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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to ________________


Commission file number 0-14112

JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 43-1128385
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation) (I.R.S Employer Identification No.)

663 Highway 60, P.O. Box 807, Monett, MO 65708
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)

417-235-6652
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.01 par value)
JKHY
Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:   None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☒  No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ☐  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ☒  No ☐




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ☒  No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” ”accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act)  
Yes No ☒

On December 31, 2022, the aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by persons other than those who may be deemed affiliates of Registrant was $12,739,269,127 (based on the closing stock price on Nasdaq on December 31, 2022).

As of August 15, 2023, the Registrant had 72,935,131 shares of Common Stock outstanding ($0.01 par value).


DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Company's Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report to the extent stated herein. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") within 120 days of the Company's fiscal year ended June 30, 2023.  




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Reference
PART I
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART III
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15
ITEM 16
3



In this report, all references to "Jack Henry," the “Company," “we," “us," and “our," refer to Jack Henry & Associates, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months, or periods refer to the Company's fiscal years ended in June and the associated quarters, months, and periods of those fiscal years.

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this report, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including without limitation, in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “seek,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “strategy,” “predict,” “likely,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based only on management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions regarding the future of the Company, future plans and strategies, projections, anticipated events and trends, the economy and other future conditions. Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in particular, those included in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this report, and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. Any forward-looking statement made in this report speaks only as of the date of this report, and the Company expressly disclaims any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether because of new information, future events or otherwise.


4


PART I
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
Jack Henry & Associates, Inc.® is a well-rounded financial technology company that strengthens connections between financial institutions and the people and businesses they serve. For more than 47 years, we have provided technology solutions to help banks and credit unions innovate faster, strategically differentiate, and successfully compete while serving the evolving needs of their accountholders. We empower over 7,500 financial institutions and diverse corporate entities with people-inspired innovation, personal service, and insight-driven solutions that help reduce the barriers to financial health.

Mission Statement

We strengthen the connections between people and their financial institutions through technology and services that reduce the barriers to financial health.

This philosophy has always been part of our foundation and the roots on which Jack Henry was built. Our founders, Jack Henry and Jerry Hall, were committed to their community and believed they could help financial institutions better serve the needs of people and businesses using more modern technology and services.

While much has changed since we opened for business in 1976, we continue to be focused on helping community and regional financial institutions, and we are guided by our founding principles: do the right thing, do whatever it takes, and have fun.

Who We Serve

We provide products and services primarily to community and regional financial institutions:
Core bank integrated data processing systems are provided to 940 banks ranging from de novo to multi-billion-dollar institutions with assets of up to $50 billion. The number of banks we serve has decreased in the last year due to acquisitions and mergers within the banking industry, which are discussed further under the heading "Our Industry" in this Item 1. Our banking solutions support both on-premise and private cloud operating environments with functionally distinct core processing platforms and integrated complementary solutions.
Core credit union data processing solutions are provided to credit unions of all sizes, with a client base of over 710 credit union customers. We offer a flagship core processing platform and integrated complementary solutions that support both on-premise and private cloud operating environments.
Non-core highly specialized core-agnostic products and services are also provided to financial institutions. We offer complementary solutions that include highly specialized financial performance, imaging and payments processing, information security and risk management, retail delivery, and online and mobile functionality. These products and services enhance the performance of traditional financial services organizations of all asset sizes and charters, and non-traditional diverse corporate entities. In total, we serve over 7,500 customers, over 1,650 of our core customers included in our bank and credit union customers listed above, and nearly 5,880 non-core customers.
Our products and services provide our customers with solutions that can be tailored to support their unique growth, service, operational, and performance goals. Our well-rounded solutions also enable financial institutions to offer the high-demand products and services required by their customers to compete more successfully, and to capitalize on evolving trends shaping the financial services industry.
We are committed to exceeding our customers’ expectations. We measure and monitor customer satisfaction using a variety of surveys, such as an annual survey on the customer's anniversary date and randomly-generated online surveys initiated each day by routine support requests to ensure feedback is received throughout the year. The results of our survey process provide assurance that our service consistently exceeds our customers’ expectations and, we believe, contribute to our excellent customer retention rates.
We are focused on establishing long-term customer relationships, continually expanding and strengthening those relationships with cross sales of additional products and services that support our clients' strategy, earning new financial and non-financial clients, and ensuring our product offerings are highly competitive.
The majority of our revenue is derived from support and services provided by our private and public cloud services for our hosted customers that are typically on a seven-year or greater contract, recurring electronic payment solutions that are also generally on a contract term of seven years or greater, and our on-premise customers that are typically on a one-year contract. Less predictable software license fees, paid by customers implementing our
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software solutions on-premise, and hardware sales, including all non-software products that we re-market in order to support our software systems, complement our primary revenue sources. Information regarding the classification of our business into four separate segments is set forth in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements (see Item 8).
We recognize that our associates and their collective contribution are ultimately responsible for Jack Henry's past, present, and future success. Recruiting and retaining high-quality employees is essential to our ongoing growth and financial performance, and we believe we have established an organizational culture that sustains high levels of employee engagement. For further discussion of our human capital considerations, see "Human Capital" below.
Our Industry 
Our core banking solutions serve commercial banks and savings institutions with up to $50 billion in assets. According to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), there were approximately 4,660 commercial banks and savings institutions in this asset range as of December 31, 2022, and we currently support 940 of these banks with one of our three core information processing platforms and complementary products and services.  
Our core credit union solutions serve credit unions of all asset sizes. According to the Credit Union National Association (“CUNA”), there were more than 4,850 domestic credit unions as of December 31, 2022, and we currently support over 710 of these credit unions with one flagship core information processing platform and complementary products and services.
Our non-core solutions serve financial services organizations of all asset sizes and charters and other diverse corporate entities. We currently support over 7,500 institutions with specialized solutions for generating additional revenue and growth, increasing security, mitigating operational risks, and controlling operating costs.
The FDIC reports the number of commercial banks and savings institutions declined 17% from the beginning of calendar year 2017 to the end of calendar year 2022, due mainly to mergers. Although the number of banks declined at a 4% compound annual rate during this period, aggregate assets increased at a compound annual rate of 6% and totaled $23.6 trillion as of December 31, 2022. There were 15 new bank charters issued in calendar year 2022, compared to 10 in the 2021 calendar year. Comparing calendar years 2022 to 2021, the number of mergers decreased 19%.
CUNA reports the number of credit unions declined 15% from the beginning of calendar year 2017 to the end of calendar year 2022. Although the number of credit unions declined at a 3% compound annual rate during this period, aggregate assets increased at a compound annual rate of 9% and totaled $2.2 trillion as of December 31, 2022.
Community and mid-tier banks and credit unions are vitally important to the communities, consumers, and businesses they serve. Bank customers and credit union members rely on these institutions to provide personalized, relationship-based service and competitive financial products and services available through the customer’s delivery channel of choice. Institutions are recognizing that attracting and retaining customers and members in today’s highly competitive financial industry and realizing near-term and long-term performance goals are often technology dependent. Financial institutions must implement technological solutions that enable them to:
Offer e-commerce, mobile, and digital strategies that provide the convenience-driven services required in today’s financial services industry.
Maximize performance with accessible, accurate, and timely business intelligence information.
Provide the high-demand products and services needed to successfully compete with traditional and non-traditional competitors created by convergence within the financial services industry.
Enhance the customer/member experience at multiple points of contact.
Expand existing customer/member relationships and strengthen exit barriers by cross selling additional products and services.
Capitalize on new revenue, and deposit and loan portfolio growth opportunities.
Increase operating efficiencies and reduce operating costs.
Protect mission-critical information assets and operational infrastructure.
Protect customers/members with various security tools from fraud and related financial losses.
Maximize the day-to-day use of technology and return on technology investments.
Ensure full regulatory compliance.
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Jack Henry’s extensive product and service offerings help diverse financial institutions meet business challenges and capitalize on opportunities. We strive to get to know our customers, understand their strategies and challenges, and provide innovative solutions that help them achieve short- and long-term success.
Business Strategy
Our fundamental business strategy is to generate organic revenue and earnings growth augmented by strategic acquisitions. We execute this strategy by:
Providing community and regional banks and credit unions with core processing systems that provide excellent functionality and support on-premise and private cloud delivery environments with identical functionality.
Expanding each core customer relationship by cross-selling complementary products and services that enhance the functionality provided by our core processing systems.
Providing non-core highly specialized core-agnostic complementary products and services to financial institutions, including institutions not utilizing one of our core processing systems, and diverse corporate entities.
Developing and deploying a long-term technology modernization strategy to provide public cloud native solutions that provide clients with greater flexibility, optionality, open integration, speed to market, and other benefits.
Maintaining a company-wide commitment to customer service that consistently exceeds our customers’ expectations and generates high levels of customer retention.
Building, maintaining, and enhancing a protected environment and tools that help our clients and us protect customer data, assets, and comply with regulations.
Capitalizing on our acquisition strategy.
Acquisition Strategy
We have a disciplined approach to acquisitions and have been successful in supplementing our organic growth with 35 strategic acquisitions since the end of fiscal year 1999. We continue to explore acquisitions that have the potential to:
Expand our suite of complementary products and services.
Provide products and services that can be sold to both existing core and non-core customers and outside our base to new customers.
Accelerate our internal development efforts.
Provide selective opportunities to sell outside our traditional markets in the financial services industry.
After 47 years in business, we have very few gaps in our product line, so it is increasingly difficult to find proven products or services that would enable our clients and prospects to better optimize their business opportunities or solve specific operational issues. In addition, we see few acquisition opportunities that would expand our market or enable our entry into adjacent markets within the financial services industry that are fairly priced or that we could assimilate into our Company without material distractions.
We have a solid track record of executing acquisitions from both a financial and operational standpoint, and we will continue to pursue acquisition opportunities that support our strategic direction, complement and accelerate our organic growth, and generate long-term profitable growth for our stockholders. While we seek to identify appropriate acquisition opportunities, we will continue to explore alternative ways to leverage our cash position and balance sheet to the benefit of our stockholders, such as continued investment in new products and services for our customers, repurchases of our stock, and continued payment of dividends.
Our most recent acquisition was:
Fiscal YearCompany or Product NameProducts and Services
2023Payrailz, LLC ("Payrailz")Provider of cloud-native modern digital payment capabilities leveraging AI and machine learning features for the financial services industry.
Solutions
Our core banking solutions support commercial banks with information and transaction processing platforms that provide enterprise-wide automation. We have three functionally distinct core bank processing systems and more than 140 fully integrated complementary solutions, including business intelligence and bank management, retail and business banking, digital and mobile internet banking and electronic payment solutions, fraud and risk management and protection, account origination, and item and document imaging solutions. Our core banking
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solutions have state-of-the-art functional capabilities, and we can re-market the hardware required by on-premise use of each software system. Our banking solutions can be delivered on-premise or through our private cloud delivery model and are backed by a company-wide commitment to provide exceptional personal service.
Our core credit union solutions support credit unions of all sizes with an information and transaction processing platform that provides enterprise-wide automation. Our solution includes one flagship core processing system and more than 100 fully integrated complementary solutions, including business intelligence and credit union management, member and member business services, digital and mobile internet banking and electronic payment solutions, fraud and risk management and protection, account origination, and item and document imaging solutions. Our credit union solution also has state-of-the-art functional capabilities. We also re-market the hardware required by on-premise use of the software system. Our credit union solution can be delivered on-premise, through our private cloud, or through our partner private cloud delivery models. Each is backed by our company-wide commitment to provide exceptional personal service.
Our non-core solutions for financial institutions are specialized products and services assembled primarily through our focused diversification acquisition strategy. These core-agnostic solutions are compatible with a wide variety of information technology platforms and operating environments and offer more than 100 complementary solutions, including proven solutions for generating additional revenue and growth, increasing security and mitigating operational risks, and/or controlling operating costs. Our non-core products and services enhance the performance of financial services organizations of all asset sizes and charters, and diverse corporate entities. These distinct products and services can be implemented individually or as solution suites to address specific business problems or needs and enable effective responses to dynamic industry trends.
We strive to develop and maintain functionally robust, integrated solutions that are supported with high service levels, regularly updating and improving those solutions using an interactive customer enhancement process; ensuring compliance with relevant regulations; updated with proven advances in technology; and consistent with Jack Henry’s reputation as a premium solution and service provider.
Core Software Systems
Core software systems primarily consist of the integrated applications required to process deposit, loan, and general ledger transactions, and to maintain centralized customer/member information.
Our core banking solutions consist of three software systems marketed to banks and our core credit union solution consists of one software system marketed to credit unions. These core systems are available for on-premise installation at customer sites, or financial institutions can choose to leverage our private cloud environment for ongoing information processing.
Core banking platforms are:
SilverLake System®, a robust system primarily designed for commercial-focused banks with assets ranging from $1 billion to $50 billion. Some progressive smaller banks and de novo (start-up) banks also select SilverLake. This system is in use by over 460 banks, and now automates nearly 10% of the domestic banks with assets less than $50 billion.
CIF 20/20®, a parameter-driven, easy-to-use system that now supports approximately 300 banks ranging from de novo institutions to those with assets of $5 billion.
Core Director®, a cost-efficient system with point-and-click operation that now supports approximately 180 banks ranging from de novo institutions to those with assets of over $2 billion.
Core credit union platform is:  
Symitar® (formerly known as Episys®), a robust system designed specifically for credit unions. It has been implemented by over 710 credit unions with assets ranging from $3 million to $35 billion, and according to National Credit Union Administration ("NCUA") data, is the system implemented by more credit unions with assets exceeding $25 million than any other alternative core system.
Customers electing to install our solutions on-premise license the proprietary software systems. The majority of these customers pay ongoing annual software maintenance fees. We re-market the hardware, hardware maintenance, and peripheral equipment that is required by on-premise use of our software solutions; and we perform software implementation, data conversion, training, ongoing support, and other related services. On-premise customers generally license our core software systems under a standard license agreement that provides a fully paid, nonexclusive, nontransferable right to use the software on a single computer at a single location.
Customers can eliminate the significant up-front capital expenditures required by on-premise installations and the responsibility for operating information and transaction processing infrastructures by leveraging our private cloud environment for those functions. Our core private cloud services are provided through a highly resilient data center
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configuration across multiple physical locations. We also provide image item processing services from two host/archive sites and several key entry and balancing locations throughout the country. We print and mail customer statements for financial institutions from three regional printing and rendering centers. Customers electing to outsource their core processing typically sign contracts for seven or more years that include "per account" fees and minimum guaranteed payments during the contract period.
We support the dynamic business requirements of our core bank and credit union clients with ongoing enhancements to each core system, the regular introduction of new integrated complementary products, the ongoing integration of practical new technologies, and regulatory compliance initiatives. We also serve each core customer as a single point of contact, support, and accountability.
Complementary Products and Services  
We have more than 140 complementary products and services that are targeted to our core banks and more than 100 targeted to credit union customers. Many of these are selectively sold to financial services organizations that use other core processing systems.
These complementary solutions enable core bank and credit union clients to respond to evolving customer/member demands, expedite speed-to-market with competitive offerings, increase operating efficiency, address specific operational issues, and generate new revenue streams. The highly specialized solutions enable diverse financial services organizations and corporate entities to generate additional revenue and growth opportunities, increase security and mitigate operational risks, and control operating costs.
We regularly introduce new products and services based on demand for integrated complementary solutions from our existing core clients and based on the growing demand among financial services organizations and corporate entities for specialized solutions capable of increasing revenue and growth opportunities, mitigating and controlling operational risks, and/or containing costs. Our Industry Research department solicits customer guidance on the business solutions they need, evaluates available solutions and competitive offerings, and manages the introduction of new product offerings. Our new complementary products and services are developed internally, acquired, or provided through strategic alliances.
Implementation and Training
Most of our core bank and credit union customers contract with us for implementation and training services in connection with their systems and additional complementary products.
A complete core system implementation typically includes detailed planning, project management, data conversion, and testing. Our experienced implementation teams travel to customer facilities or work remotely with clients to help manage the implementation process and ensure that all data is transferred from the legacy system to the Jack Henry system. Our implementation fees are fixed or hourly based on the core system being installed.
We also provide extensive initial and ongoing education to our customers. We have a comprehensive training program that supports new customers with basic training and longtime customers with continuing education. The training enables financial institutions to maximize the use of our core and complementary solutions, learn about ongoing system enhancements, and understand dynamic year-end legislative and regulatory requirements.
Support and Services
We serve our customers as a single point of contact and support for the complex solutions we provide. Our comprehensive support infrastructure incorporates:
Exacting service standards.
Trained support staff available up to 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
Assigned account managers.
Sophisticated support tools, resources, and technology.
Broad experience converting diverse banks and credit unions to our core platforms from competitive platforms.
Highly effective change management and control processes.
Best practices methodology developed and refined through the company-wide, day-to-day experience supporting over 7,500 diverse clients.
Most on-premise customers contract for annual software support services, and this represents a significant source of recurring revenue for Jack Henry. These support services are typically priced at approximately 20% of the respective product’s software license fee. The subsequent years' service fees generally increase as customer assets increase and as additional complementary products are purchased. Annual software support fees typically are billed during June and are paid in advance for the entire fiscal year, with proration for new product
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implementations that occur during the fiscal year. Hardware support fees also are usually paid in advance for entire contract periods which typically range from one to five years. Most support contracts automatically renew unless the customer or Jack Henry gives notice of termination at least 30 days prior to contract expiration.
High levels of support are provided to our private cloud customers by the same support infrastructure utilized for on-premise customers. However, these support fees are included as part of monthly private cloud fees.
Hardware Systems
Our software systems operate on a variety of hardware platforms. We have established remarketing agreements with IBM Corporation, and many other hardware providers that allow Jack Henry to purchase hardware and related maintenance services at a discount and resell them directly to our customers. We currently sell IBM Power Systems™; Lenovo®, Dell, Hewlett Packard, and Cisco servers and workstations; Canon®, Digital Check, Epson®, and Panini® check scanners; and other devices that complement our software solutions.
Digital Products and Services
Jack Henry Digital represents a category of digital products and services that are being built and integrated together into one unified platform. Our main offering is the Banno Digital Platform™. It is an online and mobile banking platform that helps community and regional financial institutions strategically differentiate their digital offerings from those of megabanks and other financial technology companies. It is a complete, open digital banking platform that gives banks and credit unions attractive, fast, native applications for their customers and members and cloud-based, core-connected back-office tools for their employees.
Payment Solutions
Electronic payment solutions provide our customers with the tools necessary to be at the forefront of payment innovation with secure payment processing designed to simplify complex payment processing, attract profitable retail and commercial accounts, increase operating efficiencies, comply with regulatory mandates, and proactively mitigate and manage payment-related risk.
JHA Card Processing Solutions™ ("CPS") supports full-service and in-house debit and credit card programs backed by a comprehensive suite of tools for fraud mitigation, digital payments, dispute management, plastics manufacturing and personalization, loyalty programs, data analytics, and terminal driving. In addition, advisory services are offered to support a variety of needs including card portfolio growth, start-up program consultation, as well as customized fraud management; all tailored to individual financial institution goals and concerns.
Enterprise Payment Solutions ("EPS") is a comprehensive payments engine. It offers an integrated suite of remote deposit capture, Automated Clearing House ("ACH"), and card transaction processing solutions, risk management tools, reporting capabilities, and more for financial institutions, businesses, and fintechs of all sizes. EPS helps its clients succeed in today’s competitive market to increase revenue, improve efficiencies, better manage compliance, and enhance customer relationships.
iPay SolutionsTM provides consumers and businesses with money movement options through their financial institutions’ digital platforms including paying bills, sending money to anyone and transferring funds between their own accounts. iPay’s extensive application programming interface ("API") and hosted interfaces allow for multiple levels of integration by digital platforms and financial institutions. iPay provides financial institutions with services and tools to increase adoption, support end-users and monitor fraud. The money movement options keep the consumers and businesses engaged with the financial institution.
PayrailzTM supports our technology modernization strategy by adding next generation digital payment capabilities to our payment’s ecosystem based on cloud native microservices. Our new Money Movement payments platform includes native artificial intelligence ("AI"), Action Insights (which is predictive and proactive recommendations through AI), a flexible modern user experience, a layered security model, an automated fraud feature leveraging machine learning, and a modern and flexible administrative portal. In addition to bill payment capabilities, we have a ‘pay a loan’ feature, an ‘open looped’ real-time person-to-person ("P2P") solution, and account-to-account ("A2A") transfer features.
JHA PayCenterTM, provides our customer financial institutions with a single entry point to both Zelle® and Real Time Payments ("RTP") real-time networks and supports the Federal Reserve's FedNow®, which launched in July 2023. PayCenter manages the certification process and mandatory updates from the networks, simplifies integration with toolkits and provides fraud monitoring. Financial institutions can send and receive transactions instantly 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, through our core and complementary solutions.
Payments as a Service ("PaaS") ties together and further enhances the complete array of electronic payments functionality with a front-end Payments Developers Experience Portal and back-end data analytics.
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Research and Development
We invest significant resources in ongoing research and development to develop new software solutions and services and enhance existing solutions with additional functionality and features required to ensure regulatory compliance. We enhance our core and complementary systems a minimum of once each year. Product-specific enhancements are largely customer-driven with recommended enhancements formally gathered through focus groups, change control boards, strategic initiatives meetings, annual user group meetings, and ongoing customer contact. We also continually evaluate and implement process improvements that expedite the delivery of new products and enhancements to our customers and reduce related costs.
Research and development expenses for fiscal 2023, 2022, and 2021 were $142.7 million, $121.4 million, and $109.0 million, respectively. We recorded capitalized software in fiscal 2023, 2022, and 2021 of $166.1 million, $148.2 million, and $128.3 million, respectively.
Sales and Marketing
We serve established, well-defined markets that provide ongoing sales and cross-sales opportunities.
The marketing and sales initiatives within the core business lines are primarily focused on identifying banks and credit unions evaluating alternative core information and transaction processing solutions. Our non-core specialized core-agnostic niche solutions are sold to complement existing technology platforms to domestic financial services organizations of all asset sizes and charters.
Sales executives are responsible for the activities required to earn new customers in assigned territories, and regional account executives are responsible for nurturing customer relationships and cross selling additional products and services. Our sales professionals receive base salaries and performance-based commission compensation. Sales support staff provide a variety of services, including product and service demonstrations, responses to prospect-issued requests-for-proposals, and proposal and contract generation. Our marketing department supports sales with lead generation and brand-building activities, including participation in state-specific, regional, and national trade shows; print and online advertising; telemarketing; customer/client newsletters; ongoing promotional campaigns; and media relations. We also host annual national education conferences which provide opportunities to network with existing clients and demonstrate new products and services.
Jack Henry has sold select products and services outside the United States, primarily in Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada. International sales accounted for less than 1% of Jack Henry’s total revenue in each of fiscal 2023, 2022, and 2021.
Competition
The market for companies providing technology solutions to financial services organizations is competitive, and we expect that competition from both existing competitors and companies entering our existing or future markets will remain strong. Some of our current competitors have longer operating histories, larger customer bases, and greater financial resources. The principal competitive factors affecting the market for technology solutions include product/service functionality, price, operating flexibility and ease-of-use, customer support, and existing customer references. For more than a decade, there has been significant consolidation among providers of products and services designed for financial institutions, and this consolidation is expected to continue in the future.
Our core solutions compete with large vendors that provide information and transaction processing solutions to banks and credit unions, including Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.; Fiserv, Inc.; and Finastra. Our non-core specialized solutions compete with an array of disparate vendors that provide niche solutions to financial services organizations and corporate entities.
Intellectual Property, Patents, and Trademarks  
Although we believe our success depends upon our technical expertise more than our proprietary rights, our future success and ability to compete depend in part upon our proprietary technology. We have registered or filed applications for our primary trademarks. Most of our technology is not patented. Instead, we rely on a combination of contractual rights, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets to establish and protect our proprietary technology. We generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, resellers, customers, and potential customers. Access to and distribution of our Company’s source code is restricted, and the disclosure and use of other proprietary information is further limited. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties can attempt to copy or otherwise obtain, or use our products or technology.
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Regulatory Compliance
We maintain a corporate commitment to address compliance issues and implement requirements imposed by federal regulators prior to the effective date of such requirements when adequate prior notice is given. Our compliance program is coordinated by a team of compliance analysts and auditors with extensive regulatory agency and financial institution experience, and a thorough working knowledge of Jack Henry and our solutions. These compliance professionals leverage multiple channels to remain informed about potential and recently enacted regulatory requirements, including regular discussions on emerging topics with the Federal Banking Agencies (“FBA”) examination team and training sessions sponsored by various professional associations.
Jack Henry has a process to inform internal stakeholders of new and revised regulatory requirements. Upcoming regulatory changes also are presented to the Company’s development teams through monthly regulatory compliance meetings and the necessary product changes are included in the ongoing product development cycle. We publish newsletters to keep our customers informed of regulatory changes that could impact their operations. Periodically, customer advisory groups are assembled to discuss significant regulatory changes.
Internal audits of our systems, networks, operations, business recovery plans, and applications are conducted and specialized outside firms are periodically engaged to perform testing and validation of our systems, processes, plans and security. The FBA conducts annual reviews throughout the Company and issues a Report of Examination. The Board of Directors provides oversight of these activities through the Risk and Compliance Committee and the Audit Committee.
Government Regulation
The financial services industry is subject to extensive and complex federal and state regulation. All financial institutions are subject to substantial regulatory oversight and supervision. Our products and services must comply with the extensive and evolving regulatory requirements applicable to our customers, including but not limited to those mandated by federal truth-in-lending and truth-in-savings rules, the Privacy of Consumer Financial Information regulations, usury laws, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, the USA Patriot Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Community Reinvestment Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The compliance of Jack Henry’s products and services with these requirements depends on a variety of factors, including the parameters set through the interactive design, the classification of customers, and the manner in which the customer utilizes the products and services. Our customers are contractually responsible for assessing and determining what is required of them under these regulations and then we provide solutions that assist them in meeting their regulatory needs through our products and services. We cannot predict the impact these regulations, any future amendments to these regulations or any newly implemented regulations will have on our business in the future.
Jack Henry is not chartered by the Office of the Comptroller of Currency ("OCC"), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the FDIC, the NCUA or other federal or state agencies that regulate or supervise depository institutions. However, operating as a service provider to financial institutions, Jack Henry’s operations are governed by the same regulatory requirements as those imposed on financial institutions, and subject to periodic reviews by FBA regulators who have broad supervisory authority to remedy any shortcomings identified in such reviews.
We provide private cloud services through JHA OutLink Processing Services™ for banks and EASE Processing Services™ for credit unions. We provide data centers and electronic transaction processing through JHA Card Processing Solutions™, internet banking through NetTeller® and BannoTM online solutions, bill payment through iPay, network security monitoring and Hosted Network Solutions ("HNS") through our Gladiator® unit, cloud services through Hosted Partner Services and Enterprise Integration Services, and business recovery services through Centurion Disaster Recovery®.
Our private cloud services are subject to examination by FBA regulators under the Bank Service Company Act. These examinations cover a wide variety of subjects, including system development, functionality, reliability, and security, as well as disaster preparedness and business recovery planning. Our private cloud services are also subject to examination by state banking authorities on occasion.
Information and Cybersecurity
In our increasingly interconnected environment, information is inherently exposed to a growing number of risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. As a provider of products and services to financial institutions, we use industry standard policies and procedures to process and store sensitive, personally identifiable information securely. We prioritize
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protecting our associates, clients, and their private data from the ever-evolving cyber threat environment and ensuring the resiliency of such information.
We have an established information and cybersecurity program maintained by a team of diverse, highly skilled cybersecurity professionals, as well as a portfolio of investments in modern technology including artificial intelligence and machine learning. The program incorporates industry-standard frameworks, policies, and practices designed to protect the confidentiality and privacy of Jack Henry’s and our clients’ information. Additionally, we maintain insurance that includes cybersecurity coverage.
In support of the program, our systems and services undergo regular reviews performed by the same regulatory agencies that review financial institutions: Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), Federal Reserve Board ("FRB"), FDIC, NCUA, and the OCC, among others. Reviews such as those by the Federal Banking agencies (a regulatory group comprised of the FDIC, FRB, and the OCC) assess and identify security gaps or flaws in controls and monitor the effectiveness of our security program. Critical services provided to our clients are subject to annual System and Organization Controls ("SOC") reviews by independent auditors. Information and cybersecurity leadership reports to the Risk and Compliance Board committee and the full Board of Directors quarterly, on information security and cybersecurity matters.
Human Capital
Our Employees
As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 7,120 full-time and part-time employees. Our employees are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement and there have been no labor-related work stoppages.
Talent Attraction and Engagement
Our people and culture strategy focuses on attracting, engaging, and retaining qualified, diverse, and innovative talent at all levels of the Company. We are a committed equal opportunity employer and all qualified candidates receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, pregnancy, genetic information, or other characteristics protected by applicable law.
Beyond nondiscrimination compliance, we are committed to fostering a respectful, diverse, and inclusive workplace in which all individuals are treated with respect and dignity. We continue to concentrate efforts on diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging and continue to hire employees in the human resources function to focus on this important area. We seek nontraditional talent streams to help identify candidates from underrepresented groups, including through our internship and apprenticeship programs. Our internship program focuses on attracting college and university students to paid work in Jack Henry departments related to their studies, while our apprenticeship program offers paid training and work for candidates (either students or non-students) with little to no traditional experience in the field, such as learning computer coding. Both our internship and apprenticeship programs can lead to full-time employment.
We continue to engage our Business Innovation Groups (“BIGs”) to develop attraction and retention suggestions and practices that advance a diverse, equitable, and inclusive culture. Our BIGs are company-sponsored groups open to all employees. As of June 30, 2023, we had over 1,840 unique associates participating in seven active BIGs, with six focused on inclusion for specific communities — women, people of color, remote employees, LGBTQ+, veterans, and people with disabilities — and one focused on environmental and sustainability topics. While BIGs allow employees to connect and support each other, they also function to assist us in addressing bona fide business problems through input and suggestions. For example, these groups work with executive leadership to actively improve our talent attraction processes for prospective employees. They also provide education, training, and conversation opportunities to all employees to increase belongingness and to advance diversity, inclusion, understanding, and innovation throughout the Company. JHAnywhere, a BIG formed previously to provide community and resources for the then minority of employees working remotely, was discontinued in July 2023 due to the proliferation of remote work resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic to the extent that such efforts became a company-wide focus that went beyond the capacity of a single BIG to support. The Company remains focused on equipping all employees with the tools necessary to effectively communicate, collaborate, and build connections in a remote environment, including ensuring leaders have the skills needed to effectively lead dispersed teams.
We seek to actively listen to our employees throughout the year using a defined and continuous listening strategy designed to gather regular feedback on well-being, engagement, leadership, ethics, culture and values, and other top of mind topics. These surveys allow us to respond to employee concerns, benefit from employee perspectives, and better design and develop processes to support our Company culture. Employees can learn about changes
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through our jhDaily online news center, regular email communications, monthly Manager Forum events, quarterly employee update videos or all-employee town hall meetings delivered by senior management.
Training and Development
Our success depends not only on attracting and retaining talented employees, but also in developing our current employees and providing new opportunities for their growth. We offer our employees numerous live and on-demand courses, resources, and training programs to help them build knowledge, improve skills, and develop their career at Jack Henry. Learning opportunities include mandatory courses, such as security awareness, as well as recommended content in areas including leadership development; technical skills; and diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging. Jack Tracks, an annual, company-wide virtual learning event, offers employees a large selection of curated topics such as technical and operational readiness, technology trends, company solutions, and industry trends.
Recognizing the importance of mentoring in career development, we host an internal mentorship marketplace, which allows prospective mentors and mentees to connect and self-initiate a mentoring relationship. Career mobility and personal development resources are available to all employees through dedicated intranet sites. We continue to strengthen our leadership capacity by providing training on effective coaching practices to leaders of the Company.
We recognize and value the contribution of our employees who develop, improve, and support our technology solutions. Access to on-demand technical training libraries, customized learning plans, certification programs, and classes facilitated by external experts are available to advance their technical expertise. When there is a critical skill need or where the technology landscape is rapidly changing, we provide unique learning solutions to align employees' development with our strategic initiatives.
Wellness and Safety
We emphasize the safety and well-being of our employees as a top priority. We define wellness comprehensively and include mental, physical, emotional, financial, psychological, and environmental considerations. Our benefit plan offerings include supportive and dedicated campaigns that communicate directly to employees about financial wellness, mental health, healthful nutrition and exercise, and other wellness topics. Employee well-being is further supported through policies such as remote work, paid parental leave, military service leave, educational assistance, and bereavement leave policies.
Available Information
Jack Henry’s website is easily accessible to the public at jackhenry.com. The “Investor Relations" portion of the website provides key corporate governance documents, the code of conduct, an archive of press releases, and other relevant Company information. Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other filings and amendments thereto that are made with the SEC also are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practical after these reports have been filed with or furnished to the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at https://www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The Company's business and the results of its operations are affected by numerous factors and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. The following is a description of some of the important risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results of operations in future periods to differ materially from those expected or desired.
Business and Operating Risks
Data security breaches, failures, or other incidents could damage our reputation and business. Our business relies upon receiving, processing, storing, and transmitting sensitive information relating to our operations, employees, and customers. If we fail to maintain a sufficient digital security infrastructure, address security vulnerabilities and new threats, or deploy adequate technologies to secure our systems against attack, we may be subject to security breaches that compromise confidential information, adversely affect our ability to operate our business, damage our reputation and business, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and expose us to liability. We rely on third parties for various business purposes, and these third parties face similar security risks. A security failure by one of these third parties could expose our data or subject our information systems to interruption of operations and security vulnerabilities. Our services and infrastructure are increasingly reliant on the internet. Computer networks and the Internet are vulnerable to disruptive problems such as denial of service attacks or other cyber-attacks carried out by cyber criminals or state-sponsored actors. Other potential attacks include attempts to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information or destroy data, often through the
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introduction of computer viruses, ransomware or malware, cyber-attacks, and other means, which are constantly evolving and at times difficult to detect. Those same parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers, vendors, or other users of our systems through phishing schemes or other social engineering methods to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or that of our customers. We are also subject to the risk that our employees may intercept and transmit unauthorized confidential or proprietary information or that employee corporate-owned computers are stolen, or customer data media is lost in shipment. An interception, misuse or mishandling of personal, confidential, or proprietary information being sent to or received from a customer or third party could result in legal liability, remediation costs, regulatory action, and reputational harm, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We anticipate that attempts to attack our systems, services, and infrastructure, and those of our customers and vendors, may grow in frequency and sophistication. We cannot be certain that our security controls and infrastructure will be adequate to continue to protect our systems and data and our efforts may not be sufficient to combat all current and future technological risks and threats. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography, or other events or developments may render our security measures inadequate. Security risks may result in liability to our customers or other third parties, damage to our reputation, and may deter financial institutions from purchasing our products. The significant amount of capital and other resources we currently expend to protect against the threat of security breaches may prove insufficient to prevent a breach. We cannot ensure that any limitation-of-liability provisions in our customer and user agreements, contracts with third-party vendors, or other contracts are sufficient to protect us from liabilities or damages with respect to claims relating to a security breach or similar matters. The insurance coverage we maintain to address data security risks may be insufficient to cover all types of claims or losses that may arise, and there is no assurance that such insurance coverage will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. In the event of a security breach, we may need to spend substantial additional capital and resources alleviating problems caused by such breach. Under state, federal, and foreign laws requiring consumer notification of security breaches, the costs to remediate security breaches can be substantial. Addressing security problems may result in interruptions, delays, or cessation of service to users, any of which could harm our business.
Failure to maintain sufficient technological infrastructure or an operational failure in our outsourcing facilities could expose us to damage claims, increase regulatory scrutiny, and cause us to lose customers. Our products and services require substantial investments in technological infrastructure, and we have experienced significant growth in the number of users, transactions, and data that our technological infrastructure supports. If we fail to adequately invest in and support our technological infrastructure and processing capacity, we may not be able to support our customers’ processing needs and may be more susceptible to interruptions and delays in services. Damage or destruction that interrupts our outsourcing operations could cause delays and failures in customer processing which could hurt our relationship with customers, damage our reputation, expose us to damage claims, and cause us to incur substantial additional expense to relocate operations and repair or replace damaged equipment. Events that could cause operational failures include, but are not limited to, hardware and software defects, breakdowns or malfunctions, cybersecurity incidents, human error, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, computer viruses or other malware, or other events. Our facilities are also subject to physical risks related to natural disasters or severe weather events, such as tornados, flooding, hurricanes, and heat waves. Climate change may increase the likelihood and severity of such events. Our back-up systems and procedures may prove insufficient or otherwise fail to prevent disruption, such as a prolonged interruption of our transaction processing services. If an interruption extends for more than several hours, we may experience data loss or a reduction in revenues by reason of such interruption. Any significant interruption of service could reduce revenue, have a negative impact on our reputation, result in damage claims, lead our present and potential customers to choose other service providers, and lead to increased regulatory scrutiny of the critical services we provide to financial institutions, with resulting increases in compliance burdens and costs. Implementing modifications and upgrades to our technological infrastructure subject us to inherent costs and risks associated with changing systems, policies, procedures, and monitoring tools.
Failures associated with payment transactions could result in financial loss. The volume and dollar amount of payment transactions that we process is significant and continues to grow. We direct the settlement of funds on behalf of financial institutions, other businesses, and consumers, and receive funds from clients, card issuers, payment networks, and consumers on a daily basis for a variety of transaction types. Transactions facilitated by us include debit card, credit card, electronic bill payment transactions, Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) payments, real-time payments through faster payment networks (such as Zelle, RTP, and FedNow), and check clearing that support consumers, financial institutions, and other businesses. If the continuity of operations, integrity of processing, or ability to detect or prevent fraudulent payments were compromised in connection with payments transactions, we could suffer financial as well as reputational loss. In addition, we rely on various third parties to
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process transactions and provide services in support of the processing of transactions and funds settlement for certain of our products and services that we cannot provide ourselves. If we are unable to obtain such services in the future or if the price of such services becomes unsustainable, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we may issue short-term credit to consumers, financial institutions, or other businesses as part of the funds settlement process. A default on this credit by a counterparty could result in a financial loss to us.
Failures of third-party service providers we rely upon could lead to financial loss. We rely on third party service providers to support key portions of our operations. We also rely on third party service providers to provide part, or all of, certain services we deliver to customers. As we continue to move more computing, storage, and processing services out of our data centers and facilities and into third-party hosting environments, our reliance on these providers and their systems will increase. This reliance is further concentrated as we use certain third-party vendors to provide large portions of our hosting needs. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. A failure of these services by a third party could have a material impact upon our delivery of services to our customers. Such a failure could lead to damage claims, loss of customers, and reputational harm, depending on the duration and severity of the failure. Third parties perform significant operational services on our behalf. These third-party vendors are subject to similar risks as us including, but not limited to, compliance with applicable laws and regulations, hardware and software defects, breakdowns or malfunctions, cybersecurity incidents, human error, failures in internal controls, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, computer viruses or other malware, natural disasters or severe weather events, or other events. One or more of our vendors may experience a cybersecurity event or operational disruption and, if any such event does occur, it may not be adequately addressed, either operationally or financially, by the third-party vendor. Certain of our vendors may have limited indemnification obligations or may not have the financial capacity to satisfy their indemnification obligations. If a critical vendor is unable to meet our needs in a timely manner or if the services or products provided by such a vendor are terminated or otherwise delayed and if we are not able to develop alternative sources for these services and products quickly and cost-effectively, our customers could be negatively impacted, and it could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Competition may result in decreased demand or require price reductions or other concessions to customers, which could result in lower margins and reduce income. We vigorously compete with a variety of software vendors and service providers in all our major product lines. We compete on the basis of product quality, reliability, performance, ease of use, quality of support and services, integration with other products, and pricing. Some of our competitors may have advantages over us due to their size, product lines, greater marketing resources, or exclusive intellectual property rights. New competitors regularly appear with new products, services, and technology for financial institutions. If competitors offer more favorable pricing, payment or other contractual terms, warranties, or functionality, or otherwise attract our customers or prevent us from capturing new customers, we may need to lower prices or offer other terms that negatively impact our results of operations in order to successfully compete.
Failure to achieve favorable renewals of service contracts could negatively affect our business. Our contracts with our customers for outsourced data processing and electronic payment transaction processing services generally run for a period of seven or more years. We will continue to experience a significant number of these contracts coming up for renewal each year. Renewal time presents our customers with the opportunity to consider other providers or to renegotiate their contracts with us, including reducing the services we provide or negotiating the prices paid for our services. If we are not successful in achieving high renewal rates upon favorable terms, revenues and profit margins will suffer. We may experience increased costs for services from our third-party vendors due to inflation or other cost expansion, but because our customer contracts typically have longer terms than our vendor contracts, our ability to pass on those higher costs to customers may be limited. If inflation or costs outpace our contractual ability to adjust pricing during the contractual terms of our customer contracts, our revenues and profit margins could be negatively impacted.
If we fail to adapt our products and services to changes in technology and the markets we serve, we could lose existing customers and be unable to attract new business. The markets for our products and services are characterized by changing customer and regulatory requirements and rapid technological changes. These factors and new product introductions by our existing competitors or by new market entrants could reduce the demand for our existing products and services, and we may be required to develop or acquire new products and services. Our future success is dependent on our ability to enhance our existing products and services in a timely manner and to develop or acquire new products and services. If we are unable to develop or acquire new products and services as planned, or if we fail to sell our new or enhanced products and services, we may incur unanticipated expenses or fail to achieve anticipated revenues, as well as lose prospective sales.
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Software defects or problems with installations may harm our business and reputation and expose us to potential liability. Our software products are complex and may contain undetected defects, especially in connection with newly released products and software updates. Software defects may cause interruptions or delays to our services as we attempt to correct the problem. We may also experience difficulties in installing or integrating our products on systems used by our customers. Defects in our software, installation problems or delays, or other difficulties could result in negative publicity, loss of revenues, loss of competitive position, or claims against us by customers. In addition, we rely on technologies and software supplied by third parties that may also contain undetected errors or defects that could have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
Expansion of services to non-traditional customers could expose us to new risks. We have expanded our services to business lines that are marketed outside our traditional, regulated, and litigation-averse base of financial institution customers. These non-regulated customers may entail greater operational, credit, and litigation risks than we have faced before and could result in increases in bad debts and litigation costs.

Regulatory and Compliance Risks
The software and services we provide to our customers are subject to government regulation that could hinder the development of our business, increase costs, or impose constraints on the way we conduct our operations. The financial services industry is subject to extensive and complex federal and state regulation. As a supplier of software and services to financial institutions, portions of our operations are examined by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, and the National Credit Union Association, among other regulatory agencies. These agencies regulate services we provide and the way we operate, and we are required to comply with a broad range of applicable federal and state laws and regulations. If we, or third parties with whom we contract or partner, fail to comply with applicable regulations or guidelines, we could be subject to regulatory actions and suffer harm to our customer relationships and reputation. Such failures could require significant expenditures to correct and could negatively affect our ability to retain customers and obtain new customers.
In addition, existing laws, regulations, and policies could be amended or interpreted differently by regulators in a manner that imposes additional costs and has a negative impact on our existing operations or that limits our future growth or expansion. New regulations could require additional programming or other costly changes in our processes or personnel. Our customers are also regulated entities, and actions by regulatory authorities could influence both the decisions they make concerning the purchase of data processing and other services and the timing and implementation of these decisions. We will be required to apply substantial research and development and other corporate resources to adapt our products to this evolving, complex, and often unpredictable regulatory environment. Our failure to provide compliant solutions could result in significant fines or consumer liability on our customers, for which we may bear ultimate liability.
Compliance with new and existing privacy laws, regulations, and rules may adversely impact our expenses, development, and strategy. We are subject to complex laws, rules, and regulations related to data privacy and cybersecurity. If we fail to comply with such requirements, we could be subject to reputational harm, regulatory enforcement, and litigation. The use, confidentiality, and security of private customer information is under increased scrutiny. Regulatory agencies, Congress, and state legislatures are considering numerous regulatory and statutory proposals to protect the interests of consumers and to require compliance with standards and policies that have not been defined. The number of state privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations has grown tremendously over the past several years, creating an increasingly complex patchwork of data privacy and security requirements. This includes industry-specific rules such as those enacted by the New York Department of Financial Services that require covered financial institutions to have a cybersecurity program along with other compliance requirements as well as comprehensive consumer data privacy rules such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, the Iowa Consumer Data Protection Act, and the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act. Though several privacy concepts are common across the laws, each state requires compliance with standards and policies that are not cohesive with other laws and are often further amended by regulatory action. The unique data protection regulations issued by multiple agencies have created a fragmented series of requirements that makes it increasingly complex to comply with all the mandates in an efficient manner and may increase costs to deliver affected products and services as those requirements are established.
Failure to comply or readily address compliance and regulatory rule changes made by payment card networks could adversely affect our business. We are subject to card association and network compliance rules governing the payment networks we serve, including Visa, MasterCard, Zelle, FedNow, and The Clearing House’s RTP network, and all rules governing the Payment Card Data Security Standards. If we fail to comply with these rules and standards, we could be fined or our certifications could be suspended or terminated, which could limit our
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ability to service our customers and result in reductions in revenues and increased costs of operations. Changes made by the networks, even when complied with, may result in reduction in revenues and increased costs of operations.
Economic Conditions Risks
Natural disasters, public health crises, wars, acts of terrorism, other armed conflict, and workforce shortages could adversely affect our results of operations. The occurrence of, or threat of, natural disasters, widespread public health crises, political unrest, war, acts of terrorism, other armed conflicts involving the United States or foreign countries, or general workforce shortages can result in significant economic disruptions and uncertainties and could adversely affect our business, results of operation, and financial condition. The conditions caused by such events may affect the rate of spending by our customers and their ability to pay for our products and services, delay prospective customers’ purchasing decisions, interfere with our employees’ ability to support our business function, disrupt the ability of third-party providers we rely upon to deliver services, adversely impact our ability to provide on-site services or installations to our customers, or reduce the number of transactions we process, all of which could adversely affect our results of operation and financial position. We are unable to accurately predict the impact of such events on our business due to a number of uncertainties, including the duration, severity, geographic reach and governmental responses to such events, the impact on our customers’ and vendors' operations, and our ability to provide products and services, including the impact of our employees working remotely. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business will be harmed.
Our business may be adversely impacted by general U.S. and global market and economic conditions or specific conditions in the financial services industry. We derive most of our revenue from products and services we provide to the financial services industry. If the general economic environment worsens, including if inflation or interest rates continue to increase or remain at higher than recent historical levels, or if conditions or regulatory requirements within the financial services industry change, such as if financial institutions are required to increase reserve amounts or become subject to new regulatory assessments, customers may be less willing or able to pay the cost of our products and services, and we could face a reduction in demand from current and potential clients for our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, a growing portion of our revenue is derived from transaction processing fees, which depend heavily on levels of consumer and business spending. Deterioration in general economic conditions could negatively impact consumer confidence and spending, resulting in reduced transaction volumes and our related revenues.
Consolidation and failures of financial institutions will continue to reduce the number of our customers and potential customers. Our primary market consists of approximately 4,660 commercial and savings banks and more than 4,850 credit unions. The number of commercial banks and credit unions in the United States has experienced a steady decrease over recent decades due to mergers and acquisitions and financial failures and we expect this trend to continue as more consolidation occurs. Such events may reduce the number of our current and potential customers, which could negatively impact our results of operations.
Acquisition Risks
Our growth may be affected if we are unable to find or complete suitable acquisitions. We have augmented the growth of our business with a number of acquisitions and we plan to continue to acquire appropriate businesses, products, and services. This strategy depends on our ability to identify, negotiate, and finance suitable acquisitions. Merger and acquisition activity in our industry has affected the availability and pricing of such acquisitions. If we are unable to acquire suitable acquisition candidates, we may experience slower growth.
Acquisitions subject us to risks and may be costly and difficult to integrate. Acquisitions are difficult to evaluate, and our due diligence may not identify all potential liabilities or valuation issues. We may also be subject to risks related to cybersecurity incidents or vulnerabilities of the acquired company and the acquired systems. We may not be able to successfully integrate acquired companies. We may encounter problems with the integration of new businesses, including: financial control and computer system compatibility; unanticipated costs and liabilities; unanticipated quality or customer problems with acquired products or services; differing regulatory and industry standards; diversion of management's attention; adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers; loss of key employees; and significant depreciation and amortization expenses related to acquired assets. To finance future acquisitions, we may have to increase our borrowing or sell equity or debt securities to the public. If we fail to integrate our acquisitions, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Failed acquisitions could also produce material and unpredictable impairment charges as we review our acquired assets.

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Intellectual Property Risks
If others claim that we have infringed their intellectual property rights, we could be liable for significant damages or could be required to change our processes. We have agreed to indemnify many of our customers against claims that our products and services infringe on the proprietary rights of others. We also use certain open- source software in our products, which may subject us to suits by persons claiming ownership of what we believe to be open-source software. Infringement claims have been and will in the future be asserted with regard to our software solutions and services. Such claims, whether with or without merit, are time-consuming, may result in costly litigation and may not be resolved on terms favorable to us. If our defense of such claims is not successful, we could be forced to pay damages or could be subject to injunctions that would cause us to cease making or selling certain applications or force us to redesign applications.
Our failure to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights may adversely affect our competitive position. Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon protecting our proprietary systems and technology. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or access systems or technology that we consider proprietary. We actively take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including entering into agreements with users of our services for that purpose and maintaining security measures. However, these steps may be inadequate to prevent misappropriation. Policing unauthorized use of our proprietary rights is difficult and misappropriation or litigation relating to such matters could have a material negative effect on our results of operation.
General Risk Factors
A material weakness in our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on us. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to mitigate risk of fraud. If material weaknesses in our internal controls are discovered or occur in the future, our consolidated financial statements may contain material misstatements and we could be required to restate our financial results, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations or financial condition, restrict our ability to access the capital markets, require us to expend significant resources to correct the weaknesses or deficiencies, subject us to fines, penalties or judgments, harm our reputation, or otherwise cause a decline in investor confidence.
The loss of key employees and difficulties in hiring and retaining employees could adversely affect our business. We depend on the contributions and abilities of our senior management and other key employees. Our Company has grown significantly in recent years and our management remains concentrated in a small number of highly qualified individuals. If we lose one or more of our key employees, we could suffer a loss of managerial experience, and management resources would have to be diverted from other activities to compensate for this loss. We do not have employment agreements with any of our executive officers. Further, we continue to face a competitive market for hiring and retaining skilled employees. Difficulties in hiring and retaining skilled employees may restrict our ability to adequately support our business needs and/or result in increased personnel costs. There is no assurance that we will be able to attract and retain the personnel necessary to maintain the Company’s strategic direction.
Unfavorable future tax law changes could adversely affect our tax expense. Our income tax positions result in a significant net deferred income tax liability on our consolidated balance sheet. Unfavorable future tax law changes, including increasing U.S. corporate tax rates, could increase this net liability and negatively impact our provision for income taxes and net income.
The impairment of a significant portion of our goodwill and intangible assets would adversely affect our results of operations. Our balance sheet includes goodwill and intangible assets that represent a significant portion of our total assets as of June 30, 2023. On an annual basis, and whenever circumstances require, we review our goodwill and intangible assets for impairment. If the carrying value of a material asset is determined to be impaired, it will be written down to fair value by a charge to operating earnings. An impairment of a significant portion of our goodwill or intangible assets could have a material negative effect on our operating results.
An increase in interest rates could increase our borrowing costs. Although our debt borrowing levels have historically been low, we may require additional or increased borrowings in the future under existing or new debt facilities to support operations, finance acquisitions, or fund stock repurchases. Our current credit facilities bear interest at variable rates. Increases in interest rates on variable-rate debt would increase our interest expense, which could negatively impact our results of operations.


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ITEM 1B.   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES
We own 154 acres located in Monett, Missouri on which we maintain eight office buildings, plus shipping and receiving, security, and maintenance buildings. We also own buildings in Allen, Texas; Birmingham, Alabama; Lenexa, Kansas; Angola, Indiana; Shawnee Mission, Kansas; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and Springfield, Missouri. Our owned facilities represent approximately 802,000 square feet of office space in six states. We have 21 leased office facilities in 17 states, which total approximately 477,000 square feet. All our owned and leased office facilities are for normal business purposes.
We own five aircraft. Many of our customers are located in communities that do not have an easily accessible commercial airline service. We primarily use our aircraft in connection with implementation, sales of systems and internal requirements for day-to-day operations. Transportation costs for implementation and other customer services are billed to our customers. We lease property, including real estate and related facilities, at the Monett, Missouri regional airport.

ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to various routine legal proceedings and claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. In the opinion of management, any liabilities resulting from current lawsuits are not expected, either individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements. In accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP"), we record a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These liabilities are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to a particular case or proceeding.

ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.

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PART II
ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “JKHY."
The Company established a practice of paying quarterly dividends in fiscal 1991 and has paid dividends with respect to every quarter since that time. The declaration and payment of any future dividends will continue to be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our earnings, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, and operating and financial condition. The Company does not currently foresee any changes in its dividend practices.
On August 15, 2023, there were approximately 311,805 holders of the Company’s common stock, including individual participants in security position listings.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following shares of the Company were repurchased during the quarter ended June 30, 2023:
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price of Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans (1)
April 1 - April 30, 2023$3,796,265
May 1 - May 31, 2023$3,796,265
June 1 - June 30, 2023$3,796,265
Total$3,796,265
(1) Total stock repurchase authorizations approved by the Company's Board of Directors as of May 14, 2021 were for 35.0 million shares, which includes an authorization on that date of an additional 5.0 million shares. Under these authorizations, the Company has repurchased and not re-issued 31,194,351 shares and has repurchased and re-issued 9,384 shares. The authorizations have no specific dollar or share price targets and no expiration dates.

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Performance Graph
The following chart presents a comparison for the five-year period ended June 30, 2023, of the market performance of the Company’s common stock with the Standard & Poor's 500 ("S&P 500") Index and the Standard & Poor's Composite 1500 Software & Services ("S&P 1500 Software & Services") Index. Historic stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Jack Henry & Associates, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 1500 Software & Services Index
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The following information depicts a line graph with the following values:
201820192020202120222023
JKHY100.00 103.86 144.24 129.62 144.28 135.69 
S&P 500100.00 110.42 118.70 167.13 149.39 178.66 
S&P Composite 1500 Software & Services100.00 120.01 153.51 204.88 171.21 222.19 
This comparison assumes $100 was invested on June 30, 2018, and assumes reinvestments of dividends.
The stock performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or incorporated by reference into any filing of the Company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

ITEM 6.   [RESERVED]

ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following section provides management's view of the Company's financial condition and results of operations and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements, and related notes included
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elsewhere in this report. All dollar and share amounts, except per share amounts, are in thousands and discussions compare fiscal 2023 to fiscal 2022. Discussions of fiscal 2021 items and comparisons between fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2022 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022.

OVERVIEW
Jack Henry & Associates, Inc. is a well-rounded financial technology company headquartered in Monett, Missouri, that employs approximately 7,120 full-time and part-time employees nationwide, and is a leading provider of technology solutions and payment processing services primarily to community and regional financial institutions. Our solutions serve over 7,500 customers and consist of integrated data processing systems solutions to banks ranging from de novo to multi-billion-dollar institutions with assets up to $50 billion, core data processing solutions for credit unions of all sizes, and non-core highly specialized core-agnostic products and services that enable financial institutions of every asset size and charter, and diverse corporate entities outside the financial services industry, to mitigate and control risks, optimize revenue and growth opportunities, and contain costs. Our integrated solutions are available for on-premise installation and delivery in our private and public cloud.
Each of our solutions shares the fundamental commitment to provide high-quality business systems, service levels that consistently exceed customer expectations, and integration of solutions and practical new technologies. The quality of our solutions, our high service standards, and the fundamental way we do business typically foster long-term customer relationships, attract prospective customers, and have enabled us to capture substantial market share.
Through internal product development, disciplined acquisitions, and alliances with companies offering niche solutions that complement our proprietary solutions, we regularly introduce new products and services and generate new cross-sales opportunities. We provide compatible computer hardware for our on-premise installations and secure processing environments for our outsourced solutions in our private and public cloud. We perform data conversions, software implementations, initial and ongoing customer training, and ongoing customer support services.
We believe our primary competitive advantage is customer service. Our support infrastructure and strict standards provide service levels we believe to be the highest in the markets we serve and generate high levels of customer satisfaction and retention. We consistently measure customer satisfaction using a variety of surveys, such as an annual survey on the customer's anniversary date and randomly-generated surveys initiated each day by routine support requests. Dedicated surveys are also used to grade specific aspects of our customer experience, including product implementation, education, and consulting services.
Our two primary revenue streams are "services and support" and "processing." Services and support includes: "private and public cloud" fees that predominantly have contract terms of seven years or longer at inception; "product delivery and services" revenue, which includes revenue from the sales of licenses, implementation services, deconversion fees, consulting, and hardware; and "on-premise support" revenue, composed of maintenance fees which primarily contain annual contract terms. Processing revenue includes: "remittance" revenue from payment processing, remote capture, and ACH transactions; "card" fees, including card transaction processing and monthly fees; and "transaction and digital" revenue, which includes transaction and mobile processing fees. We continually seek opportunities to increase revenue while at the same time containing costs to expand margins.
We have four reportable segments: Core, Payments, Complementary, and Corporate and Other. The respective segments include all related revenues along with the related cost of sales.
A detailed discussion of the major components of the results of operations follows.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FISCAL 2023 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2022
On August 31, 2022, the Company acquired all of the equity interest in Payrailz, LLC ("Payrailz"). Payrailz related revenue and operating expenses mentioned in the discussion below are for the 10 months from the date of acquisition through our fiscal year ended June 30, 2023.
In fiscal 2023, total revenue increased 7% or $134,818, compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total revenue for deconversion fees of $31,775 in the current fiscal year and $53,279 in the prior fiscal year, and for Payrailz related revenue of $8,482 in the current fiscal year, results in an 8% increase, or $147,840. This increase was primarily driven by growth in data processing and hosting and card processing revenue, as new customers were added and
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volumes expanded, payment processing revenues, digital revenues (including Banno), as new customers were added and active users increased, and software usage and subscription fee revenues, as more customers chose time-based licenses rather than perpetual, compared to the prior fiscal year.
Operating expenses increased 9% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total operating expenses for deconversion costs of $4,261 in the current fiscal year and $6,277 in the prior fiscal year, and for Payrailz related expenses of $22,467, and gain on assets, net, of $4,567 in the current fiscal year, results in an 8% increase, or $112,864. This increase was primarily due to higher personnel costs, including commissions and benefits expenses, increased direct costs consistent with increases in the related revenue, amortization of intangible assets, and internal licenses and fees.
We move into fiscal 2024 following strong performance in fiscal 2023. Significant portions of our business continue to provide recurring revenue and our sales pipeline is also encouraging. Our customers continue to face regulatory and operational challenges which our products and services address, and in these times, they have an even greater need for our solutions that directly address institutional profitability, efficiency, and security. We believe our strong balance sheet, access to extensive lines of credit, the strength of our existing product line and an unwavering commitment to superior customer service position us well to address current and future opportunities.
A detailed discussion of the major components of the results of operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023 compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022 follows.
REVENUE
Services and Support RevenueYear Ended June 30,
% Change
 20232022
Services and support$1,214,701 $1,156,365 5%
Percentage of total revenue58%60% 
Services and support includes: "private and public cloud" fees that predominantly have contract terms of seven years or greater at inception; "product delivery and services" revenue, which includes revenue from the sales of licenses, implementation services, deconversion fees, consulting, and hardware; and "on-premise support" revenue, which is composed primarily of maintenance fees with annual contract terms.
In the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, services and support revenue increased 5% compared to the prior fiscal year. Reducing total services and support revenue by deconversion fees for each year, which totaled $31,775 in fiscal 2023 and $53,279 in fiscal 2022, and for Payrailz related revenue of $46 from the current fiscal year, services and support revenue grew 7%. This increase was primarily driven by higher data processing and hosting fees within private and public cloud revenue resulting from new customers being added and volumes expanding. Growth in software usage and subscription fee revenues, as more customers chose time-based licenses rather than perpetual, and hardware revenue also contributed to the increase.
Processing RevenueYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Processing$863,001 $786,519 10%
Percentage of total revenue42%40% 
Processing revenue includes: "remittance" revenue from payment processing, remote capture, and ACH transactions; "card" fees, including card transaction processing and monthly fees; and "transaction and digital" revenue, which includes transaction and mobile processing fees.
Processing revenue increased 10% for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022. Reducing total processing revenue by Payrailz related revenue of $8,436 from the current fiscal year, processing revenue grew 9%. This increase was driven by growth in card processing, payment processing (including iPay), digital revenue (including Banno), and other processing fee revenues, as new customers were added, the active user base expanded, and transaction volumes increased.

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OPERATING EXPENSES
Cost of RevenueYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Cost of revenue$1,219,062 $1,128,614 8%
Percentage of total revenue59%58% 
Cost of revenue for fiscal 2023 increased 8% compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total cost of revenue for deconversion costs of $2,046 in the current fiscal year and $3,793 in the prior fiscal year, and for Payrailz related costs of $18,193 in the current fiscal year, results in a 7% increase. This increase was driven by higher direct costs consistent with increases in the related revenue, higher personnel costs, including benefits expenses, and increased amortization of intangible assets. Cost of revenue increased 1% as a percentage of total revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022.
Research and DevelopmentYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Research and development$142,678 $121,355 18%
Percentage of total revenue7%6% 
We devote significant effort and expense to develop new software and service products and continually upgrade and enhance our existing offerings. We believe our research and development efforts are highly efficient because of the extensive experience of our research and development staff and because our product development is highly customer driven.
Research and development expenses for fiscal 2023 increased 18% compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total research and development expenses for Payrailz related costs of $2,130 in the current fiscal year, results in a 16% increase. This increase is primarily due to higher personnel costs including benefits expenses, net of capitalization, due to a headcount increase of 9% in the trailing twelve months, and higher internal licenses and fees. Research and development expense increased 1% as a percentage of total revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. The increase in this expense category for the current fiscal year reflects our continuing commitment to the development of strategic products.
Selling, General, and AdministrativeYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Selling, general, and administrative$235,274 $218,296 8%
Percentage of total revenue11%11% 
Selling, general, and administrative costs included all expenses related to sales efforts, commissions, finance, legal, and human resources, plus all administrative costs.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses for fiscal 2023 increased 8% compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total selling, general, and administrative expense for deconversion costs from each year, which totaled $2,216 in fiscal 2023 and $2,485 in fiscal 2022, and Payrailz related costs of $2,144, and the gain on assets, net, of $4,567 for the current fiscal year, results in a 9% increase. This increase was primarily due to higher personnel costs, including commissions and benefits expenses. Selling, general, and administrative expenses remained consistent as a percentage of total revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. This consistency reflects our continuing commitment to control costs.
INTEREST INCOME AND EXPENSEYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Interest income$8,959 $32 27,897%
Interest expense$(15,073)$(2,384)532%
Interest income fluctuated due to changes in invested balances and yields on invested balances. Interest expense increased in fiscal 2023 mainly due to the timing and amounts of borrowed balances and increases in interest rates.
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PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXESYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Provision for income taxes$107,928 $109,351 (1)%
Effective rate22.7%23.2%
The decrease in the Company's effective tax rate in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily the result of a decrease in the state tax rate applied to net deferred tax liabilities and an increase in rate benefit received from research and development credits.
NET INCOMEYear Ended June 30,
%
Change
 20232022
Net income$366,646 $362,916 1%
Diluted earnings per share$5.02 $4.94 2%
Net income grew 1% to $366,646, or $5.02 per diluted share, in fiscal 2023 from $362,916, or $4.94 per diluted share, in fiscal 2022. The diluted earnings per share increase year over year was 2%. This increase was primarily due to growth in our lines of revenue in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 and a reduction in the number of shares outstanding.

REPORTABLE SEGMENT DISCUSSION
The Company is a leading provider of technology solutions and payment processing services primarily to community and regional financial institutions.
The Company’s operations are classified into four reportable segments: Core, Payments, Complementary, and Corporate and Other. The Core segment provides core information processing platforms to banks and credit unions, which consist of integrated applications required to process deposit, loan, and general ledger transactions, and maintain centralized customer/member information. The Payments segment provides secure payment processing tools and services, including ATM, debit, and credit card processing services; online and mobile bill pay solutions; ACH origination and remote deposit capture processing; and risk management products and services. The Complementary segment provides additional software, hosted processing platforms, and services, including call center support, and network security management, consulting, and monitoring, that can be integrated with our core solutions and many can be used independently. The Corporate and Other segment includes revenue and costs from hardware and other products not attributed to any of the other three segments, as well as operating costs not directly attributable to the other three segments.
During fiscal 2023, the Company transferred a product, Remit, from the Complementary segment to the Payments segment, due to better alignment with the Payments segment. As a result of this transfer, adjustments were made during fiscal 2023 to reclassify related revenue and cost of revenue for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, from the Complementary to the Payments segment. Revenue reclassed for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, was $12,049. Cost of revenue reclassed for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, was $2,059.
Immaterial adjustments were made in fiscal 2023 to reclassify revenue that was recognized in fiscal 2022 from the Complementary to the Corporate and Other segment. Immaterial adjustments were also made in fiscal 2023 to reclassify cost of revenue that was recognized in fiscal 2022 from the Complementary to the Payments and Corporate and Other segments. These reclasses were made to be consistent with the current allocation of revenue and cost of revenue by segment. Revenue reclassed for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, from Complementary to Corporate and Other was $4,917. Cost of revenue reclassed for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, from Complementary to Payments was $3,396, and from Complementary to Corporate and Other was $403.
Core
 2023% Change2022
Revenue$656,164 5%$622,442 
Cost of Revenue$283,531 8%$261,585 
In fiscal 2023, revenue in the Core segment increased 5% compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Core revenue by deconversion fees from both fiscal years, which totaled $10,924 in fiscal 2023 and $23,048 in fiscal 2022, Core
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segment revenue increased 8%. This increase was primarily driven by organic increases in our private and public cloud revenue. Cost of revenue in the Core segment increased 8% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Core cost of revenue by deconversion costs from both fiscal years, which totaled $913 in fiscal 2023 and $1,719 in fiscal 2022, Core segment revenue increased 9% This increase was primarily due to increased direct costs associated with the organic growth in cloud revenue and personnel costs, including benefits expenses. Core segment cost of revenue increased 1% as a percentage of revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022.
Payments
 2023% Change2022
Revenue$767,339 7%$719,068 
Cost of Revenue$423,474 10%$386,409 
In fiscal 2023, revenue in the Payments segment increased 7% compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Payments revenue by deconversion fees from both fiscal years, which totaled $7,924 in fiscal 2023 and $14,319 in fiscal 2022, and Payrailz related revenue from the current fiscal year of $8,482, Payments segment revenue also increased 7%. This increase was primarily driven by growth within card processing and payment processing revenues. Cost of revenue in the Payments segment increased 10% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Payments cost of revenue by deconversion costs from both fiscal years, which totaled $303 in fiscal 2023 and $439 in fiscal 2022 and Payrailz related costs from the current fiscal year of $18,104, Payments cost of revenue increased 5%. This increase was primarily due to increased direct costs related to the growth in card processing and payment processing, and increased personnel costs, including benefits expenses. Payments segment cost of revenue increased 2% as a percentage of revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022.
Complementary
 2023% Change2022
Revenue$583,893 7%$544,244 
Cost of Revenue$239,044 6%$226,229 
Revenue in the Complementary segment increased 7% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Complementary revenue by deconversion fees from both fiscal years, which totaled $12,649 in fiscal 2023 and $15,589 in fiscal 2022, Complementary segment revenue increased 8%. This increase was primarily driven by organic increases in hosting fee and digital revenues (including Banno). Cost of revenue in the Complementary segment increased 6% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Complementary cost of revenue by deconversion costs from both fiscal years, which totaled $807 in fiscal 2023 and $1,309 in fiscal 2022, Complementary segment cost of revenue also increased 6%. This increase was primarily due to higher direct costs related to the organic growth in hosting fee and digital revenues (including Banno) and increased personnel costs, including benefits expenses. Complementary segment cost of revenue decreased 1% as a percentage of revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022.
Corporate and Other
 2023% Change2022
Revenue$70,306 23%$57,130 
Cost of Revenue$273,013 7%$254,391 
Revenue in the Corporate and Other segment increased 23% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Corporate and Other revenue by deconversion fees from both fiscal years, which totaled $278 in fiscal 2023 and $323 in fiscal 2022, Corporate and Other segment revenue also increased 23%. The increase was mainly due to increased hardware, user group, and processing fee revenues.
Cost of revenue for the Corporate and Other segment includes operating costs not directly attributable to any of the other three segments and increased 7% for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Reducing total Corporate and Other cost of revenue by deconversion fees from both fiscal years, which totaled $23 in fiscal 2023 and $325 in fiscal 2022, and Payrailz related costs of $90, Corporate and Other segment cost of revenue also increased 7%. This increase was primarily related to higher internal licenses and fees and personnel costs, including benefits expenses.

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
The Company's cash and cash equivalents decreased to $12,243 at June 30, 2023 from $48,787 at June 30, 2022. The following table summarizes net cash from operating activities in the statement of cash flows:
Year Ended
June 30,
20232022
Net income$366,646 $362,916 
Non-cash expenses166,621 234,676 
Change in receivables(12,067)(41,508)
Change in deferred revenue(10,547)6,572 
Change in other assets and liabilities(129,094)(58,025)
Net cash provided by operating activities$381,559 $504,631 
Cash provided by operating activities for fiscal 2023 decreased 24% compared to fiscal 2022, primarily due to the change in current and deferred income taxes included within non-cash expenses above that were related to Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 174 tax law changes with respect to the treatment of research and development expenses, as indicated by the increase in cash taxes paid, fiscal year over fiscal year. The Company paid income taxes, net of refunds, of $145,862, $60,553, and $80,220 in fiscal 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Cash from operations is primarily used to repay debt, pay dividends, repurchase stock, and for capital expenditures.
Cash used in investing activities for fiscal 2023 totaled $409,673 and included: $229,628 for the acquisition of Payrailz, $166,120 for the ongoing enhancements and development of existing and new product and service offerings; capital expenditures on facilities and equipment of $39,179, mainly for the purchase of computer equipment; $1,685 for the purchase and development of internal use software; and $1,000 for purchase of investments. These expenditures were partially offset by $27,939 of proceeds from asset sales.
Cash used in investing activities for fiscal 2022 totaled $196,344 and included: $148,239 for the ongoing enhancements and development of existing and new product and service offerings; capital expenditures on facilities and equipment of $34,659, mainly for the purchase of computer equipment; $5,000 for the purchase of investments; and $8,491 for the purchase and development of internal use software. These expenditures were partially offset by $45 of proceeds from the sale of assets.
Financing activities used cash of $8,430 for fiscal 2023 and included $147,237 for dividends paid to stockholders and $25,000 for the purchase of treasury shares. These expenditures were partially offset by borrowings and repayments on our credit facilities and financing leases which netted to borrowings of $159,940 at June 30, 2023, and $3,867 of net cash inflow related to stock-based compensation.
Financing activities used cash in fiscal 2022 of $310,492 and included $193,916 for the purchase of treasury shares and $139,070 for dividends paid to stockholders. These expenditures were partially offset by borrowings and repayments on our revolving credit facility and financing leases which netted to borrowings of $14,873 at June 30, 2022, and $7,621 of net cash inflow related to stock-based compensation.
Capital Requirements and Resources
The Company generally uses existing resources and funds generated from operations to meet its capital requirements. Capital expenditures totaling $39,179 and $34,659 for fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, and June 30, 2022, respectively, were made primarily for additional equipment and the improvement of existing facilities. These additions were funded from cash generated by operations. At June 30, 2023, the Company had no significant outstanding purchase commitments related to property and equipment. We assessed our liquidity needs throughout fiscal 2023, and determined we had adequate capital resources and sufficient access to external financing sources to satisfy our current and reasonably anticipated funding needs. We will continue to monitor and assess these needs going forward.
At June 30, 2023, the Company had contractual obligations of $1,550,247, including operating lease obligations and $1,494,366 related to off-balance sheet contractual purchase obligations. Contractual obligations exclude $13,877 of liabilities for uncertain tax positions as we are unable to reasonably estimate the ultimate amount or timing of settlement.
The Board of Directors has authorized the Company to repurchase shares of its common stock. Under this authorization, the Company may finance its share repurchases with available cash reserves or short-term borrowings on its existing credit facilities. The share repurchase program does not include specific price targets or
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timetables and may be suspended at any time. At June 30, 2023, there were 31,194 shares in treasury stock and the Company had the remaining authority to repurchase up to 3,796 additional shares. The total cost of treasury shares at June 30, 2023 was $1,832,118. During fiscal 2023, the Company repurchased 151 treasury shares for $25,000. At June 30, 2022, there were 31,043 shares in treasury stock and the Company had authority to repurchase up to 3,948 additional shares.
Payrailz
On August 31, 2022, the Company acquired all of the equity interest in Payrailz. The final purchase price, following customary post-closing adjustments to the extent actual closing date working capital, cash, debt, and unpaid seller transaction expenses exceeded or were less than the amounts estimated at closing, was $230,205. Pursuant to the merger agreement for the transaction, $48,500 of the purchase price was placed in an escrow account at the closing, consisting of $2,500 for any final purchase price adjustments owed by the sellers, which amount was released to the sellers on December 15, 2022, in connection with post-closing adjustments, and $46,000 for indemnification matters under the merger agreement.
The primary reason for the acquisition was to expand the Company's digital financial management solutions and the purchase was originally funded by our revolving line of credit (Note 7) and cash generated from operations. Payrailz provides cloud-native, API-first, AI-enabled consumer and commercial digital payment solutions and experiences that enable money to be moved in the moment of need.
Revolving credit facility
On August 31, 2022, the Company entered into a five-year senior, unsecured amended and restated credit agreement that replaced the prior credit facility described below. The credit agreement allows for borrowings of up to $600,000, which may be increased to $1,000,000 by the Company at any time until maturity. The credit agreement bears interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on an adjusted Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") term rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the Prime Rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% per annum and (iv) the Adjusted Term SOFR Screen Rate (without giving effect to the Applicable Margin) for a one month Interest Period on such day for Dollars plus 1.0%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The credit agreement is guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and is subject to various financial covenants that require the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the credit agreement. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The amended and restated credit facility terminates August 31, 2027. There was $95,000 outstanding under the amended and restated credit facility at June 30, 2023.
On June 30, 2022, there was a $115,000 outstanding balance on the prior credit facility that was entered into on February 10, 2020. The prior credit facility was a five-year senior, unsecured revolving credit facility. The prior credit facility allowed for borrowings of up to $300,000, which could be increased by the Company to $700,000 at any time until maturity. The prior credit facility bore interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on a eurocurrency rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the U.S. Bank prime rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% and (iv) the eurocurrency rate for a one-month interest period on such day for dollars plus 1.0%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The prior credit facility was guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and was subject to various financial covenants that required the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the prior credit agreement. As of June 30, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The prior credit facility's termination date was February 10, 2025.
Term loan facility
On May 16, 2023, the Company entered into a term loan credit agreement with a syndicate of financial institutions, with an original principal balance of $180,000. Borrowings under the term loan facility bear interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on an adjusted SOFR term rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the Prime Rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% per annum and (iv) the Adjusted Term SOFR Screen Rate (without giving effect to the Applicable Margin) for a one month Interest Period on such day for Dollars plus 0.75%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The term loan credit agreement is guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and is subject to various financial covenants that require the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the term loan credit agreement. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The term loan credit agreement has a maturity date of May 16, 2025. There was $180,000 outstanding under the term loan at June 30, 2023.
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Other lines of credit
The Company has an unsecured bank credit line which provides for funding of up to $5,000 and bears interest at the prime rate less 1.0%. The credit line was renewed in May 2019 and modified in May 2023 to extend the expiration to April 30, 2025. There was no balance outstanding at June 30, 2023 or 2022.

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Not Adopted at Fiscal Year End
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which improves the accounting for acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and inconsistency related to recognition of an acquired contract liability and payment terms and their effect on subsequent revenue recognized by the acquirer. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted the ASU on July 1, 2023, and will apply it prospectively to business combinations occurring after that date.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, as well as disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates and judgments upon historical experience and other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Changes in estimates or assumptions could result in a material adjustment to the consolidated financial statements.
We have identified several critical accounting estimates. An accounting estimate is considered critical if both: (a) the nature of the estimates or assumptions is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment involved, and (b) the impact of changes in the estimates and assumptions would have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue from data processing, transaction processing, software licensing and related services, professional services, and hardware sales.
Significant Judgments Used in the Application of the Guidance
Identification of performance obligations
We enter into contracts with customers that may include multiple types of goods and services. At contract inception, we assess the solutions and services promised in our contracts with customers and identify a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a solution or service (or bundle of solutions or services) that is distinct — that is, if the solution or service is separately identifiable from other items in the arrangement and if the customer can benefit from the solution or service on its own or together with other resources that are readily available. Significant judgment is used in the identification and accounting for all performance obligations. We recognize revenue when or as we satisfy each performance obligation by transferring control of a solution or service to the customer.
Determination of transaction price
The amount of revenue recognized is based on the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods and services to the customer. Our contracts with our customers frequently contain some component of variable consideration. We estimate variable consideration in our contracts primarily using the expected value method, based on both historical and current information. Where appropriate, we may constrain the estimated variable consideration included in the transaction price in the event of a high degree of uncertainty as to the final consideration amount. Significant judgment is used in the estimate of variable consideration of customer contracts that are long-term and include uncertain transactional volumes.
Technology or service components from third parties are frequently included in or combined with our applications or service offerings. Whether we recognize revenue based on the gross amount billed to the customer or the net amount retained involves judgment in determining whether we control the good or service before it is transferred to the customer. This assessment is made at the performance obligation level.
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Allocation of transaction price
The transaction price, once determined, is allocated between the various performance obligations in the contract based upon their relative standalone selling prices. The standalone selling prices are determined based on the prices at which we separately sell each good or service. For items that are not sold separately, we estimate the standalone selling prices using all information that is reasonably available, including reference to historical pricing data.
Contract costs
We incur incremental costs to obtain a contract as well as costs to fulfill contracts with customers that are expected to be recovered. These costs consist primarily of sales commissions, which are incurred only if a contract is obtained, and customer conversion or implementation-related costs.
Capitalized costs are amortized based on the transfer of goods or services to which the asset relates, in line with the percentage of revenue recognized for each performance obligation to which the costs are allocated.
Depreciation and Amortization Expense
The calculation of depreciation and amortization expense is based on the estimated economic lives of the underlying property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, which have been examined for their useful life and determined that no impairment exists. We believe it is unlikely that any significant changes to the useful lives of our tangible and intangible assets will occur in the near term, but rapid changes in technology or changes in market conditions could result in revisions to such estimates that could materially affect the carrying value of these assets and our future consolidated operating results. For long-lived assets, we consider whether any impairment indicators are present. If impairment indicators are identified, we test the recoverability of the long-lived assets. If this recoverability test is failed, we determine the fair value of the long-lived assets and recognize an impairment loss if the fair value is less than its carrying value.
Capitalization of software development costs
We capitalize certain costs incurred to develop commercial software products. For software that is to be sold, significant areas of judgment include: establishing when technological feasibility has been met and costs should be capitalized, determining the appropriate period over which to amortize the capitalized costs based on the estimated useful lives, estimating the marketability of the commercial software products and related future revenues, and assessing the unamortized cost balances for impairment. Costs incurred prior to establishing technological feasibility are expensed as incurred. Amortization begins on the date of general release and the appropriate amortization period is based on estimates of future revenues from sales of the products. We consider various factors to project marketability and future revenues, including an assessment of alternative solutions or products, current and historical demand for the product, and anticipated changes in technology that may make the product obsolete.
For internal use software, capitalization begins at the beginning of application development. Costs incurred prior to this are expensed as incurred. Significant estimates and assumptions include determining the appropriate amortization period based on the estimated useful life and assessing the unamortized cost balances for impairment. Amortization begins on the date the software is placed in service and the amortization period is based on estimated useful life.
A significant change in an estimate related to one or more software products could result in a material change to our results of operations.
Estimates used to determine current and deferred income taxes
We make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes. We also must determine the likelihood of recoverability of deferred tax assets and adjust any valuation allowances accordingly. Considerations include the period of expiration of the tax asset, planned use of the tax asset, and historical and projected taxable income as well as tax liabilities for the tax jurisdiction to which the tax asset relates. Valuation allowances are evaluated periodically and will be subject to change in each future reporting period as a result of changes in one or more of these factors. Also, liabilities for uncertain tax positions require significant judgment in determining what constitutes an individual tax position as well as assessing the outcome of each tax position. Changes in judgment as to recognition or measurement of tax positions can materially affect the estimate of the effective tax rate and consequently, affect our financial results.
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Assumptions related to purchase accounting and goodwill
We account for our acquisitions using the purchase method of accounting. This method requires estimates to determine the fair values of assets and liabilities acquired, including judgments to determine any acquired intangible assets such as customer-related intangibles, as well as assessments of the fair value of existing assets such as property and equipment. Liabilities acquired can include balances for litigation and other contingency reserves established prior to or at the time of acquisition and require judgment in ascertaining a reasonable value. Third-party valuation firms may be used to assist in the appraisal of certain assets and liabilities, but even those determinations would be based on significant estimates provided by us, such as forecast revenues or profits on contract-related intangibles. Numerous factors are typically considered in the purchase accounting assessments, which are conducted by Company professionals from legal, finance, human resources, information systems, program management and other disciplines. Changes in assumptions and estimates of the acquired assets and liabilities would result in changes to the fair values, resulting in an offsetting change to the goodwill balance associated with the business acquired.
As goodwill is not amortized, goodwill balances are regularly assessed for potential impairment. Such assessments include a qualitative assessment of factors that may indicate a potential for impairment, such as: macroeconomic conditions, industry and market changes, our overall financial performance, changes in share price, and an assessment of other events or changes in circumstances that could negatively impact us. If that qualitative assessment indicates a potential for impairment, a quantitative assessment is then required, including an analysis of future cash flow projections as well as a determination of an appropriate discount rate to calculate present values. Cash flow projections are based on management-approved estimates, which involve the input of numerous Company professionals from finance, operations and program management. Key factors used in estimating future cash flows include assessments of labor and other direct costs on existing contracts, estimates of overhead costs and other indirect costs, and assessments of new business prospects and projected win rates. Our most recent assessment indicates that no reporting units are currently at risk of impairment as the fair value of each reporting unit is significantly in excess of the carrying value. However, significant changes in the estimates and assumptions used in purchase accounting and goodwill impairment testing could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.

ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Market risk refers to the risk that a change in the level of one or more market prices, interest rates, indices, volatilities, correlations or other market factors such as liquidity, will result in losses for a certain financial instrument or group of financial instruments. We are currently exposed to credit risk on credit extended to customers and interest risk on outstanding debt. We do not currently use any derivative financial instruments. We actively monitor these risks through a variety of controlled procedures involving senior management.
Based on the controls in place and the credit worthiness of the customer base, we believe the credit risk associated with the extension of credit to our customers will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
We have $275,000 outstanding debt with variable interest rates as of June 30, 2023, and a 1% increase in our borrowing rate would increase our annual interest expense by $2.75 million.
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ITEM 8.   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Index to Financial Statements
 
  
 
  
 Financial Statements 
   
  
 Years Ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021
   
 
 June 30, 2023, and 2022
  
 Years Ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021
   
  
 Years Ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021
   
 

Financial Statement Schedules
There are no schedules included because they are not applicable, or the required information is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Jack Henry & Associates, Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Jack Henry & Associates, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, of changes in stockholders’ equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 30, 2023, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 30, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may
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become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue Recognition - estimating variable consideration and identification of and accounting for performance obligations

As discussed in Notes 1 and 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recorded revenue of $2.078 billion for the year ended June 30, 2023. The Company enters into contracts with its customers, which frequently contain multiple performance obligations and variable contract consideration. The amount of revenue recognized is based on the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods and services to the customer. The Company’s contracts with its customers frequently contain some component of variable consideration. Management estimates variable consideration in its contracts primarily using the expected value method, based on both historical and current information. Where appropriate, the Company may constrain the estimated variable consideration included in the transaction price in the event of a high degree of uncertainty as to the final consideration amount. At contract inception, management assesses the solutions and services promised in its contracts with customers and identifies a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a solution or service (or bundle of solutions or services) that is distinct - that is, if the solution or service is separately identifiable from other items in the arrangement and if the customer can benefit from the solution or service on its own or together with other resources that are readily available. The Company recognizes revenue when or as it satisfies each performance obligation by transferring control of a solution or service to the customer. Significant judgment in revenue recognition for these customer contracts include, where relevant, (i) the estimation of variable consideration, principally, the varying volume of transactional activity over long-term contracts, and (ii) the identification of and accounting for all performance obligations.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the estimation of variable consideration and the identification of and accounting for performance obligations is a critical audit matter are significant judgment by management to estimate the variable consideration, principally, the varying volume of transactional activity and the identification of and accounting for all performance obligations in a contract. This in turn resulted in significant audit effort, a high degree of auditor judgment and subjectivity in performing our audit procedures and in evaluating the audit evidence obtained.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the revenue recognition process, including the estimation of variable consideration and identification of and accounting for each performance obligation. The procedures also included, among others, evaluating and testing management’s process for determining the variable consideration and testing the reasonableness of management’s estimation of variable consideration. Testing the estimation of variable consideration included evaluating the terms and conditions of the long-term contracts and the related significant assumptions used in the estimate of the variable consideration, principally, the use of historical transaction volumes to estimate the varying volume of transactional activity. The procedures for testing the performance obligations and variable consideration included evaluation of the terms and conditions for a sample of contracts.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Kansas City, Missouri
August 24, 2023

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2015.
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MANAGEMENT’S ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
The management of Jack Henry & Associates, Inc. is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(e). The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures pertaining to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect transactions and dispositions of assets of the Company; provide reasonable assurance transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and the directors of the Company; and provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. All internal controls, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even where internal control over financial reporting is determined to be effective, it can provide only reasonable assurance. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
As of June 30, 2023, management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on the framework established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ("COSO"). Based on this assessment, management has concluded the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, was effective.
The Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report appearing in this Item 8.
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JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Data)
Year Ended
 June 30,
 202320222021
REVENUE$2,077,702 $1,942,884 $1,758,225 
EXPENSES  
Cost of Revenue1,219,062 1,128,614 1,063,399 
Research and Development142,678 121,355 109,047 
Selling, General, and Administrative235,274 218,296 187,060 
Total Expenses1,597,014 1,468,265 1,359,506 
OPERATING INCOME480,688 474,619 398,719 
INTEREST INCOME (EXPENSE)  
Interest Income8,959 32 150 
Interest Expense(15,073)(2,384)(1,144)
Total Interest Income (Expense)(6,114)(2,352)(994)
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES474,574 472,267 397,725 
PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXES107,928 109,351 86,256 
NET INCOME$366,646 $362,916 $311,469 
Basic earnings per share$5.03 $4.95 $4.12 
Basic weighted average shares outstanding72,918 73,324 75,546 
Diluted earnings per share$5.02 $4.94 $4.12 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding73,096 73,486 75,658 















See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data)
 June 30,
2023
June 30,
2022
ASSETS  
CURRENT ASSETS:  
Cash and cash equivalents$12,243 $48,787 
Receivables, net361,252 348,072 
Income tax receivable7,523 13,822 
Prepaid expenses and other169,178 125,537 
Deferred costs77,766 57,105 
Assets held for sale 20,201 
Total current assets627,962 613,524 
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, net205,664 211,709 
OTHER ASSETS:  
Non-current deferred costs161,465 143,750 
Computer software, net of amortization565,714 410,957 
Other non-current assets322,698 293,526 
Customer relationships, net of amortization65,528 69,503 
Other intangible assets, net of amortization19,998 25,137 
Goodwill804,797 687,458 
Total other assets1,940,200 1,630,331 
Total assets$2,773,826 $2,455,564 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY  
CURRENT LIABILITIES:  
Accounts payable$19,156 $21,034 
Accrued expenses172,629 192,042 
Notes payable and current maturities of long-term debt 67 
Deferred revenues331,974 330,687 
Total current liabilities523,759 543,830 
LONG-TERM LIABILITIES:  
Non-current deferred revenues67,755 71,485 
Deferred income tax liability244,431 292,630 
Debt, net of current maturities275,000 115,000 
Other long-term liabilities54,371 50,996 
Total long-term liabilities641,557 530,111 
Total liabilities1,165,316 1,073,941 
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY  
Preferred stock - $1 par value; 500,000 shares authorized, none issued
  
Common stock - $0.01 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized;
     104,088,784 shares issued at June 30, 2023;
     103,921,724 shares issued at June 30, 2022
1,041 1,039 
Additional paid-in capital583,836 551,360 
Retained earnings2,855,751 2,636,342 
Less treasury stock at cost
     31,194,351 shares at June 30, 2023;
     31,042,903 shares at June 30, 2022
(1,832,118)(1,807,118)
Total stockholders' equity1,608,510 1,381,623 
Total liabilities and equity$2,773,826 $2,455,564 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data)
 Year Ended June 30,
 202320222021
PREFERRED SHARES:   
COMMON SHARES:   
Shares, beginning of year103,921,724 103,795,169 103,622,563 
Shares issued for equity-based payment arrangements82,776 46,669 92,747 
Shares issued for Employee Stock Purchase Plan84,284 79,886 79,859 
Shares, end of year104,088,784 103,921,724 103,795,169 
COMMON STOCK - PAR VALUE $0.01 PER SHARE:   
Balance, beginning of year$1,039 $1,038 $1,036 
Shares issued for equity-based payment arrangements1  1 
Shares issued for Employee Stock Purchase Plan1 1 1 
Balance, end of year$1,041 $1,039 $1,038 
ADDITIONAL PAID-IN CAPITAL:   
Balance, beginning of year$551,360 $518,960 $495,005 
Shares issued for equity-based payment arrangements(1) (1)
Tax withholding related to share based compensation(8,505)(4,152)(7,720)
Shares issued for Employee Stock Purchase Plan12,371 11,772 10,930 
Stock-based compensation expense28,611 24,780 20,746 
Balance, end of year$583,836 $551,360 $518,960 
RETAINED EARNINGS:   
Balance, beginning of year$2,636,342 $2,412,496 $2,235,320 
Cumulative effect of ASU 2016-13 adoption  (493)
Net income366,646 362,916 311,469 
Dividends(147,237)(139,070)(133,800)
Balance, end of year$2,855,751 $2,636,342 $2,412,496 
TREASURY STOCK:   
Balance, beginning of year$(1,807,118)$(1,613,202)$(1,181,673)
Purchase of treasury shares(25,000)(193,916)(431,529)
Balance, end of year$(1,832,118)$(1,807,118)$(1,613,202)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY$1,608,510 $1,381,623 $1,319,292 
Dividends declared per share$2.02 $1.90 $1.78 



See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In Thousands)
 Year Ended
 June 30,
 202320222021
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:  
Net Income$366,646 $362,916 $311,469 
Adjustments to reconcile net income from operations
     to net cash from operating activities:
  
Depreciation48,720 50,789 52,515 
Amortization142,006 126,835 123,233 
Change in deferred income taxes(48,199)31,872 16,760 
Expense for stock-based compensation28,611 24,780 20,746 
(Gain)/loss on disposal of assets and businesses(4,517)400 (1,988)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:  
Change in receivables  (12,067)(41,508)(6,112)
Change in prepaid expenses, deferred costs and other(112,316)(82,565)(57,059)
Change in accounts payable(6,277)6,646 (94)
Change in accrued expenses(20,453)1,190 7,045 
Change in income taxes9,952 16,704 (10,927)
Change in deferred revenues(10,547)6,572 6,541 
Net cash from operating activities381,559 504,631 462,129 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:  
Payment for acquisitions, net of cash acquired(229,628) (2,300)
Capital expenditures(39,179)(34,659)(22,988)
Proceeds from the sale of assets27,939 45 6,187 
Purchased software(1,685)(8,491)(6,506)
Computer software developed(166,120)(148,239)(128,343)
Proceeds from investments  5,000 
Purchase of investments(1,000)(5,000)(13,300)
Net cash from investing activities(409,673)(196,344)(162,250)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:  
Borrowings on credit facilities810,000 332,000 200,000 
Repayments on credit facilities and financing leases(650,060)(317,127)(100,114)
Purchase of treasury stock(25,000)(193,916)(431,529)
Dividends paid(147,237)(139,070)(133,800)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options1  1 
Tax withholding payments related to share based compensation(8,505)(4,152)(7,721)
Proceeds from sale of common stock12,371 11,773 10,931 
Net cash from financing activities(8,430)(310,492)(462,232)
NET CHANGE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS$(36,544)$(2,205)$(162,353)
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, BEGINNING OF PERIOD$48,787 $50,992 $213,345 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, END OF PERIOD$12,243 $48,787 $50,992 



See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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JACK HENRY & ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)

NOTE 1.    NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY
Jack Henry & Associates, Inc. and subsidiaries ("Jack Henry" or the "Company") is a well-rounded financial technology company. Jack Henry was founded in 1976 as a provider of core processing solutions for banks. Today, the Company’s extensive array of products and services includes processing transactions, automating business processes, and managing information for over 7,500 financial institutions and diverse corporate entities.
CONSOLIDATION
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Jack Henry and all its subsidiaries, which are wholly owned, and all intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
REVENUE RECOGNITION
The Company generates "Services and Support" revenue through software licensing and related services, private cloud core and complementary software solutions, professional services, and hardware sales. The Company generates "Processing" revenue through processing of remittance transactions, card transactions and monthly fees, and digital transactions.
Significant Judgments Used in the Application of the Guidance
Identification of performance obligations
The Company enters into contracts with customers that may include multiple types of goods and services. At contract inception, the Company assesses the solutions and services promised in its contracts with customers and identifies a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a solution or service (or bundle of solutions or services) that is distinct - that is, if the solution or service is separately identifiable from other items in the arrangement and if the customer can benefit from the solution or service on its own or together with other resources that are readily available. Significant judgment is used in the identification and accounting for all performance obligations.
Determination of transaction price
The amount of revenue recognized is based on the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods and services to the customer. The Company’s contracts with its customers frequently contain some component of variable consideration. The Company estimates variable consideration in its contracts primarily using the expected value method, based on both historical and current information. Where appropriate, the Company may constrain the estimated variable consideration included in the transaction price in the event of a high degree of uncertainty as to the final consideration amount. Significant judgment is used in the estimate of variable consideration of customer contracts that are long-term and include uncertain transactional volumes.
Technology or service components from third parties are frequently included in or combined with the Company’s applications or service offerings. Whether the Company recognizes revenue based on the gross amount billed to the customer or the net amount retained involves judgment in determining whether the Company controls the good or service before it is transferred to the customer. This assessment is made at the performance obligation level.
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Allocation of transaction price
The transaction price, once determined, is allocated between the various performance obligations in the contract based upon their relative standalone selling prices. The standalone selling prices are determined based on the prices at which the Company separately sells each good or service. For items that are not sold separately, the Company estimates the standalone selling prices using all information that is reasonably available, including reference to historical pricing data.
COMPUTER SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
The Company capitalizes new product development costs incurred for software to be sold from the point at which technological feasibility has been established through the point at which the product is ready for general availability. Software development costs that are capitalized are evaluated on a product-by-product basis annually for impairment and are assigned an estimated economic life based on the type of product, market characteristics, and maturity of the market for that particular product. These costs are amortized based on current and estimated future revenue from the product or on a straight-line basis, whichever yields greater amortization expense. All of this amortization expense is included within components of operating income, primarily cost of revenue.
The Company capitalizes development costs for internal use software beginning at the start of application development. Amortization begins on the date the software is placed in service and the amortization period is based on estimated useful life.
CASH EQUIVALENTS
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of acquisition to be cash equivalents.
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Receivables are recorded at the time of billing. The Company monitors trade and other receivable balances and contract assets and estimates the allowance for lifetime expected credit losses. Estimates of expected credit losses are based on historical collection experience and other factors, including those related to current market conditions and events.
The following table summarizes allowance for credit losses activity for the years ended June 30, 2023, and 2022:
Year Ended June 30,
20232022
Allowance for credit losses - beginning balance$7,616 $7,266 
Current provision for expected credit losses1,800 1,740 
Write-offs charged against allowance(1,458)(1,389)
Recoveries of amounts previously written off(1)(1)
Other(2) 
Allowance for credit losses - ending balance$7,955 $7,616 
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Property and equipment is stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets.
Intangible assets consist of goodwill, customer relationships, computer software, and trade names acquired in business acquisitions in addition to internally developed computer software. The amounts are amortized, with the exception of those with an indefinite life (goodwill), over an estimated economic benefit period, generally three to twenty years.
The Company reviews its long-lived assets and identifiable intangible assets with finite lives for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances have indicated that it is more likely than not that the carrying amount of its assets might not be recoverable. The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment of value on an annual basis as of January 1 and between annual tests if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset might be impaired.
PURCHASE OF INVESTMENT
At June 30, 2023, and 2022, the Company had $18,250 invested in the preferred stock of Automated Bookkeeping, Inc. ("Autobooks"), which represents a non-controlling share of the voting equity of Autobooks. This investment was
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recorded at cost and is included within other non-current assets on the Company's balance sheet. The fair value of this investment has not been estimated, as estimation is not practicable due to limited investors which reduces available comparative information. There have been no events or changes in circumstances that would indicate an impairment and no price changes resulting from observing a similar or identical investment. An impairment and/or an observable price change would be an adjustment to recorded cost. Fair value will not be estimated unless there are identified events or changes in circumstances that may have a significant adverse effect on the fair value of the investment. Equity transactions are monitored quarterly to assess whether there are indicators that fair value may be below carrying value.
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Comprehensive income for each of the fiscal years ending June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, equals the Company’s net income.
REPORTABLE SEGMENT INFORMATION
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, the Company's operations are classified as four reportable segments: Core, Payments, Complementary, and Corporate and Other (see Note 14). Substantially all the Company’s revenues are derived from operations and assets located within the United States of America.
COMMON STOCK
The Board of Directors has authorized the Company to repurchase shares of its common stock. Under this authorization, the Company may finance its share repurchases with available cash reserves or short-term borrowings on its existing credit facilities. The share repurchase program does not include specific price targets or timetables and may be suspended at any time. At June 30, 2023, there were 31,194 shares in treasury stock and the Company had the remaining authority to repurchase up to 3,796 additional shares of its common stock. The total cost of treasury shares at June 30, 2023, was $1,832,118. During fiscal 2023, the Company repurchased 151 shares of its common stock for $25,000 to be held in treasury. At June 30, 2022, there were 31,043 shares in treasury stock and the Company had authority to repurchase up to 3,948 additional shares of its common stock.
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Per share information is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Stock options and restricted stock have been included in the calculation of income per diluted share to the extent they are dilutive. The difference between basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding is the dilutive effect of outstanding stock options and restricted stock (see Note 11).  
INCOME TAXES
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the tax effects of differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance would be established to reduce deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based upon the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit recognized in the financial statements from such a position is measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Also, interest and penalties expense are recognized on the full amount of unrecognized benefits for uncertain tax positions. The Company's policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Not Adopted at Fiscal Year End
In October of 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which improves the accounting for acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and inconsistency related to recognition of an acquired contract liability and payment terms and their effect on subsequent revenue recognized by the acquirer. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted the ASU on July 1, 2023, and will apply it prospectively to business combinations occurring after that date.



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NOTE 2.    REVENUE AND DEFERRED COSTS
Revenue Recognition
The Company generates revenue from data processing, transaction processing, software licensing and related services, professional services, and hardware sales.
The Company recognizes revenue when or as it satisfies each performance obligation by transferring control of a solution or service to the customer.
The following describes the nature of the Company’s primary types of revenue:
Processing
Processing revenue is generated from transaction-based fees for electronic deposit and payment services, electronic funds transfers and debit and credit card processing. The Company’s arrangements for these services typically require the Company to “stand-ready” to provide specific services on a when and if needed basis by processing an unspecified number of transactions over the contractual term. The fees for these services may be fixed or variable (based upon performing an unspecified quantity of services), and pricing may include tiered pricing structures. Amounts of revenue allocated to these services are recognized as those services are performed. Customers are typically billed monthly for transactions processed during the month. The Company evaluates tiered pricing to determine if a material right exists. If, after that evaluation, it determines a material right does exist, it assigns value to the material right based upon standalone selling price after estimation of breakage associated with the material right.
Private and public cloud
Private and public cloud revenue is generated from data and item processing services and hosting fees. The Company’s arrangements for these services typically require the Company to “stand-ready” to provide specific services on a when and if needed basis. The fees for these services may be fixed or variable (based upon performing an unspecified quantity of services), and pricing may include tiered pricing structures. Amounts of revenue allocated to these services are recognized as those services are performed. Data and item processing services are typically billed monthly. The Company evaluates tiered pricing to determine if a material right exists. If, after that evaluation, it determines a material right does exist, it assigns value to the material right based upon standalone selling price.
Product delivery and services
Product delivery and services revenue is generated primarily from software licensing and related professional services and hardware delivery. Software licenses, along with any professional services from which they are not considered distinct, are recognized as they are delivered to the customer. Hardware revenue is recognized upon delivery. Professional services that are distinct are recognized as the services are performed. Deconversion fees are also included within product delivery and services and are considered a contract modification. Therefore, the Company recognizes these fees over the remaining modified contract term.
On-premise support
On-premise support revenue is generated from software maintenance for ongoing client support and software usage, which includes a license and ongoing client support. The Company’s arrangements for these services typically require the Company to “stand-ready” to provide specific services on a when and if needed basis. The fees for these services may be fixed or variable (based upon performing an unspecified quantity of services). Software maintenance fees are typically billed to the customer annually in advance and recognized ratably over the maintenance term. Software usage is typically billed annually in advance, with the license delivered and recognized at the outset, and the maintenance fee recognized ratably over the maintenance term. Accordingly, the Company utilizes the practical expedient which allows entities to disregard the effects of a financing component when the contract period is one year or less.
Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are not included in revenue. The Company includes reimbursements from customers for expenses incurred in providing services (such as for postage, travel and telecommunications costs) in revenue, while the related costs are included in cost of revenue.
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Disaggregation of Revenue
The tables below present the Company's revenue disaggregated by type of revenue. Refer to Note 14 – Reportable Segment Information for disaggregated revenue by type and reportable segment. The majority of the Company’s revenue is earned domestically, with revenue from customers outside the United States comprising less than 1% of total revenue.
Year Ended June 30,
202320222021
Private and Public Cloud$618,850 $561,500 $504,548 
Product Delivery and Services245,687 250,843 208,856 
On-Premise Support350,164 344,022 334,802 
Services and Support1,214,701 1,156,365 1,048,206 
Processing863,001 786,519 710,019 
Total Revenue$2,077,702 $1,942,884 $1,758,225 
Contract Balances
The following table provides information about contract assets and contract liabilities from contracts with customers.
June 30,
2023
June 30,
2022
Receivables, net$361,252 $348,072 
Contract Assets- Current26,711 24,447 
Contract Assets- Non-current81,561 68,261 
Contract Liabilities (Deferred Revenue)- Current331,974 330,687 
Contract Liabilities (Deferred Revenue)- Non-current67,755 71,485 
Contract assets primarily result from revenue being recognized when or as control of a solution or service is transferred to the customer, but where invoicing is contingent upon the completion of other performance obligations or payment terms differ from the provisioning of services. The current portion of contract assets is reported within prepaid expenses and other in the consolidated balance sheet, and the non-current portion is included in other non-current assets. Contract liabilities (deferred revenue) primarily relate to consideration received from customers in advance of delivery of the related goods and services to the customer. Contract balances are reported in a net contract asset or liability position on a contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period.
The Company analyzes contract language to identify if a significant financing component does exist and would adjust the transaction price for any material effects of the time value of money if the timing of payments provides either party to the contract with a significant benefit of financing the transaction.
For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, the Company recognized revenue of $267,978, $270,972, and $256,952, respectively, that was included in the corresponding deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the periods.
Amounts recognized that relate to performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in prior periods were immaterial for each period presented. These adjustments are primarily the result of transaction price re-allocations due to changes in estimates of variable consideration.
Transaction Price Allocated to Remaining Performance Obligations
As of June 30, 2023, estimated revenue expected to be recognized in the future related to performance obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) at the end of the reporting period totaled $5,897,338. The Company expects to recognize approximately 25% over the next 12 months, 19% in 13 - 24 months, and the balance thereafter.
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Contract Costs
The Company incurs incremental costs to obtain a contract as well as costs to fulfill contracts with customers that are expected to be recovered. These costs consist primarily of sales commissions, which are incurred only if a contract is obtained, and customer conversion or implementation-related costs. Capitalized costs are amortized based on the transfer of goods or services to which the asset relates, in line with the percentage of revenue recognized for each performance obligation to which the costs are allocated.
Capitalized costs totaled $442,012 and $380,095, at June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
During the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, amortization of deferred contract costs totaled $154,008, $133,174, and $122,143, respectively. There were no impairment losses in relation to capitalized costs for the periods presented.

NOTE 3.    FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
For cash equivalents, certificates of deposit, amounts receivable or payable, and short-term borrowings, fair values approximate carrying value, based on the short-term nature of the assets and liabilities.
The Company's estimates of the fair value for financial assets and financial liabilities are based on the framework established in the fair value accounting guidance. The framework is based on the inputs used in valuation, gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets, and requires that observable inputs be used in the valuations when available. The three levels of the hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1: inputs to the valuation are quoted prices in an active market for identical assets.
Level 2: inputs to the valuation include quoted prices for similar assets in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3: valuation is based on significant inputs that are unobservable in the market and the Company's own estimates of assumptions that we believe market participants would use in pricing the asset.
Fair value of financial assets included in current assets is as follows:

Estimated Fair Value MeasurementsTotal Fair
 Level 1Level 2Level 3Value
June 30, 2023   
Financial Assets:
Certificates of Deposit$ $2,234 $ $2,234 
Financial Liabilities:
Credit facilities$ $275,000 $ $275,000 
June 30, 2022   
Financial Assets:
Certificates of Deposit$ $1,212 $ $1,212 
Financial Liabilities:
Revolving credit facility
$ $115,000 $ $115,000 

NOTE 4.    LEASES
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease, or contains a lease, at inception. The lease term begins on the commencement date, which is the date the Company takes possession of the property and may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. The lease term is used to determine lease classification as an operating or finance lease and is used to calculate straight-line expense for operating leases.
Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. As a practical expedient, lease agreements with lease and non-lease components are accounted for as a single lease component for all asset classes, which are comprised of real estate leases and equipment leases. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. ROU assets also include prepaid lease payments and exclude lease incentives received. The Company
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estimates contingent lease incentives when it is probable that the Company is entitled to the incentive at lease commencement. Since the Company’s leases do not typically provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based upon the information available at commencement date for both real estate and equipment leases. The determination of the incremental borrowing rate requires judgment. The Company determines the incremental borrowing rate using the Company’s current unsecured borrowing rate, adjusted for various factors such as collateralization and term to align with the terms of the lease. The Company elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. Therefore, leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; instead, lease payments are recognized as lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company leases certain office space, data centers and equipment. The Company’s leases have remaining terms of 1 to 10 years. Certain leases contain renewal options for varying periods, which are at the Company’s sole discretion. For leases where the Company is reasonably certain to exercise a renewal option, such option periods have been included in the determination of the Company’s ROU assets and lease liabilities. Certain leases require the Company to pay taxes, insurance, maintenance, and other operating expenses associated with the leased asset. Such amounts are not included in the measurement of the lease liability to the extent they are variable in nature. These variable lease costs are recognized as a variable lease expense when incurred. Certain leases include options to purchase the leased asset at the end of the lease term, which is assessed as a part of the Company’s lease classification determination. The depreciable life of the ROU asset and leasehold improvements are limited by the expected lease term unless the Company is reasonably certain of a transfer of title or purchase option.
At June 30, 2023, and 2022, the Company had operating lease assets of $43,662 and $46,869, respectively. At June 30, 2023, total operating lease liabilities of $50,269 were comprised of current operating lease liabilities of $9,776 and noncurrent operating lease liabilities of $40,493. At June 30, 2022, total operating lease liabilities of $51,452 were comprised of current operating lease liabilities of $10,681 and noncurrent operating lease liabilities of $40,771.
Operating lease assets are included within other non-current assets and operating lease liabilities are included with accrued expenses (current portion) and other long-term liabilities (noncurrent portion) in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. Operating lease assets were recorded net of accumulated amortization of $34,973 and $31,006 as of June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
Operating lease costs for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, were $11,870, $13,058, and $14,676, respectively. Total operating lease costs for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, included variable lease costs of approximately $3,608, $2,325, and $3,622, respectively. Operating lease expense is included within cost of services, research and development, and selling, general and administrative expense, dependent upon the nature and use of the ROU asset, in the Company’s consolidated statement of income.
For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, operating cash flows for payments on operating leases were $12,127, $13,082, and $13,672, respectively, and ROU assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities were $2,368, $2,407, and $4,691, respectively.
As of June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, the weighted-average remaining lease terms for the Company's operating leases were 78 months, 76 months, and 81 months, respectively, and the weighted-average discount rates were 2.14%, 2.58%, and 2.67%, respectively.
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Maturity of Lease Liabilities under ASC 842
Future minimum rental payments on operating leases with initial non-cancellable lease terms in excess of one year were due as follows at June 30, 2023:
Due datesFuture Minimum Rental Payments
2024$11,424 
20258,769 
20267,888 
20277,157 
20286,771 
Thereafter13,872 
Total lease payments$55,881 
Less: interest(5,612)
Present value of lease liabilities$50,269 
Future lease payments include $5,464 related to options to extend lease terms that are reasonably certain of being exercised. At June 30, 2023, there were $22,674 in legally binding lease payments for a lease signed but not yet commenced. The commencement date of the lease is October 1, 2023 and has a term of 96 months.

NOTE 5.    PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT
The classification of property and equipment, together with their estimated useful lives is as follows:
 June 30, 
 20232022Estimated Useful Life
Land$16,581 $16,781  
Land improvements24,251 23,571 
5 - 20 years
Buildings129,991 129,313 
20 - 30 years
Leasehold improvements51,125 51,708 
5 - 30 years
(1)
Equipment and furniture394,507 400,856 
3 - 10 years
Aircraft and equipment41,400 41,492 
4 - 10 years
Construction in progress14,208 2,547  
Finance lease right of use asset (2)
312 320 
 672,375 666,588  
Less accumulated depreciation466,711 454,879  
Property and equipment, net$205,664 $211,709  
(1) Lesser of lease term or estimated useful life
(2) Fully depreciated at June 30, 2023.
The change in property and equipment in accrued liabilities was an increase of $3,969 and a decrease of $4,097 for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively. These amounts were excluded from capital expenditures on the statements of cash flows.
No material impairments of property and equipment were recorded in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, or 2021.
During fiscal 2022, the Company received an offer to purchase one of its facilities and management committed to sell the facility. At June 30, 2022, this facility's assets were classified as assets held for sale by the Company in the amount of $20,201, and were not included in property and equipment, net. The sale of this facility was completed during fiscal 2023. Total assets held for sale by the Company at June 30, 2023, were $0.

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NOTE 6.    OTHER ASSETS
Goodwill
The carrying amount of goodwill for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, by reportable segments, is as follows:
 June 30,
Core20232022
Beginning balance$195,578 $195,578 
Goodwill, acquired during the year  
Goodwill, adjustments related to dispositions  
Ending balance$195,578 $195,578 
Payments
Beginning balance$325,326 $325,326 
Goodwill, acquired during the year117,339  
Goodwill, adjustments related to dispositions  
Ending balance$442,665 $325,326 
Complementary
Beginning balance$166,554 $166,554 
Goodwill, acquired during the year  
Goodwill, adjustments related to dispositions  
Ending balance$166,554 $166,554 
Goodwill acquired during fiscal 2023 and 2022 was $117,339 and $0, respectively. Goodwill consists largely of the growth potential, synergies and economies of scale expected from combining the operations of the Company with those of the entities or assets acquired, together with their assembled workforces. No goodwill has been assigned to the Company's Corporate and Other reportable segment.
Other intangible assets
Information regarding other identifiable intangible assets is as follows:
 June 30, 2023
Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet
Customer relationships$306,036 $(240,508)$65,528 
Computer software$1,386,291 $(820,577)$565,714 
Other intangible assets:$108,826 $(88,828)$19,998 
 June 30, 2022
Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet
Customer relationships$316,401 $(246,898)$69,503 
Computer software$1,111,308 $(700,351)$410,957 
Other intangible assets:$108,688 $(83,551)$25,137 
Customer relationships have useful lives ranging from 5 to 20 years.
Computer software includes cost of software to be sold, leased, or marketed of $171,310 and costs of internal-use software of $394,404 at June 30, 2023. At June 30, 2022, costs of software to be sold, leased, or marketed totaled $173,402, and costs of internal-use software totaled $237,555.
Computer software includes the unamortized cost of commercial software products developed or acquired by the Company, which are capitalized and amortized over useful lives generally ranging from 5 to 15 years. Amortization expense for computer software totaled $123,210, $105,036, and $99,305 for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023,
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2022, and 2021, respectively. There were no material impairments in fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
The Company's other intangible assets have useful lives ranging from 3 to 20 years.
Amortization expense for all intangible assets was $142,006, $126,835, and $123,233 for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. The estimated aggregate future amortization expense for each of the next five years for all intangible assets remaining as of June 30, 2023, is as follows:
Years Ending June 30,Computer SoftwareCustomer
Relationships
Other Intangible AssetsTotal
2024$120,305 $8,771 $5,752 $134,828 
2025101,776 8,317 3,454 113,547 
202680,122 7,952 2,589 90,663 
202756,718 7,858 2,227 66,803 
202831,200 7,821 1,157 40,178 

NOTE 7.    DEBT
The Company had no outstanding short-term debt and $275,000 outstanding long-term debt at June 30, 2023, related to credit facilities. The Company had $67 outstanding short-term debt and $115,000 outstanding long-term debt at June 30, 2022.
Credit facilities
On August 31, 2022, the Company entered into a five-year senior, unsecured amended and restated credit agreement that replaced the prior credit facility described below. The credit agreement allows for borrowings of up to $600,000, which may be increased to $1,000,000 by the Company at any time until maturity. The credit agreement bears interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on an adjusted Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") term rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the Prime Rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% per annum and (iv) the Adjusted Term SOFR Screen Rate (without giving effect to the Applicable Margin) for a one month Interest Period on such day for Dollars plus 1.0%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The credit agreement is guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and is subject to various financial covenants that require the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the credit agreement. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The amended and restated credit facility terminates August 31, 2027. There was $95,000 outstanding under the amended and restated credit facility at June 30, 2023.
On June 30, 2022, there was a $115,000 outstanding balance on the prior credit facility that was entered into on February 10, 2020. The prior credit facility was a five-year senior, unsecured revolving credit facility. The prior credit facility allowed for borrowings of up to $300,000, which could be increased by the Company to $700,000 at any time until maturity. The prior credit facility bore interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on a eurocurrency rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the U.S. Bank prime rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% and (iv) the eurocurrency rate for a one-month interest period on such day for dollars plus 1.0%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The prior credit facility was guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and was subject to various financial covenants that required the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the prior credit agreement. As of June 30, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The prior credit facility's termination date was February 10, 2025.
Term loan facility
On May 16, 2023, the Company entered into a term loan credit agreement with a syndicate of financial institutions, with an original principal balance of $180,000. Borrowings under the term loan facility bear interest at a variable rate equal to (a) a rate based on an adjusted SOFR term rate or (b) an alternate base rate (the highest of (i) 0%, (ii) the Prime Rate for such day, (iii) the sum of the Federal Funds Effective Rate for such day plus 0.50% per annum and (iv) the Adjusted Term SOFR Screen Rate (without giving effect to the Applicable Margin) for a one month Interest Period on such day for Dollars plus 0.75%), plus an applicable percentage in each case determined by the Company's leverage ratio. The term loan credit agreement is guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company and is subject to various financial covenants that require the Company to maintain certain financial ratios as defined in the term loan credit agreement. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The term loan credit agreement has a maturity date of May 16, 2025. There was $180,000 outstanding under the term loan at June 30, 2023.
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Other lines of credit
The Company has an unsecured bank credit line which provides for funding of up to $5,000 and bears interest at the prime rate less 1.0%. The credit line was renewed in May 2019 and modified in May 2023 to extend the expiration to April 30, 2025. There was no balance outstanding at June 30, 2023, or 2022.
Interest
The Company paid interest of $14,776, $1,788, and $852 during the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.

NOTE 8.    INCOME TAXES
The provision for income taxes consists of the following:
 Year Ended June 30,
 202320222021
Current:   
Federal$125,622 $59,390 $55,598 
State30,505 18,089 13,897 
Deferred: 
Federal(40,218)24,391 14,401 
State(7,981)7,481 2,360 
 $107,928 $109,351 $86,256 

The tax effects of temporary differences related to deferred taxes shown on the balance sheets were:
 June 30,
 20232022
Deferred tax assets:  
Contract and service revenues$18,186 $15,340 
Expense reserves and accruals (bad debts, compensation, and payroll tax)14,023 15,382