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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

Or

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________ to __________

Commission File number 1-6659

ESSENTIAL UTILITIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Pennsylvania

23-1702594

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

762 W Lancaster Avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

19010-3489

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(610) 527-8000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, par value $0.50 per share

WTRG

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. þ Yes  ¨ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ¨ Yes  þ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  þ Yes  ¨ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). þ Yes  ¨ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “small reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12(b)-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large accelerated filer þ

Accelerated filer ¨

Non-accelerated filer ¨

Small reporting company ¨

Emerging growth company ¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  þ

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D.1(b) . ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). ¨ Yes þ No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023: $10,535,546,923

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of February 23, 2024: 273,298,409

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

(1) Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement, relating to the 2024 annual meeting of shareholders of registrant, to be filed within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I

 

Page

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

19

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

37

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

37

Item 2.

Properties

38

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

38

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

39

Part II

 

Item 5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Stock, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

39

Item 6.

Reserved

39

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

40

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

64

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

65

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

119

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

119

Item 9B.

Other Information

120

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

120

Part III

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

120

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

122

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

122

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

123

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

123

Part IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

124

Item 16.

Form 10-KSummary

124

Exhibit Index

125

Signatures

132

Schedule 1 – Condensed Parent Company Financial Statements

134

 

 

0


Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Annual Report, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are made based upon, among other things, our current assumptions, expectations, plans, and beliefs concerning future events and their potential effect on us. These forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are outside our control that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In some cases you can identify forward-looking statements where statements are preceded by, followed by or include the words “believes,” “expects,” “estimates”, “anticipates,” “plans,” “future,” “potential,” “probably,” “predictions,” “intends,” “will,” “continue,” “in the event” or the negative of such terms or similar expressions. Please refer to the Summary in Item 1A – Risk Factors in this Annual Report for a description of the types of forward-looking statements in this Annual Report. These factors are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors could also have material adverse effects on future results.

Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. You should read this Annual Report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. These forward-looking statements represent assumptions, expectations, plans, and beliefs only as of the date of this Annual Report. Except for our ongoing obligations to disclose certain information under the federal securities laws, we are not obligated, and assume no obligation, to update these forward-looking statements, even though our situation may change in the future. For further information or other factors which could affect our financial results and such forward-looking statements, see Item 1A – Risk Factors. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

PART I

Item 1.

Business

The Company

Essential Utilities, Inc., referred to as “Essential Utilities”, “Essential”, the “Company”, “we”, “us”, or “our”, a Pennsylvania corporation, is the holding company for regulated utilities providing water, wastewater, or natural gas services to an estimated 5.5 million people in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, Illinois, North Carolina, New Jersey, Indiana, Virginia, and Kentucky under the Aqua and Peoples brands. One of our largest operating subsidiaries, Aqua Pennsylvania, Inc., or Aqua Pennsylvania, accounted for approximately 56% of operating revenues and approximately 68% of income for our Regulated Water segment in 2023. As of December 31, 2023, Aqua Pennsylvania provided water or wastewater services to approximately one-half of the total number of water and wastewater customers we serve. Aqua Pennsylvania’s service territory is located in the suburban areas in counties north and west of the City of Philadelphia and in 27 other counties in Pennsylvania. Our other regulated water or wastewater utility subsidiaries provide similar services in seven additional states. Our Peoples subsidiaries provide natural gas service to approximately 744,000 customers in western Pennsylvania and Kentucky. Approximately 95% of the total number of natural gas utility customers we serve are in western Pennsylvania. The Company also operates market-based activities, conducted through its non-regulated subsidiaries, that provide utility service line protection solutions and repair services to households and gas marketing and production activities. Currently, the Company seeks to acquire businesses in the U.S. regulated sector, focusing on water and wastewater utilities and to opportunistically pursue growth ventures in select market-based activities, such as infrastructure opportunities that are supplementary and complementary to our regulated water utility businesses.

 

1


Table of Contents

In December 2022, the Company signed an agreement to sell its regulated natural gas utility assets in West Virginia, which represented approximately two percent of the Company’s regulated natural gas customers. The sale closed on October 1, 2023, and the Company received net cash proceeds of $39,965,000, subject to working capital and other adjustments. The sale concluded the Company’s regulated utility operations in West Virginia. In October 2023, the Company entered into an agreement to sell its interest in three non-utility local microgrid and distributed energy projects for $165,000,000. The sale was completed in January 2024. These transactions are consistent with the Company’s long-term strategy of focusing on its core business and will allow the Company to prioritize the growth of its utilities in states where it has scale. The Company intends to use the proceeds from these transactions to finance its capital expenditures and water and wastewater acquisitions, in place of external funding from equity and debt issuances. See Note 3 – Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

The following table reports our operating revenues, by principal state, for our Regulated Water segment, which includes both water and wastewater utility services, Regulated Natural Gas segment, and Other and eliminations for the year ended December 31, 2023:

Operating Revenues (000's)

Operating Revenues (%)

Pennsylvania

$

643,604

31.3%

Ohio

125,574

6.1%

Texas

98,441

4.8%

Illinois

96,833

4.7%

North Carolina

82,065

4.0%

Other states (1)

106,859

5.2%

Regulated Water segment total

1,153,376

56.1%

Pennsylvania

798,831

38.9%

Other states (2)

64,928

3.2%

Regulated Natural Gas segment total

863,759

42.1%

Other and eliminations

36,689

1.8%

Consolidated

$

2,053,824

100.0%

(1)Includes our water operating subsidiaries in the following states: New Jersey, Indiana, and Virginia.

(2)Includes our natural gas operating subsidiaries in West Virginia (up through September 2023) and Kentucky.

The Company has identified eleven operating segments and has two reportable segments, the Regulated Water segment and the Regulated Natural Gas segment. The Regulated Water segment is comprised of eight operating segments for the Company’s water and wastewater regulated utility companies, aligned with the states where we provide these services. These operating segments are aggregated into one reportable segment since each of the Company’s operating segments has the following similarities: economic characteristics, nature of services, production processes, customers, water distribution or wastewater collection methods, and the nature of the regulatory environment. The Regulated Natural Gas segment is comprised of one operating segment representing natural gas utility companies, for which the Company provides natural gas distribution services. In addition to the Company’s two reportable segments, the Company includes two of its operating segments in “Other”. These businesses represent its non-regulated water, wastewater, and natural gas operations, which are not quantitatively significant to be reportable and therefore are included as a component of “Other”. In addition, “Other” and eliminations include corporate costs that have not been allocated to the Regulated Water and Regulated Natural Gas segments, because they would not be recoverable as a cost of utility service, and intersegment eliminations. Information concerning revenues, net income, identifiable assets and related financial information for the Regulated Water and Regulated Natural Gas segments and Other and eliminations for 2023, 2022, and 2021, is set forth in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and in Note 18 – Segment Information in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements which is contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report.

 

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The following table summarizes our operating revenues, by utility customer class, for the Regulated Water and Regulated Natural Gas segments and Other and eliminations for the year ended December 31, 2023:

Operating Revenues (000's)

Operating Revenues (%)

Residential water

$

641,351 

31.2%

Commercial water

180,731 

8.8%

Fire protection

41,257 

2.0%

Industrial water

33,949 

1.7%

Other water

51,527 

2.5%

Total water

948,815 

46.2%

Wastewater

187,394 

9.0%

Other utility

17,167 

0.8%

Regulated Water segment total

1,153,376 

56.0%

Residential gas

519,406 

25.3%

Commercial gas

111,272 

5.5%

Industrial gas

3,232 

0.2%

Gas transportation

184,598 

9.0%

Other utility

45,251 

2.2%

Regulated Natural Gas segment total

863,759 

42.2%

Other and eliminations

36,689 

1.8%

Consolidated

$

2,053,824 

100.0%

Customers

Our water utility customer base is diversified among residential water, commercial water, fire protection, industrial water, other water, wastewater customers, and other utility customers (consisting of contracted services that are associated with the utility operations). Residential water and wastewater customers make up the largest component of our water utility customer base, with these customers representing approximately 69%, 68%, and 69%, of our water and wastewater revenues for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Substantially all of our water utility customers are metered, which allows us to measure and bill for our customers’ water consumption. Water consumption per customer is affected by local weather conditions during the year, especially during late spring, summer, and early fall. In general, during these seasons, an extended period of dry weather increases consumption, while above-average rainfall decreases consumption. Also, an increase in the average temperature generally causes an increase in water consumption. On occasion, abnormally dry weather in our service areas can result in governmental authorities declaring drought warnings and imposing water use restrictions in the affected areas, which could reduce water consumption. See “Business – Water Utility Supplies, and Facilities and Wastewater Utility Facilities” for a discussion of water use restrictions that may impact water consumption during abnormally dry weather. The geographic diversity of our water utility customer base reduces the effect of our exposure to extreme or unusual weather conditions in any one area of our service territories. Water usage is also affected by changing consumption patterns by our customers, resulting from such causes as increased water conservation and the installation of water saving devices and appliances that can result in decreased water usage. It is estimated that, in the event we experience a 0.50% decrease in residential water consumption, it would result in a decrease in annual residential water revenue of approximately $3,000,000, which would likely be partially offset by a reduction in incremental water production expenses such as chemicals and power.

Our natural gas utility customer base is diversified among residential gas, commercial gas, industrial gas, gas transportation, and other utility. Substantially all of our natural gas utility customers are metered, which allows us to measure and bill for our customers’ natural gas usage. Natural gas usage per customer is affected by local weather conditions during the year, especially during the fall, winter, and early spring. These patterns reflect the higher demand for natural gas for heating purposes during the colder months. Our regulated natural gas revenues and expenses are also affected by the cost of gas. We are generally able to pass the cost of gas through to our customers using a purchased gas adjustment clause; therefore, fluctuations in the cost of purchased gas impact revenues on a dollar-for-dollar basis. Since

 

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regulated natural gas revenues are affected by the cost of gas, higher gas costs, as well as general economic conditions, may cause customers to conserve usage, or seek alternative energy sources. In addition, higher gas costs result in an increase to our purchased gas inventory, which requires additional borrowings under credit facilities, resulting in higher interest expense.

The Company’s growth in revenues over the past five years is primarily a result of its acquisition in 2020 of Peoples Natural Gas Company LLC and its affiliated companies, or the Peoples Gas Acquisition, increases in water and wastewater rates, increase in the cost of natural gas in 2021 and 2022, and customer growth. See Economic Regulation for a discussion of water, wastewater, and natural gas rates. The increase in our utility customer base has been due to customers added through acquisitions, partnerships with developers, and organic growth (excluding dispositions) as shown below:

Year

Utility Customer Growth Rate

2023

1.0%

2022

1.7%

2021

1.2%

2020

42.9%

2019

2.1%

In 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, and 2019, our customer count increased by 5,875, 31,537, 21,246, 772,099 and 21,108 customers, respectively, primarily due to the water and wastewater utility systems that we acquired, organic growth, and in 2020, due to the Peoples Gas Acquisition that resulted to the addition of approximately 750,000 natural gas utility customers. Overall, for the five year period of 2019 through 2023, our utility customer base, adjusted to exclude customers associated with utility system dispositions, increased at an annual compound rate of 13.2%. During the five year period ended December 31, 2023, our utility customer base including customers associated with utility system acquisitions and dispositions increased from 1,005,590 at January 1, 2019 to 1,857,461 at December 31, 2023.

Acquisitions and Other Growth Ventures

We believe that acquisitions will continue to be an important source of customer growth for us. We intend to continue to pursue acquisitions of government-owned and regulated water and wastewater systems that provide services in areas near our existing service territories or in new service areas. We engage in continuing activities with respect to potential acquisitions, including calling on prospective sellers, performing analyses of and due diligence on acquisition candidates, making preliminary acquisition proposals, and negotiating the terms of potential acquisitions. Further, we are also seeking other potential business opportunities, including but not limited to, partnering with public and regulated utilities to invest in infrastructure projects, growing our market-based activities by acquiring businesses that provide water and wastewater or other utility-related services, and investing in infrastructure projects.

Based on the 2021 U.S. Census American Housing Survey, approximately 89% of the U.S. population obtain their water from public or private water utility systems, and 11% of the U.S. population obtain their water from individual wells. With approximately 50,000 community water systems in the U.S. (approximately 81% of which serve less than 3,300 customers), the water industry is the most fragmented of the major utility industries (telephone, natural gas, electric, water and wastewater). The majority of these community water systems are government-owned. The nation’s water systems range in size from large government-owned systems, such as the New York City water system, which serves approximately 8.5 million people, to small systems, where a few customers share a common well. In the states where we operate regulated water utilities, we believe there are over 14,000 community water systems of widely-varying size, with the majority of the population being served by government-owned water systems.

Although not as fragmented as the water industry, the wastewater industry in the U.S. also presents opportunities for consolidation. Based on the 2021 U.S. Census American Housing Survey, approximately 84% of the U.S. population relies on public or private sewer systems, and 16% of the U.S. population relies on septic tank, cesspool, or other sewer options. A majority of wastewater facilities are government-owned rather than regulated utilities. In the states where we operate regulated water utilities, we believe there are approximately 4,000 wastewater facilities in operation, with the majority of the population being served by government-owned wastewater systems.

 

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Because of the fragmented nature of the water and wastewater utility industries, we believe there are many potential water and wastewater system acquisition candidates throughout the U.S. We believe the factors driving consolidation of these systems are:

the benefits of economies of scale;

the increasing cost and complexity of environmental regulations;

the need for substantial capital investment;

the need for technical and managerial expertise;

the desire to improve water quality and service;

limited access to cost-effective financing;

the monetizing of public assets to support, in some cases, the declining financial condition of municipalities; and

the use of system sale proceeds by a municipality to accomplish other public purposes.

We are actively exploring opportunities to expand our water and wastewater utility operations through acquisitions or other growth ventures. During the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, we expanded our utility operations by completing 12 acquisitions of water or wastewater utilities or other similar assets.

Capital Investment

The Company expects to invest approximately $7.2 billion from 2024 through 2028 to meet compliance requirements, improve water and natural gas systems, and better serve customers through improved information technology. These investments include replacing and expanding its water and wastewater utility infrastructure and replacing and upgrading its natural gas utility infrastructure, with the latter leading to significant reductions in methane emissions that occur in aged gas pipes. The capital investments made to rehabilitate and expand the infrastructure of the communities we serve is critical to our mission of safely and reliably delivering Earths most essential resources.

Supply and Facilities

Water Utility Supplies and Facilities and Wastewater Utility Facilities - Our water utility operations obtain their water supplies from surface water sources, underground aquifers, and water purchased from other water suppliers. Our water supplies are primarily self-supplied and processed at twenty-four surface water treatment plants located in five states, and numerous well stations located in the states in which we conduct business. Approximately 5.9% of our water supplies are provided through water purchased from other water suppliers. It is our policy to obtain and maintain the permits necessary to obtain and treat the water we distribute.

We believe that the capacities of our sources of supply, and our water treatment, pumping and distribution facilities, are generally sufficient to meet the present requirements of our customers under normal conditions. We plan system improvements and additions to capacity in response to normal replacement and renewal needs, changing regulatory standards, changing patterns of consumption, and increased demand from customer growth. The various state utility commissions have generally recognized the operating and capital costs associated with these improvements in setting water and wastewater rates.

On occasion, drought warnings and water use restrictions are issued by governmental authorities for portions of our service territories in response to extended periods of dry weather conditions. The timing and duration of the warnings and restrictions can have an impact on our water revenues and net income. In general, water consumption in the summer months is more affected by drought warnings and restrictions because discretionary and recreational use of water is at its highest during the summer months. At other times of the year, warnings and restrictions generally have less of an effect on water consumption. Drought warnings and watches result in the public being asked to voluntarily reduce water consumption.

We believe that our wastewater treatment facilities are generally adequate to meet the present requirements of our customers under normal conditions. Additionally, we own several wastewater collection systems that convey the wastewater to municipally-owned facilities for treatment. Changes in regulatory requirements can be reflected in revised permit limits and conditions when permits are renewed, typically on a five year cycle, or when treatment capacity is

 

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expanded. Capital improvements are planned and budgeted to meet normal replacement and renewal needs, anticipated changes in regulations, needs for increased capacity related to projected growth, and to reduce inflow and infiltration to collection systems. The various state utility commissions have generally recognized the operating and capital costs associated with these improvements in setting wastewater rates for current and new customers. It is our policy to obtain and maintain the permits necessary for the treatment of the wastewater that we return to the environment.

Natural Gas Supply and Transportation Facilities - Our natural gas supply strategy is to ensure a dependable gas supply that is economically priced and which is available for delivery when needed. We purchase natural gas from intrastate, interstate and local sources, and transport natural gas supplies through various intrastate and interstate pipelines under contracts with remaining terms, including extensions, varying from one month to 10 years. We anticipate that these gas supply and transportation contracts will be renewed or replaced prior to their expiration.

The regulations of the states in which we operate natural gas utilities allow us to pass through changes in the cost of natural gas to our customers under purchased gas adjustment provisions in our tariffs. Depending upon the jurisdiction, the purchased gas adjustment factors are updated periodically, ranging from quarterly to annually. The changes in the cost of gas billed to customers are subject to review by the applicable regulatory bodies.

We use various third-party storage services or owned natural gas storage facilities to meet peak-day requirements and to manage the daily changes in demand due to changes in weather.

We own and operate underground natural gas storage facilities with capacity of 10.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Total working capacity is 5.3 Bcf for use during the heating season with a maximum daily withdrawal rate of 115.5 million cubic feet (MMcf). Additionally, we have contracted for off-system storage from interstate pipelines. The total amount of off-system storage under contract is 34.9 Bcf with a maximum daily withdrawal rate of 588.9 MMcf.

On an ongoing basis, we enter into contracts to provide sufficient supplies and pipeline capacity to meet our customers’ natural gas requirements. However, it is possible for limited service disruptions to occur from time to time due to weather conditions, transportation constraints, and other events. As a result of these factors, supplies of natural gas may become unavailable from time to time, or prices may increase rapidly in response to temporary supply constraints or other factors. We enter into firm agreements with suppliers, including major producers and marketers, intended to provide flexibility to meet the temperature-sensitive needs of its customers. In Pennsylvania, our distribution system is connected to six interstate pipelines, where we maintain capacity we believe is sufficient to meet our customers’ gas requirements. In Kentucky, our distribution system is connected to four interstate pipelines, where we maintain capacity we believe is sufficient to meet our customers’ gas requirements.

Natural Gas Gathering - Our Pennsylvania Regulated Natural Gas service territory is situated in the Marcellus Shale production region. Approximately 27% of the natural gas supply on the system is from locally produced gas, which we gather and transport into our distribution system. Our gathering system is regulated by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission which includes various safety, environmental and, in some circumstances, anti-discrimination requirements, and in some instances complaint-based rate regulation. Our gathering operations may be subject to ratable take and common purchaser statutes in the states in which we operate.

Our Regulated Natural Gas gathering operations could be adversely affected should they be subject in the future to the application of state or federal regulation of rates and services. Our gathering operations could also be subject to additional safety and operational regulations relating to the design, construction, testing, operation, replacement, and maintenance of gathering facilities. We cannot predict what effect, if any, such changes might have on our operations, but our Regulated Natural Gas segment could be required to incur additional capital expenditures and increased costs depending on future legislative and regulatory changes. Refer to further discussion below in the Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation and Compliance section.

 

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Economic Regulation

Most of our utility operations are subject to regulation by their respective state utility commissions, which have broad administrative power and authority to regulate billing rates, determine franchise areas and conditions of service, approve acquisitions, and authorize the issuance of securities. The utility commissions also establish uniform systems of accounts and approve the terms of contracts with affiliates and customers, business combinations with other utility systems, and loans and other financings. The policies of the utility commissions often differ from state to state and may change over time. A small number of our water and wastewater utility operations are subject to rate regulation by county or city governments. The profitability of our utility operations is influenced to a great extent by the timeliness and adequacy of rate allowances we are granted by the respective utility commissions or authorities in the various states in which we operate.

Rate Case Management Capability – We maintain a rate case management capability, the objective of which is to provide that the tariffs of our utility operations reflect, to the extent practicable, the timely recovery of increases in costs of operations, capital expenditures, interest expense, taxes, energy, materials, and compliance with environmental regulations as well as a return on equity. We file rate increase requests to recover and earn a fair return on the infrastructure investments that we make in improving or replacing our facilities and to recover expense increases. In the states in which we operate, we are primarily subject to economic regulation by the following state utility commissions:

State

Utility Commission

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission

Ohio

Public Utilities Commission of Ohio

North Carolina

North Carolina Utilities Commission

Texas

Public Utility Commission of Texas

Illinois

Illinois Commerce Commission

New Jersey

New Jersey Board of Public Utilities

Kentucky

Public Service Commission of Kentucky

Virginia

Virginia State Corporation Commission

Indiana

Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission

Our water and wastewater operations are comprised of 57 rate divisions, and our natural gas operations are comprised of three rate divisions. Each of our utility rate divisions require a separate rate filing for the evaluation of the cost of service, including the recovery of investments, in connection with the establishment of rates for that rate division. When feasible and beneficial to our utility customers, we will seek approval from the applicable state regulatory commission to consolidate rate divisions to achieve a more even distribution of costs over a larger customer base. All of the states in which we operate permit us to file a revenue requirement for some form of consolidated rates for all, or some, of the rate divisions in that state.

In Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina, and Kentucky, we may bill our utility customers, in certain circumstances, in accordance with a rate filing that is pending before the respective regulatory commission, which would allow for interim rates. As of December 31, 2023, we have no billings under interim rate arrangements for rate case filings in progress. Furthermore, some utility commissions authorize the use of expense deferrals and amortization to provide for an impact on our operating income by an amount that approximates the requested amount in a rate request. In these states, the additional revenue billed and collected prior to the final regulatory commission ruling is subject to refund to customers based on the outcome of the ruling. The revenue recognized and the expenses deferred by us reflect an estimate as to the final outcome of the ruling. If the request is denied completely or in part, we could be required to refund to customers some or all of the revenue billed to date and write-off some or all of the deferred expenses.

Revenue Surcharges – Eight states in which we operate water and wastewater utilities, and both states, Pennsylvania and Kentucky, in which we operate natural gas utilities, permit us to add an infrastructure rehabilitation surcharge to their respective bills to offset the additional depreciation and capital costs associated with capital expenditures related to replacing and rehabilitating infrastructure systems. Without this surcharge, a utility absorbs all of the depreciation and capital costs of these projects between base rate increases. The gap between the time that a capital project is completed and the recovery of its costs in rates is known as regulatory lag. This surcharge is intended to substantially reduce regulatory lag, which could act as a disincentive for utilities to rehabilitate their infrastructure. In addition, our

 

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subsidiaries in some states use a surcharge or credit on their bills to reflect changes in costs, such as changes in state tax rates, other taxes and purchased water costs, until such time as the new cost levels are incorporated into base rates.

The infrastructure rehabilitation surcharge typically adjusts periodically based on additional qualified capital expenditures completed or anticipated in a future period, and is capped at a percentage of base rates, generally at 5% to 12.75%, and is reset to zero when new base rates that reflect the costs of those additions become effective or when a utility’s earnings exceed a regulatory benchmark. These surcharges provided revenues of $20,260,881 in 2023, $26,902,294 in 2022, and $33,771,486 in 2021.

In the majority of our natural gas service territories, the public utility commissions have authorized bare steel and cast-iron replacement programs. In Pennsylvania, we filed a Long-Term Infrastructure Replacement program with the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission where we have committed to the replacement of bare steel and cast-iron pipe. On February 14, 2012, the Governor of Pennsylvania signed into law Act 11 of 2012, which provided a Distribution System Improvement Charge (DSIC) mechanism for certain utilities to recover costs related to repair, replacement or improvement of eligible distribution property that has not previously been reflected in rates or rate base. Through this Pennsylvania DSIC, subject to an earnings test, a utility may recover the fixed costs of eligible infrastructure incurred during the three months ended one month prior to the effective date of the charge, thereby reducing the historical regulatory lag associated with cost recovery through the traditional rate-making process. In Kentucky, we have a pipe replacement program tariff, which allows adjustment of regulated rates annually to earn a return on capital expenditures incurred subsequent to our last rate case which were associated with the replacement of bare steel and vintage plastic pipe.

Gas costs incurred to serve our natural gas customers represent a significant operating expense. Our regulated natural gas rates, in all jurisdictions, contain a Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA), which is reflected in our tariffs. The PGA allows us to timely charge for changes in the cost of purchased gas, inclusive of unaccounted for gas expense based on actual experience. PGA procedures involve periodic filings and hearings before the state regulatory commissions to establish price adjustments for a designated future period. The procedures also provide for inclusion in later periods of any variances between actual recoveries representing the estimated costs and actual costs incurred. The PGA is subject to periodic review and audit by the state regulatory commissions who also have the authority to disallow previously incurred costs.

In Pennsylvania, the gas cost component of uncollectible accounts expense, gas procurement costs, and certain costs to maintain a supplier choice program, where customers can elect their natural gas supplier, are recovered by mechanisms outside of typical base rate recovery. Additionally, in Pennsylvania, we recover the costs related to universal service programs, whereby customers who meet certain income guidelines receive assistance toward paying their monthly bill, weatherization services, and other programs. In Kentucky, the gas cost component of uncollectible accounts expense is recovered by a recovery mechanism outside of base rate recovery.

Income Tax Accounting Method Change – In 2012, in response to a rate order, Aqua Pennsylvania adopted an income tax accounting method change, implemented on Essential Utilities’ 2012 federal income tax return. This accounting method change resulted in a tax deduction for qualifying utility asset improvement costs that were formerly capitalized for tax purposes. The rate order requires the flow-through of income tax benefits which results in a reduction to current income tax expense through the recognition of income tax benefits resulting from the accounting method change. In May 2022, as a result of its most recent rate case, Aqua Pennsylvania received a rate case order that provided for $159,000,000 of income tax deductions, for its water customers, annually, from the flow-through recognition, subject to a collar mechanism of $4,000,000.

In March 2020 and June 2022, the Company changed the method of tax accounting for certain qualifying infrastructure investments at its Peoples Natural Gas and Peoples Gas subsidiaries, respectively. In the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company made a similar change for its Aqua New Jersey subsidiary. These changes result in a tax deduction for qualifying utility asset improvement costs that were formerly capitalized for tax purposes. Consistent with the Company’s accounting for differences between book and tax expenditures for its Aqua Pennsylvania subsidiary, the Company is utilizing the flow-through method to account for this timing difference. For Peoples Natural Gas, the Company calculated the income tax benefits for qualifying capital expenditures made prior to March 16, 2020 (catch-up adjustment) and recorded a regulatory liability for $160,655,000 for these income tax benefits. In May 2021, the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission approved a settlement petition that allows Peoples Natural Gas to continue to use flow-through

 

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accounting for the current tax repair benefit and allows for the catch-up adjustment to be given to its customers. These benefits are being provided back to customers over a five-year period through a credit on customer bills which commenced in August 2021. For Peoples Gas, another company acquired in the Peoples Gas Acquisition, the Company calculated the catch-up adjustment from the periods prior to the 2021 tax year and recognized a regulatory liability of $13,808,000 for these income tax benefits.

In April 2023, the Internal Revenue Service issued Revenue Procedure 2023-15 which provides a safe harbor method of accounting that taxpayers can adopt to determine whether expenses to repair, maintain, replace, or improve natural gas transmission and distribution property must be capitalized for tax purposes. The Company evaluated the safe harbor and intends to adopt the methodology on its 2023 tax return. Upon completion of its 2023 tax return analyses, the Company will update the regulatory liabilities recorded with the recalculated amounts for the catch-up periods for its Peoples Natural Gas and Peoples Gas subsidiaries, and file a petition to update its Tax Repair Surcredit rider to address the benefits due to customers.

In the second quarter of 2023, based on the tax legislative guidance that was issued, the Company reevaluated the uncertain tax positions related to the Regulated Water Segment and ultimately released a portion of its historical income tax reserves. Concurrently, the Company deferred this tax benefit from the reserve release as a regulatory liability, as the accounting treatment is expected to be determined in a future regulatory filing.

Fair Market Value Legislation – In April 2016, Pennsylvania enacted legislation allowing the public utility commission to utilize fair market value to set ratemaking rate base instead of the depreciated original cost of water or wastewater assets for certain qualifying municipal acquisitions. The legislation includes a process for engaging two independent utility valuation experts to perform appraisals that are filed with the public utility commission and then averaged and compared to the purchase price. The ratemaking rate base is the lower of the average of the appraisals or the purchase price and is subject to regulatory approval. In February 2024, the public utility commission issued a draft revision to the current procedures and guidelines that had been implemented, that bolsters requirements for public notice and meetings, requires a rate impact notice, and provides other measures to improve the fair market value process when investor-owned utilities acquire water and wastewater utilities in Pennsylvania. The proposal is currently open for public comment and recommendations to provide feedback for consideration by the commission before finalizing these proposed revisions. Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and Texas also have legislation that allows the use of fair market value under varying rules and circumstances. We believe that this legislation encourages consolidation in the water and wastewater industry, providing municipalities with an option for exiting the business if they are dealing with challenges associated with their aging, deteriorating water and wastewater assets, do not have the expertise or technical capabilities to continue to comply with ever-increasing environmental regulations, or simply want to focus on other community priorities.

Revenue Stability Mechanisms – Revenue stability mechanisms separate the volume of water sold from our ability to meet our cost of service and infrastructure costs. These mechanisms allow us to recognize revenue based on a target amount established in the last rate case, and then record either a regulatory asset or liability based on the cumulative difference over time, which results in either a refund due to customers or a payment from customers. In Illinois, our operating subsidiary utilizes a revenue stability mechanism. Additionally, a weather-normalization adjustment (WNA) mechanism is in place for our natural gas customers served in Kentucky. The WNA serves to minimize the effects of weather on the Company’s results for its residential and small commercial natural gas customers. This regulatory mechanism adjusts revenues earned for the variance between actual and normal weather and can have either positive (warmer than normal) or negative (colder than normal) effects on revenues. Customer bills are adjusted in the December through April billing months, with rates adjusted for the difference between actual revenues and revenues calculated under this mechanism billed to the customers.

 

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Competition

In general, we believe that Essential Utilities and its water, wastewater, and natural gas subsidiaries have valid authority, free from unduly burdensome restrictions, to enable us to carry on our business as presently conducted in the franchised or contracted areas we now serve. The rights to provide water, wastewater, or natural gas service to customers in a particular franchised service territory are generally non-exclusive, although the applicable utility commissions usually allow only one regulated utility to provide service to customers in a given area. In some instances, another water utility provides service to a separate area within the same political subdivision served by one of our subsidiaries. Additionally, our larger natural gas customers may bypass gas distribution services by gaining distribution directly from interstate pipelines, other gas distributors, or other energy sources. As a regulated utility, we believe there is little competition for the daily water, wastewater, and natural gas service we provide to our customers.

Although our natural gas subsidiaries are not currently in significant direct competition with any other distributors of natural gas in its service areas, we do compete with suppliers of other forms of energy such as fuel oil, electricity, propane, coal, wind, and solar. Competition can be intense among the energy sources with price being the primary consideration. This is particularly true for industrial customers who have the ability to switch to alternative fuels. Natural gas generally benefits from a competitive price advantage over oil, electricity, and propane. Competition from renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is likely to increase as the political environment currently favors these energy sources through incentives or by placing restrictions on emissions from the burning of fossil fuels.

Water and wastewater utilities may compete for the acquisition of other water and wastewater utilities or for acquiring new customers in new service territories. Competition for these acquisitions generally comes from nearby utilities, either other regulated utilities or municipal-owned utilities, and sometimes from strategic or financial purchasers seeking to enter or expand in the water and wastewater industry. We compete for new service territories and the acquisition of other utilities on the following bases:

 

economic value;

economies of scale;

our ability to provide quality water, wastewater, and natural gas service;

our existing infrastructure network;

our ability to perform infrastructure improvements;

our ability to comply with environmental, health, and safety regulations;

our technical, regulatory, and operational expertise;

our ability to access capital markets; and

our cost of capital.

The addition of new service territories and the acquisition of other utilities by regulated utilities such as the Company are generally subject to review and approval by the applicable state utility commissions.

In a very small number of instances in one of our southern states, where there are municipally-owned water or wastewater systems near our operating divisions, the municipally-owned system may either have water distribution or wastewater collection mains that are located adjacent to our division's mains or may construct new mains that parallel our mains.  In these rare circumstances, the municipally-owned system may attempt to voluntarily offer service to customers who are connected to our mains, resulting in our mains becoming surplus or underutilized without compensation.

In the states where our water subsidiaries operate, it is possible that portions of our subsidiaries’ operations could be acquired by municipal governments by one or more of the following methods:

eminent domain;

the right of purchase given to or reserved by a municipality or political subdivision when the original franchise was granted; and,

the right of purchase given or reserved under the law of the state in which the subsidiary was incorporated or from which it received its permit.

 

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The price to be paid upon such an acquisition by the municipal government is usually determined in accordance with applicable law under eminent domain. In other instances, the price may be negotiated, fixed by appraisers selected by the parties, or computed in accordance with a formula prescribed in the law of the state or in the particular franchise or charter. We believe that our operating subsidiaries would be entitled to fair market value for any assets that are condemned, and we believe the fair market value would be in excess of the book value for such assets.

Despite maintaining a program to monitor condemnation interests and activities that may affect us over time, one of our primary strategies continues to be to acquire additional water and wastewater systems, to maintain our existing systems where there is a business or a strategic benefit, and to actively oppose unilateral efforts by municipal governments to acquire any of our operations, particularly for less than the fair market value of our operations or where the municipal government seeks to acquire more than it is entitled to under the applicable law or agreement. On occasion, we may voluntarily agree to sell systems or portions of systems in order to help focus our efforts in areas where we have more critical mass and economies of scale or for other strategic reasons.

Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation and Compliance

The Company’s mission is “to sustain life and improve economic prosperity by safely and reliably delivering Earth’s most essential resources to customers and communities”. We are committed to protecting the environment and the health and safety of our employees, customers, and the public and continue to adhere to applicable regulatory standards. We integrate environmental, health, and safety requirements into planning, decision-making, construction, operations, and maintenance activities that we perform.

Provision of water and wastewater services is subject to regulation under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, and related state laws, and under federal and state regulations issued under these laws. These laws and regulations establish criteria and standards for drinking water and for wastewater discharges. Environmental, health and safety, and water quality regulations are complex and may vary from state to state. In some instances, a state has adopted a standard that is more stringent than the federal standard. For example, in advance of proposed federal EPA regulations, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has already established enforceable drinking water standards for three per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS, including perfluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA; perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, or PFOS; and perfluorononanoic acid, or PFNA, and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection also recently enacted enforceable drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS. In addition, we are subject to federal and state laws and other regulations relating to solid waste disposal, dam safety, and other aspects of our operations.

From time to time, Essential Utilities has acquired, and may acquire, systems that have environmental compliance issues. Environmental compliance issues also arise in the course of normal operations or as a result of regulatory changes. Essential Utilities attempts to align capital budgeting and expenditures to address these issues in due course. We believe that the capital expenditures required to address outstanding environmental compliance issues in our water and wastewater systems have been budgeted in our capital program and represent approximately $187,000,000, or less than 5% of our expected total water and wastewater capital expenditures over the next five years (2024-2028). These capital expenditures do not include the amounts discussed below in connection with the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation as that regulation is not yet finalized. We are parties to agreements with regulatory agencies in Pennsylvania, Texas, and Illinois under which we have committed to make improvements for environmental compliance. These agreements are intended to provide the regulators with assurance that problems covered by these agreements will be addressed, and the agreements generally provide protection from fines, penalties, and other actions while corrective measures are being implemented. We are working with state environmental officials in Pennsylvania, Texas, and Illinois to implement or amend regulatory agreements as necessary.

Our Regulated Natural Gas utility operations are subject to stringent and complex laws and regulations pertaining to the environment. Legislative and regulatory actions to address climate change are in various phases of review or implementation in the United States. These measures could include emissions limits, reporting requirements, carbon taxes, and incentives or mandates to conserve energy or use renewable energy sources. As an owner or operator of natural gas pipelines, distribution systems and storage, and the facilities that support these systems, we must comply with these laws and regulations at the federal, state, and local levels. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may trigger a variety of administrative, civil, and criminal enforcement measures, including the assessment of monetary penalties, the

 

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imposition of remedial actions, and the issuance of orders enjoining future operations. Certain environmental statutes impose strict, joint and several liability for costs required to assess, clean up, and restore sites where hazardous substances have been stored, disposed or released.

Safe Drinking Water Act - The Safe Drinking Water Act establishes criteria and procedures for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop national quality standards for drinking water. Regulations issued pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act set standards regarding the amount of microbial and chemical contaminants and radionuclides in drinking water. Current requirements under the Safe Drinking Water Act are not expected to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations as we have made and are making investments to meet existing water quality standards. We may, in the future, be required to change our method of treating drinking water at some sources of supply and make additional capital investments if additional regulations become effective.

On March 14, 2023, the EPA announced the proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, or NPDWR, for the treatment of six PFAS. The Company submitted comments on the NPDWR, which would establish legally enforceable levels for PFAS in drinking water. It is expected that the EPA will finalize the regulation in 2024. The Company will be provided a three-year window to comply with the NPDWR, and the Safe Drinking Water Act allows for an additional potential for a two-year extension at the state level, or the Compliance Period. We expect that the regulation, once finalized, will result in changes to or addition of certain treatment processes that will require increased capital expenditures and operating expenses. The Company performed its initial analysis of the NPDWR and estimates an investment of at least $450,000,000 of capital expenditures to install additional treatment facilities over the Compliance Period in order to comply with the proposed NPDWR. This figure could increase as plans for construction execution are refined or if additional sites require treatment in the future. Additionally, the Company estimates annual operating expenses of approximately five percent of the installed capital expenditures, in today’s dollars, related to testing, treatment, and disposal. These are preliminary estimates and actual capital expenditures and expenses may differ based upon a variety of factors, including supply chain issues and site-by-site requirements. The Company continues to advocate for actions to hold polluters accountable and is part of the Multi-District Litigation and other legal actions against multiple PFAS manufacturers and polluters to attempt to ensure that the ultimate responsibility for the cleanup of these contaminants is attributed to the polluters and is seeking damages and other costs to address the contamination of its public water supply systems by PFAS. Capital expenditures and operating costs required as a result of water quality standards have been traditionally recognized by state utility commissions as appropriate for inclusion in establishing rates; however, we are also actively applying for grants and low interest loans, whenever possible, to reduce the overall cost to customers. The Company is also monitoring ongoing litigation and settlement activity with manufacturers of PFAS in these proceedings. For more information, see Item 3 - Legal Proceedings.

Clean Water Act - The Clean Water Act regulates discharges from drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities into lakes, rivers, streams, and groundwater. It is our policy to obtain and maintain all required permits and approvals for the discharges from our water and wastewater facilities, and to comply with all conditions of those permits and other regulatory requirements. A program is in place to monitor facilities for compliance with permitting, monitoring and reporting for wastewater discharges. We are continuously modernizing wastewater treatment methods, ensuring our systems protect the surrounding environment and adhere to current standards. From time to time, discharge violations may occur which may result in fines. These fines and penalties, if any, are not expected to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We are also parties to agreements with regulatory agencies in several states where we operate while improvements are being made to address wastewater discharge issues. The EPA has identified leveraging wastewater discharge permitting and application of biosolids, or sewage sludge, containing PFAS as areas of focus in its PFAS Strategic Roadmap.

Solid Waste Disposal - The handling and disposal of waste generated from water and wastewater treatment facilities is governed by federal and state laws and regulations. A program is in place to monitor our facilities for compliance with regulatory requirements, and we are not aware of any significant environmental remediation costs necessary from our handling and disposal of waste material from our water and wastewater operations.

Dam Safety - Our subsidiaries own 34 dams, of which 18 are classified as high hazard dams that are subject to the requirements of the federal and state regulations related to dam safety, which undergo regular inspections and an annual engineering inspection. After a thorough review and inspection of our dams by professional outside engineering firms, we

 

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believe that all 18 dams are structurally sound and well-maintained, except as described below. These inspections provide recommendations for ongoing rehabilitation which we include in our capital improvement program. The Company has approximately $34,000,000 in capital improvements budgeted between 2024 and 2028 for dam improvements.

We performed studies of our dams that identified five high hazard dams in Pennsylvania and one high hazard dam in Ohio requiring capital improvements. These capital improvements result from the adoption by state regulatory agencies of revised formulas for calculating the magnitude of a possible maximum flood event. The most significant capital improvement remaining to be performed in our dam improvement program is on one dam in Pennsylvania at a total estimated cost of $15,400,000. Design for this dam commenced in 2013 and construction is expected to be completed in 2027. An additional four high hazard dams in Pennsylvania were recently added due to an acquisition in 2023.  These dams are undergoing additional evaluations but have capital improvements budgeted for currently identified needs in the 2024 to 2028 period.

Lead and Copper Rule –Since the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) was issued in 1992, we have been working to prevent lead leaching from home plumbing sources by reducing water corrosivity and adding chemicals that can prevent leaching of lead in pipes and homes. We have a program to evaluate all changes in water sources and/or treatment prior to initiating a change in water supply. We also focus on identifying and removing lead service lines and encouraging customers to replace the customer-owned portion of the service line if it is lead as they are identified during our main replacement program or during other maintenance activities. We support the recommendations of The Lead Service Line Replacement Collaborative, a collaborative of leading water industry, housing, and health organizations that has recommended full replacement of lead service lines as a “best practice” to reduce lead in drinking water, but we generally only have control over the company-owned portion of each service line. In cases where we are replacing a company-owned lead service line, our standard approach is to replace the company-owned portion and advise and encourage the customer to replace the customer-owned portion of the service line, all the way to the customer’s home. In Pennsylvania, we have the legal and regulatory authority to replace the customer-owned portion of the service line and will attempt to obtain customer permission to do so. In New Jersey, we are also complying with the state mandate to replace lead and galvanized service lines on both the company and customer sides with a 10-year deadline. We also advise customers of the potential health impacts of lead in drinking water, and conduct lead testing at homes following replacement of a lead service line.

On January 15, 2021, the EPA published the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) which detail additional measures to better protect communities from exposure to lead in drinking water. Under the LCRR and subsequent rulings, water utilities are required to submit a lead service line inventory and a lead service line replacement plan to the respective states or agencies by October 16, 2024.  We are continuing to enhance our lead service line inventory and refine our lead service line replacement plans, which we expect to complete by the deadline. On November 30, 2023, the EPA announced a proposed Lead and Copper Rule Improvements (LCRI) to further strengthen the key elements of the LCRR. The proposed LCRI includes, among others, a requirement to replace lead service lines within 10 years, lower lead action levels, changes to tap sampling protocol, and enhancements to public notification and customer communication. We are still in the process of reviewing the overall impact of the proposed LCRI. Capital expenditures and operating costs associated with compliance with any of these rule revisions will be determined once the EPA finalizes the rule. 

Partnership for Safe Water Program – Essential Utilities is a proud participant in the American Water Works Association’s (AWWA) Partnership for Safe Water Program.  This voluntary program is a commitment to excellence within the drinking water community above and beyond EPA’s stringent treatment goals.  All of our active surface water treatment plants (within Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois) maintain good standing in the program which includes many awards of achievement.  The honors include the “Director’s Award” (achieved at eight systems) which recognizes plants that have: 1) completed a comprehensive self-assessment report, 2) created an action plan for continuous improvement, and 3) provided several evaluations of performance demonstrating operational excellence.  Several of our systems have met these criteria annually and have received 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year subscriber awards. Furthermore, our Roaring Creek Pennsylvania treatment plant has received the Phase IV Excellence Award, the highest honor achieved in the Partnership Program.

Safety Standards - Our facilities and operations may be subject to inspections by representatives of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration from time to time. We maintain safety policies and procedures to comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s rules and regulations, but violations may occur from time to time, which

 

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may result in fines and penalties, which are not expected to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We endeavor to correct such violations promptly when they come to our attention.

Pipeline Safety Improvement Act- In December 2006, Congress enacted the Pipeline, Inspection, Protection, Enforcement and Safety Act of 2006 (2006 Act), which reauthorized the programs adopted under the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 (2002 Act). These programs included several requirements related to ensuring pipeline safety, and a requirement to assess the integrity of pipeline transmission facilities in areas of high population concentration.

Pursuant to the 2006 Act, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), an agency of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), issued regulations, effective February 12, 2010, requiring operators of gas distribution pipelines to develop and implement integrity management programs similar to those required for gas transmission pipelines, but tailored to reflect the differences in distribution pipelines. Operators of natural gas distribution systems were required to write and implement integrity management programs by August 2, 2011. Peoples’ natural gas distribution systems met this deadline.

Pursuant to the 2002 Act and the 2006 Act, PHMSA has adopted a number of rules concerning, among other things, distinguishing between gathering lines and transmission facilities, requiring certain design and construction features in new and replaced lines to reduce corrosion, and requiring pipeline operators to amend existing written operations and maintenance procedures and operator qualification programs. PHMSA also updated its reporting requirements for natural gas pipelines effective January 1, 2011.

In December 2011, Congress passed the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 (2011 Act). This act increased the maximum civil penalties for pipeline safety administrative enforcement actions; required the DOT to study and report on the expansion of integrity management requirements and the sufficiency of existing gathering line regulations to ensure safety; required pipeline operators to verify their records on maximum allowable operating pressure; and imposed new emergency response and incident notification requirements. In 2016, the Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016 (2016 Act) reauthorized PHMSA’s pipeline safety programs through 2019 and provided limited new authority, including the ability to issue emergency orders, to set inspection requirements for certain underwater pipelines and to promulgate minimum safety standards for natural gas storage facilities, as well as to provide increased transparency into the status of as-yet-incomplete PHMSA actions required by the 2011 Act.

In 2020, the Protecting Our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2020 (2020 Act) reauthorized PHMSA through fiscal year 2023 and directed the agency to move forward with several regulatory initiatives, including obligating operators of non-rural gas gathering lines and new and existing transmission and distribution pipeline facilities to conduct certain leak detection and repair programs and to require facility inspection and maintenance plans to align with those regulations.

In June 2021, PHMSA issued an advisory bulletin to address a self-executing mandate as part of the 2016 Act. This Leak Detection and Reduction (LDAR) bulletin requires operators to update standard operating procedures to address leaks and gas releases which may be hazardous to public safety and the environment. In November 2021, PHMSA published the final gathering line rule. This rule requires preventative and mitigative measures on gathering lines of certain diameters and operating pressures.  Further, on August 24, 2022, PHMSA published a final rule strengthening integrity management requirements for onshore gas transmission lines, bolstering corrosion control standards and repair criteria, and imposing new requirements for inspections after extreme weather events. Certain portions of this August 2022 ruling went into effect in May 2023, with the remaining portions taking effect in February 2024. 

Compliance with PHMSA’s regulations, performance of the remediation activities by our natural gas distribution companies and intrastate pipelines and verification of records on maximum allowable operating pressure will continue to require increases in both capital expenditures and operating costs. The level of expenditures will depend upon several factors, including age, location and operating pressures of the facilities. In particular, the cost of compliance with the DOT’s integrity management rules will depend on integrity testing and the repairs found to be necessary by such testing. Changes to the amount of pipe subject to integrity management, whether by expansion of the definition of the type of areas subject to integrity management procedures or of the applicability of such procedures outside of those defined areas, may also affect incurred costs. Implementation of the 2011, 2016 and 2020 Acts by PHMSA may result in other

 

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regulations or the reinterpretation of existing regulations that could impact compliance costs. In addition, we may be subject to the DOT’s enforcement actions and penalties if the Company fails to comply with pipeline regulations.

Inflation Reduction Act - On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA) was enacted into law, which among other things, includes a provision to implement an annual waste emissions charge beginning with calendar year 2024 (to be paid in 2025) on applicable oil and gas facilities that exceed certain methane emission thresholds.  Currently, the Company has gathering facility assets that could exceed the applicable emissions thresholds and potentially be subject to the waste emissions charge. On January 12, 2024, the EPA released a proposed rule addressing how the charge will be implemented, including the calculation of the charge and potential exemptions from the charge. We are continuing to assess the future impact of the provisions of the IRA on our consolidated financial statements and on the Company’s gathering facility assets. We have estimated that the waste emissions charge beginning in 2024 could approximate $1,000,000 to $2,000,000 annually, with the potential to change over time as the Company’s gathering facility assets are replaced or retired.  We have proposed recovery of these estimated costs in the pending Peoples Natural Gas rate filing.  As a regulated utility, required capital expenditures and operating costs, including taxes, have been traditionally recognized by state utility commissions as appropriate for inclusion in establishing rates. 

Physical Security

We maintain security measures at our facilities, and collaborate with federal, state and local authorities and industry trade associations regarding information on possible threats and physical security measures for water, wastewater, and natural gas utility operations. The costs incurred are expected to be recoverable in customer rates and are not expected to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Environmental Stewardship

The way we do business at Essential reflects our commitment to a sustainable, safe, and healthy environment for all our stakeholders. Sustainability is deeply engrained in our business strategy. We ensure environmental stewardship remains a priority for management by factoring several benchmarks into executive compensation.

We understand the urgency of the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s science-based target of limiting the global temperature increase to well below 2 degrees Celsius. Of our Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions, 79% are driven by our gas distribution business. Early in 2021, we announced that by 2035, we will reduce our Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions by 60% from our 2019 baseline. This is consistent with the rate of reduction necessary through 2035 to keep on track with the Paris Agreement. This will be achieved by extensive gas pipeline replacement, renewable energy purchasing, accelerated methane leak detection and repair, and various other currently planned initiatives that are highly feasible with proven technology.  In 2022, we have achieved 25% emissions reduction from our 2019 baseline. We also began procuring nearly 100% renewable electricity for our water and wastewater operations in Illinois, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania in 2022.

The Company manages climate-change matters through significant board-level oversight. At the management level, the Environmental, Social and Governance, or ESG, Oversight Committee, which is a group of about a dozen of the Company’ senior leaders across the organization and the Chief Executive Officer, meet at least once each quarter to discuss these topics. The Company’s environmental sustainability initiatives and strategy are discussed further in our environmental, social, and governance reporting, which can be found on our website at https://esg.essential.co. Such reports are not incorporated by reference and should not be considered part of this Annual Report.

Human Capital Management

The Company values its workforce as one of its most important assets. The Company is dedicated to creating a sustainable working atmosphere for its employees to attract and retain the best employees. Human capital measures and objectives that the Company focuses on in managing its business include the health and safety of its employees, succession planning, voluntary attrition rate, and diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives.

As of December 31, 2023, we employed a total of 3,258 full-time employees. Our subsidiaries are parties to 22 labor agreements with labor unions covering 1,643 employees. The labor agreements expire at various times up until 2028.

 

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Health and Safety - Safety is the foundation of our business and guides all our employees’ actions. The Company continues to invest in safety improvements, implement policies and procedures, develop technical training and guidelines for our employees, and leverage new tools and technology to improve our maps, records and infrastructure performance. The Company’s Senior Leadership Safety Council leads our safety efforts and is supported by the Safety Steering Committee, state and facility committees and leaders that operate at the local site level. Hazards in the workplace are actively identified, and management tracks incidents so remedial actions can be taken to improve workplace safety. To encourage managers to promote a safe environment, related metrics are incorporated in management’s incentive compensation plans.

The Company provides free access to Health Advocate, which offers a variety of innovative, flexible, and convenient employee health and wellness programs. Through our partnership with Health Advocate, personalized mental health assistance is available to all employees and their family members; support is available 24/7 via in-person, phone or virtual visits with a licensed counselor.

Employee Development and Training - The Company continues to invest in training and development programs for employees so that they may evolve and enhance their skills in their areas of expertise. The Company offers several learning opportunities through partnerships with one of the leading online learning providers, business school certificate programs, tuition reimbursement for post-secondary degree granting programs, and individual career coaching. At Essential, we believe in an integrated talent development approach. We utilize the “70/20/10 model” for development, which holds that 70% of learning happens on the job through stretch goals and critical assignments, 20% of learning occurs through mentoring and coaching and involvement in professional and industry related activities, and 10% of learning occurs within a virtual or live learning environment. We align our development model to support our vision, mission, and competencies, with a balanced approach to developing our workforce that leads us to the development of a confident, committed, and high-performance culture.

Succession Planning – Essential has organizational workforce analysis and planning programs to ensure the Company has the talent it needs for the future. By conducting stay interviews with key performers, the Company learns where talent risks may arise. Under the Company’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Board of Directors is responsible for the development and periodic review of a management succession plan for the Chief Executive Officer and other executives. Annually, the Board of Directors reviews the Company’s succession planning process for the Chief Executive Officer and the named executive officers. During this review, the directors review succession candidates on an immediate basis and more developmental candidates to ensure that the Company is well-prepared for the future.

Voluntary Attrition and Turnover - The Company measures turnover rates of its employees in assessing the Company’s overall human capital. The Company’s voluntary attrition rate (not including retirements) for 2023 was 0% at the executive and senior management level, 6.3% at the mid-level manager level, 11.7% at the professional level, and 7.4% across all other employees. These voluntary attrition rates decreased from 2022 as the Company focused on measures to increase retention and the labor market improved. We are continuing to develop programs focused on retaining our workforce.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - Diversity of backgrounds, ideas, thoughts, and experiences is essential to our culture and the way we do business. Creating an environment where our differences are valued and where every person feels a sense of belonging and engagement supports a thriving organization that cares about our customers and ensures our continued long-term success. In order to promote a culture of diversity and inclusion, we have conducted educational workshops to foster better understanding of different points of view and how pre-conceived notions impact relationships at work. We also support diverse segments of our workforce through employee resource groups, such as the Black Resource Group, LGBTQ+ Pride Resource Group, and Women’s Resource Group. These groups welcome participation from all employees in order to learn from a cultural perspective and support each other through allyship.

From 2021 to 2023, we added an employee diversity component (5% weighting) to our short-term incentive plan. Our focus on attracting and retaining diverse talent has resulted in growth in the number of our diverse employees. Diversity at the management level has also remained steady in 2023. We have achieved our multiyear plan of reaching 16.5% employees of color.

 

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We also believe diversity in our Board of Directors is critical for effective governance. Candidates for nomination to the Board are considered by the Corporate Governance Committee based on their personal abilities, qualifications, independence, knowledge, judgment, character, leadership skills, education, background (including, but not limited to race, gender, and national origin), and their expertise and experience in fields and disciplines relevant to the Company. In October 2023, we were recognized as a Champion of Board Diversity by The Forum of Executive Women for having one-third of our board comprised of women for the fifth year since 2016.

Total Rewards - We invest in our workforce by offering a total rewards package that is targeted to be competitive with the market in which we compete for talent, while allowing individual pay to vary equitably based on performance, skills and experience.  Our total rewards package includes a combination of salaries, short and long-term incentives, health and wellness benefits, retirement benefits, and other benefits which we regularly assess against the current business environment and labor market to ensure they are competitive. 

Communication and Engagement –We believe that our employees are critical to our business, and it is essential to have an environment of high engagement and inclusivity in which employees thrive. We use a variety of communication channels to help employees stay informed and to facilitate direct dialogue, including open forums with our executives, town halls, regular engagement surveys, employee resource groups, and regular performance feedback sessions between employees and their supervisors. We value feedback from our employees, as it helps us gain a deeper understanding of areas where we are doing well and where we need improvement. Employees are requested to participate in a bi-annual culture assessment by completing an anonymous survey. We have worked with various functional areas to create and implement action plans to address areas of employee concern. Executive management also regularly conducts town hall-style meetings with employees, where they have the opportunity to ask questions, voice opinions, and share feedback.

Citizenship – As a mission-based organization, we are driven to improve the quality of life and livelihood of our customers and the communities we serve. Through our charitable giving program, employees are encouraged to engage in philanthropy through the United Way campaign and matching gift program. Essential matches 100%, up to a maximum of $500 per calendar year per employee, for personal contributions made by an employee or their spouse or domestic partner to qualifying nonprofit organizations. At various times throughout the year, the Company supports its employees in volunteering their time and talents to give back to their communities.

Supplier Diversity

We acknowledge that supplier diversity is critical for our communities as well as for our business. We are committed to increasing our work with qualified and certified diverse suppliers from the communities and neighborhoods where we live, work, and operate each day and suppliers that use reasonable efforts to minimize pollution and improve environmental protection and sustainability. As such, we announced a multi-year plan to increase diverse supplier spend to 15% of controllable spend, which excludes spend where there is no opportunity to include diverse suppliers or spend that cannot be sourced from a diverse supplier due to a policy or law (items like power, purchased water and some one-time payments). From 2021 to 2023, we added a supplier diversity component (5% weighting) to our short-term incentive plan to focus on identifying and supporting diverse vendors. We also have a Supplier Code of Conduct that defines the basic requirements for suppliers of goods and services and their responsibilities to the environment and their stakeholders. We also expect our suppliers to subscribe to the principles of nondiscrimination, follow high standards of business ethics and professional conduct and adhere to our Human Rights Policy.

Management and Board Oversight

Our Board of Directors has various committees including an audit committee, an executive compensation committee, a corporate governance committee, and a risk mitigation and investment policy committee. Each of these committees has a formal charter. We also have Corporate Governance Guidelines and a Code of Ethical Business Conduct. Copies of these charters, guidelines, and codes can be obtained free of charge from our Investor Relations page on our web site, www.essential.co. In the event we amend or waive any portion of the Code of Ethical Business Conduct that applies to any of our directors, executive officers, or senior financial officers, we will post that information on our web site.

 

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Available Information

We file annual, quarterly, current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). You may obtain our SEC filings from the SEC’s web site at www.sec.gov.

Our internet web site address is www.essential.co. We make available free of charge through our web site’s Investor Relations page all of our filings with the SEC, including our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other information. These reports and information are available as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with the SEC.

In addition, you may request a copy of the foregoing filings, at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Investor Relations Department

Essential Utilities, Inc.

762 W. Lancaster Avenue

Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-3489

Telephone: 610-527-8000

The references to our web site and the SEC’s web site are intended to be inactive textual references only, and the contents of those web sites are not incorporated by reference herein and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC.


 

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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

In addition to the other information included in this Annual Report, the following factors should be considered in evaluating our business and future prospects. Any of the following risks, either alone or taken together, could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially harmed.

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to many risks and uncertainties. The following are the types of forward-looking statements we make throughout this Annual Report, including in these Risk Factors, and a summary of the types of risks that could impact us and cause actual results to differ from those described in such forward-looking statements:

opportunities for future acquisitions, both within and outside the water and wastewater industries, the success of pending acquisitions and the impact of future acquisitions;

acquisition-related costs and synergies;

the impact of decisions of governmental and regulatory bodies, including decisions to raise or lower rates and decisions regarding potential acquisitions;

the sale of water, wastewater, and gas subsidiaries;

the impact of conservation awareness of customers and more efficient fixtures and appliances on water and natural gas usage per customer;

the impact of our business on the environment, and our ability to meet our environmental, social, and governance goals;

our authority to carry on our business without unduly burdensome restrictions;

our capability to pursue timely rate increase requests;

the capacity of our water supplies, water facilities, wastewater facilities, and natural gas supplies and storage facilities;

the impact of public health threats, or the measures implemented by the Company as a result of these threats;

the impact of cybersecurity attacks or other cyber-related events;

developments, trends and consolidation in the water, wastewater, and natural gas utility and infrastructure industries;

the impact of changes in and compliance with governmental laws, regulations and policies, including those dealing with the environment, health and water quality, taxation, and public utility regulation;

the development of new services and technologies by us or our competitors;

the availability of qualified personnel;

the condition of our assets;

recovery of capital expenditures and expenses in rates;

projected capital expenditures and related funding requirements;

the availability and cost of capital financing, including impacts of increasing financing costs and interest rates;

dividend payment projections;

the impact of geographic diversity on our exposure to unusual weather;

the continuation of investments in strategic ventures;

our ability to obtain fair market value for condemned assets;

the impact of fines and penalties;

the impact of legal proceedings;

general economic conditions, including inflation;

the impairment of goodwill resulting in a non-cash charge to earnings;

the impact of federal and/or state tax policies and the regulatory treatment of the effects of those policies; and

the amount of income tax deductions for qualifying utility asset improvements and the Internal Revenue Service’s ultimate acceptance of the deduction methodology.

 

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Because forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, there are important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including but not limited to:

the success in the closing of, and the profitability of future acquisitions;

changes in general economic, business, credit and financial market conditions;

our ability to manage the expansion of our business;

changes in environmental conditions, including the effects of climate change;

our ability to integrate and otherwise realize all of the anticipated benefits of businesses, technologies or services which we may acquire;

the decisions of governmental and regulatory bodies, including decisions on regulatory filings, including rate increase requests and decisions regarding potential acquisitions;

our ability to file rate cases on a timely basis to minimize regulatory lag;

the impact of inflation on our business and on our customers;

abnormal weather conditions, including those that result in water use restrictions or reduced or elevated natural gas consumption;

the seasonality of our business;

our ability to treat and supply water or collect and treat wastewater;

our ability to source sufficient natural gas to meet customer demand in a timely manner;

the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology systems, including the impact of cybersecurity attacks or other cyber-related events, and risks associated with new systems implementation or integration;

impacts from public health threats, including on consumption, usage, supply chain, and collections.

changes in governmental laws, regulations and policies, including those dealing with taxation, the environment, health and water quality, and public utility regulation;

the extent to which we are able to develop and market new and improved services;

the effect of the loss of major customers;

our ability to retain the services of key personnel and to hire qualified personnel as we expand;

labor disputes;

increasing difficulties in obtaining insurance and increased cost of insurance;

cost overruns relating to improvements to, or the expansion of, our operations;

inflation in the costs of goods and services;

the effect of natural gas price volatility, including the potential impact of high commodity prices on usage or rate case outcomes;

civil disturbance or terroristic threats or acts;

changes to the rules or our assumptions underlying our determination of what qualifies for an income tax deduction for qualifying utility asset improvements;

changes in, or unanticipated, capital requirements;

changes in our credit rating or the market price of our common stock;

changes in valuation of strategic ventures;

changes in accounting pronouncements;

litigation and claims; and

restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to make dividends and other distributions.

 

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Risks Related to Acquisitions

One of the important elements of our growth strategy is the acquisition of regulated utility systems. Any acquisition we decide to undertake may involve risks. Further, competition for acquisition opportunities from other regulated utilities, governmental entities, and strategic and financial buyers may hinder our ability to grow our business. Lastly, competition and industry trends could impact our ability to retain existing customers or acquire new customers, which could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

One important element of our growth strategy is the acquisition and integration of regulated utility systems in order to broaden our service areas. We will not be able to acquire other businesses if we cannot identify suitable acquisition opportunities or reach mutually agreeable terms with acquisition candidates. It is our intent, when practical, to integrate any businesses we acquire with our existing operations. Investing in and integrating acquisitions could require us to incur significant costs and cause diversion of our management's time and resources, and we may be unable to successfully integrate our business with acquired businesses or to realize anticipated benefits of acquisitions. Acquisitions by us could also result in:

 

dilutive issuances of our equity securities;

incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, and environmental liabilities;

unanticipated capital expenditures;

failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;

recording goodwill and other intangible assets for which we may never realize their full value and may result in an asset impairment that may negatively affect our results of operations;

fluctuations in quarterly and/or annual results;

other acquisition related expenses; and

exposure to unknown or unexpected risks and liabilities.

Some or all of these items could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows, and our ability to finance our business and to comply with regulatory requirements. The businesses we acquire may not achieve sales and profitability that would justify our investment, and any difficulties we encounter in the integration process, including in the integration of processes necessary for internal control and financial reporting, could interfere with our operations, reduce our operating margins and harm our internal controls.

Some states in which we operate allow the respective public utility commissions to use fair market value to set ratemaking rate base instead of the traditional depreciated original cost of water or wastewater assets for certain qualifying municipal acquisitions. Depending on the state, there are varying rules and circumstances in which fair value is determined. A number of states’ regulations allow ratemaking rate base to equal the lower of the average of the appraisals or the purchase price, subject to regulatory approval. There may be situations where we may pay more than the ultimate fair value of the utility assets as set by the regulatory commission, despite the fair value legislation suggesting its full recovery. In these situations, goodwill may be recognized to the extent there is an excess purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired through a business acquisition. Our financial condition and results of operations could be harmed by an inability to earn a return on, and recover our purchase price as a component of rate base. Regulatory actions or changes in significant assumptions, including discount and growth rates, utility sector market performance and comparable transaction multiples, projected operating and capital cash flows, and fair value of debt, could also potentially result in future impairments which could be material.

 

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We compete with governmental entities, other regulated utilities, and strategic and financial buyers, for acquisition opportunities. As consolidation becomes more prevalent in the utility industry and competition for acquisitions increases, the prices for suitable acquisition candidates may increase to unacceptable levels and limit our ability to grow through acquisitions. In addition, our competitors may impede our growth by purchasing utilities near our existing operations, thereby preventing us from acquiring them. Governmental entities or environmental / social activist groups have challenged, and may in the future challenge our efforts to acquire new service territories, particularly from municipalities or municipal authorities. Additionally, on occasion we have entered into agreements to acquire water or wastewater utility systems that have been challenged by municipalities or other parties, or where referenda are required, which may impact our ability to complete the acquisition. Higher purchase prices and resulting rates may limit our ability to invest additional capital for system maintenance and upgrades in an optimal manner. Our growth could be hindered if we are not able to compete effectively for new companies and/or service territories with other companies or strategic and financial buyers that have lower costs of operations or capital, or that submit more attractive bids. Any of these risks may harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We face the risk that large natural gas customers may bypass gas distribution services by gaining distribution directly from interstate pipelines, other gas distributors, or other energy sources. Increased competition or other changes in legislation, regulation, or policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Moreover, changes in wholesale natural gas prices compared with prices for electricity, fuel oil, coal, propane, or other energy sources may affect the retention of natural gas customers and may adversely impact our future financial condition and results of operations.

The integration of acquisitions can be a multi-year activity depending upon the complexity and significance of the acquisition.

One element of our strategic plans is our growth through acquisition strategy. Acquisitions in the utility industry are time consuming and complex, with the number of regulatory approvals needed. A significant acquisition can require significant time and resources, including devotion of management time, to integrate the acquired business.

Risks Related to Health and Safety and Environmental Concerns

Some scientific experts are predicting a worsening of weather volatility in the future, possibly created by climate change due to greenhouse gases. Changing severe weather patterns could require additional expenditures to reduce the risk associated with any increasing storm, flood, and drought occurrences.

The issue of climate change is receiving ever increasing attention worldwide. Many climate change predictions, if true, present several potential challenges to utilities, such as: increased frequency and duration of droughts, increased precipitation and flooding, potential degradation of water quality, and changes in demand for services. We maintain an ongoing facility planning process, and this planning or the enactment of new standards may result in the need for additional capital expenditures or raise our operating costs, including the cost of insurance. Because of the uncertainty of weather volatility related to climate change, we cannot predict its potential impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Although any potential expenditures and operating costs may be recovered in the form of higher rates, there can be no assurance that the various state utility commissions that govern our business would approve rate increases to enable us to recover such expenditures and costs. Without adequate rate recovery, our costs of complying with climate change weather related measures may negatively impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Climate change laws and regulations have been passed and are being proposed that require compliance with greenhouse gas emissions standards, as well as other climate change initiatives and reporting, which could impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Climate change is receiving ever increasing attention worldwide. Many scientists, legislators, and others attribute global warming to increased levels of greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide. Climate change laws and regulations enacted and proposed could limit and impose costs tied to GHG emissions from covered entities and require additional monitoring/reporting. For example, in August 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act was signed into law, which includes a methane charge that is expected to be applicable to the reported annual methane emissions of certain oil and gas facilities,

 

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that exceed certain methane emission thresholds, starting in calendar year 2024. A number of states have also adopted energy strategies or plans with goals that include the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. For example, Pennsylvania has a methane reduction framework for the natural gas industry, which has resulted in permitting changes with the stated goal of reducing methane emissions from well sites, compressor stations, and pipelines.  At this time, the existing GHG laws and regulations are not expected to materially harm the Company’s operations or capital expenditures; however, the uncertainty of future climate change regulatory requirements still remains. We cannot predict the potential impact of future laws and regulations on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Although these future expenditures and costs for regulatory compliance may be recovered in the form of higher rates, there can be no assurance that the various state utility commissions that govern our business would approve rate increases to enable us to recover such expenditures and costs. Competition from renewable energy sources may reduce the demand for natural gas, which could impact our future earnings and cash flows.  Another potential risk related to climate change could be more frequent and more severe weather events, which could increase our costs to repair damaged facilities and restore service to our customers. If we are unable to provide utility services to our customers, our financial results would be impacted by lost revenues, and we would have to seek regulatory approval to recover restoration costs.

Climate change and other environmental, social, and governance matters are increasingly important to many investors, and we may fail to provide information desired by all investors or achieve our ESG goals.

Climate change and other environmental, social, and governance, or ESG, matters are increasingly important to many investors, including our current investors. We have focused attention on ESG matters and the communication of our ESG goals, targets, and activities to investors. These goals and targets reflect our current plans and aspirations. Our ability to achieve such goals and aspirations is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which rely on the collective efforts of others or may be outside of our control. As such, we cannot offer assurances that the results reflected or implied by any such statements will be realized or achieved. Moreover, standards and expectations for ESG matters continue to evolve and may be subject to varying interpretations, which may result in significant revisions to our goals or progress. We may also be unable to satisfactorily meet evolving standards, regulations, and disclosure requirements related to ESG. Any failure, or perceived failure, to meet evolving stakeholder expectations, additional regulations and industry standards and disclosures, or achieve our ESG goals and targets could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or stock price.

Our water supply, including water provided to our customers, is subject to various potential contaminants which may result in disruption in our services, additional costs, loss of revenue, fines, laws and/or regulations, and litigation which could harm our business, reputation, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our water supplies, including water provided to our customers, are subject to possible contaminants, including those from:

naturally occurring compounds or man-made substances;

chemicals and other hazardous materials;

lead and other materials;