10-K 1 oxm-020318x10xk.htm OXM 10-K 02.03.18 Document




UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended February 3, 2018
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                    to                                   
Commission File Number: 1-4365
OXFORD INDUSTRIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Georgia
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
58-0831862
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
999 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 688, Atlanta, Georgia 30309
 (Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
 (404) 659-2424
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ý
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý
As of July 28, 2017, which is the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based upon the closing price for the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on that date) was $917,164,180. For purposes of this calculation only, shares of voting stock directly and indirectly attributable to executive officers, directors and holders of 10% or more of the registrant's voting stock (based on Schedule 13G filings made as of or prior to July 28, 2017) are excluded. This determination of affiliate status and the calculation of the shares held by any such person are not necessarily conclusive determinations for other purposes.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Title of Each Class
 
Number of Shares Outstanding
as of March 16, 2018
Common Stock, $1 par value
 
16,838,512
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of our proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Oxford Industries, Inc. to be held on June 20, 2018 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.




Table of Contents
 
 
Page
 




CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Our SEC filings and public announcements may include forward-looking statements about future events. Generally, the words "believe," "expect," "intend," "estimate," "anticipate," "project," "will" and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements, which generally are not historical in nature. We intend for all forward-looking statements contained herein, in our press releases or on our website, and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf, to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and the provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (which Sections were adopted as part of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995). Such statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions including, without limitation, competitive conditions, which may be impacted by evolving consumer shopping patterns; the impact of economic conditions on consumer demand and spending for apparel and related products; demand for our products; timing of shipments requested by our wholesale customers; expected pricing levels; retention of and disciplined execution by key management; the timing and cost of store openings and of planned capital expenditures; weather; changes in international, federal or state tax, trade and other laws and regulations; costs of products as well as the raw materials used in those products; costs of labor; acquisition and disposition activities; expected outcomes of pending or potential litigation and regulatory actions; access to capital and/or credit markets; our ability to timely recognize our expected synergies from any acquisitions we pursue; and factors that could affect our consolidated effective tax rate, including the impact of U.S. Tax Reform. Forward-looking statements reflect our expectations at the time such forward looking statements are made, based on information available at such time, and are not guarantees of performance. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, these expectations could prove inaccurate as such statements involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our ability to control or predict. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties, or other risks or uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial, materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. Important factors relating to these risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this report and those described from time to time in our future reports filed with the SEC. We caution that one should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. We disclaim any intention, obligation or duty to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
DEFINITIONS
As used in this report, unless the context requires otherwise, "our," "us" or "we" means Oxford Industries, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries; "SG&A" means selling, general and administrative expenses; "SEC" means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission; "FASB" means Financial Accounting Standards Board; "ASC" means the FASB Accounting Standards Codification; "GAAP" means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States; "discontinued operations" means the assets and operations of our former Ben Sherman operating group which we sold in Fiscal 2015; and "U.S. Tax Reform" means the United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act as enacted on December 22, 2017. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses or other information in this report reflect continuing operations and exclude any amounts related to the discontinued operations of our former Ben Sherman operating group. Additionally, the terms listed below reflect the respective period noted:
Fiscal 2018
52 weeks ending February 2, 2019
Fiscal 2017
53 weeks ended February 3, 2018
Fiscal 2016
52 weeks ended January 28, 2017
Fiscal 2015
52 weeks ended January 30, 2016
Fiscal 2014
52 weeks ended January 31, 2015
Fiscal 2013
52 weeks ended February 1, 2014
Fourth quarter Fiscal 2017
14 weeks ended February 3, 2018
Third quarter Fiscal 2017
13 weeks ended October 28, 2017
Second quarter Fiscal 2017
13 weeks ended July 29, 2017
First quarter Fiscal 2017
13 weeks ended April 29, 2017
Fourth quarter Fiscal 2016
13 weeks ended January 28, 2017
Third quarter Fiscal 2016
13 weeks ended October 29, 2016
Second quarter Fiscal 2016
13 weeks ended July 30, 2016
First quarter Fiscal 2016
13 weeks ended April 30, 2016

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PART I

Item 1.    Business
BUSINESS AND PRODUCTS
Overview
We are a global apparel company that designs, sources, markets and distributes products bearing the trademarks of our Tommy Bahama®, Lilly Pulitzer® and Southern Tide® lifestyle brands, other owned brands and licensed brands as well as private label apparel products. During Fiscal 2017, 92% of our net sales were from products bearing brands that we own and 66% of our net sales were through our direct to consumer channels of distribution. In Fiscal 2017, 97% of our consolidated net sales were to customers located in the United States, with the sales outside the United States consisting primarily of our Tommy Bahama product sales in Canada and the Asia-Pacific region.
Our business strategy is to develop and market compelling lifestyle brands and products that evoke a strong emotional response from our target consumers. We consider lifestyle brands to be those brands that have a clearly defined and targeted point of view inspired by an appealing lifestyle or attitude.  Furthermore, we believe lifestyle brands that create an emotional connection with consumers, like Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, can command greater loyalty and higher price points at retail and create licensing opportunities, which may drive higher earnings. We believe the attraction of a lifestyle brand depends on creating compelling product, effectively communicating the respective lifestyle brand message and distributing products to consumers where and when they want them. 
Our ability to compete successfully in styling and marketing is directly related to our proficiency in foreseeing changes and trends in fashion and consumer preference, and presenting appealing products for consumers.  Our design-led, commercially informed lifestyle brand operations strive to provide exciting, differentiated products each season.
To further strengthen each lifestyle brand's connections with consumers, we directly communicate with consumers through digital and print media on a regular basis.  We believe our ability to effectively communicate the images, lifestyle and products of our brands and create an emotional connection with consumers is critical to the success of the brands. Our advertising for our brands often attempts to convey the lifestyle of the brand as well as a specific product.
We distribute our owned lifestyle branded products primarily through our direct to consumer channels, consisting of our Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer retail stores and our e-commerce sites for Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, and through our wholesale distribution channels. Our direct to consumer operations provide us with the opportunity to interact directly with our customers, present to them a broad assortment of our current season products and immerse them in the theme of the lifestyle brand. We believe that presenting our products in a setting specifically designed to showcase the lifestyle on which the brands are based enhances the image of our brands. Our 128 Tommy Bahama and 57 Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores provide high visibility for our brands and products and allow us to stay close to the preferences of our consumers, while also providing a platform for long-term growth for the brands. In Tommy Bahama, we also operate 18 Tommy Bahama restaurants, including Marlin Bars, generally adjacent to a Tommy Bahama full-price retail store location, which we believe further enhance the brand's image with consumers. Additionally, we operate 38 Tommy Bahama outlet stores, which play an important role in overall inventory and brand management by disposing of any excess inventory. During Fiscal 2017, our retail, e-commerce and restaurant operations represented 39%, 19% and 8%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales.
The wholesale operations of our lifestyle brands complement our direct to consumer operations and provide access to a larger group of consumers. As we seek to maintain the integrity of our lifestyle brands by limiting promotional activity in our full-price retail stores and e-commerce websites, we generally target wholesale customers that follow this same approach in their stores. Our wholesale customers for our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide brands generally include various specialty stores, including Signature Stores for Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, better department stores and multi-branded e-commerce retailers. Within our Lanier Apparel operating group, we sell tailored clothing and sportswear products under licensed brands, private labels and owned brands. Lanier Apparel's customers include department stores, discount and off-price retailers, warehouse clubs, national chains, specialty retailers and others throughout the United States.
All of our operating groups operate in highly competitive apparel markets in which numerous U.S. and foreign-based apparel firms compete. No single apparel firm or small group of apparel firms dominates the apparel industry, and our direct competitors vary by operating group and distribution channel. We believe the principal competitive factors in the apparel industry are reputation, value, and image of brand names; design; consumer preference; price; quality; marketing; product fulfillment capabilities; and customer service.


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The disposal of discontinued, end of season or excess inventory is an ongoing part of any apparel business, and our operating groups have historically utilized a variety of methods to sell such inventory, including outlet stores in Tommy Bahama, e-commerce flash sales on our various e-commerce websites, and off-price retailers. Our focus in disposing of the excess inventory for our lifestyle brands is to do so in a brand appropriate setting and achieve an acceptable margin.

The apparel industry is cyclical and very dependent upon the overall level and focus of discretionary consumer spending, which changes as consumer preferences and regional, domestic and international economic conditions change. Increasingly, consumers are choosing to spend less of their discretionary spending on certain product categories, including apparel, while spending more on services and other product categories. Further, negative economic conditions often have a longer and more severe impact on the apparel industry than on other industries.  We believe the changes in consumer preferences for discretionary spending, the current global economic conditions and economic uncertainty continue to impact the business of each of our operating groups, and the apparel industry as a whole.

We believe the retail apparel market is evolving very rapidly and in ways that are having a disruptive impact on traditional fashion retailing. The application of technology, including the internet and mobile devices, to fashion retail provides consumers increasing access to multiple, responsive distribution platforms and an unprecedented ability to communicate directly with brands and retailers. As a result, consumers may have more information and greater control over information they receive as well as broader, faster and cheaper access to goods than ever before. This, along with the coming of age of the “millennial” generation, is revolutionizing the way that consumers shop for fashion and other goods.  The evidence of the evolution is apparent with weakness and store closures for certain department stores and mall-based retailers, decreased consumer retail traffic, a more promotional retail environment, expansion of off-price and discount retailers, and a shift from bricks and mortar to internet purchasing. These changes may require that brands and retailers approach their operations, including marketing and advertising, differently than methods used historically.
Important factors relating to certain risks, many of which are beyond our ability to control or predict, which could impact our business are described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this report.
Investments and Opportunities

While the evolution in the fashion retail industry presents significant risks, especially for traditional retailers who fail or are unable to adapt, we believe it also presents a tremendous opportunity for brands and retailers to capitalize on the changing consumer environment. We believe our brands have true competitive advantages in this new retailing paradigm, and we are leveraging technology to serve our consumers when and where they want to be served. We continue to believe that our lifestyle brands, with their strong emotional connections with consumers, are well suited to succeed and thrive in the long-term while managing the various challenges facing our industry.

Specifically, we believe our lifestyle brands have opportunities for long-term growth in their direct to consumer businesses. We anticipate increased sales in our e-commerce operations, which are expected to grow at a faster rate than bricks and mortar comparable store sales. We also believe growth can be achieved through prudent expansion of bricks and mortar full-price retail store operations and modest comparable full-price retail store sales increases. Despite the changes in the retail environment, we expect there will continue to be desirable locations for additional stores.

We believe our lifestyle brands have an opportunity for modest sales increases in their wholesale businesses in the long-term.  However, we must be diligent in our effort to avoid compromising the integrity of our brands by maintaining or growing sales with wholesale customers that may not be aligned with our long-term strategy. This is particularly important with the challenges in the department store channel, which represented approximately 14% of our consolidated net sales in Fiscal 2017, compared to approximately 16% in Fiscal 2016.  As a result, this management of our wholesale distribution for our lifestyle brands is likely to result in lower wholesale sales in Fiscal 2018, as well as in the near-term future, as we may reduce the amount of sales to certain wholesale accounts by reducing the number of doors that carry our product, reducing the volume sold for a particular door or exiting the account altogether.  We anticipate that sales increases in our wholesale businesses in the long-term will stem primarily from current customers adding within their existing door count and increasing their online business; increased sales to online retailers; and our selective addition of new wholesale customers who generally follow a retail model with limited discounting and who present and merchandise our products in a way that is consistent with our full-price, direct to consumer distribution strategy. We also believe that there are opportunities for modest sales growth for Lanier Apparel in the future through new product programs and licenses.

We believe we must continue to invest in our lifestyle brands to take advantage of their long-term growth opportunities. Investments include capital expenditures primarily related to the direct to consumer operations such as technology enhancements, e-commerce initiatives and retail store and restaurant build-out for new, relocated or remodeled locations, as

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well as distribution center and administrative office expansion initiatives. Additionally, we anticipate increased advertising, employment and other costs to support ongoing business operations and fuel future sales growth. Fiscal 2018 advertising expense is expected to increase for each of our brands with a focus on new consumer acquisition as well as consumer retention and engagement.

In the midst of the changes in our industry, an important initiative for us in Fiscal 2017 was to increase the profitability of the Tommy Bahama business. These initiatives generally focused on increasing gross margin and operating margin through efforts such as: product cost reductions; selective price increases; reducing inventory purchases; redefining our approach to inventory clearance; effectively managing controllable and discretionary operating expenses; taking a more conservative approach to retail store openings and lease renewals; and continuing our efforts to reduce Asia-Pacific operating losses. In Fiscal 2017, we made progress with these initiatives and expect to make additional progress in Fiscal 2018.

We continue to believe it is important to maintain a strong balance sheet and liquidity. We believe positive cash flow from operations in the future, coupled with the strength of our balance sheet and liquidity, will provide us with sufficient resources to fund future investments in our owned lifestyle brands. While we believe we have significant opportunities to appropriately deploy our capital and resources in our existing lifestyle brands, we will continue to evaluate opportunities to add additional lifestyle brands to our portfolio if we identify appropriate targets that meet our investment criteria.

We believe that an attractive acquisition target would most likely be a lifestyle brand that has a strong emotional connection with its consumer and has a disciplined distribution model consisting of wholesale customers with limited discounting and/or a direct to consumer distribution model via e-commerce and/or retail stores. Further, while our existing businesses are primarily apparel brands, we could also be interested in a company with a more significant concentration in accessories, footwear or other product categories. The acquisition of a premier lifestyle brand is a meticulous process as such a brand is not available very often, and we most likely would have stiff competition from both strategic and private equity firms. Also, with the evolving fashion retail environment, our interest in acquiring smaller brands and earlier stage companies is evolving, particularly where we may have the opportunity to more fully integrate the brand into our existing infrastructure and shared services functions.
Operating Groups
Our business is primarily operated through our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer, Lanier Apparel and Southern Tide operating groups. We identify our operating groups based on the way our management organizes the components of our business for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. Our operating group structure reflects a brand-focused management approach, emphasizing operational coordination and resource allocation across each brand's direct to consumer, wholesale and licensing operations, as applicable.
Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide each design, source, market and distribute apparel and related products bearing their respective trademarks and license their trademarks for other product categories, while Lanier Apparel designs, sources and distributes branded and private label men's tailored clothing, sportswear and other products. Corporate and Other is a reconciling category for reporting purposes and includes our corporate offices, substantially all financing activities, elimination of inter-segment sales, LIFO accounting adjustments for inventory, other costs that are not allocated to the operating groups and operations of our other businesses which are not included in our operating groups. Our LIFO inventory pool does not correspond to our operating group definitions; therefore, LIFO inventory accounting adjustments are not allocated to our operating groups.
For additional information about each of our operating groups, see Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements, each included in this report. The table below presents certain financial information about each of our operating groups, as well as Corporate and Other (in thousands).

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Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Net Sales
 
 
 
Tommy Bahama
$
686,021

$
658,911

$
658,467

Lilly Pulitzer
248,931

233,294

204,626

Lanier Apparel
106,852

100,753

105,106

Southern Tide
40,940

27,432


Corporate and Other
3,467

2,198

1,091

Total
$
1,086,211

$
1,022,588

969,290

Operating Income (Loss)
 
 
 
Tommy Bahama
$
55,002

$
44,101

$
65,993

Lilly Pulitzer
46,608

51,995

42,525

Lanier Apparel
6,546

6,955

7,700

Southern Tide
4,504

(282
)

Corporate and Other (1)
(26,660
)
(12,885
)
(18,704
)
Total Operating Income
$
86,000

$
89,884

97,514

(1) Corporate and Other included a LIFO accounting charge of $7.8 million, a LIFO accounting credit of $5.9 million and a LIFO accounting charge of $0.3 million, in Fiscal 2017, Fiscal 2016 and Fiscal 2015, respectively.
The table below presents the total assets of each of our operating groups (in thousands).
 
February 3, 2018
January 28, 2017
Assets
 
 
Tommy Bahama
$
439,871

$
451,990

Lilly Pulitzer
142,882

126,506

Lanier Apparel
31,575

30,269

Southern Tide
94,032

96,208

Corporate and Other
(8,419
)
(19,814
)
Total
$
699,941

$
685,159

(1) Total assets for Corporate and Other include LIFO reserves of $61.5 million and $58.0 million as of February 3, 2018 and January 28, 2017, respectively.
Tommy Bahama
Tommy Bahama designs, sources, markets and distributes men's and women's sportswear and related products. Tommy Bahama's typical consumer is older than 45 years old, has a household annual income in excess of $100,000, lives in or travels to warm weather and resort locations and embraces a relaxed and casual approach to daily living. Tommy Bahama products can be found in our Tommy Bahama stores and on our Tommy Bahama e-commerce website, tommybahama.com, as well as at better department stores, independent specialty stores and multi-branded e-commerce retailers. We also operate Tommy Bahama restaurants and license the Tommy Bahama name for various product categories. During Fiscal 2017, 95% of Tommy Bahama's sales were to customers within the United States, with the remaining sales in Canada, Australia and Asia.
We believe that the attraction to our consumers of the Tommy Bahama brand, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary in Fiscal 2018, is a reflection of our efforts over many years to maintain appropriate quality and design of our Tommy Bahama apparel, accessories and licensed products, limit the distribution of Tommy Bahama products to a select tier of retailers, and effectively communicate the relaxed and casual Tommy Bahama lifestyle. We expect to continue to follow this approach for the brand in the future. We believe that the retail sales value of all Tommy Bahama branded products sold during Fiscal 2017, including our estimate of retail sales by our wholesale customers and other third party retailers, exceeded $1.2 billion.
We believe there is ample opportunity to expand the reach of the Tommy Bahama brand, while maintaining the select distribution that Tommy Bahama has historically maintained. In order to take advantage of opportunities for long-term growth, we must continue to invest in the Tommy Bahama brand. These investments include capital expenditures and ongoing expenses to enhance e-commerce and other technology capabilities; open new stores and restaurants; remodel and/or relocate existing stores and restaurants; maintain and upgrade our distribution and other facilities; and enhance our marketing efforts to communicate the lifestyle to existing and targeted new consumers.

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We believe there are opportunities for continued growth in the United States primarily through direct to consumer expansion. An important initiative for us in Fiscal 2017 was to increase the profitability of the Tommy Bahama business. These initiatives generally focused on increasing gross margin and operating margin through efforts such as: product cost reductions; selective price increases; reducing inventory purchases; redefining our approach to inventory clearance; effectively managing controllable and discretionary operating expenses; taking a more conservative approach to retail store openings and lease renewals; and continuing our efforts to reduce Asia-Pacific operating losses. We made some progress with these initiatives in Fiscal 2017 and expect to make additional progress in Fiscal 2018.
Our near term focus in the Asia-Pacific region remains on our direct to consumer operations in Australia and Japan. At the same time, we are focused on further reducing our Asia-Pacific infrastructure costs to better align with the footprint of our current Asia-Pacific retail operations after closing various Asia-Pacific retail stores in recent years. While we believe there are long-term opportunities for our Tommy Bahama operations in the Asia-Pacific region, we believe that the operating losses associated with these operations, which were $5.4 million in Fiscal 2017 and are expected to decrease by approximately $2 million in Fiscal 2018, will continue to reduce Tommy Bahama's operating income in the near future.
Design, Sourcing, Marketing and Distribution
Tommy Bahama products are designed by product specific teams who focus on the target consumer. The design process includes feedback from buyers, consumers and sales agents, along with market trend research. Our Tommy Bahama apparel products generally incorporate fabrics made of cotton, silk, linen, nylon, leather, tencel and other natural and man-made fibers, or blends of two or more of these materials.
We operate a buying office located in Hong Kong to manage the production and sourcing of the substantial majority of our Tommy Bahama products. During Fiscal 2017, we utilized approximately 210 suppliers to manufacture our Tommy Bahama products and 70% of Tommy Bahama's product purchases were from manufacturers in China. The largest 10 suppliers of Tommy Bahama products provided 47% of the products acquired during Fiscal 2017, with no individual supplier providing greater than 10%.
Advertising and marketing are an integral part of the long-term strategy for the Tommy Bahama brand, and we therefore devote significant resources to these efforts. While advertising for Tommy Bahama promotes our products, the primary emphasis is on brand image and brand lifestyle. Tommy Bahama's advertising attempts to engage individuals within the brand's consumer demographic and guide them on a regular basis to our retail stores, e-commerce websites or wholesale customers' stores in search of our products. The marketing of the Tommy Bahama brand includes email, internet and social media advertising and traditional media such as catalogs, print and other communications, as well as moving media and trade show initiatives. As a lifestyle brand, we believe that it is very important that Tommy Bahama communicate regularly with consumers about product offerings or other brand events in order to maintain and strengthen Tommy Bahama's guest connections. We anticipate increasing our investment in advertising expense in Fiscal 2018 to drive new consumer acquisition as well as consumer retention and engagement.
We also believe that highly visible full-price retail store locations with creative design, broad merchandise selection and brand appropriate visual presentation are key enticements for customers. We intend for our full-price retail stores to enhance our guests' shopping experience, which we believe will increase brand loyalty. Marketing initiatives at our full-price retail stores may include special event promotions and a variety of public relations activities designed to create awareness of our products, including those that support worthwhile causes in local communities.
In addition, we utilize loyalty award cards, Flip Side events and Friends & Family events to drive traffic to our stores and websites. These initiatives are effective in increasing traffic as the proportion of our sales that occur during our marketing initiatives have increased in recent years, which puts some downward pressure on our direct to consumer gross margins. We believe our traditional and digital media communications increase the sales of our own full-price retail stores and e-commerce operations, as well as the sales of our products for our wholesale customers.
For certain wholesale customers, we also provide point-of-sale materials and signage to enhance the presentation of our products and/or participate in cooperative advertising programs.
We operate a Tommy Bahama distribution center in Auburn, Washington, which serves our North America direct to consumer and wholesale operations. Activities at the distribution center include receiving finished goods from suppliers, inspecting the products and shipping the products to our Tommy Bahama stores, our wholesale customers and our e-commerce customers. We seek to maintain sufficient levels of Tommy Bahama inventory at the distribution center to support our direct to consumer operations, as well as pre-booked orders and some limited replenishment ordering for our wholesale customers. We use local third party distribution centers for our Asia-Pacific operations.
Direct to Consumer Operations

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A key component of our Tommy Bahama growth strategy is to operate our own stores and e-commerce websites, which we believe permits us to develop and build brand awareness by presenting our products in a setting specifically designed to showcase the aspirational lifestyle on which the products are based. Our Tommy Bahama direct to consumer channels, which consist of retail store, e-commerce and restaurant operations, in the aggregate, represented 77% of Tommy Bahama's net sales in Fiscal 2017. We expect the percentage of our Tommy Bahama sales which are direct to consumer sales will increase in future years. Retail store, e-commerce and restaurant net sales accounted for 49%, 16% and 12%, respectively, of Tommy Bahama's net sales in Fiscal 2017.
Our direct to consumer strategy for the Tommy Bahama brand includes locating and operating full-price retail stores in upscale malls, lifestyle shopping centers, resort destinations and brand-appropriate street locations. Generally, we seek shopping areas and malls with high-profile or upscale consumer brands for our full-price retail stores. As of February 3, 2018, the majority of our Tommy Bahama full-price retail stores were in street-front locations or lifestyle centers with the remainder primarily in regional indoor malls. Our full-price retail stores allow us the opportunity to carry a full line of current season merchandise, including apparel, home products and accessories, all presented in an aspirational, island-inspired atmosphere designed to be relaxed, comfortable and unique. We believe that the Tommy Bahama full-price retail stores provide high visibility for the brand and products and allow us to stay close to the preferences of our consumers. Further, we believe that our presentation of products and our strategy to operate the full-price retail stores with limited in-store promotional activities are good for the Tommy Bahama brand and, in turn, enhance business with our wholesale customers. Generally, we believe there are opportunities for additional full-price retail stores in both warmer and colder climates, as we believe the more important consideration is whether the location attracts the affluent consumer that we are targeting. We believe that we have opportunities for continued direct to consumer sales growth for our Tommy Bahama women's business, which represented 30% of sales in our full-price retail stores and e-commerce websites in Fiscal 2017 and 28% in Fiscal 2016. In Fiscal 2017, approximately one-fourth of the sales of women's product in our full-price direct to consumer retail stores and e-commerce sites were swimwear, cover-ups and swim-related products.
Disposal of discontinued or end of season inventory is an ongoing part of any apparel business and, historically, Tommy Bahama has utilized its outlet stores and sales to off-price retailers to sell any excess inventory. Our Tommy Bahama outlet stores, which generated 9% of our total Tommy Bahama net sales in Fiscal 2017, are generally located in outlet shopping centers that include upscale retailers and serve an important role in overall inventory management by often allowing us to sell discontinued and out-of-season products at better prices than are otherwise available from outside parties. We believe that this approach has helped us protect the integrity of the Tommy Bahama brand by allowing our full-price retail stores to limit promotional activity and controlling the distribution of discontinued and out-of-season product. To supplement the clearance items sold in Tommy Bahama outlets, approximately 20% of the product sold in our Tommy Bahama outlets was made specifically for our outlets. We anticipate that we would generally operate one outlet for approximately every three full-price retail stores; however, the ratio of full-price stores to outlets may continue to increase. We have not opened a new domestic outlet location since Fiscal 2014.
In an effort to improve the profitability of our end of season clearance strategy for our products, in January 2017, we initiated selected initial markdowns in our full-price retail stores and on our e-commerce website for end of season product for our women's, home and other products. In Fiscal 2017, we continued that strategy, as well as initiating the same strategy on select men's product, and disposed of more end of season inventory for women's, home and other product categories through off-price retailers than we have historically. We expect to continue this clearance model, which has reduced the quantity of end of season product for those product categories that are transferred to our outlets, in the future. We believe that reducing the amounts of these product categories, which were historically overrepresented in our outlets, have improved and will continue to improve the product offering and presentation in our outlet stores. We believe these changes have improved the sales and profitability of our outlet stores and the profitability of our end of season clearance sales.
For Tommy Bahama's domestic full-price retail stores and retail-restaurant locations operating for the full Fiscal 2017 year, sales per gross square foot, excluding restaurant sales and restaurant space, were approximately $610 during Fiscal 2017, compared to $605 for stores operating for the full Fiscal 2016 year. In Fiscal 2017, our domestic outlet stores generated approximately $350 of sales per square foot for outlets open for the entire 2017 fiscal year.
As of February 3, 2018, we operated 18 Tommy Bahama restaurants or Marlin Bar locations, generally adjacent to a Tommy Bahama full-price retail store location, which together we often refer to as islands. These retail-restaurant locations provide us with the opportunity to immerse customers in the ultimate Tommy Bahama experience. We do not anticipate that many of our retail locations will have an adjacent restaurant; however, in select high-profile, brand appropriate locations, such as Naples, Florida, Waikiki, Hawaii, and New York City, we have determined that an adjacent restaurant can further enhance the image or exposure of the brand. The net sales per square foot in our domestic full-price retail stores which are adjacent to a restaurant are on average twice the sales per square foot of our other domestic full-price retail stores. We believe that the experience of a meal or drink in a Tommy Bahama restaurant may entice the customer to purchase additional Tommy Bahama

9



merchandise and potentially provide a memorable consumer experience that further enhances the relationship between Tommy Bahama and the consumer. During the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2016, we opened our first Marlin Bar concept location in Coconut Point, Florida. The Marlin Bar concept, like our traditional restaurant locations, is adjacent to one of our retail locations and serves food and beverages, but in a smaller space and with food options more focused on small plate offerings rather than entrees. The results of the Marlin Bar at Coconut Point, in both the restaurant and full-price retail store sales of the location, have been well received and have exceeded our expectations. We believe that with the smaller footprint, reduced labor requirements and lower required capital expenditure for build-out, the Marlin Bar concept provides us with the long-term potential for opening retail-restaurant locations in sites that otherwise may not have been suitable or brand appropriate for one of our traditional retail-restaurant locations.
As of February 3, 2018, the total square feet of space utilized for our Tommy Bahama full-price retail store and outlet store operations was 0.6 million with another 0.1 million of total square feet utilized in our Tommy Bahama restaurant operations. The table below provides certain information regarding Tommy Bahama retail stores operated by us as of February 3, 2018.
 
Full-Price Retail Stores
Outlet Stores
Retail-Restaurant
Locations (1)
Total
Florida
20

4

6

30

California
15

5

3

23

Texas
7

4

2

13

Hawaii
4

1

3

8

Nevada
4

1

1

6

Maryland
3

2


5

New York
2

2

1

5

Other states
38

15

1

54

Total domestic
93

34

17

144

Canada
8

2


10

Total North America
101

36

17

154

Australia
8

2


10

Japan
1


1

2

Total
110

38

18

166

Average square feet per store (2)
3,400

4,700

4,400

 

Total square feet at year end
370,000

180,000

80,000

 

(1)
Consists of 17 retail-restaurant locations of our traditional island format and one Marlin Bar retail-restaurant concept.
(2)
Average square feet for retail-restaurant locations consists of average retail space and excludes space used in the associated restaurant operations.
The table below reflects the changes in store count for Tommy Bahama stores during Fiscal 2017.
 
Full-Price Retail Stores
Outlet Stores
Retail-Restaurant
Locations
Total
Open as of beginning of fiscal year
111

40

17

168

Opened
3


1

4

Closed
(4
)
(2
)

(6
)
Open as of end of fiscal year
110

38

18

166

We anticipate that our store count at the end of Fiscal 2018 will be comparable to our store count at the end of Fiscal 2017. Fiscal 2018 planned openings include a full-price retail store in Napa, California and one near Melbourne, Australia, as well as a retail-restaurant location in Palm Springs, California. In Fiscal 2018 as well as in future years, we expect to opportunistically close certain marginal full-price retail and outlet locations at lease expiration unless the landlord provides an appealing offer for us to continue in the location. We believe there continue to be opportunities for Tommy Bahama to open additional full-price retail and retail-restaurant locations in the future, but we do not expect the number of stores to increase at the same pace as our historical store count growth rates.

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The operation of full-price retail stores, outlet stores and retail-restaurant locations requires a greater amount of initial capital investment than wholesale operations, as well as greater ongoing operating costs. We estimate that we will spend approximately $1.3 million on average in connection with the build-out of a domestic full-price retail store. However, individual locations, particularly those in urban locations, may require investments greater than these amounts depending on a variety of factors, including the location and size of the full-price retail store. The cost of a traditional Tommy Bahama retail-restaurant location and a Marlin Bar is significantly more than the cost of a full-price retail store and can vary significantly depending on a variety of factors. Historically, the cost of our retail-restaurant locations has been approximately $5 million; however, we have spent significantly more than that amount for certain locations, including Waikiki which opened in Fiscal 2015. For most of our retail stores and restaurants, the landlord provides certain incentives to fund a portion of our capital expenditures.
Additionally, we incur capital expenditure costs related to periodic remodels of existing stores, particularly when we renew or extend a lease beyond the original lease term, or otherwise determine that a remodel of a store is appropriate. In Fiscal 2018, we anticipate that our full-price retail store and restaurant remodel expenditures will be higher than they have been in recent years as we have a number of retail locations and restaurants, including Newport Beach, California and Woodlands, Texas, that are scheduled for significant remodels. We also incur capital expenditures when a lease expires, and we determine it is appropriate to relocate to a new location in the same vicinity as the previous store. The cost of store relocations is generally comparable to the costs of opening a new full-price retail store or outlet store. As we reach the expirations of more of our lease agreements in the near future, we anticipate that the capital expenditures for relocations and remodels, in the aggregate, may continue to increase in future periods.
In addition to our full-price retail stores and outlet stores, our direct to consumer approach includes various e-commerce websites, including the tommybahama.com website. During Fiscal 2017, e-commerce sales represented 16% of Tommy Bahama's net sales. Our Tommy Bahama websites allow consumers to buy Tommy Bahama products directly from us via the internet. These websites also enable us to increase our database of consumer contacts, which allows us to communicate directly and frequently with consenting consumers. As we reach more customers in the future, we anticipate that our e-commerce distribution channel for Tommy Bahama will continue to grow at a faster pace than our domestic full-price retail store operations or wholesale operations. In Fiscal 2016, we held a select number of e-commerce flash clearance sales as a means of complementing our outlets in liquidating discontinued or out-of-season inventory, which represented approximately 10% of Tommy Bahama e-commerce sales in Fiscal 2016, however, in Fiscal 2017 Tommy Bahama did not hold any e-commerce flash clearance sales.
Wholesale Operations
To complement our direct to consumer operations and have access to a larger group of consumers, we continue to maintain our wholesale operations for Tommy Bahama. Tommy Bahama's wholesale customers include better department stores, specialty stores and multi-brand e-commerce retailers that generally follow a retail model approach with limited discounting. We value our long-standing relationships with our wholesale customers and are committed to working with them to enhance the success of the Tommy Bahama brand within their stores.
Wholesale sales for Tommy Bahama accounted for 23% of Tommy Bahama's net sales in Fiscal 2017. Approximately 60% of Tommy Bahama's wholesale business reflects sales to major department stores with the remaining wholesale sales primarily sales to specialty stores. Tommy Bahama men's products are available in more than 1,800 North America retail locations, while Tommy Bahama women's products are available in more than 1,000 North America retail locations. During Fiscal 2017, 17% of Tommy Bahama's net sales were to Tommy Bahama's ten largest wholesale customers, with its largest customer representing 5% of Tommy Bahama's net sales.
We believe that the integrity and continued success of the Tommy Bahama brand, including its direct to consumer operations, is dependent, in part, upon controlled wholesale distribution, with careful selection of the retailers through which Tommy Bahama products are sold. As a result of our approach to limiting our wholesale distribution, we believe that sales growth in our men's apparel wholesale business, which represented approximately 87% of Tommy Bahama's domestic wholesale sales in Fiscal 2017, may be somewhat limited. However, we believe that we may have opportunities for wholesale sales increases for our Tommy Bahama women's business in the future, with its appeal evidenced by women's product representing 30% of sales in our full-price retail stores and e-commerce websites in Fiscal 2017. In Fiscal 2018, we anticipate that Tommy Bahama's wholesale business will decrease from Fiscal 2017 sales amounts as we continue to manage the wholesale distribution of Tommy Bahama, particularly in department stores.
We maintain Tommy Bahama apparel sales offices and showrooms in New York and Seattle, as well as other locations, to facilitate sales to our wholesale customers. Our Tommy Bahama wholesale operations utilize a sales force consisting of a combination of Tommy Bahama employees and independent commissioned sales representatives.

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Licensing Operations
We believe licensing is an attractive business opportunity for the Tommy Bahama brand. For an established lifestyle brand, licensing typically requires modest additional investment but can yield high-margin income. It also affords the opportunity to enhance overall brand awareness and exposure. In evaluating a licensee for Tommy Bahama, we typically consider the candidate's experience, financial stability, sourcing expertise and marketing ability. We also evaluate the marketability and compatibility of the proposed licensed products with other Tommy Bahama products.
Our agreements with Tommy Bahama licensees are for specific geographic areas and expire at various dates in the future, and in limited cases include contingent renewal options. Generally, the agreements require minimum royalty payments as well as royalty payments based on specified percentages of the licensee's net sales of the licensed products as well as obligations to expend certain funds towards marketing the brand on an approved basis. Our license agreements generally provide us the right to approve all products, advertising and proposed channels of distribution. Third party license arrangements for our Tommy Bahama products include the following product categories:
Men's and women's headwear
Watches
Outdoor furniture and related products
Outerwear
Belts, leather goods and gifts
Indoor furniture
Footwear
Handbags
Mattresses and box springs
Men's hosiery
Luggage
Bedding and bath linens
Sleepwear
Rugs
Table top accessories
Shampoo, soap and bath amenities
Fragrances
Fabrics
In addition to our license arrangements for the specific product categories listed above, we may enter into certain international distributor agreements which allow those parties to distribute Tommy Bahama apparel and other products on a wholesale and/or retail basis within certain countries or regions. As of February 3, 2018, we have agreements for distribution of Tommy Bahama products in the Middle East, Greater China and parts of Latin America. Substantially all of the products sold by the distributors are identical to the products sold in our own Tommy Bahama stores. In addition to selling Tommy Bahama goods to wholesale accounts, the distributors may, in some cases, operate their own retail stores. As of February 3, 2018, we have nine licensed Tommy Bahama stores located in the Middle East, Greater China and Central America. None of these agreements are expected to meaningfully impact the operating results of Tommy Bahama in the near term.
Seasonal Aspects of Business
Tommy Bahama's operating results are impacted by seasonality as the demand by specific product or style, as well as by distribution channel, may vary significantly depending on the time of year. As the timing of certain unusual or non-recurring items, economic conditions, wholesale product shipments or other factors affecting the business may vary from one year to the next, we do not believe that net sales or operating income (loss) for any particular quarter or the distribution of net sales and operating income (loss) for Fiscal 2017 are necessarily indicative of anticipated results for the full fiscal year or expected distribution in future years. The timing of Tommy Bahama's sales in the direct to consumer and wholesale distribution channels generally varies. Typically, the demand in the direct to consumer operations, including sales at our own stores and e-commerce site, for Tommy Bahama products in our principal markets is generally higher in the spring, summer and holiday seasons and lower in the fall season. However, wholesale product shipments are generally shipped prior to each of the retail selling seasons. The following table presents the percentage of net sales and operating income (loss) for Tommy Bahama by quarter for Fiscal 2017:
 
First Quarter
Second Quarter
Third Quarter
Fourth Quarter
Net sales
25
%
27
%
18
 %
30
%
Operating income (loss)
29
%
40
%
(11
)%
42
%
Lilly Pulitzer
Lilly Pulitzer designs, sources, markets and distributes upscale collections of women's and girl's dresses, sportswear and related products. The Lilly Pulitzer brand, which is celebrating its 60th anniversary in Fiscal 2018, was originally created in the late 1950s by Lilly Pulitzer and is an affluent brand with a heritage and aesthetic based on the Palm Beach resort lifestyle. The brand is somewhat unique among women's brands in that it has demonstrated multi-generational appeal, including among young women in college or recently graduated from college; young mothers with their daughters; and women who are not tied to the academic calendar. Lilly Pulitzer products can be found in our owned Lilly Pulitzer stores, in Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores, which are described below, and on our Lilly Pulitzer website, lillypulitzer.com, as well as in better department and independent specialty stores. During Fiscal 2017, 45% and 39% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales were for women's sportswear and

12



dresses, respectively, with the remaining sales consisting of Lilly Pulitzer accessories, including scarves, bags, jewelry and belts; children's apparel; footwear; and licensed products. Lilly Pulitzer continues to focus on expansion into new product categories including continued expansion of its Luxletic athletic wear and the Spring 2018 launch of Lilly Pulitzer swim.
We believe that there is significant opportunity to expand the reach of the Lilly Pulitzer brand, while at the same time maintaining the exclusive distribution that Lilly Pulitzer has historically maintained. We believe that in order to take advantage of opportunities for long-term growth, we must continue to invest in the Lilly Pulitzer brand. These investments include enhancing e-commerce and other technology capabilities; opening and operating full-price retail stores; remodeling and/or relocating existing stores; and increasing employment, advertising and other functions to support a growing business. While we believe that these investments will generate long-term benefits, the investments may have a short-term negative impact on Lilly Pulitzer's operating margin, particularly if there is insufficient sales growth to absorb the incremental costs in a particular year.
We believe the attraction of the Lilly Pulitzer brand to our consumers is a reflection of years of maintaining appropriate quality and design of the Lilly Pulitzer apparel, accessories and licensed products, restricting the distribution of the Lilly Pulitzer products to a select tier of retailers and effectively communicating the message of Lilly Pulitzer's optimistic Palm Beach resort chic lifestyle. We believe this approach to quality, design, distribution and communication has been critical in allowing us to achieve the current retail price points for Lilly Pulitzer products. We believe that the retail sales value of all Lilly Pulitzer branded products sold during Fiscal 2017, including our estimate of retail sales by our wholesale customers and other third party retailers, exceeded $325 million.
Design, Sourcing, Marketing and Distribution
Lilly Pulitzer's products are developed by our dedicated design teams located at the Lilly Pulitzer headquarters in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania as well as in Palm Beach, Florida. Our Lilly Pulitzer design teams focus on the target consumer, and the design process combines feedback from buyers, consumers and our sales force, along with market trend research. Lilly Pulitzer apparel products are designed to incorporate various fiber types, including cotton, silk, linen and other natural and man-made fibers, or blends of two or more of these materials.
Lilly Pulitzer uses a combination of in-house employees in our King of Prussia and Hong Kong offices and third party buying agents primarily based in Asia to manage the production and sourcing of its apparel products. Through its buying agents and direct sourcing, Lilly Pulitzer used approximately 60 vendors, with the largest individual supplier providing 10%, and the largest 10 suppliers providing 58%, of the products acquired during Fiscal 2017. In Fiscal 2017, 50% of Lilly Pulitzer's product purchases were from manufacturers located in China.
Advertising and marketing are an integral part of the long-term strategy of the Lilly Pulitzer brand, and we therefore devote significant resources to advertising and marketing. Lilly Pulitzer's advertising attempts to engage individuals within the brand's consumer demographic and guide them on a regular basis to our full-price retail stores, e-commerce websites and wholesale customers' stores in search of our products. The marketing of the Lilly Pulitzer brand includes email, internet and social media advertising as well as traditional media such as catalogs, print and other communications and moving media and trade show initiatives. We believe that it is very important that a lifestyle brand effectively communicate with consumers on a regular basis about product offerings or other brand events in order to maintain and strengthen the brand's connections with consumers. We anticipate increasing our advertising spend, including digital marketing and direct mail, in Fiscal 2018 with a continued focus on new consumer acquisition as well as consumer engagement.
In addition to our ongoing Lilly Pulitzer marketing initiatives, on occasion we also enter into collaborations with third parties to increase brand awareness or create additional brand excitement like we did with S'well water bottles in Fiscal 2017 and have done with Pottery Barn in Fiscal 2018. Often these collaborations do not generate material direct revenue for Lilly Pulitzer, but instead provide significant press or social media exposure and excitement for the brand that complement our ongoing advertising and marketing initiatives. We believe in today's environment it is important to continue to find new, creative ways to advertise in order to differentiate the brand.
We believe that highly visible full-price retail store locations with creative design, broad merchandise selection and brand appropriate visual presentation are key enticements for customers to visit our full-price retail stores and buy merchandise. We believe that full-price retail stores enhance the shopping experience of our customers, which will increase consumer brand loyalty. Marketing initiatives at certain of our full-price retail stores may include special event promotions and a variety of public relations activities designed to create awareness of our stores and products. At certain times during the year, an integral part of the marketing plan for Lilly Pulitzer includes certain gift with purchase programs where the consumer earns the right to a Lilly Pulitzer gift product if certain spending thresholds are achieved. We believe that our full-price retail store operations, as well as our traditional and digital media communications and periodic collaborations with others, enhance brand awareness and increase the sales of Lilly Pulitzer products in all channels of distribution.

13



For certain of our wholesale customers, we also provide point-of-sale materials and signage to enhance the presentation of our branded products at their retail locations and/or participate in cooperative advertising programs.
Lilly Pulitzer operates a distribution center in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. Activities at the distribution center include receiving finished goods from suppliers, inspecting the products and shipping the products to wholesale customers, Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores and our e-commerce customers. We seek to maintain sufficient levels of inventory at the distribution center to support our direct to consumer operations, as well as pre-booked orders and some limited replenishment ordering for our wholesale customers.
Direct to Consumer Operations
A key component of our Lilly Pulitzer growth strategy is to operate our own stores and e-commerce website, which we believe permits us to develop and build brand awareness by presenting products in a setting specifically designed to showcase the aspirational lifestyle on which they are based. Lilly Pulitzer's direct to consumer distribution channel, which consists of full-price retail store and e-commerce operations, represented 72% and 68% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales in Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016, respectively. We expect the percentage of our Lilly Pulitzer sales which are direct to consumer sales will continue to increase in future years.
Our direct to consumer strategy for the Lilly Pulitzer brand includes operating full-price retail stores in higher-end malls, lifestyle shopping centers, resort destinations and brand-appropriate street locations. Sales at our full-price retail stores represented 38% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales during Fiscal 2017. As of February 3, 2018, about one-third of our Lilly Pulitzer stores were located in outdoor regional lifestyle centers and another one-third of our Lilly Pulitzer stores were located in indoor regional malls, with the remaining locations in resort or street locations. In certain resort locations such as Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard and Watch Hill, our stores are only open during the resort season. Additionally, we may open temporary pop-up stores in certain locations.
Each full-price retail store carries a wide range of merchandise, including apparel, footwear and accessories, all presented in a manner intended to enhance the Lilly Pulitzer image, brand awareness and acceptance. Our Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores allow us to present Lilly Pulitzer's full line of current season products. We believe our Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores provide high visibility for the brand and products and enable us to stay close to the needs and preferences of consumers. We also believe that our presentation of products and our strategy to operate the full-price retail stores with limited promotional activities complement our business with our wholesale customers. Generally, we believe there are opportunities for full-price retail stores in both warmer and colder climates, as we believe the more important consideration is whether the location attracts the affluent consumer that we are targeting.
Lilly Pulitzer's full-price retail store sales per gross square foot for Fiscal 2017 were approximately $800 for the full-price retail stores which were open the full Fiscal 2017 year compared to approximately $840 for the Lilly Pulitzer stores open for the full Fiscal 2016. The decrease in sales per gross square foot from the prior year was primarily due to negative comparable store sales in Fiscal 2017. The table below provides certain information regarding Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores as of February 3, 2018.
 
Number of
Full-Price Retail Stores
Florida
14

Massachusetts
7

Virginia
6

Maryland
3

New York
3

North Carolina
3

Ohio
3

Texas
3

Other
15

Total
57

Average square feet per store
2,600

Total square feet at year-end
150,000


14



The table below reflects the changes in store count for Lilly Pulitzer stores during Fiscal 2017.
 
Full-Price Retail Stores
Open as of beginning of fiscal year
40

Opened
6

Acquired Signature Stores
12

Closed
(1
)
Open as of end of fiscal year
57

After increasing our store count by 17 stores in Fiscal 2017, we may open stores at a more modest pace than the six stores we opened in Fiscal 2017. In Fiscal 2018, our planned openings include a store on Worth Avenue in Palm Beach, Florida, the home of Lilly Pulitzer, as well as Lilly Pulitzer's first full-price retail store in Hawaii, at Whalers Village in Maui. Beyond Fiscal 2018, we expect to open four to six full-price retail stores each year. The operation of full-price retail stores requires a greater amount of initial capital investment than wholesale operations, as well as greater ongoing operating costs. We anticipate that most future full-price retail store openings will generally be 2,500 square feet on average; however, the determination of actual size of the store will depend on a variety of criteria. To open a 2,500 square foot Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail store, we anticipate capital expenditures of approximately $0.8 million on average. For most of our full-price retail stores, the landlord provides certain incentives to fund a portion of our capital expenditures.
In addition to new store openings, we also incur capital expenditure costs related to remodels, expansions or downsizing of existing stores, particularly when we renew or extend a lease beyond the original lease term, or otherwise determine that a remodel of a store is appropriate. We may also incur capital expenditures if we determine it is appropriate to relocate a store to a new location. The cost of store relocations, if any, will generally be comparable to the cost of opening a new store. Alternatively, when a lease expires we may decide to close the store rather than relocating the store to another location or renewing the lease.
In addition to operating Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores, another key element of our direct to consumer strategy is the lillypulitzer.com website, which represented 34% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales in Fiscal 2017 compared to 32% in Fiscal 2016. The Lilly Pulitzer e-commerce business has experienced significant growth in recent years, and we anticipate that the rate of growth of the e-commerce business will remain strong in the future. We also utilize the Lilly Pulitzer website as an effective means of liquidating discontinued or out-of-season inventory in a brand appropriate manner. Usually, we have two e-commerce flash clearance sales per year, both of which are in typical industry end-of-season promotional periods. These sales are brand appropriate events that create a significant amount of excitement with loyal Lilly Pulitzer consumers, who are looking for an opportunity to purchase Lilly Pulitzer products at a discounted price. Each of these two e-commerce flash clearance sales are for a very limited number of days, allowing the Lilly Pulitzer website to remain full-price for the remaining 360 days of the year. During Fiscal 2017, approximately 43% of Lilly Pulitzer's e-commerce sales were e-commerce flash clearance sales.
Wholesale Operations
To complement our direct to consumer operations and have access to a larger group of consumers, we continue to maintain our wholesale operations for Lilly Pulitzer. These wholesale operations are primarily with independent specialty stores, better department stores and multi-branded e-commerce retailers that generally follow a retail model approach with limited discounting. During Fiscal 2017, approximately 28% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales were sales to wholesale customers compared to 32% in Fiscal 2016 with the decrease primarily due to Lilly Pulitzer's acquisition of 12 Signature Stores in Fiscal 2017 and reduced sales to department stores as Lilly Pulitzer continues to manage its distribution in wholesale accounts. During Fiscal 2017, about one-third of Lilly Pulitzer's wholesale sales were to Lilly Pulitzer's Signature Stores, while approximately one-fourth of Lilly Pulitzer's wholesale sales were to department stores. Lilly Pulitzer's net sales to its ten largest wholesale customers represented 15% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales in Fiscal 2017 with its largest customer representing 5% of Lilly Pulitzer's net sales.
An important part of Lilly Pulitzer's wholesale distribution is sales to Signature Stores. For these stores, we enter into agreements whereby we grant the other party the right to independently operate one or more stores as a Lilly Pulitzer Signature Store, subject to certain conditions, including designating substantially all the store specifically for Lilly Pulitzer products and adhering to certain trademark usage requirements. These agreements are generally for a two-year period. We sell products to these Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores on a wholesale basis and do not receive royalty income associated with these sales. As of February 3, 2018, there were 54 Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores.
We believe that the integrity and continued success of the Lilly Pulitzer brand, including its direct to consumer operations, is dependent, in part, upon controlled wholesale distribution with careful selection of the retailers through which

15



Lilly Pulitzer products are sold. We anticipate a planned reduction in Lilly Pulitzer wholesale sales in Fiscal 2018 and that wholesale sales will continue to represent a lower proportion of Lilly Pulitzer sales, due, in part, to the impact of the acquisition of 12 Signature Stores in Fiscal 2017 and the continued management of Lilly Pulitzer's department store exposure. We continue to value our long-standing relationships with our wholesale customers and are committed to working with them to enhance the success of the Lilly Pulitzer brand within their stores. Lilly Pulitzer apparel products are available in approximately 250 wholesale doors.
We maintain Lilly Pulitzer apparel sales offices and showrooms in Palm Beach, Florida, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania and New York City. Our wholesale operations for Lilly Pulitzer utilize a sales force consisting of salaried sales employees.
Licensing Operations
We license the Lilly Pulitzer trademark to licensees in categories beyond Lilly Pulitzer's core product categories. In the long term, we believe licensing may be an attractive business opportunity for the Lilly Pulitzer brand, particularly once our direct to consumer presence has expanded. Once a brand is established, licensing requires modest additional investment but can yield high-margin income. It also affords the opportunity to enhance overall brand awareness and exposure. In evaluating a potential Lilly Pulitzer licensee, we consider the candidate's experience, financial stability, manufacturing performance and marketing ability. We also evaluate the marketability and compatibility of the proposed products with other Lilly Pulitzer brand products.
Our agreements with Lilly Pulitzer licensees are for specific geographic areas and expire at various dates in the future. Generally, the agreements require minimum royalty payments as well as royalty and advertising payments based on specified percentages of the licensee's net sales of the licensed products. Our license agreements generally provide us the right to approve all products, advertising and proposed channels of distribution.
Third party license arrangements for Lilly Pulitzer products include the following product categories: stationery and gift products; home furnishing fabrics; and eyewear.
Seasonal Aspects of Business
Lilly Pulitzer's operating results are impacted by seasonality as the demand by specific product or style as well as demand by distribution channel may vary significantly depending on the time of year. Typically, the demand in the direct to consumer operations for Lilly Pulitzer products is generally higher in the spring, summer and resort seasons and lower in the fall season. However, wholesale product shipments are generally shipped prior to each of the retail selling seasons. Further, in the third and fourth quarters of our fiscal year, which have not historically been strong direct to consumer or wholesale quarters for Lilly Pulitzer, Lilly Pulitzer has held significant e-commerce flash clearance sales which partially offsets the impact of seasonality on Lilly Pulitzer's sales. As the timing of certain unusual or non-recurring items, economic conditions, wholesale product shipments, the magnitude of e-commerce flash clearance sales or other factors affecting the business may vary from one year to the next, we do not believe that net sales or operating income for any particular quarter or the distribution of net sales for Fiscal 2017 are necessarily indicative of anticipated results for the full fiscal year or expected distribution in future years. The following table presents the percentage of net sales and operating income for Lilly Pulitzer by quarter for Fiscal 2017:
 
First Quarter
Second Quarter
Third Quarter
Fourth Quarter
Net sales
25
%
28
%
24
%
23
%
Operating income
38
%
45
%
11
%
6
%
Lanier Apparel
Lanier Apparel designs, sources and distributes branded and private label men's apparel, including tailored clothing, casual pants and sportswear, across a wide range of price points, but primarily at moderate price points. The majority of our Lanier Apparel products are sold under certain trademarks licensed to us by third parties. Lanier Apparel's licensed brands for certain product categories include Kenneth Cole®, Dockers®, Geoffrey Beene®, Nick Graham® and Cole Haan®, which is a new license for Lanier Apparel with initial product sales in Fiscal 2018. Additionally, we design and market products for our owned Billy London®, Oxford® (formerly Oxford Golf®), Duck Head® and Strong SuitTM brands. Both Duck Head and Strong Suit were acquired during Fiscal 2016. Sales of branded products licensed to us or owned by us represented 61% and 15%, respectively, of Lanier Apparel's net sales during Fiscal 2017.
In addition to these branded businesses, Lanier Apparel designs and sources private label apparel products for certain customers, including tailored clothing and pants programs for large department stores, warehouse clubs, and other retailers. For our large retail customers, the private label programs offer the customer product exclusivity, generally at higher gross margins than they would achieve on branded products, while allowing us the opportunity to leverage our design, sourcing, production,

16



logistics and distribution infrastructure. For other customers, we may perform any combination of design, sourcing, production, logistics or distribution services for a brand owner. In these cases, the brand owner may have determined it is more efficient to outsource certain functions, may be a smaller company that lacks such functional expertise or may want to focus their energies on the other aspects of their brand. Lanier Apparel is an efficient operator that excels in sourcing, production, logistics, distribution and design and can leverage its infrastructure by providing services and resources to these smaller brand owners.
Our Lanier Apparel products are primarily sold through large retailers including department stores, discount and off-price retailers, warehouse clubs, national chains, specialty retailers, multi-branded e-commerce retailers and others throughout the United States. Lanier Apparel's products are sold in more than 5,000 retail locations. In Lanier Apparel, we have long-standing relationships with some of the United States' largest retailers, including department stores which represented approximately one-third of Lanier Apparel's sales in Fiscal 2017. During Fiscal 2017, Lanier Apparel's three largest customers represented 19%, 16%, and 13%, respectively, of Lanier Apparel's net sales. Sales to Lanier Apparel's 10 largest customers represented 77% of Lanier Apparel's net sales during Fiscal 2017. The amount and percentage of net sales attributable to an individual customer in future years may be different than Fiscal 2017 as sales to wholesale customers are not tied to long-term contracts.
As much of Lanier Apparel's private label sales are program based, where Lanier Apparel must bid for a program on a case-by-case and season-by-season basis, an individual customer could increase, decrease or discontinue its purchases from us at any time. Thus, significant fluctuations in Lanier Apparel's operating results from one year to the next may result, particularly if a program is not renewed, the customer decides to use another vendor, we determine that the return on the program is not acceptable to us, a new program is initiated, there is a significant increase in the volume of the program or otherwise.
The moderate price point tailored clothing and sportswear markets are extremely competitive sectors, with significant retail competition as well as gross margin pressures due to retail sales price pressures and production cost increases. We believe that our Lanier Apparel business has historically excelled at bringing quality products to our customers at competitive prices and managing inventory risk appropriately while requiring minimal capital expenditure investments.
Design, Manufacturing, Sourcing, Marketing and Distribution
We believe that superior customer service and supply chain management, as well as the design of quality products, are all integral components of our strategy in the branded and private label tailored clothing and sportswear markets in which Lanier Apparel operates. Our Lanier Apparel design teams, which are primarily located in New York City and Atlanta, focus on the target consumer for each brand and product. The design process combines feedback from buyers and sales agents along with market trend research and input from manufacturers. Our various Lanier Apparel products are manufactured from a variety of fibers, including wool, silk, linen, cotton and other natural fibers, as well as synthetics and blends of these materials.
Lanier Apparel manages production in Asia and Latin America through a combination of efforts from our Lanier Apparel offices in Atlanta and Hong Kong as well as with third party buying agents. Lanier Apparel's sourcing operations are also supplemented, as appropriate, by third party contractors who may provide certain sourcing functions or in-country quality assurance to further enhance Lanier Apparel's global sourcing operations. During Fiscal 2017, 75% of Lanier Apparel's product purchases were from manufacturers located in Vietnam. Lanier Apparel purchased goods from approximately 135 suppliers in Fiscal 2017. The 10 largest suppliers of Lanier Apparel provided 85% of the finished goods and raw materials Lanier Apparel acquired from third parties during Fiscal 2017, with 30% of our product purchases acquired from Lanier Apparel's largest third party supplier. In addition to purchasing products from third parties, Lanier Apparel operates a manufacturing facility, located in Merida, Mexico, which produced 10% of our Lanier Apparel products during Fiscal 2017.
The advertising efforts of Lanier Apparel are much more product specific than advertising for our owned lifestyle brands. For Lanier Apparel's licensed branded products, advertising primarily consists of cooperative advertising with our larger customers, contributions to the licensor based on a specified percentage of our net sales to fund the licensor's general brand advertising initiatives and attending brand appropriate trade shows. As a provider of private label apparel, we are generally not responsible for advertising for private label brands. For its owned brands, Lanier Apparel engages in marketing activities to increase the recognition and appeal of the brands.
For Lanier Apparel, we utilize a distribution center located in Toccoa, Georgia, a distribution center in Lyons, Georgia and certain third party distribution centers for our product shipments, where we receive goods from our suppliers, inspect those products and ship the goods to our customers. We seek to maintain sufficient levels of inventory to support programs for pre-booked orders and to meet customer demand for at-once ordering. For certain standard product styles, we maintain in-stock replenishment programs, providing shipment to customers and consumers within just a few days of receiving the order. These types of programs generally require higher inventory levels. Lanier Apparel utilizes various off-price retailers to sell excess prior-season inventory.

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We maintain apparel sales offices and showrooms for our Lanier Apparel products in several locations, including New York City and Atlanta and employ a sales force consisting of a combination of salaried employees and independent sales agents. Lanier Apparel operates websites for certain of its businesses and also ships orders directly to consumers who purchase products from the websites of certain of its wholesale customers. Sales to our customers where the consumer orders from the website of Lanier Apparel's wholesale customers, e-commerce retailers and catalog retailers as well as sales on Lanier Apparel's own websites represented almost 15% of Lanier Apparel's sales in Fiscal 2017.
Seasonal Aspects of Business
Lanier Apparel's operating results are impacted by seasonality as the demand by specific product or style may vary significantly depending on the time of year. As a wholesale apparel business, in which product shipments generally occur prior to the retail selling seasons, the seasonality of Lanier Apparel generally reflects stronger spring and fall wholesale deliveries which typically occur in our first and third quarters; however, in some fiscal years this will not be the case due to much of Lanier Apparel's operations resulting from program-driven businesses. The timing of certain unusual or non-recurring items, economic conditions, wholesale product shipments, the introduction of new programs, the loss of programs or customers or other factors affecting the business may vary significantly from one year to the next. Therefore, we do not believe that net sales or operating income of Lanier Apparel for any particular quarter or the distribution of net sales and operating income for Fiscal 2017 are necessarily indicative of anticipated results for the full fiscal year or expected distribution in future years. The following table presents the percentage of net sales and operating income for Lanier Apparel by quarter for Fiscal 2017:
 
First Quarter
Second Quarter
Third Quarter
Fourth Quarter
Net sales
22
%
17
%
40
%
21
 %
Operating income (loss)
13
%
3
%
86
%
(2
)%
Southern Tide
On April 19, 2016, we acquired the Southern Tide lifestyle apparel brand. Southern Tide designs, sources, markets and distributes high-quality apparel bearing the distinctive Skipjack logo. Southern Tide offers an extensive selection of men’s shirts, pants, shorts, outerwear, ties, swimwear, footwear and accessories, as well as women's and youth collections. Launched in 2006, Southern Tide combines the modern design elements of today's youthful trends with love for the Southern culture and lifestyle. The brand has an appeal to all ages who have an appreciation for classic design, vibrant colors, a great fit and an affection for the coast. Southern Tide products can be found in independent specialty retailers, better department stores, Southern Tide Signature Stores as described below, and on our Southern Tide website, southerntide.com. During Fiscal 2017, 81% of Southern Tide's sales were wholesale sales and 19% of Southern Tide's sales were e-commerce sales.
Since the acquisition, we have been emphasizing the integration of the Southern Tide operations into our infrastructure, including integrating Southern Tide into our existing corporate infrastructure for many back-office functions and services such as accounting, treasury, credit, human resources, information technology, insurance, product quality control, factory compliance and inbound/outbound logistics. Additionally, the inventory and distribution operations of Southern Tide were transferred from a third party distribution center to our Lyons, Georgia distribution center. Southern Tide also began utilizing our Hong Kong-based sourcing operations for certain product categories starting in the Fall 2017 season. We believe that integrating these sourcing, distribution, administrative and back-office functions into our existing infrastructure allows the Southern Tide management team greater ability to focus on the consumer-facing functions of the Southern Tide business, including design, sales and marketing, while also leveraging our existing expertise in certain areas, which we believe will allow for more efficient and effective operations for the Southern Tide business in the long-term.
We believe that there is significant opportunity to expand the reach of the Southern Tide brand by increasing the specialty store, department store and Signature Store presence of the brand, as well as increasing e-commerce sales. However, this growth and expansion will be at a prudent pace as we believe that the integrity and success of the Southern Tide brand is dependent, in part, upon controlled wholesale distribution with careful selection of the retailers through which Southern Tide products are sold.
We believe that in order to take advantage of opportunities for long-term growth, we must continue to invest in the Southern Tide brand. In the near term, these investments will primarily consist of an increase in employment, advertising and other costs to support a growing wholesale business with specialty and department stores, increasing the number of Southern Tide Signature Stores and costs to enhance e-commerce and other technology capabilities. While we believe that these investments will generate long-term benefits, the investments may have a short-term negative impact on Southern Tide's operating margin given the current size of the Southern Tide business. We believe that the retail sales value of all Southern Tide branded products sold during Fiscal 2017, including our estimate of retail sales by our wholesale customers and other third party retailers, exceeded $75 million.

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Design, Sourcing, Marketing and Distribution
Southern Tide's products are developed by our dedicated design teams located at the Southern Tide headquarters in Greenville, South Carolina. Our Southern Tide design teams focus on the target consumer, and the design process combines feedback from buyers, consumers and our sales force, along with market trend research. Southern Tide apparel products are designed to incorporate various fiber types, including cotton and other natural and man-made fibers, or blends of two or more of these materials.
During Fiscal 2017, Southern Tide used third party buying agents for the production and sourcing of the majority of its apparel products. Southern Tide used approximately 60 suppliers with the largest individual supplier providing 15% of the Southern Tide products in Fiscal 2017. The largest 10 suppliers of Southern Tide provided 66% of the Southern Tide products acquired, while approximately 50% and 20% were sourced from China and Peru, respectively. Southern Tide continued to transition some of its product purchases from third party buying agents to our Hong Kong-based sourcing team during Fiscal 2017. We believe that Southern Tide products can generally be sourced in a more cost-effective manner through our existing internal sourcing operations than through third party buying agents.
Advertising and marketing are an integral part of the long-term strategy for the Southern Tide brand, and we therefore devote significant resources to advertising and marketing. Southern Tide's advertising attempts to engage individuals within the brand's consumer demographic and guide them on a regular basis to our e-commerce website and wholesale customers' stores in search of our products. The marketing of the Southern Tide brand includes email, internet and social media advertising as well as traditional media such as catalogs, print and other correspondence with customers and moving media and trade show initiatives. We believe that it is very important that a lifestyle brand effectively communicate with consumers on a regular basis about product offerings or other brand events in order to maintain and strengthen the brand's connections with consumers. For certain of our wholesale customers, we also provide point-of-sale materials and signage to enhance the presentation of our branded products at their retail locations and/or participate in cooperative advertising programs. Additionally, Southern Tide enters into certain co-branding arrangements for a particular cause or non-profit organization that appeals to the Southern Tide team and that it believes will resonate with its target consumers.
Southern Tide utilizes our owned distribution center in Lyons, Georgia for its warehouse and distribution center operations. Activities at the distribution center include receiving finished goods from suppliers, inspecting the products and shipping the products to wholesale customers and our e-commerce customers. We seek to maintain sufficient levels of inventory at the distribution center to support our direct to consumer operations, as well as pre-booked orders and some limited replenishment ordering for our wholesale customers.
Wholesale Operations
At this time, Southern Tide's business is predominantly a wholesale business with sales to independent specialty stores, department stores and Southern Tide Signature Stores. Southern Tide's wholesale operations provide an opportunity to grow our business and have access to a large group of consumers. During Fiscal 2017, approximately 15% of Southern Tide's sales were to department stores and 5% of sales were to Southern Tide Signature Stores. Southern Tide's net sales to its ten largest wholesale customers represented about one-third of Southern Tide's net sales in Fiscal 2017, with its largest customer representing 8% of Southern Tide's net sales. Southern Tide products are available in more than 1,000 retail locations.
A key component of Southern Tide's plans for growth in wholesale distribution is sales to Signature Stores. For Signature Stores, we enter into agreements whereby we grant the other party the right to independently operate one or more stores as a Southern Tide Signature Store, subject to certain conditions, including designating substantially all the store specifically for Southern Tide products and adhering to certain trademark usage requirements. We sell products to these Southern Tide Signature Stores on a wholesale basis and do not receive royalty income associated with these sales. As of February 3, 2018, there were seven Signature Stores including three stores in North Carolina, two stores in South Carolina, one store in Florida and one store in Illinois. We anticipate approximately 10 additional Signature Stores opening in Fiscal 2018 in various locations along the east coast from Nantucket and Cape Cod in Massachusetts to Naples, Florida. In addition, we believe there is opportunity for wholesale growth for Southern Tide in women's apparel, which represented 13% of Southern Tide's net sales in Fiscal 2017.
We maintain Southern Tide apparel sales offices and showrooms in Greenville, South Carolina. Our wholesale operations for Southern Tide utilize a sales force consisting of a combination of salaried sales employees and commissioned agents.
Direct to Consumer Operations
A key component of our Southern Tide growth strategy is to expand our direct to consumer operations, which currently consist of the Southern Tide website. In the future, we may open owned retail stores; however, we do not expect to open any owned retail stores during Fiscal 2018. The Southern Tide website markets a full line of merchandise, including apparel and

19



accessories, all presented in a manner intended to enhance the Southern Tide image, brand awareness and acceptance. We believe our Southern Tide website enables us to stay close to the needs and preferences of consumers.
In addition to off-price retailers, we also utilize the Southern Tide website as a means of liquidating discontinued or out-of-season inventory in a brand appropriate manner. During the year, we have a number of e-commerce flash clearance sales per year, which are typically in industry end of season promotional periods.
Licensing Operations
We currently license the Southern Tide trademark to licensees for certain bed, bath and tie product categories. The agreements require minimum royalty payments as well as royalty based on specified percentages of the licensee's net sales of the licensed products and provides us the right to approve all products, advertising and proposed channels of distribution. In the long term, we believe licensing may be an attractive business opportunity for Southern Tide, but opportunities may be somewhat limited until the sales volume and distribution of the Southern Tide brand expands. Once the brand is more fully established, licensing requires modest additional investment but can yield high-margin income. It also affords the opportunity to enhance overall brand awareness and exposure.
Seasonal Aspects of Business
Southern Tide's operating results are impacted by seasonality as the demand by specific product or style as well as the demand by distribution channel may vary significantly depending on the time of year. As primarily a wholesale apparel business, in which product shipments generally occur prior to the retail selling seasons, the seasonality of Southern Tide generally reflects stronger spring and fall wholesale deliveries which typically occur in our first and third quarters. The timing of certain unusual or non-recurring items, economic conditions, wholesale product shipments or other factors affecting the business may vary from one year to the next. Therefore, we do not believe that net sales or operating income of Southern Tide for any particular quarter or the distribution of net sales and operating income for Fiscal 2017 are necessarily indicative of anticipated results for the full fiscal year or expected distribution in future years. The following table presents the percentage of net sales and operating income for Southern Tide by quarter for Fiscal 2017:
 
First Quarter
Second Quarter
Third Quarter
Fourth Quarter
Net sales
31
%
23
%
22
%
24
%
Operating income
47
%
14
%
23
%
16
%
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other is a reconciling category for reporting purposes and includes our corporate offices, substantially all financing activities, elimination of any inter-segment sales, LIFO inventory accounting adjustments, other costs that are not allocated to the operating groups and operations of other businesses which are not included in our operating groups, including our Lyons, Georgia distribution center operations (which performs warehouse and distribution services for third parties, as well as our Southern Tide and Lanier Apparel businesses) and The Beaufort Bonnet Company ("Beaufort Bonnet") which we acquired in December 2017. Beaufort Bonnet designs, sources, markets and distributes premium childrenswear including bonnets, hats, apparel, swimwear and accessories through the Beaufort Bonnet e-commerce website, thebeaufortbonnetcompany.com, as well as wholesale specialty retailers. Our LIFO inventory pool does not correspond to our operating group definitions; therefore, LIFO inventory accounting adjustments are not allocated to operating groups.
Discontinued Operations
Discontinued operations include the assets and operations of our former Ben Sherman operating group which we sold in July 2015. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and other information in this report reflect continuing operations and exclude any amounts related to the discontinued operations of our former Ben Sherman operating group. Refer to Note 13 in our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information about discontinued operations.
TRADEMARKS
We own trademarks, several of which are very important and valuable to our business including Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide. Generally, our significant trademarks are subject to registrations and pending applications throughout the world for use on apparel and, in some cases, apparel-related products, accessories, home furnishings and beauty products, as well as in connection with retail services. We continue to evaluate our worldwide usage and registration of certain of our trademarks. In general, trademarks remain valid and enforceable as long as the trademarks are used in connection with

20



our products and services in the relevant jurisdiction and the required registration renewals are filed. Important factors relating to risks associated with our trademarks include, but are not limited to, those described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.
PRODUCT SOURCING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
We intend to maintain flexible, diversified, cost-effective sourcing operations that provide high-quality apparel products. Our operating groups, either internally or through the use of third party buying agents, source virtually all of our products from non-exclusive, third party producers located in foreign countries, with a significant concentration in Asia, or from our licensees for licensed products sold in our direct to consumer distribution channels. During Fiscal 2017, we sourced approximately 56% and 14% of our products from producers located in China and Vietnam, respectively, with no other country greater than 10%. Although we place a high value on long-term relationships with our suppliers and have used many of our suppliers for a number of years, generally we do not have long-term contracts with our suppliers. Instead, we conduct business on an order-by-order basis. Thus, we compete with other companies for the production capacity of independent manufacturers. We believe that this approach provides us with the greatest flexibility in identifying the appropriate manufacturers while considering quality, cost, timing of product delivery and other criteria. During Fiscal 2017, no individual third party manufacturer supplied more than 10% of our product purchases.
We purchase virtually all of our products from third party producers as package purchases of finished goods, which are manufactured with oversight by us or our buying agents and to our design and fabric specifications. The use of contract manufacturers reduces the amount of capital investment required by us as operating manufacturing facilities can require a significant amount of capital investment. We depend upon the ability of third party producers to secure a sufficient supply of raw materials specified by us, adequately finance the production of goods ordered and maintain sufficient manufacturing and shipping capacity rather than us providing or financing the costs of these items. We believe that purchasing substantially all of our products as package purchases allows us to reduce our working capital requirements as we are not required to purchase, or finance the purchase of, the raw materials or other production costs related to our product purchases until we take ownership of the finished goods, which typically occurs when the goods are shipped by the third party producers. In addition to purchasing products from third parties, our Lanier Apparel operating group operates an owned manufacturing facility, which is located in Merida, Mexico and produced 1% of our total company products during Fiscal 2017.
As the design, manufacture and transportation of apparel products for our brands may take as many as six months for each season, we typically make commitments months in advance of when products will arrive in our retail stores or our wholesale customers' stores. We continue to seek ways to reduce the time required from design and ordering to bringing products to our customers. As our merchandising departments must estimate our requirements for finished goods purchases for our own retail stores and e-commerce sites based on historical product demand data and other factors, and as purchases for our wholesale accounts must be committed to prior to the receipt of customer orders, we carry the risk that we have purchased more inventory than we will ultimately desire.
As part of our commitment to source our products in a lawful, ethical and socially responsible manner, each of our operating groups has implemented a code of conduct program applicable to vendors from whom we purchase goods, which includes provisions related to abiding by applicable laws as well as compliance with other business or ethical standards, including related human rights, health, safety, working conditions, environmental and other requirements. We require that each of our vendors and licensees comply with the applicable code of conduct or substantially similar compliance standards. All of our vendors from whom we purchase goods are also required by us to adhere to the United States Customs and Border Protection’s Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism program, including standards relating to facility, procedural, personnel and cargo security. On an ongoing basis we assess vendors' compliance with the applicable code of conduct and applicable laws and regulations through audits performed by either our employees or our designated agents. The assessment of compliance by vendors is directed by our corporate leadership team. In the event we determine that a vendor is not abiding by our required standards, we work with the vendor to remediate the violation. If the violation is not satisfactorily remediated, we will discontinue use of the vendor.
IMPORT RESTRICTIONS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
We are exposed to certain risks as a result of our international operations as substantially all of our merchandise, as well as the products purchased by our licensing partners, is manufactured by foreign suppliers. During Fiscal 2017, we sourced approximately 56% and 14% of our products from producers located in China and Vietnam, respectively. Our imported products are subject to customs, trade and other laws and regulations governing their entry into the United States and other countries where we sell our products, including various federal, state and local laws and regulations that govern any of our activities that may have adverse environmental and health and safety effects. Noncompliance with these laws and regulations may result in significant monetary penalties.

21



Substantially all of the merchandise we acquire is subject to duties which are assessed on the value of the imported product and represent a component of the cost of the goods we sell. The average duty rate on products imported by us in Fiscal 2017 was approximately 15% of the product cost. Duty rates vary depending on the type of garment and its fiber content and are subject to change in future periods. In addition, while the World Trade Organization's member nations have eliminated quotas on apparel and textiles, the United States and other countries into which we import our products are still allowed in certain circumstances to unilaterally impose "anti-dumping" or "countervailing" duties in response to threats to their comparable domestic industries.
Although we have not been materially inhibited from doing business in desired markets in the past, we cannot assure that significant impediments will not arise in the future as we expand product offerings and brands and enter into new markets. In addition, in the United States, there have been examples of the United States government implementing additional duties in other industries and discussion of potential additional duties in the apparel industry and other potential changes. There is a significant amount of uncertainty related to these topics; however, it is possible that changes, if implemented, could have a significant unfavorable impact on the apparel retail industry and our cost of goods sold, operations, net earnings and cash flows. Our management regularly monitors proposed regulatory changes and the existing regulatory environment, including any impact on our operations or on our ability to import products.
In addition, apparel and other products sold by us are subject to stringent and complex product performance and security and safety standards, laws and other regulations. These regulations relate principally to product labeling, certification of product safety and importer security procedures. We believe that we are in material compliance with those regulations. Our licensed products and licensing partners are also subject to such regulation. Our agreements require our licensing partners to operate in compliance with all laws and regulations.
Important factors relating to risks associated with government regulations include those described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
We believe that sophisticated information systems and functionality are important components of maintaining our competitive position and supporting continued growth of our businesses, particularly in the ever-changing consumer shopping environment. Our information systems are designed to provide effective retail store, e-commerce and wholesale operations while emphasizing efficient point-of-sale, distribution center, design, sourcing, order processing, marketing, customer relationship management, accounting and other functions. We regularly evaluate the adequacy of our information technologies and upgrade or enhance our systems to gain operating efficiencies, to provide additional consumer access and to support our anticipated growth as well as other changes in our business. We believe that continuous upgrading and enhancements to our information systems with newer technology that offers greater efficiency, functionality and reporting capabilities is critical to our operations and financial condition.
SEASONAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS
Each of our operating groups is impacted by seasonality as the demand by specific product or style, as well as by distribution channel, may vary significantly depending on the time of year. For details of the impact of seasonality on each of our operating groups, see the business discussion of each operating group above.
As the timing of certain unusual or non-recurring items, economic conditions, wholesale product shipments, weather or other factors affecting our operations may vary from one year to the next, we do not believe that net sales or operating income for any particular quarter or the distribution of net sales and operating income for Fiscal 2017 are necessarily indicative of anticipated results for the full fiscal year or expected distribution in future years. Our third quarter has historically been our smallest net sales and operating income quarter and that result is expected to continue. The following table presents our percentage of net sales and operating results by quarter for Fiscal 2017:
 
First
Quarter
Second
Quarter
Third
Quarter
Fourth
Quarter
Net sales
25
%
26
%
22
%
27
%
Operating income
35
%
42
%
1
%
22
%

ORDER BACKLOG
As two-thirds of our sales are direct to consumer sales, which are not reflected in an order backlog, and the order backlog for wholesale sales may be impacted by a variety of factors, we do not believe that order backlog information is necessarily

22



indicative of sales to be expected for future periods. Therefore, we believe the order backlog is not material for an understanding of our business taken as a whole. Further, as our sales continue to shift towards direct to consumer rather than wholesale sales, the order backlog will continue to be less meaningful as a measure of our future sales and results of operations.
EMPLOYEES
As of February 3, 2018, we employed approximately 5,900 persons, of whom approximately 85% were employed in the United States. Approximately 70% of our employees were retail store and restaurant employees. We believe our employee relations are good.
INFORMATION
Oxford Industries, Inc. is a Georgia corporation originally founded in 1942. Our corporate headquarters are located at 999 Peachtree Street, N.E., Ste. 688, Atlanta, Georgia 30309. Our internet address is oxfordinc.com. Copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, proxy statement, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on our website the same day that they are electronically filed with the SEC. The information on our website is not and should not be considered part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference in this document.

In addition, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, excluding exhibits, are available without cost to our shareholders by writing to Investor Relations, Oxford Industries, Inc., 999 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 688, Atlanta, Georgia 30309.

Item 1A.    Risk Factors
The risks described below highlight some of the factors that could materially affect our operations. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, prospects and/or operating results may be adversely affected. These are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial may also adversely affect our business.

We operate in a highly competitive industry which is evolving very rapidly; our ability to execute our direct to consumer and portfolio-level strategies and/or transform our operations in light of shifts in consumer shopping behavior subjects us to risks that could adversely affect our financial results and operations.

We operate in a highly competitive industry in which the principal competitive factors are the reputation, value and image of brand names; design; consumer preference; price; quality; marketing; product fulfillment capabilities; and customer service. We believe that our ability to compete successfully is directly related to our proficiency in foreseeing changes and trends in fashion and consumer preference, including the manner in which retail consumers seek to transact business and access products, and presenting appealing products for consumers when and where they seek it.

The highly competitive apparel industry is characterized by low barriers to entry. There are an abundant and rapidly growing number of domestic and foreign apparel designers, manufacturers, distributors, importers, licensors and retailers, some of whom are also our customers, and some of whom may be significantly larger, are more diversified and/or have significantly greater financial resources than we do. Competitive factors within the apparel industry may result in reduced sales, increased costs, lower prices for our products and/or decreased margins.

One of our key initiatives has been to grow our branded businesses through distribution strategies that allow our consumers to access our brands whenever and wherever they choose to shop. Our success depends to a large degree on our ability to introduce new retail, restaurant and other concepts and products; identify suitable locations with the proper consumer demographics and suitable economic structures; establish the infrastructure necessary to support growth; source appropriate levels of inventory; hire and train qualified personnel; anticipate and implement innovations in sales and marketing technology to align with our consumers’ shopping preferences; maintain brand specific websites, mobile applications and other social media presence that offer the functionality and security customers expect; and enhance our advertising and marketing activities effectively to maintain our current customers and attract and introduce new ones to our brands and offerings.

The retail apparel market is evolving very rapidly and in ways that are having a disruptive impact on traditional fashion retailers. This includes greater transparency for consumers in product pricing and competitive offerings from competing brands as a result of technological advances; continued declines in retail traffic for traditional fashion retailers, particularly mall-based retailers who have historically relied on the appeal of department stores to attract consumers, as

23



consumers find new ways to shop; the entry by large e-commerce retailers and others with significant financial resources and enhanced distribution capabilities into the fashion retail space; increased investment in technology and multi-channel distribution strategies by large, traditional bricks and mortar and big box retailers; ongoing success in off-price and fast fashion channels of distribution, in particular those who offer brand label products at clearance; and increased promotional activities, both online and in-store, by department stores and traditional fashion retailers seeking to remain competitive, and in some cases viable, in the current retail environment.

Any inability on our part to properly manage the competitive challenges in our industry and effectively adapt to the evolving consumer shopping behavioral trends may result in lost sales and/or adversely impact our results of operations, reputation and credibility.

Our success depends on the reputation and value of our brands; any failure to maintain the reputation or value of our brands and/or to offer innovative, fashionable and desirable products could adversely affect our business operations and financial condition.

Our success depends on the reputation and value of our brand names. The value of our brands could be diminished by actions taken by us or by our wholesale customers or others who have an interest in the brands. Actions that could cause harm to our brands include failing to respond to emerging fashion trends or meet consumer quality expectations; selling products bearing our brands through distribution channels that are inconsistent with the retail channels in which our customers expect to find those brands; becoming overly promotional; or setting up consumer expectations for promotional activity for our products. Customer acquisition in today’s technology-driven retail environment is critical. We are becoming more reliant on social media as one of our marketing strategies, and the value of our brands could be adversely affected if we do not effectively communicate our brand message through social media vehicles that interface with our consumers in “real-time.”

During Fiscal 2017, Tommy Bahama’s and Lilly Pulitzer’s net sales represented 63% and 23%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales. The significant concentration in our portfolio heightens the risks we face if one of these brands fails to meet our expectations and/or is adversely impacted by actions we or third parties take with respect to that brand or by competitive conditions in the apparel industry.

Although certain of our products carry over from season to season, the apparel industry is subject to rapidly changing fashion trends and shifting consumer demands. Due to the competitive nature of the apparel industry, there can be no assurance that the demand for our products will not decline or that we will be able to successfully evaluate and adapt our products to align with consumer preferences and changes in consumer demographics. Any failure on our part to develop and market appealing products could harm the reputation and desirability of our brands and products and/or result in weakened financial performance.

We also license many of our brand names to third party licensees, including for purposes of developing and marketing products outside of our core categories, for purposes of retail and/or wholesale distribution of our products in international and/or local markets, including our Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores and Southern Tide Signature Stores, and to introduce new concepts outside our core expertise. While we enter into comprehensive license and similar collaborative agreements with these third parties covering product design, product quality, brand standards, sourcing, distribution, operations, manufacturing and/or marketing requirements and approvals, there can be no guarantee our brands will not be negatively impacted through our association with products or concepts outside of our core apparel products, by the market perception of the third parties with whom we associate and/or due to the actions of a licensee. The improper or detrimental actions of a licensee could significantly impact the perception of our brands.

In addition, we cannot always control the marketing and promotion of our products by our wholesale customers, licensees or other third parties, and actions by such parties that are inconsistent with our own marketing efforts and practices or that otherwise adversely affect the appeal of our products could diminish the value or reputation of one or more of our brands and have an adverse effect on our sales and business operations.

We have a robust legal and social compliance program for our third party manufacturers and vendors, including codes of conduct and vendor compliance standards. The reputation of our brands could be harmed if these third parties, substantially all of which are located outside the United States, fail to meet appropriate product safety, product quality and social compliance standards. Despite our efforts, we cannot ensure that our manufacturers and vendors will at all times conduct their operations in accordance with ethical practices or that the products we purchase will always meet our safety and quality control standards. Any violation of our applicable codes of conduct or local laws relating to labor conditions by our manufacturers or vendors or other actions or failures by us or such parties may result in a negative public perception of our brands or products, as well as disrupt our supply chain, which may adversely affect our business operations.

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Our business and financial condition are heavily influenced by general economic conditions, which are outside of our control.

We are a consumer products company and are highly dependent on consumer discretionary spending and retail traffic patterns. The levels of demand for apparel products change as regional, domestic and international economic conditions change. Demand for our products may be significantly impacted by trends in consumer confidence and discretionary consumer spending patterns, which may be influenced by employment levels; recessions; inflation; fuel and energy costs; interest rates; tax rates; personal debt levels; savings rates; stock market and housing market volatility; shifting social ideology; natural disasters and/or weather patterns; and general uncertainty about the future. The factors impacting consumer confidence and discretionary consumer spending patterns are outside of our control and difficult to predict, and, often, the apparel industry experiences longer periods of recession and greater declines than the general economy. Any decline in consumer confidence or change in discretionary consumer spending patterns could reduce our sales and/or adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Additionally, significant changes in the operations or liquidity of any of the parties with which we conduct our business, including suppliers, customers, trademark licensees and lenders, among others, now or in the future, or in the access to capital markets for any such parties, could result in lower demand for our products, lower sales, higher costs, greater credit risk on our sales or other disruptions in our business.

Loss of one or more of our key wholesale customers, or a significant adverse change in a customer’s financial performance or financial position, could negatively impact our net sales and profitability.

We generate a significant percentage of our wholesale sales from a few key customers. For example, during Fiscal 2017, 44% of our consolidated wholesale sales, or 15% of our consolidated net sales, were to our five largest customers. Over the last several years, there have been significant levels of store closures and bankruptcies and financial restructurings by department stores and other large retailers, particularly as the retail industry has transitioned more towards online and mobile transactions; increased prevalence and emphasis on private label products at large retailers; direct sourcing of products by large retailers; consolidation of a number of retailers; and increased competition experienced by our wholesale customers from online competitors. A decrease in the number of stores that carry our products, restructuring of our customers’ operations, continued store closures by major department stores, direct sourcing and greater leverage by customers, realignment of customer affiliations or other factors could negatively impact our net sales and profitability.

We generally do not have long-term contracts with our wholesale customers. Instead, we rely on long-standing relationships with these customers, the appeal of our brands and our position within the marketplace. As a result, purchases generally occur on an order-by-order basis, and each relationship can typically be terminated by either party at any time. A decision by one or more of our key wholesale customers to terminate its relationship with us or to reduce its purchases from us, whether motivated by competitive considerations, quality or style issues, financial difficulties, economic conditions or otherwise, could adversely affect our net sales and profitability, as it would be difficult to immediately, if at all, replace this business with new customers, reduce our operating costs or increase sales volumes with other existing customers. In addition, as department stores and other large retailers become more promotional, we continuously evaluate our sales to certain wholesale channels of distribution, for brand protection or otherwise, and in some cases have terminated or curtailed our sales to those customers and may continue to do so, which impacts our net sales and profitability.

We also extend credit to most of our key wholesale customers without requiring collateral, which results in a large amount of receivables from just a few customers. At February 3, 2018, our five largest outstanding customer balances represented $31 million, or 46% of our consolidated receivables balance. Companies in the apparel industry, including some of our customers, may experience financial difficulties, including bankruptcies, restructurings and reorganizations, tightened credit markets and/or declining sales and profitability. A significant adverse change in a customer’s financial position or ability to satisfy its obligations to us could cause us to limit or discontinue business with that customer, require us to assume greater credit risk relating to that customer’s receivables or limit our ability to collect amounts related to shipments to that customer.

We rely to a large extent on third party producers in foreign countries to meet our production demands, and failures by these producers to meet our requirements, the unavailability of suitable producers at reasonable prices and/or changes in international trade regulation may negatively impact our ability to deliver quality products to our customers on a timely basis, disrupt our supply chain or result in higher costs or reduced net sales.

We source substantially all of our products from non-exclusive, third party producers located in foreign countries, including sourcing approximately 56% and 14% of our product purchases from China and Vietnam, respectively, during Fiscal

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2017. Although we place a high value on long-term relationships with our suppliers, generally we do not have long-term supply contracts but, instead, conduct business on an order-by-order basis. Therefore, we compete with other companies for the production capacity of independent manufacturers. We also depend on the ability of these third party producers to secure a sufficient supply of raw materials, adequately finance the production of goods ordered and maintain sufficient manufacturing and shipping capacity, and in some cases, the products we purchase and the raw materials that are used in our products are available only from one source or a limited number of sources. Although we monitor production in third party manufacturing locations, we cannot be certain that we will not experience operational difficulties with our manufacturers, such as the reduction of available production capacity, errors in complying with product specifications, insufficient quality control, failures to meet production deadlines or increases in manufacturing costs. Such difficulties may negatively impact our ability to deliver quality products to our customers on a timely basis. This would jeopardize our ability to properly merchandise our direct to consumer channels and service our customers, which may, in turn, have a negative impact on our customer relationships and result in lower net sales and profits.

Due to our sourcing activities, we are exposed to risks associated with changes in the laws and regulations governing the importing and exporting of apparel products into and from the countries in which we operate. These risks include changes in social, political, labor and economic conditions or terrorist acts that could result in the disruption of trade from the countries in which our manufacturers are located; the imposition of additional or new duties, tariffs, taxes, quota restrictions or other changes and shifts in sourcing patterns as a result of such changes; significant delays in the delivery of our products, due to security or other considerations; fluctuations in sourcing costs; the imposition of antidumping or countervailing duties; fluctuations in the value of the dollar against foreign currencies; changes in customs procedures for importing apparel products; and restrictions on the transfer of funds to or from foreign countries. We may not be able to offset any disruption or cost increases to our supply chain as a result of any of these factors by shifting production to suitable manufacturers in other jurisdictions in a timely manner or at acceptable prices, and future regulatory actions or changes in international trade regulation may provide our competitors with a material advantage over us.

In addition, the current political landscape has introduced significant uncertainty with respect to future trade regulations and existing international trade agreements. This includes the possibility of imposing tariffs or penalties on products manufactured outside the United States, including the March 22, 2018 announcement of the United States government’s institution of a 25% tariff on a range of products from China. We cannot predict whether, and to what extent, there may be changes to international trade agreements or whether quotas, duties, tariffs, exchange controls or other restrictions on our products will be changed or imposed. If we are unable to source our products from the countries where we wish to purchase them, either because of such regulatory changes or for any other reason, or if the cost of doing so increases, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Cybersecurity attacks and/or breaches of information security or privacy could disrupt our operations, cause us to incur additional expenses, expose us to litigation and/or cause us financial harm.

Cybersecurity attacks continue to become increasingly sophisticated, and experienced computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate or compromise our confidential information or disrupt our systems. We are regularly the subject of attempts by attackers to gain unauthorized access to our networks, systems, and data, or to obtain, change, or destroy confidential information. In addition, customers may use devices or software that are beyond our control environment to purchase our products, which may provide additional avenues for attackers to gain access to confidential information.

Despite our implementation of security measures, if an actual or perceived data security breach occurs, whether as a result of cybersecurity attacks, computer viruses, vandalism, human error or otherwise, or if there are perceived vulnerabilities in our systems, the image of our brands and our reputation and credibility could be damaged, and, in some cases, our continued operations may be impaired or restricted. The costs to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems and vulnerabilities, including to comply with security or other measures under state, federal and international laws governing the unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or to resolve any litigation, and to enhance cybersecurity protection through organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third party experts and consultants could be significant and result in significant financial losses and expenses, as well as lost sales.

As an ongoing part of our business operations, including direct to consumer transactions and marketing through various social media tools, we regularly collect and utilize sensitive and confidential personal information, including of our customers, employees and suppliers. The routine operation of our business involves the storage and transmission of customer personal information and preferences, and we use social media and other online and technology-driven marketing and related

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activities to connect with our customers. The regulatory environment governing our use of individually identifiable data of customers, employees and others is complex, and the security of personal information is a matter of public concern.

As part of our routine operations, we also contract with third party service providers to store, process and transmit personal information of our employees and customers. Although we contractually require that these providers implement reasonable security measures, we cannot control third parties and cannot guarantee that a security breach will not occur at their location or within their systems. Privacy breaches of confidential information stored or used by our third party service providers or disruptions in their systems may expose us to the same risks as a breach of our own systems, including negative publicity, potential out-of-pocket costs and adverse effects on our business and customer relationships.

In addition, privacy and information security laws and requirements change frequently, and compliance with them or similar security standards, such as those created by the payment card industry, may require us to modify our operations and/or incur costs to make necessary systems changes and implement new administrative processes. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, or similar security standards, could lead to fines, penalties or adverse publicity.

Our operations are reliant on information technology and any interruption or other failure, including an inability to timely upgrade our systems, may impair our ability to provide products to our customers, efficiently conduct our operations and/or meet the needs of our management.

The efficient operation of our business is dependent on information technology. Information systems are used in all stages of our operations and as a method of communication with our customers, service providers and suppliers. Many of our information technology solutions are operated and/or maintained by third parties, including our use of cloud-based solutions. Additionally, each of our operating groups utilizes e-commerce websites, point-of-sale systems and wholesale ordering systems to sell goods. Our management also relies on information systems to provide relevant and accurate information in order to allocate resources and forecast and report our operating results. Service interruptions may occur as a result of a number of factors, including power outages, consumer traffic levels, computer viruses, hacking or other unlawful activities by third parties, disasters or failures to properly install, upgrade, integrate, protect, repair or maintain our various systems and e-commerce websites. We regularly evaluate upgrades or enhancements to our information systems to more efficiently and competitively operate our businesses. We may experience difficulties during the implementation, upgrade or subsequent operation of our systems and/or not be equipped to address system problems. Any material disruption in our information technology solutions, or any failure to timely, efficiently and effectively integrate new systems, could have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.

In addition, as our business continues to grow and we face new challenges in the current retail environment, we evaluate our systems on an ongoing basis to ensure they meet our business needs and, as needed, replace and/or upgrade those systems, which may be expensive undertakings. We must, however, be diligent in our evaluation of these systems, as reliance on outdated technology may inhibit our ability to operate efficiently, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. As we transition to new systems, we may also face certain challenges, including the loss of certain functionality, information from our legacy systems and efficient interfaces with third party and continuing systems. Temporary processes or solutions, including manual operations, which may be required to be instituted in the short term could also significantly increase the risk of loss or corruption of data and information. All of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of operations.

Our business depends on our senior management and other key personnel, and the unsuccessful transition of key management responsibilities, the unexpected loss of individuals integral to our business, our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel in the future or our failure to successfully plan for and implement succession of our senior management and key personnel may have an adverse effect on our operations, business relationships and ability to execute our strategies.

Our senior management has substantial experience and expertise in the apparel and related industries, with our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Mr. Thomas C. Chubb III having worked with our company for nearly 30 years, including in various executive management capacities. Our success depends on disciplined execution at all levels of our organization, including our senior management, and continued succession planning. Competition for qualified personnel in the apparel industry is intense, and we compete to attract and retain these individuals with other companies that may have greater financial resources than us. While we believe that we have depth within our management team, the unexpected loss of any of our senior management, or the unsuccessful integration of new leadership, could harm our business and financial performance. In addition, we may be unable to retain or recruit qualified personnel in key areas such as product design, sales, marketing (including individuals with key insights into digital and social media marketing strategies), distribution, technology, sourcing and other support functions, which could result in missed sales opportunities and harm to key business relationships.

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We rely on our primary distribution facilities in order to support our direct to consumer and wholesale operations, meet customer expectations, manage inventory, complete sales and achieve operating efficiencies, and any disruption or failure in these facilities may materially adversely affect our business or operations.

We may have a greater risk than our peers due to the concentration of our distribution facilities, as substantially all of our products for each operating group are distributed through one or two principal distribution centers. The primary distribution facilities that we operate are: a distribution center in Auburn, Washington for our Tommy Bahama products; a distribution center in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania our Lilly Pulitzer products; distribution centers in Toccoa, Georgia and Lyons, Georgia for our Lanier Apparel products; and a distribution center in Lyons, Georgia for our Southern Tide products. Each of these distribution centers relies on computer-controlled and automated equipment, which may be subject to a number of risks. Our ability to support our direct to consumer operations, meet customer expectations, manage inventory and achieve objectives for operating efficiencies depends on the proper operation of these distribution facilities, each of which manages the receipt, storage, sorting, packing and distribution of finished goods.

If any of our primary distribution facilities were to shut down or otherwise become inoperable or inaccessible for any reason, including as a result of natural or man-made disasters, cybersecurity attacks, computer viruses or otherwise, if our distribution facilities fail to upgrade their technological systems to ensure efficient operations or if we are unable to receive goods in a distribution center or to ship the goods in a distribution center, as a result of a technology failure or otherwise, we could experience a reduction in sales, a substantial loss of inventory, higher costs, insufficient inventory at our retail stores to meet consumer expectations and longer lead times associated with the distribution of our products. In addition, for the distribution facilities that we operate, there are substantial fixed costs associated with these large, highly automated distribution centers, and we could experience reduced operating and cost efficiencies during periods of economic weakness. Any disruption to our distribution facilities or in their efficient operation could negatively affect our operating results and our customer relationships.

We may be unable to grow our business through organic growth, and any failure to successfully execute this aspect of our business strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

One key component of our business strategy is organic growth in our brands. Organic growth may be achieved by, among other things, increasing sales in our direct to consumer channels; selling our products in new markets; increasing our market share in existing markets; expanding the demographic appeal of our brands; expanding our margins through product cost reductions, price increases, or otherwise; expanding the customer reach of our brands through new and enhanced advertising initiatives; and increasing the product offerings within our various operating groups. Successful growth of our business is subject to, among other things, our ability to implement plans for expanding and/or maintaining our existing businesses and categories within our businesses at satisfactory levels. We may not be successful in achieving suitable organic growth, and our inability to grow our business may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

At the beginning of Fiscal 2017, we announced initiatives to improve Tommy Bahama’s operating performance and long-term growth prospects. These initiatives, which included an enhanced outlet and clearance strategy, improving gross margin through selective price increases and reducing product costs and controlling operating expenses, while at the same time focusing on growing revenues through new product line and marketing initiatives, are discussed in Part I, Item 1. Business included in this report. While we saw improvements in Tommy Bahama’s operating performance during Fiscal 2017, any strategic initiative of this nature is inherently challenging and faces significant potential risks. We may be unable to continue the upward trajectory we saw at Tommy Bahama in Fiscal 2017, which may adversely affect our ability to achieve long-term sustainable growth while at the same time detracting from our focus and execution of other strategic initiatives.

In addition, investments we make in technology, advertising and infrastructure, retail stores and restaurants, office and distribution center facilities, personnel and elsewhere may not yield the full benefits we anticipate and/or sales growth may be outpaced by increases in operating costs, putting downward pressure on our operating margins and adversely affecting our results of operations. If we are unable to increase our sales growth targets organically, we may be required to pursue other strategic initiatives, including reductions in costs and/or acquisitions, in order to grow our business. These initiatives may not be available to us on desirable terms, inhibiting our ability to increase profitability.

The acquisition of new businesses and the divestiture or discontinuation of businesses and product lines have certain inherent risks, including, for example, strains on our management team and unexpected costs and other charges resulting from the transaction.


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Growth of our business through acquisitions of lifestyle brands that fit within our business model is a component of our business strategy. For example, during Fiscal 2017, we acquired Beaufort Bonnet, a premium childrenswear brand selling bonnets, hats, apparel, swimwear and accessories, as well as the operations associated with 12 Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including: the competitive climate for desirable acquisition candidates, which drives market multiples; the benefits of the acquisition not materializing as planned or not materializing within the time periods or to the extent anticipated; our ability to manage the people and processes of an acquired business; difficulties in retaining key relationships with customers and suppliers; risks in entering geographic markets and/or product categories in which we have no or limited prior experience; the assumption of contractual and other liabilities, some of which may not be known at the time of acquisition; and the possibility that we pay more to consummate an acquisition than the value we derive from the acquired business. Additionally, acquisitions may cause us to incur debt, or make dilutive issuances of our equity securities.

As described in Note 1 in our consolidated financial statements included in this report, at the time of an acquisition, we estimate and record the fair value of purchased intangible assets, such as trademarks, reacquired rights and customer relationships, and record goodwill generally to the extent the cost to acquire a business exceeds our assessment of the net fair value of tangible and intangible assets. We test indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill for possible impairment as of the first day of the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or at an interim date if indicators of impairment exist at that date. It is possible that we could have an impairment charge for goodwill or intangible assets associated with an acquired business in future periods if, among other things, economic conditions decline, our strategies for an acquired business change, the results of operations of an acquired business are less than anticipated at the time of acquisition or enterprise values of comparable publicly traded companies decline. A future impairment charge for goodwill or intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.

As a result of acquisitions, we may become responsible for unexpected liabilities that we failed or were unable to discover in the course of performing due diligence. Although we may be entitled to indemnification against undisclosed liabilities from the sellers of the acquired business, our recourse may be limited and we cannot be certain that the indemnification, even if obtained, will be enforceable or collectible. Any of these liabilities, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Certain acquisitions may also be structured utilizing contingent consideration based on the acquired business’ post-closing results. The principals from whom we acquired such a business, many of whom would likely continue to operate the business as our employees, may have differing interests than those of our shareholders because of such arrangements.

In addition, integrating acquired businesses is a complex, time-consuming and expensive process. The integration process for newly acquired businesses could create a number of challenges and adverse consequences for us associated with the integration of product lines, support functions, employees, sales teams and outsourced manufacturers; employee turnover, including key management and creative personnel of the acquired and existing businesses; disruption in product cycles for newly acquired product lines; maintenance of acceptable standards, controls, procedures and policies; operating business in new geographic territories; diversion of the attention of our management from other areas of our business; and the impairment of relationships with customers of the acquired and existing businesses. Merger and acquisition activity is inherently risky, and we cannot be certain that any acquisition will be successful and will not materially harm our business, operating results or financial condition.

As the fashion retail environment evolves, our investment criteria for acquisitions has grown to include smaller brands, such as Beaufort Bonnet, in an earlier stage of the brand’s life cycle, where we can more fully integrate the brand into our existing infrastructure and shared services functions and better leverage our resources. While acquisitions of these smaller brands may have a smaller upfront purchase price, the limited operating history, less experienced management teams and less sophisticated systems, infrastructure and relationships generally associated with such brands may heighten the risks associated with acquisitions generally, including the heightened risk that the target company may be unable to achieve the projected financial results anticipated.

From time to time, we also divest or discontinue businesses, product lines and/or programs that do not align with our strategy or provide the returns that we expect or desire. Such dispositions and/or discontinuations may result in underutilization of our retained resources if the exited operations are not replaced with new lines of business, either internally or through acquisition. In addition, we may become responsible for unexpected liabilities, some of which may be triggered or increased by a purchaser’s operation of the disposed business following the transaction. Those liabilities combined with any other liabilities we contractually retain, individually or in the aggregate, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to various federal, foreign, state and local laws and regulations, and the costs of compliance with, or the violation of, such laws and regulations could have an adverse effect on our costs or operations.

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In the United States, we are subject to stringent standards, laws and other regulations, including those relating to health, product performance and safety, labor, employment, privacy and data security, anti-bribery, consumer protection, taxation, customs, logistics and similar operational matters. In addition, operating in foreign jurisdictions requires compliance with similar laws and regulations. These laws and regulations, in the United States and abroad, are complex and often vary widely by jurisdiction, making it difficult for us to ensure that we are currently or will in the future be compliant with all applicable laws and regulations. We may be required to make significant expenditures or modify our business practices to comply with existing or future laws or regulations, and unfavorable resolution to litigation or a violation of applicable laws and regulations by us, or any of our suppliers or licensees, may restrict our ability to import products, require a recall of our products, lead to fines or otherwise increase our costs, negatively impact our ability to attract and retain employees, materially limit our ability to operate our business or result in adverse publicity. Compliance with these laws and regulations requires us to devote time and management resources, and to update our processes and programs, in response to newly implemented or changing regulatory requirements, all of which could affect the manner in which we operate our business or adversely affect our results of operations.

From time to time, we are involved in litigation matters, which may relate to consumer protection, employment practices and intellectual property infringement and which may include a class action, and are subject to various claims and pending or threatened lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business operations. Often, these cases raise complex factual and legal issues and, due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, we cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any such proceedings. Regardless of the outcome or whether the claims have merit, legal proceedings may be expensive and require significant management time.

Also, the restaurant industry requires compliance with a variety of federal, state and local regulations. In particular, all of our Tommy Bahama restaurants, including our Marlin Bar concept, serve alcohol and, therefore, maintain liquor licenses. Our ability to maintain our liquor licenses depends on our compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The loss of a liquor license would adversely affect the profitability of that restaurant. Additionally, as a participant in the restaurant industry, we face risks related to food quality, food-borne illness, injury, health inspection scores and labor relations. The negative impact of adverse publicity relating to allegations of violations at one of our restaurants may extend beyond the restaurant involved to affect some or all of the other restaurants, as well as the image of the Tommy Bahama brand as a whole.

Regardless of whether any allegations of violations of the laws and regulations governing our business are valid or whether we ultimately become liable, we may be materially affected by negative publicity associated with these and other issues, such as those relating to our social responsibility initiatives.

Our business could be harmed if we fail to maintain proper inventory levels.

Many factors, such as economic conditions, fashion trends, consumer preferences, the financial condition of our wholesale customers and weather, make it difficult to accurately forecast demand for our products. In order to meet the expected demand for our products in a cost-effective manner, we make commitments for production several months prior to our receipt of these goods and often in advance of firm commitments, if any, from wholesale customers. Depending on the demand levels for our products, we may be unable to sell the products we have ordered or that we have in our inventory, which may result in inventory markdowns or the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices and through off-price channels. These events could significantly harm our operating results and impair the image of our brands. Conversely, if we underestimate demand for our products or if we are unable to access our products when we need them, for example due to a third party manufacturer’s inability to source materials or produce goods in a timely fashion or as a result of delays in the delivery of products to us, we may experience inventory shortages, which might result in unfilled orders, negatively impact customer relationships, diminish brand loyalty and result in lost sales, any of which could harm our business.

We may be unable to protect our trademarks and other intellectual property.

We believe that our trademarks and other intellectual property, as well as certain contractual arrangements, including licenses, and other proprietary intellectual property rights, have significant value and are important to our continued success and our competitive position due to their recognition by retailers and consumers. In Fiscal 2017, 92% of our consolidated net sales were attributable to branded products for which we own the trademark. Therefore, our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to protect and preserve our intellectual property. We rely on laws in the United States and other countries to protect our proprietary rights. However, we may not be able to sufficiently prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without our authorization, particularly in those countries where the laws do not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. The use of our intellectual property or similar intellectual property by others could reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage we have developed, causing us to lose sales or otherwise harm the reputation of our brands.

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We devote significant resources to the registration and protection of our trademarks and to anti-counterfeiting efforts. Despite these efforts, we regularly discover products that infringe on our proprietary rights or that otherwise seek to mimic or leverage our intellectual property. Counterfeiting and other infringing activities typically increase as brand recognition increases, especially in markets outside the United States. Counterfeiting and other infringement of our intellectual property could divert away sales, and association of our brands with inferior counterfeit reproductions or third party labels could adversely affect the integrity and reputation of our brands.

Additionally, there can be no assurance that the actions that we have taken will be adequate to prevent others from seeking to block sales of our products as violations of proprietary rights. As we extend our brands into new product categories and new product lines and expand the geographic scope of the manufacture, distribution and marketing of our brands’ products, we could become subject to litigation or challenge based on allegations of the infringement of intellectual property rights of third parties, including by various third parties who have acquired or claim ownership rights in some of our trademarks internationally. In the event a claim of infringement against us is successful or would otherwise affect our operations, we may be required to pay damages, royalties, license fees or other costs to continue to use intellectual property rights that we had been using, or we may be unable to obtain necessary licenses from third parties at a reasonable cost or within a reasonable time. Litigation and other legal action of this type, regardless of whether it is successful, could result in substantial costs to us and diversion of the attention of our management and other resources.

Fluctuations and volatility in the cost and availability of raw materials, labor and freight may materially increase our costs.

We and our third party suppliers rely on the availability of raw materials at reasonable prices. The principal fabrics used in our business are cotton, linens, wools, silk, other natural fibers, synthetics and blends of these materials. The prices paid for these fabrics depend on the market price for raw materials used to produce them. The cost of the materials that are used in our manufacturing process, such as oil-related commodity prices and other raw materials, such as dyes and chemicals, and other costs, can fluctuate. We historically have not entered into any futures contracts to hedge commodity prices, and in recent years, we have seen significant variability in the costs of certain raw materials, including cotton. These pricing fluctuations could continue in future years.

We have also seen increases in the cost of labor at many of our suppliers in recent years, particularly with the growth of the middle class in certain countries, as well as in freight costs. In China, for example, apparel manufacturers have experienced increased costs due to labor shortages and other factors, and these increased costs are often passed on to us. Although we attempt to mitigate the effect of increases in our cost of goods sold through sourcing initiatives and by selectively increasing the prices of our products, these product costing pressures, as well as other variable cost pressures, may materially increase our costs, and we may be unable to fully pass on these costs to our customers.

As of February 3, 2018, we had approximately 5,900 employees worldwide, including 4,500 retail store and restaurant employees. The employment and employment-related costs associated with our employees are a significant component in our SG&A, particularly of our retail store and restaurant operations. Employment costs are affected by various federal, state and foreign laws governing matters such as minimum wage rates, overtime compensation and other requirements. For example, in recent years, there has been significant political pressure and legislative action to increase the minimum wage rate in many of the jurisdictions within which our stores are located. Although we have not thus far been materially affected by these legislative increases in minimum wage rates, any increases in our employment costs, as a result of continued increases in minimum wage rates or otherwise, may materially increase our costs, reduce the profitability or expected profitability of our retail and restaurant operations, and/or adversely impact our results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with leasing real estate for our retail stores and restaurants, which generally consist of long-term leases negotiated at prevailing market rents.

An integral part of our strategy has been to develop and operate retail stores and restaurants for certain of our lifestyle brands. Net sales from our retail stores and restaurants were 47% of our consolidated net sales during Fiscal 2017.

We lease all of our retail store and restaurant locations. Successful operation of our retail stores and restaurants depends, in part, on our ability to identify desirable, brand appropriate locations; the overall ability of the location to attract a consumer base sufficient to make store sales volume profitable; our ability to negotiate satisfactory lease terms and employ qualified personnel; and our ability to timely construct and complete any build-out and open the location in accordance with our plans. A decline in the volume of consumer traffic at our retail stores and restaurants, due to economic conditions, shifts in consumer shopping preferences or technology, a decline in the popularity of malls or lifestyle centers in general or at those in which we operate, the closing of anchor stores or other adjacent tenants or otherwise, could have a negative impact on our

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sales, gross margin and results of operations. In addition, as and when we seek to open new retail stores and restaurants, we compete with others for favorable locations, lease terms and desired personnel. As consumer shopping patterns continue to negatively impact bricks and mortar retail traffic generally, the competition for premium retail space in long-term sustainable locations continues to increase. Our growth may be limited if we are unable to identify new locations with consumer traffic sufficient to support a profitable sales level or the local market reception to a new retail store opening is inconsistent with our expectations.

Our retail store and restaurant leases generally represent long-term financial commitments, with substantial costs at lease inception for a location’s design, leasehold improvements, fixtures and systems installation. On an ongoing basis, we review the financial performance of each of our retail and restaurant locations in order to determine whether continued operation of that location is appropriate. Even if we determine that it is desirable to exit a particular location, the long-term nature and financial commitments of our real property leases may result in us being unable to close an underperforming location due to continuous use clauses and/or because negotiating an early termination would be cost prohibitive. In addition, due to the fixed-cost structure associated with these operations, negative cash flows or the closure of a retail store or restaurant could result in write-downs of inventory, impairment of leasehold improvements, impairment of other long-lived assets, severance costs, lease termination costs or the loss of working capital, which could adversely impact our business and financial results. Furthermore, as each of our leases expire, we may be unable to negotiate renewals, either on commercially acceptable terms or at all, which could force us to close retail stores and/or restaurants in desirable locations.

Our geographic concentration of retail stores, restaurants and wholesale customers for certain of our brands exposes us to certain regional risks.

Our retail locations and restaurants are heavily concentrated in certain geographic areas in the United States, including Florida, California, Texas and Hawaii for our Tommy Bahama operations (74 out of 144 domestic stores and 14 of our 17 domestic restaurants in these states as of February 3, 2018) and Florida, Massachusetts and Virginia for our Lilly Pulitzer operations (27 out of 57 retail stores as of February 3, 2018). Additionally, the wholesale sales for each of Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide experience geographic concentration, including in geographic areas where we have concentrations of our own retail store locations. Due to these concentrations, we have heightened exposure to factors that impact these regions, including general economic conditions, weather patterns, natural disasters, changing demographics and other factors.

Our operations may be affected by changes in weather patterns, natural or man-made disasters, war, terrorism or other catastrophes.

Our sales volume and operations may be adversely affected by unseasonable or severe weather conditions, natural or man-made disasters, war, terrorist attacks, including heightened security measures and responsive military actions, or other catastrophes which may cause consumers to alter their purchasing habits or result in a disruption to our operations. Because of the seasonality of our business, the concentration of a significant proportion of our retail stores and wholesale customers in certain geographic regions, including a resort and/or coastal focus in Tommy Bahama’s and Lilly Pulitzer’s operations, the concentration of our sourcing operations and the concentration of our distribution center operations, the occurrence of such events could disproportionately impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

We hold licenses for the use of other parties’ brand names, and we cannot guarantee our continued use of such brand names or the quality or salability of such brand names.

We have entered into license and design agreements to use certain trademarks and trade names, such as Kenneth Cole, Dockers, Geoffrey Beene, Nick Graham and Cole Haan, to market some of our products. During Fiscal 2017, sales of products bearing brands licensed to us accounted for 6% of our consolidated net sales and 61% of Lanier Apparel’s net sales. When we enter into these license and design agreements, they generally provide for short contract durations (typically three to five years); these agreements may include options to extend the term of the contract but, when available, are generally subject to our satisfaction of certain contingencies (e.g., minimum sales thresholds) that may be difficult for us to satisfy. Competitive conditions for the right to use popular trademarks means that we cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew these licenses on acceptable terms upon expiration, that the terms of any renewal will not result in operating margin pressures or reduced profitability or that we will be able to acquire new licenses to use other desirable trademarks. The termination or expiration of a license agreement would cause us to lose the sales and any associated profits generated pursuant to such license, which could be material, and in certain cases could also result in an impairment charge for related assets, leave us with underutilized overhead and/or adversely impact existing synergies.


32



Our license agreements generally require us to receive approval from the brand’s owner of all design and other elements of the licensed products we sell prior to production, as well as to receive approval from the brand owner of distribution channels in which we may sell and the manner in which we market and distribute licensed products. Any failure by us to comply with these requirements could result in the termination of the license agreement.

In addition to certain compliance obligations, all of our significant licenses provide minimum thresholds for royalty payments and advertising expenditures for each license year, which we must pay regardless of the level of our sales of the licensed products. If these thresholds are not met, our licensors may be permitted contractually to terminate these agreements or seek payment of minimum royalties even if the minimum sales are not achieved. In addition, our licensors produce their own products and license their trademarks to other third parties, and we are unable to control the quality of these goods. If licensors or others do not maintain the quality of these trademarks or if the brand image deteriorates, or the licensors otherwise change the parameters of design, pricing, distribution or marketing, our sales and any associated profits generated by such brands may decline.

Our international direct to consumer and licensing operations may continue to adversely impact our results of operations and present other risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial position.

Starting in 2010 and 2011, we focused on expanding Tommy Bahama’s direct to consumer operations in international markets, notably the Asia-Pacific region and Canada. The operations in the Asia-Pacific region initially generated significant operating losses, and we have continued to curtail those operations since Fiscal 2015 to focus on alternative opportunities to present the Tommy Bahama brand in various international markets. We continue to operate stores in Australia, as well as two locations in Japan. Other than those locations, we have closed all our Asia-Pacific retail stores as of February 3, 2018. Although we have made significant strides in improving the operating results for Tommy Bahama’s direct to consumer operations in the Asia-Pacific region and expect to continue to see improving results, those losses will continue to adversely impact our results of operations and put downward pressure on our operating margin in the near-future.

In addition, we have limited experience with regulatory environments and market practices related to international operations and there are risks associated with doing business in these markets, including lack of brand recognition in certain markets; understanding fashion trends and satisfying consumer tastes; understanding sizing and fitting in these markets; market acceptance of our products, which is difficult to assess immediately; establishing appropriate market-specific operational and logistics functions; managing compliance with the various legal requirements; staffing and managing foreign operations; fluctuations in currency exchange rates; obtaining governmental approvals that may be required to operate; potentially adverse tax implications; and maintaining proper levels of inventory. If we are unable to properly manage these risks or if our international efforts do not prove successful, our business, financial condition and results of operations could continue to be negatively impacted.

As we continue to explore long-term opportunities for our Tommy Bahama brand internationally while simultaneously seeking to reduce the operating losses associated with our Tommy Bahama operations in the Asia-Pacific region, we may elect to enter into retail license and/or wholesale distribution arrangements, or joint ventures, with third parties for certain markets. Any such arrangements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including our reliance on the operational skill and expertise of a local operator, the ability of the joint venture or operator to manage its employees and appropriately represent our brands in those markets and any protective rights that we may be forced to grant to the third party, which could limit our ability to fully realize the anticipated benefits of such a relationship.

We are also subject to certain anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, in addition to the local laws of the foreign countries into which we enter. If any of our international operations, or our employees or agents, violates such laws, we could become subject to sanctions or other penalties that could negatively affect our reputation, business and operating results.

As a global apparel company, we may experience fluctuations in our tax liabilities and effective tax rate.

As a global apparel company, we are subject to income taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. We record our income tax liability based on an analysis and interpretation of local tax laws and regulations, which requires a significant amount of judgment and estimation. In addition, we may from time to time modify our operations in an effort to minimize our global income tax exposure. Our effective income tax rate in any particular period or in future periods may be affected by a number of factors, including a shift in the mix of revenues, income and/or losses among domestic and international sources during a year or over a period of years; changes in tax laws and regulations and/or international tax treaties; the outcome of income tax audits in various jurisdictions; the difference between the income tax deduction and the

33



previously recognized income tax benefit related to the vesting of equity-based compensation awards; and the resolution of uncertain tax positions, any of which could adversely affect our effective income tax rate and profitability.

In December 2017, the United States government enacted comprehensive tax legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The new tax law makes broad and complex changes to the United States tax code, including a significant reduction in the U.S. corporate statutory tax rate and the elimination or limitation of previously deductible expenses. As the new tax law became effective in the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2017, we were required to record a provisional tax expense for Fiscal 2017 that took into consideration certain of the tax law changes, most of which became effective on January 1, 2018. We anticipate that the provisional estimate for our Fiscal 2017 tax expense may be adjusted during Fiscal 2018. The actual impact of U.S. Tax Reform may materially differ from our provisional estimate recognized in Fiscal 2017 due to, among other things, a change in interpretation of various provisions of the new tax code and related tax accounting guidance, changes in assumptions utilized in developing our provisional estimate, regulatory guidance and adjustments for state tax implications. Further, organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have published action plans that, if adopted by countries where we do business, could materially impact our tax obligations in those countries.

We make use of debt to finance our operations, which exposes us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial position and operating results.

Our levels of debt vary as a result of the seasonality of our business, investments in our operations and working capital needs. As of February 3, 2018, we had $45.8 million of borrowings outstanding under our U.S. Revolving Credit Agreement. In the future, our debt levels may increase under our existing facility or potentially under new facilities, or the terms or forms of our financing arrangements may change.

Our indebtedness includes, and any future indebtedness may include, certain obligations and limitations, including the periodic payment of principal and interest, maintenance of certain covenants and certain other limitations. The negative covenants in our debt agreements limit our ability to incur debt; guaranty certain obligations; incur liens; pay dividends; repurchase common stock; make investments; sell assets; make acquisitions; merge with other companies; or satisfy other debt. These obligations and limitations may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to any competitors that may be less leveraged and limit our flexibility in carrying out our business plans and planning for, or reacting to, change.

In addition, we have interest rate risk on indebtedness under our variable rate U.S. Revolving Credit Agreement. Our exposure to variable rate indebtedness may increase in the future, based on our debt levels and/or the terms of future financing arrangements. Further, an increase in the interest rate environment would require us to pay a greater amount of our funds from operations towards interest, even if the amount of borrowings outstanding remains the same. As a result, we may have to revise or delay our business plans, reduce or delay capital expenditures or otherwise adjust our plans for operations.

The continued growth of our business also depends on our access to sufficient funds. We rely on cash flow from operations and borrowings under our U.S. Revolving Credit Agreement to fund our working capital, capital expenditures and investment activities. As of February 3, 2018, we had $219.7 million in unused availability under our U.S. Revolving Credit Agreement. If the need arises in the future to finance expenditures in excess of those supported by our operations and the existing credit facility, including to consummate a material acquisition if the right opportunity was presented, we may need to seek additional funding, which may be through debt or equity financing. Our ability to obtain that financing will depend on many factors, including prevailing market conditions, our financial condition and, depending on the sources of financing, our ability to negotiate favorable terms and conditions. The terms of any such financing or our inability to secure such financing could adversely affect our ability to execute our strategies.

Labor-related matters, including labor disputes, may adversely affect our operations.

We may be adversely affected as a result of labor disputes in our own operations or in those of third parties with whom we work. Our business depends on our ability to source and distribute products in a timely manner, and our new retail store and restaurant growth is dependent on timely construction of our locations. While we are not subject to any organized labor agreements and have historically enjoyed good employee relations, there can be no assurance that we will not experience work stoppages or other labor problems in the future with our non-unionized employees. In addition, potential labor disputes at independent factories where our goods are produced, shipping ports, or transportation carriers create risks for our business, particularly if a dispute results in work slowdowns, lockouts, strikes or other disruptions during our peak manufacturing, shipping and selling seasons. Further, we plan our inventory purchases and forecasts based on the anticipated timing of retail store and restaurant openings, which could be delayed as a result of a number of factors, including labor disputes among contractors engaged to construct our locations or within government licensing or permitting offices. Any potential labor

34



dispute, either in our own operations or in those of third parties on whom we rely, could materially affect our costs, decrease our sales, harm our reputation or otherwise negatively affect our operations.

Our international operations, including foreign sourcing, result in an exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.

We are exposed to certain currency exchange risks in conducting business outside of the United States. The substantial majority of our product purchases are from foreign vendors and are denominated in U.S. dollars. If the value of the U.S. dollar decreases relative to certain foreign currencies in the future, then the prices that we negotiate for products could increase and we may be unable to pass this increase on to customers, which would negatively impact our margins. However, if the value of the U.S. dollar increases between the time a price is set and payment for a product, the price we pay may be higher than that paid for comparable goods by competitors that pay for goods in local currencies, and these competitors may be able to sell their products at more competitive prices. Additionally, currency fluctuations could also disrupt the business of our independent manufacturers by making their purchases of raw materials more expensive and difficult to finance.

We received U.S. dollars for 97% of our product sales during Fiscal 2017, with the remaining sales primarily related to our retail operations in Canada, Australia and Japan. An increase in the value of the U.S. dollar compared to other currencies in which we have sales could result in lower levels of sales and earnings reported in our consolidated statements of operations, even though the sales in foreign currencies could be equal to or greater than amounts in prior periods. In addition, to the extent that a stronger U.S. dollar increases product and other costs, products sold in foreign markets in the local currency may realize lower gross margins.

Our business could be impacted as a result of actions by activist shareholders or others.

We may be subject, from time to time, to legal and business challenges in the operation of our company due to actions instituted by activist shareholders or others. Responding to such actions could be costly and time-consuming, may not align with our business strategies and could divert the attention of our Board of Directors and senior management from the pursuit of our business strategies. Perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of activism may lead to the perception of a change in the direction of the business or other instability and may adversely affect our relationships with vendors, customers, prospective and current employees and others.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
We lease and own space for our retail stores and restaurants, distribution centers, sales/administration offices and manufacturing operations in various domestic and international locations. We believe that our existing properties are well maintained, are in good operating condition and will be adequate for our present level of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into lease agreements for retail and restaurant space. Most of the leases require us to pay specified minimum rent, as well as a portion of operating expenses, real estate taxes and insurance applicable to the property, plus a contingent rent based on a percentage of the location's net sales in excess of a specific threshold. The leases have varying terms and expirations and may have provisions to extend, renew or terminate the lease agreement, among other terms and conditions. Assets leased under operating leases are not recognized as assets and liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. Periodically, we assess the operating results of each of our retail stores and restaurants to assess whether the location provides, or is expected to provide, an appropriate long-term return on investment, whether the location remains brand appropriate and other factors. As a result of this assessment, we may determine that it is appropriate to close certain stores that do not continue to meet our investment criteria, not renew certain leases, exercise an early termination option, or otherwise negotiate an early termination. For existing leases in desirable locations, we anticipate that we will be able to extend our retail leases, to the extent that they expire in the near future, on terms that are satisfactory to us, or if necessary, locate substitute properties on acceptable terms. The terms and conditions of lease renewals or relocations may not be as favorable as existing leases.
As of February 3, 2018, our 223 retail and restaurant locations utilized approximately 0.9 million square feet of leased space in the United States, Canada, Australia and Japan. Each of our retail stores and restaurants is less than 20,000 square feet, and we do not believe that we are dependent upon any individual retail store or restaurant location for our business operations. Greater detail about the retail space used by each operating group is included in Part I, Item 1, Business included in this report.

35



As of February 3, 2018, we utilized approximately 1.6 million square feet of owned or leased distribution, manufacturing and administrative/sales facilities in the United States, Mexico and Hong Kong. In addition to our owned distribution facilities, we may utilize certain third party warehouse/distribution providers where we do not own or lease any space. Our distribution, manufacturing, administrative and sales facilities provide space for employees and functions used in support of our direct to consumer and wholesale operations.
Details of the principal administrative, sales, distribution and manufacturing facilities used in our operations, including approximate square footage, are as follows:
Location
Primary Use
Operating Group
Square
Footage
Lease
Expiration
Seattle, Washington
Sales/administration
Tommy Bahama
115,000

2026
Auburn, Washington
Distribution center
Tommy Bahama
325,000

2025
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
Sales/administration and distribution center
Lilly Pulitzer
160,000

Owned
Toccoa, Georgia
Distribution center
Lanier Apparel
310,000

Owned
Merida, Mexico
Manufacturing plant
Lanier Apparel
80,000

Owned
Greenville, South Carolina
Sales/administration
Southern Tide
14,000

2024
Atlanta, Georgia
Sales/administration
Corporate and Other and Lanier Apparel
30,000

2023
Lyons, Georgia
Sales/administration and distribution center
Various
420,000

Owned
New York, New York
Sales/administration
Various
30,000

Various
Hong Kong
Sales/administration
Various
20,000

Various
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we are a party to litigation and regulatory actions arising in the ordinary course of business. These actions may relate to trademark and other intellectual property, licensing arrangements, real estate, importing or exporting regulations, taxation, employee relation matters or other topics. We are not currently a party to any litigation or regulatory action or aware of any proceedings contemplated by governmental authorities that we believe could reasonably be expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, our assessment of any litigation or other legal claims could potentially change in light of the discovery of additional factors not presently known or determinations by judges, juries, or others which are not consistent with our evaluation of the possible liability or outcome of such litigation or claims.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

36



PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market and Dividend Information
Our common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "OXM." As of March 16, 2018, there were 291 record holders of our common stock. The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices and quarter-end closing prices of our common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange for the quarters indicated. Additionally, the table indicates the dividends per share declared on shares of our stock by our Board of Directors for each quarter.
 
High
Low
Close
Dividends
Fiscal 2017
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
59.55

$
49.50

$
57.98

$
0.27

Second Quarter
$
64.44

$
52.62

$
62.92

$
0.27

Third Quarter
$
66.25

$
57.36

$
65.22

$
0.27

Fourth Quarter
$
84.32

$
60.42

$
79.20

$
0.27

Fiscal 2016
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
77.99

$
58.28

$
66.42

$
0.27

Second Quarter
$
67.15

$
52.54

$
57.18

$
0.27

Third Quarter
$
74.00

$
55.14

$
62.78

$
0.27

Fourth Quarter
$
76.19

$
51.81

$
54.07

$
0.27

On March 27, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a cash dividend of $0.34 per share payable on May 4, 2018 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on April 20, 2018. This represents a 26% increase from the quarterly cash dividend of $0.27 per share paid in each quarter of Fiscal 2017, as noted in the table above. Although we have paid dividends in each quarter since we became a public company in July 1960, we may discontinue or modify dividend payments at any time if we determine that other uses of our capital, including payment of outstanding debt, funding of acquisitions, funding of capital expenditures or repurchases of outstanding shares, may be in our best interest; if our expectations of future cash flows and future cash needs outweigh the ability to pay a dividend; or if the terms of our credit facility, other debt instruments or applicable law limit our ability to pay dividends. We may borrow to fund dividends in the short term based on our expectation of operating cash flows in future periods subject to the terms and conditions of our credit facility, other debt instruments and applicable law. All cash flow from operations will not be paid out as dividends in all periods. For details about limitations on our ability to pay dividends, see Note 5 of our consolidated financial statements and Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, both contained in this report.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any unregistered equity securities during Fiscal 2017.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
We have certain stock incentive plans as described in Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report, all of which are publicly announced plans. Under the plans, we can repurchase shares from employees to cover employee tax liabilities related to the vesting of shares of our stock. During the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2017, no shares were repurchased pursuant to these plans.
In March 2017, our Board of Directors authorized us to spend up to $50 million to repurchase shares of our stock. This authorization superseded and replaced all previous authorizations to repurchase shares of our stock and has no automatic expiration. As of February 3, 2018, no shares of our stock had been repurchased pursuant to this authorization.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this Item 5 of Part II will appear in our definitive proxy statement under the heading "Equity Compensation Plan Information" and is incorporated herein by reference.
Stock Price Performance Graph

37



The graph below reflects cumulative total shareholder return (assuming an initial investment of $100 and the reinvestment of dividends) on our common stock compared to the cumulative total return for a period of five years, beginning February 2, 2013 and ending February 3, 2018, of:
The S&P SmallCap 600 Index; and

The S&P 500 Apparel, Accessories and Luxury Goods.

oxm-01301_chartx23520a03.jpg
 
INDEXED RETURNS
 
Base Period
Years Ended
Company / Index
2/2/2013
2/1/2014
1/31/2015
1/30/2016
1/28/2017
2/3/2018
Oxford Industries, Inc.
100
153.79
115.56
146.33
115.27
171.76
S&P SmallCap 600 Index
100
127.03
134.85
128.53
173.52
197.95
S&P 500 Apparel, Accessories & Luxury Goods
100
115.95
120.21
100.72
85.81
109.53

Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
Our selected financial data included in the table below reflects the acquisition of the Southern Tide operations and assets in April 2016 and the divestiture of the operations and assets of our former Ben Sherman operating group in July 2015, resulting in the Ben Sherman operations being classified as discontinued operations in our consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. Cash flow, capital expenditures, equity compensation, depreciation and amortization amounts below include amounts for both continuing and discontinued operations as our consolidated statements of cash flow are presented on a consolidated basis including continuing and discontinued operations.

38



 
Fiscal 2017

Fiscal 2016

Fiscal 2015

Fiscal 2014

Fiscal 2013

 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Net sales
$
1,086.2

$
1,022.6

$
969.3

$
920.3

$
849.9

Cost of goods sold
473.6

442.3

412.7

402.4

368.4

Gross profit
612.6

580.3

556.6

517.9

481.5

SG&A
540.5

504.6

473.5

439.1

399.1

Royalties and other operating income
13.9

14.2

14.4

13.9

13.9

Operating income
86.0

89.9

97.5

92.8

96.3

Interest expense, net
3.1

3.4

2.5

3.2

3.9

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes
82.9

86.5

95.1

89.6

92.4

Income taxes
18.2

32.0

36.5

35.8

36.9

Net earnings from continuing operations
64.7

54.5

58.5

53.8

55.4

Income (loss), including loss on sale, from discontinued operations, net of taxes
0.4

(2.0
)
(28.0
)
(8.0
)
(10.1
)
Net earnings
$
65.1

$
52.5

$
30.6

$
45.8

$
45.3

Diluted earnings from continuing operations per share
$
3.87

$
3.27

$
3.54

$
3.27

$
3.36

Diluted income (loss), including loss on sale, from discontinued operations per share
$
0.02

$
(0.12
)
$
(1.69
)
$
(0.49
)
$
(0.62
)
Diluted net earnings per share
$
3.89

$
3.15

$
1.85

$
2.78

$
2.75

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
16.7

16.6

16.6

16.5

16.5

Dividends declared and paid
$
18.2

$
18.1

$
16.6

$
13.9

$
11.9

Dividends declared and paid per share
$
1.08

$
1.08

$
1.00

$
0.84

$
0.72

Total assets, at period-end
$
699.9

$
685.2

$
582.7

$
622.4

$
606.9

Long-term debt at period-end
$
45.8

$
91.5

$
44.0

$
104.8

$
137.6

Shareholders' equity, at period-end
$
429.8

$
376.1

$
334.4

$
290.6

$
260.2

Cash provided by operating activities
$
118.6

$
118.6

$
105.4

$
95.4

$
52.7

Capital expenditures
$
38.7

$
49.4

$
73.1

$
50.4

$
43.4

Depreciation and amortization expense
$
42.4

$
42.2

$
36.4

$
37.6

$
33.9

Equity compensation expense
$
6.4

$
6.4

$
5.2

$
4.1

$
1.7

LIFO accounting charge (credit)
$
7.8

$
(5.9
)
$
0.3

$
2.1

$

Book value per share at period-end
$
25.53

$
22.43

$
20.14

$
17.64

$
15.85


Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our operations, cash flows, liquidity and capital resources should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements contained in this report.

OVERVIEW
We are a global apparel company that designs, sources, markets and distributes products bearing the trademarks of our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide lifestyle brands, other owned brands and licensed brands as well as private label apparel products. During Fiscal 2017, 92% of our net sales were from products bearing brands that we own and 66% of our net sales were through our direct to consumer channels of distribution. In Fiscal 2017, 97% of our consolidated net sales were to customers located in the United States, with the sales outside the United States consisting primarily of our Tommy Bahama product sales in Canada and the Asia-Pacific region.

39



Our business strategy is to develop and market compelling lifestyle brands and products that evoke a strong emotional response from our target consumers. We consider lifestyle brands to be those brands that have a clearly defined and targeted point of view inspired by an appealing lifestyle or attitude.  Furthermore, we believe lifestyle brands that create an emotional connection, like Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, can command greater loyalty and higher price points at retail and create licensing opportunities, which may drive higher earnings. We believe the attraction of a lifestyle brand depends on creating compelling product, effectively communicating the respective lifestyle brand message and distributing products to consumers where and when they want them. 
Our ability to compete successfully in styling and marketing is directly related to our proficiency in foreseeing changes and trends in fashion and consumer preference, and presenting appealing products for consumers.  Our design-led, commercially informed lifestyle brand operations strive to provide exciting, differentiated products each season.
To further strengthen each lifestyle brand's connections with consumers, we directly communicate with consumers through digital and print media on a regular basis.  We believe our ability to effectively communicate the images, lifestyle and products of our brands and create an emotional connection with consumers is critical to the success of the brands. Our advertising for our brands often attempts to convey the lifestyle of the brand as well as a specific product.
We distribute our owned lifestyle branded products primarily through our direct to consumer channels, consisting of our Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer retail stores and our e-commerce sites for Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, and through our wholesale distribution channels. Our direct to consumer operations provide us with the opportunity to interact directly with our customers, present to them a broad assortment of our current season products and immerse them in the theme of the lifestyle brand. We believe that presenting our products in a setting specifically designed to showcase the lifestyle on which the brands are based enhances the image of our brands. Our Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores provide high visibility for our brands and products and allow us to stay close to the preferences of our consumers, while also providing a platform for long-term growth for the brands. In Tommy Bahama, we also operate a limited number of restaurants, including Marlin Bars, generally adjacent to a Tommy Bahama full-price retail store location, which we believe further enhance the brand's image with consumers. Additionally, our e-commerce websites, which represented 19% of our consolidated net sales in Fiscal 2017, provide the opportunity to increase revenues by reaching a larger population of consumers and at the same time allow our brands to provide a broader range of products.
The wholesale operations of our lifestyle brands complement our direct to consumer operations and provide access to a larger group of consumers. As we seek to maintain the integrity of our lifestyle brands by limiting promotional activity in our full-price retail stores and e-commerce websites, we generally target wholesale customers that follow this same approach in their stores. Our wholesale customers for our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide brands generally include various specialty stores, including Signature Stores for Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide, better department stores and multi-branded e-commerce retailers.
Within our Lanier Apparel operating group, we sell tailored clothing and sportswear products under licensed brands, private labels and owned brands. Lanier Apparel's customers include department stores, discount and off-price retailers, warehouse clubs, national chains, specialty retailers, multi-branded e-commerce retailers and others throughout the United States.
All of our operating groups operate in highly competitive apparel markets in which numerous U.S. and foreign-based apparel firms compete. No single apparel firm or small group of apparel firms dominates the apparel industry, and our direct competitors vary by operating group and distribution channel. We believe the principal competitive factors in the apparel industry are reputation, value, and image of brand names; design; consumer preference; price; quality; marketing; product fulfillment capabilities; and customer service.

The disposal of discontinued, end of season or excess inventory is an ongoing part of any apparel business, and our operating groups have historically utilized a variety of methods to sell such inventory, including outlet stores in Tommy Bahama, e-commerce flash sales on our various e-commerce websites, and off-price retailers. Our focus in disposing of the excess inventory for our lifestyle brands is to do so in a brand appropriate setting and achieve an acceptable margin.

The apparel industry is cyclical and very dependent upon the overall level and focus of discretionary consumer spending, which changes as consumer preferences and regional, domestic and international economic conditions change. Increasingly, consumers are choosing to spend less of their discretionary spending on certain product categories, including apparel, while spending more on services and other product categories. Further, negative economic conditions often have a longer and more severe impact on the apparel industry than on other industries.  We believe the changes in consumer preferences for discretionary spending, the current global economic conditions and economic uncertainty continue to impact the business of each of our operating groups, and the apparel industry as a whole.


40



We believe the retail apparel market is evolving very rapidly and in ways that are having a disruptive impact on traditional fashion retailing. The application of technology, including the internet and mobile devices, to fashion retail provides consumers increasing access to multiple, responsive distribution platforms and an unprecedented ability to communicate directly with brands and retailers. As a result, consumers may have more information and greater control over information they receive as well as broader, faster and cheaper access to goods than ever before. This, along with the coming of age of the “millennial” generation, is revolutionizing the way that consumers shop for fashion and other goods.  The evidence of the evolution is apparent with weakness and store closures for certain department stores and mall-based retailers, decreased consumer retail traffic, a more promotional retail environment, expansion of off-price and discount retailers, and a shift from bricks and mortar to internet purchasing. These changes may require that brands and retailers approach their operations, including marketing and advertising, differently than historical practices.

While this evolution in the fashion retail industry presents significant risks, especially for traditional retailers who fail or are unable to adapt, we believe it also presents a tremendous opportunity for brands and retailers to capitalize on the changing consumer environment. We believe our brands have true competitive advantages in this new retailing paradigm, and we are leveraging technology to serve our consumers when and where they want to be served. We continue to believe that our lifestyle brands, with their strong emotional connections with consumers, are well suited to succeed and thrive in the long-term while managing the various challenges facing our industry.

Specifically, we believe our lifestyle brands have opportunities for long-term growth in their direct to consumer businesses. We anticipate increased sales in our e-commerce operations, which are expected to grow at a faster rate than bricks and mortar comparable store sales. We also believe growth can be achieved through prudent expansion of bricks and mortar full-price retail store operations and modest comparable full-price retail store sales increases. Despite the changes in the retail environment, we expect there will continue to be desirable locations for additional stores.

We believe our lifestyle brands have an opportunity for modest sales increases in their wholesale businesses in the long-term.  However, we must be diligent in our effort to avoid compromising the integrity of our brands by maintaining or growing sales with wholesale customers that may not be aligned with our long-term strategy. This is particularly important with the challenges in the department store channel, which represented approximately 14% of our consolidated net sales in Fiscal 2017, compared to approximately 16% in Fiscal 2016.  As a result, this management of our wholesale distribution for our lifestyle brands is likely to result in lower wholesale sales in Fiscal 2018, as well as in the near-term future, as we may reduce the amount of sales to certain wholesale accounts by reducing the number of doors that carry our product, reducing the volume sold for a particular door or exiting the account altogether.  We anticipate that sales increases in our wholesale businesses in the long-term will stem primarily from current customers adding within their existing door count and increasing their online business; increased sales to online retailers; and our selective addition of new wholesale customers who generally follow a retail model with limited discounting and who present and merchandise our products in a way that is consistent with our full-price, direct to consumer distribution strategy. We also believe that there are opportunities for modest sales growth for Lanier Apparel in the future through new product programs and licenses.

We believe we must continue to invest in our lifestyle brands to take advantage of their long-term growth opportunities. Investments include capital expenditures primarily related to the direct to consumer operations such as technology enhancements, e-commerce initiatives and retail store and restaurant build-out for new, relocated or remodeled locations, as well as distribution center and administrative office expansion initiatives. Additionally, we anticipate increased advertising, employment and other costs to support ongoing business operations and fuel future sales growth. Fiscal 2018 advertising expense is expected to increase for each of our brands with a focus on new consumer acquisition as well as consumer retention and engagement.

In the midst of the changes in our industry, an important initiative for us in Fiscal 2017 was to increase the profitability of the Tommy Bahama business. These initiatives generally focused on increasing gross margin and operating margin through efforts such as: product cost reductions; selective price increases; reducing inventory purchases; redefining our approach to inventory clearance; effectively managing controllable and discretionary operating expenses; taking a more conservative approach to retail store openings and lease renewals; and continuing our efforts to reduce Asia-Pacific operating losses. In Fiscal 2017, we made progress with these initiatives and expect to make additional progress in Fiscal 2018.

We continue to believe it is important to maintain a strong balance sheet and liquidity. We believe positive cash flow from operations in the future, coupled with the strength of our balance sheet and liquidity, will provide us with sufficient resources to fund future investments in our owned lifestyle brands. While we believe we have significant opportunities to appropriately deploy our capital and resources in our existing lifestyle brands, we will continue to evaluate opportunities to add additional lifestyle brands to our portfolio if we identify appropriate targets that meet our investment criteria. With the evolving fashion

41



retail environment, our interest in acquiring smaller brands and earlier stage companies is evolving, particularly where we may have the opportunity to more fully integrate the brand into our existing infrastructure and shared services functions.
Important factors relating to certain risks, many of which are beyond our ability to control or predict, which could impact our business are described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this report.
The following table sets forth our consolidated operating results from continuing operations (in thousands, except per share amounts) for Fiscal 2017 compared to Fiscal 2016:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Net sales
$
1,086,211

$
1,022,588

Operating income
$
86,000

$
89,884

Net earnings from continuing operations
$
64,701

$
54,499

Net earnings from continuing operations per diluted share
$
3.87

$
3.27

The higher net earnings in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to (1) a lower effective tax rate primarily resulting from U.S. Tax Reform as discussed in Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report, (2) higher operating income in Tommy Bahama and (3) improved operating results in Southern Tide, which included certain purchase accounting charges in Fiscal 2016 and was not owned for the full year in Fiscal 2016. These items were partially offset by (1) the impact of LIFO accounting on Corporate and Other operating results, (2) lower operating income in Lilly Pulitzer, due in part to charges associated with the Fiscal 2017 acquisition of certain Lilly Pulitzer Signature Store operations, and (3) lower operating income in Lanier Apparel.

OPERATING GROUPS
Our business is primarily operated through our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer, Lanier Apparel and Southern Tide operating groups. We identify our operating groups based on the way our management organizes the components of our business for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. Our operating group structure reflects a brand-focused management approach, emphasizing operational coordination and resource allocation across each brand's direct to consumer, wholesale and licensing operations, as applicable.
Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide each design, source, market and distribute apparel and related products bearing their respective trademarks and license their trademarks for other product categories, while Lanier Apparel designs, sources and distributes branded and private label men's tailored clothing, sportswear and other products. Corporate and Other is a reconciling category for reporting purposes and includes our corporate offices, substantially all financing activities, elimination of inter-segment sales, LIFO accounting adjustments for inventory, other costs that are not allocated to the operating groups and operations of our other businesses, including our Lyons, Georgia distribution center and Beaufort Bonnet, which are not included in our operating groups. Our LIFO inventory pool does not correspond to our operating group definitions; therefore, LIFO inventory accounting adjustments are not allocated to our operating groups.
For additional information about each of our operating groups, see Part I, Item 1. Business and Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements, both included in this report.
COMPARABLE STORE SALES
We often disclose comparable store sales in order to provide additional information regarding changes in our results of operations between periods. Our disclosures of comparable store sales include net sales from full-price retail stores and our e-commerce sites, excluding sales associated with e-commerce flash clearance sales. We believe that the inclusion of both our full-price retail stores and e-commerce sites in the comparable store sales disclosures is a more meaningful way of reporting our comparable store sales results, given similar inventory planning, allocation and return policies, as well as our cross-channel marketing and other initiatives for the direct to consumer channel. For our comparable store sales disclosures, we exclude (1) outlet store sales, warehouse sales and e-commerce flash clearance sales, as those clearance sales are used primarily to liquidate end of season inventory, which may vary significantly depending on the level of end of season inventory on hand and generally occur at lower gross margins than our non-clearance direct to consumer sales, and (2) restaurant sales, as we do not currently believe that the inclusion of restaurant sales in our comparable store sales disclosures is meaningful in assessing our consolidated results of operations. Comparable store sales information reflects net sales, including shipping and handling revenues, if any, associated with product sales.
 

42



For purposes of our disclosures, we consider a comparable store to be, in addition to our e-commerce sites, a physical full-price retail store that was owned and open as of the beginning of the prior fiscal year and which did not have during the relevant periods, and is not within the current fiscal year scheduled to have, (1) a remodel or other event resulting in the store being closed for an extended period of time (which we define as a period of two weeks or longer), (2) a greater than 15% change in the size of the retail space due to expansion, reduction or relocation to a new retail space, (3) a relocation to a new space that was significantly different from the prior retail space, or (4) a closing or opening of a Tommy Bahama restaurant adjacent to the full-price retail store. For those stores which are excluded from comparable stores based on the preceding sentence, the stores continue to be excluded from comparable store sales until the criteria for a new store is met subsequent to the remodel, relocation or restaurant closing or opening, or other event. A store that is remodeled will generally continue to be included in our comparable store sales metrics as a store is not typically closed for longer than a two week period during a remodel; however, in some cases a store may be closed for more than two weeks during a remodel. A store that is relocated generally will not be included in our comparable store sales metrics until that store has been open in the relocated space for the entirety of the prior fiscal year because the size or other characteristics of the store typically change significantly from the prior location. Additionally, any stores that were closed during the prior fiscal year or current fiscal year, or which we expect to close or vacate in the current fiscal year, are excluded from the definition of comparable store sales.
 
Definitions and calculations of comparable store sales differ among retail companies, and therefore comparable store sales metrics disclosed by us may not be comparable to the metrics disclosed by other companies.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth the specified line items in our consolidated statements of operations both in dollars (in thousands) and as a percentage of net sales. We have calculated all percentages based on actual data, but percentage columns may not add due to rounding. Individual line items of our consolidated statements of operations may not be directly comparable to those of our competitors, as classification of certain expenses may vary by company.
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Net sales
$
1,086,211

100.0
%
$
1,022,588

100.0
%
$
969,290

100.0
%
Cost of goods sold
473,579

43.6
%
442,284

43.3
%
412,699

42.6
%
Gross profit
612,632

56.4
%
580,304

56.7
%
556,591

57.4
%
SG&A
540,517

49.8
%
504,600

49.3
%
473,517

48.9
%
Royalties and other operating income
13,885

1.3
%
14,180

1.4
%
14,440

1.5
%
Operating income
86,000

7.9
%
89,884

8.8
%
97,514

10.1
%
Interest expense, net
3,109

0.3
%
3,421

0.3
%
2,458

0.3
%
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes
82,891

7.6
%
86,463

8.5
%
95,056

9.8
%
Income taxes
18,190

1.7
%
31,964

3.1
%
36,519

3.8
%
Net earnings from continuing operations
$
64,701

6.0
%
$
54,499

5.3
%
$
58,537

6.0
%
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes
389

NM

(2,038
)
NM

(27,975
)
NM

Net earnings
$
65,090

NM

$
52,461

NM

$
30,562

NM

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding - diluted
16,734

 
16,649

 
16,559

 
Unless otherwise indicated, all references to assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and other information in this report reflect continuing operations and exclude any amounts related to the discontinued operations of our former Ben Sherman operating group which we sold in Fiscal 2015. Refer to Note 13 in our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information about discontinued operations.

FISCAL 2017 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2016
 
The discussion and tables below compare certain line items included in our statements of operations for Fiscal 2017, which included 53 weeks, to Fiscal 2016, which included 52 weeks. Each dollar and percentage change provided reflects the change between these periods unless indicated otherwise. Each dollar and share amount included in the tables is in thousands except for per share amounts.

43



 
Net Sales
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Tommy Bahama
$
686,021

$
658,911

$
27,110

4.1
%
Lilly Pulitzer
248,931

233,294

15,637

6.7
%
Lanier Apparel
106,852

100,753

6,099

6.1
%
Southern Tide
40,940

27,432

13,508

49.2
%
Corporate and Other
3,467

2,198

1,269

57.7
%
Total net sales
$
1,086,211

$
1,022,588

$
63,623

6.2
%
 
Consolidated net sales increased $63.6 million, or 6.2%, in the 53 week Fiscal 2017 compared to the 52 week Fiscal 2016. The increase in consolidated net sales was driven by (1) an incremental net sales increase of $20.9 million associated with the operation of non-comp full-price retail stores and the Southern Tide e-commerce operations, which we acquired in April 2016, (2) an $18.5 million, or 4% increase in comparable store sales to $444.7 million in Fiscal 2017 from $426.1 million in Fiscal 2016, (3) a net $17.7 million aggregate increase in wholesale sales, primarily consisting of higher sales in Southern Tide, which we acquired in April 2016, Lanier Apparel, Tommy Bahama and Corporate and Other partially offset by a decrease in Lilly Pulitzer and (4) a $9.5 million increase in restaurant sales in Tommy Bahama. These increases were partially offset by a $3.1 million decrease in net sales through our off-price direct to consumer clearance channels consisting of lower sales in Tommy Bahama and higher sales in Lilly Pulitzer. We estimate that the 53rd week in Fiscal 2017 provided an approximate $17 million benefit to our consolidated net sales. On a 53 week to 53 week basis, comparable store sales increased 3% in Fiscal 2017.

We believe that certain macroeconomic factors, including lower retail store traffic and the evolving impact of digital technology on consumer shopping habits, continue to impact the sales in each of our direct to consumer and wholesale businesses. The changes in net sales by operating group are discussed below.

The following table presents the proportion of our consolidated net sales by distribution channel for each period presented:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Full-price retail stores and outlets
39
%
41
%
E-commerce
19
%
18
%
Restaurant
8
%
7
%
Wholesale
34
%
34
%
Total
100
%
100
%

Tommy Bahama:
 
The Tommy Bahama net sales increase of $27.1 million, or 4.1%, in the 53 week Fiscal 2017 compared to the 52 week Fiscal 2016 was primarily a result of (1) a $20.5 million, or 6%, increase in comparable store sales to $340.0 million in Fiscal 2017 from $319.5 million in Fiscal 2016, (2) a $9.5 million increase in restaurant sales reflecting sales from a restaurant that opened in Fiscal 2017, a Marlin Bar that opened in late Fiscal 2016 and increased sales at existing restaurants, (3) an incremental net sales increase of $5.4 million associated with the operation of non-comp full-price retail stores and (4) a $2.6 million increase in wholesale sales reflecting higher off-price sales, as Tommy Bahama sold excess prior season inventory, partially offset by lower full-price wholesale sales, as Tommy Bahama continued to manage its exposure to department stores. These increases were partially offset by $11.0 million of lower sales in our off-price direct to consumer clearance channels, primarily resulting from the absence of any e-commerce flash clearance sales in Fiscal 2017, compared to $8.9 million of e-commerce flash clearance sales in Fiscal 2016, as well as lower sales in existing outlet stores. Tommy Bahama's direct to consumer sales benefited from (1) increased marketing and advertising including substantial Spring 2017 and Holiday 2017 catalogs, which both presented the wide breadth of Tommy Bahama products in one place, (2) increased sales from its semiannual Friends & Family events held each year, (3) increased sales from Tommy Bahama's loyalty award card and Flip Side events held in the second quarter and fourth quarter of each year and (4) Tommy Bahama taking initial markdowns on select items at the end of the selling season in our retail stores and on our e-commerce website in Fiscal 2017 after initiating that approach in January 2017. On a 53 week to 53 week basis, Tommy Bahama comparable store sales increased 5% in Fiscal 2017. We expect full-price and off-price wholesale sales for Tommy Bahama to decrease in Fiscal 2018 compared to Fiscal 2017 amounts.


44



As of February 3, 2018, we operated 166 Tommy Bahama stores globally, consisting of 110 full-price retail stores, 18 restaurant-retail locations and 38 outlet stores. As of January 28, 2017, we operated 168 Tommy Bahama stores consisting of 111 full-price retail stores, 17 restaurant-retail locations and 40 outlet stores.

The following table presents the proportion of net sales by distribution channel for Tommy Bahama for each period presented:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Full-price retail stores and outlets
49
%
50
%
E-commerce
16
%
16
%
Restaurant
12
%
11
%
Wholesale
23
%
23
%
Total
100
%
100
%
 
Lilly Pulitzer:
 
The Lilly Pulitzer net sales increase of $15.6 million, or 6.7%, in the 53 week Fiscal 2017 compared to the 52 week Fiscal 2016, was primarily a result of (1) an incremental net sales increase of $13.8 million associated with the operation of additional full-price retail stores and (2) an $8.0 million increase in e-commerce flash clearance sales. These sales increases were partially offset by (1) a $4.2 million decrease in wholesale sales and (2) a $1.9 million, or 2%, decrease in comparable store sales to $104.7 million in Fiscal 2017 compared to $106.6 million in Fiscal 2016, with negative retail comparable store sales offsetting positive e-commerce comparable store sales. The decrease in comparable store sales primarily reflects reduced retail store traffic while the lower wholesale sales were a result of lower sales to department stores, as Lilly Pulitzer continues to manage its exposure to department stores, and the result of the acquisition of 12 Signature Stores in Fiscal 2017. We expect wholesale sales in Lilly Pulitzer will be lower in Fiscal 2018 than Fiscal 2017 due to this acquisition of 12 Signature Stores and the continued management of department store exposure. On a 53 week to 53 week basis, Lilly Pulitzer comparable store sales decreased 3% in Fiscal 2017.

As of February 3, 2018, we operated 57 Lilly Pulitzer retail stores, compared to 40 retail stores as of January 28, 2017. During Fiscal 2017, Lilly Pulitzer opened six new Lilly Pulitzer stores, acquired 12 Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores and closed one store.

The following table presents the proportion of net sales by distribution channel for Lilly Pulitzer for each period presented:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Full-price retail stores and warehouse sales
38
%
36
%
E-commerce
34
%
32
%
Wholesale
28
%
32
%
Total
100
%
100
%
 
Lanier Apparel:
 
The increase in net sales for Lanier Apparel of $6.1 million, or 6.1%, was primarily due to increased sales in various programs, including initial shipments in some programs, as well as sales associated with the Strong Suit and Duck Head businesses, which were acquired in Fiscal 2016. These sales increases were partially offset by lower sales in other programs resulting from reductions in volume and the exit from various programs.

Southern Tide:

The increase in net sales of $13.5 million for Southern Tide in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to Fiscal 2017 including a full year of operations, while Fiscal 2016 only included the operations from the date of our acquisition on April 19, 2016 through January 28, 2017. Therefore, net sales for Fiscal 2016 excluded much of the Spring 2016 wholesale shipments.

The following table presents the proportion of net sales by distribution channel for Southern Tide for each period presented:

45



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
E-commerce
19
%
23
%
Wholesale
81
%
77
%
Total
100
%
100
%

Corporate and Other:
 
Corporate and Other net sales primarily consist of the net sales of our Lyons, Georgia distribution center to third party warehouse customers and Beaufort Bonnet, which was acquired in December 2017, as well as the impact of the elimination of any intercompany sales between our operating groups.
 
Gross Profit
 
The table below presents gross profit by operating group and in total for Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016, as well as the change between those two periods. Our gross profit and gross margin, which is calculated as gross profit divided by net sales, may not be directly comparable to those of our competitors as the statement of operations classification of certain expenses may vary by company.
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Tommy Bahama
$
410,018

$
386,650

$
23,368

6.0
%
Lilly Pulitzer
155,373

145,875

9,498

6.5
%
Lanier Apparel
32,500

29,490

3,010

10.2
%
Southern Tide
20,217

10,912

9,305

85.3
%
Corporate and Other
(5,476
)
7,377

(12,853
)
NM

Total gross profit
$
612,632

$
580,304

$
32,328

5.6
%
LIFO charge (credit) included in Corporate and Other
$
7,821

$
(5,884
)
 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Lilly Pulitzer
$
1,047

$

 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Southern Tide
$

$
2,667

 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Corporate and Other
$
111

$

 
 
 
The increase in consolidated gross profit was primarily due to (1) higher net sales, (2) improved gross margin in Tommy Bahama and (3) Southern Tide including an inventory step-up charge of $2.7 million in Fiscal 2016. These items were partially offset by (1) the $13.7 million net unfavorable impact of LIFO accounting and (2) Lilly Pulitzer including an inventory step-up charge of $1.0 million in Fiscal 2017. We estimate that the 53rd week in Fiscal 2017 resulted in approximately $9 million of additional gross profit. Changes in gross margin by operating group are discussed below. The table below presents gross margin by operating group and in total for Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016.
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Tommy Bahama
59.8
%
58.7
%
Lilly Pulitzer
62.4
%
62.5
%
Lanier Apparel
30.4
%
29.3
%
Southern Tide
49.4
%
39.8
%
Corporate and Other
NM

NM

Consolidated gross margin
56.4
%
56.7
%

On a consolidated basis, gross margin decreased in Fiscal 2017, primarily as a result of (1) the net unfavorable impact of LIFO accounting of $13.7 million between Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016 and (2) Lilly Pulitzer including an inventory step-up charge in Fiscal 2017 which was partially offset by (1) improved gross margins in Tommy Bahama and Lanier Apparel and (2) Southern Tide including an inventory step-up charge in Fiscal 2016.
 
Tommy Bahama:


46



The increase in gross margin for Tommy Bahama in Fiscal 2017 primarily resulted from (1) the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2016 including $5 million of inventory markdowns to estimated realizable value for certain aged women's, home and other products, (2) Fiscal 2017 including a greater proportion of full-price sales in the direct to consumer channels of distribution and (3) the impact of select retail price increases and product cost reductions commencing late in Fiscal 2017. These items were partially offset by (1) Fiscal 2017 including increased off-price wholesale sales, including the sale of the aged inventory which was marked down in the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2016 at a nominal gross profit, and (2) the gross margin impact of an increasing proportion of sales in our direct to consumer business occurring during our periodic loyalty award card, Flip Side and Friends and Family marketing events, which typically have lower gross margins than sales during other periods.

Lilly Pulitzer:
 
The decrease in gross margin for Lilly Pulitzer was due to Fiscal 2017 including $1.0 million of incremental cost of goods sold related to the step-up of inventory associated with the acquisition of certain Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores. The impact of the step-up of inventory was partially offset by the impact of a change in sales mix towards direct to consumer sales and improved gross margins for off-price e-commerce flash clearance and wholesale sales in Fiscal 2017.
 
Lanier Apparel:

The increase in gross margin for Lanier Apparel for Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to lower customer allowance and inventory markdown amounts due, in part, to the exit from certain programs resulting in the reversal of previously recognized amounts and a change in sales mix as branded sales represented a greater proportion of Lanier Apparel sales in Fiscal 2017.

Southern Tide:

The increase in gross margin for Southern Tide in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to the gross profit of Southern Tide for Fiscal 2016 including $2.7 million of incremental cost of goods sold associated with the step-up of inventory recognized at acquisition. All amounts related to the step-up of inventory were recognized during Fiscal 2016. Additionally, Southern Tide's gross margin during Fiscal 2017 reflects a change in sales mix with a greater proportion of wholesale sales and off-price sales partially offset by reductions in product costs. Wholesale sales, which typically have a lower gross margin than e-commerce sales, represented a greater proportion of Southern Tide in Fiscal 2017, primarily due to seasonality as Fiscal 2016 did not include a full year of operations, while off-price sales increased in Fiscal 2017 as Southern Tide focused on moving excess and prior season inventory.

Corporate and Other:

The gross profit in Corporate and Other in each period primarily reflects (1) the gross profit of our Lyons, Georgia distribution center and Beaufort Bonnet operations, (2) the impact of LIFO accounting adjustments and (3) the impact of certain consolidating adjustments, including the elimination of any intercompany sales between our operating groups. The primary driver for the lower gross profit was the unfavorable impact of a $7.8 million LIFO accounting charge in Fiscal 2017 compared to a $5.9 million LIFO accounting credit in Fiscal 2016. The LIFO accounting charge in Corporate and Other in Fiscal 2017 primarily results from the sale of inventory that had been marked down to net realizable value in prior periods in the operating groups, but generally reversed in Corporate and Other as part of LIFO accounting as well as a change in the LIFO reserve resulting from increases in the PPI as published by the United States Department of Labor. The LIFO accounting credit in Corporate and Other in Fiscal 2016 primarily resulted from the reversal of inventory markdowns to estimated net realizable value recognized in the operating groups during Fiscal 2016.

SG&A

47



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
SG&A
$
540,517

$
504,600

$
35,917

7.1
%
SG&A (as a % of net sales)
49.8
%
49.3
%
 

 

Amortization of intangible assets included in Tommy Bahama associated with Tommy Bahama Canada acquisition
$
1,523

$
1,491

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Lilly Pulitzer associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
180

$

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Southern Tide
$
288

$
263

 
 
Transaction/integration costs associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
870

$

 
 
Distribution center integration charges
$

$
454

 
 
Transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition included in Corporate and Other
$

$
762

 
 
 
The increase in SG&A was primarily due to (1) a $12.6 million increase in incentive compensation, reflecting higher incentive compensation amounts in Tommy Bahama, Corporate and Other and Lanier Apparel, partially offset by lower incentive compensation amounts in Lilly Pulitzer, (2) $11.6 million of incremental costs in Fiscal 2017 associated with additional retail stores and restaurants, (3) increased advertising expense for our brands, (4) other infrastructure and employment cost increases related to expanding certain of our business operations and (5) $3.9 million of incremental SG&A in the First Quarter of Fiscal 2017 associated with the Southern Tide business, which was acquired in April 2016. We estimate that the 53rd week in Fiscal 2017 resulted in approximately $7 million of incremental SG&A.

Royalties and other operating income
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Royalties and other operating income
$
13,885

$
14,180

$
(295
)
(2.1
)%
 
Royalties and other operating income in Fiscal 2017 primarily reflects income received from third parties from the licensing of our Tommy Bahama, Lilly Pulitzer and Southern Tide brands. The $0.3 million decrease in royalties and other operating income resulted from decreased royalty income for Lilly Pulitzer.

Operating income (loss)

48



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Tommy Bahama
$
55,002

$
44,101

$
10,901

24.7
 %
Lilly Pulitzer
46,608

51,995

$
(5,387
)
(10.4
)%
Lanier Apparel
6,546

6,955

$
(409
)
(5.9
)%
Southern Tide
4,504

(282
)
$
4,786

NM

Corporate and Other
(26,660
)
(12,885
)
$
(13,775
)
(106.9
)%
Total operating income
$
86,000

$
89,884

$
(3,884
)
(4.3
)%
LIFO charge (credit) included in Corporate and Other
$
7,821

$
(5,884
)
 

 

Inventory step-up charge included in Lilly Pulitzer
$
1,047

$

 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Southern Tide
$

$
2,667

 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Corporate and Other
$
111

$

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Tommy Bahama associated with Tommy Bahama Canada acquisition
$
1,523

$
1,491

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Lilly Pulitzer associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
180

$

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Southern Tide
$
288

$
263

 
 
Transaction/integration costs associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
870

$

 
 
Distribution center integration charges
$

$
454

 
 
Transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition included in Corporate and Other
$

$
762

 
 

The decrease in operating income in Fiscal 2017 was due to (1) the lower operating results in Corporate and Other, primarily due to the impact of LIFO accounting, (2) lower operating income in Lilly Pulitzer primarily due to higher SG&A, including charges and transaction/integration costs associated with the Fiscal 2017 acquisition of certain Lilly Pulitzer Signature Store operations and (3) lower operating income in Lanier Apparel. These items were partially offset by increased operating income in Tommy Bahama and Southern Tide, which included certain purchase accounting charges in Fiscal 2016 and was not owned for the full year in Fiscal 2016. Changes in operating income (loss) by operating group are discussed below.
 
Tommy Bahama:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Net sales
$
686,021

$
658,911

$
27,110

4.1
%
Gross margin
59.8
%
58.7
%
 

 

Operating income
$
55,002

$
44,101

$
10,901

24.7
%
Operating income as a % of net sales
8.0
%
6.7
%
 

 

Amortization of intangible assets included in Tommy Bahama associated with Tommy Bahama Canada acquisition
$
1,523

$
1,491

 
 
 
The increase in operating income for Tommy Bahama was primarily due to increased sales and higher gross margin, as discussed above, partially offset by higher SG&A. The higher SG&A for Fiscal 2017 includes (1) an $11.0 million increase in incentive compensation amounts, (2) incremental brand advertising expense, including the cost of the Spring 2017 and Holiday 2017 catalogs and (3) $4.4 million of incremental SG&A associated with non-comp retail stores and restaurants. These cost increases were partially offset by certain cost reductions in Tommy Bahama's retail store, wholesale and corporate operations as Tommy Bahama has focused on reducing certain employment and other operating costs.

Lilly Pulitzer:

49



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Net sales
$
248,931

$
233,294

$
15,637

6.7
 %
Gross margin
62.4
%
62.5
%
 

 

Operating income
$
46,608

$
51,995

$
(5,387
)
(10.4
)%
Operating income as a % of net sales
18.7
%
22.3
%
 

 

Inventory step-up charge included in Lilly Pulitzer
$
1,047

$

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Lilly Pulitzer associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
180

$

 
 
Transaction/integration costs associated with Signature Store acquisitions
$
870

$

 
 

The lower operating income in Lilly Pulitzer was primarily due to increased SG&A and the $1.0 million inventory step-up charge associated with the acquisition of certain Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores partially offset by higher sales. The higher SG&A for Fiscal 2017 includes (1) $7.1 million of incremental SG&A associated with the cost of operating additional retail stores, (2) SG&A increases to support the planned growth of the business, including additional employee headcount, and (3) $1.0 million consisting of transaction/integration costs and the amortization of intangible assets associated with the acquired Lilly Pulitzer Signature Stores. These additional SG&A amounts were partially offset by $1.0 million of lower incentive compensation amounts in Fiscal 2017.

Lanier Apparel:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Net sales
$
106,852

$
100,753

$
6,099

6.1
 %
Gross margin
30.4
%
29.3
%
 

 

Operating income
$
6,546

$
6,955

$
(409
)
(5.9
)%
Operating income as a % of net sales
6.1
%
6.9
%
 

 

 
The lower operating income for Lanier Apparel reflects higher SG&A partially offset by the impact of higher sales and gross margin. The SG&A increase primarily resulted from (1) $2.0 million of incremental infrastructure costs primarily associated with the Strong Suit and Duck Head businesses, which were acquired in Fiscal 2016, (2) $1.0 million of increased incentive compensation and (3) $0.7 million of higher bad debt expense.

Southern Tide:
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Net sales
$
40,940

$
27,432

$
13,508

49.2
%
Gross margin
49.4
%
39.8
 %
 

 

Operating income (loss)
$
4,504

$
(282
)
$
4,786

NM

Operating income (loss) as % of net sales
11.0
%
(1.0
)%
 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Southern Tide
$

$
2,667

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Southern Tide
$
288

$
263

 
 
Distribution center integration charges
$

$
454

 
 

The increase in operating income for Southern Tide in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to Fiscal 2017 including a full year of operations. Fiscal 2016 only included the operations from the date of our acquisition on April 19, 2016 through January 28, 2017 and also included a $2.7 million inventory step-up charge and $0.5 million of distribution center integration charges, with no such charges in Fiscal 2017.

Corporate and Other:

50



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Net sales
$
3,467

$
2,198

$
1,269

57.7
 %
Operating loss
$
(26,660
)
$
(12,885
)
$
(13,775
)
(106.9
)%
LIFO charge (credit) included in Corporate and Other
$
7,821

$
(5,884
)
 
 
Inventory step-up charge included in Corporate and Other
$
111

$

 
 
Transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition included in Corporate and Other
$

$
762

 
 
 
The lower operating results in Corporate and Other were primarily due to (1) the $13.7 million net unfavorable impact of LIFO accounting and (2) $1.5 million of higher incentive compensation expense. These items were partially offset by (1) $0.8 million of transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition in Fiscal 2016, with no such expenses in Fiscal 2017 and (2) improved operating results for our Lyons, Georgia distribution center operations.
 
Interest expense, net
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Interest expense, net
$
3,109

$
3,421

$
(312
)
(9.1
)%
 
Interest expense for Fiscal 2017 decreased from the prior year primarily due to Fiscal 2016 including the write off of $0.3 million of deferred financing costs associated with our amendment and restatement of our revolving credit agreement. The impact of lower average debt outstanding during Fiscal 2017 compared to Fiscal 2016 was partially offset by higher interest rates in Fiscal 2017.

Income taxes
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Income taxes
$
18,190

$
31,964

$
(13,774
)
(43.1
)%
Effective tax rate
21.9
%
37.0
%
 

 

Impact of U.S. Tax Reform
$
11,495

$

 
 
 
Income taxes in Fiscal 2017 decreased from the prior year primarily due to Fiscal 2017 including the provisional $11.5 million favorable impact from U.S. Tax Reform primarily resulting from the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the new enacted United States Federal tax rate of 21% rather than the historical 35% rate. This change results in the income tax amounts and effective tax rates for Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016 not being comparable. Additionally, Fiscal 2017 includes the favorable impact of (1) the blended tax rate for Fiscal 2017 resulting from the enactment of U.S. Tax Reform, (2) improved operating results in certain of our foreign jurisdictions, including foreign sourcing operations, which have lower tax rates than our domestic earnings, and (3) $0.8 million of favorable discrete items in Fiscal 2017 primarily related to certain prior year tax items, which were offset by the $0.8 million unfavorable impact of certain stock awards that vested during the First Quarter of Fiscal 2017. Fiscal 2016 includes the favorable impact of (1) earnings in certain foreign jurisdictions which have lower tax rates than our domestic earnings, (2) the utilization of certain foreign operating loss carryforward amounts and (3) the reversal of valuation allowances in certain foreign jurisdictions based on our assessment of the facts and circumstances related to our ability to realize those net operating loss carryforwards in future periods. Refer to Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements contained in this report for additional information about income taxes.

As a result of U.S. Tax Reform which reduced the corporate tax rate on United States operations from 35% to 21%, our effective tax rates for historical periods are not indicative of anticipated effective tax rates for future periods. Our effective tax rate for the full year of Fiscal 2018 is expected to be approximately 26%. However, in addition to the typical items that may result in an effective tax rate that differs from our expectations, the effective rate for Fiscal 2018 may vary from 26% as our Fiscal 2017 statement of operations includes provisional amounts for U.S. Tax Reform and any adjustments to the provisional amounts recognized for U.S. Tax Reform will be recognized in Fiscal 2018. The final impact of U.S. Tax Reform may differ from our provisional amounts recognized in Fiscal 2017 due to additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, us obtaining additional information to refine our estimated tax amounts and changes in current interpretations and assumptions.

Net earnings from continuing operations

51



 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
Net earnings from continuing operations
$
64,701

$
54,499

Net earnings from continuing operations per diluted share
$
3.87

$
3.27

Weighted average shares outstanding - diluted
16,734

16,649


The higher net earnings in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to (1) a lower effective tax rate primarily resulting from the impact of U.S. Tax Reform as discussed in Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report, (2) higher operating income in Tommy Bahama and (3) improved operating results in Southern Tide, which included certain purchase accounting charges in Fiscal 2016 and was not owned for the full year in Fiscal 2016. These items were partially offset by (1) the impact of LIFO accounting on Corporate and Other operating results, (2) lower operating income in Lilly Pulitzer, due in part to charges associated with the Fiscal 2017 acquisition of certain Lilly Pulitzer Signature Store operations, and (3) lower operating income in Lanier Apparel.

Discontinued operations
 
Fiscal 2017
Fiscal 2016
$ Change
% Change
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes
$
389

$
(2,038
)
$
2,427

NM
 
The income from discontinued operations, net of taxes in Fiscal 2017 was primarily due to a reduction in the retained lease obligations liability of our discontinued operations. This resulted from negotiated settlements in respect of the retained lease obligations for an amount in the aggregate less than the previously recognized lease obligations liability. The loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes in Fiscal 2016 primarily resulted from an additional loss related to the retained lease obligations liability of our discontinued operations due to an updated assessment of the anticipated losses considering anticipated sub-lease income to be earned, timing of obtaining a tenant, lease incentives and market rents. We do not anticipate cash flow or earnings related to the discontinued operations in future periods.

FISCAL 2016 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2015

The discussion and tables below compare certain line items included in our statements of operations for Fiscal 2016 to Fiscal 2015. Each dollar and percentage change provided reflects the change between these periods unless indicated otherwise. Each dollar and share amount included in the tables is in thousands except for per share amounts.

Net Sales
 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
$ Change
% Change
Tommy Bahama
$
658,911

$
658,467

$
444

0.1
 %
Lilly Pulitzer
233,294

204,626

28,668

14.0
 %
Lanier Apparel
100,753

105,106

(4,353
)
(4.1
)%
Southern Tide
27,432


27,432

NM

Corporate and Other
2,198

1,091

1,107

NM

Total
$
1,022,588

$
969,290

$
53,298

5.5
 %
 
Consolidated net sales increased $53.3 million, or 5.5%, in Fiscal 2016 compared to Fiscal 2015. The increase in consolidated net sales was primarily driven by (1) the $27.4 million of net sales of Southern Tide, which was acquired on April 19, 2016, (2) an incremental net sales increase of $20.2 million associated with the operation of additional full-price retail stores in Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer, (3) a $7.0 million net increase in direct to consumer clearance sales reflecting an increase in e-commerce flash clearance sales at Lilly Pulitzer and decreases in outlet store sales at Tommy Bahama and (4) a $5.4 million increase in restaurant sales in Tommy Bahama. These sales increases were partially offset by a $6.5 million, or 2%, decrease in comparable store sales to $404.1 million in Fiscal 2016 from $410.6 million in Fiscal 2015 reflecting a decrease in comparable store sales at Tommy Bahama of 3% and an increase in comparable store sales at Lilly Pulitzer of 2%. We believe that certain macroeconomic factors, including lower retail store traffic, the evolving impact of digital technology on consumer shopping habits and the 2016 election cycle, impacted the sales in each of our direct to consumer and wholesale businesses in Fiscal 2016. The changes in net sales by operating group are discussed below.


52



The following table presents the proportion of our consolidated net sales by distribution channel for each period presented:
 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Full-price retail stores and outlets
41
%
42
%
E-commerce
18
%
17
%
Restaurant
7
%
7
%
Wholesale
34
%
34
%
Total
100
%
100
%

Tommy Bahama:
 
The Tommy Bahama net sales increase of $0.4 million, or 0.1%, was primarily driven by (1) an incremental net sales increase of $12.4 million associated with the operation of additional full-price retail stores and (2) a $5.4 million increase in restaurant sales primarily resulting from the impact of a full year of operations of the Waikiki restaurant in Fiscal 2016 and a modest increase at restaurants open for the full year of Fiscal 2016 and Fiscal 2015. These sales increases were offset by (1) a $8.8 million, or 3%, decrease in comparable store sales to $302.5 million in Fiscal 2016 from $311.3 million in Fiscal 2015, (2) a $3.6 million decrease in net sales through our off-price direct to consumer clearance channels, primarily reflecting a decrease in sales in existing outlet stores, and (3) a $5.2 million decrease in wholesale sales. The decreases in the direct to consumer channels were primarily due to lower traffic in both our full-price retail stores and outlet stores. The decrease in wholesale sales reflects lower full-price wholesale sales reflecting the challenging environment of our wholesale department store and specialty store accounts.

As of January 28, 2017, we operated 168 Tommy Bahama stores globally, consisting of 111 full-price retail stores, 17 retail-restaurant locations and 40 outlet stores. As of January 30, 2016, we operated 164 Tommy Bahama stores consisting of 107 full-price retail stores, 16 retail-restaurant locations and 41 outlet stores.

The following table presents the proportion of net sales by distribution channel for Tommy Bahama for each period presented:
 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Full-price retail stores and outlets
50
%
50
%
E-commerce
16
%
15
%
Restaurant
11
%
11
%
Wholesale
23
%
24
%
Total
100
%
100
%
 
Lilly Pulitzer:
 
The Lilly Pulitzer net sales increase of $28.7 million, or 14.0%, was primarily a result of (1) an incremental net sales increase of $11.2 million associated with the operation of additional full-price retail stores, (2) a $10.7 million increase in e-commerce flash clearance sales, (3) an $8.2 million increase in wholesale sales primarily resulting from increased orders from existing wholesale customers and (4) a $2.2 million, or 2%, increase in comparable store sales to $101.5 million in Fiscal 2016 compared to $99.3 million in Fiscal 2015. These sales increases were partially offset by a net $3.8 million decrease in warehouse sales as Lilly Pulitzer did not anniversary its June warehouse sale in Fiscal 2016. As of January 28, 2017, we operated 40 Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores, after opening six new stores, acquiring one former Signature Store and closing one store during Fiscal 2016, compared to 34 full-price retail stores as of January 30, 2016.

The following table presents the proportion of net sales by distribution channel for Lilly Pulitzer for each period presented:

53



 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Full-price retail stores and warehouse sales
36
%
38
%
E-commerce
32
%
30
%
Wholesale
32
%
32
%
Total
100
%
100
%
 
Lanier Apparel:
 
The decrease in net sales for Lanier Apparel of $4.4 million, or 4.1%, was primarily due to lower sales of $6.5 million in the tailored clothing business partially offset by a $2.0 million increase in the sportswear business. The decreased sales in the tailored clothing business was primarily due to lower sales in certain programs including reductions in volume, shifts of timing and exits from various programs. These reductions in volume were partially offset by initial shipments and volume increases in other programs. The increased sales in the sportswear business were primarily due to increased volumes in private label sportswear programs.

Southern Tide:

The net sales of Southern Tide reflect the sales of Southern Tide for the period from the date of acquisition on April 19, 2016 through January 28, 2017. During the period from April 19, 2016 through January 28, 2017, 77% of Southern Tide's net sales were wholesale sales with the remainder of the sales consisting of e-commerce sales.

Corporate and Other:
 
Corporate and Other net sales primarily consist of the net sales of our Lyons, Georgia distribution center to third party warehouse customers as well as the impact of the elimination of intercompany sales between our operating groups. Net sales in Fiscal 2015 included the unfavorable impact of the elimination of intercompany sales between our operating groups with no meaningful impact of intercompany sales between our operating groups in Fiscal 2016.
 
Gross Profit
 
The table below presents gross profit by operating group and in total for Fiscal 2016 and Fiscal 2015 as well as the change between those two periods. Our gross profit and gross margin, which is calculated as gross profit divided by net sales, may not be directly comparable to those of our competitors, as the statement of operations classification of certain expenses may vary by company.
 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
$ Change
% Change
Tommy Bahama
$
386,650

$
393,221

$
(6,571
)
(1.7
)%
Lilly Pulitzer
145,875

131,277

$
14,598

11.1
 %
Lanier Apparel
29,490

30,460

$
(970
)
(3.2
)%
Southern Tide
10,912


10,912

NM

Corporate and Other
7,377

1,633

5,744

NM

Total gross profit
$
580,304

$
556,591

$
23,713

4.3
 %
LIFO (credit) charge included in Corporate and Other
$
(5,884
)
$
254

 

 

Inventory step-up charge included in Southern Tide
$
2,667

$

 
 
 
The increase in consolidated gross profit was primarily due to higher net sales, as discussed above, and the net favorable impact of LIFO accounting. The favorable impact of these items was partially offset by the unfavorable impact of the inventory step-up charge included in Southern Tide and lower gross margins in Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer, both as discussed below. The table below presents gross margin by operating group and in total for Fiscal 2016 and Fiscal 2015.

54



 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
Tommy Bahama
58.7
%
59.7
%
Lilly Pulitzer
62.5
%
64.2
%
Lanier Apparel
29.3
%
29.0
%
Southern Tide
39.8
%
NM

Corporate and Other
NM

NM

Consolidated gross margin
56.7
%
57.4
%

On a consolidated basis, gross margin decreased in Fiscal 2016, primarily as a result of lower gross margins in Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer, partially offset by the net favorable impact of LIFO accounting.

Tommy Bahama:

The decrease in Tommy Bahama's gross margin in Fiscal 2016 was primarily due to $5 million of inventory markdowns in the Fourth Quarter of Fiscal 2016 for certain women's, home and other products as well as lower gross margin in both the direct to consumer and wholesale businesses. The inventory markdowns primarily resulted from a change in Tommy Bahama's approach to inventory clearance; starting in January 2017, Tommy Bahama began clearing certain prior season inventory by taking initial markdowns on certain product categories in its full-price retail stores and then clearing any remaining inventory through both its outlet stores and third party off-price retailers and by operating the outlet stores with lower inventory levels and with better merchandised assortments.

The lower gross margins in the direct to consumer channel primarily reflect lower gross margins in outlet store and e-commerce flash clearance sales which were primarily due to our efforts to drive traffic in our outlet stores, reduce inventory levels and dispose of prior season inventory during Fiscal 2016. The higher discounting in our off-price direct to consumer channel was focused on women's, home and other products as well as footwear, which we transitioned to a third party licensee. Full-price retail store and e-commerce gross margins were also lower primarily due to a greater proportion of sales in Fiscal 2016 occurring in connection with our loyalty award card, Flip Side and Friends & Family marketing events, which typically have lower gross margins than sales during non-promotional periods, and the impact of Tommy Bahama discounting certain end-of-season women, home and other product in store and online beginning in January 2017. The decrease in gross margin in the wholesale distribution channel was primarily due to a change in sales mix with off-price sales representing a greater proportion of Tommy Bahama's wholesale sales in Fiscal 2016.

Lilly Pulitzer:
 
The decrease in gross margin for Lilly Pulitzer in Fiscal 2016 was primarily driven by the change in sales mix as e-commerce flash clearance sales represented a greater proportion of sales during Fiscal 2016 and in-store markdowns were more significant in Fiscal 2016.
 
Lanier Apparel:

The increase in gross margin for Lanier Apparel was primarily due to the net favorable impact of in-stock program allowances and inventory markdowns in Fiscal 2016 as compared to Fiscal 2015.

Southern Tide:

The gross profit of Southern Tide for Fiscal 2016 includes the gross profit of Southern Tide for the period from the date of acquisition on April 19, 2016 through January 28, 2017, which was impacted by $2.7 million of incremental cost of goods sold associated with the step-up of inventory recognized at acquisition. Therefore, we do not consider the gross profit or gross margin for this period to be indicative of expected gross profit, or gross margin, for future periods. All amounts related to the step-up of inventory were recognized during Fiscal 2016.

Corporate and Other:

The gross profit in Corporate and Other in each period primarily reflects (1) the gross profit of our Lyons, Georgia distribution center operations, (2) the impact of LIFO accounting adjustments and (3) the impact of certain consolidating adjustments, including the elimination of any intercompany sales between our operating groups. The primary driver for the higher gross profit was due to Fiscal 2016 including the favorable impact of a LIFO accounting credit of $5.9 million with no

55



significant impact of LIFO accounting in Fiscal 2015. The LIFO accounting credit in Fiscal 2016 was primarily due to the LIFO accounting reversal of the significant inventory markdowns recognized in Tommy Bahama during Fiscal 2016.
 
SG&A
 
Fiscal 2016
Fiscal 2015
$ Change
% Change
SG&A
$
504,600

$
473,517

$
31,083

6.6
%
SG&A (as a % of net sales)
49.3
%
48.9
%
 

 

Amortization of intangible assets included in Tommy Bahama associated with Tommy Bahama Canada acquisition
$
1,491

$
1,521

 
 
Amortization of intangible assets included in Southern Tide
$
263

$

 
 
Transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition included in Corporate and Other
$
762

$

 
 
Distribution center integration charges
$
454

$

 
 
 
The increase in SG&A was primarily due to (1) $16.9 million of incremental costs in Fiscal 2016 associated with additional Tommy Bahama full-price retail stores and restaurants and Lilly Pulitzer full-price retail stores, (2) $11.4 million of SG&A associated with Southern Tide, including amortization of intangible assets and distribution center integration costs, (3) an increase in brand advertising, marketing and other expenses in Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer to increase brand awareness and provide support for the brands, (4) increased depreciation expense of $2.2 million related to e-commerce operations and inventory/order management systems in Tommy Bahama and Lilly Pulitzer that were implemented in the First Quarter of Fiscal 2016, (5) asset impairment charges of $1.9 million primarily related to three outlet store closings and certain information technology assets, (6) an increase in severance expenses of $1.5 million and (6) $0.8 million of transaction expenses associated with the Southern Tide acquisition, which are included in Corporate and Other. These SG&A increases were partially offset by $8.0 million of lower incentive compensation, with decreases in each operating group as well as Corporate and Other.

SG&A included amortization of intangible assets of $2.2 million in Fiscal 2016 and $2.0 million in Fiscal 2015 with the increase primarily due to amortization related to the Southern Tide intangible assets. We anticipate that amortization of intangible assets for Fiscal 2017 will be approximately $2.2 million.

Royalties and other operating income