company
 
Surface Lignite
 
Beulah-Zap Seam
 
18

 
130

 
6,700

 
0.90
%
 
9
%
 
36
%
Falkirk Mine (c)-
The Falkirk Mining Company
 
Surface Lignite
 
Hagel A&B, Tavis
Creek Seams
 
8

 
90

 
6,200

 
0.62
%
 
11
%
 
38
%
South Hallsville No. 1 Mine (c)-
The Sabine Mining Company
 
Surface Lignite
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Five Forks Mine (c)-
Demery Resources Company, LLC
 
Surface Lignite
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Marshall Mine (c)-
Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC
 
Surface Lignite
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Eagle Pass Mine (c)-
Camino Real Fuels, LLC
 
Surface
Sub-bituminous
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Liberty Mine (c)(f)-
Liberty Fuels Company, LLC
 
Surface Lignite
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Coyote Creek Mine (c)-
Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC
 
Surface Lignite
 
Beulah-Zap Seam
 
10

 
95

 
6,900

 
0.98
%
 
8
%
 
36
%
Navajo Mine (c)- Bisti Fuels Company
 
Surface
Sub-bituminous
 
(e)
 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

 
(e)

Consolidated Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Red Hills Mine-
Mississippi Lignite Mining Company
 
Surface Lignite
 
C, D, E, F, G, H Seams
 
3.6

 
150

 
5,200

 
0.60
%
 
14
%
 
43
%
Centennial Natural Resources
 
Surface Bituminous
 
Black Creek, New Castle, Mary Lee, Jefferson, American, Nickel Plate, Pratt Seams
 
1.75

 
178

 
13,226

 
2.00
%
 
10
%
 
4
%
Undeveloped Mines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North Dakota
 

 
Fort Union Formation
 
13

 
130

 
6,500

 
0.8
%
 
8
%
 
38
%
Texas
 

 
Wilcox Formation
 
5

 
120

 
6,800

 
1.0
%
 
16
%
 
30
%
Eastern
 

 
Freeport & Kittanning Seams
 
4

 
400

 
12,070

 
3.3
%
 
12
%
 
3
%
Mississippi
 

 
Wilcox Formation
 
5

 
130

 
5,200

 
0.6
%
 
13
%
 
44
%

(a)
Committed and uncommitted tons represent in-place estimates. The projected extraction loss is approximately 10% of the proven and probable reserves, except with respect to the Eastern Undeveloped Mines, in which case the projected extraction loss is approximately 30% of the proven and probable reserves.
(b)
NACoal’s reserve estimates are generally based on the entire drill hole database for each reserve, which was used to develop a geologic computer model using a 200 foot grid and inverse distance to the second power as an interpolator for all of NACoal's reserves, except for the reserves of Centennial where a 50 foot grid was used. As such, all reserves are considered proven (measured) within NACoal’s reserve estimate. None of NACoal’s coal reserves have been reviewed by independent experts.
(c)
The contracts for these mines require the customer to cover the cost of the ongoing replacement and upkeep of the plant and equipment of the mine.
(d)
Although the term of the existing coal sales agreement terminates in 2022, the term may be extended for three additional periods of five years, or until 2037, at the option of Coteau.
(e)
The reserves are owned and controlled by the customer and, therefore, have not been listed in the table.
(f)
During the second quarter of 2017, operations at Liberty were suspended. On February 8, 2018, Mississippi Power instructed Liberty to permanently cease all mining and delivery of lignite and to commence mine reclamation.
(g)
The contract for operation of this mine was executed during 2015, and no sales occurred during 2016.
(h)
Centennial ceased active mining operations at the end of 2015.
(i)
The proven and probable reserves included in the table do not include coal that is leased to others. NACoal had 99.1 million tons and 100.0 million tons in 2017 and 2016, respectively, of Eastern Undeveloped Mines with leased coal committed under contract.

5


image0a23.jpg

6


Unconsolidated Mines
Freedom Mine — The Coteau Properties Company
The Freedom Mine generally produces between 13 million and 15 million tons of lignite coal annually. The mine started delivering coal in 1983. All production from the mine is delivered to Dakota Coal Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Basin Electric Power Cooperative. Dakota Coal Company then sells the coal to the Great Plains Synfuels Plant, Antelope Valley Station and Leland Olds Station, all of which are operated by affiliates of Basin Electric Power Cooperative.
The Freedom Mine, operated by Coteau, is located approximately 90 miles northwest of Bismarck, North Dakota. The main entrance to the Freedom Mine is accessed by means of a paved road and is located on County Road 15. Coteau holds 270 leases granting the right to mine approximately 32,625 acres of coal interests and the right to utilize approximately 22,993 acres of surface interests. In addition, Coteau owns in fee 32,441 acres of surface interests and 4,107 acres of coal interests. Substantially all of the leases held by Coteau were acquired in the early 1970s and have been replaced with new leases or have lease terms for a period sufficient to meet Coteau’s contractual production requirements.
The reserves are located in Mercer County, North Dakota, starting approximately two miles north of Beulah, North Dakota. The center of the basin is located near the city of Williston, North Dakota, approximately 100 miles northwest of the Freedom Mine. The economically mineable coal in the reserve occurs in the Sentinel Butte Formation, and is overlain by the Coleharbor Formation. The Coleharbor Formation unconformably overlies the Sentinel Butte Formation. It includes all of the unconsolidated sediments resulting from deposition during glacial and interglacial periods. Lithologic types include gravel, sand, silt, clay and till. The modified glacial channels are in-filled with gravels, sands, silts and clays overlain by till. The coarser gravel and sand beds are generally limited to near the bottom of the channel fill. The general stratigraphic sequence in the upland portions of the reserve area consists of till, silty sands and clayey silts.
Falkirk Mine — The Falkirk Mining Company
The Falkirk Mine generally produces between 7 million and 8 million tons of lignite coal annually primarily for the Coal Creek Station, an electric power generating station owned by Great River Energy. The mine started delivering coal in 1978. Commencing in the second half of 2014, Falkirk began delivering coal to Spiritwood Station, another electric power generating station owned by Great River Energy. Annual deliveries to Spiritwood Station have averaged between 300,000 and 500,000 tons.
The Falkirk Mine, operated by Falkirk, is located approximately 50 miles north of Bismarck, North Dakota on a paved access road off U.S. Highway 83. Falkirk holds 293 leases granting the right to mine approximately 44,603 acres of coal interests and the right to utilize approximately 24,471 acres of surface interests. In addition, Falkirk owns in fee 40,975 acres of surface interests and 1,270 acres of coal interests. Substantially all of the leases held by Falkirk were acquired in the early 1970s with initial terms that have been further extended by the continuation of mining operations.
The reserves are located in McLean County, North Dakota, from approximately nine miles northwest of the town of Washburn, North Dakota to four miles north of the town of Underwood, North Dakota. Structurally, the area is located on an intercratonic basin containing a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks. The economically mineable coals in the reserve occur in the Sentinel Butte Formation and the Bullion Creek Formation and are unconformably overlain by the Coleharbor Formation. The Sentinel Butte Formation conformably overlies the Bullion Creek Formation. The general stratigraphic sequence in the upland portions of the reserve area (Sentinel Butte Formation) consists of till, silty sands and clayey silts, main hagel lignite bed, silty clay, lower lignite of the hagel lignite interval and silty clays. Beneath the Tavis Creek, there is a repeating sequence of silty to sand clays with generally thin lignite beds.
South Hallsville No. 1 Mine — The Sabine Mining Company
The South Hallsville No. 1 Mine generally produces between 3 million and 5 million tons of lignite coal annually when Southwestern Electric Power Company’s Henry W. Pirkey Plant is operating at anticipated levels. The mine started delivering coal in 1985.
The South Hallsville No. 1 Mine, operated by Sabine, is located approximately 150 miles east of Dallas, Texas on FM 968. The entrance to the mine is by means of a paved road. Sabine has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at the South Hallsville No. 1 Mine. Southwestern Electric Power Company controls all of the reserves within the South Hallsville No. 1 Mine.
Five Forks Mine — Demery Resources Company, LLC
The Five Forks Mine, operated by Demery, is located approximately three miles north of Creston, Louisiana on State Highway 153. Access to the Five Forks Mine is by means of a paved road. Demery commenced delivering coal to its customer in 2012.

7


Demery has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at the Five Forks Mine. Demery's customer, Five Forks Mining, LLC, controls all of the reserves within the Five Forks Mine.
Marshall Mine — Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC
The Marshall Mine, operated by Caddo Creek, commenced production in late 2014 and is located approximately ten miles south of Marshall, Texas on FM-1186. Access to the Marshall Mine is by means of a paved road. Caddo Creek has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at the Marshall Mine. Marshall Mine, LLC controls all of the reserves within the Marshall Mine.
Eagle Pass Mine — Camino Real Fuels, LLC

The Eagle Pass Mine, operated by Camino Real, began delivering coal in 2015 to Camino Real's customer, Dos Republicas Coal Partnership. The Eagle Pass Mine produces between 1 million and 3 million tons of sub-bituminous coal annually.

Eagle Pass Mine is located approximately six miles north of Eagle Pass, Texas on State Highway 1588. Access to the Eagle Pass Mine is by means of a paved road. Camino Real has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at the Eagle Pass Mine. Dos Republicas Coal Partnership controls all of the reserves within the Eagle Pass Mine.
Liberty Mine — Liberty Fuels Company, LLC

On June 28, 2017, Southern Company and its subsidiary, Mississippi Power, suspended operations involving the coal gasifier portion of the Kemper County energy facility. Liberty was the sole supplier of coal to fuel the gasifier under its contract with Mississippi Power. On February 8, 2018, Mississippi Power instructed Liberty to permanently cease all mining and delivery of lignite and to commence mine reclamation. The terms of the contract specify that Mississippi Power is responsible for all mine closure costs. Under the contract, Liberty is specified as the contractor to complete final mine closure and will receive compensation for these services.

The Liberty Mine is located approximately 20 miles north of Meridian, Mississippi off State Highway 493. Liberty has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at the Liberty Mine. Mississippi Power Company controls all of the reserves within the Liberty Mine.
Coyote Creek Mine - Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC

In the second quarter of 2016, the Coyote Creek Mine began delivering coal to the Coyote Station owned by Otter Tail Power Company, Northern Municipal Power Agency, Montana-Dakota Utilities Company and Northwestern Corporation. The Coyote Creek Mine generally produces approximately 2.0 million to 2.5 million tons of lignite coal annually when Coyote Station is operating at anticipated levels.

The Coyote Creek Mine is located approximately 70 miles northwest of Bismarck, North Dakota. The main entrance to the Coyote Creek Mine is accessed by means of a four-mile paved road extending west off of State Highway 49. Coyote Creek holds a sublease to 85 leases granting the right to mine approximately 7,809 acres of coal interests and the right to utilize approximately 15,168 acres of surface interests. In addition, Coyote Creek Mine owns in fee 160 acres of surface interests and has four easements to conduct coal mining operations on approximately 352 acres.

The reserves are located in Mercer County, North Dakota, starting approximately six miles southwest of Beulah, North Dakota. The center of the basin is located near the city of Williston, North Dakota, approximately 110 miles northwest of the Coyote Creek Mine. The economically mineable coal in the reserve occurs in the Sentinel Butte Formation, and is overlain by the Coleharbor Formation. The Coleharbor Formation unconformably overlies the Sentinel Butte Formation. It includes all of the unconsolidated sediments resulting from deposition during glacial and interglacial periods. Lithologic types include gravel, sand silt, clay and till. The modified glacial channels are in-filled with gravels, sands, silts and clays overlain by till. The coarser gravel and sand beds are generally limited to near the bottom of the channel fill. The general stratigraphic sequence in the upland portions of the reserve area consists of till, silty sands and clayey silts.
Navajo Mine - Bisti Fuels Company, LLC

In January 2017, Bisti became the contract miner at Navajo Transitional Energy Company's existing mine and anticipates making annual coal deliveries of between 5.0 million to 6.0 million tons when the Four Corners Generating Station is operating at anticipated levels.

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The Navajo Mine, operated by Bisti, is located approximately 25 miles southwest of Farmington, New Mexico, off Indian Service Road 3005, and is on the Navajo Nation. Access to the Navajo Mine is by means of a paved road. Bisti has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at Navajo Mine. The Navajo Nation controls all of the reserves within the Navajo Mine.
Consolidated Mines
Red Hills Mine — Mississippi Lignite Mining Company
The Red Hills Mine started delivering coal in 2000. The Red Hills Mine generally produces approximately 2.5 million to 4 million tons of lignite coal annually when its customer's Red Hills Power Plant is operating at anticipated levels.
The Red Hills Mine, operated by MLMC, is located approximately 120 miles northeast of Jackson, Mississippi. The entrance to the mine is by means of a paved road located approximately one mile west of Highway 9. MLMC owns in fee approximately 6,067 acres of surface interest and 3,546 acres of coal interests. MLMC holds leases granting the right to mine approximately 6,765 acres of coal interests and the right to utilize approximately 6,208 acres of surface interests. MLMC holds subleases under which it has the right to mine approximately 1,054 acres of coal interests. The majority of the leases held by MLMC were originally acquired during the mid-1970s to the early 1980s with terms extending 50 years, many of which can be further extended by the continuation of mining operations.
The lignite deposits of the Gulf Coast are found primarily in a narrow band of strata that outcrops/subcrops along the margin of the Mississippi Embayment. The potentially exploitable tertiary lignites in Mississippi are found in the Wilcox Group. The outcropping Wilcox is composed predominately of non-marine sediments deposited on a broad flat plain.
Centennial Natural Resources
Centennial ceased active mining operations at the end of 2015. Centennial's mines are located about 12 miles east and southeast of the city of Jasper in Walker County, Alabama, about 20 miles southeast of the city of Jasper in Jefferson County, Alabama, and about 15 miles northwest of the City of Jasper in Winston County, Alabama. The main entrances to the Walker County, Alabama mines are accessed by means of a half-mile graveled road extending south off Sipsey Road and a half-mile graveled road extending west off Cordova Gorgas Road. The main entrance to the Jefferson County, Alabama mine is accessed by means of a three-mile paved section of Porter Road extending south off Snowville - Brent Road. The main entrance to the Winston County, Alabama mine is accessed by means of a quarter-mile gravel road extending west off County Road 21. The reserves within the Centennial mines are controlled by Centennial.
Centennial and its affiliate, North American Coal Royalty Company, own in fee approximately 5,648 acres of coal interests and approximately 2,331 acres of surface interests in Alabama. Centennial holds leases in Alabama granting the right to mine approximately 8,228 acres of coal interests and the right to utilize approximately 10,365 acres of surface interests. The majority of the leases held by Centennial were originally acquired between 2000 and 2012 with terms that can be extended by the continuation of mining and reclamation.
Structurally, the reserves for the Centennial mines are located within the Black Warrior Coal Basin. The strata that underlies and outcrops in this region is of the Pottsville Formation of the Pennsylvanian Age. The Black Warrior Basin is the southernmost of a series of Pennsylvanian basins of the Appalachian Plateau. The Pottsville Formation in this area consists of thin to thick bedded sandstones, siltstones, shales, clays and coal seams. This sequence of clastic sediments is representative of a deltaic depositional environment. Structurally, the Black Warrior Basin is formed by a large gentle syncline that extends from north-central Mississippi in the west to north-central Alabama in the east. The syncline is tilted southwestward with a regional dip of 30 to 200 feet per mile. Toward the interior of the Black Warrior Basin, the regional southwest dip of Pottsville strata is modified by a series of three synclines and two anticlines. Of these, the major structural areas are the Warrior and Coalburg synclines, and the Sequatchie anticline. The fold axes are parallel to the Appalachian system in a northeast-southwest direction and plunge to the southwest with the regional dip.


9


North American Mining Operations
NAM maintains and operates draglines to mine limerock at the following quarries in Florida pursuant to mining services agreements with the quarry owners:
Quarry Name
Location
Quarry Owner
Year NACoal Started Dragline Operations
White Rock Quarry — North
Miami
WRQ
1995
Krome Quarry
Miami
Cemex
2003
Alico Quarry
Ft. Myers
Cemex
2004
FEC Quarry
Miami
Cemex
2005
White Rock Quarry — South
Miami
WRQ
2005
SCL Quarry
Miami
Cemex
2006
Central State Aggregates Quarry
Zephyrhills
McDonald Group
2016
Mid Coast Aggregates Quarry
Sumter County
McDonald Group
2016
West Florida Aggregates Quarry
Hernando County
McDonald Group
2016
St. Catherine Quarry
Sumter County
Cemex
2016
Center Hill Quarry
Sumter County
Cemex
2016
Inglis Quarry
Crystal River
Cemex
2016
Titan Corkscrew Quarry
Ft. Myers
Titan America
2017
Palm Beach Aggregates Quarry
Loxahatchee
Palm Beach Aggregates
2017

White Rock Quarries ("WRQ"), Cemex, McDonald Group, Titan America and Palm Beach Aggregates control all of the limerock reserves within their respective quarries.
Access to the White Rock Quarry is by means of a paved road from 122nd Avenue and access to the Krome Quarry is by means of a paved road from Krome Avenue. Access to the FEC Quarry is by means of a paved road from NW 118th Avenue and access to the Alico Quarry is by means of a paved road from Alico Road. Access to the SCL Quarry is by means of a paved road from NW 137th Avenue.
Access to the Central State Aggregates Quarry is by means of a paved road from Yonkers Boulevard and access to the Mid Coast Aggregates Quarry is by means of a paved road from State Road 50. Access to the West Florida Quarry is by means of a paved road from Cortez Boulevard and access to the St. Catherine Quarry is by means of a paved road from County Road 673. Access to the Center Hill Quarry is by means of a paved road from West Kings Highway and access to the Inglis Quarry is by means of a paved road from Highway 19 South.
Access to the Corkscrew Quarry is by means of a paved road from Corkscrew Road.
Access to the Palm Beach Aggregates Quarry is by means of a paved road from State Road 80.
NAM has no title, claim, lease or option to acquire any of the reserves at any of the limerock quarries where it provides mining services.
North American Coal Royalty Company
No operating mines currently exist on the undeveloped reserves in Alabama, Mississippi, North Dakota, Ohio and Texas. North American Coal Royalty Company receives certain royalty payments from third parties for production or advance royalty payments for oil and gas, primarily in Louisiana and Ohio, as well as for coal reserves located in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Texas.

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General Information about the Mines
Leases. The leases held by Coteau, Coyote Creek, Falkirk and MLMC have a variety of continuation provisions, but generally permit the leases to be continued beyond their fixed terms. Centennial holds the mining rights to the reserves within its mines through fee ownership, and leases and licenses from the coal and surface owners. NACoal expects coal will be available to meet customers' future production requirements utilizing land and reserves that are currently owned or leased or accessible through ownership acquisition or new leases.
Previous Operators. There were no previous operators of the Freedom Mine, Falkirk Mine, South Hallsville No. 1 Mine, Five Forks Mine, Marshall Mine, Eagle Pass Mine, Liberty Mine, Coyote Creek Mine or Red Hills Mine. In January 2017, Bisti became the operator of NTEC's Navajo Mine, which was previously operated by a third party.
Exploration and Development. All mines are well past the exploration stage. With the exceptions of Centennial, which ceased production at the end of 2015, and Liberty, which ceased all mining and delivery of lignite in 2017 and will commence mine reclamation in 2018, additional pit development is under way at each mine. Drilling programs are routinely conducted for the purpose of refining guidance related to ongoing operations. For example, at the Red Hills Mine, the lignite coal reserve has been defined by a drilling program that is designed to provide 500-foot spaced drill holes for areas anticipated to be mined within six years of the current pit. Drilling beyond the six-year horizon ranges from 1,000 to 2,000-foot centers. Drilling is conducted annually to stay current with the advance of mining operations. Geological evaluation is in process at all operating locations.
Facilities and Equipment. The facilities and equipment for each of the mines are maintained to allow for safe and efficient operation. The equipment is well maintained, in good physical condition and is either updated or replaced periodically with newer models or upgrades available to keep up with modern technology. As equipment wears out, the mines evaluate what
replacement option will be the most cost-efficient, including the evaluation of both new and used equipment, and proceed with that replacement. The majority of electrical power for the draglines, shovels, coal crushers, coal conveyors and facilities generally is provided by the power generation customer for the applicable mine. Electrical power for the Sabine facilities is provided by Upshur Rural Electric Co-op. Electrical power for the Sabine draglines is provided by Southwestern Electric Power Company. Electrical power for the MLMC draglines and shovels is provided by 4-County Electric Power Association. The remainder of the equipment generally is powered by diesel fuel or gasoline.

The total cost of the property, plant and equipment, net of applicable accumulated amortization, depreciation and impairment as of December 31, 2017 is set forth in the chart below:
Mine
 
Total Historical Cost of Mine
Property, Plant and Equipment
(excluding Coal Land, Real Estate
and Construction in Progress), Net of
Applicable Accumulated
Amortization, Depreciation and Impairment
 
 
(in millions)
Unconsolidated Mining Operations
 
 
Freedom Mine — The Coteau Properties Company
 
$
198.2

Falkirk Mine — The Falkirk Mining Company
 
$
78.0

South Hallsville No. 1 Mine — The Sabine Mining Company
 
$
147.3

Five Forks Mine — Demery Resources Company, LLC
 
$

Marshall Mine — Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC
 
$

Eagle Pass Mine — Camino Real Fuels, LLC
 
$

Liberty Mine — Liberty Fuels Company, LLC
 
$

Coyote Creek Mine — Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC
 
$
168.1

Navajo Mine — Bisti Fuels Company, LLC
 
$

North American Mining Operations
 
$

Consolidated Mining Operations
 
 
Red Hills Mine — Mississippi Lignite Mining Company
 
$
56.5

Centennial
 
$

North American Mining Operations
 
$
7.1



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Predominantly all of Bisti, Caddo Creek, Camino Real, Demery and Liberty's machinery and equipment is owned by NACoal’s customers. A substantial portion of MLMC’s machinery, trucks and equipment is rented under operating leases.

Government Regulation
NACoal’s operations are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations on matters such as employee health and safety, and certain environmental laws relating to, among other matters, the reclamation and restoration of properties after mining operations, air pollution, water pollution, the disposal of wastes and effects on groundwater. In addition, the electric power generation industry is subject to extensive regulation regarding the environmental impact of its power generation activities that could affect demand for coal from NACoal’s coal mining operations.
Numerous governmental permits and approvals are required for coal mining operations. NACoal or one of its subsidiaries holds or will hold the necessary permits at all of NACoal’s coal mining operations except at Demery, Caddo Creek, Bisti and Camino Real, where NACoal’s customers hold the respective permits. At NACoal’s operations in Alabama, Centennial holds all of the necessary permits except at two locations, where the permits are held by the coal reserve owner and another mining company.  The Company believes, based upon present information provided to it by these third-party mine permit holders, that these third parties have all permits necessary for NACoal to operate Centennial, Caddo Creek, Demery, Bisti and Camino Real; however, the Company cannot be certain that these third parties will be able to maintain all such permits in the future.
At the coal mining operations where NACoal holds the permits, NACoal is required to prepare and present to federal, state or local governmental authorities data pertaining to the effect or impact that any proposed exploration for or production of coal may have upon the environment and public and employee health and safety.
The limerock quarries where NACoal provides services are owned and operated by NACoal’s customers.
Some laws, as discussed below, place many requirements on NACoal’s coal mining operations and the limerock quarries where NACoal provides services. Federal and state regulations require regular monitoring of NACoal’s operations to ensure compliance.
Mine Health and Safety Laws
The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 imposes safety and health standards on all mining operations. Regulations are comprehensive and affect numerous aspects of mining operations, including training of mine personnel, mining procedures, blasting, the equipment used in mining operations and other matters. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration enforces compliance with these federal laws and regulations.
Environmental Laws
NACoal’s coal mining operations are subject to various federal environmental laws, as amended, including:
the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (“SMCRA”);
the Clean Air Act, including amendments to that act in 1990 (“CAA”);
the Clean Water Act of 1972 (“CWA”);
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA"); and
the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA").
In addition to these federal environmental laws, various states have enacted environmental laws that provide for higher levels of environmental compliance than similar federal laws. These state environmental laws require reporting, permitting and/or approval of many aspects of coal mining operations. Both federal and state inspectors regularly visit mines to enforce compliance. NACoal has ongoing training, compliance and permitting programs to ensure compliance with such environmental laws.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
SMCRA establishes mining, environmental protection and reclamation standards for all aspects of surface coal mining operations. Where state regulatory agencies have adopted federal mining programs under SMCRA, the state becomes the primary regulatory authority. With the exception of the Navajo Nation in New Mexico, which is directly regulated by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement ("OSM") under their Indian Lands Program, all of the states where NACoal has active coal mining operations have achieved primary control of enforcement through federal authorization under SMCRA.
Coal mine operators must obtain SMCRA permits and permit renewals for coal mining operations from the applicable regulatory agency. These SMCRA permit provisions include requirements for coal prospecting, mine plan development, topsoil

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removal, storage and replacement, selective handling of overburden materials, mine pit backfilling and grading, protection of the hydrologic balance, surface drainage control, mine drainage and mine discharge control and treatment, and revegetation.
Although NACoal’s permits have stated expiration dates, SMCRA provides for a right of successive renewal. The cost of obtaining surface mining permits can vary widely depending on the quantity and type of information that must be provided to obtain the permits; however, the cost of obtaining a permit is usually between $1,000,000 and $5,000,000, and the cost of obtaining a permit renewal is usually between $15,000 and $100,000.
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund, which is provided for by SMCRA, imposes a fee on certain coal mining operations. The proceeds are used principally to reclaim mine lands closed prior to 1977. In addition, the Abandoned Mine Land Fund also makes transfers annually to the United Mine Workers of America Combined Benefit Fund (the “Fund”), which provides health care benefits to retired coal miners who are beneficiaries of the Fund. The fee is currently $0.08 per ton on lignite coal produced and $0.28 per ton on other surface-mined coal.
SMCRA establishes operational, reclamation and closure standards for surface coal mines. The Company accrues for the costs of current mine disturbance and final mine closure, including the cost of treating mine water discharges, at mines where NACoal subsidiaries hold the mining permit. These obligations are unfunded with the exception of the final mine closure costs for the Coyote Creek Mine, which are being funded throughout the production stage.
SMCRA stipulates compliance with many other major environmental programs, including the CAA and CWA. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regulates activities affecting navigable waters, and the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulates the use of explosives for blasting. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the OSM are engaged in a series of rulemakings and other administrative actions under the CWA and other statutes that are directed at reducing the impact of coal mining operations on water bodies.
The Company does not believe there is any significant risk to NACoal’s ability to maintain its existing mining permits or its ability to acquire future mining permits for its mines.
Clean Air Act and Clean Power Plan ("CPP")

The process of burning coal can cause many compounds and impurities in the coal to be released into the air, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, particulates and other matter. The CAA and the corresponding state laws that extensively regulate the emissions of materials into the air affect coal mining operations both directly and indirectly. Direct impacts on coal mining operations occur through CAA permitting requirements and/or emission control requirements relating to air contaminants, especially particulate matter. Indirect impacts on coal mining operations occur through regulation of the air emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, particulate matter and other compounds emitted by coal-fired power plants. The EPA has promulgated or proposed regulations that impose tighter emission restrictions in a number of areas, some of which are currently subject to litigation. The general effect of tighter restrictions is to reduce demand for coal. Ongoing reduction in coal’s share of the capacity for power generation could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

States are required to submit to the EPA revisions to their state implementation plans ("SIPs") that demonstrate the manner in which the states will attain national ambient air quality standards ("NAAQS") every time a NAAQS is issued or revised by the EPA. The EPA has adopted NAAQS for several pollutants, which continue to be reviewed periodically for revisions. When the EPA adopts new, more stringent NAAQS for a pollutant, some states have to change their existing SIPs. If a state fails to revise its SIP and obtain EPA approval, the EPA may adopt regulations to effect the revision. Coal mining operations and coal-fired power plants that emit particulate matter or other specified material are, therefore, affected by changes in the SIPs. Through this process over the last few years, the EPA has reduced the NAAQS for particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. NACoal’s coal mining operations and power generation customers may be directly affected when the revisions to the SIPs are made and incorporate new NAAQS for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter. In response to a court remand of earlier rules to control the regional dispersion of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from coal-fired power plants and their impacts of downwind NAAQS areas, in mid-2011, the EPA finalized the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule ("CSAPR") to address interstate transport of pollutants. This affects states in the eastern half of the U.S. and Texas. This rule imposes additional emission restrictions on coal-fired power plants to attain ozone and fine particulate NAAQS. The EPA subsequently appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overturned the lower court ruling on April 29, 2014. The EPA began implementation of the rule January 1, 2015, when Phase I emission reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide became effective. Phase II reductions became effective on January 1, 2017. On October 26, 2016, the EPA finalized an update to the CSAPR, which included additional reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions. Some questions regarding the rule remain unresolved and additional litigation is pending.


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The CAA Acid Rain Control Provisions were promulgated as part of the CAA Amendments of 1990 in Title IV of the CAA (“Acid Rain Program”). The Acid Rain Program required reductions of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Acid Rain Program is now a mature program, and the Company believes that any market impacts of the required controls have likely been factored into the coal market.

The EPA promulgated a regional haze program designed to protect and to improve visibility at and around Class I Areas, which are generally National Parks, National Wilderness Areas and International Parks. This program may restrict the construction of new coal-fired power plants, the operation of which may impair visibility at and around the Class I Areas. Additionally, the program requires certain existing coal-fired power plants to install additional control measures designed to limit haze-causing emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter. States were required to submit Regional Haze SIPs to the EPA by December 2007; however, many states did not meet that deadline. Most litigation between the EPA and the States to resolve questions regarding the stringency and timing of SIPS has been resolved or is in abeyance while negotiations continue.

Under the CAA, new and modified sources of air pollution must meet certain new source standards (the “New Source Review Program”). In the late 1990s, the EPA filed lawsuits against owners of many coal-fired power plants in the eastern U.S. alleging that the owners performed non-routine maintenance, causing increased emissions that should have triggered the application of these new source standards. Some of these lawsuits have been settled with the owners agreeing to install additional emission control devices in their coal-fired power plants. The remaining litigation and the uncertainty around the New Source Review Program rules could adversely impact demand for coal. Any additional new controls may have an adverse impact on the demand for coal, which may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

Under the CAA, the EPA also adopts national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. In December 2011, the EPA adopted a final rule called the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (“MATS”), which applies to new and existing coal-fired and oil-fired units. This rule requires mercury emission reductions in fine particulates, which are being regulated as a surrogate for certain metals.

NACoal’s power generation customers must incur substantial costs to control emissions to meet all of the CAA requirements, including the requirements under MATS and the EPA's regional haze program. These costs raise the price of coal-generated electricity, making coal-fired power less competitive with other sources of electricity, thereby reducing demand for coal. In addition, NACoal's power generation customers may choose to close coal-fired generation units or to postpone or cancel plans to add new capacity, in light of these costs and the limited time available for compliance with the requirements and the prospects of the imposition of additional future requirements on emissions from coal-fired units. If NACoal's customers cannot offset the cost to control certain regulated pollutant emissions by lowering costs or if NACoal's customers elect to close coal-fired units, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Global climate change continues to attract considerable public and scientific attention and a considerable amount of legislative and regulatory attention in the United States. The U.S. Congress has considered climate change legislation that would reduce greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions, particularly from coal combustion by power plants. Enactment of laws and passage of regulations regarding GHG emissions by the U.S. or additional states, or other actions to limit carbon dioxide emissions, such as opposition by environmental groups to expansion or modification of coal-fired power plants, could result in electric generators switching from coal to other fuel sources.

The U.S. Congress continues to consider a variety of proposals to reduce GHG emissions from the combustion of coal and other fuels. These proposals include emission taxes, emission reductions, including “cap-and-trade” programs, and mandates or incentives to generate electricity by using renewable resources, such as wind or solar power. Some states have established programs to reduce GHG emissions. Further, governmental agencies have been providing grants or other financial incentives to entities developing or selling alternative energy sources with lower levels of GHG emissions, which may lead to more competition from those entities.

The EPA has begun to establish a GHG regulation program under the CAA by issuing a finding that the emission of six GHGs, including carbon dioxide and methane, may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare. Based on this finding, the EPA published a New Source Performance Standard for greenhouse gases, emitted from future new power plants. On June 2, 2014, the EPA proposed new regulations limiting carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants. On June 18, 2014, the EPA also issued a proposed carbon dioxide emission regulation for reconstructed and modified power plants, which addresses carbon dioxide emissions limits for power plants subsequent to modification. On August 3, 2015, President Obama and the EPA announced the CPP, which includes final emission guidelines for states to follow in developing plans to reduce GHG emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired electric generating units ("EGUs") as well as limits on GHG emission rates for new, modified and reconstructed EGUs. Under the CPP, nationwide carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 32% from

14


2005 levels by 2030 with emissions reductions scheduled to be phased in between 2022 and 2030. On February 9, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted a stay of the CPP pending resolution of litigation challenging the CPP. Multiple state and industry participants commenced a challenge of the CPP in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in 2015. On October 16, 2017, the EPA published its proposal to repeal the CPP in the Federal Register, opening a 60-day window for public comment. The EPA’s request has been opposed by intervenors supporting the CPP who, in an October 17, 2017 filing, asked the D.C. Circuit to rule on the case or, alternatively, to limit the abeyance’s duration.

The U.S. has not implemented the 1992 Framework Convention on Global Climate Change (“Kyoto Protocol”), which became effective for many countries on February 16, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol was intended to limit or reduce emissions of GHGs. The U.S. has not ratified the emission targets of the Kyoto Protocol or any other GHG agreement. Though the U.S. has not accepted these international GHG limiting treaties, numerous lawsuits and regulatory actions have been undertaken by states and environmental groups to try to force controls on the emission of carbon dioxide; or to prevent the construction of new coal-fired power plants. In 2014, President Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping jointly announced each nation's intentions to limit GHG emissions. These were non-binding statements of intent. As a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, on December 12, 2015, international negotiators finalized the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“Paris Agreement”). Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement has no binding GHG reduction mandates on signatories. Participating countries only submit a description of their intended GHG reductions, and provide periodic progress updates, with no penalties for not meeting their self-imposed targets. The Paris Agreement also includes language stating that developed countries will provide financial assistance to help developing countries meet their GHG targets and adapt to climate change, but there are no mandated contributions. President Obama signed this as a sole executive agreement on September 3, 2016. On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced that the United States will withdraw from the non-binding Paris Agreement and begin renegotiation of its terms. The renegotiation and implementation of the Paris Agreement, or other international agreements, the regulations promulgated to date by the EPA with respect to GHG emissions or the adoption of new legislation or regulations to control GHG emissions, could have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Significant public opposition has also been raised with respect to the proposed construction of certain new coal-fueled EGUs due to the potential for increased air emissions. Such opposition, as well as any corporate or investor policies against coal-fired EGUs or requiring disclosures related to global climate change, could also reduce the demand for NACoal’s coal or marketability of NACCO stock. Further, policies limiting available financing for the development of new coal-fueled EGUs or coal mines or the retrofitting of existing EGUs could adversely impact the global demand for coal in the future. The potential impact on NACoal of future laws, regulations or other policies or circumstances will depend upon the degree to which any such laws, regulations or other policies or circumstances force electricity generators to diminish their reliance on coal as a fuel source. In view of the significant uncertainty surrounding each of these factors, it is not possible for us to predict reasonably the impact that any such laws, regulations or other policies may have on NACoal’s business, financial condition and results of operations. However, such impacts could have a material adverse effect on NACoal’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company believes NACoal has obtained all necessary permits under the CAA at all of its coal mining operations where it is responsible for permitting and is in compliance with such permits.
Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act ("CWA") affects coal mining operations by establishing in-stream water quality standards and treatment standards for waste water discharge. Permits requiring regular monitoring, reporting and performance standards govern the discharge of pollutants into water.

Federal and state regulations establish standards that prohibit the diminution of water quality. Waters discharged from coal mines are required to meet these standards. These federal and state requirements could require more costly water treatment and could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company believes NACoal has obtained all permits required under the CWA and corresponding state laws and is in compliance with such permits. In many instances, mining operations require securing CWA authorization or a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for operations in waters of the United States.

Bellaire Corporation, a wholly owned non-operating subsidiary of the Company (“Bellaire”), is treating mine water drainage from coal refuse piles associated with two former underground coal mines in Ohio and one former underground coal mine in Pennsylvania, and is treating mine water from a former underground coal mine in Pennsylvania. Bellaire anticipates that it will

15


need to continue these activities indefinitely and has accrued a liability of $16.4 million as of December 31, 2017 related to these treatment operations.

Bellaire was notified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection ("DEP") during 2004 that in order to obtain renewal of a permit, Bellaire would be required to establish a mine water treatment trust (the "Trust"). Prior to 2014, Bellaire funded the Trust with $5.0 million. See Note 7 and Note 9 for further information on the Trust.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA") affects coal mining operations by establishing requirements for the treatment, storage and disposal of wastes, including hazardous wastes. Coal mine wastes, such as overburden and coal cleaning wastes, currently are exempted from hazardous waste management. In December 2014, the EPA finalized a rule specifying management standards for coal combustion residuals or coal ash ("CCRs") as a non-hazardous waste. These standards may raise the cost for CCR disposal at coal-fired power plants, making them less competitive, and may have an adverse impact on demand for coal.
The EPA rule exempts CCRs disposed of at mine sites and reserves any regulation thereof to the OSM. The OSM recently suspended all rulemaking actions on CCRs, but could re-initiate them in the future. The outcome of these rulemakings, and any subsequent actions by EPA and OSM, could impact those NACoal operations that beneficially use CCRs. If NACoal were unable to beneficially use CCRs, its revenues for disposing of CCRs from its customers may decrease and its costs may increase due to the purchase of alternative materials for beneficial uses.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA") and similar state laws create liabilities for the investigation and remediation of releases of hazardous substances into the environment and for damages to natural resources. The Company must also comply with reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act.
From time to time, the Company has been the subject of administrative proceedings, litigation and investigations relating to environmental matters.
The extent of the liability and the cost of complying with environmental laws cannot be predicted with certainty due to many factors, including the lack of specific information available with respect to many sites, the potential for new or changed laws and regulations, the development of new remediation technologies and the uncertainty regarding the timing of work with respect to particular sites. As a result, the Company may incur material liabilities or costs related to environmental matters in the future, and such environmental liabilities or costs could materially and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. In addition, there can be no assurance that changes in laws or regulations would not affect the manner in which NACoal is required to conduct its operations.

Competition
The coal industry competes with other sources of energy, particularly oil, gas, hydro-electric power and nuclear power. In addition, it competes with subsidized sources of energy, primarily wind and solar. Among the factors that affect competition are the price and availability of oil and natural gas, environmental and related political considerations, the time and expenditures required to develop new energy sources, the cost of transportation, the cost of compliance with governmental regulations, the impact of federal and state energy policies and the impact of subsidies on renewable pricing. The ability of NACoal to maintain comparable levels of coal production at existing facilities and to market and develop its reserves will depend upon the interaction of these factors.
Based on industry information, NACoal believes it was one of the ten largest coal producers in the U.S. in 2017 based on total coal tons produced.
Employees
As of December 31, 2017, NACoal had approximately 2,300 employees, including approximately 1,900 employees at the unconsolidated mining operations of which 223 are represented by unions at Bisti. NACoal believes its current labor relations with both union and non-union employees are satisfactory.


16


Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
Termination of or default under long-term mining contracts could materially reduce the Company's profitability.
Substantially all of NACoal's profits are derived from long-term mining contracts. The contracts for certain of NACoal's unconsolidated mines permit or obligate the customer under some conditions to acquire the assets or stock of the NACoal subsidiary for an amount roughly equal to book value. If any of NACoal's long-term mining contracts were terminated or if any of its customers were to default under material contracts, profitability could be materially reduced to the extent that NACoal is unable to find alternative customers at the same level of profitability.
The loss of, or significant reduction in, purchases by our largest coal customers or the failure of any of our customers to buy and pay for coal they have committed to purchase could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, NACoal derived over 70% of consolidated revenue from two customers and over 50% of earnings of unconsolidated mines from two customers. There are inherent risks whenever a significant percentage of total revenues are concentrated with a limited number of customers. Revenues from NACoal's largest customers may fluctuate from time to time based on numerous factors, including market conditions, which may be outside of NACoal's control. If any of NACoal's largest customers experience declining revenues due to market, economic or competitive conditions, it could have an adverse effect on the Company's margins, profitability, cash flows and financial position. In addition, if any customers were to significantly reduce their purchases of coal from us, including by failing to buy and pay for coal they have committed to purchase in sales contracts, NACoal's business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. During 2017, NACoal's unconsolidated Liberty Mine was placed in cessation due to its customer's decision to suspend operations of its coal gasifier and, in February 2018, Liberty Mine was instructed to permanently cease all mining and delivery of lignite and to commence mine reclamation due to its customer's decision not to operate its gasifier. Also during 2017, MLMC's customer experienced a significant number of plant outage days, materially reducing MLMC's profitability and NACoal's consolidated results.
NACoal's unconsolidated mining operations are subject to risks created by changes in customer demand, inflationary adjustments and tax changes.
The contracts with the unconsolidated mining operations’ customers are based on a "management fee" approach, whereby compensation includes reimbursement of all operating costs, plus a fee based on the amount of coal or limerock delivered. The fees earned adjust over time in line with various indices which reflect general U.S. inflation rates.  During the production stage, the unconsolidated mines' customers pay the Company its agreed upon fee only for the coal or limerock delivered to them for consumption or use. As a result, reduced coal or limerock usage by customers for any reason, including, but not limited to, fluctuations in demand due to unanticipated weather conditions, scheduled and unscheduled outages at NACoal's customers' facilities, economic conditions or governmental regulations or comparable policies which may promote dispatch of power generated by renewables, such as wind or solar, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations. Because of the contractual price formulas for the management fees at these unconsolidated mining operations, the profitability of these operations is also subject to fluctuations in inflationary adjustments (or lack thereof) that can impact the agreed upon management fees and taxes applicable to NACoal's income on those fees. In addition, any unfavorable changes in tax laws for mining companies would have a material adverse effect on the Company. These factors could materially reduce NACoal's profitability.
NACoal’s consolidated mining operations are subject to risks associated with its capital investment, operating and equipment costs, growing use of alternative generation that competes with coal fired generation, changes in customer demand, inflationary adjustments and tax changes.
The profitability of the consolidated mining operations is subject to the risk of loss of investment in these operations, changes in demand from customers, increases in the cost of mining and growing competition from alternative generation that competes with coal-fired generation. At MLMC, the costs of mining operations are not reimbursed by MLMC's customer. As such, increased costs at MLMC or decreased revenues could materially reduce NACoal's profitability. Any long-term reduction in customer demand at MLMC would adversely affect NACoal's operating results and liquidity and could result in significant impairments. In addition, MLMC sells lignite at contractually agreed upon coal prices which are subject to changes in the level of established indices over time. The price of diesel fuel is heavily-weighted among these indices. As such, a substantial decline in diesel prices could materially reduce NACoal's profitability, as the decline in revenue will only be partially offset by the effect of lower diesel prices on production costs.
NACoal's consolidated operations are subject to changes in customer demand for any reason, including, but not limited to, fluctuations in demand due to unanticipated weather conditions, fluctuations in the construction industry that impact demand

17


for aggregates, the emergence of unidentified adverse mining conditions, availability of alternative energy sources such as wind power or natural gas at reduced prices making coal-fueled generation less competitive with wind power or natural gas-fueled generation, regulations or comparable policies which may promote dispatch of power generated by renewables such as wind or solar ahead of coal, planned and unplanned outages at NACoal's customers' facilities, economic conditions, including economic conditions that adversely affect demand for coal and limerock, governmental regulations, inflationary adjustments and tax risks. In addition, any unfavorable changes in tax laws for mining companies would have a material adverse effect on NACoal's profitability.
Mining operations are vulnerable to weather and other conditions that are beyond NACoal's control.
Many conditions beyond NACoal's control can decrease the delivery, and therefore the use, of coal to NACoal's customers. These conditions include weather, adverse mining conditions, availability of alternative fuels such as wind power and natural gas at reduced prices making coal-fueled generation less competitive, unexpected maintenance problems and shortages of replacement parts, which could significantly reduce the Company's profitability.
Government regulations could impose costly requirements on NACoal and its customers.
The coal mining industry and the electric generation industry are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and local authorities on matters concerning the health and safety of employees, land use, permit and licensing requirements, air and water quality standards, plant and wildlife protection, reclamation and restoration of mining properties after mining, the discharge of GHGs and other materials into the environment, surface subsidence from underground mining and the effects that mining has on groundwater quality and availability. Legislation mandating certain benefits for current and retired coal miners also affects the industry. Mining operations require numerous governmental permits and approvals. NACoal is required to prepare and present to federal, state or local authorities data pertaining to the impact the production and combustion of coal may have upon the environment. The public, including non-governmental organizations, opposition groups and individuals, have statutory rights to comment upon and submit objections to requested permits and approvals and to legally challenge certain permits subsequent to their issuance. Compliance with these requirements is costly and time-consuming and may delay commencement or continuation of development or production. New legislation and/or regulations and orders may materially adversely affect NACoal's mining operations or its cost structure, or its customers. All of these factors could significantly reduce the Company's profitability. See “Item 1. Business — North American Coal — Government Regulation" on page 12 in this Form 10-K for further discussion.
NACoal is subject to burdensome federal and state mining regulations.
Federal and state statutes require NACoal to restore mine property in accordance with specified standards and an approved reclamation plan, and require that NACoal obtain and periodically renew permits for mining operations. Regulations require NACoal to incur the cost of reclaiming current mine disturbance at operations where NACoal holds the mining permit. Although the Company believes that appropriate accruals have been recorded for all expected reclamation and other costs associated with closed mines, future profitability would be adversely affected if accruals for these costs are later determined to be insufficient or if changed conditions, including adverse judicial proceedings or revised assumptions, require a change in these reserves.
The Clean Air Act and Clean Power Plan could reduce the demand for coal.
The process of burning coal can cause many compounds and impurities in the coal to be released into the air, including carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, particulates and other matter. The CAA, CPP and the corresponding state laws that extensively regulate the emissions of materials into the air affect coal mining operations both directly and indirectly. Direct impacts on coal mining operations occur through CAA permitting requirements and/or CPP emission control requirements relating to air contaminants, especially particulate matter. Indirect impacts on coal mining operations occur through regulation of the air emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, particulate matter and other compounds emitted by coal-fired power plants. The EPA has promulgated or proposed regulations that impose tighter emission restrictions on a number of these compounds, some of which are currently subject to litigation. The general effect of tighter restrictions is to reduce demand for coal. A reduction in coal’s share of the capacity for power generation could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 1. Business — North American Coal — Government Regulation" on page 12 in this Form 10-K for further discussion.
NACoal is subject to the high costs and risks involved in the development of new mining projects.
From time to time, NACoal seeks to develop new mining projects. The costs and risks associated with such projects can be substantial. In addition, any changes in tax laws that eliminate the expensing of exploration and development costs will increase the after-tax cost of building a mine and make the cost of coal less competitive with other power-generation fuels.

18


Estimates of NACoal's recoverable coal reserves involve uncertainties, and inaccuracies in these estimates could result in lower than expected revenues, higher than expected costs, decreased profitability and asset impairments.
NACoal estimates recoverable coal reserves based on engineering and geological data assembled and analyzed by internal and, less frequently, external engineers and geologists. NACoal's estimates as to the quantity and quality of the coal in its reserves are updated annually to reflect production of coal from the reserves and new drilling, engineering or other data. These estimates depend upon a variety of factors and assumptions, many of which involve uncertainties and factors beyond NACoal's control, such as geological and mining conditions that may not be fully identified by available exploration data or that may differ from experience in current operations.
For these reasons, estimates of the recoverable quantities and qualities attributable to any particular group of properties, classifications of reserves based on risk of recovery and estimates of net cash flows expected from particular reserves may vary substantially. In addition, coal tonnage recovered from identified reserve areas or properties and revenues and expenditures with respect to NACoal's reserves may vary materially from estimates. Accordingly, NACoal's estimates may vary from the actual reserves. Any inaccuracy in the reserve estimates could result in lower than expected revenues, higher than expected costs, decreased profitability and asset impairments.
The Company is dependent on key personnel and the loss of these key personnel could significantly reduce its profitability.
The Company is highly dependent on the skills, experience and services of its key personnel and the loss of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results and financial condition. Employment and retention of qualified personnel is important to the successful conduct of the Company's business. Therefore, the Company's success also depends upon its ability to recruit, hire, train and retain skilled and experienced management personnel. The Company's inability to hire and retain personnel with the requisite skills could impair its ability to manage and operate its business effectively and could significantly reduce its profitability.
The amount and frequency of dividend payments made on NACCO's common stock could change.
The Board of Directors has the power to determine the amount and frequency of the payment of dividends. Decisions regarding whether or not to pay dividends and the amount of any dividends are based on earnings, capital and future expense requirements, financial conditions, contractual limitations and other factors the Board of Directors may consider. Accordingly, holders of NACCO's common stock should not rely on past payments of dividends in a particular amount as an indication of the amount of dividends that will be paid in the future.
The Company’s business could suffer if NACCO’s information technology systems are disrupted, cease to operate effectively or if the Company experiences a security breach.
The Company relies heavily on information technology systems to operate websites; record and process transactions; respond to customer inquiries; purchase supplies and deliver inventory on a timely basis; and maintain cost-efficient operations. Given the significant number of transactions that are completed annually, it is vital to maintain constant operation of computer hardware and software systems and maintain cyber security. Despite the Company's cyber security efforts, the Company’s information technology systems may be vulnerable from time to time to damage or interruption from computer viruses, power outages, third-party intrusions and other technical malfunctions. If the Company’s systems are damaged, or fail to function properly, NACCO may have to make monetary investments to repair or replace the systems and could endure delays in operations.
In addition, the Company regularly evaluates information technology systems and requirements and from time to time implements modifications and/or upgrades to the information technology systems that support its businesses. Modifications include replacing existing systems with successor systems, making changes to existing systems and acquiring new systems with new functionality. There are inherent risks associated with replacing and modifying these systems, including inaccurate system information, system disruptions and user acceptance and understanding. The Company believes it is taking appropriate action to mitigate the risks through disciplined adherence to program management, testing systems and user involvement, improving the resiliency of systems, as well as securing appropriate commercial contracts with third-party vendors but there can be no assurance that the Company's actions will be successful or sufficient.
Any material disruption or slowdown of the Company’s systems, including a disruption or slowdown caused by a security breach or the Company’s failure to successfully upgrade its systems, could cause information, including data related to customers, to be lost. Such a loss could reduce demand and cause the Company’s sales and/or profitability to decline.
Through the Company’s business operations, the Company collects and stores confidential information from its customers and vendors and personal information and other confidential information from its employees. For example, the Company handles, collects and stores information in connection with its customers' businesses and its customers' communications with the Company. Although the Company has taken steps designed to safeguard such information, there can be no assurance that such information

19


will be protected against unauthorized access, use or disclosure. Unauthorized parties may penetrate the Company’s or its vendors’ network security and, if successful, misappropriate such information. Additionally, methods to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information change frequently and may be difficult to detect, which can impact the Company’s ability to respond appropriately. The Company could be subject to liability for failure to comply with privacy and information security laws, for failing to protect personal information or for failing to respond appropriately. Loss, unauthorized access to, or misuse of confidential or personal information could disrupt the Company’s operations, damage the Company’s reputation, and expose the Company to claims from customers, financial institutions, regulators, employees and other persons, any of which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company may be subject to risk relating to increasing cash requirements of certain employee benefits plans, which may affect its financial position.
Although as of December 31, 2017, the Company's consolidated defined benefit pension plans are frozen and no longer provide for the accrual of future benefits, the expenses recorded for, and cash contributions required to be made to its defined benefit pension plans are dependent on changes in market interest rates and the value of plan assets, which are dependent on actual investment returns. Significant changes in market interest rates, decreases in the value of plan assets or investment losses on plan assets may require the Company to increase the cash contributed to defined benefit pension plans which may affect its financial position.
The Company may become subject to claims under foreign laws and regulations, which may be expensive, time consuming and distracting.
Because Company employees travel for business outside of the United States, the Company is subject to the laws and the court systems of many jurisdictions. The Company may become subject to claims outside the U.S. for violations or alleged violations of laws with respect to past or future foreign operations of NACoal. In addition, these laws may be changed or new laws may be enacted in the future. International litigation is often expensive, time consuming and distracting. As a result, any of these risks could significantly reduce the Company's profitability and its ability to operate its businesses effectively.
Certain members of the Company's extended founding family own a substantial amount of its Class A and Class B common stock and, if they were to act in concert, could control the outcome of director elections and other stockholder votes on significant corporate actions.
The Company has two classes of common stock: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Holders of Class A common stock are entitled to cast one vote per share and, as of December 31, 2017, accounted for approximately 25 percent of the voting power of the Company. Holders of Class B common stock are entitled to cast ten votes per share and, as of December 31, 2017, accounted for the remaining voting power of the Company. As of December 31, 2017, certain members of the Company's extended founding family held approximately 34 percent of the Company's outstanding Class A common stock and approximately 98 percent of the Company's outstanding Class B common stock. On the basis of this common stock ownership, certain members of the Company's extended founding family could have exercised 82 percent of the Company's total voting power. Although there is no voting agreement among such extended family members, in writing or otherwise, if they were to act in concert, they could control the outcome of director elections and other stockholder votes on significant corporate actions, such as certain amendments to the Company's certificate of incorporation and sales of the Company or substantially all of its assets. Because certain members of the Company's extended founding family could prevent other stockholders from exercising significant influence over significant corporate actions, the Company may be a less attractive takeover target, which could adversely affect the market price of its common stock.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

Item 2. PROPERTIES
A. NACCO
NACCO leases office space in Mayfield Heights, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland, Ohio, which serves as its corporate headquarters.

B. NACoal

NACoal leases its corporate headquarters office space in Plano, Texas. NACoal’s proven and probable coal reserves and deposits (owned in fee or held under leases, which generally remain in effect until exhaustion of the reserves if mining is in

20


progress) are estimated at approximately 1.9 billion tons (including the unconsolidated mining operations), all of which are lignite coal deposits, except for approximately 66.7 million tons of bituminous coal. Reserves are estimates of quantities of coal, made by NACoal’s geological and engineering staff, which are considered mineable in the future using existing operating methods. Developed reserves are those which have been allocated to mines which are in operation; all other reserves are classified as undeveloped. Information concerning mine type, reserve data and coal quality characteristics for NACoal’s properties are set forth on the table on pages 4 and 5 under “Item 1. Business — North American Coal — Sales, Marketing and Operations.”

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any material legal proceeding other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to its respective business.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of The Dodd-Frank Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 filed with this Form 10-K.


21



Item 4A. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The information under this Item is furnished pursuant to Instruction 3 to Item 401(b) of Regulation S-K.
There exists no arrangement or understanding between any executive officer and any other person pursuant to which such executive officer was elected. Each executive officer serves until his or her successor is elected and qualified.
The following tables set forth as of March 1, 2018 the name, age, current position and principal occupation and employment during the past five years of the Company’s executive officers. Certain executive officers of the Company listed below are also executive officers for NACoal.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY
Name
 
Age
 
Current Position
 
Other Positions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
J.C. Butler, Jr.
 
57

 
President and Chief Executive Officer of NACCO (from September 2017) and President and Chief Executive Officer of NACoal (from July 2015)
 
From prior to 2013 to September 2017, Senior Vice President - Finance, Treasurer and Chief Administrative Officer of NACCO. From prior to 2013 to September 2017, Assistant Secretary of HBB and KC. From July 2014 to July 2015, Senior Vice President - Project Development, Administration and Mississippi Operations of NACoal. From prior to 2013 to June 2014, Senior Vice President - Project Development and Administration of NACoal.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth I. Loveman
 
48

 
Vice President and Controller (from March 2014) and Principal Financial Officer (from June 2014)
 
From prior to 2013 to March 2014, Director of Financial Reporting of NACCO.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John D. Neumann
 
42

 
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of NACCO (from prior to 2013), Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of NACoal (from prior to 2013)
 
From prior to 2013 to September 2017, Assistant Secretary of HBB and KC.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Miles B. Haberer
 
51

 
Associate General Counsel of NACCO (from prior to 2013), Associate General Counsel, Assistant Secretary of NACoal (from prior to 2013) and President, North American Coal Royalty Company (an NACoal subsidiary) (from September 2015)    
                                                        

 
From October 2013 to September 2015, Director-Land of NACoal. From prior to 2013 to September 2015, Assistant Secretary of NACCO. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jesse L. Adkins
 
35

 
Associate Counsel (from prior to 2013) and Assistant Secretary of NACCO (from November 2013), Associate Counsel (from prior to 2013) and Assistant Secretary (from May 2013) of NACoal                                
                          

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sarah E. Fry
 
42

 
Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary of NACCO (from May 2017), Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary of NACoal (from May 2017),
 
From January 2015 to April 2017, Senior Counsel, Locke Lord (law firm). From March 2014 to December 2014, Partner, Culhane Meadows (law firm). From prior to 2013 to March 2014, Associate, Conner and Winters (law firm).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas A. Maxwell
 
40

 
Vice President - Financial Planning and Analysis and
Treasurer (from September 2017)


 
From September 2015 to September 2017, Director of Financial Planning and Analysis and Assistant Treasurer.
From January 2014 to September 2015, Senior Manager, Finance and Assistant Treasurer. From prior to 2013 to January 2014, Manager of Financial Planning and Analysis.

22


PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY’S SUBSIDIARIES
A. NACOAL
Name
 
Age
 
Current Position
 
Other Positions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eric A. Dale
 
43

 
Treasurer and Senior Director, Financial Planning and Analysis, of NACoal (from January 2017)
 
From prior to 2013 to November 2016, Vice President of Financial Planning and Analysis at Westmoreland Coal Company.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carroll L. Dewing
 
61

 
Vice President - Operations of NACoal (from January 2017)
 
From prior to 2013 to December 2016, President, The Coteau Properties Company (an NACoal subsidiary).
From July 2014 to December 2016, Vice President - North Dakota, Texas and Florida Operations, Human Resources and External Affairs of NACoal. From October 2013 to July 2014, Director - Northern Operations of NACoal.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LaVern K. Lund
 
45

 
Vice President - Business Development (from May 2017)
 
From prior to 2013 to April 2017, President of Liberty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John R. Pokorny
 
62

 
Controller of NACoal (from prior to 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
J. Patrick Sullivan, Jr.


 
59

 
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of NACoal (from May 2013)
 
From prior to 2013 to May 2013, Controller, Luminant Generation, Mining, Construction and Development of Energy-Future Holdings Corporation.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harry B. Tipton, III
 
60

 
Vice President - Engineering of NACoal (from July 2016)

 
From July 2015 to June 2016, Vice President - Engineering, and Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi Operations of NACoal. From July 2014 to June 2015, Vice President - Engineering, and Alabama and Louisiana Operations of NACoal. From October 2013 to June 2014, Vice President - Engineering, and Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi Operations of NACoal. From prior to 2013 to October 2013, Vice President - Engineering, and Louisiana and Mississippi Operations of NACoal.


23


PART II

Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
NACCO's Class A common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “NC.” Because of transfer restrictions, no trading market has developed, or is expected to develop, for the Company's Class B common stock. The Class B common stock is convertible into Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis.
The high and low sales prices for the Class A common stock and dividends per share for both classes of common stock for each quarter during the past two years are presented in the tables below:
 
2017
 
Sales Price
 
 
 
High
 
Low
 
Cash Dividend
Fourth quarter  (1)
$
48.85

 
$
23.80

 
$
0.1650

Third quarter
$
92.60

 
$
63.90

 
$
0.2725

Second quarter
$
87.40

 
$
63.25

 
$
0.2725

First quarter
$
91.65

 
$
62.15

 
$
0.2675


(1)
On September 29, 2017, the Company spun-off HBBHC, a former wholly owned subsidiary. As a result of the spin-off, NACCO stockholders received one share of HBBHC Class A common stock and one share of HBBHC Class B common stock for each share of NACCO Class A or Class B common stock owned on the record date for the spin-off. 
 
2016
 
Sales Price
 
 
 
High
 
Low
 
Cash Dividend
Fourth quarter 
$
99.55

 
$
66.41

 
$
0.2675

Third quarter
$
70.11

 
$
53.51

 
$
0.2675

Second quarter
$
61.29

 
$
49.80

 
$
0.2675

First quarter
$
58.25

 
$
40.75

 
$
0.2625

At December 31, 2017, there were 707 Class A common stockholders of record and 149 Class B common stockholders of record. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K for a discussion of the amount of NACCO's investment in subsidiaries that was restricted at December 31, 2017.
Sales of Unregistered Company Stock
Pursuant to the Non-Employee Directors’ Equity Compensation Plan, a portion of the directors' annual retainer is paid in restricted shares of Class A common stock and directors may elect to receive shares of Class A common stock in lieu of cash for up to 100% of the balance of their annual retainer and any committee chairman's or service fees. In aggregate, the Company issued 4,400 shares of its Class A common stock on January 1, 2017 and April 1, 2017 for payment of the stock portion of the 2017 directors’ annual retainer fee. In aggregate, an additional 921 shares of Class A common stock were issued under voluntary elections on January 1, 2017 and April 1, 2017. The issuances of these unregistered shares qualify as exempt transactions pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933. Additional shares issued to non-employee directors' subsequent to April 1, 2017 were registered shares.


24



Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities (1)
Period
(a)
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
(b)
Average Price Paid per Share
 
(c)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of the Publicly Announced Program
 
(d)
Maximum Number of Shares (or Approximate Dollar Value) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program (1)
Month #1
(October 1 to 31, 2017)

 
$

 

 
$
43,956,174

Month #2
(November 1 to 30, 2017)

 
$

 

 
$
43,956,174

Month #3
(December 1 to 31, 2017)

 
$

 

 
$

     Total

 
$

 

 
$


(1)
The Company's stock repurchase program announced in May 2016 allowed for the purchase of up to $60 million of the Company's Class A Common Stock outstanding through December 31, 2017. In February 2018, the Company established a new stock repurchase program allowing for the purchase of up to $25.0 million of the Company's Class A Common Stock outstanding through December 31, 2019.




25


Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Year Ended December 31
 
2017(1)
 
2016(1)
 
2015
 
2014 (1)
 
2013
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Operating Statement Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
104,778

 
$
111,081

 
$
147,998

 
$
172,702

 
$
193,651

Earnings of unconsolidated mines
$
61,361

 
$
55,238

 
$
48,432

 
$
48,396

 
$
46,429

Operating profit (loss)
$
32,814

 
$
(1,659
)
 
$
(3,727
)
 
$
(94,486
)
 
$
31,228

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) from continuing operations, net of tax
$
28,463

 
$
2,956

 
$
2,273

 
$
(56,850
)
 
$
26,208

Discontinued operations, net of tax(2)
1,874

 
26,651

 
19,711

 
18,732

 
18,242

Net income (loss)
$
30,337

 
$
29,607

 
$
21,984

 
$
(38,118
)
 
$
44,450

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
4.17

 
$
0.43

 
$
0.32

 
$
(7.42
)
 
$
3.23

Discontinued operations(2)
0.27

 
3.91

 
2.82

 
2.40

 
2.25

Basic earnings (loss) per share
$
4.44

 
$
4.34

 
$
3.14

 
$
(5.02
)
 
$
5.48

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
4.14

 
$
0.43

 
$
0.32

 
$
(7.42
)
 
$
3.22

Discontinued operations(2)
0.27

 
3.89

 
2.81

 
2.40

 
2.25

Diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
4.41

 
$
4.32

 
$
3.13

 
$
(5.02
)
 
$
5.47


(1)
During 2014, NACoal recorded a non-cash, asset impairment charge of $105.1 million for Centennial's long-lived asset group. Centennial ceased active mining operations at the end of 2015. During 2016 and 2017, NACoal recorded additional non-cash impairment charges of $17.4 million and $1.0 million, respectively, related to Centennial's assets. The carrying value of coal land and real estate and the assets held for sale were zero as of December 31, 2017. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the Company's asset impairments.
(2)
On September 29, 2017, the Company spun-off HBBHC, a former wholly owned subsidiary. The results of operations of HBBHC are reflected as discontinued operations in the table above.


 


26


 
Year Ended December 31
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(In thousands, except per share data, share amounts and employee data)
Balance Sheet Data at December 31:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets (1)
$
389,552

 
$
668,021

 
$
655,408

 
$
770,520

 
$
809,956

Long-term debt 
$
42,021

 
$
94,295

 
$
110,113

 
$
137,978

 
$
133,984

Stockholders' equity
$
219,448

 
$
220,293

 
$
201,138

 
$
211,474

 
$
297,780

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash Flow Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Provided by operating activities (2)
$
41,305

 
$
93,935

 
$
108,002

 
$
19,799

 
$
53,065

Used for investing activities (2)
$
(15,005
)
 
$
(9,817
)
 
$
(8,291
)
 
$
(74,934
)
 
$
(60,734
)
Provided by (used for) financing activities (2)
$
(2,306
)
 
$
(55,710
)
 
$
(108,301
)
 
$
20,979

 
$
(36,776
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per share data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends 
$
0.9775

 
$
1.0650

 
$
1.0450

 
$
1.0225

 
$
1.0000

Market value at December 31 (1)
$
37.65

 
$
90.55

 
$
42.20

 
$
59.36

 
$
62.19

Stockholders' equity at December 31
$
32.03

 
$
32.50

 
$
29.42

 
$
29.23

 
$
37.83

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Actual shares outstanding at December 31 (3)
6.852

 
6.779

 
6.837

 
7.236

 
7.872

Basic weighted average shares outstanding (3)
6.830

 
6.818

 
7.001

 
7.590

 
8.105

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding (3)
6.873

 
6.854

 
7.022

 
7.590

 
8.124

Total employees at December 31(4)
2,300

 
3,600

 
3,600

 
4,000

 
4,100

(1)
During 2017, the Company spun-off HBBHC, a former wholly-owned subsidiary.
(2)
Includes both continuing operations and discontinued operations for all years presented.
(3)
Share amounts in millions.
(4)
Includes employees from HBBHC from 2013 to 2016, Centennial from 2013 to 2014 and the unconsolidated mining operations for all years presented.


27


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

OVERVIEW
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations include NACCO Industries, Inc. (the "parent company" or “NACCO”) and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”). NACCO is the public holding company for The North American Coal Corporation.  The North American Coal Corporation and its affiliated companies (collectively, “NACoal”) operate surface mines that supply coal primarily to power generation companies under long-term contracts, and provide other value-added services to natural resource companies.  In addition, its North American Mining ("NAM") business maintains and operates draglines and other equipment under contracts with sellers of aggregates. 
On September 29, 2017, the Company spun-off Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company ("HBBHC"), a former wholly owned subsidiary. As a result of the spin-off, NACCO stockholders received one share of HBBHC Class A common stock and one share of HBBHC Class B common stock for each share of NACCO Class A or Class B common stock owned on the record date for the spin-off. The financial position, results of operations and cash flows of HBBHC are reflected as discontinued operations for all periods presented through the date of the spin-off.   
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
The Company's discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations are based upon the Company's consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires the Company to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities (if any). On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates based on historical experience, actuarial valuations and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
The Company believes the following critical accounting policies affect its more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its consolidated financial statements.
Revenue recognition: Revenues are generally recognized when title transfers and risk of loss passes to the customer. Under its mining contracts, the Company recognizes revenue as the coal or limerock is delivered or services are performed.
Retirement benefit plans: The Company maintains various defined benefit pension plans that provide benefits based on years of service and average compensation during certain periods. Prior to 2015, the Company amended the Combined Plan to freeze pension benefits for all employees. All eligible employees of the Company, including employees whose pension benefits are frozen, receive retirement benefits under defined contribution retirement plans. The Company's policy is to periodically make contributions to fund the defined benefit pension plans within the range allowed by applicable regulations. The defined benefit pension plan assets consist primarily of publicly traded stocks and government and corporate bonds. There is no guarantee the actual return on the plans’ assets will equal the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets or that the plans will not incur investment losses.
The expected long-term rate of return on defined benefit plan assets reflects management's expectations of long-term rates of return on funds invested to provide for benefits included in the projected benefit obligations. In establishing the expected long-term rate of return assumption for plan assets, the Company considers the historical rates of return over a period of time that is consistent with the long-term nature of the underlying obligations of these plans as well as a forward-looking rate of return. The historical and forward-looking rates of return for each of the asset classes used to determine the Company's estimated rate of return assumption were based upon the rates of return earned or expected to be earned by investments in the equivalent benchmark market indices for each of the asset classes.
Expected returns for pension plans are based on a calculated market-related value for pension plan assets. Under this methodology, asset gains and losses resulting from actual returns that differ from the Company's expected returns are recognized ratably in the market-related value of assets over three years.
The Company also maintains health care plans which provide benefits to eligible retired employees. All health care plans of the Company have a cap on the Company's share of the costs. These plans have no assets. Under the Company's current policy, plan benefits are funded at the time they are due to participants.

28


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

The basis for the selection of the discount rate for each plan is determined by matching the timing of the payment of the expected obligations under the defined benefit plans and health care plans against the corresponding yield of high-quality corporate bonds of equivalent maturities.
Changes to the estimate of any of these factors could result in a material change to the Company's pension obligation causing a related increase or decrease in reported net operating results in the period of change in the estimate. Because the 2017 assumptions are used to calculate 2018 pension expense amounts, a one percentage-point change in the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets would result in a change in pension expense for 2018 of approximately $0.4 million for the plans. A one percentage-point change in the discount rate would result in a change in pension expense for 2018 by approximately $0.1 million. A one percentage-point increase in the discount rate would have lowered the plans’ projected benefit obligation as of the end of 2017 by approximately $4.8 million; while a one percentage-point decrease in the discount rate would have raised the plans’ projected benefit obligation as of the end of 2017 by approximately $5.7 million. See Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the Company's retirement benefit plans.
Self-insurance liabilities: The Company is generally self-insured for medical claims, certain workers’ compensation claims and certain closed mine liabilities. An estimated provision for claims reported and for claims incurred but not yet reported under the self-insurance programs is recorded and revised periodically based on industry trends, historical experience and management judgment. In addition, industry trends are considered within management's judgment for valuing claims. Changes in assumptions for such matters as legal judgments and settlements, inflation rates, medical costs and actual experience could cause estimates to change in the near term. Changes in any of these factors could materially change the Company's estimates for these self-insurance obligations causing a related increase or decrease in reported net operating results in the period of change in the estimate.
Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations: The Company's asset retirement obligations are principally for costs to dismantle certain mining equipment at the end of the life of the mine as well as for costs to close its surface mines and reclaim the land it has disturbed as a result of its normal mining activities. Under certain federal and state regulations, the Company is required to reclaim land disturbed as a result of mining. The Company determined the amounts of these obligations based on estimates adjusted for inflation, projected to the estimated closure dates, and then discounted using a credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate. Changes in any of these estimates could materially change the Company's estimates for these asset retirement obligations causing a related increase or decrease in reported net operating results in the period of change in the estimate. The accretion of the liability is being recognized over the estimated life of each individual asset retirement obligation. The Company has capitalized an asset’s retirement cost as part of the cost of the related long-lived asset. These capitalized amounts are subsequently amortized to expense using a systematic and rational method.
Bellaire Corporation (“Bellaire”) is a non-operating subsidiary of the Company with legacy liabilities relating to closed mining operations, primarily former Eastern U.S. underground coal mining operations. These legacy liabilities include obligations for water treatment and other environmental remediation that arose as part of the normal course of closing these underground mining operations. The Company determined the amounts of these obligations based on estimates adjusted for inflation and then discounted using a credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate. The accretion of the liability is recognized over the estimated life of the asset retirement obligation. Since Bellaire's properties are no longer active operations, no associated asset has been capitalized. Changes in any of these estimates could materially change the Company's estimates for these asset retirement obligations causing a related increase or decrease in reported net operating income in the period of change in the estimate. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the Company's asset retirement obligations.
Long-lived assets: The Company periodically evaluates long-lived assets for impairment when changes in circumstances or the occurrence of certain events indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Upon identification of indicators of impairment, the Company evaluates the carrying value of the asset by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flows generated from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition with the asset's net carrying value. If the carrying value of an asset is considered impaired, an impairment charge is recorded for the amount that the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. Fair value is estimated as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

29


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

Centennial ceased coal production in the fourth quarter of 2015 and the Company began actively marketing Centennial's mine machinery and equipment. The Company classified these assets as held for sale during the fourth quarter of 2015 when management approved and committed to a formal plan of sale. The coal land and real estate did not meet the held-for-sale criteria and remained within property, plant and equipment as a long-lived asset. As a result of various unfavorable conditions, including but not limited to weakness in the U.S. and global coal markets and certain asset-specific factors, the Company determined the carrying value of Centennial's coal land and real estate were not recoverable. The Company also conducted a review of the carrying value of Centennial's mine machinery and equipment classified as assets held for sale. The Company recognized aggregate impairment charges of $17.4 million and $1.0 million during 2016 and 2017, respectively. The carrying value of coal land and real estate and the assets held for sale were zero as of December 31, 2017. The asset impairment charges were recorded as "Centennial asset impairment charge" in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the Company's asset impairment charges.

Income taxes: The Company will include a portion of HBBHC's U.S. operating results in the consolidated federal income tax return filed by NACCO. The Company's allocation of taxes through the spin-off date will be in accordance with the Tax Allocation Agreement. In general, the Tax Allocation Agreement between the Company and HBBHC provides that federal income taxes are computed by the Company as if it had filed a tax return on a standalone basis.
Tax law requires certain items to be included in the tax return at different times than the items are reflected in the financial statements. Some of these differences are permanent, such as expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes, and some differences are temporary, reversing over time, such as depreciation expense. These temporary differences create deferred tax assets and liabilities using currently enacted tax rates. The objective of accounting for income taxes is to recognize the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year, and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements or tax returns. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the provision for income taxes in the period that includes the enactment date. Management is required to estimate the timing of the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities, make assumptions about the future deductibility of deferred tax assets and assess deferred tax liabilities based on enacted law and tax rates for the appropriate tax jurisdictions to determine the amount of such deferred tax assets and liabilities. Changes in the calculated deferred tax assets and liabilities may occur in certain circumstances, including statutory income tax rate changes, statutory tax law changes, or changes in the structure or tax status.
The Company's tax assets, liabilities, and tax expense are supported by historical earnings and losses and the Company's best estimates and assumptions of future earnings. The Company assesses whether a valuation allowance should be established against its deferred tax assets based on consideration of all available evidence, both positive and negative, using a more likely than not standard. This assessment considers, among other matters, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. The assumptions about future taxable income require significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates the Company is using to manage the underlying businesses. When the Company determines, based on all available evidence, that it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established.
Since significant judgment is required to assess the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company's financial statements or tax returns, the ultimate resolution of these events could result in adjustments to the Company's financial statements and such adjustments could be material. The Company believes the current assumptions, judgments and other considerations used to estimate the current year accrued and deferred tax positions are appropriate. If the actual outcome of future tax consequences differs from these estimates and assumptions, due to changes or future events, the resulting change to the provision for income taxes could have a material impact on the Company's results of operations and financial position.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), which significantly revises U.S. tax law. The TCJA will positively impact the Company’s ongoing effective tax rate due to the reduction of the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent, effective January 1, 2018.
In addition to the reduction of the U.S. federal corporate tax rate mentioned above, other significant changes to existing tax law include (1) elimination of the alternative minimum tax regime for corporations; (2) limitations on the deductibility of certain executive compensation for publicly traded companies; (3) accelerated expensing of capital investment, subject to phase-out beginning in 2023; (4) a new limitation on deductible interest expense; and (5) changes in utilization of net operating losses generated after December 31, 2017, specifically, elimination of ability to carryback losses against prior years’

30


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

income, limited to offsetting 80 percent of taxable income in the year of utilization, and may be indefinitely carried forward to future tax years.
Subsequent to the enactment of the TCJA, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (“SAB 118”), which provides a measurement period of up to one year after the enactment date for companies to finalize the recognition of the income tax effects of the TCJA.
As a result of the TCJA and pursuant to SAB 118, the Company has provisionally recorded a discrete net tax benefit of $3.1 million in the period ending December 31, 2017. This net benefit is attributable to the corporate rate reduction on existing deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company has also provisionally recorded $0 for sequestration on refundable alternative minimum tax credits, as the Company expects to use the available credits to offset tax liability so that sequestration would not apply. Further, the Company has provisionally recorded $0 for excess executive remuneration expense disallowance of its long-term incentive plan payments in future years, as the covered employee recipients are not expected to exceed the $1 million disallowance threshold. The ultimate impact of TCJA may differ from these provisional amounts due to, among other things, additional analysis, changes in interpretations and assumptions, additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and the computation of state income taxes as there is uncertainty on conformity to the federal tax system following the TCJA. See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the Company's income taxes.

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL SUMMARY

The results of operations for NACCO were as follows for the years ended December 31:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
   NACoal operating profit (a) (b)
$
39,677

 
$
5,619

 
$
521

   NACCO and Other operating loss (a)
(6,863
)
 
(7,278
)
 
(4,248
)
Operating profit (loss) (a) (b)
32,814

 
(1,659
)
 
(3,727
)
   Interest expense
3,440

 
4,318

 
4,962

   Income from other unconsolidated affiliates
(1,246
)
 
(1,221
)
 
(2,040
)
   Closed mine obligations
1,590

 
(214
)
 
919

   Other, net, including interest income (c)
(72
)
 
2,151

 
(331
)
Other expense, net
3,712

 
5,034

 
3,510

Income (loss) before income tax provision (benefit)
29,102

 
(6,693
)
 
(7,237
)
Income tax provision (benefit)
639

 
(9,649
)
 
(9,510
)
Income from continuing operations, net of tax
$
28,463

 
$
2,956

 
$
2,273

Discontinued operations, net of tax
1,874

 
26,651

 
19,711

Net income
$
30,337

 
$
29,607

 
$
21,984

 
 
 
 
 
 
Effective income tax rate from continuing operations
2.2
%
 
144.2
%
 
131.4
%

(a)
All of NACCO's Revenues are attributable to NACoal. As a result, the Company's results of operations, including Revenues, Operating profit (loss) and Other expense, net, for NACoal and NACCO and Other are discussed below in "Segment Results." Amounts below income (loss) before income tax provision (benefit) are analyzed on a consolidated basis.
(b)
Centennial ceased active mining operations at the end of 2015. During 2017 and 2016, NACoal recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $1.0 million and $17.4 million, respectively, related to Centennial's assets. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the Company's asset impairments.
(c)
During 2016, NACoal reversed an indemnification receivable related to an uncertain tax position that resulted in $2.2 million of other expense. The income tax benefit recognized in 2016 includes the reversal of the $2.3 million uncertain tax position. The uncertain tax position and the indemnification receivable were initially recorded as part of the Centennial acquisition.


31


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

Income Taxes

The Company applies the intraperiod tax allocation rules as described in ASC 740-20 “Intraperiod Tax Allocation” to allocate the provision for income taxes between continuing operations and discontinued operations. As a result of the spin-off of HBBHC, the Company used the “with and without” approach to compute total tax income expense (benefit). The Company calculated income tax expense from all financial statement components (continuing operations and discontinued operations), the “with” approach, and compared that to the income tax expense (benefit) attributable to continuing operations, the “without” approach. The difference between the “with” and “without” was allocated to discontinued operations. While intraperiod tax allocations do not change the overall tax provision, the allocation of income tax expense (benefit) between continuing operations and discontinued operations produces results that are not meaningful and not indicative of future expectations.
See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the Company's income taxes.

Liquidity and Capital Resources of NACCO

Financing arrangements are obtained and maintained at the subsidiary level. NACCO has not guaranteed any borrowings of its subsidiaries. The borrowing agreement at NACoal allows for the payment to NACCO of dividends and advances under certain circumstances as described below under "The North American Coal Corporation - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Financing Activities". Dividends (to the extent permitted by NACoal's borrowing agreement) and management fees are the primary sources of cash for NACCO and enable the Company to pay dividends to stockholders.

Capital Structure

NACCO's consolidated capital structure is presented below:
 
December 31
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Cash and cash equivalents
$
101,600

 
$
69,308

 
$
32,292

Other net tangible assets (1)
153,791

 
222,983

 
(69,192
)
Intangible assets, net
43,554

 
45,678

 
(2,124
)
Net assets
298,945

 
337,969

 
(39,024
)
Total debt
(58,146
)
 
(96,039
)
 
37,893

Closed mine obligations
(21,351
)
 
(21,637
)
 
286

Total equity (1)
$
219,448

 
$
220,293

 
$
(845
)
Debt to total capitalization - continuing operations
21
%
 
30
%
 
(9
)%
(1)
During 2017, the Company spun-off HBBHC, a former wholly-owned subsidiary. The 2016 balance sheet reflects HBBHC as a discontinued operation. As such, other net tangible assets and equity include HBBHC in 2016.

NACCO Industries, Inc. Consolidated Outlook

In 2018, NACCO expects consolidated income before income tax from continuing operations to decrease compared with 2017 and expects an effective income tax rate in the range of 9% - 12%. The effective income tax rate is affected by items such as percentage depletion and the mix of earnings, including losses at entities with higher effective income tax rates.

Income before income tax in 2017 included $4.6 million of gains on sales of assets, mostly realized at Centennial, and $2.8 million of favorable adjustments to Centennial mine reclamation liabilities. Excluding these favorable 2017 items, NACCO expects 2018 income before income tax to increase compared with the prior year primarily as a result of lower operating expenses, improved income at both the consolidated and unconsolidated mining operations and reduced interest expense. These improvements are expected to be partially offset by an anticipated substantial decrease in royalty and other income.

32


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

Royalties on oil, gas and coal extracted by third parties are subject to changes in market forces and the activities of third parties, making it difficult to forecast whether recent high levels of income will continue.

At the consolidated mining operations, MLMC's 2018 full-year results are expected to improve over 2017 because customer demand is expected to return to historical levels due to an anticipated reduction in outage days at the customer's power plant. While the total number of power plant outage days for the full year is expected to decline, a majority of the outage days are expected to occur in the second half of 2018. As a result, pre-tax income in the first half of 2018 at MLMC is expected to be comparable to the first half of 2017. Pre-tax income in the second half of 2018 is expected to increase compared with the low income generated in the second-half of 2017. However, if customer demand remains low at MLMC, it could unfavorably affect NACoal's 2018 and future earnings significantly.

Centennial's pre-tax loss in 2018 is expected to be modestly lower than its 2017 pre-tax loss excluding gains on sales of assets of $3.1 million and mine reclamation adjustments. Centennial will continue to evaluate strategies to optimize cash flow, including the continued assessment of a range of strategies for its remaining Alabama mineral reserves, including holding reserves with substantial unmined coal tons for sale or contract mining when conditions permit. Cash expenditures related to mine reclamation will continue until reclamation is complete, or ownership of, or responsibility for, the remaining mines is transferred.

Income from the unconsolidated mining operations is expected to be modestly higher in 2018 due in part to higher fees at Liberty and increases at NAM's unconsolidated limerock mining operations. NAM entered into a contract with a new customer in South Florida during the fourth quarter of 2017 that includes operation of a dragline and an electric rope shovel. NAM added two new contracts in 2017 that are expected to contribute to increases in earnings from the unconsolidated mining operations in 2018.

Bisti, one of NACoal's unconsolidated mining operations, began operation at the Navajo mine on January 1, 2017. The customer's ability to take coal deliveries during the fourth quarter of 2017 was limited as the power plant's owners were installing additional environmental controls. Bisti expects the installation of this equipment to continue to limit the power plant's ability to take coal deliveries in the first half of 2018 as well, resulting in a significant reduction in coal deliveries and income in the first half of 2018 compared with 2017. However, Bisti's full-year 2018 income is expected to be comparable to 2017. Once installation is complete, this plant should enjoy the benefits of an improved environmental profile. Production at Bisti is anticipated to be 5 million to 6 million tons of coal per year when the plant is operating at expected levels, which is currently anticipated to occur in 2019.

On June 28, 2017, Southern Company and its subsidiary, Mississippi Power, suspended operations involving the coal gasifier portion of the Kemper County energy facility. Liberty, an unconsolidated mining operation, was the sole supplier of coal to fuel the gasifier under its contract with Mississippi Power. On February 8, 2018, Mississippi Power instructed Liberty to permanently cease all mining and delivery of lignite and to commence mine reclamation. The terms of the contract specify that Mississippi Power is responsible for all mine closure costs. Under the contract, Liberty is specified as the contractor to complete final mine closure and will receive compensation for these services. The customer’s decision to close the mine does not negatively impact NACCO’s earnings outlook for Liberty during 2018, but it does unfavorably affect NACoal’s long-term earnings potential from this mine.

Cash flow before financing activities is expected to decrease substantially in 2018 compared with 2017. Capital expenditures are expected to be approximately $33 million in 2018 due to planned expenditures at both MLMC and NAM, which includes expenditures for new and replacement equipment and land required for future mining. Capital expenditures can vary significantly in any given year based on the type of asset needed and its relative cost.

While the current regulatory environment for development of new coal projects has improved, continued low natural gas prices and growth in renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, could unfavorably affect the amount of electricity generation attributable to coal-fired power plants over the longer term. NACoal continues to seek opportunities for new coal mining projects, although future opportunities are likely to be very limited. In addition, NACoal continues to pursue additional non-coal mining opportunities, principally related to its NAM business and elsewhere where it might provide value-added services.


33


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

THE NORTH AMERICAN COAL CORPORATION

NACoal operates surface mines that supply coal primarily to power generation companies under long-term contracts, and provides other value-added services to natural resource companies.  In addition, its NAM business maintains and operates draglines and other equipment under contracts with sellers of aggregates. 

Coal is surface mined from NACoal's mines in North Dakota, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and on the Navajo Nation in New Mexico. NACoal has the following operating coal mining subsidiaries: Bisti Fuels Company, LLC ("Bisti"), Caddo Creek Resources Company, LLC (“Caddo Creek”), Camino Real Fuels, LLC (“Camino Real”), The Coteau Properties Company (“Coteau”), Coyote Creek Mining Company, LLC (“Coyote Creek”), Demery Resources Company, LLC (“Demery”), The Falkirk Mining Company (“Falkirk”), Mississippi Lignite Mining Company (“MLMC”) and The Sabine Mining Company (“Sabine”). Liberty Fuels Company, LLC ("Liberty") ceased all mining and delivery of lignite in 2017 and will commence mine reclamation in 2018.

All of the operating coal mining subsidiaries other than MLMC are unconsolidated (collectively the "Unconsolidated Mines"). Centennial Natural Resources, LLC ("Centennial"), which ceased coal production at the end of 2015, is also a consolidated entity.

NAM provides value-added services for independently owned limerock quarries and is reimbursed by its customers based on actual costs plus a management fee per unit of limerock delivered. The financial results for NAM are included in the consolidated mining operations or unconsolidated mining operations based on each entity's structure.

NACoal also provides coal handling, processing and drying services for a number of customers. For example, NoDak Energy Services, LLC ("NoDak"), operates and maintains a coal processing facility for a customer's power plant. North American Coal Royalty Company ("NACRC") provides surface and mineral acquisition and lease maintenance services related to the Company's operations.

See “Item 1. Business — A. North American Coal — General" on page 2 in this Form 10-K for further discussion of NACoal's subsidiaries.
FINANCIAL REVIEW
Tons of coal delivered by NACoal’s operating mines were as follows for the years ended December 31 (in millions):
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Coteau
14.7

 
14.1

 
14.4

Falkirk
7.2

 
7.2

 
8.0

Sabine
3.6

 
4.2

 
3.7

Bisti
3.7

 

 

Camino Real
2.4

 
1.8

 
0.5

Coyote Creek
2.2

 
1.5

 

Other
1.0

 
0.7

 
0.4

Unconsolidated mines
34.8

 
29.5

 
27.0

MLMC
2.4

 
3.0

 
3.2

Centennial

 

 
0.4

Consolidated mines
2.4

 
3.0

 
3.6

Total tons delivered
37.2

 
32.5

 
30.6


34


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

Cubic yards of limerock delivered by NAM were as follows for the years ended December 31 (in millions):
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Unconsolidated operations
2.0

 
0.3

 

Consolidated operations
28.0

 
25.8

 
20.9

Total yards delivered
30.0

 
26.1

 
20.9

Total coal reserves were as follows at December 31:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in billions of tons)
Unconsolidated mines
0.9

 
0.9

 
1.0

Consolidated mines
1.0

 
1.0

 
1.0

Total coal reserves
1.9

 
1.9

 
2.0

Operating Results
The results of operations for NACoal were as follows for the years ended December 31:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Revenue - consolidated mines
$
92,008

 
$
104,953

 
$
140,317

Revenue - royalty and other
12,770

 
6,128

 
7,681

Total revenues
104,778

 
111,081

 
147,998

Cost of sales - consolidated mines
85,657

 
96,374

 
156,092

Cost of sales - royalty and other
1,923

 
2,366

 
2,722

Total cost of sales
87,580

 
98,740

 
158,814

Gross profit (loss)
17,198

 
12,341

 
(10,816
)
Earnings of unconsolidated mines (a)
61,361

 
55,238

 
48,432

Selling, general and administrative expenses
40,393

 
41,844

 
36,261

Centennial asset impairment charge
982

 
17,443

 

Amortization of intangibles
2,123

 
2,503

 
2,606

(Gain) loss on sale of assets
(4,616
)
 
170

 
(1,772
)
Operating profit
39,677

 
5,619

 
521

Interest expense
3,440

 
4,317

 
4,961

Other (income) expense, net, including income from other unconsolidated affiliates
(994
)
 
1,270

 
(2,099
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
$
37,231

 
$
32

 
$
(2,341
)
(a) See Note 18 for a discussion of the Company's unconsolidated subsidiaries, including summarized financial information.

35


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

2017 Compared with 2016
The following table identifies the components of change in revenues for 2017 compared with 2016:
 
Revenues
2016
$
111,081

Increase (decrease) from:
 
Consolidated operations, excluding Centennial
(12,406
)
Centennial
(539
)
Royalty and other
6,642

2017
$
104,778


Revenues decreased 5.7% in 2017 compared with 2016 primarily due to a reduction in tons delivered at MLMC because of reduced customer requirements due to power plant outages during 2017. The decrease was partially offset by higher royalty and other revenues and an increase in limerock yards delivered at NAM's consolidated operations. 

The following table identifies the components of change in operating profit for 2017 compared with 2016.
 
Operating Profit
2016
$
5,619

Increase (decrease) from:
 
Centennial asset impairment charge
16,461

Royalty and other
7,075

Earnings of unconsolidated mines
6,123

Net gain on sale of assets, primarily Centennial
4,786

Resolution of a legal matter in Alabama in 2016
3,325

Centennial asset retirement obligation revision
2,403

Centennial mining operations
1,524

Consolidated mining operations, excluding Centennial
(5,619
)
Other selling, general and administrative expenses
(2,020
)
2017
$
39,677


Operating profit increased $34.1 million in 2017 compared with 2016. The increase in operating profit was primarily due to a reduction in asset impairment charges, higher royalty and other income and an increase in earnings of unconsolidated mines, as new mines began or increased production. Other increases in operating profit include an increase in the net gain on sale of assets, primarily due to a $2.3 million gain on the sale of a dragline at Centennial, the absence of expense related to the resolution of a legal matter in Alabama and a revision of estimated cash flows for Centennial's asset retirement obligation. See Note 7 and Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of Centennial's asset retirement obligation and asset impairment charges, respectively.

These increases were partially offset by a decrease in results at the consolidated mining operations primarily due to fewer tons delivered at MLMC because of reduced customer requirements due to power plant outages during 2017, and an increase in employee-related expenses at NAM's consolidated operations. The increase in other selling, general and administrative expenses is due to higher employee-related expenses partially offset by lower lease-related expenses.

In addition to the improvement in operating profit, interest expense decreased $0.9 million primarily due to lower average borrowings under NACoal's revolving credit facility during 2017 compared with 2016. Other (income) expense, including income from other unconsolidated affiliates, had $1.0 million of income during 2017 compared with a $1.3 million expense in 2016. During 2016, NACoal reversed an indemnification receivable related to an uncertain tax position initially recorded as

36


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

part of the Centennial acquisition that resulted in $2.2 million of other expense. The Company recorded an income tax benefit of $2.3 million as a result of the reversal of the corresponding uncertain tax position.

2016 Compared with 2015
The following table identifies the components of change in revenues for 2016 compared with 2015:
 
Revenues
2015
$
147,998

Increase (decrease) from:
 
Centennial
(33,875
)
Royalty and other
(1,553
)
Consolidated operations, excluding Centennial
(1,489
)
2016
$
111,081


Revenues decreased 24.9% in 2016 compared with 2015 primarily due to the cessation of coal production at Centennial at the end of 2015 and a decrease in royalty and other income. Additionally, increased revenues at NAM's consolidated operations from an increase in limerock yards delivered was more than offset by a reduction in revenues at MLMC due to a lower index-based coal sales price and fewer tons delivered during 2016 then in 2015. 
The following table identifies the components of change in operating profit for 2016 compared with 2015.
 
Operating Profit
2015
$
521

Increase (decrease) from:
 
Centennial mining operations
22,362

Centennial asset retirement obligation charge in 2015
7,526

Earnings of unconsolidated mines
6,806

Centennial asset impairment charge in 2016
(17,443
)
Consolidated mining operations, excluding Centennial
(4,760
)
Resolution of a legal matter in Alabama in 2016
(3,325
)
Other selling, general and administrative expenses
(2,930
)
Net loss on sale of assets, primarily Centennial
(1,942
)
Royalty and other
(1,196
)
2016
$
5,619


NACoal reported operating profit of $5.6 million in 2016 compared with operating profit of $0.5 million in 2015. Operating profit was favorably impacted by the cessation of coal production at Centennial at the end of 2015, which resulted in substantially lower operating costs to conduct the remaining day-to-day operations and the absence of a charge related to an increase in Centennial's asset retirement obligation. An increase in earnings of unconsolidated mines, as newer mines began or increased production, also contributed to the increase in operating profit.

These items were partially offset by an asset impairment charge at Centennial, a decrease in operating profit at the other consolidated mining operations, expense related to the resolution of a legal matter in Alabama and an increase in other selling, general and administrative expenses due to increased lease-related expenses. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of Centennial's asset impairment charges. At the other consolidated mining operations, operating results at MLMC were lower during 2016 compared with 2015 due to a lower index-based coal sales price and fewer tons delivered. The decline at MLMC was partially offset by an increase in limerock yards delivered at NAM's consolidated operations during 2016 compared with 2015.


37


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NACCO INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Per Share and Percentage Data)

The improvement in operating profit in 2016 was offset by changes in other income and expense. NACoal recognized break-even income before taxes in 2016 compared with a loss before taxes of $2.3 million in 2015. During 2016, NACoal reversed an indemnification receivable related to an uncertain tax position that resulted in $2.2 million of other expense. The uncertain tax position and the indemnification receivable were initially recorded as part of the Centennial acquisition. Dividend income of $0.9 million recognized in 2015 did not recur in 2016.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Flows
The following tables detail the change in cash flow for the years ended December 31:
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
38,275

 
$
8,244

 
$
30,031

Depreciation, depletion and amortization
12,444

 
12,682

 
(238
)
Deferred income taxes
(2,790
)
 
16,842

 
(19,632
)
(Gain) loss on sale of assets
(4,616
)
 
170

 
(4,786
)
Centennial asset impairment charge
982

 
17,443

 
(16,461
)
Other
15,549

 
(838
)
 
16,387

Working capital changes
(11,208
)
 
(19,603
)
 
8,395

Net cash provided by operating activities
48,636

 
34,940

 
13,696

 
 
 
 
 
 
Investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Expenditures for property, plant and equipment
(15,692
)
 
(10,109
)
 
(5,583
)
Proceeds from the sale of assets
3,122

 
7,983

 
(4,861
)
Other
1,008

 
(1,790
)
 
2,798

Net cash used for investing activities
(11,562
)
 
(3,916
)
 
(7,646
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flow before financing activities
$
37,074

 
$