10-K 1 sgms1231201510k.htm 10-K 2015 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

 
 
 
ý
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2015
Or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                        to
Commission file number: 0-13063
SCIENTIFIC GAMES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
81-0422894
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

6650 S. El Camino Road
Las Vegas, Nevada 89118
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (702) 897-7150
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý   No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

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Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Large accelerated filer ý
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 (Do not check if
smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý
As of June 30, 2015, the market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $783,146,543(1).
Common shares outstanding as of February 22, 2016 were 86,528,647.
         DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's proxy statement relating to the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III. The proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the conclusion of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2015.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(1)
For this purpose only, "non-affiliates" excludes directors and executive officers.
         EXHIBIT INDEX APPEARS ON PAGE 174


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
Item 15.

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Glossary of Terms
 
 
 
The following terms or acronyms used in this Form 10-K are defined below:
 
 
Term or Acronym
Definition
2018 Notes
8.125% senior subordinated notes due 2018 issued by Scientific Games Corporation
2019 Notes
9.250% senior subordinated notes due 2019 issued by SGI
2020 Notes
6.250% senior subordinated notes due 2020 issued by SGI
2021 Notes
6.625% senior subordinated notes due 2021 issued by SGI
ADS
Technology and Gaming, Ltd.
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Bally
Bally Technologies, Inc.
Bally acquisition
the acquisition of Bally by the Company on November 21, 2014
Barcrest
Barcrest Group Limited
Coin-in
the amount wagered
Company
refers to Scientific Games Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise dictates
CSG
Beijing CITIC Scientific Games Technology Co., Ltd.
CSL
China Sports Lottery
CSP
Cooperative Services Provider
D&A
depreciation and amortization
ESPP
employee stock purchase plan
EU
European Union
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Global Draw
The Global Draw Limited
GLB
Beijing Guard Libang Technology Co., Ltd.
Hellenic Lotteries
Hellenic Lotteries S.A.
ITL
International Terminal Leasing
LAP
local-area progressive
LBO
licensed betting office
LNS
Lotterie Nazionali S.r.l.
Net win
Coin-in less payouts
Northstar Illinois
Northstar Lottery Group, LLC
Northstar New Jersey
Northstar New Jersey Lottery Group, LLC
Note
refers to a note to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise indicated
Parspro
PPC hf
Participation
with respect to our Gaming business, refers to gaming machines provided to customers through service or leasing arrangements in which our revenues are calculated based on: (1) a percentage of Net win; (2) fixed daily fees; (3) a percentage of the Coin-in; or (4) a combination of a fixed daily fee and a percentage of the Coin-in, and with respect to our Lottery business, refers to a contract or arrangement in which the Company is paid based on a percentage of retail sales
PMA
private management agreement
Provoloto
SG Provoloto, S. de R.L. de C.V.
R&D
research and development
Racing Business
racing and venue management businesses
RCN
Roberts Communications Network, LLC
RFP
request for proposal
RMG
real-money gaming
RSU
restricted stock unit

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SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission
Secured Notes
7.00% senior secured notes due 2022 issued by SGI
Securities Act
Securities Act of 1933, as amended
Senior Notes
the Secured Notes and the Unsecured Notes
SG&A
selling, general and administrative
SGI
Scientific Games International, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Scientific Games Corporation
SHFL
SHFL entertainment, Inc.
Shufflers
various models of automatic card shufflers, deck checkers and roulette chip sorters
Sportech
Sportech plc
Subordinated Notes
the 2018 Notes, 2020 Notes and 2021 Notes
Unsecured Notes
10.00% senior unsecured notes due 2022 issued by SGI
U.K.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
U.S.
United States of America
U.S. GAAP
accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
VLT
video lottery terminal
WAP
wide-area progressive
WMS
WMS Industries, Inc.
WMS acquisition
the acquisition of WMS by the Company on October 18, 2013

Intellectual Property Rights

® and TM indicate U.S. trademarks. Marks are owned by their respective owners.




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PART I
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we make "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements describe future expectations, plans, results or strategies and can often be identified by the use of terminology such as "may," "will," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "continue," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "target," "should," "could," "potential," "opportunity," "goal" or similar terminology. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are generally located in the material set forth under the headings "Business," "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" but may be found in other locations as well. These statements are based upon management's current expectations, assumptions and estimates and are not guarantees of timing, future results or performance. Actual results may differ materially from those contemplated in these statements due to a variety of risks and uncertainties and other factors, including, among other things:
competition;
U.S. and international economic and industry conditions, including declines in or slow growth of gross gaming revenues or lottery retail sales, reductions in or constraints on capital spending by gaming or lottery operators and bankruptcies of, or credit risk relating to, customers;
limited growth from new gaming jurisdictions, slowing additions of casinos in existing jurisdictions and declines in the replacement cycle of existing gaming machines;
ownership changes and consolidation in the gaming industry, including by casino operators;
opposition to legalized gaming or the expansion thereof;
inability to adapt to, and offer products that keep pace with, evolving technology;
inability to develop successful gaming concepts and content;
laws and government regulations, including those relating to gaming licenses and environmental laws;
inability to identify and capitalize on trends and changes in the gaming, lottery and interactive gaming industries;
dependence upon key providers in our social gaming business;
inability to retain or renew, or unfavorable revisions of, existing contracts, and the inability to enter into new contracts;
level of our indebtedness, higher interest rates, availability or adequacy of cash flows and liquidity to satisfy indebtedness, other obligations or future cash needs;
inability to reduce or refinance our indebtedness;
restrictions and covenants in debt agreements, including those that could result in acceleration of the maturity of our indebtedness;
protection of intellectual property, inability to license third party intellectual property and the intellectual property rights of others;
security and integrity of our products and systems and reliance on or failures in information technology and other systems;
natural events that disrupt our operations or those of our customers, suppliers or regulators;
inability to benefit from, and risks associated with, strategic equity investments and relationships, including (1) the inability of our joint venture to realize the anticipated benefits under its private management agreement with the Illinois Lottery or from the disentanglement services performed in connection with the termination thereof, (2) the inability of our joint venture to meet the net income targets or other requirements under its agreement to provide marketing and sales services to the New Jersey Lottery or otherwise to realize the anticipated benefits under such agreement and (3) the failure to realize the anticipated benefits related to our consortium's instant lottery game concession in Greece;
failure to achieve the intended benefits of the Bally acquisition, the WMS acquisition, our other recent acquisitions, or future acquisitions, including due to the inability to successfully complete or integrate such acquisitions or realize synergies in the anticipated amounts or within the contemplated time frames or cost expectations, or at all;
disruption of current plans and operations in connection with our recent acquisitions (including in connection with the integration of Bally and WMS), including departure of key personnel or inability to recruit additional qualified personnel or maintain relationships with customers, suppliers or other third parties;

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costs, charges and expenses relating to the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition;
incurrence of employee termination or restructuring costs and impairment or asset write-down charges;
changes in estimates or judgments related to our impairment analysis of goodwill or other intangible assets;
implementation of complex revenue recognition standards;
fluctuations in our results due to seasonality and other factors;
dependence on suppliers and manufacturers;
risks relating to foreign operations, including fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, restrictions on the payment of dividends from earnings, restrictions on the import of products and financial instability, including the potential impact to our instant lottery game concession or VLT lease arrangements resulting from the recent economic and political conditions in Greece;
dependence on key employees;
litigation and other liabilities relating to our business, including litigation and liabilities relating to our contracts and licenses, our products and systems, our employees (including labor disputes), intellectual property and our strategic relationships;
influence of certain stockholders; and
stock price volatility.
Additional information regarding risks and uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in forward-looking statements is included from time to time in our filings with the SEC, including under Item 1A "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made and, except for our ongoing obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
You should also note that this Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain references to industry market data and certain industry forecasts. Industry market data and industry forecasts are obtained from publicly available information and industry publications. Industry publications generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of that information is not guaranteed. Although we believe industry information to be accurate, it is not independently verified by us and we do not make any representation as to the accuracy of that information. In general, we believe there is less publicly available information concerning the international gaming, lottery and interactive gaming industries than the same industries in the U.S.

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ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise indicates, all references to the words "Scientific Games," "we," "us," "our" and the "Company" refer to Scientific Games Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. "U.S. jurisdictions" refer to the 50 states in the U.S. plus the District of Columbia.
General
Scientific Games Corporation was incorporated in the state of Delaware on July 2, 1984. We are a leading developer of technology‑based products and services and associated content for the worldwide gaming, lottery and interactive gaming industries. Our portfolio includes gaming machines and game content, casino management systems, table game products and services, instant and draw‑based lottery games, server‑based gaming and lottery systems, sports betting technology, lottery content and services, loyalty and rewards programs, interactive gaming and social casino solutions. We also gain access to technologies and pursue global expansion through strategic acquisitions and equity investments. As a result of our recent acquisitions of Bally and WMS, we have significantly expanded our global Gaming and Interactive gaming businesses.
Impact of Recent Acquisitions

On November 21, 2014, we acquired Bally for $5.1 billion (including the refinancing of approximately $1.9 billion of existing Bally indebtedness). On October 18, 2013, we acquired WMS for $1.5 billion. In connection with these acquisitions, we incurred additional indebtedness and completed a series of refinancing transactions, which are described in Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt). For additional information regarding the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition, see Note 3 (Acquisitions and Dispositions).
Our consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 were significantly impacted by the inclusion of the results of operations of Bally in our Gaming and Interactive segments' results of operations and by higher interest expense associated with the additional indebtedness incurred to finance the Bally acquisition. Results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 include Bally only from the November 21, 2014 acquisition date and were also significantly impacted by the inclusion of the results of operations of WMS in our Gaming and Interactive segments' results of operations and by higher interest expense associated with the additional indebtedness incurred to finance the WMS acquisition. Results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 include WMS only from the October 18, 2013 acquisition date.
We remain focused on successfully integrating Bally and WMS and achieving anticipated cost synergies by implementing our plans to streamline our operations and cost structure. We are also focused on positioning the Company for profitable growth by leveraging our core strengths and capabilities to enhance our portfolio of products and services and to expand market penetration worldwide. We anticipate our future results of operations will benefit from these efforts, although we expect these benefits to be offset to some extent by certain one-time incremental operating costs and capital expenditures in 2016 related to our contemplated integration activities. We also expect to incur additional costs during 2016 in order to position ourselves to capitalize on longer-term synergy opportunities.

Strategy
Our vision is to empower our customers by creating the world’s best gaming and lottery experiences. With the broadest product portfolio in the industry, we strive to offer best-in-class products and services across all three of our business segments -- Gaming, Lottery and Interactive.
To this end, we are focused on the following strategies:
Focus on innovation— We place great emphasis on producing innovative and high-performing Gaming, Lottery and Interactive content, products and services that provide measurable value to our customers. Our goal is to create “must have” products and complete systems and services with unique features and functionality through our innovation-centric corporate culture. We seek to leverage our expansive content library and portfolio of proprietary and licensed intellectual property, and utilize our extensive player and customer research in order to bring innovation to our products, services and processes. Also, we intend to take advantage of our state-of-the-art operating system development and game development tools to enhance our ideation and development processes and generate greater efficiencies in game production.
Deepen customer-centric focus— We aim to meet the needs of our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive customers and their respective players with our expansive portfolio of Gaming, Lottery and Interactive products and services and use our extensive industry experience to provide the best solutions to our customers as their partner of choice. We place great emphasis on tailoring our extensive research and development activities to address our customers’ needs and

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player preferences in meaningful ways. As we operate a significant portion of our business on a Participation basis, we will continue to focus on helping our customers grow their revenue.

Leverage our scale and scope to drive growth through nimble and flexible operations, customer service and cost synergies— We are one company with three business lines offering our customers around the globe the broadest and most comprehensive products and services in the industry. We plan to leverage our “Company of One” strategy in areas such as research and development, global sourcing, manufacturing and logistics in order to lower our cost, accelerate our speed to market and enhance customer satisfaction. We expect to continue achieve cost synergies through disciplined balance sheet management and the continued consolidation of our company policies, business platforms and facilities, as we improve our operations and business processes to be best-in-class.
Capitalize on growth opportunities— We seek to leverage our diversified portfolio of Gaming, Lottery and Interactive solutions, our broad international presence and our extensive business development and government relations capabilities to extend our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming businesses to new jurisdictions and to expand our presence in existing jurisdictions. We plan to pursue opportunities to cross-sell and cross-utilize the combined company’s expansive portfolio of game content, intellectual property and licensed brands across multiple distribution channels in order to grow our revenue. With continued focus on growing recurring revenue, our goal is to attain global leadership in each of our business segments while selectively pursuing new verticals, strategic alliances and acquisitions.
Segments
We report our operations in three business segments (Gaming, Lottery and Interactive) representing our different products and services. See "Business Segment Results" below and Note 2 (Business Segments) for additional business segment information.

Gaming Segment
The gaming industry is a large and dynamic worldwide marketplace characterized by the rapid development of new technologies, products and game content. Gaming products and services are used by a diverse group of gaming operators, including commercial and tribal casinos, riverboat casinos, horse and greyhound racetracks, bars, Jai Alai facilities, truck stops, night clubs, bingo and arcade halls, LBOs and similar venues. In addition, U.S. and international lotteries may offer VLTs and other forms of gaming, such as bingo and sports wagering.
Our products are installed in all of the major regulated gaming jurisdictions in the U.S., as well as in approximately 146 international gaming jurisdictions. We believe the total installed base of gaming machines in North America is approximately 975,000 units and has been relatively stable in recent years. Growth of gaming in land-based venues is driven by the opening of new casinos in both new and existing jurisdictions and the expansion of existing casinos. In addition, the land-based gaming supply business is significantly impacted by the rate at which casinos and other gaming operators replace their gaming machines, which is dependent upon a number of factors, including their capital budgets. Virtually all sectors of the gaming industry are impacted by changes in economic conditions that impact players’ disposable incomes.

The following table summarizes the primary business activities and investments included in our Gaming business segment.

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Primary Business Activities
 
Equity Investments
 
 
 
 
Ÿ
Supplying gaming machines, VLTs, arcade and bingo machines, conversion kits, automatic card shufflers, roulette chip sorters and spare parts for all of our products to commercial, tribal and governmental gaming operators
Ÿ
RCN-29.4% equity interest in a provider of communications services to racing and non-racing customers
Ÿ
Leasing or otherwise providing gaming machines, VLTs, fixed odds betting terminals, automatic card shufflers, roulette chip sorters, server-based gaming systems and content and licensing proprietary table game content to commercial, tribal and governmental gaming operators
Ÿ
ITL-50% equity interest in an entity from which we lease gaming machines and provide them to our customers
Ÿ
Providing video lottery central monitoring and control systems and networks for gaming regulators
Ÿ
Sportech-20% equity interest in an operator and supplier of sports pools and tote systems (sold on January 9, 2014)
Ÿ
Selling casino-management technology solutions and systems to commercial, tribal and governmental gaming operators
 
 
The types of products and services from which our Gaming segment derives its revenues are further discussed in Note 1 (Description of the Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies). Certain financial information relating to our segments, including segment revenue, operating (loss) income and total assets for the last three fiscal years and certain financial information relating to our revenue derived from and assets located in the U.S. and other geographic areas, is included in Note 2 (Business Segments). Additional information regarding our equity investments in the Gaming segment is included in Note 11 (Equity Investments).
Product sales
Our product sales include the sale of gaming machines, casino-management technology solutions and systems and table products to commercial, tribal and government casino operators and wide-area gaming operators as well as sales of conversion kits (including game, hardware or operating system conversions), spare parts and game content.
Gaming machines: The majority of our product sales are derived from sales of gaming machines and VLTs that utilize a combination of advanced graphics, mechanical reels, digital music and sound effects and secondary bonus games. Our Pro SeriesTM, Blade® and TwinStarTM branded cabinets are currently available in upright, slant, curve and other models, including the Pro Wave® cabinet with a unique 40-inch curved touchscreen monitor, the Pro Jumbo V55TM cabinet measuring over nine feet tall and featuring a 55-inch widescreen vertical monitor and our DualosTM and Equinox® branded cabinets. We also sell electronic table systems ("ETS") to either suit the needs of particular locations where live tables are not allowed or as productivity-enhancing solutions for other jurisdictions. Our ETS suite of products provides numerous efficiencies and benefits to casinos including reduced downtime, virtual elimination of errors, miss-pays and cheating and automated reporting such as wagering statistics and player tracking. Some of our ETS products enable us to offer table game content where live table games are not permitted, such as racinos (establishments that offer casino gaming in addition to race betting) and locations that provide VLTs.
Casino-management technology solutions and systems: We offer core slot, casino and table-management systems (collectively, "casino-management systems") that help our customers improve communication with players, add excitement to the gaming floor and enhance operating efficiencies through greater automation, reporting and business intelligence. Our comprehensive suite of technology solutions provides gaming operations of every size with a wide range of marketing, data management and analysis, accounting, player tracking, security and other applications and tools to more effectively manage their operations. We also provide technologies for deployment of networked, server-based gaming environments, with centralized management and control.
Table products: Our table products sales are generated primarily from the sale of products designed to enhance table game speed, productivity, profitability and security. Our product offerings include various models of automatic card shufflers to suit specific games, as well as deck checkers and roulette chip sorters.

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Our card-reading shoes gather data and enable casinos to track table-game play and our baccarat viewer displays current game results and trends. Our roulette chip sorters efficiently count and organize chips for roulette table games. Our Shuffler products are intended to cost-effectively provide increased game speed and data on table-game play for security and marketing purposes, which in turn allows our customers to increase their profitability. Less frequently, we will sell a perpetual license to one of our proprietary table games for use on a casino floor.
Parts sales, conversion kits, used gaming machines and game content: We sell replacement parts, operating systems and content conversion kits for our gaming machines and, less frequently, used gaming machines and hardware.
Services
Our services revenue includes revenue earned from Participation games, other gaming machine services and table product leasing and licensing. We categorize our Participation gaming machines as (1) WAP, premium and daily fee Participation games and (2) other leased and Participation games.
WAP, premium and daily fee Participation games
WAP Participation games: WAP Participation games are electronically linked gaming machines that are located across multiple casinos within a single gaming jurisdiction or across Native American gaming jurisdictions. Players across linked gaming machines contribute to and compete for system-wide progressive jackpots that are designed to increase gaming machine play for participating casinos by giving the players the opportunity to win a larger jackpot than on a non-WAP gaming machine. We are responsible for funding WAP jackpots. We create WAP games using our proprietary brands and also using licensed brands. Our licensed brands include, among others; MONOPOLY™, THE WIZARD OF OZ™, SPIDER-MAN™, THE LORD OF THE RINGS™, JAMES CAMERON’S TITANIC™, MICHAEL JACKSON KING OF POP™, MICHAEL JACKSON WANNA BE STARTIN’ SOMETHIN’™, FRIENDS™, DUCK DYNASTY™, AUSTIN POWERS™, IRON MAN™, ELVISTM, THE FLINTSTONESTM, WILLY WONKA AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY™, THE JETSONSTM and GREMLINSTM. We operate our WAP systems in six states throughout the United States as well as in certain Native American casinos.
Premium and daily fee Participation games: We offer two categories of non-WAP premium and daily fee Participation games: LAP and standalone. LAP games are gaming machines that are located within a single casino and are electronically linked to a progressive jackpot for that specific casino. Our LAP gaming machines feature games including those offered as WAP as well as our proprietary brands such as Jackpot Party Progressive®, Life of Luxury® Progressive, 88 Fortunes®, 5 Treasures®, and Cash SpinTM. Our LAP products leverage both exclusive brand names and game play intellectual property, and typically offer players the chance to win multiple progressive jackpots, all of which tend to result in higher play volumes. We also provide certain standalone Participation games that are not linked to other gaming machines. Our standalone games feature titles, among others, under the licensed MONOPOLY brand and our proprietary brands, as well as other licensed brands in those jurisdictions where we do not operate a WAP system. Our standalone Participation gaming machines generally feature larger, more elaborate top-boxes and provide game play experiences not possible on a single screen game or on gaming machines that we sell.
Other leased and Participation games
Server-based gaming: We provide wide-area gaming operators, such as LBOs, bingo halls and arcades, a comprehensive package of server-based products and services under long term contracts that typically include gaming machines, remote management of game content and management information, central computer systems, secure data communication and field support services. We are typically paid a fee based on the Net win generated by these gaming machines (subject to certain adjustments as may be specified in a particular contract, including adjustments for taxes and other fees). Our business in this category is primarily based in the U.K.
VLTs: Certain customers lease our multi-game and single-game VLTs, which include video gaming machines, mechanical reel gaming machines and video poker games. Our VLTs may be operated as standalone units or may interface with central monitoring systems operated by government agencies. Our VLTs are typically located in places where casino-style gaming is not the only attraction, such as racetracks, bars and restaurants.
Class II and centrally determined systems: We offer video and mechanical-reel gaming machines and VLTs for Class II and certain VLT jurisdictions where the game outcome is determined by a central server system that we provide. These Class II and centrally determined systems primarily operate in Native American casinos in Washington, Florida, Alabama and Oklahoma. We receive either a fixed daily fee or a percentage of the

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Net win generated by the gaming machines or VLTs connected to the central determination system and a small daily fee for the central determination system.
Other gaming machine services
Customer-owned daily fee games: This category consists of gaming machines for which the customer purchases the base gaming machine and leases the top-box and/or game theme from us at a lower fixed daily lease payment than if they were to lease the entire gaming machine. Customer-owned daily fee games typically feature a second LCD screen in the top-box that provides additional bonus experiences for the player.
Licensing: We derive revenue from licensing our games and intellectual property to third parties. Methods for determining our license or royalty revenue vary, but are generally based on a fixed amount for each licensed game or product using the intellectual property purchased, placed or shipped in a period, a fixed daily royalty amount or a percentage of the revenue generated by the placement of the licensed game or product using the intellectual property.
Table product leasing and licensing
Shuffler leasing: We offer Shuffler products under month-to-month lease arrangements that contain Participation rates or fixed monthly lease rates. These arrangements include service of the product with back-up and replacement products available at the customer’s request.
Proprietary table games ("PTG") licensing: We license our PTG content to commercial, tribal and governmental casino operators typically under month to month lease arrangements based on fixed monthly rates. PTGs which are designed to enhance operators' table-game operations, include our internally developed and acquired PTGs, side bets, add-ons and progressive features. Our proprietary content and features are also added to public domain games such as poker, baccarat, pai gow poker, craps and blackjack table games and to electronic platforms.
Revenues from our Gaming products and services to external customers accounted for 64%, 45% and 25% of our total revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Contract Procurement
Our Gaming business product sales revenue is generated on an order-by-order basis. Certain of our gaming machines are sold with extended financing payment terms that are typically for a one-year period and, in some cases, up to three years. Casino-management systems are sold under contracts that generally include a combination of casino-management systems software licenses, systems-based hardware products, maintenance and product support fees and professional services. Our WAP, premium and daily fee lease contracts, our lease contracts for other leased and Participation products, our VLT central monitoring and control systems contracts, our table product lease contracts and our gaming services lease contracts can generally be terminated at any time upon notification by either the customer or us subject to the applicable notice periods. The revenue from our VLT central monitoring and control systems business is derived from one international customer and three U.S. customers and no individual contract represents a significant portion of our Gaming service revenues. See the risk factor captioned “We operate in highly competitive industries and our success depends on our ability to effectively compete with numerous domestic and foreign businesses” under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Four large bookmakers operate approximately 86% of the LBOs in the U.K. For the year ended December 31, 2015, our contracts with two of the large U.K. bookmakers represented a significant portion of our U.K. LBO server-based gaming business. Our current contract with Ladbrokes plc (“Ladbrokes”) commenced on October 22, 2013 and is scheduled to expire on March 31, 2019. Our current contract with Gala Coral Group Ltd. (“Gala Coral”) commenced on January 1, 2010 and is set to expire on December 31, 2017. We expect to participate in the bidding process to continue to serve these customers after the expiration of their current contracts, although we cannot predict the outcome of that process. In July 2015, Ladbrokes and Gala Coral announced that they intend to merge. The U.K. Competition and Markets Authority ("CMA") is currently reviewing the proposed merger and may require that these operators divest a certain number of betting shops prior to consummating the contemplated transaction.  As these two operators are the largest customers of our U.K. gaming business, their merger and any asset divestitures relating thereto, could negatively impact our business.
Competition
The gaming machine sector is highly competitive and is characterized by the continuous introduction of new games, gaming machines and related technologies. We compete primarily with International Game Technology ("IGT"), a subsidiary of International Game Technology PLC (the successor of Gtech S.p.A), Ainsworth Game Technology, Aristocrat Leisure Ltd

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("Aristocrat"), Aruze Gaming America, Inc., Franco Gaming Ltd., Inspired Gaming Group Limited, Konami Digital Entertainment, Inc. ("Konami"), Multimedia Games, Inc. (which is a subsidiary of EVERI Inc.) and the Novomatic Group of Companies. Our principal direct competitor in our U.K. LBO business is Inspired Gaming Group Limited.
The casino-management systems business is also highly competitive. Product features and functionality, accuracy, reliability, service level and pricing are among the factors that determine how successful systems providers are in selling their systems. Our principal competitors in casino-management systems include Aristocrat, IGT, Konami and several smaller providers in international jurisdictions. Competition for these products is intense due to the number of providers and the limited number of casinos and jurisdictions in which they operate.
With respect to our table products, we compete on the basis of the breadth of our Shuffler products and services and PTGs, product reliability, service, the strength of our intellectual property and our extensive sales, regulatory and distribution channels. Our automated Shufflers also compete against hand shuffling, which remains the most competitive shuffling option for casino card games around the world. Finally, since the need for our Shuffler products is dependent upon the casino's use of live table games, our Shufflers also compete against any products that live table games compete against.
Competition for PTG content is based on player appeal, brand recognition, price and the strength of the underlying intellectual property. We compete on this basis, as well as on the strength of our extensive sales, service, marketing and distribution channels. We also compete with non-proprietary table games such as blackjack and baccarat, as well as several companies that primarily develop and license PTGs such as Galaxy Gaming, Inc., Masque Publishing, Inc. and DEQ Systems Corp. It is easier for smaller companies to participate in developing and marketing PTG content as compared to other gaming products due to the lower cost and complexity associated with the development of these products. Finally, some of our product lines may compete against each other for space on the casino floor.

Lottery Segment
There are approximately 180 lotteries throughout the world, operated by U.S. and international governmental authorities and their licensees. Governments typically authorize lotteries as a means of generating revenues without imposing additional taxes. Net lottery proceeds are generally set aside for public purposes, such as education, aid to the elderly, conservation, transportation and economic development. Many jurisdictions have come to rely on the proceeds from lottery game sales as a significant source of funding for these programs. Although there are many types of lottery games worldwide, the two principal categories of products offered are draw lottery games and instant lottery games. Currently, 44 U.S. jurisdictions (including Puerto Rico) offer instant game lotteries and 46 U.S. jurisdictions (including Puerto Rico) offer draw lotteries. Lottery operations in international jurisdictions can vary widely depending on the number of new lotteries entering the market, the number of lottery licenses issued within each market and the discontinuance of lotteries and operating licenses.
An instant lottery game is typically played by removing a scratch-off protective coating from a preprinted ticket to reveal if it is a winner. Draw lottery games, such as POWERBALL® and MEGA MILLIONS®, are based on a random selection of a series of numbers, and prizes are generally based on the number of winners who share the prize pool, although set prizes are also offered. Draw lottery games are generally provided through a lottery system in which lottery terminals in retail outlets are continuously connected to a central computer system for the sale and validation of lottery games and related functions. A lottery system may also be used to activate, sell and validate instant lottery games to confirm that a ticket is a winner and prevent duplicate payments. In some jurisdictions, separate instant game validation systems may be installed.
Lotteries may offer a range of other games. In the U.S., some lotteries offer high frequency games such as keno, which is typically played every four to five minutes in restricted social settings, such as bars, and is usually offered as an extension of the lottery system.
Based on third party data, U.S. instant lottery game retail sales and draw lottery retail sales totaled approximately $43 billion and approximately $25 billion, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2015. We define U.S. lottery retail sales of draw games to primarily include retail sales of draw games, keno and instant games validated by the relevant system. Based on industry information published in the Lafleurs 2015 World Lottery Almanac, we estimate that worldwide instant lottery game retail sales and worldwide draw lottery retail sales totaled approximately $79 billion and $205 billion, respectively, during fiscal year 2014.
The following table summarizes the primary business activities and equity investments included in the Lottery business segment.

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Primary Business Activities
 
Equity Investments
 
 
 
 
Ÿ
Designing, printing and selling instant lottery games
Ÿ
LNS-20% equity interest in the operator of the Gratta e Vinci instant ticket lottery in Italy
Ÿ
Providing instant game-related services, such as game design, sales and marketing support and inventory management
Ÿ
Northstar Illinois-20% equity interest in the private manager of the Illinois Lottery (contract termination agreement signed in August 2015; effective January 2017)
Ÿ
Sublicensing brands for lottery products and providing lottery-related promotional products
Ÿ
Northstar New Jersey-17.69% equity interest in the operating entity that provides marketing and sales services to the New Jersey Lottery
Ÿ
Supplying player loyalty programs, merchandising services and interactive marketing campaigns
Ÿ
Hellenic Lotteries-16.5% equity interest in the operator of the Greek state lotteries
Ÿ
Providing lottery systems, including equipment, software, data communication services and support
Ÿ
CSG-49% equity interest in the instant game supplier to the China Sports Lottery
Ÿ
Providing instant game validation systems
Ÿ
GLB-50% equity interest in a provider of lottery systems and services for the China Welfare Lottery
Ÿ
Providing software, hardware and related services for sports wagering and keno systems
 
 
Ÿ
Printing and selling phone cards
 
 
 
 
 
 
The types of products and services from which our Lottery segment derives its revenues are further discussed in Note 1 (Description of the Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies). Certain financial information relating to our segments, including segment revenue, operating income (loss) and total assets for the last three fiscal years and certain financial information relating to our revenue derived from and assets located in the U.S. and other geographic areas is included in Note 2 (Business Segments).
Instant Lottery Games    
We generate revenue from the manufacturing and sale of instant lottery games. Some of our contracts bundle the design and manufacturing of instant lottery games, instant game management systems and marketing and other services, such as the design and installation of game management software, inventory and distribution, sales, accounting, training and advisory services, market research and retailer training and recruitment. We are typically paid on a Participation basis under these contracts. We believe these services help lotteries effectively manage and support their operations, achieve higher retail sales and lower operating costs. We also provide licensed games and promotional and interactive marketing services to the lottery industry.
We believe we are the leading designer, manufacturer and distributor of instant lottery games in the world. We market instant lottery games and related services to U.S. and international lotteries and commercial customers. We supply instant lottery games to 39 of the 44 U.S. jurisdictions (including Puerto Rico) that sell instant lottery games and have sold instant lottery games to customers in approximately 50 countries. Our U.S. instant lottery game contracts typically have an initial term of three to five years and frequently include multiple renewal options for additional periods ranging from one to five years, which our customers have generally exercised in the past. We typically sell our instant lottery games on a price-per-unit or Participation basis. Certain of our international customers purchase instant lottery games as needed rather than under multi-game supply contracts.
We operate five instant lottery game printing facilities across four continents (including a facility owned by CSG) with an aggregate capacity to print in excess of 46 billion 2" by 4" equivalent standard instant lottery tickets annually. Our instant lottery tickets are typically printed on recyclable ticket stock by a series of computer-controlled presses and ink-jet imagers, which we believe incorporate the most advanced technology and security in the industry. Instant lottery tickets generally range in size from 2" by 3" to as large as 8" by 12".
The technology and security capabilities necessary to manufacture and service instant lottery games continue to separate our business from conventional forms of printing. We believe we are generally recognized within the lottery industry as the leader in applying computer-based technologies to the manufacturing and sale of instant lottery games. In order to

14


maintain our position as a leading innovator within the lottery industry, we intend to continue to invest in the development of new technologies for instant lottery games and systems.
We provide lotteries with access to some of the world's most popular entertainment brands on lottery products, which we believe helps increase our customers' instant game sales. Our licensed entertainment brands include AMC®-THE WALKING DEAD®, HARLEY-DAVIDSON®, LOTERIA®, MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL®, MARGARITAVILLE®, MONOPOLY, NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION®, THE PRICE IS RIGHT® and SLINGO®. We also provide branded merchandise, advertising, promotional support, drawing management services and prize fulfillment programs. In addition, we offer lotteries interactive marketing services through our Properties Plus® program which features players clubs, reward programs, second chance promotional websites, interactive games and subscription systems that enable players to purchase lottery games securely over the internet.
Lottery Systems
We believe we are a leading provider of lottery systems including customized computer software, software support, equipment, and data communication services, to lotteries in the U.S. and internationally. In the U.S., we typically provide the necessary equipment (including point-of-sale terminals), software and maintenance services pursuant to long-term contracts that typically have an initial term of at least five years under which we are generally paid a fee equal to a percentage of the lottery's total retail sales. Our U.S. contracts typically contain multiple renewal options that generally have been exercised by our customers in the past. Internationally, we typically sell point-of-sale terminals and/or computer software to lottery authorities and may provide ongoing fee-based systems and software support services.
Our lottery systems use proprietary technology that facilitates high-speed processing of draw lottery game wagers as well as validation of winning draw and instant lottery games. This business includes the supply of proprietary transaction-processing software, draw lottery games, keno, point-of-sale terminals, central site computers and communication platforms as well as ongoing operational support and maintenance services. We have contracts to operate lottery systems for ten of the 46 U.S. jurisdictions (including Puerto Rico) that operate draw lotteries. In addition, we have a contract with the manager of the Indiana lottery to provide and maintain the point-of-sale terminal base. Internationally, we have lottery systems operating in Canada, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Norway, the Philippines, Spain and Switzerland.
The fees we earn under our lottery systems contracts are generally included in our services revenue. Revenue from the sale of our point-of-sale terminals and/or computer software is included in our product sales revenue, while the fees we generate from ongoing systems and software support are generally included in our services revenue.
We have strategic equity investments in LNS, Northstar Illinois, Northstar New Jersey, Hellenic Lotteries, CSG and GLB, which entities operate or assist in the operation of lotteries. We are also the primary provider of instant lottery games to LNS and Northstar New Jersey and the exclusive provider of instant lottery games to Northstar Illinois and Hellenic Lotteries. Additional information regarding these equity investments is included in Note 11 (Equity Investments).
Revenues from our Lottery products and services to external customers accounted for 28%, 47% and 72% of our total revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Contract Procurement
Lotteries in the U.S. typically operate under state-mandated public procurement regulations. See further discussion in "Government Regulation" in this Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Lotteries typically select an instant game or lottery system by issuing a RFP, which outlines the products and services to be delivered and related contractual obligations. An evaluation committee frequently comprised of key lottery staff typically evaluates RFP responses based on various criteria, including the quality of product and/or technical solutions, security plan and features, experience in the industry, quality of personnel and services to be delivered and price. We believe that our product functionality and game content, the quality of our personnel, our technical expertise and our demonstrated ability to help lotteries increase their revenues may give us an advantage relative to our competitors when responding to lottery RFPs in the U.S. However, many lotteries award contracts to the qualified vendor strictly based on their offering the lowest price, regardless of these other factors. Contract awards by lottery authorities are sometimes challenged by vendors that were not selected, which can result in protracted legal proceedings.
Internationally, lottery authorities do not always utilize a formal bidding process, but rather may engage in negotiations with one or more potential vendors. Our international lottery service contracts typically include automatic renewal provisions and may not have specified expiration dates. These service contracts can generally be terminated at any time upon notification by either the customer or us subject to the applicable notice periods.
The table below lists our more significant lottery contracts representing approximately 34% of our Lottery revenue. The U.S. lottery industry's 2015 fiscal year generally ended on June 30, 2015. We are the exclusive provider of systems in the lottery

15


systems contracts listed below and we are the primary supplier of instant lottery games. The commencement date of the contract is the date we began generating revenue under such contract, which for our Lottery contracts is typically the start-up date. The table below also includes instant or draw lottery game retail sales, (as applicable), if publicly available, for each jurisdiction.
Lottery/Operator
 
Fiscal 2015
State Instant Game
or Lottery Systems
Retail Sales
(in millions)
 
Type of
Contract
 
Commencement
Date of
Current Contract
 
Expiration Date of
Current Contract
(before any exercise
of remaining
renewal options)
 
Current Renewal
Options
Remaining
Florida
 
$
3,721

 
Instant Games - Participation
 
October 2008
 
September 2018
 
None
Georgia
 
$
2,831

 
Instant Games - Participation
 
September 2003
 
September 2018
 
None
Pennsylvania
 
$
2,608

 
Instant Games - Participation
 
August 2007
 
August 2017
 
None
Pennsylvania
 
$
3,838

 
Lottery systems
 
January 2009
 
December 2018
 
None
Northstar New Jersey
 
$
1,709

 
Instant Games - Participation
 
October 2013
 
June 2029
 
N/A*
Camelot Group plc (U.K.) (1)
 
£
2,519

 
Instant Games - Participation
 
November 2013
 
January 2023
 
None
LNS (Italy)
 
9,022

 
Instant Games - Price-per-unit
 
October 2010
 
September 2019
 
1 nine-year
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
* Although the contract may be extended in accordance with its terms, the contract does not provide a specific number of renewals.
(1)
Camelot Group plc is the lottery operator of the U.K. National Lottery.

Competition
The instant lottery game sector is highly competitive and continues to be subject to intense price-based competition. Our principal instant games competitors in the U.S. are IGT and Pollard Banknote Limited. Except as permitted by the North American Free Trade Agreement with respect to Canada, it is currently illegal to import lottery games into the U.S. from a foreign country. Our business could be adversely affected should additional international competitors in Canada export lottery products to the U.S. or should other international competitors establish instant game printing facilities in the U.S. or Canada to supply the U.S. Internationally, a number of instant lottery game vendors compete with us including the competitors noted above as well as diversified printers in India, China and Latin America. Our principal competitors in the supply of lottery-related licensed games, promotional entertainment and loyalty or rewards programs are Alchemy3 LLC, ePrize LLC, IGT, Pollard Banknote Limited and Intralot S.A.
The lottery systems business is also highly competitive and continues to be subject to intense price-based competition. Our principal competitors in this business are IGT, Intralot S.A. and Tattersalls Group. We also compete with various suppliers of lottery system components, such as terminals and computer systems, as well as lottery operators that internally develop their own systems.
As countries liberalize gaming regulations, lotteries may expand their scope by offering sports wagering, gaming machines, interactive gaming or other forms of gaming, which may introduce new suppliers that compete with us for lottery customers. In some jurisdictions, the liberalization of gaming regulations has included the privatization or outsourcing of all or a portion of the lottery operations via a competitive bidding process. We believe Camelot Group plc, the Tattersalls Group, IGT and Intralot, S.A. to be among those who may bid on such opportunities.
Interactive Segment
Our Interactive business segment includes social (non-wagering) gaming and interactive RMG. Through our Interactive segment, we make available WMS, Bally, SHFL, Barcrest and third-party branded content directly to players of social gaming, or—in the case of RMG—directly to online casino operators. Our SG UniverseTM service features multiple platforms, which empower land-based casinos to increase engagement with their players at home, on-the-go and during each visit to the casino floor. Similar to traditional land-based gaming, the appeal and performance of our game content is an important contributor to our success in the interactive gaming business. Our Interactive gaming business is increasingly focused on products and services that operate on both mobile and desktop products and platforms.

The following table summarizes the primary business activities included in the Interactive business segment.

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Primary Business Activities
 
Equity Investments
 
 
 
 
Ÿ
Operating social casino-style, slot-based games through Facebook®, iOS, Android and various other desktop and mobile platforms
Ÿ
None
Ÿ
Provision of content, via remote game server technology, to licensed online casino operators on both desktop and mobile platforms
 
 
Ÿ
Provision of play-for-fun and play-for-free white-label gaming for traditional land-based casinos through SG Universe
 
 
Ÿ
Provision of content and technology for on-premises mobile interactive gaming to traditional land-based casinos
 
 
The types of products and services from which our Interactive segment derives its revenues are further discussed in Note 1 (Description of the Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies). Certain financial information relating to our segments, including segment revenue, operating income (loss) and total assets for the last three fiscal years and revenue and assets in the U.S. and other geographic areas, is included in Note 2 (Business Segments).
We provide interactive gaming products and services for both social gaming and RMG, available via desktop and mobile devices.
Social Gaming: We host Jackpot Party TM Social Casino ("JPSC"), Gold Fish TM Casino Slots ("GFC"), Quick HitTM Slots (“QHS”) and Hot Shot CasinoTM (“HSC”), Dragonplay Slots® (“DPS”), and Dragonplay Poker® (“DPP”) on various platforms. Our products are available in the following formats:
 
Facebook
Apple
Google Play
Amazon Kindle
Yahoo
Microsoft Windows
JPSC
X
X
X
X
X
X
GFC
X
X
X
X
X
 
QHS
X
X
X
X
 
X
HSC
X
 
 
 
 
 
DPP
X
X
X
X
 
 
DPS
X
X
X
X
 
 
In our social gaming business, we earn revenue from the sale of virtual coins or chips, which players can use to play our games (i.e., spin in the case of slots, bet in the case of poker). Revenue is recorded when the purchased coins or chips are used by the customer. We also host play-for-fun and play-for-free services for traditional land-based casinos and earn revenue based on fixed fees, a share of the proceeds from the sale of virtual coins, or a mix of fixed fees and a share of such proceeds.
RMG: We serve online casino operators, primarily in Europe, by offering our games on a Participation basis. We host our game content on our centrally-located servers (often referred to as remote game servers) that are integrated into the online casino operators’ websites. We typically earn a percentage of the operator’s net gaming revenue generated by their players playing the games we host. We also host on-premises interactive gaming for certain customers and earn revenue based on fixed fees, a revenue share with our online casino-customer, or a mix of fixed fees and revenue share.
SG Universe: We host play-for-fun and play-for-free services for traditional land-based casinos and earn revenue based on fixed fees, a share of the proceeds from the sale of virtual coins, or a mix of fixed fees and a share of such virtual coin proceeds. We also host on-premises interactive gaming for certain customers and earn revenue based on fixed fees, a revenue share with our online casino-customer, or a mix of fixed fees and revenue share.


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We believe that growth in our Interactive gaming business is driven largely through new channels of distribution, such as the various types of mobile gaming platforms, the expansion of legal interactive RMG jurisdictions, the addition of social gaming products, such as our newest social games Quick Hits Slots and Hot Shot Casino, both of which we launched in 2015, the number and quality of our proprietary and third-party branded games released and available to players, the addition of traditional land-based casino operators and RMG operators that are not currently customers, the effectiveness of our marketing efforts designed to engage new players and re-engage existing players, and the prominence of our offerings on operators’ websites, which is not controlled by us.

Virtually all sectors of the interactive gaming industry are impacted by changes in economic conditions that impact players’ disposable income.
Our revenue from the Interactive segment is included in services revenue.
Revenues from our Interactive services to external customers accounted for 8%, 8% and 3% of our total revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Contract Procurement
Our Interactive social gaming revenue is typically generated from a high volume of players' one-time purchase transactions of virtual coins which are used to play the games, whereas our RMG revenue is generated by royalty or Participation payments based on usage under license agreements with online casino operators that typically have a duration of approximately three years.
Competition
In our social gaming business, as games are free to play, we compete for the leisure time and discretionary spending of consumers with other interactive gaming entertainment companies, and where our primary competitors include DoubleDown Interactive, a subsidiary of IGT, Caesars Interactive Entertainment, Big Fish Games Inc., a subsidiary of Churchill Downs, Inc., GSN/Bash Gaming, Product Madness, a subsidiary of Aristocrat, High 5 Games and Zynga Inc. In our RMG business, our primary competitors are Playtech Limited, Net Entertainment, Microgaming Software Systems Ltd., IGT, NYX Gaming Group and High 5 Games.
Research and Product Development
We believe our ability to attract new gaming, lottery and interactive gaming customers and retain existing customers depends in part on our ability to evolve our product line by continually developing world-class games, hardware and systems technology and functionality to enhance player entertainment and customer profitability. We are also focused on expanding utilization of the internet and other interactive technologies to increase play. Our gaming machines are usually designed and programmed by our internal engineering staff and internal and external game development studios with the input and cooperation of our customers. We believe that many of our innovations have become industry standards.
We have Gaming R&D personnel located primarily in our Las Vegas, Nevada R&D facility and our state-of-the-art technology campus in Chicago, Illinois. A large portion of our Lottery R&D team is based in our Alpharetta, Georgia facilities. We have Interactive personnel located primarily in Chicago, Illinois, Cedar Falls, Iowa and Tel Aviv, Israel. We also have game development studios in Las Vegas, Nevada, Sydney, Australia, Manchester, England and India (including Bangalore, Chennai and Pune), with additional R&D staff for our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming businesses in other locations, including Reno, Nevada and Vienna, Austria. Each of our game development studios works concurrently on multiple games and is staffed with producers, software developers, graphic artists, mathematicians, composers and game designers. We believe that we are able to more easily recruit and retain top talent to develop games and systems specific to each market as a result of our global presence. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, our R&D expense totaled $183.9 million, $117.0 million and $26.0 million, respectively.
Intellectual Property
Many of our products utilize intellectual property rights, including trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, patents and trade secrets.  We consider our intellectual property rights to be, in the aggregate, material to our business. We protect our investment in research and development by seeking intellectual property protection as appropriate for our technologies and content. We also acquire and license intellectual property from third parties.

The terms of our patents vary based on the date and jurisdiction of filing. The term of U.S. patents generally expires 20 years from the date of filing of the first non-provisional patent application in a family of patents. The actual protection afforded by a patent depends upon the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the applicable country. Certain technologies, which are material to our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming businesses, are the

18


subject of patents issued and patent applications currently pending in the U.S. and certain other countries. Our Lottery business utilizes our patented and patent-pending technologies in the production, secure printing, validation and distribution of instant lottery games. Our Gaming and Interactive gaming businesses utilize our patented and patent-pending technologies in games and associated platforms and systems. In addition, we patent and license game content as part of our licensed properties and Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming businesses.
We market many of our products under trademarks and copyrights that provide product differentiation and recognition and promote our portfolio of product offerings. All of our games feature elements subject to copyright rights and protection. In addition, we generally obtain trademark protection and often seek to register trademarks for the names and designs under which we market and license our products and games. Protections for trademarks exist in many countries, including the U.S., for as long as the trademark is registered and/or used. Registrations are generally issued for fixed, but renewable terms, although trademark rights may exist whether or not a mark is registered and the duration of the registrations vary by country.
We believe that our use of both our own and third party licensed brand names and related intellectual property contributes to the appeal and success of our products, and that our future ability to license, acquire or develop new brand names is important to our continued success. Therefore, we continue to invest in the recognition of our brands and brands that we license. Certain of our games are based on popular brands licensed from third parties, such as Hasbro International, Inc., Fremantle Media North America, CBS Studios Inc., Turner Entertainment Co., Warner Bros. Consumer Products Inc., Harley-Davidson, Playboy Enterprises International, Inc., Paramount Pictures Corporation, Hearst Holdings Inc., King Features Syndicate Division, Twentieth Century Fox Licensing and Merchandising, Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association. Brand license terms typically obligate us to make minimum guaranteed royalty payments over the duration of the license period and to make advance payments against those commitments. Licensors also typically have the right to inspect and approve the use of licensed property.
IGT administers a pool of patents relating to "ticket-in ticket-out" technology that enables casino patrons to cash out from a gaming machine and receive a printed ticket instead of coins. This technology is utilized in substantially all of our gaming machines. We have a license for certain patents related to this technology through the expiration date of the relevant patents.
From time to time we become aware of potential infringement of our intellectual property by competitors and other third parties and consider what action, if any, to take in that regard, including litigation where appropriate. We are also subject to threatened or actual intellectual property-related claims by third parties from time to time.
Production Processes, Sources and Availability of Components
We currently produce substantially all of our gaming machines at our facilities in Las Vegas, Nevada and Sydney, Australia. We also have finishing lines in our Barcelona, Spain facility, as well as in Midrand, South Africa, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Manchester, England. These finishing lines allow for the completion and testing of our gaming machine assemblies from our facilities in Las Vegas. We also refurbish used gaming machines primarily at our Las Vegas facilities. In connection with the integration of the Bally acquisition, in 2015 we moved our manufacturing operations from Waukegan, Illinois to Las Vegas and are in the process of selling our Waukegan facility.
Manufacturing commitments are generally based on expected quarterly sales orders from customers. Due to uneven order flow from customers, component parts common to all gaming machines are purchased and assembled into partial products that are inventoried to be able to quickly fill final customer orders. Our gaming machine manufacturing processes generally consist of assembling component parts and sub-assemblies into a complete gaming machine.
Shufflers, including automatic card shufflers and roulette chip sorters, are assembled in one of our Las Vegas facilities and by a third party near Salzburg, Austria.
Hardware and component parts associated with our casino-management systems are housed primarily in our Las Vegas facilities. These parts do not require a significant amount of assembly and are used primarily in systems implementations, which take place at customer locations.
Our dedicated computer-controlled printing process is specifically designed to produce secure instant lottery games for government-sanctioned lotteries. We also have the capability to track instant games from the point of production through delivery to retailers. Instant lottery games are delivered finished and ready for distribution by the lottery authority (or by us under certain contracts). An instant lottery game that has been removed at any point in the distribution chain in an unauthorized manner can be flagged and invalidated in the event that it is used to claim winnings. Paper and ink are the principal raw materials consumed in our instant lottery manufacturing operations.

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Production of our lottery terminals (and related component products) primarily involves the assembly of electronic and mechanical components into more complex systems and products. Third-party vendors generally manufacture and assemble our lottery terminals. We normally have sufficient lead time between reaching an agreement and the commencement of operations so that we are able to provide our Lottery customers with a fully functioning system that is customized to meet their requirements. The lead time for obtaining most of the electronic components that we use is approximately 90 days. We believe that this is consistent with our competitors' lead times and is also consistent with the needs of our customers. We place advance orders for those components that have long lead times in anticipation of firm purchase orders from our customers, provided that the investment in inventory and the risk of the customer order not materializing are deemed acceptable.
The raw materials used in manufacturing our lottery terminals and gaming machines include various metals, plastics, wood, glass and numerous component parts, including electronic sub-assemblies, computer boards and LCD screens. We believe that our sources of supply of component parts and raw materials are generally adequate.
Seasonality
Our results of operations can fluctuate due to seasonal trends and other factors. Sales of our gaming machines to casinos are generally strongest in the spring and slowest in the summer, while revenue from our Participation gaming machines is generally highest in the spring and summer. See the risk factor captioned "Our results of operations fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors, and therefore, our periodic operating results are not guarantees of future performance" under the heading "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Employees
As of December 31, 2015, we employed approximately 8,500 persons worldwide, with approximately 5,100 employed domestically and 3,400 employed internationally.
Government Regulation
General
The gaming and lottery industries are generally subject to extensive and evolving regulation that customarily includes some form of licensing or regulatory screening of operators, suppliers, manufacturers and distributors and their applicable affiliates, as well as their major shareholders, officers, directors and key employees. In addition, certain of our gaming products and technologies must be certified or approved in certain jurisdictions in which we operate. Regulators review many facets of an applicant or holder of a license, including its financial stability, integrity and business experience. Any failure to receive a license or the loss of a license that we currently hold could have a material adverse effect on us or on our results of operations, cash flow or financial condition.

While we believe that we are in compliance with all material gaming and lottery laws and regulatory requirements applicable to us, there can be no assurance that our activities or the activities of our customers will not become the subject of any regulatory or law enforcement proceeding or that any such proceeding would not have a material adverse impact on us or our results of operations, cash flow or financial condition.

We have developed and implemented a rigorous internal compliance program in an effort to ensure that we comply with legal requirements imposed in connection with our Gaming and Lottery activities, as well as legal requirements generally applicable to all publicly traded companies. The compliance program is run on a day-to-day basis by our chief compliance officer with legal advice provided by attorneys in our legal and compliance departments as well as outside experts. The compliance program is overseen by the compliance committee of our board of directors, which is comprised of employee and non-employee directors and a non-employee gaming law expert. While we are firmly committed to full compliance with all applicable laws, there can be no assurance that our compliance program will prevent the violation of one or more laws or regulations, or that a violation by us or an employee will not result in the imposition of a monetary fine or suspension or revocation of one or more of our licenses.

In the EU, various judgments by the Court of Justice of the European Union ("CJEU") have addressed the approaches adopted by certain member states to restrict and/or regulate gaming. Topics addressed in those judgments include the ability of member states to grant, or to maintain, monopolies for gaming and lottery activities and the power of member states to limit access by gaming and/or lottery providers established elsewhere in the EU. Several cases on these subjects are currently pending in the CJEU.

While we believe that we have developed appropriate procedures and policies to comply with the requirements of these evolving laws and legal pronouncements, there can be no assurance that our activities or the activities of our customers

20


will not become the subject of law enforcement proceedings or that any such proceedings would not have a material adverse impact on us or our business plans. Furthermore, laws and regulations applicable to lotteries and gaming in U.S. and international jurisdictions are subject to change and the effect of such changes on our ongoing and potential operations cannot be predicted with certainty.

From time to time, we retain government affairs representatives in various U.S. and international jurisdictions to advise elected and appointed officials and the public concerning our views on gaming and lottery-related legislation, as well as to monitor such legislation and to advise us in our relations with gaming and lottery authorities.

Gaming
We provide our games, gaming machines, gaming systems, table products and related products and services in legal gaming jurisdictions worldwide. The manufacture, distribution, provision and operation of our gaming products and services is subject to regulation and approval by various city, county, state, provincial, federal, tribal and foreign agencies. The primary purposes of these rules are to (1) ensure the responsibility, financial stability and character of the parties involved in these activities through licensing requirements, (2) ensure the integrity and compliance of our gaming products and services and (3) prohibit the use of gaming products and services at unauthorized locations or for the benefit of undesirable parties.
Typically, gaming regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate are established by statute and are administered by a regulatory agency with broad authority to interpret gaming regulations and to regulate gaming activities. Among other things, gaming authorities in the various jurisdictions in which we are licensed:
adopt additional rules and regulations under the implementing statutes;
investigate violations of gaming regulations;
enforce gaming regulations and impose disciplinary sanctions for violations of such laws, including fines, penalties and revocation of gaming licenses;
review the character and fitness of manufacturers, distributors and operators of gaming products and services and make determinations regarding their suitability or qualification for licensure;
grant licenses for the manufacture, distribution and operation of gaming products and services;
review and approve transactions (such as acquisitions, material commercial transactions, securities offerings and debt transactions); and
establish and collect related fees and/or taxes.
We believe we hold all of the licenses and permits necessary to conduct our business. We are authorized to sell, lease or operate our gaming products and services in approximately 450 jurisdictions worldwide (including jurisdictions that do not require licensing), including approximately 170 international gaming jurisdictions.
In addition, a number of U.S. states authorize wagering on VLTs at state regulated and licensed facilities. Although some states restrict VLTs to already existing wagering facilities (e.g., racetracks), others permit these machines to be placed at venues such as bars, restaurants, truck stops and other specifically licensed gaming facilities. In addition, all of the Canadian provinces and various other international jurisdictions have authorized VLTs.

Regulatory requirements vary among jurisdictions, but the majority of jurisdictions require licenses, permits or findings of suitability for our company, individual officers, directors, major stockholders and key employees. Our gaming hardware and software also must be approved either by a gaming authority laboratory or a private laboratory authorized by the gaming authority.

Lottery

Forty-four U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, all the Canadian provinces, China and many other countries outside the U.S., including countries in Europe, currently authorize lotteries. The operation of lotteries in the U.S. and internationally is subject to extensive regulation. Although certain features of a lottery, such as the percentage of gross revenues that must be paid back to players in prize money, are usually set by legislation, lottery regulatory authorities generally exercise significant discretion, including with respect to the determination of the types of games played, the price of each wager, the manner in which the lottery is marketed and the selection of suppliers of equipment, technology and services and retailers of lottery products.

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To ensure the integrity of contract awards and lottery operations, most jurisdictions require detailed background disclosure on a continuous basis from, and conduct background investigations of, vendors and their officers, directors, subsidiaries, affiliates and principal stockholders. Background investigations of the vendors' employees who will be directly responsible for the operation of lottery systems are also generally conducted and most states reserve the right to require the removal of employees who they deem to be unsuitable or whose presence they believe may adversely affect the operational security or integrity of the lottery. Certain jurisdictions also require extensive personal and financial disclosure and background checks from persons and entities beneficially owning a specified percentage (typically five percent or more) of a vendor's securities. The failure of such beneficial owners of our securities to submit to background checks and provide such disclosure could result in the imposition of penalties upon these beneficial owners and could jeopardize the award of a lottery contract to us or provide grounds for termination of an existing lottery contract.

The award of lottery contracts and ongoing operations of lotteries in international jurisdictions are also extensively regulated, although international regulations typically vary from those prevailing in the U.S. Restrictions are frequently imposed on foreign companies seeking to do business in such jurisdictions and, as a consequence, we have in a number of instances allied ourselves with local companies when seeking international lottery contracts.

Interactive

In the United States, the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 ("UIGEA") prohibits among other things, the acceptance by a gambling business of a wager by means of the internet where such wager is prohibited by any applicable law where initiated, received or otherwise made. UIGEA imposes potentially severe criminal and civil sanctions on the owners and operators of such systems and on financial institutions that process wagering transactions. The law contains a safe harbor for wagers placed within a single state (disregarding intermediate routing of the transmission) where the method of placing the bet and receiving the bet is authorized by that state's law, provided the underlying regulations establish appropriate age and location verification.

Within the past few years, state-authorized internet casino gaming has been launched in Delaware and New Jersey and state authorized online poker has been launched in Nevada. A number of other states are also considering adopting legislation to specifically authorize interactive gaming or online poker. Additionally, two state lotteries offer (and other lotteries are considering offering) internet instant game sales to in-state lottery customers and a number of other states allow subscription sales of draw games over the internet.
However, there have been various bills proposed recently in the U.S. to restrict or prohibit interactive gaming and lottery sales. Very significant resources are being devoted to supporting these efforts. Although these efforts have generally not been successful, there can be no assurance that laws restricting interactive gaming or lottery sales will not be passed at either the federal or state level. For instance, in May 2015, the Minnesota legislature passed an amendment to the state’s lottery law prohibiting the sale of instant win lottery tickets over the internet. Furthermore, changes in the executive branches of government at the state and federal level could affect federal and state policies on gaming as well.

To varying degrees, a number of European governments have taken steps to change the regulation of internet wagering through the implementation of new or revised licensing and taxation regimes, some of which include the imposition of sanctions on unlicensed providers. Countries outside Europe and the U.S. have also begun evaluating interactive gaming regulation and an increase in regulated markets outside of the U.S. and Europe is likely to continue. Some of our competitors may be more willing to provide internet wagering in countries where the relevant laws and regulations are unclear or not uniformly enforced, putting us at a competitive disadvantage if we do not provide services related to internet wagering in such countries.

We continue to devote significant attention to monitoring these developments. However, we cannot predict the timing, scope or terms of any state, federal or foreign regulations relating to Interactive gaming and Lottery sales.

Additional Information Regarding Government Regulations

As the gaming regulations of many jurisdictions are similar and we operate in a large number of jurisdictions, we are not including descriptions of the specific gaming requirements in the different jurisdictions in which we operate. For additional information, we have filed a summary of the gaming regulations that govern our businesses as an exhibit to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See Exhibit 99.12 (Gaming Regulations). In addition, see "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of risk factors related to gaming and lottery regulations to which we may be subject.

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Executive Officers of the Company
Certain information regarding each of our executive officers is set forth below.
Name
 
Age
 
Position
M. Gavin Isaacs
 
51
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Scott D. Schweinfurth
 
61
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary
Michael A. Quartieri *
 
47
 
Vice President and Corporate Controller
Derik J. Mooberry
 
43
 
Executive Vice President and Group Chief Executive, Gaming
James C. Kennedy
 
59
 
Executive Vice President and Group Chief Executive, Lottery
David W. Smail
 
50
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Larry A. Potts
 
68
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer and Director of Security
Steve W. Beason
 
54
 
Enterprise Chief Technology Officer
Jeffrey B. Johnson
 
51
 
Vice President, Finance and Chief Accounting Officer
*Mr. Quartieri will succeed Mr. Schweinfurth following the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
M. Gavin Isaacs has served as President and Chief Executive Officer as well as a member of the Board of Directors since June 2014. Mr. Isaacs was previously the Chief Executive Officer of SHFL from April 2011 to November 2013, and the Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Bally from 2006 to 2011. Mr. Isaacs is a 15‑year industry veteran, including prior executive leadership positions at Aristocrat. Mr. Isaacs is a Trustee and former President of the International Association of Gaming Advisors ("IAGA") and a member of the Board of Directors of the American Gaming Association.
Scott D. Schweinfurth has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since April 2014 and as the Corporate Secretary since March 2015. Mr. Schweinfurth will retire effective upon the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Mr. Schweinfurth served as Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of Gaming and Chief Integration Officer from October 2013 until April 2014. From 2000 to October 2013, Mr. Schweinfurth served as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of WMS, which was acquired by the Company in October 2013. Prior to joining WMS, Mr. Schweinfurth served as Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of Bally and, prior to that, Mr. Schweinfurth worked at Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Schweinfurth is a registered certified public accountant and is Co-Chairman of the Audit Committee of IAGA.
Michael A. Quartieri has served as the Company’s Vice President and Corporate Controller since November 2015. Mr. Quartieri will succeed Mr. Schweinfurth as the Company’s Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary following the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Quartieri served nine years with Las Vegas Sands Corp., ending his tenure as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Global Controller. Prior to that, he had a 13‑year tenure at Deloitte & Touche LLP, rising to the position of Director of Audit and Assurance Services and specializing in gaming and hospitality clients.    
Derik Mooberry serves as Executive Vice President and Group Chief Executive of Gaming. Mr. Mooberry joined the Company from Bally in November 2014. Previously, he served as Senior Vice President of Games, Table Game Products and Interactive Research & Development for Bally. He has also held roles as Bally’s Vice President of Systems Operations, Vice President of Strategic Planning, Vice President of System Sales-Western North America, Vice President of North America Game Sales, as well as Vice President of Sales-Americas since joining Bally in 2001.
James C. Kennedy has served as Executive Vice President and Group Chief Executive of Lottery since September 2013. Prior to this role, Mr. Kennedy served as President of Printed Products and Chief Marketing Officer. From 2005 to 2011, Mr. Kennedy served as Senior Vice President of SGI, and prior to that, Mr. Kennedy served as Vice President of U.S. Sales for SGI. Prior to joining the Company in 1985, Mr. Kennedy was a Systems Engineer for Computer Task Group.
David W. Smail has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer since August 2015. Prior to this role, he served as Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Morgans Hotel Group Co. Prior to that, he was Executive Vice President and Group General Counsel at Havas S.A., a France-based global advertising and communications services company. Earlier in his career, he was a partner with the international law firm Hogan Lovells, where he worked in Paris, France and Washington D.C. 

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Larry A. Potts has served as Senior Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer and Director of Corporate Security since March 2015. Previously he served as Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer and Director of Security since February 2006. Mr. Potts joined the Company in September 2004 as Vice President, Security and Compliance. Previously, he was the Chief Operating Officer of an international consulting and investigative company in Washington, D.C. Prior to that, he served as a Special Agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for over 23 years, where he served in a number of management positions, including Deputy Director.
Steve W. Beason serves as Enterprise Chief Technology Officer. Mr. Beason served as Chief Technology Officer from August 2005 to January 2011 and President, Lottery Systems Group, from November 2006 to November 2010. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Beason was Executive Director, Information Technology, of The Hong Kong Jockey Club managing a staff of nearly 400 information technology professionals.
Jeffrey B. Johnson serves as Vice President, Finance, and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Johnson joined the Company in September 2011. Previously, Mr. Johnson was the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer for Tensar Corporation, a global engineering services and construction products manufacturing company. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer for Tempur-Pedic International Inc., a publicly traded consumer products company. Prior to 1999, Mr. Johnson was a Manager of Audit and Business Advisory Services at Andersen LLP. Mr. Johnson is a certified public accountant and a certified management accountant.
Access to Public Filings
We file annual reports, quarterly reports, current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). Copies of any materials we file with the SEC are also available at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E. Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
We make the following information available free of charge through the Investors link on our website at www.scientificgames.com:
our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC;
Section 16 ownership reports filed by our executive officers, directors and 10% stockholders on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC; and
our code of business conduct, which applies to all of our officers, directors and employees.

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Please be aware that additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our business operations. You should also refer to the other information contained in our periodic reports, including the Forward-Looking Statements section, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a further discussion of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our business. Except where the context otherwise indicates, references below to the "Company," "we," "our," "ours" and "us" include all of our subsidiaries.

Risks Relating to our Business and our Industries

We operate in highly competitive industries and our success depends on our ability to effectively compete with numerous domestic and foreign businesses.

We face significant competition in our traditional Gaming and Lottery businesses and in the evolving interactive gaming and lottery industries, not only from our traditional competitors but also from a number of other domestic and foreign providers (or, in some cases, the operators themselves), some of which have substantially greater financial resources and/or experience than we do. In addition, we cannot assure you that our products and services will be successful or that we will be able to attract and retain players as our products and services compete with the products and services of others, which may impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Gaming

Our Gaming business faces significant competition, including from illegal operators. There are a limited number of gaming operators and many established companies offer competing products. We compete on the basis of the content, features, quality, functionality and price and financing terms of our products and services and the quality and responsiveness of our services. Some of our product lines may compete against each other for space on the casino floor. Consolidation of casino operators and other operators, increased competition among operators and economic conditions causing reductions in capital expenditures by operators have significantly increased the level of competition among gaming suppliers.

We also face high levels of competition in the supply of products and services for newly legalized gaming jurisdictions and for openings of new or expanded casinos. Our success is dependent on our ability to successfully enter new markets and compete successfully for new business especially in the face of declining demand for gaming machine replacements.
We also compete to obtain space and favorable placement on casino gaming floors. Casino operators focus on performance, longevity, player appeal and price when making their purchasing decisions. Competitors with a larger installed base of gaming machines and more game themes than ours may have an advantage in obtaining and retaining placements in casinos. Additionally, we face competition from the increased number of small gaming equipment companies that have emerged in the gaming space in recent years and are able to focus their resources on developing a smaller number of high‑performing products.
We have offered customers discounts, free trials and free gaming equipment, including conversion kits (and, in some cases, free gaming machines) in connection with the sale or placement of our products and services. In addition, we have, in some cases, agreed to modify pricing and other contractual terms in connection with the sale or placement of our products. There can be no assurance that competitive pressure will not cause us to increase the incentives that we offer to our customers or agree to modify contractual terms in ways that are unfavorable to us, which could adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We have provided a higher level of extended payment term financing for product purchases and we expect to continue providing a higher level of extended payment term financing in this business until the economy and industry conditions improve and demand for such financings abates. We believe that our competitors also offer extended payment term financings to customers in similar situations. Our competitors may provide a greater amount of financing or better terms than we do and this may impact demand for our Gaming products and services.

The competition for casino-management technology solutions and systems is significant. Product features and functionality, accuracy, reliability, service level and pricing are among the factors that determine how successful providers are in selling their systems. Competition for these products is intense due to the low number of providers and the limited number of casinos and jurisdictions in which they operate.

We compete in our table products business on the basis of the scope and reliability of our products and services, our intellectual property and the extent of our sales, regulatory and distribution channels. Our Shufflers also compete against hand shuffling, which remains the most competitive shuffling option for casino card games around the world. Finally, since the need for our Shufflers is dependent upon the casino's use of live table games, our Shufflers also compete against any products that live table games compete against.

Competition for PTG content is focused on player appeal, brand recognition, price and the strength of underlying intellectual property. We compete on this basis, as well as on the extent of our sales, service, marketing and distribution channels. We also compete with several companies that primarily develop and license PTGs, as well as with non-proprietary table games such as blackjack and baccarat. It is easier for smaller companies to participate in developing and marketing PTG content relative to other gaming products due to the lower cost and complexity associated with the development of PTG products.
Lottery
Our Lottery business faces competition from a number of domestic and foreign businesses, some of which have substantially greater financial resources than we do, which impacts our ability to win new contracts and renew existing contracts. We continue to operate in a period of intense price‑based competition, which has affected and could continue to affect the number and the profitability of the lottery contracts we win.


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Contract awards by lottery authorities are sometimes challenged by unsuccessful bidders through costly and protracted legal proceedings that can result in delayed implementation or cancellation of awards. In addition, the U.S. lottery industry has matured such that we believe the number of states conducting lotteries is unlikely to increase materially in the near‑term.

We believe our principal competitors in the instant lottery game business have increased, and are expected to continue to increase, their production capacity, resulting in pricing pressures in the instant lottery game business. This may adversely affect our ability to win or renew instant lottery game contracts or may reduce the profitability of instant lottery game contracts that we do win. We also compete in the international instant lottery game business with low-price printers whose quality we believe is lower than ours in regulated environments where laws are being reinterpreted to create competition from non‑traditional lottery vendors and products. Our U.S. instant lottery game business could be adversely affected if additional foreign competitors operating in Canada export their lottery products to the U.S. or if other foreign competitors establish printing facilities in the U.S. or Canada to supply the U.S.
We face increased price competition in our lottery systems business from our two principal competitors in that business. Since the beginning of 2013, we have lost lottery systems contracts in Colorado and Indiana to our competitors following the expiration or termination of our contracts. In Indiana, we will continue to provide certain services through August 2016.
As some jurisdictions seek to privatize or outsource lottery operations (including partial privatizations through private management agreements or otherwise), we face competition from both traditional and new competitors with respect to these opportunities. In some cases, we may find it necessary or desirable to enter into strategic relationships with third parties, including competitors and may be required to commit significant sums of money in order to pursue these opportunities.

Any future success of our Lottery business will also depend, in part, on the success of the lottery industry in attracting and retaining players in the face of increased competition for these players’ entertainment dollars, as well as our own success in developing innovative products and systems to achieve this goal. Our failure to achieve this goal could reduce our revenue from our Lottery operations. Additionally, pressure on state and other government budgets could lead to other forms of gaming being legalized, which could adversely impact our Lottery business.

Interactive

Our Interactive social gaming and RMG businesses are also subject to significant competition. Our RMG business focuses on the supply of game content to online casino operators and there are a number of competitors in that industry, including from illegal or unregulated operators. Additionally, we have expanded into Interactive social gaming as have several of our competitors and our customers.  This expansion also causes us to compete with social gaming companies that have no connection to regulated RMG and many of those companies have a base of existing users that is larger than ours. In order to stay competitive in both our Interactive social gaming and RMG businesses, we will need to continue to create and market game content that attracts players and invest in new and emerging technologies. Some of our competitors may be more willing to provide internet wagering in countries where the relevant laws and regulations are unclear or not uniformly enforced, putting us at a competitive disadvantage if we do not provide services related to internet wagering in such countries.

We have offered customers discounts, free trials and free spins for end users in connection with the Interactive gaming businesses. There can be no assurance that competitive pressure will not cause us to increase the incentives that we offer to our customers, which could adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Unfavorable U.S. and international economic conditions may adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Unfavorable economic conditions, including recession, economic slowdown, decreased liquidity in the financial markets, decreased availability of credit and relatively high rates of unemployment, have had, and may continue to have, a negative effect on our business. We cannot fully predict the effects that unfavorable economic conditions and economic uncertainty will have on us as they also impact our customers, suppliers and business partners.

In our Gaming business, especially our Participation gaming business, our revenue is driven in large part by players’ disposable incomes and level of gaming activity. Unfavorable economic conditions have reduced the disposable incomes of casino patrons and resulted in fewer patrons visiting casinos, whether land‑based or online, and lower amounts spent per casino visit. A further or extended decline in disposable income could result in reduced play levels on our Participation gaming machines, causing our results of operations and cash flows from these products to decline. Additionally, higher airfares and other costs may adversely affect the number of players visiting our customers’ casinos. A decline in play levels may also

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negatively impact the results of operations, cash flows and financial condition of our casino customers and their ability to purchase our products and services. Unfavorable economic conditions may result in volatility in the credit and equity markets. The difficulty or inability of our customers to generate or obtain adequate levels of capital to finance their ongoing operations may reduce their ability to purchase our products and services.    

Current unfavorable economic conditions have impacted, and could continue to impact, the ability of our Gaming customers to make timely payments to us. In addition, continued unfavorable conditions have caused, and could continue to cause, some of our Gaming customers to ultimately declare bankruptcy, which would adversely affect our business. In recent years, our Gaming business has expanded the use of extended payment term financing for gaming machine purchases and we expect to continue providing a higher level of extended payment term financing in this business until demand from our customers for such financings abates. These financing arrangements may increase our collection risk and, if customers are not able to pay us, whether as a result of financial difficulties, bankruptcy or otherwise, we may incur provisions for bad debt related to our inability to collect certain receivables. In addition, both extended payment term financing and operating leases result in a delay in our receipt of cash, which reduces our cash balance, liquidity and financial flexibility to respond to changing economic events.

In our Lottery business, we believe that the difficult economic conditions have contributed to reductions in spending on marketing by our customers and, in certain instances, less favorable terms under our contracts, as many of our customers face significant budget shortfalls and seek to cut costs.

There are ongoing concerns regarding the debt burden of certain countries, particularly in Europe and South America, and their ability to meet their future financial obligations, which have resulted in downgrades of the debt ratings for these countries. We currently operate in, and our growth strategy may involve pursuing expansion or business opportunities in certain of these jurisdictions, such as Argentina, Greece, Italy, Puerto Rico and the Ukraine. These sovereign debt concerns, whether real or perceived, could result in a recession, prolonged economic slowdown, or otherwise negatively impact the general health and stability of the economies in these countries or more broadly. In more severe cases, this could result in a limitation on the availability or flow of capital, thereby restricting our liquidity and negatively impacting our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In March 2015, we signed a contract to provide OPAP S.A. ("OPAP") with 5,000 VLTs pursuant to OPAP's ten-year license to operate a network of 16,500 VLTs across Greece. While deployment was expected to begin in the second quarter of 2015 and conclude by the end of 2015, political and economic issues in Greece have delayed the launch of the VLTs and placements may not begin until mid-2016, at the earliest.

Our future results of operations may be negatively impacted by declines in the replacement cycle of gaming machines and by the slow growth of new gaming jurisdictions or slow addition of casinos in existing jurisdictions.

Demand for our Gaming products and services is driven by the replacement of existing gaming machines in existing casinos, the establishment of new jurisdictions, the opening of additional casinos in existing jurisdictions and the expansion of existing casinos.

Over the years, due to a variety of factors including the recent economic crisis and the slow or incomplete recovery, reduced investments and capital budgets and continued economic uncertainty, the replacement cycle for gaming machines has grown longer. Low levels of demand for gaming machine replacements could reduce the demand for our products and negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The opening of new casinos and expansion of existing casinos fluctuate with demand, economic conditions, regulatory approvals and the availability of financing. In addition, the expansion of gaming into new jurisdictions can be a protracted process. In the U.S., governments usually require a public referendum and legislative action before establishing or expanding gaming. Any of these factors could delay, restrict or prohibit the expansion of our business and negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our future results of operations may be negatively impacted by ownership changes and consolidation in the gaming industry, including by casino operators.

As repeat customers represent a substantial part of our revenue in our casino Gaming business, our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition could be negatively affected if our casino customers are sold to or merge with other entities. Such entities may purchase more products and services of our competitors, reduce spending on our products or cause downward pricing pressures. Consolidation among casino operators could result in order cancellations or a slowing in the replacement cycle for existing gaming machines, or could require our current customers to purchase our competitors’ products, any of which could negatively impact our Gaming business.

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In July 2015, two of the largest betting shop operators in the U.K., Ladbrokes and Gala Coral, announced that they intend to merge. The CMA is currently reviewing the proposed merger and may require that these operators divest a certain number of betting shops prior to consummating the contemplated transaction. As these two operators are the largest customers of our U.K. gaming business, their merger and/or any asset divestitures relating thereto, could negatively impact our business.

Gaming opponents persist in their efforts to curtail the expansion of legalized gaming, which, if successful, could limit the growth of our operations.

There is significant debate over, and opposition to, land‑based and interactive gaming. There can be no assurance that this opposition will not succeed in preventing the legalization of gaming in jurisdictions where it is presently prohibited, prohibiting or limiting the expansion of gaming where it is currently permitted or causing the repeal of legalized gaming in any jurisdiction. Any successful effort to curtail the expansion of, or limit or prohibit, legalized gaming could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our success is dependent upon our ability to adapt to and offer products that keep pace with evolving technology related to our businesses.

The success of our products and services is affected by changing technology and evolving industry standards. Our ability to anticipate or respond to such changes and to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services, including, but not limited to, gaming and lottery content, gaming machines, casino-management systems, table products and interactive gaming products and services, on a timely basis or at all is a significant factor affecting our ability to remain competitive, retain existing contracts or business and expand and attract new customers and players. There can be no assurance that we will achieve the necessary technological advances or have the financial resources needed to introduce new products or services on a timely basis or at all.

In our Gaming business, our success depends upon our ability to respond to dynamic customer demand by producing new and innovative products and services. The process of developing new products and systems is inherently complex and uncertain.  It requires accurate anticipation of changing customer needs and end user preferences as well as emerging technological trends.  If our competitors develop new game content and technologically innovative products and we fail to keep pace, our business could be adversely affected.  If we fail to accurately anticipate customer needs and end user preferences through the development of new products and technologies, we could lose business to our competitors, which would adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may experience manufacturing, operational or design problems that could delay or prevent the launch of new products or services. Introducing new and innovative products and services requires us to adapt and refine our manufacturing, operations and delivery capabilities to meet the needs of our product innovation. If we cannot efficiently adapt our manufacturing infrastructure to meet the needs associated with our product innovations, or if we are unable to upgrade our production capacity in a timely manner, our Gaming business could be negatively impacted. In the past, we have experienced delays in launching new products and services due to the complex or innovative technologies embedded in our products and services. Such delays can adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
In addition, the social gaming landscape is rapidly evolving and is characterized by major fluctuations in the popularity of social products and platforms, such as mobile. We may be unable to develop products at a rate necessary to respond to these changes, or at all, or that anticipate the interests of social players. Likewise, our social gaming offerings operate largely through Facebook, Google Play for Android devices, Apple’s iOS platform, Kindle's platform, Yahoo's platform and Microsoft Windows. If alternative platforms increase in popularity, we could be adversely impacted if we fail to timely create compatible versions of our products.
Our success also depends on creating products and services with strong and sustained player appeal. We are under continuous pressure to anticipate player reactions to, and acceptance of, our new products, avoid jackpot fatigue (declining play levels on smaller jackpots) and continue to provide successful products that generate a high level of play. In some cases, a new game or gaming machine will only be accepted by our casino or Interactive gaming customers if we can demonstrate that it is likely to produce more revenue and Net win and/or has more player appeal than our existing products and services or our competitors’ products and services.
WAP, premium and daily fee Participation gaming machines are replaced on short notice by casino operators if they do not meet and sustain revenue and profitability expectations. Customers may cancel pending orders with us if our products are not performing to expectations at other casinos.

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We have invested, and may continue to invest, significant resources in R&D efforts. We invest in a number of areas, including product development for game and system‑based hardware, software and game content. In addition, because of the sophistication of our newer products and the resources committed to their development, they are generally more expensive to produce. If our new products do not gain market acceptance or the increase in the average selling price of these new products is not proportionate to the increase in production cost, in each case as compared to our prior products, or if the average cost of production does not go down over time, whether by reason of long-term customer acceptance, our ability to find greater efficiencies in the manufacturing process as we refine our production capabilities or a general decrease in the cost of the technology, our margins will suffer and could negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. There can be no assurance that our investment in R&D will lead to successful new technologies or products. If a new product is not successful, we may not recover our development, regulatory approval or promotion costs.
Our success depends in part on our ability to develop, enhance and/or introduce successful gaming concepts and game content.
Our businesses develop and source game content both internally and through third‑party suppliers. We also seek to secure third‑party brands for incorporation into our game content. We believe that creative and appealing game content produces more revenue for our gaming machine customers and provides them with a competitive advantage, which in turn enhances our revenue and our ability to attract new business and to retain existing business. In our Lottery business, we believe that innovative game concepts and game content, such as multiplier games and game content that incorporates licensed brands, can enhance the revenue of our lottery customers and distinguish us from our competitors. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sustain the success of our existing game content or effectively develop or obtain from third parties game content or licensed brands that will be widely accepted both by our customers and players.
We and our industries are subject to strict government regulations that may limit our existing operations and have an adverse impact on our ability to grow.
In the U.S. and many other countries, the provision of Gaming and Lottery products and services is subject to extensive and evolving regulation. These regulatory requirements vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Therefore, we are subject to a wide range of complex laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we are licensed or operate. Most jurisdictions require that we be licensed, that our key personnel and certain of our security holders be found suitable or be licensed, and that our products be reviewed and approved before placement. Licenses, approvals or findings of suitability may be revoked, suspended or conditioned. If a license, approval or finding of suitability is required by a regulatory authority and we fail to seek or do not receive the necessary approval, license or finding of suitability, or if it is granted and subsequently revoked, then we may be prohibited from providing our products or services for use in the particular jurisdiction. In addition, the loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license, or affect our eligibility for a license, in other jurisdictions. We may also become subject to regulation in any new jurisdictions in which we decide to operate in the future, including due to expansion of a customer’s operations. Gaming authorities may levy fines against us or seize certain of our assets if we violate gaming regulations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain the necessary licenses or approvals or that the licensing process will not result in delays or adversely affect our operations. The failure to obtain or retain a required license or approval in any jurisdiction would decrease the geographic areas where we are permitted to operate and generate revenue, may limit our ability to obtain a license in other jurisdictions and may put us at a disadvantage relative to our competitors.
There can be no assurance that authorities will not seek to restrict our business in their jurisdictions or institute enforcement proceedings against us. There can be no assurance that any instituted enforcement proceedings will be favorably resolved, or that such proceedings will not have a material adverse impact on our ability to retain and renew existing licenses or to obtain new licenses in other jurisdictions. Our reputation may also be damaged by any legal or regulatory investigation, regardless of whether or not we are ultimately accused of, or found to have committed, any violation.
Often, our games, Gaming product hardware and software and our Interactive gaming products and services must be approved in the jurisdictions in which they are operated, and we cannot assure you that such products or services will be approved in any jurisdiction. Our networked gaming technology requires regulatory approval in gaming jurisdictions prior to the shipment or implementation of any gaming machines, products or services and, although we have received approvals from the jurisdictions in which we currently operate this technology, we cannot assure you that we will receive the approvals necessary to offer it in additional gaming jurisdictions. Many of our customers are required to be licensed and delays in approvals of our customers’ operations or expansions may adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, current regulations in a number of jurisdictions where our customers operate, such as Macau SAR and Singapore, limit the amount of space allocated to our products or limit the amount of new product available to operators to an amount that has been pre-approved by regulators. Substantial changes in any such regulations could adversely affect demand for our products.

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The regulatory review process and licensing requirements also may preclude us from using technologies owned or developed by third parties if those parties are unwilling to subject themselves to regulatory review or do not meet regulatory requirements. Some gaming authorities require gaming manufacturers to obtain approval before engaging in certain transactions, such as acquisitions, mergers, reorganizations, financings, stock offerings and share repurchases. Obtaining such approvals can be costly and time consuming and there can be no assurance that such approvals will be granted or that the approval process will not result in delays or disruptions to our strategic objectives.

In April 2015, the U.K. government implemented new regulations for fixed odds betting terminals, also known as B2 gaming terminals, which are typically located in LBOs. These new regulations affect players who bet more than £50 per play and, among other things, require such players to have registered player accounts or to fund their accounts at the counter rather than the betting terminal. We believe that these changes have negatively impacted our U.K. customers’ businesses and, therefore, our U.K. gaming business. The U.K. government is currently in the process of reviewing the effect of the new regulations as part of its 2016 triennial review of stakes and prizes for all gaming terminals, which may lead to additional regulations. Any changes to stakes and prizes could negatively impact our customers or our U.K. gaming business.

We and certain of our affiliates, major stockholders (generally persons and entities beneficially owning a specified percentage (typically 5% or more) of our equity securities), directors, officers and key employees are subject to extensive background investigations and suitability standards in our businesses. In some jurisdictions, these investigations may require extensive personal and financial disclosure from major stockholders, directors, officers and key employees. The failure of any such individuals or entities to submit to such background checks and provide the required disclosure could jeopardize the award of a contract or license to us or provide grounds for termination of an existing contract or license. Regulatory authorities generally have broad discretion when granting, renewing or revoking these approvals and licenses. Gaming and lottery authorities may require the removal of any of our directors or employees who are deemed to be unsuitable and these authorities are generally empowered to disqualify us from receiving a Gaming or Lottery contract or offering our Gaming or Lottery products and services in that jurisdiction as a result of any such investigation. Our failure, or the failure of any of our major stockholders, directors, officers, key employees, products or technology, to obtain or retain a required license or approval in one jurisdiction could negatively impact our ability (or the ability of any of our major stockholders, directors, officers, key employees, products or technology) to obtain or retain required licenses and approvals in other jurisdictions.

In light of these regulations and the potential impact on our business, our restated certificate of incorporation allows for the restriction of stock ownership by persons or entities who fail to comply with informational or other regulatory requirements under applicable gaming laws, who are found unsuitable to hold our stock by gaming authorities or whose stock ownership adversely affects our ability to obtain, maintain, renew or qualify for a license, contract, franchise or other regulatory approval from a gaming authority. The licensing procedures and background investigations of the authorities that regulate our businesses and the restriction in our certificate of incorporation may inhibit potential investors from becoming significant stockholders or inhibit existing stockholders from retaining or increasing their ownership.

There are instances where a state in which a Native American tribe conducts Class III gaming activities disagrees with such tribe regarding the regulation of gaming, including the regulation of gaming suppliers. In those instances, we make every effort to comply with both state and tribal regulation and fulfill our contractual obligations. However, there may be situations where any such disagreement impedes or creates uncertainty with respect to our ability to supply gaming products and services to such tribal customer or otherwise negatively impacts our relationship with such customer or gaming regulators. There are additional complexities that may impact disputes or other interactions with Native American tribe customers. For example, Native American tribes generally enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsuits, similar to the sovereign immunity enjoyed by the individual states and the U.S. In addition, certain commercial agreements with Native American tribes are subject to review by regulatory authorities such as the National Indian Gaming Commission, and, among other things, any such review could require substantial modifications to any such agreement we enter into with a Native American tribe customer.

Our businesses are subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing data privacy and security, including with respect to the collection, storage, use, transmission and protection of personal information and other consumer data. In particular, the EU has adopted strict data privacy regulations and in October 2015, the European Court of Justice ruled that the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S. under the EU/U.S. Safe Harbor was an invalid mechanism of personal data transfer, making transfers of EU personal data to the U.S. even more challenging. The scope of data privacy and security regulations continues to evolve and we believe that the adoption of increasingly restrictive regulations in this area is likely within the U.S. and other jurisdictions. Compliance with data privacy and security restrictions could increase the cost of our operations and failure to comply with such restrictions could subject us to criminal and civil sanctions as well as other penalties.


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We are subject to the provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti‑corruption laws that generally prohibit U.S. persons and companies and their agents from offering, promising, authorizing or making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Certain of these anti‑corruption laws also contain provisions that require accurate record keeping and further require companies to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Although we have policies and controls in place that are designed to ensure compliance with these laws, if those controls are ineffective or an employee or intermediary fails to comply with the applicable regulations, we may be subject to criminal and civil sanctions as well as other penalties. Any such violation could disrupt our business and adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We have developed and implemented an internal compliance program in an effort to ensure that we comply with legal requirements imposed in connection with our Gaming and Lottery activities, as well as legal requirements generally applicable to all publicly traded companies. The compliance program is run on a day‑to‑day basis by our chief compliance officer with legal advice provided by attorneys in our legal and compliance departments and outside experts. The compliance program is overseen by the compliance committee of our board of directors, consisting of our chief executive officer, three non-employee directors and a non-employee gaming law expert. There can be no assurance that such steps will prevent the violation of one or more laws or regulations, or that a violation by us or an employee will not result in the imposition of a monetary fine, suspension or revocation of one or more of our licenses or other penalties.

The regulatory environment in any particular jurisdiction may change in the future, including changes that limit some or all of our existing operations in that jurisdiction, and any such change could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flow, financial condition, business or prospects. Moreover, there can be no assurance that Gaming, Lottery or Interactive gaming-related activities will be approved by additional jurisdictions or that those jurisdictions in which these activities are currently permitted will continue to permit such activities. Laws and regulations relating to our Interactive gaming businesses are evolving. For additional discussion regarding risks associated with the evolving interactive gaming regulatory landscape, see the risk factor below captioned "We may not be able to capitalize on the expansion of internet or other forms of interactive gaming or other trends and changes in the gaming and lottery industries, including due to laws and regulations governing these industries."

See Exhibit 99.12 (Gaming Regulations) for additional information regarding certain of the regulations that govern our Gaming business.

We may not be able to capitalize on the expansion of internet or other forms of interactive gaming or other trends and changes in the gaming and lottery industries, including due to laws and regulations governing these industries.

We participate in the new and evolving interactive gaming and lottery industries through our social, RMG and other Interactive gaming products. Part of our strategy is to take advantage of the liberalization of interactive gaming, both within the U.S. and internationally. These industries involve significant risks and uncertainties, including legal, business and financial risks. The success of these industries and of our Interactive gaming products and services may be affected by future developments in social networks, including Facebook, mobile platforms, regulatory developments, data privacy laws and other factors that we are unable to predict and are beyond our control. This fast‑changing environment can make it difficult to plan strategically and can provide opportunities for competitors to grow their businesses at our expense. Consequently, our future results of operations, cash flows and financial condition relating to our Interactive gaming and Lottery products and services are difficult to predict and may not grow at the rates we expect, and we cannot provide assurance that these products and services will be successful in the long term.

In general, our ability to successfully pursue our interactive gaming strategy depends on the laws and regulations relating to wagering through interactive channels. Until 2011, there was uncertainty as to whether the Federal Wire Act of 1961 prohibited states from conducting intrastate lottery transactions via the internet if such transaction crossed state lines. In late 2011, the Office of Legal Counsel of the DOJ issued an opinion to the effect that state lottery ticket sales over the internet to in‑state adults do not violate the Wire Act. The opinion provided an impetus for some states to authorize forms of interactive gaming or interactive lottery in order to generate additional revenue. However, to the extent states wish to pursue interactive gaming or interactive lottery, such states may be required or otherwise deem it advisable to enact enabling legislation or new regulations addressing the sale of lottery tickets or the offering of other forms of gaming through interactive channels, such as the actions taken by Delaware, Nevada and New Jersey to authorize various forms of internet gaming. Despite the 2011 DOJ opinion, there are still very significant forces working to limit or prohibit interactive gaming and interactive lottery in the U.S. Although these efforts have generally not been successful, there can be no assurance that laws restricting interactive gaming or interactive lottery sales will not be passed at either the federal or state level. For instance, in May 2015, the Minnesota legislature passed an amendment to the state’s lottery law prohibiting the sale of instant win lottery tickets over the internet. Furthermore, changes in the executive branches of government at the state and federal level could affect federal and state

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policies on interactive gaming and interactive lottery as well. The enactment of internet gaming legislation that federalizes significant aspects of the regulation of internet gaming and/or limits the forms of internet wagering that are permissible at the state or federal level could have an adverse impact on our ability to pursue our interactive strategy in the U.S.

Internationally, laws relating to internet gaming are evolving, particularly in Europe. To varying degrees, a number of European governments have taken steps to change the regulation of internet wagering through the implementation of new or revised licensing and taxation regimes, including the possible imposition of sanctions on unlicensed providers. We cannot predict the timing, scope or terms of any such state, federal or foreign laws and regulations, or the extent to which any such laws and regulations will facilitate or hinder our interactive strategy.

With respect to our social gaming business, although largely unregulated at this time, there are movements in some jurisdictions to review social gaming and possibly implement social gaming regulations. We cannot predict the likelihood, timing, scope or terms of any such regulation or the extent to which they may affect our social gaming business. Both the social and RMG businesses are subject to evolving regulations and the status of any particular jurisdiction may change at any time. The regulatory structure surrounding certain aspects of these businesses is currently in flux in certain jurisdictions.

In jurisdictions that authorize internet gaming, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in offering our technology, content and services to internet gaming operators as we expect to face intense competition from our traditional competitors in the gaming and lottery industries as well as a number of other domestic and foreign providers (or, in some cases, the operators themselves), some of which have substantially greater financial resources and/or experience in this area than we do. In addition, there is a risk that the authorization of the sale of gaming and lottery offerings via interactive channels in a particular jurisdiction could, under certain circumstances, adversely impact our Gaming and Lottery offerings through traditional channels in such jurisdiction. Any such adverse impact would be magnified to the extent we are not involved in, and generating revenue from, the provision of interactive gaming products or services in such jurisdiction. Know-your-customer and geo-location programs and technologies supplied by third parties are an important aspect of certain internet and mobile gaming products and services because they confirm certain information with respect to players and prospective players, such as age, identity and location. Payment processing programs and technologies, typically provided by third parties, are also a necessary feature of interactive wagering products and services. These programs and technologies are costly and may have an adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition of our Interactive gaming business. Additionally, there can be no assurance that products containing these programs and technologies will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, or that they will perform accurately or otherwise in accordance with our required specifications.

Our social gaming business is largely dependent upon our relationships with key providers and changes in those relationships could negatively impact our social gaming business.

In our social gaming business, our services operate largely through Facebook, Google Play for Android devices, Apple’s iOS platform, Kindle's platform, Yahoos's platform and Microsoft Windows. Consequently, our expansion and prospects of our social gaming offerings are dependent on our continued relationships with these providers (and any emerging app store providers). Our relationships with Facebook, Google and Apple are not governed by contracts but rather by the provider’s standard terms and conditions for application developers. Our social gaming business will be adversely impacted if we are unable to continue these relationships in the future or if the terms and conditions offered by these providers are altered to our disadvantage. For instance, if any of these providers were to increase their fees, our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition would suffer. Likewise, if Facebook, Google or Apple were to alter their operating platforms, we could be adversely impacted as our offerings may not be compatible with the altered platforms or may require significant and costly modifications in order to become compatible. If Facebook, Google or Apple were to develop competitive offerings, either on their own or in cooperation with one or more competitors, our growth prospects would be negatively impacted.

We are heavily dependent on our ability to maintain and renew our customer contracts, including our long‑term lottery contracts, and we could lose substantial revenue and profits if we are unable to renew certain of our contracts on substantially similar terms or at all.

Generally, our Lottery contracts contain initial multi‑year terms, with optional renewal periods at the discretion of the customer. Upon the expiration of any such contract, including any extensions thereof, a new contract may be awarded through a competitive bidding process. Since the beginning of 2013, we have lost lottery systems contracts in Colorado and Indiana to our competitors following the expiration or termination of our contracts. In Indiana, we will continue to provide certain services through August 2016.


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A substantial portion of our gaming revenue is dependent on repeat customers. In certain regions, our business may be concentrated with a small number of customers, such as our U.K. LBO business.

There can be no assurance that our current contracts will be extended or that we will be awarded new contracts as a result of competitive bidding processes or otherwise in the future. The termination, expiration or failure to renew one or more of our contracts could cause us to lose substantial revenue and profits, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to win or renew other contracts or pursue growth initiatives. There can be no assurance that new or renewed contracts will contain terms that are as favorable as our current terms or will contemplate the same scope of products and services as our current contracts and any less favorable contract terms or diminution in scope could negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. For additional information regarding the potential expiration dates of certain of our more significant Lottery contracts, see the table in "Business-Lottery Segment-Contract Procurement" in Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We are also required by certain of our Lottery customers to provide surety or performance bonds in connection with our contracts. As of December 31, 2015, we had $205.2 million of outstanding performance bonds. There can be no assurance that we will continue to be able to obtain surety or performance bonds on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to provide such bonds would materially and adversely affect our ability to renew existing, or obtain new, Lottery contracts.

Our business depends on the protection of our intellectual property and proprietary information and on our ability to license intellectual property from third parties.

We believe that our success depends, in part, on protecting our intellectual property in the U.S. and in foreign countries and our ability to license intellectual property from third parties on commercially reasonable terms. Our intellectual property includes certain patents, trademarks and copyrights relating to our products and services (including gaming machines, interactive gaming products, table games, Shufflers and accessories, instant lottery games and gaming and lottery systems), as well as proprietary or confidential information that is not subject to patent or similar protection. Our success may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain protection for the trademarks, names, logos or symbols under which we market our products and to obtain copyright and patent protection for our proprietary technologies, intellectual property and innovations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to build and maintain consumer value in our trademarks, obtain patent, trademark or copyright protection or that any trademark, copyright or patent will provide us with competitive advantages. In particular, a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision tightened the standard for patent eligibility of software patents and other court decisions in recent years have trended towards a narrowing of patentable subject matter. These and similar decisions in the future may negatively impact the validity or enforceability of certain of our patents, our ability to protect our inventions, innovations and new technology and the value of our substantial patent portfolio.

Our intellectual property protects the integrity of our games, systems, products and services. For example, our intellectual property is designed to ensure the security of the printing of our instant lottery games and to provide simple and secure validation of our lottery tickets. Competitors may independently develop similar or superior products, software or systems, which could negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In cases where our technology or product is not protected by enforceable intellectual property rights, such independent development may result in a significant diminution in the value of such technology or product.

We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties, including licensed properties and content for our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming businesses. In addition, substantially all of our gaming machines and our Interactive gaming products and services utilize intellectual property licensed from third parties and certain of the products and technologies we rely upon are licensed from our competitors. The future success of our business may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, retain and/or expand licenses for popular technologies and games in a competitive market. There can be no assurance that these third‑party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property. Certain of our license agreements grant the licensor rights to audit our use of their intellectual property. Disputes with licensors over uses or terms could result in the payment of additional royalties or penalties by us, cancellation or non‑renewal of the underlying license or litigation.

We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know‑how. We enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and independent contractors regarding our trade secrets and proprietary information, but we cannot assure you that the obligation to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and proprietary information will be honored.


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The intellectual property rights of others may prevent us from developing new products and services, entering new markets or may expose us to liability or costly litigation and litigation regarding our intellectual property could have a
material adverse effect on our business, intellectual property, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Our success depends in part on our ability to continually adapt our products and systems to incorporate new technologies and to expand into markets that may be created by new technologies. If technologies are protected by the intellectual property rights of others, including our competitors, we may be prevented from introducing products based on these technologies or expanding into markets created by these technologies. If the intellectual property rights of others prevent us from taking advantage of innovative technologies, our prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition may be adversely affected.

There can be no assurance that our business activities, games, products, services and systems will not infringe upon the proprietary rights of others, or that other parties will not assert infringement claims against us. In addition to infringement claims, third parties may allege claims of invalidity or unenforceability against us or against our licensees or manufacturers in connection with their use of our technology. A successful challenge to, or invalidation of, one of our intellectual property interests, a successful claim of infringement by a third party against us, our products or services, or one of our licensees in connection with the use of our technologies, or an unsuccessful claim of infringement made by us against a third party or its products or services could adversely affect our business or cause us financial harm. Any such claim and any resulting litigation, should it occur, could:

be expensive and time consuming to defend or require us to pay significant amounts in damages;
        
invalidate our proprietary rights;

cause us to cease making, licensing or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

require us to redesign, reengineer or rebrand our products or services or limit our ability to bring new products and services to the market in the future;

require us to enter into costly or burdensome royalty, licensing or settlement agreements in order to obtain the right to use a product, process or component;

impact the commercial viability of the products and services that are the subject of the claim during the pendency of such claim; or
    
require us by way of injunction to remove products or services on lease or stop selling or leasing new products or services.

A significant portion of our success depends on the protection of our intellectual property. We are currently making, and in the future may make, claims of infringement, invalidity or enforceability against third parties. For example, with the emergence of interactive gaming, we have increased enforcement against parties that infringe our intellectual property. This enforcement could:

cause us to incur greater costs and expenses in the protection of our intellectual property;

potentially negatively impact our intellectual property rights;
    
cause one or more of our patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property interests to be ruled or rendered unenforceable or invalid; or
    
divert management’s attention and our resources.

Our business is dependent on the security and integrity of the systems and products we offer.

We believe that our success depends, in part, on providing secure products, services and systems to our customers. Attempts to penetrate security measures may come from various combinations of customers, retailers, vendors, employees and others. Our ability to prevent anomalies and monitor and ensure the quality and integrity of our products and services is periodically reviewed and enhanced. Similarly, we regularly assess the adequacy of our security systems to protect against any

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material loss to any of our customers and the integrity of our products and services to end users. Expanded utilization of the internet and other interactive technologies may result in increased security risks for us and our customers. There can be no assurance that our business will not be affected by a security breach or lapse, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our success depends on our ability to avoid, detect, replicate and correct software and hardware anomalies and fraudulent manipulation of our products and services. All of our products and services are designed with security features to prevent fraudulent activity. However, we cannot guarantee that these security features will effectively stop all fraudulent activities. If our security features do not prevent fraud, we could be adversely affected.
Our gaming machines have experienced anomalies and fraudulent manipulation in the past. Games and gaming machines may be replaced by casinos and other gaming machine operators if they do not perform according to expectations or they may be shut down by regulators. The occurrence of anomalies in, or fraudulent manipulation of, our gaming machines or our other Gaming and Lottery products and services (including our Interactive gaming products and services), may give rise to claims from players and claims for lost revenue and profits and related litigation by our customers and may subject us to investigation or other action by regulatory authorities, including suspension or revocation of our licenses or other disciplinary action. Additionally, in the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our products and services, substantial engineering and marketing resources may be diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

We rely on information technology and other systems and any failures in our systems could disrupt our business and adversely impact our results.

We rely on information technology systems that are important to the operation of our business, some of which are managed by third parties. These systems are used to process, transmit and store electronic information, to manage and support our business operations and to maintain internal controls over our financial reporting. We could encounter difficulties in developing new systems, maintaining and upgrading current systems and preventing security breaches. Among other things, our systems are susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, break‑ins, cyber‑attacks, network penetration, denial of service attacks and similar events. While we have and will continue to implement network security measures and data protection safeguards, our servers and other computer systems are vulnerable to viruses, malicious software, hacking, break‑ins or theft, data privacy or security breaches, third‑party security breaches, employee error or malfeasance and similar events. Failures in our systems or services or unauthorized access to or tampering with our systems and databases could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Any failures in our computer systems or telecommunications services could affect our ability to operate our linked games or otherwise conduct business.

Portions of our information technology infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource‑intensive. Such disruptions could materially and adversely impact our ability to deliver products to customers and interrupt other processes. If our information systems do not allow us to transmit accurate information, even for a short period of time, to key decision makers, the ability to manage our business could be disrupted and our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Failure to properly or adequately address these issues could impact our ability to perform necessary business operations, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, competitive position, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We are engaged in a multi-year implementation of a new global enterprise resource planning system (“ERP”). The ERP system is designed to accurately maintain the Company’s books and records and provide information on our operations to the Company’s management. The Company’s ERP system implementation will continue to require significant investment of human and financial resources. There are inherent risks associated with upgrading or changing systems, including inaccurate data or reporting. The process of upgrading and standardizing our ERP system is complex, time‑consuming and expensive. Although we believe we are taking appropriate action to mitigate these risks through, among other things, testing, training and staging implementations, there can be no assurance that we will not experience data loss, disruptions, delays or negative business impacts from the upgrades. Any operational disruptions during the course of this process and any delays or deficiencies in the design and implementation of the new ERP system or in the performance of our legacy systems could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate our businesses. Additionally, while we have spent considerable efforts to plan and budget for the implementation of the new ERP system, changes in scope, timeline or cost could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.


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Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls that provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, we may suffer harm to our reputation, fail to meet our public reporting requirements on a timely basis or be unable to properly report on our business and our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Additionally, the inherent limitations of internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud, regardless of the adequacy of those controls. In connection with an adjustment made to the SG gaming reporting unit goodwill impairment charge recorded in the third quarter of 2015 and revised in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our management has concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2015 due to a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have undertaken certain measures to remediate the above-described material weakness and enhance our internal control over financial reporting. Once completed, we believe these measures will remediate the identified material weakness; however, there can be no assurance that those measures will be successful when such measures are tested in connection with our regular impairment testing during 2016. There also can be no assurance that additional material weaknesses will not be identified in the future. Please refer to Item 9A “Controls and Procedures” and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited) for additional information.
 
Our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be affected by natural events in the locations in which we or our customers, suppliers or regulators operate.

We may be impacted by severe weather and other geological events, including hurricanes, earthquakes, floods or tsunamis that could disrupt our operations or the operations of our customers, suppliers, data service providers and regulators. Natural disasters or other disruptions at any of our facilities or our suppliers’ facilities may impair or delay delivery of our products and services. Additionally, disruptions experienced by our regulators due to natural disasters or otherwise could delay our introduction of new products or entry into new jurisdictions where regulatory approval is necessary. While we insure against certain business interruption risks, we cannot provide any assurance that such insurance will compensate us for any losses incurred as a result of natural or other disasters. Any serious disruption to our operations, or those of our customers, our suppliers or our regulators, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may not succeed in realizing the anticipated benefits of our strategic equity investments and relationships.

Under certain circumstances we pursue growth through strategic equity investments, including joint ventures, as a means to, among other things, gain access to new and important geographies, business opportunities and technical expertise, while simultaneously offering the potential for reducing capital requirements.
These strategic equity investments currently include investments in LNS, Northstar Illinois, Northstar New Jersey, Hellenic Lotteries, GLB and ITL. For additional information regarding our equity investments, see Note 11 (Equity Investments).
Northstar New Jersey is responsible for payments to the State of New Jersey to the extent certain net income targets are not achieved by the New Jersey Lottery, subject to a cap of 2% of the applicable year’s net income and a $20.0 million shortfall payment credit that was fully utilized by the end of the fourth quarter of 2015. In addition, pursuant to a December 2015 amendment to the Northstar New Jersey services agreement, the State will be entitled to additional amounts for each of the lottery’s 2016-2018 fiscal years to the extent the sum of the New Jersey Lottery’s net income and the net income shortfall payments paid to the State by Northstar New Jersey (if any) for the applicable year fall below certain guaranteed amounts. Our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition from our equity investment in Northstar New Jersey may be impacted to the extent the New Jersey Lottery achieves, or fails to achieve, the applicable net income targets and will be impacted to the extent Northstar New Jersey incurs non‑reimbursable expenses. We may be required to make capital contributions to Northstar New Jersey to fund our pro rata share of any net income shortfall payments that are payable to the State under our agreements. In December 2015, pursuant to the terms the amendment to its services agreement, (i) Northstar New Jersey made a $15.4 million payment to the State, of which we contributed our pro rata portion of $2.7 million, representing consideration in connection with the terms and conditions of the amendment and (ii) Northstar New Jersey satisfied the $5.9 million net income shortfall payment owed to the State for the lottery’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2015 with the remainder of the $20.0 million shortfall payment credit.

Under the Northstar New Jersey services agreement, New Jersey has certain termination rights, including the right to terminate the agreement for convenience (subject to payment of a termination fee) and the right to terminate the agreement in the event net income shortfalls exceeding 10% of the applicable targets occur for any consecutive two contract year period or for any three contract years in a five contract year period.

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Under the terms of a PMA, Northstar Illinois is entitled to receive annual incentive compensation payments from the Illinois Department of the Lottery (the “Illinois Lottery”) to the extent it is successful in increasing the Illinois Lottery's net income above specified target levels, subject to a cap of 5% of the applicable year's net income, and is responsible for annual shortfall payments to the Illinois Lottery to the extent such targets are not achieved, subject to a similar cap.
In August 2015, Northstar Illinois, the State of Illinois, SGI and Gtech Corporation (“Gtech”) entered into a termination agreement with respect to the PMA. The termination agreement contemplates, among other things, (1) a $10.0 million net income shortfall payment for the lottery’s 2015 fiscal year, (2) termination of the PMA in January 2017 (subject to possible extension by mutual agreement of the State of Illinois and Northstar Illinois in 3- to 6-month increments), (3) that, following December 2014, Northstar Illinois will no longer be entitled to any incentive compensation payments and will no longer be liable for any additional shortfall payments, after the $10.0 million net income shortfall payment previously discussed is paid by Northstar Illinois, (4) reimbursement of Northstar Illinois for certain costs it incurs in transitioning its obligations under the PMA, (5) continuation of our instant lottery game supply agreement (and Gtech’s lottery systems supply agreement) with Northstar Illinois until July 2017, subject to a reduced rate structure and (6) our right to negotiate a new supply agreement with any manager that replaces Northstar Illinois and our ability to participate in the procurement process for such replacement manager. As of December 31, 2015, we had accounts receivable of $27.6 million from Northstar Illinois.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of these strategic equity investments and relationships and other strategic investments and relationships that we may make or enter into, or may not realize them in the timeframes expected. These arrangements pose significant risks that could have a negative effect on our operations, including: the potential diversion of our management’s attention from our core business; the potential failure to realize anticipated synergies, economies of scale or other value associated with these arrangements; unanticipated costs and other unanticipated events or circumstances, including losses for which we may be responsible for our pro rata portion; possible adverse effects on our operating results during any integration process; impairment charges if our strategic equity investments or relationships are not as successful as we originally anticipate; and our potential inability to achieve the intended objectives of these arrangements.
Furthermore, our strategic equity investments and other strategic relationships pose risks arising from our reliance on our partners and our lack of sole decision‑making authority, which may give rise to disputes between us and our partners. For instance, our investments in LNS, Northstar Illinois and Northstar New Jersey are minority investments in ventures whose largest equity holder is Gtech and, although certain corporate actions require our prior consent, we do not unilaterally control decisions relating to the governance of these entities. We are party to strategic agreements with a subsidiary of Playtech Limited relating to gaming machines that contemplate our license of, and reliance on, the subsidiary’s back‑end technology platform in certain jurisdictions, particularly in the U.K. Our equity partners, licensors and other third parties with which we have strategic relationships may have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our interests and goals, take actions contrary to our objectives or policies, undergo a change of control, experience financial and other difficulties or be unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations under our arrangements.

In certain regions, we enter into agreements with local distributors for the distribution of our land-based gaming products to one or more customers. Changes to these distributor relationships, including modification or termination of our agreements or difficulties with any such distributor could prevent us from delivering products or services to our customers on a timely basis, or at all, and could negatively impact our business.

The failure to avoid or mitigate the risks described above or other risks associated with such arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our inability to complete future acquisitions and integrate those businesses successfully could limit our future growth.

From time to time, we pursue strategic acquisitions in support of our strategic goals. In connection with any such acquisitions, we could face significant challenges in managing and integrating our expanded or combined operations, including acquired assets, operations and personnel. There can be no assurance that acquisition opportunities will be available on acceptable terms or at all or that we will be able to obtain necessary financing or regulatory approvals to complete potential acquisitions. Our ability to succeed in implementing our strategy will depend to some degree upon the ability of our management to identify, complete and successfully integrate commercially viable acquisitions. Acquisition transactions may disrupt our ongoing business and distract management from other responsibilities.

We may not achieve the intended benefits of our recent acquisitions or such acquisitions may disrupt our current plans and operations.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully integrate the businesses we have acquired, including our recent acquisitions of Bally and WMS, or do so within the intended timeframes or otherwise realize the expected benefits

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of such acquisitions. The expected cost synergies associated with such acquisitions may not be fully realized in the anticipated amounts or within the contemplated timeframes or cost expectations, which could result in increased costs and have an adverse effect on our prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Our businesses may be negatively impacted if we are unable to effectively manage our expanded operations. The integration of these acquisitions will require significant time and focus from management and may divert attention from the day‑to‑day operations of the combined business or delay the achievement of our strategic objectives. We expect to incur incremental costs and capital expenditures related to our contemplated integration activities.

We may incur additional restructuring costs.

We have restructured portions of our operations from time to time and it is possible that we may engage in additional restructuring initiatives in the future. Restructuring initiatives are primarily driven by acquisitions or other Company reorganizations in an attempt to maximize the efficiency and profitability of our businesses and can result in employee termination and severance costs, facility closure expenses, and/or write‑downs of property, equipment or other assets. Because we are not able to predict with certainty when we will complete acquisitions or reorganize portions of our business, we cannot predict the extent, timing and magnitude of restructuring charges.

Our products and services may be subject to complex revenue recognition standards, which could materially affect our financial results.

As we introduce new Gaming, Lottery and Interactive gaming products and services and as our commercial transactions become increasingly complex, additional analysis and judgment is required to account for them and to recognize revenue in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We may enter into transactions that include multiple‑element arrangements and/or software components and applicable accounting principles or regulatory product approval delays could change when we recognize revenue with respect to such transactions and could adversely affect our financial results for any given period. In addition, fluctuations may occur in our revenue and related deferred revenue as a result of multiple‑element arrangements that include both systems and software. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Estimates- Revenue recognition" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 1 (Description of the Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies) for additional information.

We may be required to recognize additional impairment charges.

We assess our goodwill and other intangible assets and our long-lived assets as and when required by U.S. GAAP to
determine whether they are impaired. Based on the results of our interim and annual goodwill and other intangible assets
impairment tests we conducted during the year ended December 31, 2015, we recorded total goodwill and trade name asset
impairment charges of $1,002.6 million and $128.6 million, respectively. During 2015, we recorded a $935.0 million non-cash impairment charge to reduce the carrying amount of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill to its implied fair value. This goodwill impairment charge reflects a $400.0 million revision to the $535.0 million charge previously disclosed in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2015. We also recorded a $67.6 million non-cash impairment charge, which resulted in a tax benefit of $24.9 million, to write off the recorded amount of our U.S. lottery systems reporting unit goodwill. For additional information, including a description of all impairments recorded during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, refer to "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Estimates-Valuation of investments, long-lived and intangible assets and goodwill" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Note 9 (Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill) and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited). We cannot predict the occurrence of impairments and there can be no assurance that we will not have to record additional impairment charges in the future.

Our results of operations fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors and, therefore, our periodic operating results are not guarantees of future performance.

                Our results of operations can fluctuate due to seasonal trends and other factors. Sales of our gaming machines to casinos are generally strongest in the spring and slowest in the summer, while revenue from our Participation gaming machines is generally strongest in the spring and summer. Certain other seasonal trends and factors that may cause our results to fluctuate include: the geographies where we operate; holiday and vacation seasons; climate; weather; economic and political conditions; timing of the release of new products; significant equipment sales or the introduction of gaming or lottery activities in new jurisdictions or to new customers; the size and duration of draw lottery game jackpots; and other factors.


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In light of the foregoing, results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved in another quarter or for the full fiscal year. There can be no assurance that the seasonal trends and other factors that have impacted our historical results will repeat in future periods as we cannot influence or forecast many of these factors.

We are dependent on our suppliers and contract manufacturers and any failure of these parties to meet our performance and quality standards or requirements could cause us to incur additional costs or lose customers.

Our production of instant lottery games, in particular, depends upon a continuous supply of raw materials, supplies, power and natural resources. Our operating results could be adversely affected by an interruption or cessation in the supply of these items or a serious quality assurance lapse, including as a result of the insolvency of any of our key suppliers.

Similarly, the operation of our instant ticket printing presses and the manufacture and maintenance of our gaming machines and gaming and lottery systems are dependent upon a regular and continuous supply of raw materials and components, many of which are manufactured or produced outside of the U.S. Certain of the components we use are customized for our products. The assembly of certain of our products and other hardware is performed by third parties. Any interruption or cessation in the supply of these items or services or any material quality assurance lapse with respect thereto could materially adversely affect our ability to fulfill customer orders, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We may be unable to find adequate replacements for our suppliers within a reasonable time frame, on favorable commercial terms or at all. The impact of the foregoing may be magnified as we continue to seek to streamline our gaming supply chain by reducing the number of our suppliers. Further, manufacturing costs may unexpectedly increase and we may not be able to successfully recover any or all of such cost increases.

In our lottery systems business, we transmit certain wagering data utilizing satellite transponders, generally pursuant to long‑term contracts. The technical failure of any of these satellites would require us to obtain other communication services, including other satellite access. In some cases, we employ backup systems to limit our exposure in the event of such a failure. There can be no assurance of access to such other satellites or, if available, the ability to obtain the use of such other satellites on favorable terms or in a timely manner. While satellite failures are infrequent, the operation of satellites is outside of our control.

In addition, in our Gaming business, we rely upon a number of significant third‑party suppliers and vendors delivering parts, equipment and services on schedule in order for us to meet our contractual commitments. Furthermore, we outsource the manufacturing of certain of our sub-assemblies to third parties in the United States, Europe, Central America and Asia. Failure of these third parties to meet their delivery commitments could result in us being in breach of, and subsequently losing, the affected customer orders, which loss could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Certain of our products are reliant on network and/or telecommunications services. For instance, any disruption to our network or telecommunications could impact our linked or networked games, which could reduce our revenue.

In our Interactive gaming business, we often rely on third-party data center providers to, among other things, host our remote game servers. Our Interactive gaming businesses would be adversely impacted to the extent any such data center provider was unable or unwilling to continue to provide services to us.

We have foreign operations, which subjects us to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and other risks.

We are a global business and derive a substantial portion of our revenue and profits from operations outside of the United States. Additionally, the success of our strategic initiatives is dependent upon expansion of our operations outside of the United States. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, we derived approximately 22% of our revenue from sales to customers outside of the United States. Our consolidated financial results are affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Foreign currency exchange rate exposures arise from current transactions and anticipated transactions denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars and from the translation of foreign currency denominated balance sheet accounts into U.S. dollar‑denominated balance sheet accounts. We are exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations because portions of our revenue and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, particularly the British Pound Sterling, the Australian dollar and the Euro. In particular, uncertainty regarding economic conditions in Europe and the debt crisis affecting certain countries in the EU pose risk to the stability of the Euro. Exchange rate fluctuations have in the past adversely affected our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and may adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and the value of our assets outside the U.S. in the future. If a foreign currency is devalued in a jurisdiction in which we are paid in such currency, we may require our customers to pay higher amounts for our products, which they may be unable or unwilling to pay.

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From time to time, we enter into foreign currency forward or other hedging contracts. We are subject to the risk that a counterparty to one or more of these contracts defaults on its performance under the contracts. During an economic downturn, a counterparty’s financial condition may deteriorate rapidly and with little notice and we may be unable to take action to protect our exposure. In the event of a counterparty default, we could lose the benefit of our hedging contract, which may harm our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In the event that one or more of our counterparties becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, our ability to eventually recover any benefit lost as a result of that counterparty’s default may be limited by the liquidity of the counterparty.

Foreign governments can impose restrictions on currency movements that may make it costly or impossible to transfer money to the U.S. Additionally, foreign governments may limit or prevent our ability to import our products and services into foreign jurisdictions. In 2012, governmental authorities in Argentina modified regulations relating to importing products and limiting the exchange of pesos into U.S. dollars and the transfer of funds from Argentina. While the Argentine government’s restrictions on currency transfer were recently lifted, any reinstatement of such restrictions would increase our exposure to any potential currency devaluation in Argentina. Currently, our legal entities in Argentina cannot directly import certain of our gaming products and, if the import regulations remain unchanged or if we are unable to continue to import certain of our products into Argentina, our revenue from customers in Argentina will be negatively impacted, as occurred in the twelve months ended December 31, 2015. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Business Segments Results-Gaming-Current Year Update."

Our operations in foreign jurisdictions subject us to additional risks customarily associated with such operations, including: the complexity of foreign laws, regulations and markets; the uncertainty of enforcement of remedies in foreign jurisdictions; the impact of foreign labor laws and disputes; the economic, tax and regulatory policies of local governments; compliance with applicable anti‑corruption laws; and the ability to attract and retain key personnel in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, our international business operations could be interrupted and negatively affected by terrorist activity, political unrest or other economic or political uncertainties. For example, recent government actions and challenges affecting the gaming industry in Mexico have increased the credit quality risk with respect to certain of our current Mexico customers. In addition, foreign jurisdictions could impose tariffs, quotas, trade barriers and other similar restrictions on our international sales.

As a significant amount of our profits and cash flows are generated outside the U.S., the repatriation of funds currently held in foreign jurisdictions may result in higher effective tax rates for the Company. In addition, there have been proposals to change U.S. tax laws that could significantly impact how U.S. multinational corporations, such as us, are taxed on foreign earnings. Although we cannot predict the likelihood, timing, scope or terms of any such laws, certain of the proposed changes, such as those seeking to limit the deferral of taxes, if enacted, could have a material adverse impact on our tax expense, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Additionally, foreign taxes paid by our foreign subsidiaries and equity investees on their earnings may not be recovered against our U.S. tax liability. At December 31, 2015, we had a deferred tax asset for our foreign tax credit carry forward of $19.4 million. Although we will continue to explore tax planning strategies to use all of our foreign tax credit carry forward, at December 31, 2015, we had a valuation allowance of $12.7 million against the foreign tax credit deferred tax asset to reduce the asset to the net amount that our management estimates is "more likely than not" to be realized.

In addition, our ability to expand successfully in foreign jurisdictions involves other risks, including difficulties in integrating foreign operations, risks associated with entering jurisdictions in which we may have little experience and the day‑to‑day management of a growing and increasingly geographically diverse company. Our investment in foreign jurisdictions often entails entering into joint ventures or other business relationships with locally based entities, which can involve additional risks arising from our lack of sole decision‑making authority, our reliance on a partner’s financial condition, inconsistency between our business interests or goals and those of our partners and disputes between us and our partners.

We have Lottery‑related investments and business operations in China, including through our joint ventures. Our business in, and results of operations from, China are subject to a number of risks relating to China, including risks relating to competition, the bidding and contract negotiation processes, our ability to finance or refinance our operations, the complex regulatory environment (including currency and money transfer restrictions), our ability to receive timely product approvals, the political climate, the economy and our joint venture and other business partners in China.

We may not realize the operating efficiencies, competitive advantages or financial results that we anticipate from our investments in foreign jurisdictions and our failure to effectively manage the risks associated with our operations in foreign

40


jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We are dependent on our key employees.

We depend on the continued performance of our executive officers and key personnel, including M. Gavin Isaacs, our president and chief executive officer. If we lose the services of any of our executive officers or key personnel and cannot find suitable replacements for such persons in a timely manner, it could have an adverse impact on our business. Our ability to expand is dependent on our ability to recruit and retain talented employees in the U.S. and internationally who are capable of leading our employees to achieve our strategic objectives.

We also rely on our highly skilled, technically trained and creative employees to develop new technologies and create innovative products. A lack of skilled technical workers could delay or negatively impact our business plans, ability to compete, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We could incur costs in the event of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.

Our operations and real property are subject to U.S. and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to air emissions, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes and the cleanup of contaminated sites. We could incur costs, including cleanup costs, fines or penalties, and third‑party claims as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws. Some of our operations require environmental permits and controls to prevent or reduce environmental pollution, and these permits are subject to review, renewal and modification by issuing authorities.

Failure to perform under our Gaming and Lottery contracts may result in litigation, substantial monetary liquidated damages and contract termination.

Our business subjects us to contract penalties and risks of litigation, including potential allegations that we have not fully performed under our contracts or that goods or services we supply are defective in some respect. Litigation is pending in Colombia arising out of the termination of certain Colombian lottery contracts in 1993. An agency of the Colombian government has asserted claims against certain parties, including the Company, which owned a minority interest in Wintech de Colombia S.A., or Wintech (now liquidated), the former operator of the Colombian national lottery. The claims are for, among other things, contract penalties, interest and the amount of a bond issued by a Colombian surety. For additional information regarding this or other litigations, see "Legal Proceedings" in Item 3 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There can be no assurance that this litigation will not be finally resolved adversely to us or result in material liability.

In addition, our Lottery contracts, including our contracts relating to the provision of VLTs, typically permit a lottery authority to terminate the contract at any time for a material failure to perform, other specified reasons and, in many cases, for no reason at all. Upon such a termination or failure to perform, we may be required to refund fees paid to us for services performed or allow our Lottery customers to return our products to us for a full refund. Lottery contracts to which we are a party also frequently contain exacting implementation schedules and performance requirements and the failure to meet these schedules and requirements may result in substantial monetary liquidated damages, as well as possible contract termination. We are also required by certain of our Lottery customers to provide surety or performance bonds. We have paid or incurred liquidated damages and have been required to allow the return of VLTs for a full refund under our Lottery contracts and material amounts of liquidated damages could be imposed on us in the future, which could, if imposed, have a material adverse effect on our business prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may be liable for product defects or other claims relating to our products.

Our products could be defective, fail to perform as designed or otherwise cause harm to our customers, their equipment or their products. If any of our products are defective, we may be required to recall the products and/or repair or replace them, which could result in substantial expenses and affect our profitability. Any problem with the performance of our products, such as an instant lottery game misprint or false jackpot or other prize, could harm our reputation, which could result in a loss of sales to customers and/or potential customers. In addition, the occurrence of errors in, or fraudulent manipulation of, our products or software may give rise to claims by our customers or by our customers’ patrons, including claims by our customers for lost revenues and related litigation that could result in significant liability. Any claims brought against us by customers may result in diversion of management’s time and attention, expenditure of large amounts of cash on legal fees and payment of damages, lower demand for our products or services, or injury to our reputation. Our insurance may not sufficiently cover a judgment against us or a settlement payment and is subject to customary deductibles, limits and exclusions. In addition, a judgment against us or a settlement could make it difficult for us to obtain insurance in the coverage amounts necessary to

41


adequately insure our businesses, or at all, and could materially increase our insurance premiums and deductibles. In addition, software bugs or malfunctions, errors in distribution or installation of our software, failure of our products to perform as approved by the appropriate regulatory bodies or other errors or malfunctions, may subject us to investigation or other action by gaming regulatory authorities, including fines.

Litigation may adversely affect our business and our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may become subject to litigation claims in the operation of our business, including, but not limited to, with respect to employee matters, alleged product and system malfunctions, alleged intellectual property infringement and claims relating to our contracts, licenses and strategic investments. We may incur significant expense defending or settling any such litigation. Additionally, adverse judgments that may be decided against us could result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business and our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Labor disputes and union organizing activities may have an adverse effect on our operations.
Certain of our employees are represented by unions or works councils, including employees in Europe, South America and Canada. In particular, the majority of our employees at our printing facilities in the U.K., Chile and Quebec and a small number of employees in the U.S. are represented by unions. While we believe our relations with our employees are satisfactory, we cannot predict whether we will be successful in negotiating new collective bargaining agreements without any disruptions in our operations or higher labor costs. Any disruption in our operations could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
There can be no assurance that we will not encounter conflicts or strikes with any labor unions that represent our employees or union organizing activities at our non-unionized facilities. Any of the foregoing could adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition or our customers’ operations, could cause us to lose customers, or could increase our labor costs.
Risks Relating to our Capital Structure

Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

As of December 31, 2015, we had total indebtedness of $8,207.0 million, consisting primarily of borrowings under our credit agreement, Senior Notes and Subordinated Notes, net of unamortized discounts and deferred financing costs.

Our level of indebtedness could affect our ability to obtain financing or refinance existing indebtedness; require us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to interest and principal payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes; increase our vulnerability to adverse general economic, industry or competitive developments or conditions; and limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our businesses and the industries in which we operate or in pursuing our strategic objectives. In addition, we are exposed to the risk of higher interest rates as a significant portion of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest. If interest rates increase, the interest payment obligations under our non‑hedged variable rate indebtedness would increase even if the amount borrowed remained the same and our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition would be negatively impacted. All of these factors could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that may have less debt than we do.

We may not have sufficient cash flows from operating activities, cash on hand and available borrowings under our credit agreement to finance required capital expenditures under new contracts and meet our other cash needs. These obligations require a significant amount of cash.

Our Gaming Participation and lottery systems businesses generally require significant upfront capital expenditures for gaming machine or lottery terminal assembly, software customization and implementation, systems and equipment installation and telecommunications configuration. In connection with a renewal or bid of a gaming machine or lottery systems contract, a customer may seek to obtain new equipment or impose new service requirements, which may require additional capital expenditures in order to retain or win the contract. Historically, we have funded these upfront costs through cash flows generated from operations, available cash on hand and borrowings under our credit agreement. In addition, we have seen an increase in lottery RFPs, some involving private management agreements, which include economic terms that expose the Company to increased risk, such as requiring the guarantee of specific income thresholds or significant upfront payments. Our

42


ability to generate revenue and to continue to procure new contracts will depend on, among other things, our then present liquidity levels or our ability to obtain additional financing on commercially reasonable terms.

If we do not have adequate liquidity or are unable to obtain financing for these upfront costs and our other cash needs on favorable terms or at all, we may not be able to bid on certain contracts, which could result in our losing business or could restrict our ability to grow which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Moreover, we may not realize the return on investment that we anticipate on new or renewed contracts due to a variety of factors, including lower than anticipated retail sales or amounts wagered, higher than anticipated capital or operating expenses and unanticipated regulatory developments or litigation. We may not have adequate liquidity to pursue other aspects of our strategy, including bringing our products and services to new customers or new or underpenetrated geographies (including through equity investments) or pursuing strategic acquisitions. In the event we pursue significant acquisitions or other expansion opportunities, conduct significant repurchases of our outstanding securities, or refinance or repay existing debt, we may need to raise additional capital either through the public or private issuance of equity or debt securities or through additional borrowings under our existing financing arrangements, which sources of funds may not necessarily be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

We may not have sufficient cash flows from operating activities to service all of our indebtedness and other obligations, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations, which may not be successful.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness and other obligations depends on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, which in turn are subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness as well as our other obligations.

We are required to make scheduled payments of principal on the term loans borrowed under our credit agreement, and our credit agreement requires that a portion of our excess cash flow be applied to prepay amounts borrowed under our credit agreement. We may also, from time to time, repurchase, or otherwise retire or refinance our debt, through our subsidiaries or otherwise. Such activities, if any, will depend on prevailing market conditions, contractual restrictions and other factors, and the amounts involved may or may not be material. If we need to refinance all or part of our indebtedness at or before maturity, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain new financing or to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Our lenders, including the lenders participating in our revolving credit facility under our credit agreement, may become insolvent or tighten their lending standards, which could make it more difficult for us to borrow under our revolving credit facility or to obtain other financing on favorable terms or at all. Our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition would be adversely affected if we were unable to draw funds under our revolving credit facility because of a lender default or to obtain other cost‑effective financing. Any default by a lender in its obligation to fund its commitment under our revolving credit facility (or its participation in letters of credit) could limit our liquidity to the extent of the defaulting lender’s commitment. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow in the future to meet our commitments, we will be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness, selling material assets or operations or seeking to raise additional debt or equity capital. We cannot assure you that any of these actions could be completed on a timely basis or on satisfactory terms or at all, or that these actions would enable us to continue to satisfy our requirements. Moreover, our existing debt agreements contain, and our future debt agreements may contain, restrictive covenants that may prohibit us from adopting these alternatives. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our debt.

Agreements governing our indebtedness impose certain restrictions that may affect our ability to operate our business. Failure to comply with any of these restrictions could result in the acceleration of the maturity of our indebtedness. Were this to occur, we would not have sufficient cash to pay our accelerated indebtedness.

Agreements governing our indebtedness, including our credit agreement and the indentures governing our Senior Notes and Subordinated Notes, impose, and future financing agreements are likely to impose, operating and financial restrictions on our activities that may adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in new business activities. In some cases, these restrictions require us to comply with or maintain certain financial tests and ratios. Subject to certain exceptions, our credit facilities and/or indentures restrict our ability to, among other things:
    
declare dividends or redeem or repurchase capital stock;
    

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prepay, redeem or purchase other debt;
    
incur liens;
    
make loans, guarantees, acquisitions and investments;
    
incur additional indebtedness;
    
engage in sale and leaseback transactions;
    
amend or otherwise alter debt and other material agreements;
    
engage in mergers, acquisitions or asset sales;
    
engage in transactions with affiliates;
    
enter into arrangements that would prohibit us from granting liens or restrict our ability to pay dividends, make loans or transfer assets among our subsidiaries; and

alter the business we conduct.

In addition, our credit agreement contains a covenant that is tested at the end of each fiscal quarter and requires us to not exceed a maximum consolidated net first lien leverage ratio of 5.75x Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement), with this ratio stepping down to 5.5x for the quarter ended March 31, 2016 and 5.0x for the quarter ended March 31, 2017. As a result of these covenants, we will be limited in the manner in which we can conduct our business, and may be unable to engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs.
Various risks, uncertainties and events beyond our control could affect our ability to comply with these covenants. Failure to comply with any of the covenants in our existing or future financing agreements could result in a default under those agreements and under other agreements containing cross‑default provisions. Such a default would permit lenders to accelerate the maturity of the debt under these agreements and other agreements containing cross-default provisions and to foreclose upon any collateral securing the debt. Under these circumstances, we might not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all of our obligations. In addition, the limitations imposed by financing agreements on our ability to incur additional debt and to take other actions might significantly impair our ability to obtain other financing.

There can be no assurance that we will be granted waivers or amendments to these agreements if for any reason we are unable to comply with these obligations or that we will be able to refinance our debt on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

Certain holders of our common stock exert significant influence over the Company and may make decisions that conflict with the interests of other stockholders.

In August 2004, MacAndrews & Forbes Incorporated (formerly known as MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc.) was issued approximately 25% of our outstanding common stock in connection with its conversion of our then outstanding Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. According to a Form 4 filed with the SEC on November 24, 2015, this holder beneficially owns 34,575,737 shares of our common stock, or approximately 40.0% of our outstanding common stock as of February 22, 2016. Pursuant to a stockholders’ agreement with us, which we originally entered into with holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, such holder is entitled to appoint up to four members of our board of directors and certain actions of our Company require the approval of such holder. As a result, this holder has the ability to exert significant influence over our business and may make decisions with which other stockholders may disagree, including, among other things, delaying, discouraging or preventing a change of control of our Company or a potential merger, consolidation, tender offer, takeover or other business combination.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.


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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
We occupy approximately 2,966,000 square feet of space in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Internationally, we occupy approximately 1,400,000 square feet of space. Set forth below is an overview of the principal owned and leased real estate properties that support our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive segments.
We own an approximate 483,000 square foot campus in Chicago, Illinois for R&D that supports our Gaming and Interactive business segments, of which two facilities totaling 30,000 square feet are currently held for sale.
We own an approximate 365,000 square foot facility in Waukegan, Illinois which is currently held for sale and is included in our Gaming business segment.
We own an approximate 355,000 square foot facility in Alpharetta, Georgia for administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing that primarily supports all of our business segments.
We lease approximately 260,000 square feet of facilities in Las Vegas, Nevada for administrative offices and warehousing that supports our Gaming business segment.
We lease an approximate 199,000 square feet of land underlying our production studio in Las Vegas, Nevada that supports our Lottery business segment.
We lease approximately 186,000 square feet of facilities in India (Bangalore, Chennai and Pune) for R&D that supports our Gaming, Lottery and Interactive business segments.
We own an approximate 150,000 square foot facility in Leeds, England for administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing that supports our Lottery business segment.
We own an approximate 151,000 square foot facility in Las Vegas, Nevada for manufacturing and warehousing that supports our Gaming business segment.
We own an approximate 128,000 square foot facility in Las Vegas, Nevada for our global headquarters that supports all of our business segments.
We operate an approximate 123,000 square foot facility in Milperra, Australia for administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing that supports our Gaming business segment. We own an approximate 59,000 square feet of this facility and lease the remaining portion.
We own an approximate 119,000 square foot facility in Montreal, Canada for administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing that supports our Lottery business segment.
We lease an approximate 89,000 square foot facility in Reno, Nevada for administrative offices and R&D that supports our Gaming business segment.
We lease an approximate 86,000 square foot facility in Rubi, Spain for administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing that supports our Gaming business segment.
We own an approximate 47,000 square foot facility in Santiago, Chile for manufacturing and distribution that supports our Lottery business segment.
Our owned Alpharetta, Chicago, Las Vegas and Waukegan facilities listed above are encumbered by mortgages securing indebtedness under our credit agreement and Secured Notes. In addition to those listed above, we own or lease a number of additional less significant properties in the U.S. and internationally that support our operations.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For discussion of the Company's legal proceedings, see Note 22 (Litigation), which is incorporated by reference into this Item 3 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
    
    
    

 




45


ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


46


PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Our Common Stock
Our outstanding common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SGMS." The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the range of high and low sales prices of our Class A common stock:
        
 
 
Sales Price of
Scientific Games
Common Stock
 
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal Year 2015 (January 1, 2015 - December 31, 2015)
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
14.96

 
$
9.96

Second Quarter
 
$
17.12

 
$
10.47

Third Quarter
 
$
16.78

 
$
9.57

Fourth Quarter
 
$
12.83

 
$
7.06

Fiscal Year 2014 (January 1, 2014 - December 31, 2014)
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
17.25

 
$
12.80

Second Quarter
 
$
14.31

 
$
8.28

Third Quarter
 
$
13.61

 
$
6.97

Fourth Quarter
 
$
15.66

 
$
8.44

On February 22, 2016, the last reported sale price for our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $6.37 per share. There were 795 holders of record of our common stock as of February 22, 2016.
Dividend Policy
We have never paid any cash dividends on our Class A common stock and do not presently intend to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. Further, under the terms of certain of our debt agreements, we are limited in our ability to pay cash dividends or make certain other restricted payments (other than stock dividends) on our Class A common stock. For further discussion related to dividend restrictions, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity, Capital Resources and Working Capital—Credit Agreement and Other Debt" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stock Repurchase Program
In December 2014, our existing stock repurchase program, which was originally announced in May 2010, expired and was not renewed. Under the program, we were authorized to repurchase, from time to time through open market purchases or otherwise, shares of our outstanding common stock in an aggregate amount up to $200.0 million. During 2014, we repurchased 2.0 million shares at an aggregate cost of $29.5 million. Purchases made during 2014 were funded by cash flows from operations, borrowings or a combination thereof. As of the program’s expiration on December 31, 2014, we had $75.0 million remaining availability for potential repurchases. As of December 31, 2015, no new stock repurchase plans have been put in place.
There was no stock repurchase activity during the fourth quarter of 2015 other than 121,768 shares acquired from employees to satisfy the withholding taxes associated with the vesting of RSUs during the three months ended December 31, 2015 at the average price paid per share of $8.51.
Shares Authorized For Issuance Pursuant to Equity Compensation Plans

When we acquired WMS in October 2013, we assumed the WMS Incentive Plan (renamed the Scientific Games Corporation Incentive Plan (2013 Restatement)) (the "Legacy WMS Plan"), including WMS equity awards that were not cashed out in connection with the acquisition (which were adjusted to become awards relating to approximately 0.5 million shares of our common stock using a customary exchange ratio based on the stock prices of WMS and the Company at the time of the acquisition) and approximately 5.6 million shares of our common stock (after adjustment using the customary exchange ratio) available for future awards under the WMS Legacy Plan. At our annual meeting of stockholders on June 11, 2014, our stockholders approved an amendment and restatement of the Company’s 2003 Incentive Compensation Plan (the “2003 Plan”).

47


Under the amended and restated 2003 Plan, the Legacy WMS Plan was merged into the 2003 Plan. As a result, the shares reserved and available under the two plans were combined into a single share pool, with such shares available for equity awards to any employee, non-employee director or other eligible service provider of the Company or its subsidiaries, including WMS. In order to account for a share counting rule under the Legacy WMS Plan under which each share delivered in settlement of a “full-value” award (e.g., an RSU) was counted as 1.8 shares against the shares reserved under the Legacy WMS Plan, only 55.55% of the shares that nominally would be available for future grants under the Legacy WMS Plan were included in the combined share pool in the merger of the two plans. For additional information, see the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 17, 2014.
When we acquired Bally in November 2014, we consolidated the Bally 2010 Long Term Incentive Plan (amended and restated in 2013) (“Legacy Bally Plan”) with and into the 2003 Plan such that the Legacy Bally Plan became a sub-plan of the 2003 Plan with respect to the Bally awards that we assumed (discussed below). In connection therewith, Bally equity awards that were not cashed out in connection with the acquisition were assumed and adjusted (using a customary exchange ratio based on the stock prices of Bally and the Company at the time of the acquisition) to become awards relating to approximately 1.4 million shares of our common stock. In addition, we assumed shares available for future awards under the Bally Legacy Plan that totaled (after adjustment using the customary exchange ratio) 3.4 million shares of our common stock (such shares, together with the shares underlying the assumed Bally equity awards, the “Legacy Bally Shares”). In order to account for a share counting rule under the Legacy Bally Plan under which each share delivered in settlement of a “full-value” award (e.g., an RSU) was counted as 1.75 shares against the shares reserved under the Legacy Bally Plan, only 57.14% of the shares that nominally would be available for future grants under the Legacy Bally Plan were included in the combined share pool in the merger of the two plans. For additional information, see the Company’s definitive proxy statement relating to our 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders filed with the SEC on April 30, 2015.
On June 10, 2015, we held our annual meeting of stockholders. At the annual meeting, our stockholders approved an amendment and restatement of our 2003 Plan in which the Legacy Bally Shares were consolidated with the shares of our common stock previously reserved and available for issuance under the 2003 Plan. As a result, the shares reserved and available for issuance under the 2003 Plan were combined into a single share pool, with such shares available for equity awards to any employee, non-employee director or other eligible service provider of us or our subsidiaries, including Bally.
As a result of merging the Legacy WMS Plan and the Legacy Bally Plan into the 2003 Plan, as of December 31, 2014, we had approximately 21.3 million shares of common stock authorized for awards under the 2003 Plan (plus available shares from a pre-existing equity-based compensation plan). As of December 31, 2015 we had approximately 5.3 million shares available for future grants of equity awards (excluding shares underlying the outstanding awards) under the 2003 Plan (plus available shares from a pre-existing equity-based compensation plan). We also have outstanding stock options and RSUs granted as part of inducement awards that were not approved by our stockholders, as permitted by applicable stock exchange rules.

The table below shows information regarding our equity compensation plans (in millions) as of December 31, 2015:
Equity Compensation Plans
 
 
Shares available for future issuance under the 2003 Plan(1)
 
5.3

Unrecognized cost of outstanding awards (in millions)
 
$
61.0

Weighted average future recognition period (in years)
 
2

(1) Under the share counting rules of the 2003 Plan, awards may be outstanding relating to a greater number of shares than the aggregate remaining available under the plan so long as awards will not result in delivery and vesting of shares in excess of the number then available under the 2003 Plan. Shares available for future issuance under the 2003 Plan do not include shares expected to be withheld in connection with outstanding awards to satisfy tax withholding obligations, which may be deemed to be available for awards under the 2003 Plan as permitted under the applicable share counting rules of the plan.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return over the five-year period ended December 31, 2015 of our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and indices of our peer group companies that operate in industries or lines of business similar to ours.
Our peer group companies consist of Aristocrat Leisure Limited (Australian Securities Exchange: ALL), International Games Technology Plc (New York Stock Exchange: IGT), Intralot, S.A (Athens Stock Exchange: IRLTY), Pollard Banknote Limited (Toronto Stock Exchange: PBL.UN-TO) and Everi Holdings Inc. (New York Stock Exchange: EVRI).
The companies in each peer group have been weighted based on their relative market capitalization each year. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the peer group indices at the beginning

48


of the five-year period and that all dividends were reinvested. The comparisons are not intended to be indicative of future performance of our common stock.
 
 
12/10
 
12/11
 
12/12
 
12/13
 
12/14
 
12/15
Scientific Games Corporation
 
$
100.00

 
$
97.39

 
$
87.05

 
$
169.98

 
$
127.81

 
$
90.06

NASDAQ Composite
 
$
100.00

 
$
100.53

 
$
116.92

 
$
166.19

 
$
188.78

 
$
199.95

Peer Group
 
$
100.00

 
$
84.56

 
$
109.37

 
$
145.12

 
$
157.18

 
$
205.19



49


ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Selected financial data presented below as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. The information below reflects the acquisitions and dispositions of certain businesses from 2011 through 2015, including the Bally acquisition in November 2014, the WMS acquisition in October 2013, the disposition of our equity investment in Sportech in January 2014, the disposition of our pub business in March 2013, the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Parspro in July 2012, the acquisition of Provoloto in June 2012 and the exit of that business in February 2014, the acquisition of ADS in June 2012, and the acquisition of Barcrest in September 2011. This data should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
FIVE YEAR SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Total revenue
 
$
2,758.8

 
$
1,786.4

 
$
1,090.9

 
$
928.6

 
$
865.9

Operating (loss) income (1)
 
(1,024.6
)
 
(172.7
)
 
(18.3
)
 
62.9

 
92.2

Total other expense, net (2)
 
(669.6
)
 
(322.2
)
 
(125.0
)
 
(86.1
)
 
(79.6
)
Net (loss) income from continuing operations before income taxes
 
(1,694.2
)
 
(494.9
)
 
(143.3
)
 
(23.2
)
 
12.6

Income tax benefit (expense)
 
299.9

 
260.6

 
117.7

 
(20.7
)
 
(18.4
)
Net loss from continuing operations
 
$
(1,394.3
)
 
$
(234.3
)
 
$
(25.6
)
 
$
(43.9
)
 
$
(5.8
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net loss per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic from continuing operations
 
$
(16.23
)
 
$
(2.77
)
 
$
(0.30
)
 
$
(0.49
)
 
$
(0.06
)
Diluted from continuing operations
 
$
(16.23
)
 
$
(2.77
)
 
$
(0.30
)
 
$
(0.49
)
 
$
(0.06
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of shares used in per share calculations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic shares
 
85.9

 
84.6

 
85.0

 
90.0

 
92.1

Diluted shares
 
85.9

 
84.6

 
85.0

 
90.0

 
92.1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statement of Cash Flows Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
414.2

 
$
203.5

 
$
171.2

 
$
156.8

 
$
171.1

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(263.8
)
 
(3,332.9
)
 
(1,664.7
)
 
(141.9
)
 
(161.1
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
 
(183.2
)
 
3,157.4

 
1,538.7

 
(10.1
)
 
(24.7
)
Effect of exchange rates changes on cash and cash equivalents
 
(10.3
)
 
(9.9
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.2
)
 
(5.2
)
(Decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
 
$
(43.1
)
 
$
18.1

 
$
44.7

 
$
4.6

 
$
(19.9
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets (3)(4)
 
$
7,732.2

 
$
9,721.1

 
$
4,109.6

 
$
2,161.4

 
$
2,128.0

Total long-term debt, including current portion (4)
 
$
8,207.0

 
$
8,312.9

 
$
3,109.2

 
$
1,442.7

 
$
1,356.8

Total stockholders' (deficit) equity
 
$
(1,495.5
)
 
$
3.9

 
$
375.0

 
$
364.8

 
$
443.7

(1)     Operating (loss) income includes:
Cost of product sales of (i) $12.3 million and $6.6 million for the write-up of finished goods inventory required under purchase accounting for the Bally acquisition in 2015 and 2014, respectively; (ii) $13.0 million for the write-up of

50


finished goods inventory under purchase accounting for the WMS acquisition in 2013; and (iii) $5.9 million and $17.8 million of inventory write-offs related to certain of our product lines in the Gaming segment in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Cost of instant games includes a $35.5 million charge related to other asset impairments and cancellation costs.

SG&A charges for legal contingencies and settlements of $2.5 million, $24.8 million and $24.5 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Also included in SG&A are $20.2 million and $76.6 million of acquisition-related fees and expenses related primarily to the Bally acquisition (including $41.0 million in 2014 for the acceleration of Bally equity awards at the closing of the acquisition) in 2015 and 2014, respectively, and $19.8 million of acquisition-related fees and expenses related to the WMS acquisition in 2013.

Stock-based compensation expense of $25.4 million, $24.1 million, $22.3 million, $24.2 million and $21.5 million in 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Employee termination and restructuring costs of $21.9 million, $30.7 million, $22.7 million, $10.6 million and $2.0 million in 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Goodwill impairment charges totaling $1,002.6 million during 2015, consisting of a $67.6 million non-cash impairment charge to write-off the recorded amount of our U.S. lottery systems reporting unit goodwill, and a $935.0 million non-cash impairment charge to reduce the carrying amount of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill to its implied fair value.

Accelerated depreciation charges related to equipment or technology, the impact of any impairment charges related to long-term assets and underperforming contracts and accelerated depreciation expense related to restructuring plans of $169.7 million, $31.5 million, $22.3 million, $45.5 million and $6.4 million for 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. 2015 D&A reflected impairment charges of $128.6 million, with a tax benefit of $48.3 million, in accelerated D&A to reduce the carrying amounts of two trade name assets to their fair values, $11.5 million in accelerated D&A to adjust the carrying amount of our facilities to their fair value less expected selling costs, $12.9 million in accelerated D&A related to gaming operations equipment, $11.9 million in accelerated D&A of property and equipment related to our instant games business and $4.8 million of other accelerated D&A. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion regarding these charges.

(2)     Other expense includes:

Interest expense of $664.9 million, $307.2 million and $119.5 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively, due primarily to the additional indebtedness that we incurred to finance the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition.

Loss on early extinguishment of debt, which includes losses that we incur when we refinance our long-term debt obligations and also includes write-offs of the associated deferred financing costs, which aggregated $0, $25.9 million, $5.9 million, $15.5 million and $4.2 million in 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. See Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt) for more information regarding our debt instruments.

(3)
Total assets as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 does not reflect the adoption of ASU No. 2015-17 described in Note 1 (Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies).

(4)
Total assets and total long-term debt, including current portion reflects the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03 and ASU No. 2015-15 described in Note 1 (Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies).

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion is intended to enhance the reader's understanding of our operations and current business environment and should be read in conjunction with the description of our business (Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) and our Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes (Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
            This “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (“MD&A”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and should be read in conjunction with the disclosures and information contained and referenced under "Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk

51


Factors" at the beginning and in Item 1A, respectively, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As used in this MD&A, the terms "we," "us," "our" and the "Company" mean Scientific Games Corporation together with its consolidated subsidiaries.
Our MD&A is organized into the following sections:
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS
BUSINESS SEGMENT RESULTS
RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING GUIDANCE
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL SOURCES AND WORKING CAPITAL
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
We are a leading developer of technology‑based products and services and associated content for the worldwide gaming, lottery and interactive gaming industries. Our portfolio includes gaming machines and game content, casino management systems, table game products and services, instant and draw‑based lottery games, server‑based gaming and lottery systems, sports betting technology, lottery content and services, loyalty and rewards programs, interactive gaming and social casino solutions. We also gain access to technologies and pursue global expansion through strategic acquisitions and equity investments. As a result of our recent acquisitions of Bally and WMS, we have significantly expanded our global Gaming and Interactive gaming businesses.
Impact of the Bally Acquisition, the WMS Acquisition and Other Items Impacting Comparability of Results of Operations
On November 21, 2014, we acquired Bally for $5.1 billion (including the refinancing of approximately $1.9 billion of existing Bally indebtedness). On October 18, 2013, we acquired WMS for $1.5 billion. In connection with these acquisitions, we incurred additional indebtedness and completed a series of refinancing transactions, which are described in Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt). For additional information regarding the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition, see Note 3 (Acquisitions and Dispositions).
We believe that the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition are transformational for Scientific Games, creating one of the largest diversified global gaming suppliers. In particular, we believe that the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition (1) significantly expand our Gaming and Interactive gaming businesses, (2) diversify our mix of products, customers and geographies in which we do business and (3) allow the combined company to benefit from economies of scale, which we believe will provide opportunities for cost synergies and cash flow improvements.
Our consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 include the results of operations for Bally and WMS for the full year. Our consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 include the results of operations for Bally for the 40 days following the acquisition date in November 2014 and the results of operations of WMS for the full year. Our consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 include the results of operations for WMS for the 74 days following the acquisition date in October 2013 and do not include the results of operations of Bally.
Items that impacted our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 are detailed below:
a full year of revenues attributable to Bally of $1,251.9 million, which was acquired on November 21, 2014;
cost of product sales including a $12.3 million of additional cost related to the write-up of finished goods inventory required under purchase accounting for the Bally acquisition, and $5.9 million of inventory write-downs for discontinued product lines. Cost of instant games includes a $35.5 million charge related to other asset impairments and cancellation costs;
SG&A includes charges for legal contingencies of $2.5 million and $20.2 million of acquisition-related fees and expenses primarily related to the Bally acquisition;
$21.9 million of employee termination and restructuring costs, primarily related to employee termination costs under our Bally and WMS integration-related restructuring plan;
$448.9 million of incremental D&A expense primarily attributable to Bally, including incremental D&A related to the write up to fair value of assets acquired in the acquisition, and impairment charges. Impairment charges

52


related to long-term assets and underperforming contracts and accelerated depreciation expense related to restructuring plans totaled $169.7 million that included $128.6 million, with a tax benefit of $48.3 million, in accelerated D&A to reduce the carrying amounts of two trade name assets to their fair values, $11.5 million in accelerated D&A to adjust the carrying amount of our facilities to their fair value less expected selling costs, $12.9 million in accelerated D&A related to gaming operations equipment, $11.9 million in accelerated D&A of property and equipment related to our instant games business and $4.8 million of other accelerated D&A;
$935.0 million for a non-cash impairment charge of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill and a $67.6 million non-cash impairment charge of our U.S. lottery systems reporting unit goodwill, which resulted in a tax benefit of $24.9 million; and
$357.7 million year-over-year increase in interest expense related to the incremental indebtedness that we incurred in the fourth quarter of 2014 to finance the Bally acquisition.
Items that impacted our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 are detailed below:
$151.6 million of revenues attributable to Bally and a full year of revenues attributable to WMS;
costs of product sales includes $6.6 million of additional cost related to the write-up of finished goods inventory required under purchase accounting for the Bally acquisition, $17.8 million of inventory write-downs for discontinued product lines and $2.1 million of inventory write-offs. Cost of instant products includes a $5.7 million charge related to the suspension of the MONOPOLY MILLIONAIRES’ CLUBTM ("MMC") draw lottery game and $3.1 million of inventory write-offs;
SG&A includes $76.6 million of acquisition-related fees and expenses related to the Bally acquisition (including $41.0 million for the acceleration of Bally equity awards at the closing of the acquisition), $24.8 million for legal contingencies and settlements that impacted SG&A, $6.0 million impairment of intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and $4.0 million of write-downs of certain receivables from international customers;
employee termination and restructuring costs of $30.7 million, comprised of $11.8 million related to WMS integration activities, $1.6 million related to the exit of an agreement following the Bally acquisition, $13.8 million related to other employee termination charges following the Bally acquisition (of which $9.1 million related to Gaming and Interactive and $3.8 million related to Lottery and corporate), $1.6 million related to the exit from our instant lottery game operations in Mexico and the exit from our paper roll conversion operations in the U.S., as well as $1.9 million of corporate costs unrelated to the Bally acquisition;
$46.8 million of accelerated or incremental depreciation expense, including $4.2 million related to impairments of U.S. lottery contracts, a $9.4 million impairment of our Waukegan, Illinois manufacturing facility, $14.5 million of accelerated depreciation on certain gaming operations assets and cabinets and $3.8 million related to software in our Gaming business for a product we are discontinuing related to the Bally acquisition. In addition, includes $18.1 million of incremental D&A from the write-up of tangible and intangible assets under purchase accounting for the Bally acquisition;
$187.7 million year-over-year increase in interest expense related to the incremental indebtedness that we incurred in the fourth quarter of 2013 to finance the WMS acquisition and in the fourth quarter of 2014 to finance the Bally acquisition; the increase in interest expense also included $64.7 million of debt financing fees incurred in connection with the Bally acquisition;
$19.7 million non-cash impairment charge in earnings (loss) from equity investments to write down our Northstar Illinois equity investment and $11.1 million of charges we recorded related to our share of shortfall payments accrued by Northstar Illinois; and
a loss on early extinguishment of debt of $25.9 million related to the tender and redemption premiums and the write-off of deferred financing costs in connection with the purchase and redemption of our 2019 Notes.
For additional information, see Note 3 (Acquisitions and Dispositions), Note 4 (Employee Termination and Restructuring Plans), Note 8 (Property and Equipment, net), Note 9 (Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill), Note 10 (Software, net), Note 11 (Equity Investments), Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt) and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited).
For 2016, we are focused on successfully completing the integration of Bally and WMS and achieving anticipated cost synergies by implementing our plans to streamline our operations and cost structure. We are also focused on positioning the Company for profitable growth by leveraging our core strengths and capabilities to enhance our portfolio of products and

53


services and to expand market penetration worldwide. We anticipate that our future results of operations will benefit from these efforts, although we expect these benefits to be offset to some extent by certain incremental operating costs and capital expenditures in 2016 related to our contemplated integration activities. We also expect to incur additional costs during 2016 to position ourselves in order to capitalize on longer-term synergy opportunities. We anticipate that our results of operations will continue to be impacted by negative economic and political conditions in 2016. In particular, we believe that levels of discretionary consumer spending are likely to remain flat or possibly decline, which will impact demand for our products and services. We expect the U.S. dollar to remain relatively strong such that we will continue to experience unfavorable foreign currency impacts with respect to our revenues and expenses that are denominated in foreign currencies.
Segments
We report our operations in three business segments - Gaming, Lottery and Interactive - representing our different products and services. See "Business Segment Results" below and Note 2 (Business Segments) for additional information regarding our business segments including revenue by customer location and long-lived assets by geographic location.
Discontinued Operations
On March 25, 2013, we completed the sale of our installed base of gaming machines in our pub business, as discussed in Note 3 (Acquisitions and Dispositions). The results of our discontinued pub operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 are presented in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss in accordance with ASC 205-20, Presentation of Financial Statements - Discontinued Operations ("ASC 205"). For the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded a loss from discontinued operations of $3.0 million and a net loss from discontinued operations of $4.6 million. There were no results of operations for our discontinued pub business for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.
Goodwill and Intangible Asset Impairment Charges
During 2015, we recorded a $935.0 million non-cash impairment charge with no tax benefit to reduce the carrying amount of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill to its implied fair value. This goodwill impairment charge reflects a $400.0 million revision to the $535.0 million charge previously disclosed in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2015. Refer to Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited) for further information regarding this revised goodwill impairment charge for our SG gaming reporting unit. Also, we recorded a $67.6 million non-cash impairment charge, which resulted in a tax benefit of $24.9 million, to write off the recorded amount of our U.S. lottery systems reporting unit goodwill. These impairment charges do not impact our compliance with our debt covenants.
During 2015, in conjunction with our introduction of a new SG-branded gaming cabinet, we determined that circumstances no longer continued to support an indefinite useful life for certain of our indefinite-lived trade name assets in our Gaming business segment. In connection with this change, we performed a quantitative impairment test for our SG gaming related trade name assets and recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $128.6 million with a tax benefit of $48.3 million based on the estimated fair value of the trade names. During 2014, we had recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $6.0 million based on the estimated fair value of the SG gaming related trade name assets. The impairments were reflected in D&A in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. No intangible asset impairments were recorded for the year ended December 31, 2013. For additional information regarding these impairment charges, see Note 9 (Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill) and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited).
Foreign Exchange
Our results are impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates as a result of the translation of foreign functional currencies into U.S. dollars and the re-measurement of foreign currency transactions or balances. The impact of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations represents the difference between current rates and prior-period rates applied to current activity. We derived approximately 22% and 40% of our revenue from sales to customers outside of the U.S. in 2015 and 2014, respectively, reflecting a full year of results from Bally as compared to 40 days in 2014. We have exposure to foreign currency volatility, particularly the British Pound Sterling, the Australian dollar, and the Euro, which represented $235.9 million, or 9%, $123.0 million, or 4%, and $115.8 million, or 4%, respectively, of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015 and $239.6 million, or 13%, $26.2 million, or 1%, and $104.3 million, or 6%, respectively, of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. We also have foreign currency exposure related to certain of our equity investments. Our earnings from our Euro-denominated equity investment in LNS were $14.9 million and $17.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. See further information regarding our foreign exchange exposure in "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" in Item 7A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


54


CONSOLIDATED RESULTS
 (in millions)
 
Years ended December 31,
 
Variance
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015 vs 2014
 
2014 vs 2013
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Services
 
$
1,351.8

 
$
788.5

 
$
415.0

 
$
563.3

 
71
 %
 
$
373.5

 
90
%
Product sales
 
863.0

 
464.9

 
159.9

 
398.1

 
86
 %
 
305.0

 
191
%
Instant games
 
544.0

 
533.0

 
516.0

 
11.0

 
2
 %
 
17.0

 
3
%
Total revenue
 
2,758.8

 
1,786.4

 
1,090.9

 
972.4

 
54
 %
 
695.5

 
64
%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services (1)
 
372.7

 
283.7

 
203.1

 
89.0

 
31
 %
 
80.6

 
40
%
Cost of product sales (1)
 
405.5

 
274.3

 
103.5

 
131.2

 
48
 %
 
170.8

 
165
%
Cost of instant games (1)
 
325.9

 
291.4

 
285.1

 
34.5

 
12
 %
 
6.3

 
2
%
Selling, general and administrative
 
567.7

 
507.7

 
266.4

 
60.0

 
12
 %
 
241.3

 
91
%
Research and development
 
183.9

 
117.0

 
26.0

 
66.9

 
57
 %
 
91.0

 
350
%
Employee termination and restructuring
 
21.9

 
30.7

 
22.7

 
(8.8
)
 
(29
)%
 
8.0

 
35
%
Depreciation and amortization
 
903.2

 
454.3

 
202.4

 
448.9

 
99
 %
 
251.9

 
124
%
Goodwill impairments
 
1,002.6

 

 

 
1,002.6

 
n/m

 

 
n/m

Operating loss
 
(1,024.6
)
 
(172.7
)
 
(18.3
)
 
(851.9
)
 
493
 %
 
(154.4
)
 
844
%
Other (expense) income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
 
(664.9
)
 
(307.2
)
 
(119.5
)
 
(357.7
)
 
116
 %
 
(187.7
)
 
157
%
Earnings (loss) from equity investments
 
16.9

 
(7.6
)
 
1.5

 
24.5

 
n/m

 
(9.1
)
 
n/m

Loss on early extinguishment of debt
 

 
(25.9
)
 
(5.9
)
 
25.9

 
(100
)%
 
(20.0
)
 
339
%
Gain on sale of equity interest
 

 
14.5

 

 
(14.5
)
 
(100
)%
 
14.5

 
n/m

Other (expense) income, net
 
(21.6
)
 
4.0

 
(1.1
)
 
(25.6
)
 
n/m

 
5.1

 
n/m

Total other expense, net
 
(669.6
)
 
(322.2
)
 
(125.0
)
 
(347.4
)
 
108
 %
 
(197.2
)
 
158
%
Net loss from continuing operations before income taxes
 
(1,694.2
)
 
(494.9
)
 
(143.3
)
 
(1,199.3
)
 
242
 %
 
(351.6
)
 
245
%
Income tax benefit
 
299.9

 
260.6

 
117.7

 
39.3

 
15
 %
 
142.9

 
121
%
Net loss from continuing operations
 
$
(1,394.3
)
 
$
(234.3
)
 
$
(25.6
)
 
$
(1,160.0
)
 
495
 %
 
$
(208.7
)
 
815
%
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(1)
Exclusive of D&A.
n/m - not meaningful
Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014
Revenue
Consolidated revenue increased in each of our categories of revenues (services, product sales and instant games) resulting in total revenues increasing by $972.4 million in 2015, despite an $83.2 million unfavorable foreign currency translation impact. Services and product sales revenue increased by $961.4 million in 2015, primarily due to $1,100.3 million from the incremental impact of the Bally acquisition reflecting a full year of results as compared to the 40 days in 2014 and a $16.7 million increase in legacy services revenue (service revenues which existed before the Bally acquisition), partially offset by a decrease of $155.6 million in legacy product sales revenue in our Gaming and Lottery segments. Instant games revenue increased by $11.0 million from 2014 to 2015.
Services revenue increased by $563.3 million in 2015, primarily reflecting a $546.6 million increase in Bally services revenue (including a full year of results as compared to 40 days in 2014) combined with a net increase of $16.7 million in services revenue primarily related to increases in our legacy Interactive gaming business partially offset by decreases in our legacy Gaming business. The impact of Bally service revenue was $63.2 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. Product sales

55


revenue increased by $398.1 million in 2015, primarily reflecting a $553.7 million increase in Bally product sales revenue (including a full year of results as compared to 40 days in 2014), partially offset by a $100.2 million decrease in our legacy Gaming business primarily due to lower overall demand for gaming machines and a $55.4 million decrease in our Lottery business primarily due to lower international product sales demand and an unfavorable foreign currency impact. The impact of Bally product sales revenue was $88.3 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. Instant games revenue increased by $11.0 million in 2015, reflecting higher revenue from our U.S. and international Participation contracts and higher revenue from our international price-per-unit contracts.

Cost of Revenue
Consolidated cost of revenue increased by $254.7 million in 2015, including $332.4 million attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 40 days in 2014), which was partially offset by a decrease of $77.7 million from our Lottery and legacy Gaming businesses primarily due to decreased revenues. Cost of revenue attributable to Bally was $52.9 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014.
Cost of services revenue increased by $89.0 million in 2015 including an incremental $102.0 million attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 40 days in 2014) and an increase in our legacy Interactive gaming business of $10.2 million, partially offset by a decrease of $23.2 million primarily due to the lower revenues generated by our Lottery and legacy Gaming businesses. Cost of services revenue attributable to Bally was $11.0 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. Cost of product sales increased by $131.2 million in 2015, including an incremental $230.3 million attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 40 days in 2014), partially offset by a decrease of $99.1 million attributable to our Lottery and legacy Gaming businesses, primarily related to the same items that caused the reduction in revenues as described above. Cost of product sales attributable to Bally was $41.9 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. Cost of instant games increased by $34.5 million in 2015, primarily due to a $35.5 million charge related to other asset impairments and contract cancellation costs.
SG&A
SG&A increased by $60.0 million in 2015, including an incremental $169.5 million increase attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of SG&A as compared to 40 days in 2014), which was partially offset by $109.5 million of lower SG&A, primarily attributable to the legacy Gaming business, which reflected the impact of lower legacy revenues, certain acquisition and legal costs incurred in 2014 and the realization of cost synergies from our acquisitions. The 2014 period included $25.8 million of additional acquisition-related charges related to the Bally acquisition, $24.8 million related to legal contingencies and settlements and $4.0 million for the write-down of certain receivables from international customers. SG&A attributable to Bally was $81.2 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 (including $41.0 million related to the acceleration of Bally equity awards in connection with the acquisition).
R&D
R&D increased by $66.9 million in 2015, including an incremental $81.8 million increase attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of R&D as compared to 40 days in 2014), which was partially offset by $14.9 million of lower R&D primarily attributable to the legacy Gaming business which reflected the realization of cost synergies from acquisitions. R&D attributable to Bally was $13.0 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014.
Employee Termination and Restructuring
Employee termination and restructuring costs decreased $8.8 million in 2015 to $21.9 million in 2015, including $16.9 million related to employee termination costs following the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition, $2.0 million in facility termination costs and $3.0 million of additional corporate costs unrelated to the Bally acquisition and the WMS acquisition. For additional information regarding these charges, see Note 4 (Employee Termination and Restructuring Plans).
D&A
D&A increased by $448.9 million in 2015, including an incremental $413.5 million increase attributable to Bally (reflecting a full year of D&A as compared to 40 days in 2014). D&A in the 2014 period included $37.0 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. D&A also reflected accelerated depreciation charges of $169.7 million related to the impact of impairment charges for certain long-term assets, including $128.6 million in accelerated D&A to reduce the carrying amounts of two trade name assets to their fair values, $11.5 million in accelerated D&A to adjust the carrying amount of our facilities to their fair value less expected selling costs, $12.9 million in accelerated D&A related to gaming operations equipment, $11.9 million in accelerated D&A of property and equipment related to our instant games business and $4.8 million of other accelerated D&A. For additional information regarding these charges, see Note 8 (Property and Equipment, net).

56


Goodwill Impairments
During 2015, we recorded an aggregate goodwill impairment charge of $1,002.6 million, consisting of a $935.0 million non-cash impairment charge to reduce the carrying amount of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill to its implied fair value and a $67.6 million non-cash impairment charge to write off the recorded amount of our U.S. lottery systems reporting unit goodwill. For additional information regarding these charges, see Note 9 (Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill) and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited).

Other Income and Expense

Interest expense increased by $357.7 million in 2015, due primarily to the additional indebtedness that we incurred to finance the Bally acquisition, reflecting a full year of interest expense as compared to 40 days in 2014. For additional information regarding our indebtedness, see Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt).
Earnings (loss) from equity investments increased by $24.5 million in 2015, due primarily to the non-recurrence of a $19.7 million non-cash impairment charge we recorded during the year ended December 31, 2014 to write down our Northstar Illinois equity investment and higher overall performance from our equity investments. For additional information regarding our equity investments, see Note 11 (Equity Investments).
Loss on early extinguishment of debt was $0 in 2015. 2014 activity related primarily to the tender and redemption premiums and related write-off of deferred financing costs in connection with the refinancing of our 2019 Notes in June 2014.
Gain on sale of equity interest was $0 in 2015. 2014 activity related to the $14.5 million gain on the sale of our 20% equity interest in Sportech for cash proceeds of £27.8 million, or $44.9 million, in 2014.
Other expense increased by $25.6 million in 2015, due primarily to $21.2 million of incremental losses on foreign currency translation during the year.
Income Tax Benefit
We recorded an income tax benefit of $299.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to an income tax benefit of $260.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The effective income tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 were 17.7% and 52.6% respectively. The U.S. federal tax impact of the non-deductibility of $935.0 million of our goodwill impairment charges in 2015 was 19.4%.
Our 2015 effective income tax rate on foreign earnings was impacted by the mix of income and the statutory tax rates in our foreign jurisdictions, which ranged from a low of 0% to a high of 48%. The foreign jurisdictions that had the most impact on our foreign income tax benefit in 2015 included Australia, Bermuda, Canada, India, Ireland and the U.K.
Our income tax benefit may change from period to period based on, among other factors, the mix of earnings between U.S. and foreign jurisdictions and among foreign jurisdictions, the effect of any valuation allowance related to any of our deferred tax assets (or the release thereof), state and local taxes, specific events such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax law, and the effects of our global income tax strategies. Based on our existing net deferred tax liability position at December 31, 2015 and anticipated net operating losses in 2016, we expect to have to provide a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets in 2016 which will mostly offset the tax benefit we otherwise would record in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. Refer to Note 21 (Income Taxes) for additional information regarding our foreign and domestic pre-tax income (loss), our foreign and domestic income tax benefit (expense), deferred tax assets and liabilities and the effect foreign taxes have on our overall effective tax rate.
See "--Business Segment Results" below for a more detailed explanation of the significant changes in our components of revenue within the individual segment results of operations.
Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2013
Revenue
Consolidated revenue increased in each of our categories of revenues (services, product sales and instant games). The inclusion of WMS revenue for a full year in 2014 as compared to 74 days in 2013 increased our consolidated revenue by $506.3 million. The inclusion of Bally revenue for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 increased consolidated revenue by $151.6 million. The remaining $37.7 million increase in revenue was due to growth in our Lottery business and our legacy Gaming business (our Gaming business that existed prior to the WMS acquisition, primarily based in the U.K.) of $34.2 million and favorable foreign currency translation of $3.4 million.

57


Services revenue increased $373.5 million, primarily reflecting a $315.6 million increase in WMS services revenue (including a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), and the inclusion of Bally services revenue of $63.2 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014, partially offset by a decrease of $5.3 million in services revenue related to our Lottery and legacy Gaming businesses. The $305.0 million increase in product sales revenue reflected a $190.7 million increase in WMS product sales revenue (including a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), the inclusion of Bally product sales revenue of $88.3 million for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014, and a $26.0 million increase primarily due to higher hardware and software sales to our international and U.S. lottery customers. Instant games revenue increased by $17.0 million, reflecting higher revenue from our U.S. and international Participation contracts and higher revenue from our U.S. price-per-unit contracts. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in revenue related to international price-per-unit contracts, the exit from our Provoloto business in early 2014 and lower revenue from our licensing and player loyalty programs.         
Cost of Revenue
Consolidated cost of revenue increased $257.7 million, including an incremental $169.0 million attributable to WMS (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), an incremental $52.9 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 and an increase of $35.8 million attributable to our Lottery and legacy Gaming businesses.
Cost of services revenue increased $80.6 million related to an increase of $67.4 million attributable to WMS (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), an incremental $11.0 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 and an increase of $2.2 million attributable to our Lottery businesses reflecting a less profitable mix of services revenue. Cost of product sales increased by $170.8 million including an incremental $101.6 million attributable to WMS (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), which was partly due to a $17.8 million write-down of inventory for discontinued product lines following the Bally acquisition, an incremental $41.9 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 and an increase of $27.3 million attributable to our Lottery business due to higher product sales revenue. Cost of instant games increased $6.3 million, primarily due to higher instant games revenue and a $5.7 million charge related to the suspension of the MMC draw lottery game.
SG&A
SG&A increased $241.3 million, which reflected a $117.4 million increase in SG&A, primarily attributable to WMS (reflecting a full year of results as compared to 74 days in 2013), $81.2 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014 (including $41.0 million related to the acceleration of Bally equity awards in connection with the acquisition), $25.8 million of additional acquisition-related charges related to the Bally acquisition, $24.8 million related to legal contingencies and settlements and $4.0 million for the write-down of certain receivables from international customers, partially offset by $11.5 million of lower SG&A in the legacy Gaming business.
R&D
R&D increased $91.0 million primarily reflecting a full year of WMS R&D (as compared to 74 days in 2013), which accounted for $74.1 million of the increase, as well as $13.0 million attributable to Bally R&D for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014.
Employee Termination and Restructuring
Employee termination and restructuring costs increased $8.0 million to $30.7 million, and were comprised of $11.8 million related to WMS integration activities, $1.6 million related to the exit of an agreement following the Bally acquisition, $13.8 million related to other employee termination charges following the Bally acquisition (of which $9.2 million related to Gaming and Interactive and $4.6 million related to Lottery and corporate), $1.6 million related to the exit from our instant game operations in Mexico and the exit from our paper roll conversion operations in the U.S., as well as $1.9 million of corporate costs unrelated to the Bally acquisition. We discuss these charges in more detail in Note 4 (Employee Termination and Restructuring Plans).
D&A
D&A increased $251.9 million, of which $201.8 million was attributable to WMS, reflecting a full year of results (as compared to 74 days in 2013) as well as $27.7 million of long-term asset impairments and write-downs following the Bally acquisition. The increase in D&A also included $37.0 million attributable to Bally for the 40-day post-acquisition period in 2014. Excluding the increase related to the WMS and Bally acquisitions, D&A reflected higher amortization of capitalized internally developed software assets and $4.2 million related to impairments of lottery contracts, partially offset by accelerated D&A recorded in the prior year for the write-down of used gaming machines and a change in the estimated useful lives of certain gaming machines.

58


Other Income and Expense
Interest expense increased $187.7 million due primarily to the additional indebtedness that we incurred to finance the Bally acquisition. The increase also reflected a $64.7 million debt fee incurred in connection with the Bally acquisition financing. This increase in interest expense was slightly offset by a reduction in interest expense as a result of the refinancing of the 2019 Notes with the 2021 Notes in June 2014. For additional information regarding our indebtedness, see Note 15 (Long-Term and Other Debt).
Earnings (loss) from equity investments declined $9.1 million primarily due to the $19.7 million non-cash impairment charge to write down our Northstar Illinois equity investment and the $11.1 million charge we recorded related to our share of shortfall payments accrued by Northstar Illinois. This charge was partially offset by higher earnings (loss) from equity investments in ITL of $14.7 million and the commencement of operations of the Hellenic Lotteries in May 2014. For additional information regarding our equity investments, see Note 11 (Equity Investments).
We recorded a loss on early extinguishment of debt of $25.9 million related to the tender and redemption premiums and the write-off of deferred financing costs in connection with the refinancing of our 2019 Notes in June 2014.
In January 2014, we completed the sale of our 20% equity interest in Sportech for cash proceeds of £27.8 million, or $44.9 million, resulting in a gain of approximately £9 million, or $14.5 million.
Income Tax Benefit
We recorded an income tax benefit of $260.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to an income tax benefit of $117.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The effective income tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 were 52.6% and 82.1% respectively. After considering the net deferred tax liabilities assumed as a result of the Bally acquisition, we recorded a net release of the valuation allowance related to our net U.S. deferred tax assets in the amount of $79.1 million.
Our 2014 effective income tax rate on foreign earnings was impacted by the mix of income and the statutory tax rates in our foreign jurisdictions, which ranged from a low of 0% to a high of 35%. The foreign jurisdictions that had the most impact on our foreign income tax benefit in 2014 included Austria, Bermuda, Canada, Ireland, Mexico and the U.K.
See "--Business Segment Results" below for a more detailed explanation of the significant changes in our components of revenue within the individual segment results of operations.
BUSINESS SEGMENTS RESULTS
GAMING
Our Gaming business segment designs, develops, manufactures, markets and distributes a comprehensive portfolio of Gaming products and services. We provide our Gaming portfolio of products and services to commercial casinos, Native American casinos, wide-area gaming operators such as LBOs, arcade and bingo operators in the U.K. and continental Europe, and government agencies and their affiliated operators. Our equity investments in RCN and ITL are part of our Gaming business segment. Our equity investment in Sportech was included in our Gaming segment until its sale in January 2014.
We generate gaming revenue from services and product sales. Our services revenue includes lease revenue earned from WAP, premium and daily-fee Participation gaming machines, other leased gaming machines (including VLTs and electronic table games), leased table products and services (including Shufflers), casino management technology solutions and systems, proprietary table game licensing and other services revenues. Our product sales revenues include the sale of new and used gaming machines, electronic table games and VLTs, casino-management technology solutions and systems, table products, conversion kits (including game, hardware or operating system conversions) and spare parts.
In 2016, we anticipate that replacement demand for gaming machines and constraints on capital spending by gaming operators will continue at current levels. We expect gaming machine demand to continue to be negatively impacted by the continued consolidation of casino and other gaming operators. We believe that import restrictions will continue to impede our ability to satisfy demand for our products in certain foreign jurisdictions. We also expect to continue to face increased competition in our Gaming segment due to pricing pressures. However, we anticipate that the demand for gaming machines related to new casino openings and expansions will increase from 2015.

Current Year Update

Our Gaming revenue increased during the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the prior-year period, primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of Bally revenue (as compared to 40 days in 2014), which was partially offset by a decrease in

59


revenue from our legacy Gaming business. We believe that challenging market conditions in the gaming industry adversely impacted our Gaming results for 2015 and could continue to negatively impact our results of operations. These challenges included: (1) abated demand for our existing Blade and Equinox dual screen video cabinets, which we believe resulted from customers’ knowledge of our intention to launch new dual screen video cabinets in the second half of 2015; (2) lower demand for VLTs in Illinois as fewer new locations were licensed by the gaming regulatory agency; (3) fewer new casino openings and expansions than in the prior year, resulting in lower demand for new gaming machines; (4) restrained investment in new gaming machines and table products by our existing customers; (5) increased competition resulting in pricing pressures which negatively impacted our revenue from shipments of new gaming machines and our gaming operations business; (6) continuing government actions in Argentina, which limited our ability and our customers' ability to import certain of our products for sale in Argentina; (7) political and economic conditions in Greece, resulting in a delay in the deployment of our VLTs; (8) delay of certain identified systems installation projects due to customer capital spending constraints; and (9) other economic and regulatory pressures that affect our business operations globally.

Due in large part to the challenging market conditions impacting the gaming industry described above, we recorded a $935.0 million non-cash impairment charge with no tax benefit to reduce the carrying amount of our SG gaming reporting unit goodwill to its implied fair value. This impairment charge reflects a $400.0 million revision to the $535.0 million charge previously disclosed in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2015 and is included in Goodwill impairments in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the year ended December 31, 2015. Refer to Note 9 (Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill) and Note 25 (Selected Quarterly Financial Data, Unaudited) for additional information on this impairment charge.
During 2015 and in conjunction with our introduction of a new SG-branded gaming cabinet, we determined that circumstances no longer continued to support an indefinite useful life for certain of our indefinite-lived trade name assets in our Gaming business segment. We performed a quantitative impairment test for our SG gaming related trade name assets and recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $128.6 million, with a tax benefit of $48.3 million, based on the estimated fair value of the trade name assets. The impairment is included in D&A in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the year ended December 31, 2015.

In March 2015, we signed a contract to provide OPAP with 5,000 VLTs pursuant to OPAP's ten-year license to operate a network of 16,500 VLTs across Greece. While deployment was expected to begin in the second quarter of 2015 and conclude by the end of 2015, political and economic issues in Greece have delayed the launch of the VLTs and placements may not begin until mid-2016, at the earliest.
In April 2015, the U.K. government implemented new regulations for fixed odds betting terminals, also known as B2 gaming terminals, which are typically located in LBOs. These new regulations affect players who bet more than £50 per play and, among other things, require such players to have registered player accounts or to fund their accounts at the counter rather than the betting terminal. We believe that these changes have negatively impacted our U.K. customers’ businesses and, therefore, our U.K. gaming business. The U.K. government is currently in the process of reviewing the effect of the new regulations as part of its 2016 triennial review of stakes and prizes for all gaming terminals, which may lead to additional regulations. Any changes to stakes and prizes could negatively impact our customers or our U.K. gaming business.

In May 2015, we signed a contract to provide Penn National Gaming, Inc. ("Penn National") with a broad suite of our systems and game solutions, including providing more than 400 new gaming machines at its Plainridge Park Casino. The casino opened during the second quarter of 2015.
In June 2015, we signed a contract to provide the Oregon Lottery with at least 2,000 VLTs. We began the deployment of the VLTs during the third quarter of 2015 and shipped 145 and 884 new units in the third and fourth quarters of 2015, respectively.
In June 2015, we signed a contract to place 3,000 self-service sports betting terminals in Ladbrokes shops in the U.K. and Ireland and to provide service for these terminals for two and a half years. We deployed approximately 2,300 and 1,300 terminals during the third and fourth quarters of 2015, respectively.
In July 2015, two of the largest betting shop operators in the U.K., Ladbrokes and Gala Coral, announced that they intend to merge.  The CMA is currently reviewing the proposed merger and may require that these operators divest a certain number of betting shops prior to consummating the contemplated transaction. As these two operators are the largest customers of our U.K. gaming business, a merger and/or any asset divestitures could negatively impact our business. However, at this time we cannot predict the extent to which we would be impacted, if at all, by any of the foregoing.

During the third quarter of 2015, we introduced both our new TwinStar dual-screen video gaming cabinet with its next-generation ArgOSTM operating system and new game content and our new Dualos dual screen video gaming cabinet with new

60


game content in Australia. We shipped our first 257 new TwinStar gaming cabinets in December 2015 following receipt of the required regulatory approvals. We shipped 385 and 562 new Dualos gaming cabinets in the third and fourth quarters of 2015, respectively.
In October 2015, we signed an enterprise-wide agreement with the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission to deploy a suite of Bally gaming system solutions connecting more than 14,000 gaming machines in 28 casino properties across the province.
Results of Operations and Key Performance Indicators for Gaming
All results for 2015 referenced below reflect the results of operations of Bally and WMS for the full period. All results for 2014 referenced below reflect the results of operations of Bally for the 40 days following the November 21, 2014 closing of the Bally acquisition and the results of operations of WMS for the full period. All results for 2013 referenced below reflect the results of operations of WMS for the 74 days following the October 18, 2013 closing of the WMS acquisition and exclude the results of operations of Bally.
(in millions)
 
Years ended December 31,
 
Variance
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015 vs 2014
 
2014 vs 2013
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Services
 
$
956.3

 
$
442.6

 
$
181.8

 
$
513.7

 
116
 %
 
$
260.8

 
143
%
Product sales
 
817.3

 
363.8

 
88.7

 
453.5

 
125
 %
 
275.1

 
310
%
Total revenue
 
1,773.6

 
806.4

 
270.5

 
967.2

 
120
 %
 
535.9

 
198
%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services (1)
 
190.1

 
111.0

 
77.9

 
79.1

 
71
 %
 
33.1

 
42
%
Cost of product sales (1)
 
370.2

 
195.5

 
56.4

 
174.7

 
89
 %
 
139.1

 
247
%
   Selling, general and administrative
 
285.1

 
235.3

 
87.1

 
49.8

 
21
 %
 
148.2

 
170
%
Research and development
 
154.9

 
98.7

 
17.4

 
56.2

 
57
 %
 
81.3

 
467
%
Employee termination and restructuring
 
11.2

 
15.5

 
6.7

 
(4.3
)
 
(28
)%
 
8.8

 
131
%
Depreciation and amortization
 
728.6

 
318.7

 
103.9

 
409.9

 
129
 %
 
214.8

 
207
%
Goodwill impairment
 
935.0

 

 

 
935.0

 
n/m

 

 

Operating loss
 
$
(901.5
)
 
$
(168.3
)
 
$
(78.9
)
 
$
(733.2
)
 
436
 %
 
$
(89.4
)
 
113
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) from equity investments
 
$
3.5

 
$
3.3

 
$
(12.1
)
 
$
0.2

 
6
 %
 
$
15.4

 
n/m

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(1)
Exclusive of D&A.
n/m - not meaningful


61


(in millions, except for unit and per unit revenue information)
 
Years ended December 31,
 
Variance
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015 vs 2014
 
2014 vs 2013
Key Performance Indicators:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WAP, premium and daily fee Participation units:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Installed base at period end
 
22,252

 
23,554

 
9,140

 
(1,302
)
 
(6
)%
 
14,414

 
158
%
Average installed base
 
22,720

 
10,024

 
9,094

 
12,696

 
127
 %
 
930

 
10
%
Average daily revenue per unit
 
$
55.21

 
$
68.25

 
$
66.67

 
$
(13.04
)
 
(19
)%
 
$
1.58

 
2
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Participation and leased units:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 


 


 


Installed base at period end
 
47,949

 
45,867

 
29,289

 
2,082

 
5
 %
 
16,578

 
57
%
Average installed base
 
45,791

 
29,893

 
26,783

 
15,898

 
53
 %
 
3,110

 
12
%
Average daily revenue per unit
 
$
15.78

 
$
12.95

 
$
11.62

 
$
2.83

 
22
 %
 
$
1.33

 
11
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaming machine sales:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. and Canadian new unit shipments
 
17,417

 
10,573

 
2,243

 
6,844

 
65
 %
 
8,330

 
371
%
International new unit shipments
 
11,365

 
6,439

 
2,845

 
4,926

 
77
 %
 
3,594

 
126
%
Total new unit shipments
 
28,782

 
17,012

 
5,088

 
11,770