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(Mark One)
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
For the transition period from             to             .
Commission File Number: 1-9044 (Duke Realty Corporation) 0-20625 (Duke Realty Limited Partnership)
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Indiana(Duke Realty Corporation) 35-1740409 (Duke Realty Corporation)
Indiana(Duke Realty Limited Partnership)35-1898425 (Duke Realty Limited Partnership)
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
8711 River Crossing Boulevard 
        (Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Duke Realty CorporationCommon Stock, $0.01 par valueDRENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Duke Realty Corporation
Duke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  
Duke Realty CorporationYes
Duke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    
Duke Realty Corporation
Duke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Duke Realty CorporationYes
Duke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Duke Realty Corporation:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Duke Realty Limited Partnership:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Duke Realty Corporation
Duke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Duke Realty CorporationYesNoDuke Realty Limited PartnershipYesNo
The aggregate market value of the voting shares of Duke Realty Corporation's outstanding common shares held by non-affiliates of Duke Realty Corporation is $13.19 billion based on the last reported sale price on June 30, 2020.
The number of common shares of Duke Realty Corporation, $0.01 par value outstanding as of February 17, 2021 was 373,765,851.
Certain portions of Duke Realty Corporation's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the "2021 Proxy Statement") to be filed pursuant to Rule 14a-6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K. Other than those portions of the 2021 Proxy Statement specifically incorporated by reference pursuant to Items 10 through 14 of Part III hereof, no other portions of the 2021 Proxy Statement shall be deemed so incorporated.

This report (the "Report") combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 of both Duke Realty Corporation and Duke Realty Limited Partnership. Unless stated otherwise or the context otherwise requires, references to "Duke Realty Corporation" or the "General Partner" mean Duke Realty Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries; and references to the "Partnership" mean Duke Realty Limited Partnership and its consolidated subsidiaries. The terms the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to the General Partner and the Partnership, collectively, and those entities owned or controlled by the General Partner and/or the Partnership.
Duke Realty Corporation is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust ("REIT") and is the sole general partner of the Partnership, owning 99.1% of the common partnership interests of the Partnership ("General Partner Units") as of December 31, 2020. The remaining 0.9% of the common partnership interests ("Limited Partner Units" and, together with the General Partner Units, the "Common Units") are owned by limited partners. As the sole general partner of the Partnership, the General Partner has full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the day-to-day management and control of the Partnership.
The General Partner and the Partnership are operated as one enterprise. The management of the General Partner consists of the same members as the management of the Partnership. As the sole general partner with control of the Partnership, the General Partner consolidates the Partnership for financial reporting purposes, and the General Partner does not have any significant assets other than its investment in the Partnership. Therefore, the assets and liabilities of the General Partner and the Partnership are substantially the same.
We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of the General Partner and the Partnership into this single report results in the following benefits:
enhances investors' understanding of the General Partner and the Partnership by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;
eliminates duplicative disclosure and provides a more streamlined and readable presentation of information since a substantial portion of the Company's disclosure applies to both the General Partner and the Partnership; and
creates time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.
We believe it is important to understand the few differences between the General Partner and the Partnership in the context of how we operate as an interrelated consolidated company. The General Partner's only material asset is its ownership of partnership interests in the Partnership. As a result, the General Partner does not conduct business itself, other than acting as the sole general partner of the Partnership and issuing public equity from time to time. The General Partner does not issue any indebtedness, but does guarantee some of the unsecured debt of the Partnership. The Partnership holds substantially all the assets of the business, directly or indirectly, and holds the ownership interests related to certain of the Company's investments. The Partnership conducts the operations of the business and has no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from equity issuances by the General Partner, which are contributed to the Partnership in exchange for General Partner Units or Preferred Units, the Partnership generates the capital required by the business through its operations, its incurrence of indebtedness and the issuance of Limited Partner Units to third parties.
Noncontrolling interests, shareholders' equity and partners' capital are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of the General Partner and those of the Partnership. The noncontrolling interests in the Partnership's financial statements include the interests in consolidated investees not wholly owned by the Partnership. The noncontrolling interests in the General Partner's financial statements include the same noncontrolling interests at the Partnership level, as well as the common limited partnership interests in the Partnership, which are accounted for as partners' capital by the Partnership.
In order to highlight the differences between the General Partner and the Partnership, there are separate sections in this report, as applicable, that separately discuss the General Partner and the Partnership, including separate financial statements and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications. In the sections that combine disclosure of the General Partner and the Partnership, this report refers to actions or holdings as being actions or holdings of the collective Company.

Form 10-K
Item No. Page(s)
Form 10-K Summary

Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this Report on Form 10-K for the General Partner and the Partnership, including, without limitation, those related to our future operations, constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The words "believe," "estimate," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "strategy," "continue," "plan," "seek," "could," "may" and similar expressions or statements regarding future periods are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements may contain such words.
These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to differ materially from any predictions of future results, performance or achievements that we express or imply in this Report or in the information incorporated by reference into this Report. Some of the risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may affect future results include, among others: 
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, our tenants and the economy in general, including the measures taken by governmental authorities to address it;
Changes in general economic and business conditions, including the financial condition of our tenants and the value of our real estate assets;
Changes to U.S. laws, regulations, rules and policies, including changes that may be forthcoming as a result of the change in administration in the U.S.;
The General Partner's continued qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
Heightened competition for tenants and potential decreases in property occupancy;
Potential changes in the financial markets and interest rates;
Volatility in the General Partner's stock price and trading volume;
Our continuing ability to raise funds on favorable terms, or at all;
Our ability to successfully identify, acquire, develop and/or manage properties on terms that are favorable to us;
Potential increases in real estate construction costs including construction cost increases as the result of trade disputes and tariffs on goods imported in the United States;
Our real estate asset concentration in the industrial sector and potential volatility in this sector;
Our ability to successfully dispose of properties on terms that are favorable to us;
Our ability to successfully integrate our acquired properties;
Our ability to retain our current credit ratings;
Inherent risks related to disruption of information technology networks and related systems and cyber security attacks;
Inherent risks in the real estate business, including, but not limited to, tenant defaults, potential liability relating to environmental matters and liquidity of real estate investments; and
Other risks and uncertainties described herein, as well as those risks and uncertainties discussed from time to time in our other reports and other public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").
Although we presently believe that the plans, expectations and anticipated results expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this Report are reasonable, all forward-

looking statements are inherently subjective, uncertain and subject to change, as they involve substantial risks and uncertainties, including those beyond our control. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict the nature, or assess the potential impact, of each new factor on our business. Given these uncertainties, we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any of our forward-looking statements for events or circumstances that arise after the statement is made, except as otherwise may be required by law.
The above list of risks and uncertainties is only a summary of some of the most important factors and is not intended to be exhaustive. Additional information regarding risk factors that may affect us is included under the caption "Risk Factors" in this Report, and is updated by us from time to time in Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings that we make with the SEC.

Item 1.  Business
The General Partner and Partnership collectively specialize in the ownership, management and development of bulk distribution ("industrial") real estate.
The General Partner is a self-administered and self-managed REIT, which began operations upon completion of an initial public offering in February 1986.
The Partnership was formed in October 1993, when the General Partner contributed all of its properties and related assets and liabilities, together with the net proceeds from an offering of additional shares of its common stock, to the Partnership. Simultaneously, the Partnership completed the acquisition of Duke Associates, a full-service commercial real estate firm operating in the Midwest whose operations began in 1972. The General Partner is the sole general partner of the Partnership, owning 99.1% of the Common Units at December 31, 2020. The remaining 0.9% of the Common Units are owned by limited partners. Limited partners have the right to redeem their Limited Partner Units, subject to certain restrictions. Pursuant to the Fifth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership, as amended (the "Partnership Agreement"), the General Partner is obligated to redeem the Limited Partner Units in shares of its common stock, unless it determines in its reasonable discretion that the issuance of shares of its common stock could cause it to fail to qualify as a REIT. Each Limited Partner Unit shall be redeemed for one share of the General Partner's common stock, or, in the event that the issuance of shares could cause the General Partner to fail to qualify as a REIT, cash equal to the fair market value of one share of the General Partner's common stock at the time of redemption, in each case, subject to certain adjustments described in the Partnership Agreement. The Limited Partner Units are not required, per the terms of the Partnership Agreement, to be redeemed in registered shares of the General Partner.
At December 31, 2020, we owned or jointly controlled 537 primarily industrial properties which encompassed 159.6 million rentable square feet (including 40 unconsolidated joint venture in-service properties with 11.5 million square feet, 16 consolidated properties under development with 6.9 million square feet and one unconsolidated joint venture property under development with 517,000 square feet). Our properties are leased by a diverse base of more than 800 tenants whose businesses include e-commerce, manufacturing, retailing, wholesale trade, and distribution. We have one tenant, to whom we both lease a significant amount of space and also provide general contractor and construction management services, from whom we derived greater than 10.0% of our total revenues. We also owned, including through ownership interests in unconsolidated joint ventures (with acreage not adjusted for our percentage ownership interest), 1,000 acres of land and controlled an additional 800 acres through purchase options.
Our headquarters and executive offices are located in Indianapolis, Indiana. We additionally have regional offices or significant operations in 19 other geographic or metropolitan areas including Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Cincinnati, Ohio; Columbus, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Nashville, Tennessee; Raleigh, North Carolina; Savannah, Georgia; Seattle, Washington; St. Louis, Missouri; Washington D.C./Baltimore, Maryland; Central Florida; New Jersey; Northern and Southern California; Pennsylvania and South Florida.

See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for information related to our operational, asset and capital strategies.
Competitive Conditions
As a fully integrated commercial real estate firm, we provide in-house leasing, management, development and construction services which we believe, coupled with our significant base of commercially zoned and unencumbered land in existing business parks, should give us a competitive advantage as a real estate operator and in future development activities.
We believe that the management of real estate opportunities and risks can be done most effectively at regional or on local levels. As a result, we intend to continue our emphasis on increasing our market share, to the extent it is in markets that align with our asset strategy (see Item 7), and effective rents in the primary markets where we own properties. We believe that this regional focus will allow us to assess market supply and demand for real estate more effectively as well as to capitalize on the strong relationships with our tenant base. In addition, we seek to further capitalize on our many strong relationships with customers that operate on a national level. As a fully integrated real estate company, we are able to arrange for or provide to our tenants not only well located and well maintained facilities, but also additional services such as build-to-suit construction, tenant finish construction, and expansion flexibility.
All of our properties are located in areas that include competitive properties. Institutional investors, other REITs or local real estate operators generally own such properties; however, no single competitor or small group of competitors is dominant in our current markets. The supply of and demand for similar available rental properties may affect the rental rates we will receive on our properties. Other competitive factors include the attractiveness of the property location, the quality of the property and tenant services provided, and the reputation of the owner and operator.
Corporate Governance
Since our inception, we not only have strived to be a top-performer operationally, but also to lead in issues important to investors such as disclosure and corporate governance. The General Partner's system of governance reinforces this commitment and, as a limited partnership that has one general partner owning over 90% of the Partnership's common interest, the governance of the Partnership is necessarily linked to the corporate governance of the General Partner. Summarized below are the highlights of the General Partner's Corporate Governance initiatives. 

Board Composition  • The General Partner's board is controlled by a supermajority (92.3%) of "Independent Directors," as such term is defined under the rules of the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE")
• 50% of the Independent Directors are female or people of color and the General Partner's compensation and human capital committee is chaired by a female
Board Committees  • The General Partner's board committee members are all Independent Directors
Lead Director  • The Lead Director serves as the Chairman of the General Partner's corporate governance committee
Board Policies- Proactively amended and restated the General Partner's Bylaws to implement proxy access
- Adopted a Board Diversity and Inclusion Policy
- No Shareholder Rights Plan (Poison Pill)
- Code of Business Ethics applies to all directors and employees of the General Partner, including the Chief Executive Officer and senior financial officers; waivers applied to executive officers require the approval of (i) the General Partner's board of directors or (ii) the General Partner's corporate governance committee
- Orientation program for new directors of the General Partner
- Independence of directors of the General Partner is reviewed annually
- Independent Directors of the General Partner meet at least quarterly in executive sessions
- Independent Directors of the General Partner receive no compensation from the General Partner other than as directors
- Equity-based compensation plans require the approval of the General Partner's shareholders
- Board effectiveness and performance is reviewed annually by the General Partner's corporate governance committee
- Individual director evaluations are performed annually
- The General Partner's corporate governance committee conducts an annual review of the Chief Executive Officer succession plan
- Independent Directors and all board committees of the General Partner may retain outside advisors, as they deem appropriate
- Prohibition on repricing of outstanding stock options of the General Partner
- Directors of the General Partner required to offer resignation upon job change
- Majority voting for election of directors of the General Partner
- Human Rights Policy
- Shareholder Communications Policy
OwnershipMinimum Stock Ownership Guidelines apply to all directors and executive officers of the General Partner
The General Partner's Code of Business Ethics (which applies to all directors and employees of the General Partner, including the Chief Executive Officer and senior financial officers) and the Corporate Governance Guidelines are available in the Investor Relations/Corporate Governance section of the General Partner's website at www.dukerealty.com. A copy of these documents may also be obtained without charge by writing to Duke Realty Corporation, 8711 River Crossing Boulevard, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240, Attention: Investor Relations. If we amend our Code of Business Ethics as it applies to the directors and all executive officers of the General Partner or grant a waiver from any provision of the Code of Business Ethics to any such person, we may, rather than filing a current report on Form 8-K, disclose such amendment or waiver in the Investor Relations/Corporate Governance section of the General Partner's website at www.dukerealty.com.
Human Capital
We had approximately 350 employees at December 31, 2020 and our average associate tenure was 12.7 years. Our compensation and human capital committee, a board committee, reviews associate turnover and diversity, as well as associate development and engagement programs. We also routinely conduct associate engagement surveys and have received numerous awards for being a great place to work. While attracting, developing and retaining our talent, we are dedicated to fair compensation, fostering an inclusive and diverse culture and a dynamic and balanced work environment, which provides associates with opportunities to perform well and derive satisfaction from their

work. The compensation structures of many of our senior employees are directly tied to metrics or other objectives that support our corporate strategy.

We require ethical conduct by our employees and all employees are required to complete annual Code of Business Ethics training sessions, and associates and directors must sign off on our Code of Business Ethics every year.

See more information regarding employee benefits and company programs under Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business Overview - Environmental, Social and Governance Strategy".

Additional Information
For additional information regarding our investments and operations, see Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." For additional information about our business segments, see Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - (10) Segment Reporting."
Available Information
In addition to this Report, we file quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. All documents that are filed with the SEC are available free of charge on the General Partner's corporate website, which is www.dukerealty.com. We are not incorporating the information on the General Partner's website into this Report, and the General Partner's website and the information appearing on the General Partner's website is not included in, and is not part of, this Report. You may also access any document filed through the SEC's home page on the Internet (http://www.sec.gov).

Item 1A. Risk Factors
In addition to the other information contained in this Report, you should carefully consider, in consultation with your legal, financial and other professional advisors, the risks described below, as well as the risk factors and uncertainties discussed in our other public filings with the SEC under the caption "Risk Factors" in evaluating us and our business before making a decision regarding an investment in the General Partner's securities.
The risks contained in this Report are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks that are not presently known, or that we presently deem to be immaterial, also could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects. The trading price of the General Partner's securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and its shareholders and/or the Partnership's unitholders may lose all or part of their investment.
This Report also contains forward-looking statements that may not be realized as a result of certain factors, including, but not limited to, the risks described herein and in our other public filings with the SEC. Please refer to the section in this Report entitled "Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" for additional information regarding forward-looking statements.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The full effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
An outbreak of COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by a novel corona virus, has spread internationally, including in the United States where we operate. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak to be a pandemic, and the President of the United States declared it a national emergency. Globally, population movement and trade have been restricted to varying degrees. Within the United States, since the time of its onset, various state and local governmental authorities have enacted measures, to varying degrees, aimed at minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Although there are vaccines that have been approved and are in the early stages of distribution, it cannot be predicted how long it will take before a sufficient percentage of the United States' population is vaccinated to return to normal conditions. Additionally, new and potentially more contagious variants of COVID-19 have been identified, which could further amplify the impact of the pandemic. In general, there is

much uncertainty regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and it may result in prolonged recessionary conditions that could have a further detrimental impact on our tenant base, our ability to lease vacant space and our ability to grow through development and acquisition.

A prolonged COVID-19 outbreak could negatively impact our operations and financial condition.

Should the major public health issues caused by the COVID-19 outbreak persist for an extended period of time, we could be adversely affected by actions limiting trade and population movement, the movement of goods through the supply chain, and other impacts to the general economy, discretionary spending, business and consumer demand that may diminish the demand and rents for our properties. To date, only an insignificant portion of our tenant base has declared bankruptcy as the result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the event of the default or insolvency of a significant number of our tenants, we may experience a substantial loss of rental revenue and/or delays in collecting rent and incur substantial costs in enforcing our rights as landlord. If a tenant files for bankruptcy protection, a court could allow the tenant to reject and terminate its lease with us.

As a result, our financial condition, results of operations and distributable cash flow would be adversely affected if a significant number of our tenants became unable to meet their obligations to us, became insolvent or declared bankruptcy, and if we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the space, or if the rental rates upon such renewal or reletting are significantly lower than current rates.

Our stock price could be negatively impacted by COVID-19.

The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in significant market volatility, including large swings in global stock prices that have adversely affected trade and global and local economies. These conditions may worsen in future periods and negatively impact our share price.

COVID-19 could adversely affect our ability to finance our operations.

The COVID-19 outbreak has also adversely impacted financial institutions which could, in future periods, negatively impact their willingness to extend credit or result in adverse changes to the terms at which credit is extended. The United States Federal Government has taken certain measures to support continued liquidity and availability of capital, but there is no guarantee that these measures will continue to be successful. These potential risks could negatively impact our future ability to access capital, which would negatively impact our liquidity and our ability to execute our strategic plans.

The ability of our employees to work may be adversely impacted by COVID-19.

Our workforce, including key employees, could be adversely impacted by the outbreak in future periods. Currently, most of our employees are working remotely and some are working on-site. The impacts of the outbreak could, among other things, negatively affect (i) the operation of our properties, (ii) the timeliness of our strategic decision making, (iii) the operation of an effective cyber security function, (iv) the operation of our key information systems, (v) our ability to make timely filings with the SEC and (vi) our ability to maintain an effective control environment.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our use of debt financing could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our cash flow will be insufficient to meet required principal and interest payments and the long-term risk that we will be unable to refinance our existing indebtedness, or that the terms of such refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of existing indebtedness. Additionally, we may not be able to refinance borrowings by our unconsolidated subsidiaries on favorable terms or at all. If our debt cannot be paid, refinanced or extended, we may not be able to make distributions to shareholders and unitholders at expected levels. Further, if prevailing interest rates or other factors at the time of a refinancing result in higher interest rates or other restrictive financial covenants upon the refinancing,

then such refinancing would adversely affect our cash flow and funds available for operation, development and distribution.
We also have incurred, and may incur in the future, indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates. Thus, if market interest rates increase, so will our interest expense, which could reduce our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders and unitholders at expected levels.
Debt financing may not be available and equity issuances could be dilutive to our shareholders and unitholders.
Our ability to execute our business strategy depends on our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit and other forms of secured and unsecured debt, and equity financing, including common equity and, at times, preferred equity issued by the General Partner. Debt financing may not be available over a longer period of time in sufficient amounts, on favorable terms or at all. If the General Partner issues additional equity securities, instead of debt, to manage capital needs, the interests of our existing shareholders and unitholders could be diluted.
Financial and other covenants under existing credit agreements could limit our flexibility and adversely affect our financial condition.
The terms of our various credit agreements and other indebtedness require that we comply with a number of customary financial and other covenants, such as maintaining debt service coverage and leverage ratios and maintaining insurance coverage. These covenants may limit our flexibility in our operations, and breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the applicable indebtedness even if we have satisfied our payment obligations. As a result, we would also likely be unable to borrow any further amounts under our other debt instruments and other debt obligations may be accelerated, which could adversely affect our ability to fund operations.
Downgrades in our credit ratings could increase our borrowing costs or reduce our access to funding sources in the credit and capital markets.
We have a significant amount of debt outstanding, consisting mostly of unsecured debt. We are currently assigned corporate credit ratings from Moody's Investors Service, Inc. and Standard and Poor's Ratings Group based on their evaluation of our creditworthiness. All of our debt ratings remain investment grade, but there can be no assurance that we will not be downgraded or that any of our ratings will remain investment grade. If our credit ratings are downgraded or other negative action is taken, we could be required, among other things, to pay additional interest and fees on outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit agreement.
Credit rating reductions by one or more rating agencies could also adversely affect our access to funding sources, the cost and other terms of obtaining funding as well as our overall financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
If we are unable to generate sufficient capital and liquidity, then we may be unable to pursue future development projects and other strategic initiatives.
To complete our ongoing and planned development projects, and to pursue our other strategic initiatives, we must continue to generate sufficient capital and liquidity to fund those activities. To generate that capital and liquidity, we rely upon funds from our existing operations, as well as funds that we raise through our capital raising activities. In the event that we are unable to generate sufficient capital and liquidity to meet our long-term needs, or if we are unable to generate capital and liquidity on terms that are favorable to us, then we may not be able to pursue development projects, acquisitions, or our other long-term strategic initiatives.
Our use of joint ventures may negatively impact our jointly-owned investments.
We have, and may continue to develop properties in, or contribute properties to, joint ventures with other persons or entities when circumstances warrant the use of these structures. Our participation in joint ventures is subject to the risks that: 

We could become engaged in a dispute, or have conflicts of interests, with any of our joint venture partners that might affect our ability to develop or operate a property; and
Our joint venture partners may have different objectives than we have regarding the appropriate timing and terms of any sale or refinancing of properties.
Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry
Our net earnings available for investment or distribution to shareholders and unitholders could decrease as a result of factors related to the ownership and operation of commercial real estate, many of which are outside of our control.
Our business is subject to the risks incident to the ownership and operation of commercial real estate, many of which involve circumstances not within our control. Such risks include the following: 
Changes in the general economic climate;
The availability of capital on favorable terms, or at all;
Increases in interest rates;
Local conditions such as oversupply of property or a reduction in demand;
Competition for tenants;
Changes in market rental rates;
Delay or inability to collect rent from tenants who are bankrupt, insolvent or otherwise unwilling or unable to pay;
Difficulty in leasing or re-leasing space quickly or on favorable terms;
Costs associated with periodically renovating, repairing and reletting rental space;
Our ability to provide adequate maintenance and insurance on our properties;
Our ability to control variable operating costs;
Changes in government regulations; and
Potential liability under, and changes in, environmental, zoning, tax and other laws.
Any one or more of these factors could result in a reduction in our net earnings available for investment or distribution to shareholders and unitholders.
Many real estate costs are fixed, even if income from properties decreases.
Our financial results depend on leasing space in our real estate to tenants on terms favorable to us. Our income and funds available for distribution to our shareholders and unitholders will decrease if a significant number of our tenants cannot meet their lease obligations to us or we are unable to lease properties on favorable terms. In addition, if a tenant does not pay its rent, we may not be able to enforce our rights as landlord without delays and we may incur substantial legal costs. Costs associated with real estate investment, such as real estate taxes, insurance, maintenance costs and our debt service payments, generally are not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in income from the investment. As a result, we may have a reduction in our net earnings available for investment or distribution to our shareholders and unitholders.


Our real estate development activities are subject to risks particular to development.
We continue to selectively develop new properties for rental operations in our existing markets when accretive returns are present. These development activities generally require various government and other approvals, which we may not receive. In addition, we also are subject to the following risks associated with development activities: 
Unsuccessful development opportunities could result in direct expenses to us;
Construction costs could increase as the result of trade disputes and tariffs on goods imported in the United States;
Construction costs of a project may exceed original estimates, possibly making the project less profitable than originally estimated, or possibly unprofitable;
Time required to complete the construction of a project or to lease up the completed project may be greater than originally anticipated, thereby adversely affecting our cash flow and liquidity;
Occupancy rates and rents of a completed project may not be sufficient to make the project profitable; and
Favorable sources to fund our development activities may not be available.
We may be unsuccessful in operating completed real estate projects.
We face the risk that the real estate projects we develop or acquire will not perform in accordance with our expectations. This risk exists because of factors such as the following: 
Prices paid for acquired facilities are based upon a series of market judgments; and
Costs of any improvements required to bring an acquired facility up to standards to establish the market position intended for that facility might exceed budgeted costs.
As a result, we may develop or acquire projects that are not profitable.
Our investments are concentrated in the industrial sector and our business would be adversely affected by an economic downturn in that sector.
Our investments in real estate assets are concentrated in the industrial sector. This concentration may expose us to the risk of economic downturns in this sector to a greater extent than if our business activities were more diversified.
We are exposed to the risks of defaults by tenants.
Any of our tenants may experience a downturn in their businesses that may weaken their financial condition. In the event of default or the insolvency of a significant number of our tenants, we may experience a substantial loss of rental revenue and/or delays in collecting rent and incur substantial costs in enforcing our rights as landlord. If a tenant files for bankruptcy protection, a court could allow the tenant to reject and terminate its lease with us. Our income and distributable cash flow would be adversely affected if a significant number of our tenants became unable to meet their obligations to us, became insolvent or declared bankruptcy.
We may be unable to renew leases or relet space.
When our tenants decide not to renew their leases upon their expiration, we may not be able to relet the space. Even if our tenants do renew or we are able to relet the space, the terms of renewal or reletting (including the cost of renovations, if necessary) may be less favorable than current lease terms. If we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the space, or if the rental rates upon such renewal or reletting are significantly lower than current rates, then our income and distributable cash flow would be adversely affected, especially if we were unable to lease a significant amount of the space vacated by tenants in our properties.


Our insurance coverage on our properties may be inadequate.
We maintain comprehensive insurance on each of our facilities, including property, liability and environmental coverage. We believe this coverage is of the type and amount customarily obtained for real property. However, there are certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods or acts of war or terrorism that may be uninsurable or not economically insurable. We use our discretion when determining amounts, coverage limits and deductibles for insurance. These terms are determined based on retaining an acceptable level of risk at a reasonable cost. This may result in insurance coverage that in the event of a substantial loss would not be sufficient to pay the full current replacement cost of the damaged assets. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations, acts of a governmental authority and other factors also may make it unfeasible to collect insurance proceeds to replace a facility after it has been damaged or destroyed. If an uninsured or underinsured loss occurred, we could lose both our investment in and anticipated profits and cash flow from a property, and we would continue to be obligated on any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the property. We are also subject to the risk that our insurance providers may be unwilling or unable to pay our claims when made.
Our acquisition and disposition activity may lead to long-term dilution.
Our asset strategy is to increase our investment concentration in coastal Tier 1 markets. There can be no assurance that we will be able to execute our strategy or that our execution of such strategy will lead to improved results.
Acquired properties may expose us to unknown liability.
From time to time, we may acquire properties subject to liabilities and without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, with respect to unknown liabilities. As a result, if a liability were asserted against us based upon ownership of those properties, we might have to pay substantial sums to settle or contest it, which could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow. Unknown liabilities with respect to acquired properties might include: 

liabilities for clean-up of undisclosed environmental contamination;
claims by tenants, vendors or other persons against the former owners of the properties;
liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business; and
claims for indemnification by general partners, directors, officers and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties.
We could be exposed to significant environmental liabilities as a result of conditions of which we currently are not aware.
As an owner and operator of real property, we may be liable under various federal, state and local laws for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous substances released on or in our property. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release of the hazardous substances. In addition, we could have greater difficulty in selling real estate on which hazardous substances were present or in obtaining borrowings using such real estate as collateral. It is our general policy to have Phase I environmental audits performed for all of our properties and land by qualified environmental consultants at the time of purchase. These Phase I environmental audits have not revealed any environmental liability that would have a material adverse effect on our business. However, a Phase I environmental audit does not involve invasive procedures such as soil sampling or ground water analysis, and we cannot be sure that the Phase I environmental audits did not fail to reveal a significant environmental liability or that a prior owner did not create a material environmental condition on our properties or land which has not yet been discovered. We could also incur environmental liability as a result of future uses or conditions of such real estate or changes in applicable environmental laws.


We are exposed to the potential impacts of future climate change and climate-change related risks.
We are exposed to potential physical risks from possible future changes in climate. We have a significant investment in properties in coastal markets such as Southern California, Northern California and South Florida and have also targeted those markets for future growth. Those coastal markets have historically experienced severe weather events, such as storms and drought, as well as other natural catastrophes such as wildfires and floods. If the frequency of extreme weather and other natural events increases due to climate change, our exposure to these events could increase. We may also be adversely impacted as a real estate developer in the future by stricter energy and water efficiency standards as well as water access for our buildings.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
If the General Partner were to cease to qualify as a REIT, it would lose significant tax benefits.
The General Partner intends to continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"). Qualification as a REIT provides significant tax advantages to the General Partner. However, in order for the General Partner to continue to qualify as a REIT, it must satisfy numerous requirements established under highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. Satisfaction of these requirements also depends on various factual circumstances not entirely within our control. The fact that the General Partner holds its assets through the Partnership further complicates the application of the REIT requirements. Even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize the General Partner's REIT status. Although we believe that the General Partner can continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT, we cannot offer any assurance that it will continue to do so or that legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions will not significantly change the qualification requirements or the federal income tax consequences of qualification. If the General Partner were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, it would have the following effects: 
The General Partner would not be allowed a deduction for dividends distributed to shareholders and would be subject to federal corporate income tax (and any applicable state and local income taxes) on its taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates;
Unless the General Partner was entitled to relief under certain statutory provisions, it would be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to qualify as a REIT;
The General Partner's net earnings available for investment or distribution to its shareholders would decrease due to the additional tax liability for the year or years involved; and
The General Partner would no longer be required to make any distributions to shareholders in order to qualify as a REIT.
As such, the General Partner's failure to qualify as a REIT would likely have a significant adverse effect on the value of the General Partner's securities and, consequently, the Partnership's Units.
REIT distribution requirements limit the amount of cash we have available for other business purposes, including amounts that we need to fund our future capital needs.
To maintain its qualification as a REIT under the Code, the General Partner must annually distribute to its shareholders at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction and excluding net capital gains. The General Partner intends to continue to make distributions to its shareholders to comply with the 90% distribution requirement. However, this requirement limits our ability to accumulate capital for use for other business purposes. If we do not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the distribution requirements of the General Partner, we may have to borrow funds or sell properties on adverse terms in order to meet the distribution requirements. If the General Partner fails to satisfy the distribution requirement, it would cease to qualify as a REIT.


U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs and investments in REITs may change in a manner that could adversely affect us or shareholders.
Legislative, regulatory or administrative changes could be enacted or promulgated at any time, either prospectively or with retroactive effect, and may adversely affect us and/or shareholders.

General Risk Factors
Our business and operations could suffer in the event of system failures or cyber security attacks.

Our systems are vulnerable to damages from any number of sources, including energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures and cyber security attacks, such as computer viruses, computer hacking, acts of vandalism or theft, malware or other malicious codes, phishing, employee error or malfeasance, or other unauthorized access. Any system failure or accident that causes interruptions in our operations could result in a material disruption to our business. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by such disruptions. Any future significant compromise or breach of our data security, whether external or internal, or misuse of customer, associate, supplier or company data, could result in significant costs, lost sales, fines, lawsuits, and damage to our reputation. Any compromise of our security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, unauthorized access to information of ours and others, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

We have programs in place to detect, contain and respond to data security incidents. However, the ever-evolving threats mean we and our third-party service providers and vendors must continually evaluate and adapt our respective systems and processes and overall security environment. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable when considering the rapid pace of change in this area. There can be no assurance that our efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our systems will be effective, or that we will be able to maintain our systems free from security breaches, system compromises, misuses of data, or other operational interruptions. Accordingly, we may be unable to prevent major security breaches or entirely mitigate the risk of other system interruptions or failures.

We could also be negatively impacted by similar disruptions to the operations of our vendors or outsourced service providers.

The General Partner's stock price and trading volume may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to its shareholders and to the Partnership's unitholders, if and when they convert their Limited Partner Units to shares of the General Partner's common stock.
The market price of the General Partner's common stock could change in ways that may or may not be related to our business, our industry or our operating performance and financial condition. In addition, the trading volume in the General Partner's common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. Some of the factors that could negatively affect the General Partner's share price, or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of the General Partner's common stock, include uncertainty in the markets, general market and economic conditions, as well as those factors described in these "Risk Factors" and in other reports that we file with the SEC.
Many of these factors are beyond our control, and we cannot predict their potential effects on the price of the General Partner's common stock. If the market price of the General Partner's common stock declines, then its shareholders and the Partnership's unitholders, respectively, may be unable to resell their shares and units upon terms that are attractive to them. We cannot assure that the market price of the General Partner's common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. In addition, the securities markets in general may experience considerable unexpected price and volume fluctuations.


We are subject to certain provisions that could discourage change-of-control transactions, which may reduce the likelihood of the General Partner's shareholders receiving a control premium for their shares.
Indiana anti-takeover legislation and certain provisions in our governing documents, as we discuss below, may discourage potential acquirers from pursuing a change-of-control transaction with us. As a result, the General Partner's shareholders may be less likely to receive a control premium for their shares.
Ownership Restriction. Subject to certain exceptions, the General Partner's charter provides that no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the General Partner's outstanding common stock or 9.8% in value of its outstanding stock.
Unissued Preferred Stock. The General Partner's charter permits its board of directors to classify unissued preferred stock by setting the rights and preferences of the shares at the time of issuance. This power enables the General Partner's board to adopt a shareholder rights plan, also known as a poison pill. Although the General Partner has repealed its previously existing poison pill and its current board of directors has adopted a policy not to adopt a shareholder rights plan without shareholder approval, the General Partner's board can change this policy at any time. The adoption of a poison pill would discourage a potential bidder from acquiring a significant position in the General Partner without the approval of its board.
Business-Combination Provisions of Indiana Law. The General Partner has not opted out of the business-combination provisions of the Indiana Business Corporation Law. As a result, potential bidders may have to negotiate with the General Partner's board of directors before acquiring 10% of its stock. Without securing board approval of the proposed business combination before crossing the 10% ownership threshold, a bidder would not be permitted to complete a business combination for five years after becoming a 10% shareholder. Even after the five-year period, a business combination with the significant shareholder would either be required to meet certain per share price minimums as set forth in the Indiana Business Corporation Law or to receive the approval of a majority of the disinterested shareholders.
Control-Share-Acquisition Provisions of Indiana Law. The General Partner has not opted out of the provisions of the Indiana Business Corporation Law regarding acquisitions of control shares. Therefore, those who acquire a significant block (at least 20%) of the General Partner's shares may only vote a portion of their shares unless its other shareholders vote to accord full voting rights to the acquiring person. Moreover, if the other shareholders vote to give full voting rights with respect to the control shares and the acquiring person has acquired a majority of the General Partner's outstanding shares, the other shareholders would be entitled to special dissenters' rights.
Supermajority Voting Provisions. The General Partner's charter prohibits business combinations or significant disposition transactions with a holder of 10% of its shares unless: 
The holders of 80% of the General Partner's outstanding shares of capital stock approve the transaction;
The transaction has been approved by three-fourths of those directors who served on the General Partner's board before the shareholder became a 10% owner; or
The significant shareholder complies with the "fair price" provisions of the General Partner's charter.
Among the transactions with large shareholders requiring the supermajority shareholder approval are dispositions of assets with a value greater than or equal to $1,000,000 and business combinations.
Operating Partnership Provisions. The limited partnership agreement of the Partnership contains provisions that could discourage change-of-control transactions, including a requirement that holders of at least 90% of the outstanding Common Units approve: 
Any voluntary sale, exchange, merger, consolidation or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Partnership in one or more transactions other than a disposition occurring upon a financing or refinancing of the Partnership;

The General Partner's merger, consolidation or other business combination with another entity unless after the transaction substantially all of the assets of the surviving entity are contributed to the Partnership in exchange for Common Units;
The General Partner's assignment of its interests in the Partnership other than to one of its wholly owned subsidiaries; and
Any reclassification or recapitalization or change of outstanding shares of the General Partner's common stock other than certain changes in par value, stock splits, stock dividends or combinations.
We are dependent on key personnel.
The General Partner's executive officers and other senior officers have a significant role in the success of our Company. Our ability to retain our management group or to attract suitable replacements should any members of the management group leave our Company is dependent on the competitive nature of the employment market. The loss of services from key members of the management group or a limitation in their availability could adversely impact our financial condition and cash flow. Further, such a loss could be negatively perceived in the capital markets.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
We have no unresolved comments with the SEC staff regarding our periodic or current reports under the Exchange Act.

Item 2.  Properties
Product Review
As of December 31, 2020, we own interests in 537 primarily industrial properties encompassing 159.6 million net rentable square feet (including 40 unconsolidated joint venture in-service properties with 11.5 million square feet, 16 consolidated properties under development with 6.9 million square feet and one unconsolidated joint venture property under development with 517,000 square feet).
Industrial Properties: We own interests in 534 industrial properties encompassing 159.4 million square feet (99.9% of our total square feet). These properties are primarily logistics facilities with clear ceiling heights of 28 feet or more.
Non-reportable: We own interests in three buildings, which are not industrial properties and are not presented within our reportable segments, totaling 211,000 square feet (0.1% of our total square feet).
See Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule III - Real Estate Properties and Accumulated Depreciation for a detailed listing of the Company’s properties and related encumbrances.
Land: We own, including through ownership interests in unconsolidated joint ventures (with acreage not adjusted for our percentage ownership interest), 1,000 acres of land and control an additional 800 acres through purchase options. Over 500 acres of the 600 acres of land that we directly own, are intended to be used for the development of industrial properties and can support over 7.3 million square feet of industrial developments. All of our approximately 400 acres of land held by unconsolidated joint ventures, are also intended to be used for the development of industrial properties. We directly own approximately 100 acres of land that we do not consider strategic and that will be sold to the extent that market conditions permit us to achieve what we believe to be acceptable sale prices.
Property Descriptions
The following tables represent the geographic highlights of consolidated and unconsolidated joint venture in-service properties in our primary markets.


Consolidated Properties
 Square FeetAnnual Net
Rent (1)
Annual Net
Rent per Square Foot (2)
Percent of
Annual  Net
 IndustrialNon-ReportableOverallPercent of Overall
Primary Market
Southern California12,555,202 — 12,555,202 8.9 %$81,524,024 $6.49 11.2 %
New Jersey7,361,852 — 7,361,852 5.2 %72,296,547 9.82 9.9 %
South Florida8,525,928 — 8,525,928 6.1 %66,587,602 7.90 9.1 %
Chicago15,065,460 — 15,065,460 10.7 %64,280,294 4.46 8.8 %
Atlanta12,380,606 — 12,380,606 8.8 %49,290,819 4.06 6.8 %
Dallas10,732,386 — 10,732,386 7.6 %41,813,080 3.90 5.7 %
Cincinnati9,114,047 91,843 9,205,890 6.6 %32,381,691 3.80 4.5 %
Indianapolis9,107,683 — 9,107,683 6.5 %32,262,732 3.60 4.4 %
Houston6,801,911 — 6,801,911 4.8 %32,229,309 5.20 4.4 %
Savannah7,329,816 — 7,329,816 5.2 %31,559,814 4.31 4.3 %
Pennsylvania5,270,424 — 5,270,424 3.7 %29,502,428 5.60 4.1 %
Minneapolis-St. Paul5,143,303 — 5,143,303 3.7 %26,326,139 5.42 3.6 %
Central Florida4,332,233 — 4,332,233 3.1 %22,555,651 5.43 3.1 %
DC-Baltimore3,282,696 — 3,282,696 2.3 %22,463,762 6.90 3.1 %
St. Louis5,181,945 — 5,181,945 3.7 %22,120,057 4.27 3.0 %
Seattle3,519,794 — 3,519,794 2.5 %22,109,078 7.31 3.0 %
Nashville3,645,368 — 3,645,368 2.6 %20,635,215 5.78 2.8 %
Columbus5,319,877 — 5,319,877 3.8 %19,953,489 3.75 2.8 %
Raleigh3,147,350 — 3,147,350 2.2 %19,868,866 6.33 2.7 %
Northern California2,693,432 — 2,693,432 1.9 %16,081,354 6.50 2.2 %
Other (3)— 119,030 119,030 0.1 %3,487,188 29.30 0.5 %
Total140,511,313 210,873 140,722,186 100.0 %$729,329,139 $5.32 100.0 %
Percent of Overall99.9 %0.1 %100.0 %
Annual Net Effective Rent per Square Foot (2)$5.30 $22.31 $5.32 

Unconsolidated Joint Venture Properties
 Square FeetAnnual Net
Rent (1)
Annual Net
Rent per Square Foot (2)
Percent of
Annual  Net
 IndustrialPercent of
Primary Market
Dallas6,047,818 52.8 %$27,614,035 $4.68 56.5 %
Indianapolis4,850,430 42.3 %18,963,269 3.91 38.8 %
Columbus357,504 3.1 %1,419,394 3.97 2.9 %
Cincinnati57,886 0.5 %398,667 6.89 0.8 %
Other (3)152,944 1.3 %472,951 3.09 1.0 %
Total11,466,582 100.0 %$48,868,316 $4.32 100.0 %
Percent of Overall100.0 %
Annual Net Effective Rent per Square Foot (2)$4.32 
 Percent Leased
 Consolidated PropertiesUnconsolidated Properties
Primary Market
Southern California100.0 %— 100.0 %— — 
New Jersey100.0 %— 100.0 %— — 
South Florida98.8 %— 98.8 %— — 
Chicago95.6 %— 95.6 %— — 
Atlanta98.0 %— 98.0 %— — 
Dallas100.0 %— 100.0 %97.5 %97.5 %
Cincinnati92.6 %92.8 %92.6 %100.0 %100.0 %
Indianapolis98.5 %— 98.5 %100.0 %100.0 %
Houston91.1 %— 91.1 %— — 
Savannah100.0 %— 100.0 %— — 
Pennsylvania100.0 %— 100.0 %— — 
Minneapolis-St. Paul94.4 %— 94.4 %— — 
Central Florida95.9 %— 95.9 %— — 
DC-Baltimore99.2 %— 99.2 %— — 
St. Louis100.0 %— 100.0 %— — 
Seattle85.9 %— 85.9 %— — 
Nashville97.9 %— 97.9 %— — 
Columbus100.0 %— 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Raleigh99.7 %— 99.7 %— — 
Northern California91.9 %— 91.9 %— — 
Other (3)— 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Total97.4 %96.8 %97.4 %98.7 %98.7 %
(1)Represents the average annual base rental payments, on a straight-line basis for the term of each lease, from space leased to tenants as of December 31, 2020, excluding amounts paid by tenants as reimbursement for operating expenses. Unconsolidated joint venture properties are shown at 100% of square feet and net effective rents, without regard to our ownership percentage.
(2)Annual net effective rent per leased square foot.
(3)Represents properties not located in our primary markets.

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings
We are not subject to any pending legal proceedings, other than routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. We do not expect these legal proceedings to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


Item 5.  Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Holders
The General Partner's common stock is listed for trading on the NYSE under the symbol "DRE." There is no established trading market for the Partnership's Common Units. As of February 17, 2021, there were 4,656 record holders of the General Partner's common stock and 79 record holders of the Partnership's Common Units. 

Stock Performance Graph
The following line graph compares the change in the General Partner's cumulative total shareholders' return on shares of its common stock to the cumulative total return of the Standard and Poor's 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the FTSE NAREIT Equity REITs Index ("NAREIT Index") from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2020. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 in the common stock of the General Partner and each of the indices on December 31, 2015, and the reinvestment of all dividends. The performance graph is not necessarily indicative of future performance.


This graph and the accompanying text are not “soliciting material,” are not deemed filed with the SEC and are not to be incorporated by reference in any filing by the company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.


Tax Characterization of Dividends
A summary of the tax characterization of the dividends paid per common share of the General Partner for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 follows:
Total dividends paid per share$0.96 $0.88 $0.815 
Ordinary income74.6 %80.7 %78.4 %
Capital gains25.4 %19.3 %21.6 %
100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Uses of Liquidity - Dividend and Distribution Requirements", below, for more information on our dividend policy.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
The General Partner did not sell any of its securities during the year ended December 31, 2020 that were not registered under the Securities Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
From time to time, we may repurchase our securities under a repurchase program that initially was approved by the General Partner's board of directors and publicly announced in October 2001 (the "Repurchase Program").

During 2020 we did not repurchase any equity securities under the Repurchase Program.

On January 27, 2021 the General Partner's board of directors adopted a resolution that amended and restated the Repurchase Program and delegated authority to management to repurchase a maximum of $300.0 million of the General Partner's common shares, $750.0 million of the Partnership's debt securities and $500.0 million of the General Partner's preferred shares, subject to the prior notification of the Chairperson of the finance committee of the board of directors of planned repurchases within these limits.

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data    


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules of this report and the matters described under Item 1A. Risk Factors.
A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for 2020 compared to 2019 is under the Results of Operations section below. Our financial condition for 2018 and results of operations for 2019 compared to 2018 can be found under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, which is incorporated herein by this reference to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 25, 2020, and is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and the Investor Relations section of our website at www.dukerealty.com.
Business Overview
The General Partner and Partnership collectively specialize in the ownership, management and development of industrial real estate. The General Partner is a self-administered and self-managed REIT that began operations in 1986 and is the sole general partner of the Partnership. The Partnership is a limited partnership formed in 1993, at which time all of the properties and related assets and liabilities of the General Partner, as well as proceeds from a secondary offering of the General Partner's common shares, were contributed to the Partnership. Simultaneously, the Partnership completed the acquisition of Duke Associates, a full-service commercial real estate firm operating in the Midwest whose operations began in 1972. We operate the General Partner and the Partnership as one enterprise, and therefore, our discussion and analysis refers to the General Partner and its consolidated subsidiaries, including the Partnership, collectively.
Our business operations primarily consist of two reportable operating segments: rental operations of industrial properties and service operations. Rental operations of industrial properties represent the ownership and development of industrial properties and is the primary component of our revenues and earnings. Service operations generate additional revenues from providing various real estate services primarily relating to development, construction management and property management services to customers, unconsolidated joint ventures and third-party owners.
Our overall strategy is to increase our investment in quality industrial properties primarily through development, on both a speculative and build-to-suit basis, supplemented with acquisitions in the markets we believe have the highest growth potential.
At December 31, 2020, we: 
Owned or jointly controlled 537 primarily industrial properties, of which 520 properties with 152.2 million square feet were in service and 17 properties with 7.4 million square feet were under development. The 520 in-service properties were comprised of 480 consolidated properties with 140.7 million square feet and 40 unconsolidated joint venture properties with 11.5 million square feet. The 17 properties under development consisted of 16 consolidated properties with 6.9 million square feet and one unconsolidated joint venture property with 517,000 square feet.
Owned directly, or through ownership interests in unconsolidated joint ventures (with acreage not adjusted for our percentage ownership interest), approximately 1,000 acres of land and controlled approximately 800 acres through purchase options.

Nationwide demand for industrial properties continues to be strong in the current economic environment as the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated both consumer acceptance of e-commerce and the requirements of many retailers to increase inventory levels. Our operational focus is to maintain occupancy at high levels and to focus on rental rate growth. The occupancy of our consolidated industrial portfolio increased to 97.4% at December 31, 2020 as compared to 96.6% at December 31, 2019. Our annual net effective rents for both renewals and new second generation leases, on a combined basis, for consolidated properties grew 28.2% in 2020 compared to 2019. In the current environment of rising rental rates for industrial properties in many of the markets in which we operate, we believe there is potential for continued future rental rate growth to the extent we are able to renew or backfill expiring leases and maintain high levels of occupancy.
Operational Strategy
Our operational focus is to drive profitability by maximizing cash from operations as well as NAREIT FFO through (i) maintaining property occupancy, increasing rental rates and prioritizing timely collection of monthly rental payments, while also keeping lease-related capital costs contained, by effectively managing our portfolio of existing properties; (ii) selectively developing new build-to-suit, substantially pre-leased and, in select markets, speculative development projects; and (iii) providing a full line of real estate services to our tenants and to third parties.
Asset Strategy
Our strategic objectives include (i) increasing our investment in quality industrial properties through development, including facilities with sustainable design features that will meet customer needs; (ii) acquiring properties primarily in coastal Tier 1 markets which we believe provide the best potential for future rental growth; and (iii) maintaining an optimal land inventory through selected strategic land acquisitions and new development activity. We are continuing to execute our asset strategy through a disciplined approach by identifying development opportunities, identifying select acquisition targets where the asset quality and pricing meet our objectives and continually evaluating our portfolio for disposition by regularly identifying assets that no longer meet our long-term objectives.
Capital Strategy
Our capital strategy is to maintain a strong balance sheet by actively managing the components of our capital structure in coordination with the execution of our overall operational and asset strategies. We are focused on maintaining our current investment grade ratings from our credit rating agencies. As of December 31, 2020, our senior unsecured notes have been assigned a rating of Baa1 by Moody's Investors Services and BBB+ by Standard & Poor's Ratings Group and we are focused on maintaining such ratings in order to maintain access to liquidity. A securities rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell, or hold securities and is subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the rating organization.
In support of our capital strategy, we employ an asset disposition program to sell certain real estate assets, which generate proceeds that can be recycled into new property investments that better fit our growth objectives or otherwise manage our capital structure.
We continue to focus on maintaining a balanced and flexible capital structure which includes: (i) extending and sequencing the maturity dates of our outstanding debt obligations; (ii) borrowing primarily at fixed rates; and (iii) issuing common equity as needed to maintain appropriate leverage parameters or support significant strategic developments or acquisitions. With our successes to date and continued focus on maintaining a strong balance sheet, we expect to be in a position to be opportunistic in our investment opportunities.

Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") Strategy
We are focused on promoting our growth in a sustainable way, one that succeeds by delivering long-term value for our stakeholders. As part of our vision to continually set the standard for maximizing stakeholder value, we have a long-standing commitment to sustainable practices in environmental, social and corporate governance initiatives. On December 17, 2019, we adopted a Sustainable Development Policy intended to increase the operational efficiency of our buildings and promote sustainable design principles. We are committed to integrating innovative, sustainable building design features in alignment with U.S. Green Building Council’s® Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (or LEED®), including constructing to LEED® criteria and achieving certification in all new developments where feasible. While we do not control most of the utility usage at our properties, we have been partnering with a third party data management provider since 2018 in order to help monitor and manage the utility usage that we do control. In 2018, we also became a member of GRESB, a leading provider of real estate ESG benchmarking and performance assessments. Since joining, our GRESB score has steadily increased, evidencing our commitment and continued progress. We expect to continue participating in the GRESB benchmarking assessments.

In October 2018, the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board issued the Real Estate Sustainability Accounting Standards. The standards are intended to provide a minimum set of sustainability metrics for disclosure in SEC filings, such as this Form 10-K. We understand the importance of reporting comparable, consistent and financially material sustainability metrics. Below is a chart showing our information for the applicable metrics.

TopicAccounting MetricCodeOur Information
Energy ManagementDescription of how building energy management considerations are integrated into property investment analysis and operational strategy
IF-RE-130a.5We integrate energy usage reduction measures on all new developments, incorporating LEED certification requirements and applicable aspects of our own sustainability policies/programs. These measures include energy modeling, high efficiency equipment (HVAC and lighting), and climate zone appropriate design factors. We have an ongoing lighting retrofit program, replacing outdated light fixtures with LED high efficiency fixtures. In 2020 we partnered with solar developers to increase the number of buildings in our portfolio with rooftop solar panels.
Water ManagementDescription of water management risks and discussion of strategies and practices to mitigate those risks

We integrate water reduction measures on all new developments and renovation, incorporating LEED certification or applicable aspects of our own sustainability policies/programs. These measures include the use of WaterSense® fixtures for all domestic usage, xeriscaping to minimize or eliminate the need for irrigation, and water usage monitoring, where available and appropriate.  

Climate Change AdaptationArea of properties located in 100-year flood zones, by property subsectorIF-RE-450a.110.8 million square feet.

In January 2021, we issued $450.0 million of senior unsecured notes with a stated interest rate of 1.75%, which will mature on February 1, 2031. These notes are our second green bond issuance with the first issuance completed in November 2019. The net proceeds will be used to finance future or refinance recently completed “eligible green projects”. These projects may include green buildings, energy efficiency projects, sustainable water and wastewater management systems, renewable energy projects, clean transportation solutions and pollution prevention and control.

In addition to our environmental initiatives, we are committed to fair compensation, fostering a dynamic and balanced work environment and providing employees with developmental opportunities to perform well and derive satisfaction from their work. We encourage our associates to participate in volunteer and community activities and support those who do participate by providing each associate with two paid community days per year. We also have charitable contribution programs, such as our dollars for doers program (matching dollars for volunteer hours spent) and our matching gifts program (matching dollars for employee donations to charities). In addition, we partner with various charitable organizations, including the American Red Cross since 2017. We maintain a formal and structured diversity, equity and inclusion program. We have increased diversity within our board of directors and 50% of the Independent Directors of the board are female or people of color. We implemented a Vendor Code of Conduct that outlines our expectations and standards for how our vendors operate while doing business on our behalf. Through all of these initiatives and others, we endeavor to make a positive impact on the communities in which we conduct business.

We strive to maintain an effective corporate governance structure and comply with applicable laws, rules, regulations and policies. Further, we publish Corporate Responsibility Reports that formally communicate our commitments and leadership around ESG issues. Please see “Item 1-Corporate Governance” for more information regarding our governance initiatives.

Through all of our environmental, social and governance efforts, we demonstrate that operating and developing commercial real estate can be conducted with a conscious regard for the environment and community, while also benefiting our investors, employees, tenants and the communities in which we operate.

Results of Operations
A summary of our operating results and property statistics for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, is as follows (in thousands, except number of properties and per share or per Common Unit data):
Rental and related revenue from continuing operations$929,194 $855,833 $785,319 
General contractor and service fee revenue64,004 117,926 162,551 
Operating income417,846 524,761 460,356 
General Partner
Net income attributable to common shareholders$299,915 $428,972 $383,729 
Weighted average common shares outstanding370,057 362,234 357,569 
Weighted average common shares and potential dilutive securities374,156 367,339 363,297 
Net income attributable to common unitholders$302,578 $432,650 $387,257 
Weighted average Common Units outstanding373,360 365,352 360,859 
Weighted average Common Units and potential dilutive securities374,156 367,339 363,297 
General Partner and Partnership
Basic income per common share or Common Unit:
Continuing operations$0.81 $1.18 $1.06 
Discontinued operations$ $— $0.01 
Diluted income per common share or Common Unit:
Continuing operations$0.80 $1.18 $1.06 
Discontinued operations$ $— $0.01 
Number of in-service consolidated properties at end of year480459462
In-service consolidated square footage at end of year140,722135,451133,047
Number of in-service unconsolidated joint venture properties at end of year403839
In-service unconsolidated joint venture square footage at end of year11,46710,97611,101

Year in Review
The United States economy in 2020 experienced an unprecedented downturn as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic with the gross domestic product declining by 3.5%. The recession was caused by dramatic changes in consumer behavior linked to business shutdowns, travel restrictions, and social distancing during the pandemic. The magnitude of the declines in gross domestic product and employment in the spring was unprecedented. Since then, economic activity and job growth have begun to recover as parts of the economy reopened, bolstered by the initial dissemination of vaccines and government stimulus, but remain well below pre-pandemic levels. The 10-year treasury yield trended down throughout the year fluctuating from 0.5% to 1.9% and ending the year at 0.9%, down from 1.9% at the end of 2019. While the economy has declined overall during 2020, the industrial real estate sector has been one of the most resilient sectors during the pandemic, which has been largely driven by e-commerce demand and additional demand from suppliers to drive up safety stock. We continued to pursue quality industrial assets in coastal Tier 1 markets during 2020. We resumed speculative development projects in the second half of the year and continued to lease up the speculative space. Despite the global crisis, we were able to execute our asset and capital strategies for the year and had a successful 2020.
The following table shows a reconciliation of net income attributable to common shareholders or common unitholders to the calculation of funds from operations ("FFO") attributable to common shareholders or common unitholders for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively (in thousands):
Net income attributable to common shareholders of the General Partner$299,915 $428,972 $383,729 
Add back: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests - common limited partnership interests in the Partnership2,663 3,678 3,528 
Net income attributable to common unitholders of the Partnership 302,578 432,650 387,257 
Depreciation and amortization353,013 327,223 312,217 
Company share of unconsolidated joint venture depreciation and amortization 9,265 10,083 9,146 
Partnership share of gains on property sales(127,811)(235,098)(208,780)
Gains on land sales(10,458)(7,445)(10,334)
Income tax (benefit) expense not allocable to FFO(5,112)8,686 8,828 
Impairment charges 5,626 — — 
Gains on sales of real estate assets—share of unconsolidated joint ventures(822)(21,239)(12,094)
        Impairment charges - unconsolidated joint venture — 2,214 
FFO attributable to common unitholders of the Partnership (1)$526,279 $514,860 $488,454 
Additional General Partner Adjustments:
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests - common limited partnership interests in the Partnership(2,663)(3,678)(3,528)
        Noncontrolling interest share of adjustments(1,979)(702)(923)
FFO attributable to common shareholders of the General Partner (1)$521,637 $510,480 $484,003 

(1) FFO is a non-GAAP measure used in the real estate industry and is computed in accordance with standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts ("NAREIT"). NAREIT FFO is used by industry analysts and investors as a supplemental operating performance measure of a REIT. NAREIT FFO is calculated as net income attributable to the common shareholders of the General Partner in accordance with GAAP excluding depreciation and amortization related to real estate, gains and losses on sales of real estate assets (including real estate assets incidental to our business), gains and losses from change in control, impairment charges related to real estate assets (including real estate assets incidental to our business) and similar adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures, all net of related taxes.
The most comparable GAAP measure to NAREIT FFO is net income attributable to common shareholders or common unitholders.  Management believes it is a useful indicator of consolidated operating performance, which improves the understanding of operating results of REITs among the investing public, makes comparisons of REIT operating results more meaningful and enables investors and analysts to readily identify the operating results of the long-term assets that form the core of a REIT's activity.
Net income attributable to the common shareholders of the General Partner for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $299.9 million, compared to net income of $429.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Net income attributable to the common unitholders of the Partnership for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $302.6

million, compared to net income of $432.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in net income in 2020 for the General Partner and the Partnership, when compared to 2019, was primarily the result of lower gains on property sales and higher losses on debt extinguishment during 2020.
NAREIT FFO attributable to common shareholders of the General Partner totaled $521.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $510.5 million for 2019. NAREIT FFO attributable to common unitholders of the Partnership totaled $526.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $514.9 million for 2019. The increase to NAREIT FFO from 2019 for the General Partner and the Partnership was primarily driven by improved occupancy, rental rate growth and new developments being placed into service and leased up, partially offset by debt extinguishment costs recognized during 2020.
In accordance with our strategic plan, we continue to increase our investment in high-quality industrial properties, with build-to-suit developments across all of our markets and most of our speculative development focused in the markets we believe have the best long-term growth potential. Additionally, we continued to maintain high occupancy levels through 2020 and quickly lease a significant portion of our speculative development projects. Highlights of our 2020 strategic and operational activities are as follows: 
We generated $336.3 million of total net cash proceeds from the disposition of seven consolidated buildings and 157 acres of wholly owned undeveloped land.
We acquired ten industrial properties during the year ended December 31, 2020 with a total asset value of $424.9 million.
We started new development projects with expected total costs of $795.6 million, which included $78.0 million of expected total costs for development projects started within two unconsolidated joint ventures. The development projects started in 2020 were, in aggregate, 62.0% leased at December 31, 2020.
We placed 18 newly completed consolidated development projects in service, which totaled 6.8 million square feet with total costs of $693.8 million at December 31, 2020. These properties were 93.7% leased at December 31, 2020. Two newly completed projects owned by unconsolidated joint ventures were also placed in service, totaling 491,000 square feet with total costs of $27.6 million (square feet and costs shown at 100%), during 2020. These properties were 100% leased at December 31, 2020.
The total estimated cost of our properties under construction at December 31, 2020, with costs for unconsolidated properties shown at 100%, totaled $1.10 billion, with $690.1 million of such costs already incurred. The total estimated cost for the one unconsolidated joint venture property under construction at December 31, 2020 was $57.0 million, with $22.6 million of such costs already incurred. The consolidated properties under construction were 64.5% pre-leased, while the unconsolidated joint venture property under construction was 100% pre-leased.
Income from continuing operations before income taxes was $297.5 million and $440.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Same-property net operating income, on a cash basis, as defined hereafter under "Supplemental Performance Measures", increased by 5.0% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the same period in 2019.
As the result of leasing up space in speculative developments throughout 2020, the percentage of total square feet leased for our in-service portfolio of consolidated properties increased from 96.6% at December 31, 2019 to 97.4% at December 31, 2020.
Total leasing activity for our consolidated properties totaled 25.5 million square feet in 2020 compared to 28.7 million square feet in 2019.
Total leasing activity for our consolidated and unconsolidated joint venture properties in 2020 included 6.1 million and 1.1 million, respectively, square feet of lease renewals (excludes early renewals and short term renewals), which represented 65.6% and 86.8%, respectively, retention rates on a square foot basis. New

second generation and renewal leases, on a combined basis, executed for consolidated and unconsolidated joint venture properties during the year resulted in 28.2% and 33.8%, respectively, increases to net effective rents ("net effective rents" is defined hereafter in the "Key Performance Indicators" section) when compared to the previous leases of the same space.
We utilized the capital generated from dispositions during the year to reduce debt and to fund our development activities. Highlights of our key financing activities are as follows:

During 2020, the General Partner issued 4.6 million common shares under its at the market ("ATM") equity program, generating gross proceeds of $177.1 million and, after deducting commissions and other costs, net proceeds of $175.0 million.
In February 2020, we issued $325.0 million of senior unsecured notes that bear interest at a stated interest rate of 3.05%, have an effective interest rate of 3.19%, and mature on March 1, 2050. Proceeds from the unsecured notes offering were primarily used to repay the $300.0 million of senior unsecured notes bearing a stated interest rate of 4.38% and with a scheduled maturity of 2022. In connection with the early redemption of these notes, we recognized a loss of $17.8 million consisting of a prepayment premium and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs.
In June 2020, we issued $350.0 million of senior unsecured notes, which bear interest at a stated interest rate of 1.75%, have an effective interest rate of 1.85% and mature on July 1, 2030. Proceeds from the unsecured notes offering were primarily used to repurchase and cancel $216.3 million of 3.88% senior unsecured notes due 2022 pursuant to a tender offer completed by the Partnership in June 2020. In connection with the early cancellation of these notes, we recognized a loss of $15.1 million consisting of a prepayment premium and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs.

During 2020, we repaid one fixed rate secured loan, totaling $9.0 million, which had a stated interest rate of 5.61%.
During 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have made various changes to our operations in order to support the health and safety of our associates and the communities in which we operate. Throughout the pandemic, accelerated e-commerce demand drove strong leasing activity, while the pandemic also negatively impacted a relatively small portion of our tenant base that operate in lines of business, such as event planning, that were most acutely impacted by COVID-19. Through December 31, 2020, we executed deferral agreements with certain customers that allowed for $7.4 million of total scheduled rental payments to be deferred and repaid in future periods. The substantial majority of these agreements were short term in nature and required repayment of the deferred amounts within twelve months of their execution. We have collected all amounts due under such short term rent deferral agreements through the end of 2020. We temporarily paused our acquisition, disposition and development activities at the onset of the pandemic but such activities were resumed at an accelerated pace during the second half of the year.

The pandemic's impact on the overall global economy is continuing and the ultimate impact cannot be predicted at this time. Please see Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" for additional information about the potential impacts the pandemic may have on our business and results of operations.

Supplemental Performance Measures

In addition to NAREIT FFO we use (i) Property Level Net Operating Income - Cash Basis ("PNOI") and (ii) Same-Property Net Operating Income - Cash Basis ("SPNOI") as supplemental non-GAAP performance measures. Management believes that the use of PNOI and SPNOI combined with net income (which remains the primary measure of performance), improves the understanding of operating results of REITs among the investing public and makes comparisons of REIT operating results more meaningful. The most comparable GAAP measure to PNOI and SPNOI is income from continuing operations before income taxes.

PNOI and SPNOI each exclude expenses that materially impact our overall results of operations and, therefore, should not be considered as a substitute for income from continuing operations before income taxes, or any other measures derived in accordance with GAAP. Furthermore, these metrics may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.

Property Level Net Operating Income - Cash Basis
PNOI is comprised of rental revenues from continuing operations less rental expenses and real estate taxes from continuing operations, along with certain other adjusting items. As a performance metric that consists of only the cash-based revenues and expenses directly related to ongoing real estate rental operations, PNOI is narrower in scope than NAREIT FFO.
PNOI, as we calculate it, may not be directly comparable to similarly titled, but differently calculated, measures for other REITs. We believe that PNOI is another useful supplemental performance measure, as it is an input in many REIT valuation models and it provides a means by which to evaluate the performance of the properties within our Rental Operations segments. The operations of our industrial properties, as well as our non-reportable Rental Operations (our residual non-industrial properties that have not yet been sold, referred to throughout as "non-reportable"), are collectively referred to as "Rental Operations."
The major factors influencing PNOI are occupancy levels, acquisitions and sales, development properties that achieve stabilized operations, rental rate increases or decreases, and the recoverability of operating expenses.
Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Report shows a calculation of our PNOI for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and provides a reconciliation of PNOI for our Rental Operations segments to income from continuing operations before income taxes.
Same-Property Net Operating Income - Cash Basis
We also evaluate the performance of our properties, including our share of properties we jointly control, on a "same-property" basis, using a metric referred to as SPNOI. We view SPNOI as a useful supplemental performance measure because it improves comparability between periods by eliminating the effects of changes in the composition of our portfolio.
On an individual property basis, SPNOI is generally computed in a consistent manner as PNOI.
We define our "same-property" population once a year at the beginning of the current calendar year and include buildings that were stabilized (the term "stabilized" means properties that have reached 90% leased or that have been in-service for at least one year since development completion or acquisition) as of January 1 of the prior calendar year. The "same-property" pool is also adjusted to remove properties that were sold subsequent to the beginning of the current calendar year. As such, the "same-property" population for the period ended December 31, 2020 includes all properties that we owned or jointly controlled at January 1, 2020, which had both been owned or jointly controlled and had reached stabilization by January 1, 2019, and have not been sold.

A reconciliation of income from continuing operations before income taxes to SPNOI is presented as follows (in thousands, except percentage data):
Three Months Ended December 31,PercentTwelve Months Ended December 31,Percent
Income from continuing operations before income taxes$166,418 $89,664 $297,537 $440,885 
  Share of SPNOI from unconsolidated joint ventures4,868 4,661 19,107 18,214 
  PNOI excluded from the "same-property" population(26,785)(11,333)(71,160)(33,395)
  Earnings from Service Operations(1,218)(937)(6,028)(6,360)
  Rental Operations revenues and expenses excluded from PNOI(14,924)(11,778)(44,002)(57,546)
  Non-Segment Items24,133 77,337 410,541 215,218 
SPNOI$152,492 $147,614 3.3 %$605,995 $577,016 5.0 %

The composition of the line items titled "Rental Operations revenues and expenses excluded from PNOI" and "Non-Segment Items" from the table above are shown in greater detail in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Report.

We believe that the factors that impact SPNOI are generally the same as those that impact PNOI. The following table details the number of properties, square feet, average commencement occupancy and average cash rental rate for the properties included in SPNOI for the respective periods:
Three Months Ended December 31,Twelve Months Ended December 31,
Number of properties451451451451
Square feet (in thousands) (1)125,370125,370125,370125,370
Average commencement occupancy percentage (2)98.5%98.3%98.5%98.1%
Average rental rate - cash basis (3)$4.90$4.75$4.83$4.69
(1) Includes the total square feet of the consolidated properties that are in the "same-property" population as well as 4.9 million square feet of space for unconsolidated joint ventures, which represents our ratable share of the 9.8 million total square feet of space for buildings owned by unconsolidated joint ventures that are in the "same-property" population.
(2) Commencement occupancy represents the percentage of total square feet where the leases have commenced.
(3) Represents the average annualized contractual rent per square foot for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 for tenants in occupancy in properties in the "same-property" population. Cash rent does not include the tenant's obligation to pay property operating expenses and real estate taxes. If a tenant was within a free rent period, its rent would equal zero for purposes of this metric.


Key Performance Indicators
Our operating results depend primarily upon rental income from our Rental Operations. The following discussion highlights the metrics that drive the performance of our Rental Operations, which management uses to operate the business, and that we consider to be critical drivers of future revenues.
Occupancy Analysis
Occupancy is an important metric for management and our investors for understanding our financial performance. Our ability to maintain high occupancy rates is among the principal drivers of maintaining and increasing rental revenue. The following table sets forth percent leased and average net effective rent information regarding our in-service portfolio of rental properties at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively:
 Total Square Feet
(in thousands)
Percent of
Total Square Feet
Percent Leased*Average Annual Net Effective Rent**
Industrial140,511 135,240 99.9 %99.8 %97.4 %96.7 %$5.30$5.00
Non-reportable Rental Operations211 211 0.1 %0.2 %96.8 %80.5 %$22.31$24.29
Total Consolidated140,722 135,451 100.0 %100.0 %97.4 %96.6 %$5.32$5.03
Unconsolidated Joint Ventures11,467 10,976 98.7 %96.3 %$4.32$4.21
Total Including Unconsolidated Joint Ventures152,189 146,427 97.5 %96.6 %
* Represents the percentage of total square feet leased based on executed leases and without regard to whether the leases have commenced.
** Average annual net effective rent represents average annual base rental payments per leased square foot, on a straight-line basis for the term of each lease, from space leased to tenants at the end of the most recent reporting period. This amount excludes additional amounts paid by tenants as reimbursement for operating expenses.
The increase in occupancy at December 31, 2020 within our industrial portfolio, when compared to December 31, 2019, primarily resulted from leasing up recently delivered speculative developments while renewing or backfilling existing leases to maintain the occupancy level within our existing base of properties.
Vacancy Activity
The following table sets forth vacancy activity, shown in square feet, from our in-service rental properties for the year ended December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
Consolidated PropertiesUnconsolidated Joint Venture PropertiesTotal Including Unconsolidated Joint Venture Properties
Vacant square feet at December 31, 20194,540 406 4,946 
  Vacant space in acquisitions495 — 495 
  Vacant space in completed developments1,138 — 1,138 
  Vacant space in dispositions(978)— (978)
  Expirations4,360 469 4,829 
  Early lease terminations2,610 — 2,610 
  Property structural changes/other15 — 15 
  Leasing of previously vacant space(8,464)(725)(9,189)
Vacant square feet at December 31, 20203,716 150 3,866 

Total Leasing Activity

Our ability to maintain and improve occupancy and net effective rents primarily depends upon our continuing ability to lease vacant space. The volume and quality of our leasing activity is closely scrutinized by management in operation of the business and provides useful information regarding future performance. The initial leasing of development projects or vacant space in acquired properties is referred to as first generation lease activity. The leasing of such space that we have previously held under lease to a tenant is referred to as second generation lease activity. Second generation lease activity may be in the form of renewals of existing leases or new second generation leases of previously leased space. The total leasing activity for our consolidated and unconsolidated industrial rental properties, expressed in square feet of leases signed, is as follows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
New Leasing Activity - First Generation 7,917 9,779 
New Leasing Activity - Second Generation4,7973,639 
Renewal Leasing Activity 6,147 10,916 
Early Renewal Leasing Activity *2,671 2,076 
Short-Term New Leasing Activity **1,889 989 
Short-Term Renewal Leasing Activity **2,077 1,317 
Non-Reportable Rental Operations Leasing Activity36 13 
Total Consolidated Leasing Activity25,534 28,729 
Unconsolidated Joint Venture Leasing Activity3,154 2,384 
Total Including Unconsolidated Joint Venture Leasing Activity28,688 31,113 
* Early renewals represent renewals executed more than two years in advance of a lease's originally scheduled end date.
** Short-term leases represent leases with a term of less than twelve months.
Second Generation Leases
The following table sets forth the estimated costs of tenant improvements and leasing commissions, on a per square foot basis, that we are obligated to fulfill under the second generation industrial leases signed for our rental properties, during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Square Feet of Leases
(in thousands)
Percent of Expiring Leases RenewedAverage Term in YearsEstimated Tenant Improvement Cost per Square FootLeasing Costs per Square Foot
Consolidated - New Second Generation4,797 3,639 5.4 7.2 $1.79 $3.45 $2.87 $3.76 
Unconsolidated Joint Ventures - New Second Generation527 233 3.3 6.7 $1.56 $1.28 $1.12 $2.44 
Total - New Second Generation5,324 3,872 5.2 7.2 $1.92 $3.36 $2.73 $3.69 
Consolidated - Renewal6,147 10,916 65.6 %79.1 %4.6 5.1 $0.99