0000766704-17-000012.txt : 20170222 0000766704-17-000012.hdr.sgml : 20170222 20170222163403 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0000766704-17-000012 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 131 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20161231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20170222 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20170222 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: WELLTOWER INC. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0000766704 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS [6798] IRS NUMBER: 341096634 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-08923 FILM NUMBER: 17628901 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 4500 DORR STREET CITY: TOLEDO STATE: OH ZIP: 43615 BUSINESS PHONE: 419-247-2800 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 4500 DORR STREET CITY: TOLEDO STATE: OH ZIP: 43615 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: HEALTH CARE REIT INC /DE/ DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 19920703 10-K 1 10-k.htm 10-K  

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016

Commission File No. 1-8923

 

 

 

WELLTOWER INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware

 

34-1096634

 

 

 

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

4500 Dorr Street, Toledo, Ohio

 

43615

 

 

 

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

(419) 247-2800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)  

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $1.00 par value

New York Stock Exchange

6.50% Series I Cumulative

Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock, $1.00 par value

New York Stock Exchange

6.50% Series J Cumulative

Redeemable Preferred Stock, $1.00 par value

New York Stock Exchange

4.800% Notes due 2028

New York Stock Exchange

4.500% Notes due 2034

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  þ  No 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  o  No  þ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ  No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  þ  No 

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer þ  

 

Accelerated filer o  

 

Non-accelerated filer   o

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Smaller reporting company o  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  o  No  þ 

 

The aggregate market value of the shares of voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing sales price of such shares on the New York Stock Exchange as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $27,176,263,145.

 

As of January 31, 2017, the registrant had 362,558,457 shares of common stock outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the annual stockholders’ meeting to be held May 4, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III.

 


 

 

WELLTOWER INC.

2016 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

PART I

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

2

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

25

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

34

Item 2.

Properties

35

Item 3.

Item 4.

Legal Proceedings

Mine Safety Disclosures

37

37

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

37

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

39

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

40

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

63

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

64

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

100

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

100

Item 9B.

Other Information

101

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

102

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

102

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

102

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

102

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

102

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

103

  

 


 

 

PART I

 

Item 1.  Business 

 

General

 

Welltower Inc. (NYSE:HCN), an S&P 500 company headquartered in Toledo, Ohio, is driving the transformation of health care infrastructure.  The company invests with leading seniors housing operators, post-acute providers and health systems to fund real estate and infrastructure needed to scale innovative care delivery models and improve people’s wellness and overall health care experience.  WelltowerTM, a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), owns interests in properties concentrated in major, high-growth markets in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, consisting of seniors housing and post-acute communities and outpatient medical properties.  Our capital programs, when combined with comprehensive planning, development and property management services, make us a single-source solution for acquiring, planning, developing, managing, repositioning and monetizing real estate assets.  More information is available on the Internet at www.welltower.com.  The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and our web address is included as an inactive textual reference only.

 

Our primary objectives are to protect stockholder capital and enhance stockholder value. We seek to pay consistent cash dividends to stockholders and create opportunities to increase dividend payments to stockholders as a result of annual increases in net operating income and portfolio growth. To meet these objectives, we invest across the full spectrum of seniors housing and health care real estate and diversify our investment portfolio by property type, relationship and geographic location.

 

Depending upon the availability and cost of external capital, we believe our liquidity is sufficient to fund operations, meet debt service obligations (both principal and interest), make dividend distributions and complete construction projects in process. We also continuously evaluate opportunities to finance future investments. New investments are generally funded from temporary borrowings under our primary unsecured credit facility, internally generated cash and the proceeds from investment dispositions. Our investments generate cash from net operating income and principal payments on loans receivable. Permanent financing for future investments, which replaces funds drawn under our primary unsecured credit facility, has historically been provided through a combination of the issuance of public debt and equity securities and the incurrence or assumption of secured debt.

 

References herein to “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” refer to Welltower Inc. and its subsidiaries unless specifically noted otherwise.

 

Portfolio of Properties

 

Please see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation – Executive Summary – Company Overview” for a table that summarizes our portfolio as of December 31, 2016.

 

Property Types

 

We invest in seniors housing and health care real estate and evaluate our business on three reportable segments: triple-net, seniors housing operating and outpatient medical. For additional information regarding our segments, please see Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements.  The accounting policies of the segments are the same as those described in the summary of significant accounting policies in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements.  The following is a summary of our various property types.

 

Triple-Net

 

Our triple-net properties include independent living facilities and independent supportive living facilities (Canada), continuing care retirement communities, assisted living facilities, care homes with and without nursing (United Kingdom), Alzheimer’s/dementia care facilities and long-term/post-acute care facilities.  We invest primarily through acquisitions, development and joint venture partnerships. Our properties are primarily leased to operators under long-term, triple-net master leases. We are not involved in property management.  Our properties include stand-alone facilities that provide one level of service, combination facilities that provide multiple levels of service, and communities or campuses that provide a wide range of services.

 

Independent Living Facilities and Independent Supportive Living Facilities (Canada).  Independent living facilities and independent supportive living facilities are age-restricted, multifamily properties with central dining facilities that provide residents access to meals and other services such as housekeeping, linen service, transportation and social and recreational activities.

 

Continuing Care Retirement Communities.  Continuing care retirement communities typically include a combination of detached homes, an independent living facility, an assisted living facility and/or a long-term/post-acute care facility on one campus. These communities appeal to residents because there is no need to relocate when health and medical needs change. Resident payment plans

2


 

 

vary, but can include entrance fees, condominium fees and rental fees. Many of these communities also charge monthly maintenance fees in exchange for a living unit, meals and some health services.

 

Assisted Living Facilities.  Assisted living facilities are state regulated rental properties that provide the same services as independent living facilities, but also provide supportive care from trained employees to residents who require assistance with activities of daily living, including, but not limited to, management of medications, bathing, dressing, toileting, ambulating and eating.

 

Care Homes with Nursing (United Kingdom).  Care homes with nursing, regulated by the Care Quality Commission are licensed daily rate or rental properties where the majority of individuals require 24-hour nursing and/or medical care. Generally, these properties are licensed for various national and local reimbursement programs.  Unlike the U.S., care homes with nursing in the U.K. generally do not provide post-acute care.

 

Care Homes (United Kingdom).  Care homes, regulated by the Care Quality Commission, are rental properties that provide essentially the same services as U.S. assisted living facilities.

 

Alzheimer’s/Dementia Care Facilities.  Certain assisted living facilities may include state-licensed settings that specialize in caring for those afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease and/or other types of dementia.

 

Long-Term/Post-Acute Care Facilities.  Our long-term/post-acute care facilities generally include skilled nursing/post-acute care facilities, inpatient rehabilitation facilities and long-term acute care facilities.  Skilled nursing/post-acute care facilities are licensed daily rate or rental properties where the majority of individuals require 24-hour nursing and/or medical care. Generally, these properties are licensed for Medicaid and/or Medicare reimbursement in the U.S. or provincial reimbursement in Canada.  All facilities offer some level of rehabilitation services.  Some facilities focus on higher acuity patients and offer rehabilitation units specializing in cardiac, orthopedic, dialysis, neurological or pulmonary rehabilitation.  Inpatient rehabilitation facilities provide inpatient services for patients with intensive rehabilitation needs.  Long-term acute care facilities provide inpatient services for patients with complex medical conditions that require more intensive care, monitoring or emergency support than is available in most skilled nursing/post-acute care facilities. 

 

     Our triple-net segment accounted for 28%, 31% and 31% of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  We lease 85 facilities to Genesis Healthcare, LLC, an operator of long-term/post-acute care facilities, pursuant to a long-term, triple-net master lease.  In addition to rent, the master lease requires Genesis to pay all operating costs, utilities, real estate taxes, insurance, building repairs, maintenance costs and all obligations under certain ground leases.  All obligations under the master lease have been guaranteed by FC-GEN Operations Investment, LLC, a subsidiary of Genesis Healthcare, LLC.  For the year ended December 31, 2016, our lease with Genesis accounted for approximately 27% of our triple-net segment revenues and 8% of our total revenues.

 

Seniors Housing Operating

 

Our seniors housing operating properties include several of the facility types described in “Item 1 – Business – Property Types – Triple-Net”, including independent living facilities and independent supportive living facilities, assisted living facilities, care homes and Alzheimer’s/dementia care facilities.  Properties are primarily held in consolidated joint venture entities with operating partners. We utilize the structure proposed in the REIT Investment Diversification and Empowerment Act of 2007, which is commonly referred to as a “RIDEA” structure (the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code authorizing the RIDEA structure were enacted as part of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008).  See Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

 

     Our seniors housing operating segment accounted for 59%, 56% and 57% of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  We have relationships with 16 operators to own and operate 420 facilities (plus 69 unconsolidated facilities).  In each instance, our partner provides management services to the properties pursuant to an incentive-based management contract.  We rely on our partners to effectively and efficiently manage these properties.  For the year ended December 31, 2016, our relationship with Sunrise Senior Living accounted for approximately 40% of our seniors housing operating segment revenues and 23% of our total revenues.

 

Outpatient Medical

 

Our outpatient medical properties include outpatient medical buildings and, prior to June 30, 2015, life science facilities.  We typically lease our outpatient medical buildings to multiple tenants and provide varying levels of property management.  Our life science investment represented an investment in an unconsolidated joint venture entity.  Our outpatient medical segment accounted for 13%, 13% and 12% of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  No single tenant exceeds 20% of segment revenues.

 

3


 

 

Outpatient Medical Buildings.  The outpatient medical building portfolio consists of health care related buildings that generally include physician offices, ambulatory surgery centers, diagnostic facilities, outpatient services and/or labs. Our portfolio has a strong affiliation with health systems. Approximately 95% of our outpatient medical building portfolio is affiliated with health systems (with buildings on hospital campuses or serving as satellite locations for the health system and its physicians).

 

Life Science Facilities.  The life science portfolio consisted of laboratory and office facilities specifically designed and constructed for use by biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.  These facilities were located adjacent to The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which is a well-established market known for pharmaceutical and biotechnology research. They are similar to commercial office buildings with advanced HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), electrical and mechanical systems. On June 30, 2015, we disposed of our life science investments.

 

Investments

 

Depending upon market conditions, we believe that new investments will be available in the future with spreads over our cost of capital that will generate appropriate returns to our stockholders.  We invest in seniors housing and health care real estate primarily through acquisitions, developments and joint venture partnerships. For additional information regarding acquisition and development activity, please see Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements.  We diversify our investment portfolio by property type, relationship and geographic location. In determining whether to invest in a property, we focus on the following: (1) the experience of the obligor’s/partner’s management team; (2) the historical and projected financial and operational performance of the property; (3) the credit of the obligor/partner; (4) the security for any lease or loan; (5) the real estate attributes of the building and its location; (6) the capital committed to the property by the obligor/partner; and (7) the operating fundamentals of the applicable industry. We conduct market research and analysis for all potential investments. In addition, we review the value of all properties, the interest rates and covenant requirements of any facility-level debt to be assumed at the time of the acquisition and the anticipated sources of repayment of any existing debt that is not to be assumed at the time of the acquisition.

 

We monitor our investments through a variety of methods determined by the type of property. Our proactive and comprehensive asset management process for seniors housing properties generally includes review of monthly financial statements and other operating data for each property, review of obligor/partner creditworthiness, property inspections, and review of covenant compliance relating to licensure, real estate taxes, letters of credit and other collateral. Our internal property management division actively manages and monitors the outpatient medical portfolio with a comprehensive process including review of, among other things, tenant relations, lease expirations, the mix of health service providers, hospital/health system relationships, property performance, capital improvement needs, and market conditions. In monitoring our portfolio, our personnel use a proprietary database to collect and analyze property-specific data. Additionally, we conduct extensive research to ascertain industry trends.

 

We evaluate the operating environment in each property’s market to determine the likely trend in operating performance of the facility.  When we identify unacceptable trends, we seek to mitigate, eliminate or transfer the risk. Through these efforts, we are generally able to intervene at an early stage to address any negative trends, and in so doing, support both the collectability of revenue and the value of our investment.

 

Investment Types

 

Real Property.  Our properties are primarily comprised of land, buildings, improvements and related rights.  Our triple-net properties are generally leased to operators under long-term operating leases.  The leases generally have a fixed contractual term of 12 to 15 years and contain one or more five to 15-year renewal options. Certain of our leases also contain purchase options, a portion of which could result in the disposition of properties for less than full market value.  Most of our rents are received under triple-net leases requiring the operator to pay rent and all additional charges incurred in the operation of the leased property. The tenants are required to repair, rebuild and maintain the leased properties. Substantially all of these operating leases are designed with escalating rent structures. Leases with fixed annual rental escalators are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the initial lease period, subject to a collectability assessment. Rental income related to leases with contingent rental escalators is generally recorded based on the contractual cash rental payments due for the period.

 

At December 31, 2016, approximately 92% of our triple-net properties were subject to master leases. A master lease is a lease of multiple properties to one tenant entity under a single lease agreement. From time to time, we may acquire additional properties that are then leased to the tenant under the master lease. The tenant is required to make one monthly payment that represents rent on all the properties that are subject to the master lease. Typically, the master lease tenant can exercise its right to purchase the properties or to renew the master lease only with respect to all leased properties at the same time. This bundling feature benefits us because the tenant cannot limit the purchase or renewal to the better performing properties and terminate the leasing arrangement with respect to the poorer performing properties. This spreads our risk among the entire group of properties within the master lease. The bundling feature should provide a similar advantage to us if the master lease tenant is in bankruptcy. Subject to certain restrictions, a debtor in bankruptcy has the right to assume or reject each of its leases. It is our intent that a tenant in bankruptcy would be required to assume or reject the master lease as a whole, rather than deciding on a property by property basis.

 

4


 

 

Our outpatient medical portfolio is primarily self-managed and consists principally of multi-tenant properties leased to health care providers. Our leases typically include increasers and some form of operating expense reimbursement by the tenant. As of December 31, 2016, 80% of our portfolio included leases with full pass through, 17% with a partial expense reimbursement (modified gross) and 3% with no expense reimbursement (gross). Our outpatient medical leases are non-cancellable operating leases that have a weighted-average remaining term of seven years at December 31, 2016 and are often credit enhanced by security deposits, guaranties and/or letters of credit.   

 

Construction.  We occasionally provide for the construction of properties for tenants as part of long-term operating leases. We capitalize certain interest costs associated with funds used for the construction of properties owned by us. The amount capitalized is based upon the amount advanced during the construction period using the rate of interest that approximates our Company-wide cost of financing. Our interest expense is reduced by the amount capitalized. We also typically charge a transaction fee at the commencement of construction which we defer and amortize to income over the term of the resulting lease. The construction period commences upon funding and terminates upon the earlier of the completion of the applicable property or the end of a specified period. During the construction period, we advance funds to the tenants in accordance with agreed upon terms and conditions which require, among other things, periodic site visits by a Company representative. During the construction period, we generally require an additional credit enhancement in the form of payment and performance bonds and/or completion guaranties. At December 31, 2016, we had outstanding construction investments of $506,091,000 and were committed to provide additional funds of approximately $493,972,000 to complete construction for investment properties.

 

Real Estate Loans.  Our real estate loans are typically structured to provide us with interest income, principal amortization and transaction fees and are generally secured by first/second mortgage liens, leasehold mortgages, corporate guaranties and/or personal guaranties. At December 31, 2016, we had outstanding real estate loans of $622,627,508.  The interest yield averaged approximately 9.5% per annum on our outstanding real estate loan balances. Our yield on real estate loans depends upon a number of factors, including the stated interest rate, average principal amount outstanding during the term of the loan and any interest rate adjustments. The real estate loans outstanding at December 31, 2016 are generally subject to one to 15-year terms with principal amortization schedules and/or balloon payments of the outstanding principal balances at the end of the term. Typically, real estate loans are cross-defaulted and cross-collateralized with other real estate loans, operating leases or agreements between us and the obligor and its affiliates.

 

     Investments in Unconsolidated Entities. Investments in entities that we do not consolidate but have the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies are reported under the equity method of accounting.  Our investments in unconsolidated entities generally represent interests ranging from 10% to 50% in real estate assets.  Under the equity method of accounting, our share of the investee’s earnings or losses is included in our consolidated results of operations. To the extent that our cost basis is different from the basis reflected at the entity level, the basis difference is generally amortized over the lives of the related assets and liabilities, and such amortization is included in our share of equity in earnings of the entity.  The initial carrying value of investments in unconsolidated entities is based on the amount paid to purchase the entity interest or the estimated fair value of the assets prior to the sale of interests in the entity. We evaluate our equity method investments for impairment based upon a comparison of the estimated fair value of the equity method investment to its carrying value. When we determine a decline in the estimated fair value of such an investment below its carrying value is other-than-temporary, an impairment is recorded.  See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

 

Principles of Consolidation

     The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly-owned subsidiaries and joint venture entities that we control, through voting rights or other means. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

     At inception of joint venture transactions, we identify entities for which control is achieved through means other than voting rights (“variable interest entities” or “VIEs”) and determine which business enterprise is the primary beneficiary of its operations. A VIE is broadly defined as an entity where either (i) the equity investors as a group, if any, do not have a controlling financial interest, or (ii) the equity investment at risk is insufficient to finance that entity’s activities without additional subordinated financial support. We consolidate investments in VIEs when we are determined to be the primary beneficiary.  Accounting Standards Codification Topic 810, Consolidations, requires enterprises to perform a qualitative approach to determining whether or not a VIE will need to be consolidated on a continuous basis. This evaluation is based on an enterprise’s ability to direct and influence the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact that entity’s economic performance.

     For investments in joint ventures, GAAP may preclude consolidation by the sole general partner in certain circumstances based on the type of rights held by the limited partner(s).  We assess the limited partners’ rights and their impact on our consolidation conclusions, and we reassess if there is a change to the terms or in the exercisability of the rights of the limited partners, the sole general partner increases or decreases its ownership of limited partnership interests, or there is an increase or decrease in the number of outstanding limited partnership interests. We similarly evaluate the rights of managing members of limited liability companies.

  

 

5


 

 

Borrowing Policies

 

We utilize a combination of debt and equity to fund investments. Our debt and equity levels are determined by management to maintain a conservative balance sheet and credit profile. Generally, we intend to issue unsecured, fixed-rate public debt with long-term maturities to approximate the maturities on our triple-net leases and investment strategy. For short-term purposes, we may borrow on our primary unsecured credit facility. We replace these borrowings with long-term capital such as senior unsecured notes or common stock. When terms are deemed favorable, we may invest in properties subject to existing mortgage indebtedness. In addition, we may obtain secured financing for unleveraged properties in which we have invested or may refinance properties acquired on a leveraged basis. In certain agreements with our lenders, we are subject to restrictions with respect to secured and unsecured indebtedness.

 

Competition

 

We compete with other real estate investment trusts, real estate partnerships, private equity and hedge fund investors, banks, insurance companies, finance/investment companies, government-sponsored agencies, taxable and tax-exempt bond funds, health care operators, developers and other investors in the acquisition, development, leasing and financing of health care and seniors housing properties. We compete for investments based on a number of factors including relationships, certainty of execution, investment structures and underwriting criteria. Our ability to successfully compete is impacted by economic and demographic trends, availability of acceptable investment opportunities, our ability to negotiate beneficial investment terms, availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs and applicable laws and regulations.

 

The operators/tenants of our properties compete with properties that provide comparable services in the local markets. Operators/tenants compete for patients and residents based on a number of factors including quality of care, reputation, physical appearance of properties, location, services offered, family preferences, physicians, staff and price. We also face competition from other health care facilities for tenants, such as physicians and other health care providers that provide comparable facilities and services.

 

For additional information on the risks associated with our business, please see “Item 1A — Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Employees  As of January 31, 2017, we had 466 employees.

 

Credit Concentrations  Please see Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements.

 

Geographic Concentrations  Please see “Item 2 – Properties” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements.

  

 

Health Care Industry

 

     The demand for health care services, and consequently health care properties, is projected to reach unprecedented levels in the near future. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) projects that national health expenditures will rise to approximately $3.5 trillion in 2017 or 18.2% of gross domestic product. The average annual growth in national health expenditures for 2015 through 2025 is expected to be 5.8%. While demographics are the primary driver of demand, economic conditions and availability of services contribute to health care service utilization rates. We believe the health care property market may be less susceptible to fluctuations and economic downturns relative to other property sectors. Investor interest in the market remains strong, especially in specific sectors such as private-pay senior living and outpatient medical buildings. The total U.S. population for 2015 through 2025 is projected to increase by 9.3%. The elderly population aged 65 and over is projected to increase by 36% through 2025. The elderly are an important component of health care utilization, especially independent living services, assisted living services, long-term/post-acute care services, inpatient and outpatient hospital services and physician ambulatory care. Most health care services are provided within a health care facility such as a hospital, a physician’s office or a seniors housing community. Therefore, we believe there will be continued demand for companies, such as ours, with expertise in health care real estate.

 

     Health care real estate investment opportunities tend to increase as demand for health care services increases.  We recognize the need for health care real estate as it correlates to health care service demand.  Health care providers require real estate to house their businesses and expand their services.  We believe that investment opportunities in health care real estate will continue to be present due to:

·         The specialized nature of the industry, which enhances the credibility and experience of the Company;

·         The projected population growth combined with stable or increasing health care utilization rates, which ensures demand; and

·         The on-going merger and acquisition activity.

 

Certain Government Regulations

6


 

 

 

United States

 

Health Law Matters — Generally

 

     Typically, operators of seniors housing facilities do not receive significant funding from government programs and are largely subject to state laws, as opposed to federal laws.  Operators of long-term/post-acute care facilities and hospitals do receive significant funding from government programs, and these facilities are subject to the federal and state laws that regulate the type and quality of the medical and/or nursing care provided, ancillary services (e.g., respiratory, occupational, physical and infusion therapies), qualifications of the administrative personnel and nursing staff, the adequacy of the physical plant and equipment, reimbursement and rate setting and operating policies.  In addition, as described below, operators of these facilities are subject to extensive laws and regulations pertaining to health care fraud and abuse, including, but not limited to, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (“AKS”), the federal Stark Law (“Stark Law”), and the federal False Claims Act (“FCA”), as well as comparable state laws.  Hospitals, physician group practice clinics, and other health care providers that operate in our portfolio are subject to extensive federal, state, and local licensure, registration, certification, and inspection laws, regulations, and industry standards.  Our tenants’ failure to comply with any of these, and other, laws could result in, among other things, loss of accreditation; denial of reimbursement; imposition of fines; suspension, decertification, or exclusion from federal and state health care programs; loss of license; or closure of the facility.  See Risk Factors “The requirements of, or changes to, governmental reimbursement programs, such as Medicare or Medicaid, could have a material adverse effect on our obligors’ liquidity, financial condition and results of operations, which could adversely affect our obligors’ ability to meet their obligations to us” and “Our operators’ or tenants’ failure to comply with federal, state, local, and industry-regulated licensure, certification and inspection laws, regulations, and standards could adversely affect such operators’ or tenants’ operations, which could adversely affect our operators’ and tenants’ ability to meet their obligations to us” below.  

 

Licensing and Certification

     

     The primary regulations that affect long-term and post-acute care facilities are state licensing and registration laws.  For example, certain health care facilities are subject to a variety of licensure and certificate of need (“CON”) laws and regulations.  Where applicable, CON laws generally require, among other requirements, that a facility demonstrate the need for (1) constructing a new facility, (2) adding beds or expanding an existing facility, (3) investing in major capital equipment or adding new services, (4) changing the ownership or control of an existing licensed facility, or (5) terminating services that have been previously approved through the CON process.  Certain state CON laws and regulations may restrict the ability of operators to add new properties or expand an existing facility’s size or services. In addition, CON laws may constrain the ability of an operator to transfer responsibility for operating a particular facility to a new operator.

 

     With respect to licensure, generally our long-term/post-acute care facilities and acute care facilities are required to be licensed and certified for participation in Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal and state health care programs.  The failure of our operators to maintain or renew any required license or regulatory approval as well as the failure of our operators to correct serious deficiencies identified in a compliance survey could require those operators to discontinue operations at a property.  In addition, if a property is found to be out of compliance with Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal or state health care program conditions of participation, the property operator may be excluded from participating in those government health care programs. 

 

Reimbursement

 

     The reimbursement methodologies applied to health care facilities continue to evolve.  Federal and state authorities have considered and may seek to implement new or modified reimbursement methodologies, including value-based reimbursement methodologies that may negatively impact health care property operations.  The impact of any such changes, if implemented, may result in a material adverse effect on our portfolio.  No assurance can be given that current revenue sources or levels will be maintained.  Accordingly, there can be no assurance that payments under a government health care program are currently, or will be in the future, sufficient to fully reimburse the property operators for their operating and capital expenses.

·         Seniors Housing Facilities (excluding long-term/post-acute care facilities).  Approximately 55% of our overall revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016 were attributable to U.S. seniors housing facilities.  The majority of the revenues received by the operators of these facilities are from private pay sources. The remaining revenue source is primarily Medicaid under certain waiver programs.  As of September 30, 2016, 15 of our 44 seniors housing operators received Medicaid reimbursement pursuant to Medicaid waiver programs. For the twelve months ended September 30, 2016, approximately 1.7% of the revenues at our seniors housing facilities were from Medicaid reimbursement.  There can be no guarantee that a state Medicaid program operating pursuant to a waiver will be able to maintain its waiver status.  Rates paid by self-pay residents are set by the facilities and are determined by local market conditions and operating costs.  Generally, facilities receive a higher payment per day for a private pay resident than for a Medicaid beneficiary who requires a comparable level of care.  The level of Medicaid reimbursement varies from state to state.  Thus, the revenues generated by operators of our assisted living facilities may be adversely affected by payor mix, acuity level, changes in Medicaid eligibility, and

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reimbursement levels.  In addition, a state could lose its Medicaid waiver and no longer be permitted to utilize Medicaid dollars to reimburse for assisted living services.

·         Long-Term/Post-Acute Care Facilities.  Approximately 13% of our overall revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016 were attributable to long-term/post-acute care facilities.  The majority of the revenues received by the operators of these facilities are from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, with the balance representing reimbursement payments from private payors.  Consequently, changes in federal or state reimbursement policies may adversely affect an operator’s ability to cover its expenses, including our rent or debt service.  Long-term/post-acute care facilities are subject to periodic pre- and post-payment reviews, and other audits by federal and state authorities.  A review or audit of a property operator’s claims could result in recoupments, denials, or delay of payments in the future.  Due to the significant judgments and estimates inherent in payor settlement accounting, no assurance can be given as to the adequacy of any reserves maintained by our property operators to cover potential adjustments to reimbursements, or to cover settlements made to payors. Recent attention on billing practices, payments, and quality of care, or ongoing government pressure to reduce spending by government health care programs, could result in lower payments to long-term/post-acute care facilities and, as a result, may impair an operator’s ability to meet its financial obligations to us.

o    Medicare Reimbursement.  For the twelve months ended September 30, 2016, approximately 39% of the revenues at our long-term/post-acute care facilities were paid by Medicare. Generally, long-term/post-acute care facilities are reimbursed under the Medicare Skilled Nursing Facility Prospective Payment System (“SNF PPS”), the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System (“IRF PPS”), or the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System (“LTCH PPS”), which generally provide reimbursement based upon a predetermined fixed amount per episode of care and are updated by CMS, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) annually.  CMS made some positive payment updates for fiscal year (“FY”) 2017 under the SNF PPS, the IRF PPS and the LTCH PPS, specifically:

§   On August 5, 2016, CMS published a final rule regarding FY 2017 Medicare payment policies and rates for skilled nursing facilities (“SNFs”).  Under the final SNF rule, CMS projects that aggregate payments to SNFs will increase in FY 2017 by $920 million, or 2.4%, from payments in FY 2016. 

§   On August 5, 2016, CMS published a final rule regarding FY 2017 Medicare payment policies and rates for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (“IRFs”).  Under the rule, CMS estimates that aggregate payments to IRFs will increase in FY 2017 by $145 million, or 1.9%, relative to payments in FY 2016.

§   On August 22, 2016, CMS published a final rule regarding FY 2017 Medicare payment policies and rates for long term care hospitals (“LTCHs”).  As a result of the continuation of the phase-in of site neutral payment rates for specified cases in LTCHs, CMS projects FY 2017 Medicare payments to LTCHs will decrease by 7.1%, or approximately $363 million.  Payment rates will increase by 0.7% for cases that qualify for the higher standard LTCH PPS rate.  In response to a federal district court’s review of the “Two-Midnight” payment policy, CMS finalized its proposal to remove the 0.2% Medicare Part A hospital payment cut and also its effects for FYs 2014, 2015, and 2016 though an approximate 0.8% increase to FY 2017 payment rates. 

There is a risk under these payment systems that costs will exceed the fixed payments, or that payments may be set below the costs to provide certain items and services.  In addition, the HHS Office of Inspector General has released recommendations to address SNF billing practices and Medicare payment rates.  If followed, these recommendations regarding SNF payment reform may impact our tenants and operators.

o    Medicaid Reimbursement.  For the twelve months ended September 30, 2016, approximately 33% of the revenues of long-term/post-acute care facilities were paid by Medicaid.  Many states reimburse SNFs, for example, using fixed daily rates, which are applied prospectively based on patient acuity and the historical costs incurred in providing patient care.  In most states, Medicaid does not fully reimburse the cost of providing services.  Certain states are attempting to slow the rate of Medicaid growth by freezing rates or restricting eligibility and benefits.  In addition, Medicaid reimbursement rates may decline if revenues in a particular state are not sufficient to fund budgeted expenditures. 

·         Medicare Reimbursement for Physicians, Hospital Outpatient Departments, and Ambulatory Surgical Centers.  Changes in reimbursement to physicians, Hospital Outpatient Departments (“HOPDs”), and Ambulatory Surgical Centers (“ASCs”) may further affect our tenants and operators.  Generally, Medicare reimburses physicians under the Physician Fee Schedule, while HOPDs and ASCs are reimbursed under prospective payment systems.  The Physician Fee Schedule and the HOPD and ASC prospective payment systems are updated annually by CMS.  These annual Medicare payment regulations have resulted in lower net pay increases than providers of those services have often expected.  In addition, Congress recently passed the Medicare and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (“MACRA”), which includes payment reductions for providers who do not meet government quality standards.  The implementation of pay-for-quality models like those required under MACRA is expected to produce funding disparities that could adversely impact some provider tenants in medical buildings and other health care properties.  Changes in Medicare Advantage plan payments may also indirectly affect our operators and tenants that contract with Medicare Advantage plans.

·         Health Reform Laws.  On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “Health Reform Laws”), which dramatically

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altered how health care is delivered and reimbursed in the United States and contained various provisions, including Medicaid expansion and the establishment of Health Insurance Exchanges providing subsidized health insurance, that may directly impact us or the operators and tenants of our properties.  We expect that the new Presidential Administration and U.S. Congress will seek to modify, repeal, or otherwise invalidate all, or certain provisions of, the Health Reform Laws. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the Health Reform Laws.  The House and Senate have recently passed a budget resolution that authorizes congressional committees to draft legislation to repeal all or portions of the Health Reform Laws and permits such legislation to pass with a majority vote in the Senate.  President Trump has also recently issued an executive order in which he stated that it is his Administration’s policy to seek the prompt repeal of the Health Reform Laws and directed executive departments and federal agencies to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of the provisions of the Health Reform Laws to the maximum extent permitted by law.  There is still uncertainty with respect to the impact President Trump’s Administration and the U.S. Congress may have, if any, and any changes will likely take time to unfold, and could have an impact on coverage and reimbursement for health care items and services covered by plans that were authorized by the Health Reform Laws.  We cannot predict whether the existing Health Reform Laws, or future health care reform legislation or regulatory changes, will have a material impact on our operators’ or tenants’ property or business. 

 

     Fraud & Abuse Enforcement

 

     Long-term/post-acute care facilities (and seniors housing facilities that receive Medicaid payments) are subject to federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and applicable guidance that govern the operations and financial and other arrangements that may be entered into by health care providers.  Certain of these laws, such as the AKS and Stark Law, prohibit direct or indirect payments of any kind for the purpose of inducing or encouraging the referral of patients for medical products or services reimbursable by government health care programs.  Other laws require providers to furnish only medically necessary services and submit to the government valid and accurate statements for each service.  Specifically, our operators and tenants that receive payments from federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, are subject to substantial financial penalties under the Civil Monetary Penalties Act and the FCA and, in particular, actions under the FCA’s “whistleblower” provisions.  Private enforcement of health care fraud has increased due in large part to amendments to the FCA that encourage private individuals to sue on behalf of the government. In addition, states may also have separate false claims acts, which, among other things, generally prohibit health care providers from filing false claims or making false statements to receive payments.  Still other laws require providers to comply with a variety of safety, health and other requirements relating to the condition of the licensed property and the quality of care provided.  Sanctions for violations of these laws, regulations, and other applicable guidance may include, but are not limited to, criminal and/or civil penalties and fines, loss of licensure, immediate termination of government payments, exclusion from any government health care program, damage assessments, and imprisonment.  In certain circumstances, violation of these rules (such as those prohibiting abusive and fraudulent behavior) with respect to one property may subject other facilities under common control or ownership to sanctions, including exclusion from participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as other government health care programs.  In the ordinary course of its business, a property operator is regularly subjected to inquiries, investigations, and audits by the federal and state agencies that oversee these laws and regulations.

 

     Prosecutions, investigations, or whistleblower actions could have a material adverse effect on a property operator’s liquidity, financial condition, and operations, which could adversely affect the ability of the operator to meet its financial obligations to us.  In addition, government investigations and enforcement actions brought against the health care industry have increased dramatically over the past several years and are expected to continue.  Although the responsibility for enforcing these laws and regulations lies with a variety of federal, state and local governmental agencies, some may be enforced by private litigants through federal and state false claims acts and other laws, including some state privacy laws, that allow for private individuals to bring actions.  The costs for an operator of a health care property associated with both defending such enforcement actions and the undertakings in settling these actions can be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on the ability of an operator to meet its obligations to us.

 

Federal and State Data Privacy and Security Laws

 

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and numerous other state and federal laws govern the collection, security, dissemination, use, access to and confidentiality of individually identifiable health information.  Violations of these laws may result in substantial civil and/or criminal fines and penalties.

 

United Kingdom

 

     In England, care home services are principally regulated by the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (as amended) and other regulations.  This legislation subjects service providers to a number of legally binding "Fundamental Standards" and requires, amongst other things, that all persons carrying out "Regulated Activities" in England, and the managers of such persons, be registered. Providers of care home services are also subject (as data controllers) to laws governing their use of personal data (including in relation

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to their employees, clients and recipients of their services).  These laws currently take the form of the UK's Data Protection Act 1998, enforced by the UK's Information Commissioner's Office, but this will be replaced in mid-2018 by the EU's new General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”).  The GDPR will impose a significant number of new obligations with the potential for fines of up to 4% of annual worldwide turnover or €20 million, whichever is greater.  Entities incorporated in or carrying on a business in the UK as well as individuals residing in the U.K. are also subject to the UK Bribery Act 2010.  The UK recently introduced a new national minimum wage with a maximum fine for non-payment of £20,000 per worker and employers who fail to pay will be banned from being a company director for up to 15 years.  The UK recently voted to exit from the EU (“Brexit”).  Negotiations on the exit agreement are underway but at present it is not possible to predict whether Brexit will have a material impact on our operators' or tenants' property or business.

 

Canada

 

     Retirement homes and long-term care homes are subject to regulation, and long-term care homes receive funding, under provincial law.  There is no federal regulation in this area.  Set out below are summaries of the principal regulatory requirements in the provinces where we have a material number of facilities.

 

     Licensing and Regulation

 

     Alberta

 

     In Alberta, there are three relevant designations for seniors’ living arrangements, ordered below from the most independent to the highest level of care.

·         Retirement Homes (also called independent living) are designed for older adults able to live on their own, and may offer various lifestyle amenities.  These residences may be rented, privately owned, or life-leased, and may be operated for profit or non-profit.  Support services are not usually offered, but can be arranged by residents.  Retirement homes do not generally receive government funding; residents pay for tenancy and services received.  Rental subsidies may be available to qualified seniors. Independent living residences are subject to provincial tenancy and housing laws.

·         Supportive Living (also called assisted living) provides home-like accommodation for residents who wish or need to access care, assistance, and services. Operators provide at least one meal a day or housekeeping services.  There are four levels of supportive living, addressing care needs from basic to advanced.  In addition, there are two specialized designations of supportive care to address the needs of residents who require the highest level of care including for those who have cognitive impairments. Supportive living can include seniors lodges, group homes, and mental health and designated supportive living accommodations, which can be operated by private for-profit or not-for-profit, or public operators.  Supportive living services are licensed and regulated under Provincial laws, and governed by the Ministry of Health.  Operators receiving public funds for health and personal care services must also comply with additional provincial legislation, and are subject to legislated safeguards aimed at investigation of suspected abuse. The maximum accommodation fee in publicly-funded designated supportive living is regulated by Alberta Health. In other supportive living settings, the operator sets the cost of accommodation. Health services are publicly-funded and provided through Alberta Health Services.  Private sector operators are eligible to apply for government funding under a government capital grant program that provides funding to develop long-term care and affordable supportive living spaces.

·         Nursing Homes (also called long-term care) are for residents who have complex, unpredictable medical needs and who require 24-hour on-site registered nurse assessment or treatment. Nursing homes are regulated by Provincial laws, and governed by the Ministry of Health.  Operators are not licensed, but enter into agreements with the Ministry for the operation of nursing homes and must comply with certain accommodation standards.  Homes can be operated by private for-profit or not-for-profit, or public operators. Operators that receive public funds for health and personal care services must also comply with certain health service standards and legislation aimed at protecting residents.  Alberta Health regulates the maximum accommodation fee in publicly-funded nursing homes.  Health services in long-term care are publicly-funded, provided through Alberta Health Services.  Private sector operators are eligible to apply for government funding, and the Minister may make grants to an operator in respect of its operating or capital costs.

 

Ontario

 

     Long-term care homes (also called nursing homes), receive government funding, are licensed under provincial law aimed at resident protection, and are governed by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.  Retirement homes are regulated and licensed under a provincial law aimed at protecting residents. Retirement homes do not receive government funding; residents enter into tenancy agreements under provincial tenancy law, and pay for tenancy and services received.  Residents may access publicly-funded external care services at the home from external suppliers.  Retirement home licenses are granted by the Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority (“RHRA”), and are non-transferable. The RHRA administers the law governing retirement homes, to ensure that licensees are meeting certain standards, generally with respect to care and safety.  The law requires any person to report to the RHRA when there are reasonable grounds to suspect abuse of a resident by anyone, or neglect of a resident by staff.  The RHRA conducts a

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mandatory inspection and issues a report that is posted on the RHRA’s public website, and also must be posted in the subject home if it is the most recent report.  The Registrar of the RHRA can receive complaints about a retirement home contravening a provision of the law, and if such a complaint is received, it must be reviewed promptly.  The Registrar has broad powers relating to complaint investigation and action.  The RHRA Registrar has the power to inspect a retirement home at any time without warning or issue a warrant to ensure compliance.  Compliance inspections occur at least every three years. The Registrar has the power to make a variety of orders including the imposition of a fine or an order revoking the operator’s license.  The applicable law also enumerates offenses, such as operating without a license, and provides for penalties for offenses. All of the homes in which we have an interest in Ontario are licensed as retirement homes. One of the homes also has some licensed long-term care beds.

 

     British Columbia

 

     Provincial laws regulate and license “community care facilities” (long-term care homes) in substantially the same manner as retirement homes are regulated under Ontario laws. Community care facilities are defined as premises used for the purpose of supervising vulnerable persons who require three or more prescribed services (from a list that includes regular assistance with activities of daily living; distribution of medication; management of cash resources; monitoring of food intake; structured behavior management and intervention; and psychosocial or physical rehabilitative therapy).

 

     Provincial law also recognizes and regulates “assisted living residences,” for seniors who can live independently, but require assistance with certain activities. Services available can include meals, housekeeping, monitoring and emergency support, social/recreational opportunities, and transportation.  Assisted living residences do not require a license, but must be registered with the registrar of assisted living residences and must be operated in a manner that does not jeopardize the health or safety of residents. If the registrar believes the standard is not being met, the registrar may inspect the residence and may suspend or cancel a registration. 

 

    Independent living residences offer housing and hospitality services for retired adults who are functionally independent and able to direct their own care.   Most of the residences in which we have an interest in B.C. are assisted living residences, with one being an independent living residence.  

 

Québec

 

     Provincial laws in Québec regulate retirement homes (private seniors’ residences) as well as long-term care homes (residential and long-term care centers). All homes in which we have an interest in Québec are private seniors’ residences which are required to obtain a certificate of compliance based on prescribed operating standards. 

 

     A certificate of compliance is issued for a period of four years and is renewable. The regional health and social agency may revoke or refuse to issue or renew a certificate of compliance if, among other things, the operator fails to comply with the applicable law. The agency may also order corrective measures, further to an inspection, complaint or investigation. The agency is authorized to inspect a residence, at any reasonable time of day, in order to ascertain whether it complies with the law.

 

     Private seniors’ residences may belong to either or both of the following categories: (i) those offering services to independent elderly persons and (ii) those offering services to semi-independent elderly persons. The operator must, for each category, comply with the applicable criteria and standards, with some exceptions for residences with fewer than six or ten rooms or apartments. There are requirements with respect to residents’ health and safety, meal services and recreation, content of residents’ files, disclosure of information to residents, and staffing, among other things.   

 

  Other Related Laws

 

     Privacy

 

     The services provided in our facilities are subject to privacy legislation in Canada, including, in certain provinces, privacy laws specifically related to personal health information.  Although the obligations of custodians of personal information in the various provinces differ, they all include the obligation to protect the information.  The organizations with which we have management agreements may be the custodian of personal information collected in connection with the operation of our facilities.

 

     Privacy laws in Canada are consent-based and require the implementation of a privacy program involving policies, procedures and the designation of an individual or team with primary responsibility for privacy law compliance.  Mandatory breach notification to affected individuals is a requirement under some laws.  Mandatory breach notification to the applicable regulator is a requirement in some provinces.  Some laws require notification where personal information is processed or stored outside of Canada.  One provincial law (in Quebec) provides for fines where an organization fails to perform due diligence before outsourcing activities involving personal information to a service provider outside of the province.

 

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     The powers of privacy regulators and penalties for violations of privacy law vary according to the applicable law or are left to the courts.  To date, monetary penalties granted have been on the low side, although that is changing with civil actions for breach of privacy and may change further as a result of class action activity.  Regulators have the authority to make public the identity of a custodian that has been found to have committed a breach, so there is a reputational risk associated with privacy law violations even where no monetary damages are incurred. The notification of residents (mandatory under some privacy laws) and other activities required to manage a privacy breach can give rise to significant costs.

 

     Other Legislation

 

     Retirement homes may be subject to residential tenancy laws, such that there can be restrictions on rent increases and termination of tenancies, for instance.  Other provincial and/or municipal laws applicable to fire safety, food services, zoning, occupational health and safety, public health, and the provision of community health care and funded long-term/post-acute care may also apply to retirement homes. 

  

  

Taxation

 

Federal Income Tax Considerations

 

The following summary of the taxation of the Company and the material federal tax consequences to the holders of our debt and equity securities is for general information only and is not tax advice. This summary does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to certain types of holders of stock or securities (including, but not limited to, insurance companies, tax-exempt entities, financial institutions or broker-dealers, persons holding shares of common stock as part of a hedging, integrated conversion, or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities, investors in pass-through entities and foreign corporations and persons who are not citizens or residents of the United States).

 

This summary does not discuss all of the aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to you in light of your particular investment or other circumstances. In addition, this summary does not discuss any state or local income taxation or foreign income taxation or other tax consequences. This summary is based on current U.S. federal income tax law. Subsequent developments in U.S. federal income tax law, including changes in law or differing interpretations, which may be applied retroactively, could have a material effect on the U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of our securities as set forth in this summary. Before you purchase our securities, you should consult your own tax advisor regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local, foreign and other tax consequences of acquiring, owning and selling our securities.

 

General

 

We elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) commencing with our first taxable year. We intend to continue to operate in such a manner as to qualify as a REIT, but there is no guarantee that we will qualify or remain qualified as a REIT for subsequent years. Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet a variety of qualification tests imposed under federal income tax law with respect to income, assets, distribution level and diversity of share ownership as discussed below under “— Qualification as a REIT.” There can be no assurance that we will be owned and organized and will operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified.

 

In any year in which we qualify as a REIT, in general, we will not be subject to federal income tax on that portion of our REIT taxable income or capital gain that is distributed to stockholders. We may, however, be subject to tax at normal corporate rates on any taxable income or capital gain not distributed. If we elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gains, stockholders are required to include their proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gains in income, but they will receive a refundable credit for their share of any taxes paid by us on such gain.

 

Despite the REIT election, we may be subject to federal income and excise tax as follows:

•     To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates;

•     We may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” (the “AMT”) on certain tax preference items to the extent that the AMT exceeds our regular tax;

•     If we have net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, such income will be taxed at the highest corporate rate;

•     Any net income from prohibited transactions (which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than dispositions of foreclosure property and dispositions of property due to an involuntary conversion) will be subject to a 100% tax;

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•     If we fail to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income tests (as discussed below), but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount equal to (1) the gross income attributable to the greater of (i) 75% of our gross income over the amount of qualifying gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test (discussed below) or (ii) 95% of our gross income over the amount of qualifying gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test (discussed below) multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability;

•     If we fail to distribute during each year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year (other than capital gain that we elect to retain and pay tax on) and (3) any undistributed taxable income from preceding periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over amounts actually distributed;

•     We will be subject to a 100% tax on the amount of any rents from real property, deductions or excess interest paid to us by any of our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” that would be reduced through reallocation under certain federal income tax principles in order to more clearly reflect income of the taxable REIT subsidiary. See “— Qualification as a REIT — Investments in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries;” and

•     We may be subject to the corporate “alternative minimum tax” on any items of tax preference, including any deductions of net operating losses.

 

If we acquire any assets from a corporation, which is or has been a “C” corporation, in a carryover basis transaction, we could be liable for specified liabilities that are inherited from the “C” corporation. A “C” corporation is generally defined as a corporation that is required to pay full corporate level federal income tax. If we recognize gain on the disposition of the assets during the five-year period beginning on the date on which the assets were acquired by us, then, to the extent of the assets’ “built-in gain” (i.e., the excess of the fair market value of the asset over the adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the beginning of the five-year period), we will be subject to tax on the gain at the highest regular corporate rate applicable. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of built-in gain assume that the built-in gain assets, at the time the built-in gain assets were subject to a conversion transaction (either where a “C” corporation elected REIT status or a REIT acquired the assets from a “C” corporation), were not treated as sold to an unrelated party and gain recognized.  For those properties that are subject to the built-in-gains tax, if triggered by a sale within the five-year period beginning on the date on which the properties were acquired by us, then the potential amount of built-in-gains tax will be an additional factor when considering a possible sale of the properties.  See Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding the built-in gains tax.

 

Qualification as a REIT

 

A REIT is defined as a corporation, trust or association:

(1)     which is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

(2)     the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

(3)     which would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the federal income tax law relating to REITs;

(4)     which is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company;

(5)     the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons in each taxable year of the REIT except for its first taxable year;

(6)     not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned during the last half of each taxable year, excluding its first taxable year, directly or indirectly, by or for five or fewer individuals (which includes certain entities) (the “Five or Fewer Requirement”); and

(7)     which meets certain income and asset tests described below.

 

Conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. For purposes of conditions (5) and (6), pension funds and certain other tax-exempt entities are treated as individuals, subject to a “look-through” exception in the case of condition (6).

 

Based on publicly available information, we believe we have satisfied the share ownership requirements set forth in (5) and (6) above. In addition, Article VI of our by-laws provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of shares. These restrictions are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above.

 

We have complied with, and will continue to comply with, regulatory rules to send annual letters to certain of our stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock. If, despite sending the annual letters, we do not know, or after exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet the Five or Fewer Requirement, we will be treated as having met the Five or Fewer Requirement. If we fail to comply with these regulatory rules, we will be subject to a monetary penalty. If our failure to comply was due to intentional disregard of the requirement, the penalty would be increased. However, if our failure to comply were due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, no penalty would be imposed.

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We may own a number of properties through wholly owned subsidiaries. A corporation will qualify as a “qualified REIT subsidiary” if 100% of its stock is owned by a REIT, and the REIT does not elect to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” will not be treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deductions and credits of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” will be treated as assets, liabilities and items (as the case may be) of the REIT. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” is not subject to federal income tax, and our ownership of the voting stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions against ownership of securities of any one issuer which constitute more than 10% of the value or total voting power of such issuer or more than 5% of the value of our total assets, as described below under “— Asset Tests.”

 

If we invest in a partnership, a limited liability company or a trust taxed as a partnership or as a disregarded entity, we will be deemed to own a proportionate share of the partnership’s, limited liability company’s or trust’s assets. Likewise, we will be treated as receiving our share of the income and loss of the partnership, limited liability company or trust, and the gross income will retain the same character in our hands as it has in the hands of the partnership, limited liability company or trust. These “look-through” rules apply for purposes of the income tests and assets tests described below.

 

Income Tests.  There are two separate percentage tests relating to our sources of gross income that we must satisfy each taxable year.

•     At least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from certain sales of property held primarily for sale) must be directly or indirectly derived each taxable year from “rents from real property,” other income from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or certain income from qualified temporary investments.

•     At least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from certain sales of property held primarily for sale) must be directly or indirectly derived each taxable year from any of the sources qualifying for the 75% gross income test and from dividends (including dividends from taxable REIT subsidiaries) and interest.

 

As to transactions entered into in taxable years beginning after October 22, 2004 and on or prior to July 30, 2008, any of our income from a “clearly identified” hedging transaction that is entered into by us in the normal course of business, directly or indirectly, to manage the risk of interest rate movements, price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings or obligations incurred or to be incurred by us, or such other risks that are prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service, is excluded from the 95% gross income test.

 

For transactions entered into after July 30, 2008, any of our income from a “clearly identified” hedging transaction that is entered into by us in the normal course of business, directly or indirectly, to manage the risk of interest rate movements, price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings or obligations incurred or to be incurred by us is excluded from the 95% and 75% gross income tests. For transactions entered into after July 30, 2008, any of our income from a “clearly identified” hedging transaction entered into by us primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that is included in gross income in the 95% and 75% gross income tests is excluded from the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

 

In general, a hedging transaction is “clearly identified” if (1) the transaction is identified as a hedging transaction before the end of the day on which it is entered into and (2) the items or risks being hedged are identified “substantially contemporaneously” with the hedging transaction. An identification is not substantially contemporaneous if it is made more than 35 days after entering into the hedging transaction.

 

As to gains and items of income recognized after July 30, 2008, “passive foreign exchange gain” for any taxable year will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and “real estate foreign exchange gain” for any taxable year will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Real estate foreign exchange gain is foreign currency gain (as defined in Internal Revenue Code Section 988(b)(1)) which is attributable to: (i) any qualifying item of income or gain for purposes of the 75% gross income test; (ii) the acquisition or ownership of obligations secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property; or (iii) becoming or being the obligor under obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property. Real estate foreign exchange gain also includes Internal Revenue Code Section 987 gain attributable to a qualified business unit (a “QBU”) of a REIT if the QBU itself meets the 75% gross income test for the taxable year and the 75% asset test at the close of each quarter that the REIT has directly or indirectly held the QBU. Real estate foreign exchange gain also includes any other foreign currency gain as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury. Passive foreign exchange gain includes all real estate foreign exchange gain and foreign currency gain which is attributable to: (i) any qualifying item of income or gain for purposes of the 95% gross income test; (ii) the acquisition or ownership of obligations; (iii) becoming or being the obligor under obligations; and (iv) any other foreign currency gain as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

 

Generally, other than income from “clearly identified” hedging transactions entered into by us in the normal course of business, any foreign currency gain derived by us from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities will constitute gross income which does not qualify under the 95% or 75% gross income tests.

 

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Rents received by us will qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of satisfying the gross income tests for a REIT only if several conditions are met:

•     The amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, although rents generally will not be excluded merely because they are based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

•     Rents received from a tenant will not qualify as rents from real property if the REIT, or an owner of 10% or more of the REIT, also directly or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant, unless the tenant is our taxable REIT subsidiary and certain other requirements are met with respect to the real property being rented.

•     If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to such personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.”

•     For rents to qualify as rents from real property, we generally must not furnish or render services to tenants, other than through a taxable REIT subsidiary or an “independent contractor” from whom we derive no income, except that we may directly provide services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in the geographic area in which the property is located in connection with the rental of real property for occupancy only, or are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant for his convenience.”

•     For taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008, the REIT may lease qualified health care properties” on an arm’s-length basis to a taxable REIT subsidiary if the property is operated on behalf of such subsidiary by a person who qualifies as an “independent contractor” and who is, or is related to a person who is, actively engaged in the trade or business of operating health care facilities for any person unrelated to us or our taxable REIT subsidiary, an “eligible independent contractor. Generally, the rent that the REIT receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary will be treated as “rents from real property.”  A “qualified health care property” includes any real property and any personal property that is, or is necessary or incidental to the use of, a hospital, nursing facility, assisted living facility, congregate care facility, qualified continuing care facility, or other licensed facility that extends medical or nursing or ancillary services to patients and is operated by a provider of such services that is eligible for participation in the Medicare program with respect to such facility.

 

A REIT is permitted to render a de minimis amount of impermissible services to tenants and still treat amounts received with respect to that property as rent from real property. The amount received or accrued by the REIT during the taxable year for the impermissible services with respect to a property may not exceed 1% of all amounts received or accrued by the REIT directly or indirectly from the property. The amount received for any service or management operation for this purpose shall be deemed to be not less than 150% of the direct cost of the REIT in furnishing or rendering the service or providing the management or operation. Furthermore, impermissible services may be furnished to tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary subject to certain conditions, and we may still treat rents received with respect to the property as rent from real property.

 

The term “interest” generally does not include any amount if the determination of the amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, although an amount generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage of receipts or sales.

 

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for such year if we are eligible for relief.  These relief provisions generally will be available if (1) following our identification of the failure, we file a schedule for such taxable year describing each item of our gross income, and (2) the failure to meet such tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. It is not now possible to determine the circumstances under which we may be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. If these relief provisions apply, a 100% tax is imposed on an amount equal to (a) the gross income attributable to (1) 75% of our gross income over the amount of qualifying gross income for purposes of the 75% income test and (2) 95% of our gross income over the amount of qualifying gross income for purposes of the 95% income test, multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability. The Secretary of the Treasury is given broad authority to determine whether particular items of income or gain qualify or not under the 75% and 95% gross income tests, or are to be excluded from the measure of gross income for such purposes.

 

Asset Tests.  Within 30 days after the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy several tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. At least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items (including receivables arising in the ordinary course of our operation), government securities and qualified temporary investments. Although the remaining 25% of our assets generally may be invested without restriction, we are prohibited from owning securities representing more than 10% of either the vote (the “10% vote test”) or value (the “10% value test”) of the outstanding securities of any issuer other than a qualified REIT subsidiary, another REIT or a taxable REIT subsidiary. Further, no more than 25% (20% for tax years beginning after 2017) of the total assets may be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries (the “25% asset test”) and no more than 5% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities of any non-governmental issuer other than a qualified REIT subsidiary (the “5% asset test”), another REIT or a taxable REIT subsidiary. Each of the 10% vote test, the 10% value test and the 25% and 5% asset tests must be satisfied at the end of each quarter. There are special rules which provide relief if the value related tests are not satisfied due to changes in the value of the assets of a REIT.

 

Certain items are excluded from the 10% value test, including: (1) straight debt securities (as defined in Internal Revenue Code Section 1361(c)(5)) of an issuer (including straight debt that provides certain contingent payments); (2) any loan to an individual or an

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estate; (3) any rental agreement described in Section 467 of the Internal Revenue Code, other than with a “related person”; (4) any obligation to pay rents from real property; (5) certain securities issued by a state or any subdivision thereof, the District of Columbia, a foreign government, or any political subdivision thereof, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (6) any security issued by a REIT; and (7) any other arrangement that, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, is excepted from the definition of security (“excluded securities”). Special rules apply to straight debt securities issued by corporations and entities taxable as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. If a REIT, or its taxable REIT subsidiary, holds (1) straight debt securities of a corporate or partnership issuer and (2) securities of such issuer that are not excluded securities and have an aggregate value greater than 1% of such issuer’s outstanding securities, the straight debt securities will be included in the 10% value test.

 

A REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not treated as a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test to securities issued by the partnership. Further, any debt instrument issued by a partnership will not be a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test (1) to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership and (2) if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions) would qualify for the 75% gross income test.  For purposes of the 10% value test, a REIT’s interest in a partnership’s assets is determined by the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership (other than the excluded securities described in the preceding paragraph).

 

For taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008, if the REIT or its QBU uses a foreign currency as its functional currency, the term “cash” includes such foreign currency, but only to the extent such foreign currency is (i) held for use in the normal course of the activities of the REIT or QBU which give rise to items of income or gain that are included in the 95% and 75% gross income tests or are directly related to acquiring or holding assets qualifying under the 75% asset test, and (ii) not held in connection with dealing or engaging in substantial and regular trading in securities.

 

With respect to corrections of failures as to violations of the 10% vote test, the 10% value test or the 5% asset test, a REIT may avoid disqualification as a REIT by disposing of sufficient assets to cure a violation that does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT’s assets at the end of the relevant quarter or $10,000,000, provided that the disposition occurs within six months following the last day of the quarter in which the REIT first identified the assets. For violations of any of the REIT asset tests due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect that exceed the thresholds described in the preceding sentence, a REIT can avoid disqualification as a REIT after the close of a taxable quarter by taking certain steps, including disposition of sufficient assets within the six month period described above to meet the applicable asset test, paying a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period of time that the assets were held as non-qualifying assets and filing a schedule with the Internal Revenue Service that describes the non-qualifying assets.

 

Investments in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.   REITs may own more than 10% of the voting power and value of securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries. Unlike a qualified REIT subsidiary, other disregarded entity or partnership, the income and assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary are not attributable to the REIT for purposes of satisfying the income and asset ownership requirements applicable to REIT qualification.  We and any taxable corporate entity in which we own an interest are allowed to jointly elect to treat such entity as a “taxable REIT subsidiary.”

 

Certain of our subsidiaries have elected to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Taxable REIT subsidiaries are subject to full corporate level federal taxation on their earnings but are permitted to engage in certain types of activities that cannot be performed directly by REITs without jeopardizing their REIT status. Our taxable REIT subsidiaries will attempt to minimize the amount of these taxes, but there can be no assurance whether or the extent to which measures taken to minimize taxes will be successful. To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries are required to pay federal, state or local taxes, the cash available for distribution as dividends to us from our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be reduced.

 

The amount of interest on related-party debt that a taxable REIT subsidiary may deduct is limited. Further, a 100% tax applies to any interest payments by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its affiliated REIT to the extent the interest rate is not commercially reasonable. A taxable REIT subsidiary is permitted to deduct interest payments to unrelated parties without any of these restrictions.

 

The Internal Revenue Service may reallocate costs between a REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiary where there is a lack of arm’s-length dealing between the parties. Any deductible expenses allocated away from a taxable REIT subsidiary would increase its tax liability. Further, any amount by which a REIT understates its deductions and overstates those of its taxable REIT subsidiary may, subject to certain exceptions, be subject to a 100% tax. Additional taxable REIT subsidiary elections may be made in the future for additional entities in which we obtain an interest.

 

     Annual Distribution Requirements.  In order to avoid being taxed as a regular corporation, we are required to make distributions (other than capital gain distributions) to our stockholders which qualify for the dividends paid deduction in an amount at least equal to (1) the sum of (i) 90% of our “REIT taxable income” (computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain) and (ii) 90% of the after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property, minus (2) a portion of certain items of non-cash income. These distributions must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for that year and if paid on or before the first regular distribution payment after such declaration.  Prior to recently enacted legislation, with respect to all REITs the amount distributed could not be preferential. This means that every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and

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no class of stock may be treated otherwise than in accordance with its dividend rights as a class (the “preferential dividend rule”).  Beginning in tax years after 2014, the preferential dividend rule no longer applies to publicly offered REITs, however, the rule is still applicable to other entities taxed as REITs, which would include several of our subsidiaries.  To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.  As discussed above, we may be subject to an excise tax if we fail to meet certain other distribution requirements. We believe we have satisfied the annual distribution requirements for the year of our initial REIT election and each year thereafter through the year ended December 31, 2016. Although we intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements for subsequent years, economic, market, legal, tax or other factors could limit our ability to meet those requirements. See “Item 1A — Risk Factors.”

 

It is also possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the 90% distribution requirement, or to distribute such greater amount as may be necessary to avoid income and excise taxation, due to, among other things, (1) timing differences between (i) the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses and (ii) the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in arriving at our taxable income, or (2) the payment of severance benefits that may not be deductible to us. In the event that timing differences occur, we may find it necessary to arrange for borrowings or, if possible, pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends in order to meet the distribution requirement.

 

Under certain circumstances, in the event of a deficiency determined by the Internal Revenue Service, we may be able to rectify a resulting failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for distributions paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends; however, we will be required to pay applicable penalties and interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividend distributions.

 

     Failure to Qualify as a REIT

 

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible nor will any particular amount of distributions be required to be made in any year. All distributions to stockholders will be taxable as ordinary income to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to these distributions and, subject to certain limitations, will be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate stockholders. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to statutory relief. Failure to qualify for even one year could result in our need to incur indebtedness or liquidate investments in order to pay potentially significant resulting tax liabilities.

 

In addition to the relief described above under “— Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests,” relief is available in the event that we violate a provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT if: (1) the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect; (2) we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure to satisfy the provision; and (3) the violation does not include a violation described under “— Income Tests” or “— Asset Tests” above. It is not now possible to determine the circumstances under which we may be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions.

 

Federal Income Taxation of Holders of Our Stock

 

Treatment of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.  The following summary applies to you only if you are a “U.S. stockholder.” A “U.S. stockholder” is a holder of shares of stock who, for United States federal income tax purposes, is:

•     a citizen or resident of the United States;

•     a corporation, partnership or other entity classified as a corporation or partnership for these purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any political subdivision of the United States, including any state;

•     an estate, the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

•     a trust, if, in general, a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons, within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code, has the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions.

 

So long as we qualify for taxation as a REIT, distributions on shares of our stock made out of the current or accumulated earnings and profits allocable to these distributions (and not designated as capital gain dividends) will be includable as ordinary income for federal income tax purposes. None of these distributions will be eligible for the dividends received deduction for U.S. corporate stockholders.

 

Generally, the current maximum marginal rate of tax payable by individuals on dividends received from corporations that are subject to a corporate level of tax is 20%. Except in limited circumstances, this tax rate will not apply to dividends paid to you by us on our shares, because generally we are not subject to federal income tax on the portion of our REIT taxable income or capital gains

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distributed to our stockholders. The reduced maximum federal income tax rate will apply to that portion, if any, of dividends received by you with respect to our shares that are attributable to: (1) dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations or other taxable REIT subsidiaries; (2) income from the prior year with respect to which we were required to pay federal corporate income tax during the prior year (if, for example, we did not distribute 100% of our REIT taxable income for the prior year); or (3) the amount of any earnings and profits that were distributed by us and accumulated in a non-REIT year.

 

Distributions that are designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed as long-term capital gains (to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year), without regard to the period for which you held our stock. However, if you are a corporation, you may be required to treat a portion of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

 

If we elect to retain and pay income tax on any net long-term capital gain, you would include in income, as long-term capital gain, your proportionate share of this net long-term capital gain. You would also receive a refundable tax credit for your proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained capital gains, and you would have an increase in the basis of your shares of our stock in an amount equal to your includable capital gains less your share of the tax deemed paid.

 

You may not include in your federal income tax return any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Federal income tax rules may also require that certain minimum tax adjustments and preferences be apportioned to you. In addition, any distribution declared by us in October, November or December of any year on a specified date in any such month shall be treated as both paid by us and received by you on December 31 of that year, provided that the distribution is actually paid by us no later than January 31 of the following year.

 

We will be treated as having sufficient earnings and profits to treat as a dividend any distribution up to the amount required to be distributed in order to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax discussed under “— General” and “— Qualification as a REIT — Annual Distribution Requirements” above. As a result, you may be required to treat as taxable dividends certain distributions that would otherwise result in a tax-free return of capital. Moreover, any “deficiency dividend” will be treated as a dividend (an ordinary dividend or a capital gain dividend, as the case may be), regardless of our earnings and profits. Any other distributions in excess of current or accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to you to the extent these distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of your shares of our stock. You will be required to reduce the tax basis of your shares of our stock by the amount of these distributions until the basis has been reduced to zero, after which these distributions will be taxable as capital gain, if the shares of our stock are held as capital assets. The tax basis as so reduced will be used in computing the capital gain or loss, if any, realized upon sale of the shares of our stock. Any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our stock which were held for six months or less (after application of certain holding period rules) will generally be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent you previously received capital gain distributions with respect to these shares of our stock.

 

Upon the sale or exchange of any shares of our stock to or with a person other than us or a sale or exchange of all shares of our stock (whether actually or constructively owned) with us, you will generally recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale or exchange and your adjusted tax basis in these shares of our stock. This gain will be capital gain if you held these shares of our stock as a capital asset.

 

If we redeem any of your shares in us, the treatment can only be determined on the basis of particular facts at the time of redemption. In general, you will recognize gain or loss (as opposed to dividend income) equal to the difference between the amount received by you in the redemption and your adjusted tax basis in your shares redeemed if such redemption: (1) results in a “complete termination” of your interest in all classes of our equity securities; (2) is a “substantially disproportionate redemption”; or (3) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to you. In applying these tests, you must take into account your ownership of all classes of our equity securities (e.g., common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares and warrants). You also must take into account any equity securities that are considered to be constructively owned by you.

 

If, as a result of a redemption by us of your shares, you no longer own (either actually or constructively) any of our equity securities or only own (actually and constructively) an insubstantial percentage of our equity securities, then it is probable that the redemption of your shares would be considered “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” and, thus, would result in gain or loss to you. However, whether a distribution is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” depends on all of the facts and circumstances, and if you rely on any of these tests at the time of redemption, you should consult your tax advisor to determine their application to the particular situation.

 

Generally, if the redemption does not meet the tests described above, then the proceeds received by you from the redemption of your shares will be treated as a distribution taxable as a dividend to the extent of the allocable portion of current or accumulated earnings and profits. If the redemption is taxed as a dividend, your adjusted tax basis in the redeemed shares will be transferred to any other shareholdings in us that you own. If you own no other shareholdings in us, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person, or it may be lost entirely.

 

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Gain from the sale or exchange of our shares held for more than one year is generally taxed at a maximum long-term capital gain rate of 20% in the case of stockholders who are individuals and 35% in the case of stockholders that are corporations.  Pursuant to Internal Revenue Service guidance, we may classify portions of our capital gain dividends as gains eligible for the long-term capital gains rate or as gain taxable to individual stockholders at a maximum rate of 25%.  Capital losses recognized by a stockholder upon the disposition of our shares held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the stockholder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year).

 

An additional tax of 3.8% generally will be imposed on the “net investment income” of U.S. stockholders who meet certain requirements and are individuals, estates or certain trusts.  Among other items, “net investment income” generally includes gross income from dividends and net gain attributable to the disposition of certain property, such as shares of our common stock or warrants. In the case of individuals, this tax will only apply to the extent such individual’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing a joint return and surviving spouses, and $125,000 for married individuals filing a separate return). U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible applicability of this additional tax in their particular circumstances.

 

Treatment of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders.  Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts (“Exempt Organizations”), generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). The Internal Revenue Service has issued a published revenue ruling that dividend distributions from a REIT to an exempt employee pension trust do not constitute UBTI, provided that the shares of the REIT are not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business of the exempt employee pension trust. Based on this ruling, amounts distributed by us to Exempt Organizations generally should not constitute UBTI. However, if an Exempt Organization finances its acquisition of the shares of our stock with debt, a portion of its income from us will constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt financed property” rules. Likewise, a portion of the Exempt Organization’s income from us would constitute UBTI if we held a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit.

 

In addition, in certain circumstances, a pension trust that owns more than 10% of our stock is required to treat a percentage of our dividends as UBTI. This rule applies to a pension trust holding more than 10% of our stock only if: (1) the percentage of our income that is UBTI (determined as if we were a pension trust) is at least 5%; (2) we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the Five or Fewer Requirement that allows beneficiaries of the pension trust to be treated as holding shares in proportion to their actuarial interests in the pension trust; and (3) either (i) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (ii) a group of pension trusts individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock collectively own more than 50% of the value of our stock.

 

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting.  Under certain circumstances, you may be subject to backup withholding at applicable rates on payments made with respect to, or cash proceeds of a sale or exchange of, shares of our stock. Backup withholding will apply only if you: (1) fail to provide a correct taxpayer identification number, which if you are an individual, is ordinarily your social security number; (2) furnish an incorrect taxpayer identification number; (3) are notified by the Internal Revenue Service that you have failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or (4) fail to certify, under penalties of perjury, that you have furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the Internal Revenue Service has not notified you that you are subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding will not apply with respect to payments made to certain exempt recipients, such as corporations and tax-exempt organizations. You should consult with a tax advisor regarding qualification for exemption from backup withholding, and the procedure for obtaining an exemption. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, the amount of any backup withholding with respect to a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against such stockholder’s United States federal income tax liability and may entitle such stockholder to a refund, provided that the required information is provided to the Internal Revenue Service. In addition, withholding a portion of capital gain distributions made to stockholders may be required for stockholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status.

 

Taxation of Foreign Stockholders.  The following summary applies to you only if you are a foreign person. The federal taxation of foreign persons is a highly complex matter that may be affected by many considerations.

 

Except as discussed below, distributions to you of cash generated by our real estate operations in the form of ordinary dividends, but not by the sale or exchange of our capital assets, generally will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a rate of 30%, unless an applicable tax treaty reduces that tax and you file with us the required form evidencing the lower rate.

 

In general, you will be subject to United States federal income tax on a graduated rate basis rather than withholding with respect to your investment in our stock if such investment is “effectively connected” with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States. A corporate foreign stockholder that receives income that is, or is treated as, effectively connected with a United States trade or business may also be subject to the branch profits tax, which is payable in addition to regular United States corporate income tax. The following discussion will apply to foreign stockholders whose investment in us is not so effectively connected. We expect to withhold United States income tax, as described below, on the gross amount of any distributions paid to you unless (1) you file an Internal Revenue Service Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is “effectively connected” or (2) certain other exceptions apply.

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Distributions by us that are attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest will be taxed to you under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”) as if these distributions were gains “effectively connected” with a United States trade or business. Accordingly, you will be taxed at the normal capital gain rates applicable to a U.S. stockholder on these amounts, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a branch profits tax in the hands of a corporate foreign stockholder that is not entitled to treaty exemption.

 

We will be required to withhold from distributions subject to FIRPTA, and remit to the Internal Revenue Service, 35% of designated capital gain dividends, or, if greater, 35% of the amount of any distributions that could be designated as capital gain dividends. In addition, if we designate prior distributions as capital gain dividends, subsequent distributions, up to the amount of the prior distributions not withheld against, will be treated as capital gain dividends for purposes of withholding.

 

Any capital gain dividend with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded” on an established securities market will be treated as an ordinary dividend if the foreign stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the taxable year. Foreign stockholders generally will not be required to report distributions received from us on U.S. federal income tax returns and all distributions treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes (including any such capital gain dividends) will be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax (unless reduced under an applicable income tax treaty) as discussed above. In addition, the branch profits tax will not apply to such distributions.

 

Unless our shares constitute a “United States real property interest” within the meaning of FIRPTA or are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, a sale of our shares by you generally will not be subject to United States taxation. Though, under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 (the “PATH Act”), enacted on December 18, 2015, even if our shares were to constitute a “United States real property interest,” non-U.S. stockholders that are “qualified foreign pension funds” (or are owned by a qualified foreign pension) meeting certain requirements may be exempt from FIRPTA withholding on the sale or disposition of our shares. Our shares will not constitute a United States real property interest if we qualify as a “domestically controlled REIT.” We believe that we, and expect to continue to, qualify as a domestically controlled REIT. A domestically controlled REIT is a REIT in which at all times during a specified testing period less than 50% in value of its shares is held directly or indirectly by foreign stockholders. Generally, under the PATH Act, we are permitted to assume that holders of less than 5% of our shares at all times during a specified testing period are U.S. persons.  However, if you are a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions apply, you will be subject to a 30% tax on such capital gains. In any event, a purchaser of our shares from you will not be required under FIRPTA to withhold on the purchase price if the purchased shares are “regularly traded” on an established securities market or if we are a domestically controlled REIT. Otherwise, under FIRPTA, the purchaser may be required to withhold 10% (increased to 15% under the PATH Act for distributions occurring after February 16, 2016) of the purchase price and remit such amount to the Internal Revenue Service.

 

Backup withholding tax and information reporting will generally not apply to distributions paid to you outside the United States that are treated as: (1) dividends to which the 30% or lower treaty rate withholding tax discussed above applies; (2) capital gains dividends; or (3) distributions attributable to gain from the sale or exchange by us of U.S. real property interests. Payment of the proceeds of a sale of stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S. related financial intermediaries is subject to both backup withholding and information reporting unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalties of perjury that he or she is not a U.S. person (and the payor does not have actual knowledge that the beneficial owner is a U.S. person) or otherwise established an exemption. You may obtain a refund of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules by filing the appropriate claim for refund with the Internal Revenue Service.

 

     Withholding tax at a rate of 30% will be imposed on certain payments to you or certain foreign financial institutions (including investment funds) and other non-US persons receiving payments on your behalf, including distributions in respect of shares of our stock and gross proceeds from the sale of shares of our stock, if you or such institutions fail to comply with certain due diligence, disclosure and reporting rules, as set forth in recently issued Treasury regulations. Accordingly, the entity through which shares of our stock are held will affect the determination of whether such withholding is required. Withholding currently applies to payments of dividends made after June 30, 2014, and will apply to payments of gross proceeds from a sale of shares of our stock made after December 31, 2018.  Stockholders that are otherwise eligible for an exemption from, or reduction of, U.S. withholding taxes with respect to such dividends and proceeds will be required to seek a refund from the Internal Revenue Service to obtain the benefit of such exemption or reduction.  Additional requirements and conditions may be imposed pursuant to an intergovernmental agreement, if and when entered into, between the United States and such institution’s home jurisdiction. We will not pay any additional amounts to any stockholders in respect of any amounts withheld. You are encouraged to consult with your tax advisor regarding U.S. withholding taxes and the application of the recently issued Treasury regulations in light of your particular circumstances.

 

U.S. Federal Income Taxation of Holders of Depositary Shares

 

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Owners of our depositary shares will be treated as if you were owners of the series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares. Thus, you will be required to take into account the income and deductions to which you would be entitled if you were a holder of the underlying series of preferred stock.

 

Conversion or Exchange of Shares for Preferred Stock.  No gain or loss will be recognized upon the withdrawal of preferred stock in exchange for depositary shares and the tax basis of each share of preferred stock will, upon exchange, be the same as the aggregate tax basis of the depositary shares exchanged. If you held your depositary shares as a capital asset at the time of the exchange for shares of preferred stock, the holding period for your shares of preferred stock will include the period during which you owned the depositary shares.

 

U.S. Federal Income and Estate Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities

 

The following is a general summary of the United States federal income tax consequences and, in the case that you are a holder that is a non-U.S. holder, as defined below, the United States federal estate tax consequences, of purchasing, owning and disposing of debt securities periodically offered under one or more indentures (the “notes”). This summary assumes that you hold the notes as capital assets. This summary applies to you only if you are the initial holder of the notes and you acquire the notes for a price equal to the issue price of the notes. The issue price of the notes is the first price at which a substantial amount of the notes is sold other than to bond houses, brokers or similar persons or organizations acting in the capacity of underwriters, placement agents or wholesalers. In addition, this summary does not consider any foreign, state, local or other tax laws that may be applicable to us or a purchaser of the notes.

 

U.S. Holders

 

The following summary applies to you only if you are a U.S. holder, as defined below.

 

Definition of a U.S. Holder.  A “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of a note or notes that is for United States federal income tax purposes:

•     a citizen or resident of the United States;

•     a corporation, partnership or other entity classified as a corporation or partnership for these purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any political subdivision of the United States, including any state;

•     an estate, the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

•     a trust, if, in general, a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons, within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code, has the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions.

 

Payments of Interest.  Stated interest on the notes generally will be taxed as ordinary interest income from domestic sources at the time it is paid or accrues in accordance with your method of accounting for tax purposes.

 

Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition of Notes.  The adjusted tax basis in your note acquired at a premium will generally be your cost. You generally will recognize taxable gain or loss when you sell or otherwise dispose of your notes equal to the difference, if any, between:

•     the amount realized on the sale or other disposition, less any amount attributable to any accrued interest, which will be taxable in the manner described under “— Payments of Interest” above; and

•     your adjusted tax basis in the notes.

 

Your gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss. This capital gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if at the time of the sale or other disposition you have held the notes for more than one year. Subject to limited exceptions, your capital losses cannot be used to offset your ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year).

 

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting.  In general, “backup withholding” may apply to any payments made to you of principal and interest on your note, and to payment of the proceeds of a sale or other disposition of your note before maturity, if you are a non-corporate U.S. holder and: (1) fail to provide a correct taxpayer identification number, which if you are an individual, is ordinarily your social security number; (2) furnish an incorrect taxpayer identification number; (3) are notified by the Internal Revenue Service that you have failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or (4) fail to certify, under penalties of perjury, that you have furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the Internal Revenue Service has not notified you that you are subject to backup withholding.

 

The amount of any reportable payments, including interest, made to you (unless you are an exempt recipient) and the amount of tax withheld, if any, with respect to such payments will be reported to you and to the Internal Revenue Service for each calendar year.

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You should consult your tax advisor regarding your qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption, if applicable. The backup withholding tax is not an additional tax and will be credited against your U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that correct information is provided to the Internal Revenue Service.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

The following summary applies to you if you are a beneficial owner of a note and are not a U.S. holder, as defined above (a “non-U.S. holder”).

 

Special rules may apply to certain non-U.S. holders such as “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies” and “foreign personal holding companies.” Such entities are encouraged to consult their tax advisors to determine the United States federal, state, local and other tax consequences that may be relevant to them.

 

U.S. Federal Withholding Tax.  Subject to the discussion below, U.S. federal withholding tax will not apply to payments by us or our paying agent, in its capacity as such, of principal and interest on your notes under the “portfolio interest” exception of the Internal Revenue Code, provided that:

•     you do not, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote;

•     you are not (1) a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is related, directly or indirectly, to us through sufficient stock ownership, as provided in the Internal Revenue Code, or (2) a bank receiving interest described in Section 881(c)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code;

•     such interest is not effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business; and

•     you provide a signed written statement, under penalties of perjury, which can reliably be related to you, certifying that you are not a U.S. person within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code and providing your name and address to:

•     us or our paying agent; or

          a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds your notes on your behalf and that certifies to us or our paying agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the bank or financial institution between it and you, has received from you your signed, written statement and provides us or our paying agent with a copy of such statement.

 

Treasury regulations provide that:

•     if you are a foreign partnership, the certification requirement will generally apply to your partners, and you will be required to provide certain information;

•     if you are a foreign trust, the certification requirement will generally be applied to you or your beneficial owners depending on whether you are a “foreign complex trust,” “foreign simple trust,” or “foreign grantor trust” as defined in the Treasury regulations; and

•     look-through rules will apply for tiered partnerships, foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts.

 

If you are a foreign partnership or a foreign trust, you should consult your own tax advisor regarding your status under these Treasury regulations and the certification requirements applicable to you.

 

If you cannot satisfy the portfolio interest requirements described above, payments of interest will be subject to the 30% United States withholding tax, unless you provide us with a properly executed (1) Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN claiming an exemption from or reduction in withholding under the benefit of an applicable treaty or (2) Internal Revenue Service Form W-8ECI stating that interest paid on the note is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States. Alternative documentation may be applicable in certain circumstances.

 

If you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States and interest on a note is effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business, you will be required to pay United States federal income tax on that interest on a net income basis (although you will be exempt from the 30% withholding tax provided the certification requirement described above is met) in the same manner as if you were a U.S. person, except as otherwise provided by an applicable tax treaty. If you are a foreign corporation, you may be required to pay a branch profits tax on the earnings and profits that are effectively connected to the conduct of your trade or business in the United States.

 

     Withholding tax at a rate of 30% will be imposed on payments of interest (including original issue discount) and gross proceeds of sale in respect of debt instruments to you or certain foreign financial institutions (including investment funds) and other non-US persons receiving payments on your behalf, if you or such institutions fail to comply with certain due diligence, disclosure and reporting rules, as set forth in recently issued Treasury regulations. However, the Treasury regulations generally exempt from such withholding requirement obligations, such as debt instruments, issued before July 1, 2014, provided that any material modification of such an obligation made after such date will result in such obligation being considered newly issued as of the effective date of such

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modification. These withholding rules are generally effective with respect to payments of interest made after June 30, 2014, and with respect to proceeds of sales received after December 31, 2018. We will not pay any additional amounts to any holders or our debt instruments in respect of any amounts withheld. You are encouraged to consult with your tax advisor regarding U.S. withholding taxes and the application of the recently issued Treasury regulations in light of your particular circumstances.

 

Sale, Exchange or other Disposition of Notes.  You generally will not have to pay U.S. federal income tax on any gain or income realized from the sale, redemption, retirement at maturity or other disposition of your notes, unless:

•     in the case of gain, you are an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the sale or other disposition of your notes, and specific other conditions are met;

•     you are subject to tax provisions applicable to certain United States expatriates; or

•     the gain is effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business.

 

If you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States, and gain with respect to your notes is effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business, you generally will be subject to U.S. income tax on a net basis on the gain. In addition, if you are a foreign corporation, you may be subject to a branch profits tax on your effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, as adjusted for certain items.

 

U.S. Federal Estate Tax.  If you are an individual and are not a U.S. citizen or a resident of the United States, as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, at the time of your death, your notes will generally not be subject to the U.S. federal estate tax, unless, at the time of your death (1) you owned actually or constructively 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all our classes of stock entitled to vote, or (2) interest on the notes is effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business.

 

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting.  Backup withholding will not apply to payments of principal or interest made by us or our paying agent, in its capacity as such, to you if you have provided the required certification that you are a non-U.S. holder as described in “— U.S. Federal Withholding Tax” above, and provided that neither we nor our paying agent have actual knowledge that you are a U.S. holder, as described in “— U.S. Holders” above. We or our paying agent may, however, report payments of interest on the notes.

 

The gross proceeds from the disposition of your notes may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding tax. If you sell your notes outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker and the sales proceeds are paid to you outside the United States, then the U.S. backup withholding and information reporting requirements generally will not apply to that payment. However, U.S. information reporting, but not backup withholding, will apply to a payment of sales proceeds, even if that payment is made outside the United States, if you sell your notes through a non-U.S. office of a broker that:

•     is a U.S. person, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code;

•     derives 50% or more of its gross income in specific periods from the conduct of a trade or business in the United States;

•     is a “controlled foreign corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or

•     is a foreign partnership, if at any time during its tax year, one or more of its partners are U.S. persons who in the aggregate hold more than 50% of the income or capital interests in the partnership, or the foreign partnership is engaged in a U.S. trade or business, unless the broker has documentary evidence in its files that you are a non-U.S. person and certain other conditions are met or you otherwise establish an exemption. If you receive payments of the proceeds of a sale of your notes to or through a U.S. office of a broker, the payment is subject to both U.S. backup withholding and information reporting unless you provide a Form W-8BEN certifying that you are a non-U.S. person or you otherwise establish an exemption.

 

You should consult your own tax advisor regarding application of backup withholding in your particular circumstance and the availability of and procedure for obtaining an exemption from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to you will be allowed as a refund or credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

 

U.S. Federal Income and Estate Taxation of Holders of Our Warrants

 

Exercise of Warrants.  You will not generally recognize gain or loss upon the exercise of a warrant. Your basis in the debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock, as the case may be, received upon the exercise of the warrant will be equal to the sum of your adjusted tax basis in the warrant and the exercise price paid. Your holding period in the debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock, as the case may be, received upon the exercise of the warrant will not include the period during which the warrant was held by you.

 

Expiration of Warrants.  Upon the expiration of a warrant, you will recognize a capital loss in an amount equal to your adjusted tax basis in the warrant.

 

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Sale or Exchange of Warrants.  Upon the sale or exchange of a warrant to a person other than us, you will recognize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale or exchange and your adjusted tax basis in the warrant. Such gain or loss will be capital gain or loss and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the warrant was held for more than one year. Upon the sale of the warrant to us, the Internal Revenue Service may argue that you should recognize ordinary income on the sale. You are advised to consult your own tax advisors as to the consequences of a sale of a warrant to us.

 

Potential Legislation or Other Actions Affecting Tax Consequences

 

Current and prospective securities holders should recognize that the present federal income tax treatment of an investment in us may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time and that any such action may affect investments and commitments previously made. The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury Department, resulting in revisions of regulations and revised interpretations of established concepts as well as statutory changes. Revisions in federal tax laws and interpretations of these laws could adversely affect the tax consequences of an investment in us.

 

State, Local and Foreign Taxes

 

We, and holders of our debt and equity securities, may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business, own property or reside. It should be noted that we own properties located in a number of state, local and foreign jurisdictions, and may be required to file tax returns in some or all of those jurisdictions. The state, local or foreign tax treatment of us and holders of our debt and equity securities may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above. Consequently, you are urged to consult your advisor regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign tax laws with respect to any investment in our securities.

 

Changes in applicable tax regulations could negatively affect our financial results

 

The Company is subject to taxation in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Because the U.S. maintains a worldwide corporate tax system, the foreign and U.S. tax systems are somewhat interdependent. Longstanding international tax norms that determine each country’s jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade are evolving, such as the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project (“BEPS") currently being undertaken by the G8, G20, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  Tax changes pursuant to BEPS could reduce the ability of our foreign subsidiaries to deduct for foreign tax purposes the interest they pay on loans from the Company, thereby increasing the foreign tax liability of the subsidiaries; it is also possible that foreign countries could increase their withholding taxes on dividends and interest. Given the unpredictability of these possible changes and their potential interdependency, it is very difficult to assess the overall effect of such potential tax changes on our earnings and cash flow, but such changes could adversely impact our financial results.

 

Internet Access to Our SEC Filings

 

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, as well as our proxy statements and other materials that are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission are made available, free of charge, on the Internet at www.welltower.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. We routinely post important information on our website at www.welltower.com in the “Investors” section, including corporate and investor presentations and financial information.  We intend to use our website as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Such disclosures will be included on our website under the heading “Investors.”  Accordingly, investors should monitor such portion of our website in addition to following our press releases, public conference calls and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and our web address is included as an inactive textual reference only.

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

     This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated by reference contain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” as that term is defined in the federal securities laws. When we use words such as “may,” “will,” “intend,” “should,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “project,” “estimate” or similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters, we are making forward-looking statements. In particular, these forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those relating to our opportunities to acquire, develop or sell properties; our ability to close our anticipated acquisitions, investments or dispositions on currently anticipated terms, or within currently anticipated timeframes; the expected performance of our operators/tenants and properties; our expected occupancy rates; our ability to declare and to make distributions to stockholders; our investment and financing opportunities and plans; our continued qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”); and our ability to access capital markets or other sources of funds.

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     Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results to differ materially from our expectations discussed in the forward-looking statements. This may be a result of various factors, including, but not limited to:

          the status of the economy;

          the status of capital markets, including availability and cost of capital;

          issues facing the health care industry, including compliance with, and changes to, regulations and payment policies, responding to government investigations and punitive settlements and operators’/tenants’ difficulty in cost-effectively obtaining and maintaining adequate liability and other insurance;

          changes in financing terms;

          competition within the health care and seniors housing industries;

          negative developments in the operating results or financial condition of operators/tenants, including, but not limited to, their ability to pay rent and repay loans;

          our ability to transition or sell properties with profitable results;

          the failure to make new investments or acquisitions as and when anticipated;

          natural disasters and other acts of God affecting our properties;

          our ability to re-lease space at similar rates as vacancies occur;

          our ability to timely reinvest sale proceeds at similar rates to assets sold;

          operator/tenant or joint venture partner bankruptcies or insolvencies;

          the cooperation of joint venture partners;

          government regulations affecting Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement rates and operational requirements;

          liability or contract claims by or against operators/tenants;

          unanticipated difficulties and/or expenditures relating to future investments or acquisitions;

          environmental laws affecting our properties;

          changes in rules or practices governing our financial reporting;

          the movement of U.S. and foreign currency exchange rates;

          our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT;

          key management personnel recruitment and retention; and

          the risks described under “Item 1A — Risk Factors.”

 

     We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether because of new information, future events, or otherwise.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

     This section discusses the most significant factors that affect our business, operations and financial condition. It does not describe all risks and uncertainties applicable to us, our industry or ownership of our securities. If any of the following risks, as well as other risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently think are not material, actually occur, we could be materially adversely affected. In that event, the value of our securities could decline. We group these risk factors into three categories:

          Risks arising from our business;

          Risks arising from our capital structure; and

          Risks arising from our status as a REIT.

 

Risks Arising from Our Business

 

Our investments in and acquisitions of health care and seniors housing properties may be unsuccessful or fail to meet our expectations

 

     We are exposed to the risk that some of our acquisitions may not prove to be successful. We could encounter unanticipated difficulties and expenditures relating to any acquired properties, including contingent liabilities, and acquired properties might require significant management attention that would otherwise be devoted to our ongoing business. If we agree to provide construction funding to an operator/tenant and the project is not completed, we may need to take steps to ensure completion of the project. Such expenditures may negatively affect our results of operations. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our anticipated acquisitions and investments, the completion of which is subject to various conditions, will be consummated in accordance with anticipated timing, on anticipated terms, or at all.  We also may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations, and this could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our investments in joint ventures could be adversely affected by our lack of exclusive control over these investments, our partners’ insolvency or failure to meet their obligations and disputes between us and our partners

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     We have entered into, and may continue in the future to enter into, partnerships or joint ventures with other persons or entities. Joint venture investments involve risks that may not be present with other methods of ownership, including the possibility that our partner might become insolvent, refuse to make capital contributions when due or otherwise fail to meet its obligations, which may result in certain liabilities to us for guarantees and other commitments; that our partner might at any time have economic or other business interests or goals that are or become inconsistent with our interests or goals; that we could become engaged in a dispute with our partner, which could require us to expend additional resources to resolve such dispute and could have an adverse impact on the operations and profitability of the joint venture; and that our partner may be in a position to take action or withhold consent contrary to our instructions or requests. In addition, our ability to transfer our interest in a joint venture to a third party may be restricted. In some instances, we and/or our partner may have the right to trigger a buy-sell arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partner’s interest, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction. Our ability to acquire our partner’s interest may be limited if we do not have sufficient cash, available borrowing capacity or other capital resources. In such event, we may be forced to sell our interest in the joint venture when we would otherwise prefer to retain it. Joint ventures may require us to share decision-making authority with our partners, which could limit our ability to control the properties in the joint ventures. Even when we have a controlling interest, certain major decisions may require partner approval, such as the sale, acquisition or financing of a property.

 

We are exposed to operational risks with respect to our seniors housing operating properties that could adversely affect our revenue and operations

 

     We are exposed to various operational risks with respect to our seniors housing operating properties that may increase our costs or adversely affect our ability to generate revenues. These risks include fluctuations in occupancy, Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, if applicable, and private pay rates; economic conditions; competition; federal, state, local, and industry-regulated licensure, certification and inspection laws, regulations, and standards; the availability and increases in cost of general and professional liability insurance coverage; state regulation and rights of residents related to entrance fees; and the availability and increases in the cost of labor (as a result of unionization or otherwise). Any one or a combination of these factors may adversely affect our revenue and operations.

 

Decreases in our operators’ revenues or increases in our operators’ expenses could affect our operators’ ability to make payments to us

 

     Our operators’ revenues are primarily driven by occupancy, private pay rates, and Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, if applicable. Expenses for these facilities are primarily driven by the costs of labor, food, utilities, taxes, insurance and rent or debt service. Revenues from government reimbursement have, and may continue to, come under pressure due to reimbursement cuts and state budget shortfalls. Operating costs continue to increase for our operators. To the extent that any decrease in revenues and/or any increase in operating expenses result in a property not generating enough cash to make payments to us, the credit of our operator and the value of other collateral would have to be relied upon. To the extent the value of such property is reduced, we may need to record an impairment for such asset. Furthermore, if we determine to dispose of an underperforming property, such sale may result in a loss. Any such impairment or loss on sale would negatively affect our financial results.

 

Increased competition may affect our operators’ ability to meet their obligations to us  

 

     The operators of our properties compete on a local and regional basis with operators of properties and other health care providers that provide comparable services. We cannot be certain that the operators of all of our facilities will be able to achieve and maintain occupancy and rate levels that will enable them to meet all of their obligations to us. Our operators are expected to encounter increased competition in the future that could limit their ability to attract residents or expand their businesses.

 

A severe cold and flu season, epidemics or any other widespread illnesses could adversely affect the occupancy of our seniors housing operating and triple-net properties

 

     Our and our operators’ revenues are dependent on occupancy.  It is impossible to predict the severity of the cold and flu season or the occurrence of epidemics or any other widespread illnesses.  The occupancy of our seniors housing operating and triple-net properties could significantly decrease in the event of a severe cold and flu season, an epidemic or any other widespread illness.  Such a decrease could affect the operating income of our seniors housing operating properties and the ability of our triple-net operators to make payments to us.

 

The insolvency or bankruptcy of our obligors may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition

 

     We are exposed to the risk that our obligors may not be able to meet the rent, principal and interest or other payments due us, which may result in an obligor bankruptcy or insolvency, or that an obligor might become subject to bankruptcy or insolvency

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proceedings for other reasons. Although our operating lease agreements provide us with the right to evict a tenant, demand immediate payment of rent and exercise other remedies, and our loans provide us with the right to terminate any funding obligation, demand immediate repayment of principal and unpaid interest, foreclose on the collateral and exercise other remedies, the bankruptcy and insolvency laws afford certain rights to a party that has filed for bankruptcy or reorganization. An obligor in bankruptcy or subject to insolvency proceedings may be able to limit or delay our ability to collect unpaid rent in the case of a lease or to receive unpaid principal and interest in the case of a loan, and to exercise other rights and remedies. We may be required to fund certain expenses (e.g., real estate taxes and maintenance) to preserve the value of an investment property, avoid the imposition of liens on a property and/or transition a property to a new tenant. In some instances, we have terminated our lease with a tenant and relet the property to another tenant. In some of those situations, we have provided working capital loans to and limited indemnification of the new obligor. If we cannot transition a leased property to a new tenant, we may take possession of that property, which may expose us to certain successor liabilities. Should such events occur, our revenue and operating cash flow may be adversely affected.

 

We may not be able to timely reinvest our sale proceeds on terms acceptable to us

 

     From time to time, we will have cash available from (1) the proceeds of sales of our securities, (2) principal payments on our loans receivable and (3) the sale of properties, including non-elective dispositions, under the terms of master leases or similar financial support arrangements. In order to maintain current revenues and continue generating attractive returns, we expect to re-invest these proceeds in a timely manner. We compete for real estate investments with a broad variety of potential investors. This competition for attractive investments may negatively affect our ability to make timely investments on terms acceptable to us.

 

Failure to properly manage our rapid growth could distract our management or increase our expenses

 

     We have experienced rapid growth and development in a relatively short period of time and expect to continue this rapid growth in the future. This growth has resulted in increased levels of responsibility for our management. Future property acquisitions could place significant additional demands on, and require us to expand, our management, resources and personnel. Our failure to manage any such rapid growth effectively could harm our business and, in particular, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, which could negatively affect our ability to make distributions to stockholders. Our growth could also increase our capital requirements, which may require us to issue potentially dilutive equity securities and incur additional debt.

 

We depend on Genesis Healthcare, LLC (“Genesis”) and Brookdale Senior Living for a significant portion of our revenues and any inability or unwillingness by Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living to satisfy their obligations under their agreements with us could adversely affect us

 

     The properties we lease to Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living account for a significant portion of our revenues, and because our leases with Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living are triple-net leases, we also depend on Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living to pay all insurance, taxes, utilities and maintenance and repair expenses in connection with the leased properties. We cannot assure you that Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living will have sufficient assets, income and access to financing to enable them to make rental payments to us or to otherwise satisfy their respective obligations under our leases, and any inability or unwillingness by Genesis or Brookdale Senior Living to do so could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living have also agreed to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities arising in connection with their respective businesses, and we cannot assure you that Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living will have sufficient assets, income, access to financing and insurance coverage to enable them to satisfy their respective indemnification obligations.  Genesis and Brookdale Senior Living’s failure to effectively conduct their operations or to maintain and improve our properties could adversely affect their business reputations and their ability to attract and retain patients and residents in our properties, which, in turn, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The properties managed by Sunrise Senior Living, LLC account for a significant portion of our revenues and operating income and any adverse developments in its business or financial condition could adversely affect us

 

     Sunrise Senior Living, LLC manages our entire Sunrise property portfolio, which as of December 31, 2016, consisted of 157 seniors housing properties.  These properties account for a significant portion of our revenues, and we rely on Sunrise Senior Living, LLC to manage these properties efficiently and effectively.  We also rely on Sunrise Senior Living, LLC to set appropriate resident fees, to provide accurate property-level financial results for our properties in a timely manner and to otherwise operate them in compliance with the terms of our management agreements and all applicable laws and regulations.  Any adverse developments in Sunrise Senior Living, LLC’s business or financial condition could impair its ability to manage our properties efficiently and effectively, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.  Also, if Sunrise Senior Living, LLC experiences any significant financial, legal, accounting or regulatory difficulties, such difficulties could result in, among other things, acceleration of its indebtedness, impairment of its continued access to capital or the commencement of insolvency proceedings by or against it under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, which, in turn, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Ownership of property outside the United States may subject us to different or greater risks than those associated with our domestic operations

 

     We have operations in Canada and the United Kingdom. International development, ownership, and operating activities involve risks that are different from those we face with respect to our domestic properties and operations. These risks include, but are not limited to, any international currency gain recognized with respect to changes in exchange rates may not qualify under the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test that we must satisfy annually in order to qualify and maintain our status as a REIT; challenges with respect to the repatriation of foreign earnings and cash; changes in foreign political, regulatory, and economic conditions, including regionally, nationally, and locally, including, but not limited to, the United Kingdom’s June 2016 vote to exit the European Union (commonly known as “Brexit”); challenges in managing international operations; challenges of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations, including those relating to real estate, corporate governance, operations, taxes, employment and other civil and criminal legal proceedings; foreign ownership restrictions with respect to operations in countries; differences in lending practices and the willingness of domestic or foreign lenders to provide financing; regional or country-specific business cycles and political and economic instability; and failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations in the United States that affect foreign operations, including, but not limited to, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. If we are unable to successfully manage the risks associated with international expansion and operations, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

 

We do not know if our tenants will renew their existing leases, and if they do not, we may be unable to lease the properties on as favorable terms, or at all

 

     We cannot predict whether our tenants will renew existing leases at the end of their lease terms, which expire at various times. If these leases are not renewed, we would be required to find other tenants to occupy those properties or sell them. There can be no assurance that we would be able to identify suitable replacement tenants or enter into leases with new tenants on terms as favorable to us as the current leases or that we would be able to lease those properties at all.

 

Our operators and managers may not have the necessary insurance coverage to insure adequately against losses

 

     We maintain or require our operators and managers to maintain comprehensive insurance coverage on our properties and their operations with terms, conditions, limits and deductibles that we believe are customary for similarly-situated companies in our industry, and we continually review our insurance programs and requirements.  That said, we cannot assure you that we or our operators or managers will continue to be able to maintain adequate levels of insurance and required coverages, which could adversely affect us in the event of a significant uninsured loss.  Also, in recent years, long-term/post-acute care and seniors housing operators and managers have experienced substantial increases in both the number and size of patient care liability claims. As a result, general and professional liability costs have increased in some markets. General and professional liability insurance coverage may be restricted or very costly, which may adversely affect the property operators’ and managers’ future operations, cash flows and financial condition, and may have a material adverse effect on the property operators’ and managers’ ability to meet their obligations to us. 

 

Our ownership of properties through ground leases exposes us to the loss of such properties upon breach or termination of the ground leases

 

     We have acquired an interest in certain of our properties by acquiring a leasehold interest in the property on which the building is located, and we may acquire additional properties in the future through the purchase of interests in ground leases. As the lessee under a ground lease, we are exposed to the possibility of losing the property upon termination of the ground lease or an earlier breach of the ground lease by us.

 

The requirements of, or changes to, governmental reimbursement programs, such as Medicare or Medicaid, could have a material adverse effect on our obligors’ liquidity, financial condition and results of operations, which could adversely affect our obligors’ ability to meet their obligations to us

 

     Some of our obligors’ businesses are affected by government reimbursement. To the extent that an operator/tenant receives a significant portion of its revenues from government payors, primarily Medicare and Medicaid, such revenues may be subject to statutory and regulatory changes, retroactive rate adjustments, recovery of program overpayments or set-offs, court decisions, administrative rulings, policy interpretations, payment or other delays by fiscal intermediaries or carriers, government funding restrictions (at a program level or with respect to specific facilities) and interruption or delays in payments due to any ongoing government investigations and audits at such property. In recent years, government payors have frozen or reduced payments to health care providers due to budgetary pressures. Health care reimbursement will likely continue to be of paramount importance to federal and state authorities. We cannot make any assessment as to the ultimate timing or effect any future legislative reforms may have on the financial condition of our obligors and properties. There can be no assurance that adequate reimbursement levels will be available

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for services provided by any property operator, whether the property receives reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid or private payors. Significant limits on the scope of services reimbursed and on reimbursement rates and fees could have a material adverse effect on an obligor’s liquidity, financial condition and results of operations, which could adversely affect the ability of an obligor to meet its obligations to us.

 

     The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as modified by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “Health Reform Laws”), provides those states that expand their Medicaid coverage to otherwise eligible state residents with incomes at or below 138% of the federal poverty level with an increased federal medical assistance percentage, effective January 1, 2014, when certain conditions are met. Given that the federal government substantially funds the Medicaid expansion, it is unclear how many states will ultimately pursue this option, although, as of early February 2017, more than half of the states have expanded Medicaid coverage. The participation by states in the Medicaid expansion could have the dual effect of increasing our tenants’ revenues, through new patients, but further straining state budgets and their ability to pay our tenants. We expect that the new Presidential Administration and U.S. Congress will seek to modify, repeal, or otherwise invalidate all, or certain provisions of, the Health Reform Laws, including Medicaid expansion. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the Health Reform Laws.  The House and Senate have recently passed a budget resolution that authorizes congressional committees to draft legislation to repeal all or portions of the Health Reform Laws and permits such legislation to pass with a majority vote in the Senate.  President Trump has also recently issued an executive order in which he stated that it is his Administration’s policy to seek the prompt repeal of the Health Reform Laws and directed executive departments and federal agencies to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of the provisions of Health Reform Laws to the maximum extent permitted by law.  There is still uncertainty with respect to the impact President Trump’s Administration and the U.S. Congress may have, if any, and any changes will likely take time to unfold, and could have an impact on coverage and reimbursement for health care items and services covered by plans that were authorized by the Health Reform Laws.  We cannot predict whether the existing Health Reform Laws, or future health care reform legislation or regulatory changes, will have a material impact on our operators’ or tenants’ property or business.  If the operations, cash flows or financial condition of our operators and tenants are materially adversely impacted by the Health Reform Laws or future legislation, our revenue and operations may be adversely affected as well.  See “Item 1 — Business — Certain Government Regulations — United States — Reimbursement” above.                                                                                                                                                        

 

     More generally, and because of the dynamic nature of the legislative and regulatory environment for health care products and services, and in light of existing federal deficit and budgetary concerns, we cannot predict the impact that broad-based, far-reaching legislative or regulatory changes could have on the U.S. economy, our business or that of our operators and tenants.

 

Our operators’ or tenants’ failure to comply with federal, state, local, and industry-regulated licensure, certification and inspection laws, regulations, and standards could adversely affect such operators’ or tenants’ operations, which could adversely affect our operators’ and tenants’ ability to meet their obligations to us

 

     Our operators and tenants generally are subject to varying levels of federal, state, local, and industry-regulated licensure, certification and inspection laws, regulations, and standards. Our operators’ or tenants’ failure to comply with any of these laws, regulations, or standards could result in loss of accreditation, denial of reimbursement, imposition of fines, suspension, decertification or exclusion from federal and state health care programs, loss of license or closure of the facility. Such actions may have an effect on our operators’ or tenants’ ability to make lease payments to us and, therefore, adversely impact us. See “Item 1 — Business — Certain Government Regulations — United States — Fraud & Abuse Enforcement” above.

 

     Many of our properties may require a license, registration, and/or certificate of need (“CON”) to operate. Failure to obtain a license, registration, or CON, or loss of a required license, registration, or CON would prevent a facility from operating in the manner intended by the operators or tenants. These events could materially adversely affect our operators’ or tenants’ ability to make rent payments to us. State and local laws also may regulate the expansion, including the addition of new beds or services or acquisition of medical equipment, and the construction or renovation of health care facilities, by requiring a CON or other similar approval from a state agency. See “Item 1 — Business — Certain Government Regulations — United States — Licensing and Certification” above.

 

Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties

 

     Real estate investments are relatively illiquid. Our ability to quickly sell or exchange any of our properties in response to changes in economic and other conditions will be limited. No assurances can be given that we will recognize full value for any property that we are required to sell for liquidity reasons. Our inability to respond rapidly to changes in the performance of our investments could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we are exposed to the risks inherent in concentrating investments in real estate, and in particular, the seniors housing and health care industries. A downturn in the real estate industry could adversely affect the value of our properties and our ability to sell properties for a price or on terms acceptable to us.

 

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Unfavorable resolution of pending and future litigation matters and disputes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition

 

     From time to time, we may be directly involved in a number of legal proceedings, lawsuits and other claims. We may also be named as defendants in lawsuits allegedly arising out of our actions or the actions of our operators/tenants or managers in which such operators/tenants or managers have agreed to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities arising in connection with their respective businesses. An unfavorable resolution of pending or future litigation may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Regardless of its outcome, litigation may result in substantial costs and expenses and significantly divert the attention of management. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in, or achieve a favorable settlement of, pending or future litigation. In addition, pending litigation or future litigation, government proceedings or environmental matters could lead to increased costs or interruption of our normal business operations.

 

Development, redevelopment and construction risks could affect our profitability

 

     At any given time, we may be in the process of constructing one or more new facilities that ultimately will require a CON and license before they can be utilized by the operator for their intended use. The operator also may need to obtain Medicare and Medicaid certification and enter into Medicare and Medicaid provider agreements and/or third party payor contracts. In the event that the operator is unable to obtain the necessary CON, licensure, certification, provider agreements or contracts after the completion of construction, there is a risk that we will not be able to earn any revenues on the facility until either the initial operator obtains a license or certification to operate the new facility and the necessary provider agreements or contracts or we find and contract with a new operator that is able to obtain a license to operate the facility for its intended use and the necessary provider agreements or contracts.

 

     In connection with our renovation, redevelopment, development and related construction activities, we may be unable to obtain, or suffer delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental permits and authorizations. These factors could result in increased costs or our abandonment of these projects. In addition, we may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms, which may render us unable to proceed with our development activities, and we may not be able to complete construction and lease-up of a property on schedule, which could result in increased debt service expense or construction costs. Additionally, the time frame required for development, construction and lease-up of these properties means that we may have to wait years for significant cash returns. Because we are required to make cash distributions to our stockholders, if the cash flow from operations or refinancing is not sufficient, we may be forced to borrow additional money to fund such distributions. Newly developed and acquired properties may not produce the cash flow that we expect, which could adversely affect our overall financial performance.

 

     In deciding whether to acquire or develop a particular property, we make assumptions regarding the expected future performance of that property. In particular, we estimate the return on our investment based on expected occupancy, rental rates and capital costs. If our financial projections with respect to a new property are inaccurate as a result of increases in capital costs or other factors, the property may fail to perform as we expected in analyzing our investment. Our estimate of the costs of repositioning or redeveloping an acquired property may prove to be inaccurate, which may result in our failure to meet our profitability goals. Additionally, we may acquire new properties that are not fully leased, and the cash flow from existing operations may be insufficient to pay the operating expenses and debt service associated with that property.

 

We may experience losses caused by severe weather conditions or natural disasters, which could result in an increase of our or our tenants’ cost of insurance, a decrease in our anticipated revenues or a significant loss of the capital we have invested in a property

 

     We maintain or require our tenants to maintain comprehensive insurance coverage on our properties with terms, conditions, limits and deductibles that we believe are appropriate given the relative risk and costs of such coverage, and we continually review our insurance programs and requirements. However, a large number of our properties are located in areas particularly susceptible to revenue loss, cost increase or damage caused by severe weather conditions or natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes and floods. We believe, given current industry practice and analysis prepared by outside consultants, that our and our tenants’ insurance coverage is appropriate to cover reasonably anticipated losses that may be caused by hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods and other severe weather conditions and natural disasters. Nevertheless, we are always subject to the risk that such insurance will not fully cover all losses and, depending on the severity of the event and the impact on our properties, such insurance may not cover a significant portion of the losses. These losses may lead to an increase of our and our tenants’ cost of insurance, a decrease in our anticipated revenues from an affected property and a loss of all or a portion of the capital we have invested in an affected property.  In addition, we or our tenants may not purchase insurance under certain circumstances if the cost of insurance exceeds, in our or our tenants’ judgment, the value of the coverage relative to the risk of loss.

 

We may incur costs to remediate environmental contamination at our properties, which could have an adverse effect on our or our obligors’ business or financial condition

 

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     Under various federal and state laws, owners or operators of real estate may be required to respond to the presence or release of hazardous substances on the property and may be held liable for property damage, personal injuries or penalties that result from environmental contamination or exposure to hazardous substances. We may become liable to reimburse the government for damages and costs it incurs in connection with the contamination. Generally, such liability attaches to a person based on the person’s relationship to the property. Our tenants or borrowers are primarily responsible for the condition of the property. Moreover, we review environmental site assessments of the properties that we own or encumber prior to taking an interest in them. Those assessments are designed to meet the “all appropriate inquiry” standard, which we believe qualifies us for the innocent purchaser defense if environmental liabilities arise. Based upon such assessments, we do not believe that any of our properties are subject to material environmental contamination. However, environmental liabilities may be present in our properties and we may incur costs to remediate contamination, which could have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition or the business or financial condition of our obligors.

 

Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt our business and result in the loss of confidential information

 

     Our business is at risk from and may be impacted by cybersecurity attacks, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to our confidential data, and other electronic security breaches. Such cyber attacks can range from individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to our information technology systems to more sophisticated security threats. While we employ a number of measures to prevent, detect and mitigate these threats, there is no guarantee such efforts will be successful in preventing a cyber attack. Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt our business and compromise the confidential information of our employees, operators and tenants.

 

Actual or threatened terrorist attacks could adversely affect the occupancy and the value of our properties

 

     We have significant investments in large metropolitan markets that have been or may be in the future the targets of actual or threatened terrorism attacks, including Boston, Chicago, New York, San Diego, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Washington D.C.  As a result, some of our tenants in these markets may choose to relocate to other markets that may be perceived to be less likely targets of future terrorist activity.  This could result in an overall decrease in the occupancy of our properties.  In addition, terrorist attacks could also result in significant damages to, or loss of, our properties, which could exceed our insurance coverage.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws contain anti-takeover provisions

 

     Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws contain anti-takeover provisions (restrictions on share ownership and transfer and super majority stockholder approval requirements for business combinations) that could make it more difficult for or even prevent a third party from acquiring us without the approval of our incumbent Board of Directors. Provisions and agreements that inhibit or discourage takeover attempts could reduce the market value of our common stock.

 

Our success depends on key personnel whose continued service is not guaranteed

 

     We are dependent on key personnel. Although we have entered into employment agreements with our executive officers, losing any one of them could, at least temporarily, have an adverse impact on our operations. We believe that losing more than one could have a material adverse impact on our business.

 

Risks Arising from Our Capital Structure

 

We may become more leveraged

 

     Permanent financing for our investments is typically provided through a combination of public offerings of debt and equity securities and the incurrence or assumption of secured debt. The incurrence or assumption of indebtedness may cause us to become more leveraged, which could (1) require us to dedicate a greater portion of our cash flow to the payment of debt service, (2) make us more vulnerable to a downturn in the economy, (3) limit our ability to obtain additional financing, or (4) negatively affect our credit ratings or outlook by one or more of the rating agencies.

 

We are subject to covenants in our debt agreements that may restrict or limit our operations and acquisitions and our failure to comply with the covenants in our debt agreements could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition

 

     Our debt agreements contain various covenants, restrictions and events of default. Among other things, these provisions require us to maintain certain financial ratios and minimum net worth and impose certain limits on our ability to incur indebtedness, create liens and make investments or acquisitions. Breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the

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applicable indebtedness, in addition to any other indebtedness cross-defaulted against such instruments. These defaults could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Limitations on our ability to access capital could have an adverse effect on our ability to make future investments or to meet our obligations and commitments

 

     We cannot assure you that we will be able to raise the capital necessary to make future investments or to meet our obligations and commitments as they mature.  Our access to capital depends upon a number of factors over which we have little or no control, including rising interest rates, inflation and other general market conditions; the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions; the market price of the shares of our capital stock and the credit ratings of our debt securities; the financial stability of our lenders, which might impair their ability to meet their commitments to us or their willingness to make additional loans to us; changes in the credit ratings on U.S. government debt securities; or default or delay in payment by the United States of its obligations. If our access to capital is limited by these factors or other factors, it could negatively impact our ability to acquire properties, repay or refinance our indebtedness, fund operations or make distributions to our stockholders.

 

Downgrades in our credit ratings could have a material adverse impact on our cost and availability of capital

 

     We plan to manage the Company to maintain a capital structure consistent with our current profile, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our current credit ratings. Any downgrades in terms of ratings or outlook by any or all of the rating agencies could have a material adverse impact on our cost and availability of capital, which could in turn have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition.

 

Fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position

 

     As we expand our operations internationally, currency exchange rate fluctuations could affect our results of operations and financial position. We expect to generate an increasing portion of our revenue and expenses in such foreign currencies as the Canadian dollar and the British pound. Although we may enter into foreign exchange agreements with financial institutions and/or obtain local currency mortgage debt in order to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies, we cannot assure you that foreign currency fluctuations will not have a material adverse effect on us.

 

Our entry into swap agreements may not effectively reduce our exposure to changes in interest rates or foreign currency exchange rates

 

     We enter into swap agreements from time to time to manage some of our exposure to interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate volatility. These swap agreements involve risks, such as the risk that counterparties may fail to honor their obligations under these arrangements. In addition, these arrangements may not be effective in reducing our exposure to changes in interest rates or foreign currency exchange rates. When we use forward-starting interest rate swaps, there is a risk that we will not complete the long-term borrowing against which the swap is intended to hedge. If such events occur, our results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

Risks Arising from Our Status as a REIT

 

We might fail to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT

 

     We intend to operate as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and believe we have and will continue to operate in such a manner. If we lose our status as a REIT, we will face serious income tax consequences that will substantially reduce the funds available for satisfying our obligations and for distribution to our stockholders because:

          we would not be allowed a deduction for distributions to stockholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates;

          we could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax and possibly increased state and local taxes; and

          unless we are entitled to relief under statutory provisions, we could not elect to be subject to tax as a REIT for four taxable years following the year during which we were disqualified.

 

     Since REIT qualification requires us to meet a number of complex requirements, it is possible that we may fail to fulfill them, and if we do, our earnings will be reduced by the amount of U.S. federal and other income taxes owed. A reduction in our earnings would affect the amount we could distribute to our stockholders. If we do not qualify as a REIT, we would not be required to make distributions to stockholders since a non-REIT is not required to pay dividends to stockholders in order to maintain REIT status or avoid an excise tax. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations” above for a discussion of the provisions of the Code that apply to us and the effects of failure to qualify as a REIT. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, all distributions to stockholders would continue to be treated as dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and

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profits, although corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction, and individual stockholders may be eligible for taxation at the rates generally applicable to long-term capital gains (currently at a maximum rate of 20%) with respect to distributions.

 

     As a result of all these factors, our failure to qualify as a REIT also could impair our ability to implement our business strategy and would adversely affect the value of our common stock. Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. The determination of various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control may affect our ability to remain qualified as a REIT. Although we believe that we qualify as a REIT, we cannot assure you that we will continue to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations” above.

 

Certain subsidiaries might fail to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT

 

     We own interests in a number of entities which have elected to be taxed as REITs for federal income tax purposes, some of which we consolidate for financial reporting purposes but each of which is treated as a separate REIT for federal income tax purposes (each a “Subsidiary REIT”).  To qualify as a REIT, each Subsidiary REIT must independently satisfy all of the REIT qualification requirements under the Code, together with all other rules applicable to REITs.  Provided that each Subsidiary REIT qualifies as a REIT, our interests in the Subsidiary REITs will be treated as qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests.  See “Item 1 – Business – Taxation – Federal Income Tax Considerations – Qualification as a REIT – Asset Tests” above.  If a Subsidiary REIT fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, such Subsidiary REIT will be subject to federal and state income taxes and may not be able to qualify as a REIT for the four subsequent taxable years.  Any such failure could have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus our ability to qualify as a REIT, unless we are able to avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.

 

The 90% annual distribution requirement will decrease our liquidity and may limit our ability to engage in otherwise beneficial transactions

 

     To comply with the 90% distribution requirement applicable to REITs and to avoid the nondeductible excise tax, we must make distributions to our stockholders. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations — Qualification as a REIT — Annual Distribution Requirements” above. Although we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement, it is possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the 90% distribution requirement, or we may decide to retain cash or distribute such greater amount as may be necessary to avoid income and excise taxation. This may be due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, on the one hand, and the inclusion of that income and deduction of those expenses in arriving at our taxable income, on the other hand. In addition, non-deductible expenses such as principal amortization or repayments or capital expenditures in excess of non-cash deductions may cause us to fail to have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the 90% distribution requirement. In the event that timing differences occur, or we deem it appropriate to retain cash, we may borrow funds, issue additional equity securities (although we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so), pay taxable stock dividends, if possible, distribute other property or securities or engage in another transaction intended to enable us to meet the REIT distribution requirements. This may require us to raise additional capital to meet our obligations.

 

The lease of qualified health care properties to a taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to special requirements

 

     We lease certain qualified health care properties to taxable REIT subsidiaries (or limited liability companies of which the taxable REIT subsidiaries are members), which lessees contract with managers (or related parties) to manage the health care operations at these properties. The rents from this taxable REIT subsidiary lessee structure are treated as qualifying rents from real property if (1) they are paid pursuant to an arms-length lease of a qualified health care property with a taxable REIT subsidiary and (2) the manager qualifies as an eligible independent contractor (as defined in the Code). If any of these conditions are not satisfied, then the rents will not be qualifying rents. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations — Qualification as a REIT — Income Tests” above.

 

If certain sale-leaseback transactions are not characterized by the Internal Revenue Service as “true leases,” we may be subject to adverse tax consequences

 

     We have purchased certain properties and leased them back to the sellers of such properties, and we may enter into similar transactions in the future. We intend for any such sale-leaseback transaction to be structured in such a manner that the lease will be characterized as a “true lease,” thereby allowing us to be treated as the owner of the property for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, depending on the terms of any specific transaction, the Internal Revenue Service might take the position that the transaction is not a “true lease” but is more properly treated in some other manner. In the event any sale-leaseback transaction is challenged and successfully re-characterized by the Internal Revenue Service, we would not be entitled to claim the deductions for depreciation and

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cost recovery generally available to an owner of property. Furthermore, if a sale-leaseback transaction were so re-characterized, we might fail to satisfy the REIT asset tests or income tests and, consequently, could lose our REIT status effective with the year of re-characterization. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations — Qualification as a REIT — Asset Tests” and “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations — Qualification as a REIT — Income Tests” above. Alternatively, the amount of our REIT taxable income could be recalculated, which may cause us to fail to meet the REIT annual distribution requirements for a taxable year. See “Item 1 — Business — Taxation — Federal Income Tax Considerations — Qualification as a REIT — Annual Distribution Requirements” above.

 

The new Presidential Administration may propose substantial changes to fiscal and tax policies that, if enacted, may adversely affect REITs and our business

 

     The recently inaugurated U.S. President and his Administration have called for substantial changes to fiscal and tax policies, which may include comprehensive tax reform. We cannot predict the impact, if any, of such tax reform to REITs or to our business.  It is possible that any comprehensive tax reform could adversely affect REITs in general or our business specifically.  Until any such tax reform changes are enacted, we will not know whether we will benefit from, or will be negatively affected by, such changes.

  

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

34


 

 

Item 2.  Properties 

 

We own our corporate headquarters located at 4500 Dorr Street, Toledo, Ohio 43615. We also lease corporate offices in Canada, the United Kingdom and Luxembourg and have ground leases relating to certain of our properties. The following table sets forth certain information regarding the properties that comprise our consolidated real property and real estate loan investments as of December 31, 2016 (dollars in thousands and annualized revenues adjusted for timing of investment):

 

 

 

 

Triple-Net

 

Seniors Housing Operating

Property Location

 

Number of Properties

 

Total Investment

 

Annualized Revenues

 

Number of Properties

 

Total Investment

 

Annualized Revenues

 

Alabama

 

4

 

$

35,149

 

$

3,856

 

-

 

$

-

 

$

-

 

Arizona

 

2

 

 

26,126

 

 

2,237

 

4

 

 

60,346

 

 

22,075

 

California

 

28

 

 

506,530

 

 

54,595

 

69

 

 

2,564,855

 

 

585,482

 

Colorado

 

7

 

 

241,603

 

 

21,311

 

5

 

 

140,940

 

 

40,800

 

Connecticut

 

14

 

 

178,295

 

 

21,102

 

15

 

 

391,695

 

 

126,697

 

District Of Columbia

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

1

 

 

63,194

 

 

14,544

 

Delaware

 

6

 

 

105,106

 

 

15,537

 

1

 

 

21,160

 

 

6,268

 

Florida

 

34

 

 

585,009

 

 

48,896

 

6

 

 

550,064

 

 

78,566

 

Georgia

 

8

 

 

98,973

 

 

11,019

 

7

 

 

122,512

 

 

36,955

 

Iowa

 

4

 

 

56,783

 

 

5,346

 

1

 

 

32,434

 

 

10,068

 

Idaho

 

2

 

 

32,254

 

 

3,564

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Illinois

 

12

 

 

259,844

 

 

25,446

 

14

 

 

448,055

 

 

114,224

 

Indiana

 

37

 

 

519,632

 

 

54,568

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Kansas

 

29

 

 

267,942

 

 

24,639

 

3

 

 

70,132

 

 

17,262

 

Kentucky

 

7

 

 

74,482

 

 

10,037

 

2

 

 

38,805

 

 

13,096

 

Louisiana

 

3

 

 

20,260

 

 

3,369

 

2

 

 

50,879

 

 

12,278

 

Massachusetts

 

21

 

 

226,246

 

 

31,814

 

39

 

 

1,159,025

 

 

224,522

 

Maryland

 

8

 

 

144,638

 

 

8,829

 

4

 

 

153,359

 

 

47,671

 

Maine

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

2

 

 

49,790

 

 

17,831

 

Michigan

 

6

 

 

99,727

 

 

9,989

 

5

 

 

110,532

 

 

26,436

 

Minnesota

 

9

 

 

205,989

 

 

17,162

 

4

 

 

113,982

 

 

23,538

 

Missouri

 

2

 

 

28,164

 

 

870

 

4

 

 

134,202

 

 

20,225

 

Mississippi

 

3

 

 

27,446

 

 

3,241

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Montana

 

1

 

 

6,050

 

 

959

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

North Carolina

 

49

 

 

359,869

 

 

33,706

 

1

 

 

40,413

 

 

7,181

 

Nebraska

 

4

 

 

32,988

 

 

4,067

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

New Hampshire

 

4

 

 

52,757

 

 

19,578

 

4

 

 

118,242

 

 

28,647

 

New Jersey

 

56

 

 

1,238,636

 

 

131,635

 

8

 

 

239,091

 

 

65,946

 

New Mexico

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

1

 

 

18,606

 

 

1,496

 

Nevada

 

5

 

 

83,529

 

 

12,519

 

2

 

 

36,658

 

 

10,576

 

New York

 

9

 

 

197,196

 

 

38,570

 

11

 

 

468,303

 

 

85,404

 

Ohio

 

28

 

 

222,137

 

 

41,569

 

4

 

 

193,825

 

 

37,672

 

Oklahoma

 

19

 

 

175,095

 

 

13,864

 

2

 

 

40,441

 

 

3,864

 

Oregon

 

10

 

 

76,035

 

 

6,741

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Pennsylvania

 

31

 

 

911,973

 

 

90,347

 

6

 

 

81,188

 

 

39,484

 

Rhode Island

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

4,603

 

3

 

 

60,107

 

 

20,290

 

South Carolina

 

5

 

 

33,116

 

 

5,656

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Tennessee

 

4

 

 

40,926

 

 

3,600

 

2

 

 

50,044

 

 

15,624

 

Texas

 

47

 

 

631,977

 

 

66,283

 

20

 

 

593,826

 

 

118,877

 

Utah

 

2

 

 

30,908

 

 

2,533

 

1

 

 

16,892

 

 

10,796

 

Virginia

 

13

 

 

181,903

 

 

19,166

 

2

 

 

37,677

 

 

11,252

 

Vermont

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

2,680

 

1

 

 

27,428

 

 

6,405

 

Washington

 

24

 

 

444,970

 

 

45,324

 

12

 

 

410,424

 

 

74,123

 

Wisconsin

 

8

 

 

130,602

 

 

15,138

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

West Virginia

 

4

 

 

68,678

 

 

19,591

 

-

 

 

-

 

 

-

 

Total domestic

 

569

 

 

8,659,543

 

 

955,556

 

268

 

 

8,709,126

 

 

1,976,175

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canada

 

6

 

 

153,544

 

 

10,530

 

104

 

 

2,058,447

 

 

427,444

 

United Kingdom

 

56

 

 

996,194

 

 

88,262

 

48

 

 

1,291,441

 

 

273,270

 

Total international

 

62

 

 

1,149,738

 

 

98,792

 

152

 

 

3,349,888

 

 

700,714

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grand total

 

631

 

$

9,809,281

 

$

1,054,348

 

420

 

$

12,059,014

 

$

2,676,889

  

35


 

 

 

 

 

Outpatient Medical

Property Location

 

Number of Properties

 

Total Investment

 

Annualized Revenues

 

Alaska

 

1

 

$

21,859

 

$

2,562

 

Alabama

 

3

 

 

30,531

 

 

5,233

 

Arkansas

 

1

 

 

22,845

 

 

2,079

 

Arizona

 

4

 

 

65,537

 

 

8,466

 

California

 

29

 

 

841,277

 

 

80,417

 

Colorado

 

3

 

 

29,924

 

 

4,097

 

Connecticut

 

1

 

 

41,153

 

 

2,318

 

Florida

 

33

 

 

400,031

 

 

48,218

 

Georgia

 

10

 

 

175,245

 

 

24,572

 

Iowa

 

1

 

 

6,794

 

 

1,653

 

Illinois

 

5

 

 

51,613

 

 

8,920

 

Indiana

 

8

 

 

146,612

 

 

18,383

 

Kansas

 

7

 

 

75,300

 

 

12,673

 

Kentucky

 

1

 

 

7,677

 

 

752

 

Maryland

 

5

 

 

85,994

 

 

13,394

 

Maine

 

1

 

 

20,470

 

 

2,980

 

Michigan

 

2

 

 

22,315

 

 

1,931

 

Minnesota

 

8

 

 

172,680

 

 

28,877

 

Missouri

 

7

 

 

142,631

 

 

18,383

 

North Carolina

 

3

 

 

55,776

 

 

7,199

 

Nebraska

 

2

 

 

35,186

 

 

5,465

 

New Hampshire

 

1

 

 

14,009

 

 

806

 

New Jersey

 

7

 

 

205,118

 

 

42,169

 

New Mexico

 

3

 

 

33,235

 

 

3,715

 

Nevada

 

5

 

 

45,069

 

 

4,194

 

New York

 

8

 

 

102,417

 

 

6,849

 

Ohio

 

7

 

 

67,209

 

 

11,365

 

Oklahoma

 

2

 

 

24,987

 

 

3,262

 

Oregon

 

1

 

 

9,506

 

 

1,575

 

South Carolina

 

1

 

 

25,853

 

 

2,138

 

Tennessee

 

7

 

 

78,058

 

 

10,499

 

Texas

 

53

 

 

891,821

 

 

97,226

 

Virginia

 

2

 

 

33,073

 

 

5,103

 

Washington

 

6

 

 

179,100

 

 

20,751

 

Wisconsin

 

20

 

 

267,226

 

 

27,991

 

Total domestic

 

258

 

 

4,428,131

 

 

536,215

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Kingdom

 

4

 

 

267,204

 

 

23,849

 

Grand total

 

262

 

$

4,695,335

 

$

560,064

 

The following table sets forth occupancy, coverages and average annualized revenues for certain property types (excluding investments in unconsolidated entities):

 

 

Occupancy(1)

 

Coverages(1,2)

 

Average Annualized Revenues(3)

 

 

 

 

2016

 

2015

 

2016

 

2015

 

2016

 

2015

 

 

Triple-net(4)

 

86.5%

 

87.2%

 

 1.43x  

 

1.49x

 

$

16,841

 

$

15,966

 

per bed/unit

Seniors housing operating(5)

 

88.7%

 

91.2%

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

 

59,627

 

 

60,260

 

per unit

Outpatient medical(6)

 

94.7%

 

95.1%

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

 

33

 

 

32

 

per sq. ft.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) We use unaudited, periodic financial information provided solely by tenants/borrowers to calculate occupancy and coverages for properties other than medical office buildings and have not independently verified the information.

(2) Represents the ratio of our triple-net customers' earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, rent and management fees to contractual rent or interest due us. Data reflects the 12 months ended September 30 for the periods presented.

(3) Represents annualized revenues divided by total beds, units or square feet as presented in the tables above.

(4) Occupancy represents average quarterly operating occupancy based on the quarters ended September 30 and excludes properties that are unstabilized, closed or for which data is not available or meaningful.

(5) Occupancy for seniors housing operating represents average occupancy for the three months ended December 31.

(6) Outpatient medical facilities occupancy represents the percentage of total rentable square feet leased and occupied (including month-to-month and holdover leases and excluding terminations) as of December 31.

  

36


 

 

The following table sets forth information regarding lease expirations for certain portions of our portfolio as of December 31, 2016 (dollars in thousands):

 

 

 

 

Expiration Year

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

 

2024

 

 

2025

 

 

2026

 

 

Thereafter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triple-net:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Properties

 

 

30

 

 

51

 

 

0

 

 

14

 

 

12

 

 

7

 

 

4

 

 

5

 

 

61

 

 

32

 

 

368

  

Base rent(1)

 

$

12,936

 

$

37,120

 

$

0

 

$

17,740

 

$

24,906

 

$

7,295

 

$

4,175

 

$

11,076

 

$

72,866

 

$

64,361

 

$

665,719

 

% of base rent

 

 

1.4%

 

 

4.0%

 

 

0.0%

 

 

1.9%

 

 

2.7%

 

 

0.8%

 

 

0.5%

 

 

1.2%

 

 

7.9%

 

 

7.0%

 

 

72.5%

 

Units

 

 

1,165

 

 

3,151

 

 

0

 

 

1,225

 

 

2,289

 

 

690

 

 

317

 

 

762

 

 

4,538

 

 

3,724

 

 

39,644

 

% of units

 

 

2.0%

 

 

5.5%

 

 

0.0%

 

 

2.1%

 

 

4.0%

 

 

1.2%

 

 

0.6%

 

 

1.3%

 

 

7.9%

 

 

6.5%

 

 

68.9%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outpatient medical:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Square feet

 

 

1,253,812

 

 

923,728

 

 

1,171,476

 

 

1,153,444

 

 

1,442,424

 

 

2,297,626

 

 

1,168,037

 

 

1,347,883

 

 

669,305

 

 

1,064,151

 

 

3,684,305

  

Base rent(1)

 

$

32,570

 

$

23,952

 

$

30,651

 

$

30,505

 

$

38,660

 

$

48,713

 

$

28,635

 

$

37,287

 

$

18,552

 

$

27,262

 

$

83,817

 

% of base rent

 

 

8.1%

 

 

6.0%

 

 

7.7%

 

 

7.6%

 

 

9.7%

 

 

12.2%

 

 

7.1%

 

 

9.3%

 

 

4.6%

 

 

6.8%

 

 

20.9%

 

Leases

 

 

337

 

 

263

 

 

296

 

 

259

 

 

255

 

 

222

 

 

171

 

 

100

 

 

91

 

 

119

 

 

125

 

% of leases

 

 

15.1%

 

 

11.8%

 

 

13.2%

 

 

11.6%

 

 

11.4%

 

 

9.9%

 

 

7.6%

 

 

4.5%

 

 

4.1%

 

 

5.3%

 

 

5.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) The most recent monthly base rent including straight line for leases with fixed escalators or annual cash rents with contingent escalators.  Base rent does not include tenant recoveries or amortization of above and below market lease intangibles.

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

 

     From time to time, there are various legal proceedings pending against us that arise in the ordinary course of our business.  Management does not believe that the resolution of any of these legal proceedings either individually or in the aggregate will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.  Despite management’s view of the ultimate resolution of these legal proceedings, we may have significant legal expenses and costs associated with the defense of such matters.  Further, management cannot predict the outcome of these legal proceedings and if management’s expectation regarding such matters is not correct, such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. 

 

     From time to time, we are party to certain legal proceedings for which third parties, such as tenants, operators and/or managers are contractually obligated to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless.  In some of these matters, the indemnitors have insurance for the potential damages.  In other matters, we are being defended by tenants and other obligated third parties and these indemnitors may not have sufficient insurance, assets, income or resources to satisfy their defense and indemnification obligations to us.  The unfavorable resolution of such legal proceedings could, individually or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect the indemnitors’ ability to satisfy their respective obligations to us, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.  It is management’s opinion that there are currently no such legal proceedings pending that will, individually or in the aggregate, have such a material adverse effect.

  

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

 

None.

 

PART II

 

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

There were 5,066 stockholders of record as of January 31, 2017. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low prices of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE:HCN), and common dividends paid per share:

  

 

 

  

Sales Price

 

Dividends Paid

 

 

  

High

 

Low

 

Per Share

2016

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

  

$

70.45

 

$

52.80

 

$

0.86

 

Second Quarter

  

 

76.24

 

 

66.55

 

 

0.86

 

Third Quarter

  

 

80.19

 

 

72.34

 

 

0.86

 

Fourth Quarter

  

 

74.85

 

 

59.39

 

 

0.86

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2015

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

  

$

84.88

 

$

73.20

 

$

0.825

 

Second Quarter

  

 

79.60

 

 

65.48

 

 

0.825

 

Third Quarter

  

 

70.22

 

 

61.00

 

 

0.825