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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K  
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
 OR  
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 Commission file number: 1-14443
GARTNER, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)  
Delaware04-3099750
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
P.O. Box 10212
56 Top Gallant Road
Stamford,
Connecticut06902-7700
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 964-0096
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0005 par value per shareITNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $26.8 billion, based on the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of February 2, 2024, there were 77,967,884 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the 2024 Proxy Statement) is incorporated by reference into Part III to the extent described therein.



































GARTNER, INC.
2023 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  
   
  
   
  
   
  

2


PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

GENERAL

Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight that drives smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission-critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for close to 15,000 enterprises in approximately 90 countries and territories— across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.

The fiscal year of Gartner is the twelve-month period from January 1 through December 31. All references to 2023, 2022 and 2021 herein refer to the fiscal year unless otherwise indicated. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

MARKET OVERVIEW
Enterprise leaders face enormous pressure to stay ahead and grow profitably amidst constant changes. Whether it is a digital transformation, a global health crisis, large-scale regulatory changes, or other unique challenges, business leaders today are facing significant disruptive changes. We believe that enterprises cannot be operationally effective unless they incorporate the right strategy, management and technology decisions into every part of their business. This requirement affects all business levels, functions and roles. Executives and their teams turn to Gartner for decision-making and execution guidance to achieve their mission-critical priorities.

OUR SOLUTION
We believe our combination of expert-led, practitioner-sourced and data-driven research steers clients toward the right decisions and actions on the issues that matter most. Organizations are overrun with data and information. Gartner helps eliminate this information chaos and provides clarity with actionable, objective insight. We employ a diversified business model that utilizes and leverages the breadth and depth of our differentiated intellectual capital. The foundation of our business model is our ability to create and distribute our proprietary research content as broadly as possible via published reports, interactive tools, facilitated peer networking, briefings and direct communications with executives and their teams; our conferences, including the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series; and consulting and advisory services.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Our diversified business model provides multiple entry points and sources of value for our clients that lead to increased client spending on our research and advisory services, conferences and consulting services. A critical part of our long-term strategy is to increase business volume and penetration with our most valuable clients, identifying relationships with the greatest sales potential and expanding those relationships by offering strategically relevant research and insight. We also seek to extend the Gartner brand name to develop new client relationships, augment our sales capacity and expand into new markets around the world. These initiatives have created additional revenue streams through more effective packaging, campaigning and cross-selling of our products and services. In addition, we seek to increase our revenue and operating cash flow through more effective pricing of our products and services.
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Our principal products and services are delivered through our three business segments, as described below.

RESEARCH. Gartner delivers independent, objective insight to leaders across an enterprise through subscription services that include on-demand access to published research content, data and benchmarks, and direct access to a network of approximately 2,500 research experts located around the globe. Gartner research is the fundamental building block for all Gartner products and services. We combine our proprietary research methodologies with extensive industry and academic relationships to create Gartner products and services that address each role across an enterprise. Within the Research segment, Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) sells products and services to users and providers of technology, while Global Business Sales (“GBS”) sells products and services to all other functional leaders, such as human resources, supply chain, finance, and marketing.

Our research agenda is defined by clients’ needs, focusing on the critical issues, opportunities and challenges they face every day. We are in steady contact with close to 15,000 distinct client enterprises worldwide. We publish tens of thousands of pages of original research annually, and our research experts had more than 490,000 direct client interactions in 2023. Our size and scale enable us to commit vast resources toward broader and deeper research coverage and to deliver insight to our clients based on what they need and where they are. The ongoing interaction of our research experts with our clients enables us to identify the most pertinent topics to them and develop relevant product and service enhancements to meet the evolving needs of users of our research. Our proprietary research content, presented in the form of reports, briefings, updates and related tools, is delivered directly to the client’s computer or mobile device via our website and/or product-specific portals.

Clients normally sign subscription contracts that provide access to our research content and advisory services for individual users over a defined period. We typically have a minimum contract period of twelve months for our research and advisory subscription contracts and, at December 31, 2023, over 70% of our contracts were multi-year.

CONFERENCES. Gartner conferences are designed for information technology (IT”) and business executives as well as decision makers looking to adapt and evolve their organizations through disruption and uncertainty, navigate risks and prioritize investments. Attendees experience sessions led by Gartner research experts, and the sessions include cutting-edge technology solutions, peer exchange workshops, one-on-one analyst and advisor meetings, consulting diagnostic workshops, keynotes and more. Our conferences also provide attendees with an opportunity to interact with IT and business executives from the world’s leading companies. In addition to role-specific summits and workshop-style seminars, Gartner hosts the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, including its unique, flagship IT Symposium/Xpo®, which is held at several locations worldwide annually. During 2023, Gartner successfully held 47 in-person conferences with more than 75,500 attendees, including eight Symposiums/Xpos. In addition, during 2023 we hosted 300+ peer networking meetings, and through the Evanta brand we hosted 350+ exclusive C-level meetings with more than 200 in-person.

CONSULTING. Through its experienced consultants, Gartner Consulting serves chief information officers and other senior executives who are driving technology-related strategic initiatives to optimize technology investments and drive business impact. Gartner Consulting combines the power of Gartner’s market-leading research with custom analysis and on-the-ground support to help clients to turn insight and advice into action and impact.

Consulting solutions capitalize on Gartner assets that are invaluable to IT decision-making, including: (1) our extensive research, which ensures that our consulting analyses and advice are based on a deep understanding of the IT environment and the business of IT; (2) our market independence, which keeps our consultants focused on our clients’ success; and (3) our market-leading benchmarking capabilities, which provide relevant comparisons and best practices to assess and improve performance. Additionally, we provide actionable solutions for a range of IT-related priorities, including IT cost optimization, digital transformation and IT sourcing optimization.

COMPETITION

We believe that the principal factors that differentiate us from our competitors are as follows:

Superior research content - We believe that we create the broadest, highest-quality and most relevant research coverage across all major functional roles in an enterprise. Our independent operating model and research analysis generates unbiased insight that we believe is timely, thought-provoking and comprehensive, and that is known for its high quality, independence and objectivity.

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Our leading brand name - We have provided critical, trusted insight under the Gartner name for more than 40 years.

Our global footprint and established customer base - We have a global presence with clients in approximately 90 countries and territories on six continents. A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sales outside of the United States.

Insight that creates connections - Our global community of experts, analysts and peers help provide the deep relationships that help clients stay ahead of the curve.

Experienced management team - Our management team is comprised of research veterans and experienced industry executives with long tenure at Gartner.

Substantial operating leverage in our business model - We can distribute our intellectual property and expertise across multiple platforms, including research and advisory subscription and membership programs, conferences and consulting engagements, to derive incremental revenue and profitability.

Vast network of research experts and consultants - As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 2,500 research experts and 950 experienced consultants located around the world. Our research experts are located in more than 30 countries and territories, enabling us to cover vast aspects of business and technology on a global basis.

Notwithstanding these differentiating factors, we face competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services. We compete indirectly with consulting firms and other data and information providers, including electronic and print media companies. These indirect competitors could choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, we face competition from free sources of information that are available to our clients through the internet. Limited barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. While we believe the breadth and depth of our research positions us well versus our competition, increased competition could result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing, and increased sales and marketing expenditures.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Our success has resulted in part from proprietary methodologies, software, reusable knowledge capital and other intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. We have policies related to confidentiality, ownership, and the use and protection of Gartner’s intellectual property. We also enter into agreements with our employees and third parties as appropriate that protect our intellectual property, and we enforce these agreements if necessary. We recognize the value of our intellectual property in the marketplace and vigorously identify, create and protect it. Additionally, we actively monitor and enforce contract compliance by our end users.

HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

We believe our people are our most valuable asset, enabling our sustained track record of growth. From attracting diverse talent through our recruitment process, to cultivating that talent with learning and development opportunities and rewards for strong performers, to supporting overall wellness with meaningful benefits and engagement, we strive to put our people first. At December 31, 2023, we had 20,237 employees globally, 9,514 of which were outside of the U.S., and the overwhelming majority of our employees were full time.

Gartner is committed to providing equal employment opportunities to all applicants and employees without regard to any legally protected status. This commitment is formalized in our global and U.S. equal employment opportunity policies. We continually renew this commitment by seeking to optimize our recruitment and professional development processes, create networking and educational opportunities, celebrate heritage and history, celebrate community service, and create safe spaces for all employees. Our human capital management strategies are developed by executive management and overseen by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

Gartner is committed to creating a culture of inclusion - which is critical to the objectivity and independence we provide our clients. We celebrate diversity of thought and we welcome and encourage diverse perspectives. We embed Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) concepts into our culture and our critical people processes. Our vision is to help build a high-performing organization with a culture of equity and inclusion, enabling Gartner to guide the leaders who shape the world. Our DEI
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Executive Council, composed of our CEO, Chief Human Resources Officer, CFO, General Counsel, head of DEI, and other selected leaders, drives diversity, equity and inclusion as an imperative at all levels of the organization. In addition, the DEI Center of Excellence operationalizes strategy and establishes goals against key metrics to drive greater transparency and accountability. Our teams of employees are composed of individuals from different geographies, cultures, religions, ethnicities, races, genders, sexual orientations, abilities and generations working together to solve problems. Currently, 33% of our Board of Directors and 23% of our executive management team identifies as female, and 25% of our Board of Directors identifies as racially or ethnically diverse. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 47% of our employees worldwide identified as female and 24% of employees in the U.S. identified as racially or ethnically diverse. Our employees work in 39 different countries and territories. As we continue to invest in employee self-identification and reporting efforts, we determined our employees were represented by more than 130 self-identified nationalities.

We emphasize the importance of inclusion to leaders and managers and the value of fostering a sense of belonging within their teams. We continue to invest in learning opportunities to develop DEI at Gartner through training modules on important topics such as bias, empathy, equity, equality and individual identity. Our learning resources provide Gartner associates with awareness and clarity of expectations, equip managers with knowledge and skills to lead inclusively and support team effectiveness, inclusion and belonging.

The Company supports a number of employee-driven Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) that bring employees together to foster a diverse, inclusive and supportive workplace. Gartner currently has seven formal ERGs supporting underrepresented racial, ethnic and multicultural backgrounds, women, the LGBTQ+ community, veterans, and people with disabilities. Participation in ERGs is voluntary and open to all employees. In 2023, over 6,000 Gartner associates were members of at least one ERG.

Total Rewards

We seek to invest in meaningful, innovative and inclusive compensation and benefit programs that support physical, financial and emotional well-being of our employees. In addition to salaries, these programs (which vary by country/region) include annual bonuses, stock awards, an employee stock purchase plan, 401(k) matching, healthcare and insurance benefits, tax savings programs, such as health and dependent care flexible spending accounts, health savings account and pretax commuter benefits, generous paid time off, paid parental leave, life and disability insurance, business travel accident insurance, charity matching, employee assistance programs, tuition assistance and on-site services, such as fitness centers, among others.

We also provide a number of free mental and behavioral health resources, including access to the Employee Assistance Program for employees and their dependents. We believe our total rewards programs facilitate associate retention and also encourage high performance.

Talent Development, Retention and Training

Gartner aims to foster a culture of lifelong learning, getting feedback and evolving. In addition to helping employees unlock their full potential through mechanisms like continuous feedback and performance appraisals, we have dedicated programs designed to develop effective leaders. We also offer rotational programs and an online learning experience platform for employees called GartnerYou. In 2023, GartnerYou offered approximately 39,000 learning resources, with over 375,000 completions globally. Since our Sales and Research & Advisory teams make up approximately 45% of total employees worldwide, we also have formal, dedicated programs to help train and onboard new hires as well as more experienced managers and leaders within Sales and Research & Advisory. In 2023, Gartner continued to transform and refine how we onboard new sales associates, so they more quickly develop the core competencies tied to sales success. Rooted in learning and development best practices, the refined training program operates in a scalable model that provides new sales associates in their first year with access to approximately 2,800 well-paced, just-in-time learning assets. In 2023 more than 6,500 sales associates participated. Through these programs, we believe our teams develop role-specific knowledge and skills, increase productivity and improve performance.

We also strive to develop an inclusive and engaging environment that makes Gartner a vibrant, exciting place to work. We believe the greatest catalyst to engagement comes from leadership — particularly their efforts to set direction, allocate resources, and build individual and organizational capability. We embed our associate survey efforts across the enterprise so that the insight we glean can help leaders at various levels understand the opportunities for effecting organizational growth. Survey results are used for a number of enterprise-wide and business-unit-specific initiatives targeting key areas of engagement and retention, such as leadership effectiveness, career development, business process improvement, and more. In 2023, associate turnover continued to decrease as compared with the prior year. Our average tenure increased slightly from 4.5 years
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in 2022 to 5.0 years, primarily due to a decrease in associate turnover and a heavy focus on growth through Gartner internal mobility initiatives.

Our Communities and the Environment

Our associates have a long history of individual and team volunteering. Gartner facilitates a charity match program. In 2023, over 17% of associates made matched donations to more than 4,100 nonprofits, amounting to over $7.6 million donated by Gartner and its associates. In 2023, Gartner associates also logged approximately 15,000 volunteer hours supporting communities around the world. Finally, in 2023, the Science Based Targets initiative validated our near-term emissions targets. Gartner's commitment is to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035 in accordance with the Science Based Targets initiative’s Net-Zero Standard. We provide associates an opportunity to engage on environmental sustainability topics and help advance our Net-Zero strategy through the Gartner Green Team, a voluntary, associate-driven group. In 2023, the Green Team had over 750 members. Additionally, we introduced a sustainability training module available to all associates interested in learning more about Gartner’s sustainability efforts.

We encourage you to review our Corporate Responsibility Report located on our website at gartner.com, under the “Corporate Responsibility” link in the “About” tab for more detailed information regarding our Human Capital programs and initiatives. Nothing on our website, including our Corporate Responsibility Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, or any other filing we make with the SEC.

GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS

Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our products and services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our internet address is gartner.com and the Investor Relations section of our website is at investor.gartner.com. We make available free of charge, on or through the Investor Relations section of our website, printable copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Unless expressly noted, the information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this Form 10-K or any other filing we make with the SEC.

Also available at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link, are printable and current copies of our: (i) CEO and CFO Code of Ethics, which applies to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Controller and other financial managers; (ii) Global Code of Conduct, which applies to all Gartner officers, directors and employees, wherever located; (iii) Principles and Practices of the Board of Directors of Gartner, Inc., the corporate governance principles that have been adopted by our Board; and (iv) charters for each of the Board’s standing committees: Audit, Compensation and Governance/Nominating. We will disclose any waiver we grant to an executive officer or director under our Code of Ethics, or certain amendments to the Code of Ethics, on our website at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, we and our clients are affected by global economic conditions and trends. The following sections address significant factors, events and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky. We urge you to consider carefully the factors described below and the risks that they present for our operations, as well as the risks addressed in other reports and materials that we file with the SEC and the other information, included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. When the factors, events and contingencies described below or elsewhere in this Form 10-K materialize, there could be a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows, and therefore have a potential negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we now deem immaterial may also harm us and negatively affect your investment. In addition to the effects of the global economic and geopolitical climate on our business and operations discussed in Item 7 of this Form 10-K and in the risk factors below, additional or unforeseen effects from the global economic and geopolitical climate may give
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rise to or amplify many of these risks discussed below. Risks in this section are grouped in the following categories: (1) strategic and operational risks; (2) macroeconomic and industry risks; and (3) legal and regulatory risks. Many risks affect more than one category, and the risks are not in order of significance or probability of occurrence because they have been grouped by categories.

Strategic and Operational Risks

We may not be able to maintain the quality of our existing products and services. We operate in a rapidly evolving market, and our success depends on our ability to deliver high quality and timely research and analysis to our clients. Any failure to continue to provide credible and reliable information and insight that is useful to our clients could have a material adverse effect on future business and operating results. Further, if our published data, opinions or viewpoints are considered to be wrong, lack independence, or are not substantiated by appropriate research, our reputation will suffer and demand for our products and services may decline. In addition, we must continue to improve our methods for delivering our products and services in a cost-effective manner via the internet and mobile applications in an inflationary economic environment. Failure to maintain state of the art electronic delivery capabilities could materially adversely affect our future business and operating results.

We may not be able to enhance and develop our existing products and services or introduce the new products and services that are needed to remain competitive. The market for our products and services is characterized by rapidly changing needs for information and analysis. The development of new products is a complex and time-consuming process. Nonetheless, to maintain our competitive position, we must continue to anticipate the needs of our clients, develop, enhance, protect, and improve our existing products, as well as new products and services to address those needs, deliver all products and services in a timely, user-friendly and state of the art manner, and appropriately position and price new products and services relative to the marketplace and our costs of developing them. Any failure to achieve successful client acceptance of new products and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, significant delays in new product or service releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position.

Technology is rapidly evolving, and if we do not continue to develop new product and service offerings in response to these changes, our business could suffer. Disruptive technologies, including in areas of artificial intelligence (“AI”) and machine learning, are rapidly changing the environment in which we, our clients, and our competitors operate and could affect the nature of how we generate revenue. We will need to continue to respond to and anticipate these changes by enhancing our product and service offerings to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not be successful in responding to these forces and enhancing our product and service offerings on a timely basis or in a cost-efficient manner, and any enhancements we develop may not adequately address the changing needs of our clients. Our future success will depend upon our ability to develop and introduce in a timely manner new or enhance existing offerings that address the changing needs of this constantly evolving marketplace. Failure to develop products that meet the needs of our clients in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

In addition, some of our content is exposed to Internet search engines, which help generate website traffic. Search engines often update their proprietary algorithms, which affects the placement of links to our websites. Some search engines also provide substantive content in search results, which, if expanded to the areas in which we operate, could reduce the need to enter our websites. When a major search engine changes its algorithms in a manner that negatively affects our placement in search results or makes it less likely for our target audience to enter our websites, our business, results of operations and financial position may be harmed. Similarly, some of our content is exposed to the datasets leveraged by AI chatbots, and these chatbots may provide substantive content, either with or without contribution, in query responses to users which could reduce the need to enter our websites.

Uncertainty in the development, deployment, and use of AI in our platform and products and by our customers and competitors may result in harm to our business and reputation. We use, and may expand our use of, machine learning and AI technologies in some of our products, services, and processes. Developing, testing, and deploying AI systems will require additional investment and increase our costs. If we fail to keep pace with rapidly evolving AI technological developments, our competitive position and business results may be negatively impacted. Moreover, the development, adoption, and use of generative AI technologies are still in their early stages, and ineffective or inadequate AI development or deployment practices by Gartner or third-party developers or vendors could result in unintended consequences. For example, AI algorithms that we use may be flawed or may be based on datasets that are biased or insufficient. Third parties may also be able to use AI to create technology that could reduce demand for our products. Although prohibited, clients or others may load our proprietary information into large language models, which could reduce the value of our offerings. In addition, the introduction of AI technologies, particularly generative AI, into new or existing offerings may result in new or expanded risks and liabilities, due to enhanced
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governmental or regulatory scrutiny, litigation, compliance issues, ethical concerns, confidentiality, data privacy or security risks, as well as other factors that could adversely affect our business, reputation, and financial results.

Our Research business depends on renewals of subscription-based services and sales of new subscription-based services for a significant portion of our revenue, and our failure to renew at historical rates or generate new sales of such services will lead to a decrease in our revenues. A large portion of our success depends on our ability to generate renewals of our subscription-based research products and services and new sales of such products and services, both to new clients and existing clients. These products and services constituted approximately 76% of total revenues from our operations for both 2023 and 2022. Generating new sales of our subscription-based products and services, both to new and existing clients, is a challenging, costly, and often time-consuming process. If we are unable to generate new sales, due to competition or other factors, our revenues will be adversely affected.

Our research subscription contracts are typically for twelve months or longer. Our ability to maintain contract renewals is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering high-quality and timely analysis and insight to our clients;

understanding and anticipating market trends and the changing needs of our clients; and

providing products and services of the quality and timeliness necessary to withstand competition.

Additionally, as we continue to adjust our products and service offerings to meet our clients’ continuing needs, we may shift the type and pricing of our products which may impact client renewal rates. While our Research client retention rate was 84% and 86.3% for 2023 and 2022, respectively, there can be no guarantee that we will continue to maintain this rate of client renewals.

The profitability and success of our conferences and other meetings are subject to external factors beyond our control. The market for desirable dates and locations for our activities has historically been highly competitive. If we cannot secure desirable dates and suitable venues for our conferences the profitability for these conferences will suffer, and our financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, because our conferences are scheduled in advance and held at specific locations, the success of these activities can be affected by circumstances outside of our control, such as the occurrence of or concerns related to communicable diseases (such as COVID-19), labor strikes, transportation shutdowns and travel restrictions, economic slowdowns, reductions in government spending, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, war, weather, natural disasters, and other occurrences impacting the global, regional, or national economies, the occurrence of any of which could negatively impact the success of the conference or meeting. We also face the challenge of procuring venues that are sizeable enough at a reasonable cost to accommodate some of our major activities.

We also face risks related to insurance coverage for our cancelled 2020 and 2021 conferences. Our event cancellation insurance included a two-year policy covering destination conferences during 2020 and 2021 and a policy covering Evanta conferences during 2020. This insurance included coverage for cancellations due to communicable diseases and enabled us to receive an amount up to the lost contribution margin per conference plus incurred expenses, as more specifically set forth in the policies’ provisions for calculating the amount of recoverable loss, and subject to the policies’ limits of liability. These policies provided up to $170 million in coverage for 2020 cancellations with the right to reinstate the policy limits for the payment of additional premium if those limits are utilized, for a maximum recovery of $340 million. The insurer has accepted and paid claims on the initial $170 million of 2020 coverage. However, the insurer has contested our right to reinstate the limits and use the reinstated limits to cover additional losses resulting from 2020 conferences cancelled due to COVID-19. Gartner's two-year event cancellation policy also covered events that were planned for 2021 but cancelled, with limits of $150 million with the right to reinstate up to that amount if the initial limits are inadequate to cover the loss. The insurer has contested all coverage for events that were planned for 2021 but were cancelled due to COVID-19, as well as Gartner’s right to reinstate the policy limits. Our insurance coverage for 2023 (and likely beyond) excludes coverage for cancellations due to communicable diseases. We are the plaintiff in litigation with the insurer and are seeking to reinstate the policy limits pursuant to the policies’ reinstatements of limits clause and recover up to an additional $170 million for events cancelled in 2020. Gartner is also seeking $150 million in initial limits for events cancelled in 2021 and to reinstate those limits up to an additional $150 million. We are also the plaintiff in litigation with the insurance broker that negotiated and procured our event cancellation insurance. Although document discovery in our cases against the insurer and insurance broker is continuing, we cannot predict how long it will take to resolve these lawsuits, whether we will be successful or the impact the resolution could have on our financial results.

Our Consulting business depends on non-recurring engagements and our failure to secure new engagements could lead to a decrease in our revenues. Consulting segment revenues constituted approximately 9% of total revenues from our on-going operations in both 2023 and 2022. Consulting engagements typically are project-based and non-recurring. In addition, revenue
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from our contract optimization business can fluctuate significantly from period to period and is not predictable. Our ability to replace consulting engagements is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering consistent, high-quality consulting services to our clients;

tailoring our consulting services to the changing needs of our clients; and

our ability to match the skills and competencies of our consulting staff to the skills required for the fulfillment of existing or potential consulting engagements.

A material decline in our ability to replace consulting engagements will have an adverse impact on our revenues and our financial condition.

We may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel which could jeopardize the quality of our products and services and our future growth plans. Our success is based on attracting and retaining talented employees and we depend heavily upon the quality of our senior management, research analysts, consultants, sales and other key personnel. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. We face competition for qualified professionals from, among others, technology companies, market research firms, consulting firms, financial services companies and electronic and print media companies, some of which have significant financial resources and a willingness to deploy those resources to attract and compensate these professionals. Moreover, increasing wage inflation may affect our profit margin as we strive to provide compensation packages that are competitive. We face risks related to global and industry-specific labor shortages, and competitive markets can increase attrition throughout our sector. Additionally, some of the personnel that we attempt to hire are subject to non-compete agreements that could impede our short-term recruitment efforts. Our employee hiring and retention also depend on our brand and reputation as well as our ability to build and maintain a diverse and inclusive workplace culture that enables our employees to thrive. We may also be limited in our ability to recruit internationally by restrictive domestic immigration laws, and changes to policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent could inhibit our ability to adequately staff our research and development and other efforts.

An inability to retain key personnel or to hire and train additional qualified personnel could materially adversely affect the quality of our products and services, as well as our future business and operating results. In addition, effective succession planning is important to our long-term success, and failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

If we are unable to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position may be harmed. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret, patent, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, third parties may obtain unauthorized access to our intellectual property, technology or other information that we regard as proprietary. Our intellectual property rights may not survive a legal challenge to their validity or provide significant protection for us. Additionally, the laws and enforcement mechanisms to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use in new technologies like AI and machine learning are evolving and may be inadequate. Further, the laws and enforcement mechanisms of certain countries, particularly in emerging markets, do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Conducting business in certain foreign jurisdictions may require accepting compromised protections or yielding of rights to technology, data or intellectual property in order to access those markets. Accordingly, we may not be able to protect our intellectual property against unauthorized or undesired third-party copying or use, which could adversely affect our competitive position.

From time to time third parties have asserted, and may continue to assert, intellectual property claims that our products infringe the rights of others. Such claims can be expensive and time-consuming to defend, regardless of their merit. The inability to obtain rights to use third-party intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms could also have an adverse impact on our business. We may face claims based on the theft or unauthorized use or disclosure of third-party trade secrets and other confidential business information. Any such incidents and claims could harm our business and reputation, cause us to incur significant expenses, and prevent us from selling certain products, all of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Additionally, our employees are subject to restrictive covenant agreements (which include provisions related to employees’ ability to compete and solicit customers and employees) and assignment of invention agreements, to the extent permitted under applicable law. When the period expires relating to their particular restrictions, former employees may compete against us. If a former employee violates the provisions of the restrictive covenant agreement, we seek to enforce the restrictions but there is no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts, and enforceability of certain restrictive covenants may decrease significantly
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due to recent regulatory scrutiny in the U.S. If the laws change to provide greater rights to employees, that could further reduce the effectiveness and enforceability of our restrictive covenant agreements.

Privacy concerns could damage our reputation and deter current and potential clients from using our products and services. Concerns relating to global data privacy have the potential to damage our reputation and deter current and prospective clients from using our products and services or attending our conferences. In the ordinary course of our business and in accordance with applicable laws, we collect personal information (i) from our employees, (ii) from the users of our products and services, including conference attendees, and (iii) from prospective clients. We collect only basic personal information from our clients and prospects. While we believe our overall data privacy procedures are adequate, the theft or loss of such data, or concerns about our practices, even if unfounded, with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of this personal information or other data protection related matters could damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our operating results. Any system or process failure, or compromise of our security that results in the disclosure of our users’ personal data, could seriously limit the consumption of our products and services and the attendance at our conferences, as well as harm our reputation and brand and, therefore, our business.

We are exposed to risks related to cybersecurity. A significant portion of our business is conducted over the internet and we rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information relating to our business operations and confidential and sensitive information about our customers and employees in our computer systems and networks, and in those of our third-party vendors. Individuals, groups, and state-sponsored organizations may take steps that pose threats to our operations, our computer systems, our employees, and our customers. The cybersecurity risks we face range from cyber attacks common to most industries, such as the development and deployment of malicious software to gain access to our networks and attempt to steal confidential information, launch distributed denial of service attacks, or attempt other coordinated disruptions, to more advanced threats that target us because of our prominence in the global research and advisory field.

Like many multinational corporations, we, and some third parties upon which we rely, have experienced cyber attacks on our computer systems and networks in the past and may experience them in the future, likely with more frequency and sophistication, and involving a broader range of devices and modes of attack, all of which will increase the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. To date, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business, operations, products, services or customers. We have implemented various security controls to meet our security obligations, while also defending against constantly evolving security threats. Our security controls help to secure our information systems, including our computer systems, intranet, proprietary websites, email and other telecommunications and data networks, and we scrutinize the security of outsourced website and service providers prior to retaining their services. However, the security measures implemented by us or by our outside service providers may not be effective and our systems (and those of our outside service providers) are vulnerable to theft, loss, damage and interruption from a number of potential sources and events, including unauthorized access or security breaches, cyber attacks, computer viruses, power loss, or other disruptive events. As a result of operating in a hybrid work environment, most of our employees are working virtually for a period of time, which magnifies the importance of the integrity of our remote access security measures.

Cyber criminals use artificial intelligence tools to increase the effectiveness, speed and complexity of attacks, requiring increased vigilance and threat defense. Additionally, the security compliance landscape continues to evolve, requiring us to stay apprised of changes in cybersecurity and data privacy laws, regulations, and security requirements required by our clients, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information Protection laws (and other new and proposed data protection laws), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recent well-publicized security breaches at other companies have led to enhanced government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber attacks, and may in the future result in heightened cybersecurity requirements, including additional regulatory expectations for oversight of vendors and service providers.

A cyber attack, widespread internet failure or internet access limitations, or disruption of our critical information technology systems through denial of service, viruses, or other events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt other critical client-facing or business processes or dislocate our critical internal functions. Additionally, any material breaches of cybersecurity or other technology-related catastrophe, or media reports of perceived security vulnerabilities to our systems or those of our third parties, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred, could cause us to experience reputational harm, loss of customers and revenue, fines, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard our customers’ information, or financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by us.

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Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may experience outages and disruptions of our online services if we fail to maintain an adequate operations infrastructure. Our increasing user traffic and complexity of our products and services demand more computing power. We have invested substantial amounts and expect to continue investing (as necessary) in access to data centers and equipment and in moving more of our workload into cloud services, upgrading our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic on our websites, and delivering our products and services through emerging channels, such as mobile applications. However, any inefficiencies or operational failures could diminish the quality of our products, services, and user experience, resulting in damage to our reputation and loss of current and potential users, subscribers, and advertisers, potentially harming our financial condition and operating results.

Our acquisitions, dispositions, and strategic investments, involve substantial risks. We have made and may continue to make acquisitions of, or significant investments in, businesses that offer complementary products and services or otherwise support our growth objectives. The risks involved in each acquisition or investment include the possibility of paying more than the value we derive from the acquisition, dilution of the interests of our current stockholders should we issue stock in the acquisition, decreased working capital, increased indebtedness, the assumption of undisclosed liabilities and unknown and unforeseen risks, the ability to retain key personnel of the acquired company, the inability to complete the transaction due to regulatory review, the inability to integrate the business of the acquired company, increase revenue or fully realize anticipated synergies, the time to train the sales force to market and sell the products of the acquired business, the potential disruption of our ongoing business and the distraction of management from our day to day business. Additionally, we face competition in identifying acquisition targets and consummating acquisitions. Our dispositions involve additional risks and uncertainties, such as ability to sell such businesses on satisfactory price and terms and in a timely manner, or at all, disruption to other parts of the businesses and distraction of management, allocation of internal resources that would otherwise be devoted to completing strategic acquisitions, loss of key employees or customers, and exposure to unanticipated liabilities or ongoing obligations to support the businesses following such dispositions, and other adverse financial impacts. The realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our business.

We face risks related to leased office space. We lease all the properties used for our ongoing business operations. In several locations, we have consolidated our operations and sublet substantially all the excess space. Through our real estate consolidations and other related activities, we seek to secure quality subtenants with appropriate sublease terms. However, if we fail to secure quality subtenants, or subtenants default on their sublease obligations with us or otherwise terminate their subleases with us, we may experience a loss of planned sublease rental income, which could result in a material charge against our operating results.

To accommodate our growth going forward, we have moved to a global hoteling model to better manage our footprint and operating expenses, and will secure new space when the opportunities and needs arise. If the new spaces are not completed on schedule, or if the landlord defaults on its commitments and obligations pursuant to the new leases, we may incur additional expenses. In addition, unanticipated difficulties in initiating operations in a new space, including construction delays, natural disasters, IT system interruptions, or other infrastructure support problems, could result in a delay in moving into the new space, resulting in a potential loss of employee and operational productivity and a loss of revenue and/or additional expenses, which could also have an adverse, material impact on our operating results.

Our sales to governments are subject to appropriations and some may be terminated early. We derive significant revenues from research and consulting contracts with the United States government and its respective agencies, numerous state and local governments and their respective agencies, and foreign governments and their agencies. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, approximately $1.0 billion and $932 million, respectively, of our outstanding revenue contracts were attributable to government entities. Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty (“termination for convenience”). In addition, contracts with U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign governments and their respective agencies are subject to increasingly complex bidding procedures and compliance requirements, as well as intense competition. Failure to adequately abide by these procedures and compliance requirements could result in an inability to contract with governments or their agencies, termination of existing contracts, or even suspension and disbarment from doing future business with a government or agency. Moreover, while terminations by governments for lack of funding have not been significant historically, should appropriations for the various governments and agencies that contract with us be curtailed, or should our government contracts be terminated for convenience, we may experience a significant loss of revenues.

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We may not be able to maintain the equity in our brand name. We believe that our “Gartner” brand, in particular our independence, is critical to our efforts to attract and retain clients and top talent, and that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition increases. We may also discover that our brand, though recognized, is not perceived to be relevant by new market segments we have targeted. We may expand our marketing activities to promote and strengthen the Gartner brand and may need to increase our marketing budget, hire additional marketing and public relations personnel, and expend additional sums to protect our brand and otherwise increase expenditures to create and maintain client brand loyalty. If we fail to effectively promote, maintain, and protect the Gartner brand, or incur excessive expenses in doing so, our future business and operating results could be materially adversely impacted.

Our outstanding debt obligations could negatively impact our financial condition and future operating results. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had outstanding debt of $274 million under its 2020 term loan and revolving credit facility (the “2020 Credit Agreement”), $800 million of Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes”), $600 million of Senior Notes due 2029 (the “2029 Notes”) and $800 million of Senior Notes due 2030 (the “2030 Notes”). Additional information regarding the 2020 Credit Agreement, the 2028 Notes, the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes is included in Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The debt service requirements of these borrowings could impair our future financial condition and operating results. In addition, the affirmative, negative and financial covenants of the 2020 Credit Agreement, as well as the covenants related to the Senior Notes, could limit our future financial flexibility. A failure to comply with these covenants could result in acceleration of all amounts outstanding, which could materially impact our financial condition unless accommodations could be negotiated with our lenders and noteholders. No assurance can be given that we would be successful in doing so, or that any accommodations that we were able to negotiate would be on terms as favorable as those currently in place. The outstanding debt may limit the amount of cash or additional credit available to us, which could restrain our ability to expand or enhance products and services, respond to competitive pressures or pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital.

We may require additional cash resources which may not be available on favorable terms or at all. We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions, implementation of our strategy and stock repurchase program, to repay indebtedness or to pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital, including acquisitions. If our existing financial resources are insufficient to satisfy our requirements, we may seek additional borrowings or issue debt. Prevailing credit and debt market conditions may negatively affect debt availability and cost, and, as a result, financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. In addition, the incurrence of additional indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financial covenants that would further restrict our operations.

Natural disasters, pandemics, terrorist acts, war, actions by governments, and other geopolitical activities could disrupt our operations. We operate in numerous U.S. and international locations, and we have offices in a number of major cities across the globe. The occurrence of, or concerns related to, a major weather event, earthquake, hurricane, flood, drought, volcanic activity, disease or pandemic, or other natural disaster could significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, acts of civil unrest, failure of critical infrastructure, terrorism, armed conflict (including in the Middle East), war (including the war in Ukraine), and abrupt political change, as well as responses by various governments and the international community to such acts, can have a negative effect on our business. Such events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt or shut down the internet or other critical client-facing and business processes, impede the travel of our personnel and clients, dislocate our critical internal functions and personnel, and in general harm our ability to conduct normal business operations, any of which can negatively impact our financial condition and operating results. Such events could also impact the timing and budget decisions of our clients, which could materially adversely affect our business.

Macroeconomic and Industry Risks

We are subject to risks from operating globally. We have clients in approximately 90 countries and territories and a substantial amount of our revenue is earned outside of the United States. Our operating results are subject to all of the risks typically inherent in international business activities, including general political and economic conditions in each country, challenges in staffing and managing foreign operations, changes in regulatory requirements, compliance with numerous and complex foreign laws and regulations, currency restrictions and fluctuations, the difficulty of enforcing client agreements, collecting accounts receivable and protecting intellectual property rights including against economic espionage in international jurisdictions. Further, we rely on local distributors or sales agents in some international locations. If any of these arrangements are terminated by our agent or us, we may not be able to replace the arrangement on beneficial terms or on a timely basis, or clients of the local distributor or sales agent may not want to continue to do business with us or our new agent. Additionally, tariffs, trade barriers
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and restrictions, and other acts by governments to protect domestic markets or to retaliate against the trade tariffs and restrictions of other nations could negatively affect our business operations.

Our operating results could be negatively impacted by global economic conditions. Our business is impacted by general economic conditions and trends in the United States and abroad, including without limitation inflation, slowing growth, rising interest rates and recession. In its recent report, Global Economics Prospects, January 2024, the World Bank reported that global growth is projected to slow to 2.4% in 2024—the third consecutive year of deceleration—reflecting the lagged and ongoing effects of tight monetary policies to rein in decades-high inflation, restrictive credit conditions, and anemic global trade and investment. The report also notes that downside risks to the outlook predominate. The recent conflict in the Middle East, coming on top of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, has heightened geopolitical risks. Conflict escalation could lead to surging energy prices, with broader implications for global activity and inflation. Other risks highlighted in the report include financial stress related to elevated real interest rates, persistent inflation, weaker-than-expected growth in China, further trade fragmentation, and climate change-related disasters. The World Bank predicts that global growth is expected to tick up to 2.7% in 2025. The World Bank notes that the expected growth rates for 2024 and 2025 would be far below the 3.1% average of the 2010s. A downturn in growth could negatively and materially affect future demand for our products and services in general, in certain geographic regions, in particular countries, or industry sectors, or could reduce demand for our in-person conferences. In addition, U.S. federal, state and local government spending limits may reduce demand for our products and services from those governmental agencies as well as organizations that receive funding from those agencies and could negatively affect macroeconomic conditions in the United States, which could further reduce demand for our products and services. Such difficulties could negatively impact our ability to maintain or improve the various business measurements we utilize (which are defined in this Annual Report), such as contract value and consulting backlog growth, client retention, wallet retention, consulting utilization rates, and the number of attendees and exhibitors at our conferences and other meetings. Failure to achieve acceptable levels of these indicators or improve them will negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We face significant competition and our failure to compete successfully could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. The markets for our products and services are characterized by intense competition and we face direct competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services, including information available on the internet free of charge. We also compete indirectly against consulting firms and other information providers, including electronic and print media companies, some of which have greater financial, information gathering and marketing resources than we do. These indirect competitors could also choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, low barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge, and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. Additionally, technological advances may provide increased competition from a variety of sources.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully compete against current and future competitors and our failure to do so will result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing and increased marketing expenditures. Furthermore, we will not be successful if we cannot compete effectively on quality of research and analysis, timely delivery of information, customer service, the ability to offer products to meet changing market needs for information and analysis, or price.

We are exposed to volatility in foreign currency exchange rates from our international operations. A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Revenues earned outside the United States are typically transacted in local currencies, which may fluctuate significantly against the U.S. dollar. While we use forward exchange contracts to a limited extent to seek to mitigate foreign currency risk, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected by unfavorable foreign currency fluctuations.

Our business could be negatively impacted by climate change. While we seek to mitigate the business risks associated with climate change for our operations, there are inherent climate-related risks wherever business is conducted. Access to clean water and reliable energy in the communities where we conduct our business, whether for our offices, clients, vendors or other stakeholders is a priority. We have large offices in Connecticut, Florida, India, the United Kingdom, Spain and Australia, and other locations that are vulnerable to climate change effects. Additionally, scarcity of fuel and/or rising green energy costs may increase our operations costs or affect client travel to our Conferences. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments, and the increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on critical infrastructure in the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business, the business of our vendors, and the business clients, and may cause us to experience higher attrition, losses and additional costs to maintain or resume operations.

Failure to achieve ESG commitments or meet stakeholder expectations in ESG could harm our reputation. We have committed to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035 in accordance with the SBTi's Net-Zero Standard. The SBTi has
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approved Gartner’s near-term science-based emissions reductions targets. Our ability to achieve these and other ESG goals is subject to numerous risks outside of our control. In addition, standards and processes for measuring and reporting carbon emissions and other sustainability metrics may change over time, and may result in inconsistent data, or could result in significant revisions to our strategies and targets, or our ability to achieve them. Our failure to achieve them or continue practices that meet evolving, and sometimes conflicting, stakeholder expectations in ESG could harm our reputation, adversely affect our ability to attract and retain employees or clients and expose us to increased scrutiny from investors and regulatory authorities.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Our failure to comply with complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition. Our business and operations may be conducted in countries where corruption has historically penetrated the economy. It is our policy to comply, and to require our local partners, distributors, agents, and those with whom we do business to comply, with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, regulations established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and with applicable local laws of the foreign countries in which we operate. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Any determination that we have violated or are responsible for violations of these laws, even if inadvertent, could be costly and disrupt our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows, as well as on our reputation. For example, during the second half of 2018 we fully cooperated with a South African government commission established to review a wide range of issues related to the country’s revenue service, including the procurement and fulfillment of consulting agreements we entered into with the revenue service through a sales agent from late 2014 through early 2017. In parallel, we commenced an internal investigation regarding this matter. We voluntarily disclosed the matter to the SEC and Department of Justice (DOJ) in November 2018 and cooperated fully with their review. In May 2023, Gartner entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC, without admitting or denying the SEC’s allegations, which fully resolved this matter.

In addition, continuously evolving data protection laws and regulations, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information laws and other new and proposed data protection laws, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges. We have implemented GDPR, CCPA, CPRA and LGPD compliance programs, as well as policies and processes to comply with the applicable Chinese data protection laws. In the meantime, Gartner will continue to maintain and rely upon our comprehensive global data protection compliance program, which includes administrative, technical, and physical controls to safeguard our associates’ and clients’ personal data. The interpretation and application of these laws in the United States, the EU, China and elsewhere are often uncertain, inconsistent and ever changing. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.

We face risks related to litigation. We are, and in the future may be, subject to a variety of legal actions, such as employment, breach of contract, intellectual property-related, and business torts, including claims of unfair trade practices and misappropriation of trade secrets. Given the nature of our business, we are also subject to defamation (including libel and slander), negligence, or other claims relating to the information we publish. Regardless of the merits of any claim and despite vigorous efforts to defend any such claim, claims can affect our reputation, and responding to any such claim could be time consuming, result in costly litigation and require us to enter into settlements, royalty and licensing agreements which may not be offered or available on reasonable terms. If a claim is made against us that we cannot defend or resolve on reasonable terms, our business, brand, and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

We face risks related to taxation. We are a global company and a substantial amount of our earnings is generated outside of the United States and taxed at rates other than the U.S. statutory federal income tax rate. Our effective tax rate, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions with higher statutory tax rates and, conversely, lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and/or by changes in tax laws or accounting principles and their interpretation by relevant authorities. Corporate tax reform, base-erosion efforts and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many countries. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“the OECD”) has issued various proposals that would change long-standing global tax principles. These proposals include a two-pillar approach to global taxation (BEPS 2.0/ Pillar Two), focusing on global profit allocation and a 15% global corporate minimum tax rate. In December 2022, the European Union adopted a directive requiring member states to incorporate similar provisions into their domestic laws, to be effective as of January 2024 and January 2025. In 2023, the OECD issued administrative guidance providing transition and safe harbor rules that may effectively delay the application of these legislative changes in certain countries until January 2027. Several countries in which Gartner does business have proposed or enacted new laws or are actively considering changes to their tax laws to align
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with OECD proposals. Significant details around the provisions are still uncertain as the OECD and participating countries continue to work on defining the underlying rules and administrative procedures. Enactment of this and similar legislation could significantly increase our tax obligations in countries where we do business. These actual, potential, and other changes, both individually and collectively, could materially increase our effective tax rate and negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. We will continue to monitor and reflect the impact of such legislative changes in future financial statements as appropriate.

In addition, our tax filings for various years are subject to examination by domestic and international taxing authorities and, during the ordinary course of business, we are under audit by various tax authorities. Recent and future actions on the part of the OECD and various governments have increased scrutiny of our tax filings. Although we believe that our tax filings and related accruals are reasonable, the final resolution of tax audits may be materially different from what is reflected in our historical tax provisions and accruals and could have a material adverse effect on our effective tax rate, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our corporate compliance program cannot guarantee that we are in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. We operate in a number of countries, including emerging markets, and as a result we are required to comply with numerous, and in many cases, changing international and U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations, including regulations relating to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war. Accordingly, we have a corporate compliance program that includes the creation of appropriate policies defining employee behavior that mandate adherence to laws, employee training, annual affirmations, monitoring and enforcement. However, failure of any employee to comply with any of these laws, regulations or our policies, could result in a range of liabilities for the employee and for the Company, including, but not limited to, significant penalties and fines, sanctions and/or litigation, and the expenses associated with defending and resolving any of the foregoing, any of which could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.
 
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY.

We have implemented a layered cybersecurity program to assess, identify, and manage risks from cybersecurity threats that may result in material adverse effects on the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our information systems, networks, and data systems. Our cybersecurity program is generally aligned with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework.

Information Security Team and Governance.

The Audit Committee has the primary responsibility of assisting our Board of Directors in overseeing risk related to cybersecurity matters. The Board and/or the Audit Committee receive quarterly cybersecurity-related reports from our Chief Information Officer (CIO), which may address a wide range of topics, such as: cybersecurity strategy, the threat environment, the status of ongoing information security program initiatives, and information security program metrics. Additionally, we have documented protocols by which certain cybersecurity incidents that meet established reporting thresholds are escalated within the Company and, where appropriate, reported to the Board and/or the Audit Committee.

At the management level, our CIO, who reports directly to the CEO, has over 20 years of experience serving in IT management, software development, and technology-based roles across a variety of industries, including publishing, media and entertainment, and financial and insurance services. Our Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who reports directly the CIO, has extensive cybersecurity knowledge and skills gained from over 15 years of work experience serving in security roles for the Company and a variety of financial service firms. Our CISO is responsible for understanding, managing, and communicating cybersecurity risk internally to our management, and works closely with Legal to oversee compliance with legal, regulatory, and contractual security requirements.

Our CISO heads the Information Security Team, which is responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining cybersecurity and data protection practices across our business. The Information Security Team covers a wide range of cyber and information security responsibilities. Our CISO also receives reports on cybersecurity threats on an ongoing basis and regularly reviews risk management measures implemented by the Company to identify and mitigate cybersecurity risks. In addition to our internal capabilities, we also engage external consultants, legal counsel, or other third-party advisors to assist with assessing, identifying, and managing cybersecurity risks.

Risk Management and Strategy.

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Cybersecurity risk management, which involves resource commitments and management attention, is overseen both as a critical component of our overall risk management program and as a standalone program. We have implemented a risk-based, cross-functional approach to identifying, preventing, and mitigating cybersecurity threats and incidents, while also implementing controls and procedures that provide for the prompt escalation of certain cybersecurity incidents.

Our cybersecurity program uses a layered strategy, relying on technology and human processes to safeguard our client’s data at all layers. We embed controls within our business processes and technology development, starting with design and engineering and extending to operations. Our defense-in-depth strategy utilizes numerous layers of security controls, processes, and procedures across our information systems and networks, including but not limited to, vulnerability management, multi-factor authentication (MFA), identity access management (IAM), endpoint security, mobile security, application security, encryption, network security, web security, and event monitoring and logging. Aspects of our program undergo several independent third-party audits and reviews on a regular basis.

We maintain a written Information Security Policy, which establishes the foundational components of our cybersecurity program and our high-level security responsibilities over all technologies, facilities and data. When engaging service providers and third-party vendors, we perform due diligence to assess whether these providers have appropriate privacy and security controls, and we generally require these providers to implement appropriate protective measures, and to use confidential information solely for the purposes of performing their services.

Additionally, we have adopted a documented Incident Response Plan that applies in the event of a cybersecurity incident to provide a standardized framework for response. In general, our incident response process follows the NIST 800-61 framework and focuses on four phases: preparation; detection and analysis; containment, eradication and recovery; and post-incident remediation.

We have implemented a security training and awareness program for all Gartner employees and third-party contractors. Employees receive security training in connection with onboarding as well as annual awareness and training activities throughout their employment. Further, Gartner carries cybersecurity insurance covering the company and its subsidiaries.

Material Cybersecurity Risks, Threats & Incidents.

While we have not experienced any material cybersecurity threats or incidents, there can be no guarantee that we will not be the subject of future successful attacks, threats or incidents. Additional information on cybersecurity risks we face can be found in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this Report under the heading Strategic and Operational RisksWe are exposed to risks related to cybersecurity,” which should be read in conjunction with the foregoing information.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

As of December 31, 2023, we leased approximately 15 domestic and 60 international office properties for our ongoing business operations. These offices, which exclude certain properties that we sublease to others, support our executive and administrative activities, research and consulting, sales, systems support, operations, and other functions. Our corporate office is based in Stamford, Connecticut. We also maintain an important presence in: Fort Myers, Florida; Arlington, Virginia; Egham, the United Kingdom; London, the United Kingdom; Gurgaon, India; Irving, Texas; and Barcelona, Spain. The Company does not own any real property.

Our Stamford corporate headquarters is comprised of leased office space in two buildings located on the same campus. Our lease for the Stamford headquarters facility expires in 2027 and contains three five-year renewal options at fair value.

In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid working environment, meaning that most of our employees have the option to work remotely at least some of the time for the foreseeable future. As a result, we believe our current real estate footprint is sufficient to support future growth.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

We are involved in legal and administrative proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. We believe that the potential liability, if any, in excess of amounts already accrued from all proceedings, claims and litigation will not have a material effect on our financial position, cash flows or results of operations when resolved in a future period.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “IT”. As of February 2, 2024, there were 923 holders of record of our common stock.
 
SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS
 
The equity compensation plan information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5.

SHARE REPURCHASES

In May 2015, our Board of Directors (the “Board”) authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $1.2 billion of our common stock. The Board authorized incremental share repurchases of up to an additional $1.6 billion, $1.0 billion and $0.9 billion of the Company’s common stock during 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. The Company adopted its Share Repurchase Plan with the goal of returning excess capital to shareholders in accordance with its capital allocation policy. The Company may repurchase its common stock from time-to-time in amounts, at prices and in the manner that the Company deems appropriate, subject to the availability of stock, prevailing market conditions, the trading price of the stock, the Company’s financial performance and other conditions. Repurchases may be made through open market purchases (which may include repurchase plans designed to comply with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended), accelerated share repurchases, private transactions or other transactions and will be funded by cash on hand and borrowings. Repurchases may also be made from time-to-time in connection with the settlement of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards. The table below summarizes the repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023 pursuant to our share repurchase program and the settlement of stock-based compensation awards.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased
(#)
Average Price Paid Per Share
($)
Total Number of Shares Purchased Under Announced Programs
(#)
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in thousands)
October 1, 2023 to October 31, 2023 (1)
298,097 $338.40 297,247 $1,010,159 
November 1, 2023 to November 30, 2023107,493 370.36 65,148 987,098 
December 1, 2023 to December 31, 20236,039 457.60 — $987,098 
  Total for the quarter (2)
411,629 $348.49 362,395 
(1)On October 31, 2023, the Company's Board of Directors authorized incremental share repurchases of up to an additional $500.0 million of Gartner's common stock.
(2)The repurchased shares during the three months ended December 31, 2023 included purchases for both the settlement of stock-based compensation awards and open market purchases. All amounts presented are exclusive of the excise tax accrual.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
 
The purpose of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is to facilitate an understanding of significant factors influencing the operating results, financial condition and cash flows of Gartner, Inc. Additionally, the MD&A conveys our expectations of the potential impact of known trends, events or uncertainties that may impact future results. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical results and percentage relationships are not necessarily indicative of operating results for future periods. References to “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this MD&A are to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

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This MD&A provides an analysis of our consolidated financial results, segment results and cash flows for 2023 and 2022 under the headings “Results of Operations,” “Segment Results” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” For a similar detailed discussion comparing 2022 and 2021, refer to those headings under Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

In addition to GAAP results, we provide foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages for our revenues, certain expenses, contract values and other metrics. These foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages eliminate the effects of exchange rate fluctuations and thus provide a more accurate and meaningful trend in the underlying data being measured. We calculate foreign currency neutral dollar amounts by converting the underlying amounts in local currency for different periods into U.S. dollars by applying the same foreign exchange rates to all periods presented.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are any statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, hopes, intentions, projections or strategies regarding the future. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “should,” “could,” “believe,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” or other words of similar meaning.

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any of our forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of our forward-looking statements. Our future quarterly and annual revenues, operating income, results of operations and cash flows, as well as any forward-looking statement, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, such as those disclosed or incorporated by reference in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Important factors that could cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in our forward-looking statements include, among others, the following: the impact of general economic conditions, including inflation (and related monetary policy by governments in response to inflation), on economic activity and our operations; changes in macroeconomic and market conditions and market volatility, including interest rates and the effect on the credit markets and access to capital; the impact of global economic and geopolitical conditions, including inflation, and recession; our ability to carry out our strategic initiatives and manage associated costs; our ability to recover potential claims under our event cancellation insurance; the timing of conferences and meetings, in particular our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series that normally occurs during the fourth quarter; our ability to achieve and effectively manage growth, including our ability to integrate our acquisitions and consummate and integrate future acquisitions; our ability to pay our debt obligations; our ability to maintain and expand our products and services; our ability to expand or retain our customer base; our ability to grow or sustain revenue from individual customers; our ability to attract and retain a professional staff of research analysts and consultants as well as experienced sales personnel upon whom we are dependent, especially in light of labor competition; our ability to achieve continued customer renewals and achieve new contract value, backlog and deferred revenue growth in light of competitive pressures; our ability to successfully compete with existing competitors and potential new competitors; our ability to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights; our ability to keep pace with technological developments in artificial intelligence; additional risks associated with international operations, including foreign currency fluctuations; the impact on our business resulting from changes in international conditions, including those resulting from the conflict in the Middle East, the war in Ukraine and current and future sanctions imposed by governments or other authorities; the impact of restructuring and other charges on our businesses and operations; cybersecurity incidents; risks associated with the creditworthiness, budget cuts, and shutdown of governments and agencies; our ability to meet ESG commitments; the impact of changes in tax policy (including global minimum tax legislation) and heightened scrutiny from various taxing authorities globally; changes to laws and regulations; and other risks and uncertainties. The potential fluctuations in our operating income could cause period-to-period comparisons of operating results not to be meaningful and could provide an unreliable indication of future operating results. A description of the risk factors associated with our business is included under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, estimates and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those listed above or described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, historical, current and forward-looking sustainability-related statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. Readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinion only as of the date on which they were made. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak
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only as of the date hereof, and forward-looking statements in documents attached that are incorporated by reference speak only as of the date of those documents. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to review or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances as they occur.

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight that drives smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission-critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for close to 15,000 enterprises in approximately 90 countries and territories — across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.


Recent Event

In February 2023, we completed the sale of a non-core business, TalentNeuron, for approximately $161.1 million after considerations of post-close adjustments. TalentNeuron was included in the Company’s Research segment. $161.1 million cash was received from the sale during the year ended December 31, 2023. We recognized a pre-tax gain of $135.4 million on the sale of TalentNeuron, which is included in Gain from sale of divested operation in the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2023.





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BUSINESS MEASUREMENTS

We believe that the following business measurements are important performance indicators for our business segments:
BUSINESS SEGMENTBUSINESS MEASUREMENT
Research
Contract value represents the dollar value attributable to all of our subscription-related contracts. It is calculated as the annualized value of all contracts in effect at a specific point in time, without regard to the duration of the contract. Contract value primarily includes Research deliverables for which revenue is recognized on a ratable basis, as well as other deliverables (primarily Conferences tickets) for which revenue is recognized when the deliverable is utilized. Comparing contract value year-over-year not only measures the short-term growth of our business, but also signals the long-term health of our Research subscription business since it measures revenue that is highly likely to recur over a multi-year period. Our contract value consists of Global Technology Sales contract value, which includes sales to users and providers of technology, and Global Business Sales contract value, which includes sales to all other functional leaders.
Client retention rate represents a measure of client satisfaction and renewed business relationships at a specific point in time. Client retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by all clients from a year ago. Client retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Wallet retention rate represents a measure of the amount of contract value we have retained with clients over a twelve-month period. Wallet retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing the contract value of our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by the contract value from a year ago, excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange. When wallet retention exceeds client retention, it is an indication of retention of higher-spending clients, or increased spending by retained clients, or both. Wallet retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Conferences
Number of destination conferences represents the total number of hosted virtual or in-person conferences completed during the period. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Number of destination conferences attendees represents the total number of people who attend virtual or in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Consulting
Consulting backlog represents future revenue to be derived from in-process consulting and benchmark analytics engagements.
Utilization rate represents a measure of productivity of our consultants. Utilization rates are calculated for billable headcount on a percentage basis by dividing total hours billed by total hours available to bill.

 
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL POSITION
The fundamentals of our strategy include a focus on creating actionable insights for executive leaders and their teams, delivering innovative and highly differentiated product offerings, building a strong sales capability, providing world class client service with a focus on client engagement and retention, and continuously improving our operational effectiveness.

We had total revenues of $5.9 billion in 2023, an increase of 8% compared to 2022 on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. Net income increased to $882.5 million in 2023 from $807.8 million in 2022 and diluted earnings per share was $11.08 in 2023 compared to $9.96 in 2022.

Research revenues increased to $4.9 billion in 2023, an increase of 6% compared to 2022 on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The Research gross contribution margin was 74% in both 2023 and 2022. Contract value was $4.8 billion at December 31, 2023, an increase of 8% compared to December 31, 2022 on a foreign currency neutral basis.

Conferences revenues increased to $505.2 million in 2023, an increase of 30% compared to 2022 on a reported basis and 29% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Conferences gross contribution margin was 50% and 54% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. We held 47 in-person conferences in 2023, and 25 in-person and 16 virtual conferences in 2022.

Consulting revenues increased to $514.7 million in 2023, an increase of 7% compared to 2022 on a reported basis and 8% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Consulting gross contribution margin was 35% and 39% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Backlog was $162.1 million at December 31, 2023.

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.2 billion and $1.1 billion during 2023 and 2022, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1.3 billion of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on our revolving credit facility. During 2023, we repurchased 1.8 million shares of the Company’s common stock for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $0.6 billion.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the application of appropriate accounting policies and the use of estimates. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Management considers the policies discussed below to be critical to an understanding of our consolidated financial statements because their application requires complex and subjective management judgments and estimates. Specific risks for these critical accounting policies are also described below.

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions about future events. We develop our estimates using both current and historical experience, as well as other factors, including the general economic environment and actions we may take in the future. We adjust such estimates when facts and circumstances dictate. However, our estimates may involve significant uncertainties and judgments and cannot be determined with precision. In addition, these estimates are based on our best judgment at a point in time and, as such, they may ultimately differ materially from actual results. Ongoing changes in our estimates could be material and would be reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future periods.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are described below.

Revenue recognition — Our revenue by significant source is accounted for as follows:

Research revenues are mainly derived from subscription contracts for research products. The related revenues are deferred and recognized ratably over the applicable contract term. Fees derived from assisting organizations in selecting the right business software for their needs are recognized when the leads are provided to vendors.

Conferences revenues are deferred and recognized upon the completion of the related conference or meeting.

Consulting revenues are principally generated from fixed fee or time and materials engagements. Revenues from fixed fee contracts are recognized as we work to satisfy our performance obligations. Revenues from time and materials engagements are recognized as work is delivered and/or services are provided. Revenues related to contract optimization engagements are contingent in nature and are only recognized upon satisfaction of all conditions related to their payment.

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The majority of our Research contracts are billable upon signing, absent special terms granted on a limited basis from time to time. Research contracts are generally non-cancelable and non-refundable, except for government contracts that may have cancellation or fiscal funding clauses. It is our policy to record the amount of a subscription contract that is billable as a fee receivable at the time the contract is signed with a corresponding amount as deferred revenue because the contract represents a legally enforceable claim.

Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 9 — Revenue and Related Matters in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding our revenues.

Accounting for income taxes — We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. We estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions where we operate. This process involves estimating our current tax expense or benefit together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our consolidated balance sheets. When assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making this assessment, we consider the availability of loss carryforwards, projected reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50% likelihood of being realized. We use estimates in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits associated with uncertain tax positions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating tax law and measuring the benefits likely to be realized. Uncertain tax positions are periodically re-evaluated and adjusted as more information about their ultimate realization becomes available.

Accounting for stock-based compensation — We account for stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topics 505 and 718 and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins No. 107 and No. 110. We recognize stock-based compensation expense, which is based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant, over the related service period. Note 10 — Stock-Based Compensation in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding stock-based compensation. Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based compensation awards requires the use of certain subjective assumptions, including the expected life of a stock-based compensation award and our common stock price volatility. In addition, determining the appropriate periodic stock-based compensation expense requires management to estimate the likelihood of the achievement of certain performance targets. The assumptions used in calculating the fair values of stock-based compensation awards and the related periodic expense represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. As a result, if circumstances change and we deem it necessary in the future to modify the assumptions we made or to use different assumptions, or if the quantity and nature of our stock-based compensation awards changes, then the amount of expense may need to be adjusted and future stock-based compensation expense could be materially different from what has been recorded in the current period.

A change in any of the terms or conditions of stock-based compensation awards is accounted for as a modification of the award. Incremental compensation cost is measured as the excess, if any, of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before its terms are modified, measured based on the fair value of the awards at the modification date. For vested awards, we recognize incremental compensation cost in the period the modification occurs. For unvested awards, we recognize any incremental compensation expense at the modification date or ratably over the requisite remaining service period, as appropriate. If the fair value of the modified award is lower than the fair value of the original award immediately before modification, the minimum compensation cost we recognize is the cost of the original award.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Consolidated Results

The table below presents an analysis of selected line items and year-over-year changes in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31, 2023Year Ended December 31, 2022Increase (Decrease)Percentage Increase
(Decrease)
Total revenues$5,906,956 $5,475,846 $431,110 %
Costs and expenses:    
     Cost of services and product development1,903,240 1,693,771 209,469 12 
     Selling, general and administrative2,701,542 2,480,944 220,598 
     Depreciation98,645 93,410 5,235 
     Amortization of intangibles92,458 98,536 (6,078)(6)
     Acquisition and integration charges9,587 9,079 508 
     Gain from sale of divested operation(135,410)— (135,410)nm
Operating income1,236,894 1,100,106 136,788 12 
Interest expense, net(94,246)(121,323)(27,077)(22)
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims3,077 — 3,077 nm
Other income, net1,404 48,412 (47,008)(97)
Less: Provision for income taxes264,663 219,396 45,267 21 
Net income$882,466 $807,799 $74,667 %
nm = not meaningful

Total revenues for 2023 were $5.9 billion, an increase of $431.1 million compared to 2022, or 8% on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The tables below present (i) revenues by geographic region (based on where the sale is fulfilled) and (ii) revenues by segment for the years indicated (in thousands).

Primary Geographic MarketYear Ended December 31, 2023Year Ended December 31, 2022IncreasePercentage Increase
United States and Canada$3,911,042 $3,619,382 $291,660 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa1,332,070 1,234,659 97,411 
Other International 663,844 621,805 42,039 
Total revenues$5,906,956 $5,475,846 $431,110 %

SegmentYear Ended December 31, 2023Year Ended December 31, 2022IncreasePercentage Increase
Research$4,887,046 $4,604,791 $282,255 %
Conferences505,164 389,273 115,891 30 
Consulting514,746 481,782 32,964 
Total revenues$5,906,956 $5,475,846 $431,110 %

Refer to the section of this MD&A below entitled “Segment Results” for a discussion of revenues and results by segment.

Cost of services and product development was $1.9 billion in 2023, an increase of $209.5 million compared to 2022, or 12% on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in Cost of services and product development was primarily due to increased compensation costs as a result of higher headcount, as well as increased conference related expenses, due to the return to in-person destination conferences, partially offset by decreased research program expenses. Cost of services and product development as a percent of revenues was 32% and 31% for 2023 and 2022, respectively.
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Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense was $2.7 billion in 2023, an increase of $220.6 million compared to 2022, or 9% on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in SG&A during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the prior fiscal year, was primarily due to higher personnel costs in the current year, including higher salary expense due to increased headcount. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in facilities expense, related to a reduction of our real estate footprint. We expect to continue to evaluate our real estate footprint globally. If we determine there is any additional excess property, there is no assurance that we will be able to sublease any such excess properties or that we will not incur costs in connection with such exit activities, which may be material. During 2023, we incurred charges associated with the impairment of right-of-use assets and other long-lived assets, related to certain office locations we no longer intend to use, of $20.4 million, compared to $54.0 million in 2022.

The number of quota-bearing sales associates in Global Technology Sales increased slightly to 3,641 and in Global Business Sales increased by 8% to 1,188, compared to December 31, 2022. On a combined basis, the total number of quota-bearing sales associates increased by 2% when compared to December 31, 2022. SG&A expense as a percent of revenues was 46% and 45% during 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Depreciation increased by 6% during 2023 compared to 2022. The increase for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily due to increased computer equipment and software additions in 2022 and 2023, partially offset by a reduction in leasehold improvements depreciation as a result of the impairment losses recorded during 2022 and 2023.

Amortization of intangibles decreased by 6% during 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to intangible assets divested as part of the sale of our TalentNeuron business.

Acquisition and integration charges increased by $0.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022.

Gain from sale of divested operation was attributable to the sale of our TalentNeuron business in February 2023. We recognized a pre-tax gain of $135.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2023.

Operating income was $1.2 billion and $1.1 billion during 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase in operating income was primarily due to the gain from sale of divested operation, as well as increased revenue, partially offset by an increase in cost of services and product development and selling, general and administrative expenses.

Interest expense, net decreased by $27.1 million during 2023 compared to 2022. The decrease in interest expense, net was primarily due to increased interest income, as well as lower interest expense due to the maturation of $700.0 million in fixed-for-floating interest rate swap contracts in March 2022, partially offset by higher interest expense on our term loan.

Gain on event cancellation insurance claims of $3.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 reflected proceeds related to the 2020 conference cancellation insurance claims.

Other income, net for the years presented herein included the net impact of foreign currency gains and losses from our hedging activities, as well as sales of certain state tax credits and the recognition of other tax incentives. During 2023 and 2022, Other income, net included a $3.9 million and a $52.3 million gain on de-designated interest rate swaps, respectively.

Provision for income taxes was $264.7 million and $219.4 million during 2023 and 2022, respectively, with an effective income tax rate of 23.1% and 21.4% for 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase in the effective income tax rate in 2023 was primarily the result of changes in unrecognized tax benefits year over year. Note 12 — Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s income taxes.

Net income was $882.5 million and $807.8 million during 2023 and 2022, respectively. Additionally, our diluted net income per share increased by $1.12 in 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in net income during 2023 was primarily the result of the gain from sale of divested operations, as well as increased revenue and interest income, partially offset by increased operating expenses, a lower gain from de-designated interest rate swaps and higher income tax expense.

SEGMENT RESULTS

We evaluate reportable segment performance and allocate resources based on gross contribution margin. Gross contribution is defined as operating income or loss excluding certain Cost of services and product development expenses, SG&A expenses,
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Depreciation, Amortization of intangibles, and Acquisition and integration charges. Gross contribution margin is defined as gross contribution as a percent of revenues.

Reportable Segments

The sections below present the results of the Company’s three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research
 The Year Ended December 31, 2023The Year Ended December 31, 2022Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$4,887,046 $4,604,791 $282,255%
Gross contribution (1)$3,600,143 $3,414,574 $185,569%
Gross contribution margin74 %74 %—  point— 
Business Measurements:    
Contract Value (1), (3)
$4,838,600 $4,490,700 $347,900%
Global Technology Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3)$3,747,600 $3,524,000 $223,600%
Client retention 83 %86 %(3) points— 
Wallet retention 101 %105 %(4) points— 
Global Business Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3) $1,091,000 $966,700 $124,30013 %
Client retention 87 %89 %(2) points— 
Wallet retention107 %112 %(5) points— 
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Global Technology Sales includes sales to users and providers of technology. Global Business Sales includes sales to all other functional leaders.
(3)Contract values are on a foreign exchange neutral basis. Contract values as of December 31, 2022 have been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2023.

Research revenues increased by $282.3 million during 2023 compared to 2022, or 6% on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in revenues during 2023 was primarily due to strong Research contract value growth in 2022. The gross contribution margin was 74% in both 2023 and 2022, as the increase in revenue and decreased research program expenses were offset by an increase in personnel expenses to support future growth.

Contract value increased to $4.8 billion at December 31, 2023, or 8% compared to December 31, 2022 on a foreign currency neutral basis. All industry sectors grew at least high single-digit rates, other than technology and media. The fastest growth was in the public, energy and manufacturing sectors. Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) contract value increased by 6% at December 31, 2023 when compared to December 31, 2022. The increase in GTS contract value was primarily due to new business from existing clients. GTS contract value increased by at least mid single-digits for the majority of enterprise sizes and sectors. Global Business Sales (“GBS”) contract value increased by 13% year-over-year, also primarily driven by new business from existing clients. The majority of our GBS practices achieved double-digit growth rates, with the majority of enterprise sizes and sectors also growing double-digits year-over-year.

GTS client retention was 83% and 86% as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, while wallet retention was 101% and 105%, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. GBS client retention was 87% and 89% as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, while wallet retention was 107% and 112% as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in GTS and GBS wallet retention was largely due to lower levels of incremental spending by existing clients compared to the same period in 2022.


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Conferences
  The Year Ended December 31, 2023 The Year Ended December 31, 2022Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:   
Revenues (1)$505,164 $389,273 $115,89130 %
Gross contribution (1)$253,739 $210,726 $43,01320 %
Gross contribution margin50 %54 %(4) points— 
Business Measurements:    
Number of destination conferences (2)4741615 %
Number of destination conferences attendees (2) 75,56960,10415,46526 %
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Includes both virtual and in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.

Conferences revenues increased by $115.9 million during 2023 compared to 2022, or 30% on a reported basis and 29% excluding the foreign currency impact. We re-launched in-person destination conferences during the second quarter of 2022. We held 47 in-person destination conferences during the year ended December 31, 2023. We held 25 in-person conferences and 16 virtual conferences during the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily due the increase in in-person destination conferences. The segment gross contribution margin was 50% and 54% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The lower gross contribution margin during 2023 was also primarily due to the increase in in-person destination conferences.

Consulting
 As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2023As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2022Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$514,746 $481,782 $32,964%
Gross contribution (1)$181,501 $189,834 $(8,333)(4)%
Gross contribution margin35 %39 %(4) points— 
Business Measurements:    
Backlog (1), (2)$162,100 $134,500 $27,60021 %
Average billable headcount93482710713 %
Consultant utilization65 %70 %(5)points— 
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Backlog is on a foreign currency neutral basis. Backlog as of December 31, 2022 has been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2023.

Consulting revenues increased 7% during 2023 compared to 2022 on a reported basis and 8% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in revenues on a reported basis was due to a 6% increase in labor-based consulting, and a 10% increase in contract optimization. Contract optimization revenue may vary significantly and, as such, 2023 revenues may not be indicative of future results. The segment gross contribution margin was 35% and 39% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in gross contribution margin during 2023 was primarily due to increased personnel expense related to higher headcount, partially offset by the increase in revenue.

Backlog increased by $27.6 million, or 21%, from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

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We finance our operations through cash generated from our operating activities and borrowings. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations. At December 31, 2023, we had $1.3 billion of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on the revolving credit facility under our 2020 Credit Agreement. We believe that the Company has adequate liquidity and access to capital markets to meet its currently anticipated needs for both the next twelve months and the foreseeable future.

We have historically generated significant cash flows from our operating activities, benefiting from the favorable working capital dynamics of our subscription-based business model in our Research segment, which is our largest business segment and historically has constituted a significant portion of our total revenues. The majority of our Research customer contracts are paid in advance and, combined with a strong customer retention rate and high incremental margins, our subscription-based business model has resulted in continuously strong operating cash flow. Cash flow generation has also benefited from our ongoing efforts to improve the operating efficiencies of our businesses as well as a focus on the optimal management of our working capital as we increase sales.

Our cash and cash equivalents are held in numerous locations throughout the world with 55% held overseas at December 31, 2023. The Company intends to reinvest substantially all of its accumulated undistributed foreign earnings, except in instances where repatriation would result in minimal additional tax.

The table below summarizes the changes in the Company’s cash balances for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
 20232022
Cash provided by operating activities$1,155,737 $1,101,422 $54,315 
Cash provided by (used in) investing activities54,157 (117,558)171,715 
Cash used in financing activities(588,881)(1,027,442)438,561 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash621,013 (43,578)664,591 
Effects of exchange rates (13)(18,425)18,412 
Beginning cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash698,599 760,602 (62,003)
Ending cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$1,319,599 $698,599 $621,000 

Operating

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.2 billion and $1.1 billion in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The year-over-year increase was primarily due to increased operating income, excluding the gain from sale of divested operation, and strong collections, partially offset by increased income tax payments, in part as a result of the gain from sale of divested operation in 2023.

Investing

Cash provided by (used in) investing activities was $54.2 million and $(117.6) million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase from 2022 to 2023 was primarily the result of the proceeds received from the sale of our TalentNeuron business in February 2023.

Financing

Cash used in financing activities was $0.6 billion and $1.0 billion in 2023 and 2022, respectively. During the 2023 period, we used $0.6 billion of cash for share repurchases and paid a net $7.8 million in debt principal repayments. During the 2022 period, we used $1.0 billion for share repurchases and paid a net $5.9 million in debt principal repayments.

OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS

Debt

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $2.5 billion of principal amount of debt outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations. From time to time, the Company may seek to retire or repurchase its outstanding debt through various methods including open
28


market repurchases, negotiated block transactions, or otherwise, all or some of which may be effected through Rule 10b5-1 plans. Such transactions, if any, depend on prevailing market conditions, our liquidity and capital requirements, contractual restrictions, and other factors, and may involve material amounts.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Through December 31, 2023, the Company has not entered into any material off-balance sheet arrangements or transactions with unconsolidated entities or other persons.

Contractual Cash Commitments

The table below summarizes the Company’s future contractual cash commitments as of December 31, 2023 (in thousands).

Commitment DescriptionDue In Less Than
1 Year
Due In 2-3
Years
Due In 4-5
Years
Due In More Than
5 Years
Total
Debt – principal, interest, and commitment fees (1)$100,181 $457,317 $979,341 $1,471,355 $3,008,194 
Operating leases (2)142,636 235,333 176,035 237,440 791,444 
Deferred compensation arrangements (3)8,893 17,261 14,345 81,209 121,708 
Other (4)34,121 114,129 155,395 49,002 352,647 
Totals$285,831 $824,040 $1,325,116 $1,839,006 $4,273,993 

(1)Principal repayments of the Company’s debt obligations were classified in the above table based on the contractual repayment dates. Interest payments were based on the effective interest rates as of December 31, 2023. Commitment fees were based on unused balances and commitment rates as of December 31, 2023. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding the Company’s debt obligations and interest rate swap contracts.
(2)The Company leases various facilities, automobiles, computer equipment and other assets under non-cancelable operating lease agreements expiring between 2024 and 2038. The total commitment excludes approximately $207.6 million of estimated future cash receipts from the Company’s subleasing arrangements. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 7 — Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding the Company’s leases.
(3)The Company has supplemental deferred compensation arrangements with certain of its employees. Amounts payable with known payment dates have been classified in the above table based on those scheduled payment dates. Amounts payable whose payment dates are unknown have been included in the Due In More Than 5 Years category because the Company cannot determine when the amounts will be paid. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s supplemental deferred compensation arrangements.
(4)Other includes: (i) contractual commitments (a) for software, telecom and other services and (b) to secure sites for our Conferences business; and (ii) projected cash contributions to the Company’s defined benefit pension plans. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s defined benefit pension plans.

In addition to the contractual cash commitments included in the above table, the Company has other payables and liabilities that may be legally enforceable but are not considered contractual commitments. Information regarding the Company’s payables and liabilities is included in Note 5 — Accounts Payable and Accrued and Other Liabilities and Note 12 — Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

The FASB has issued accounting standards that had not yet become effective as of December 31, 2023 and may impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements or its disclosures in future periods. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding those accounting standards.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
29



INTEREST RATE RISK
 
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $2.5 billion in total debt principal outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations.

Approximately $274.0 million of the Company’s total debt outstanding as of December 31, 2023 was based on a floating base rate of interest, which potentially exposes the Company to increases in interest rates. However, we reduce our overall exposure to interest rate increases through our interest rate swap contract, which effectively converts the floating base interest rates on all of our variable rate borrowings to fixed rates.

FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK
 
A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Among the major foreign currencies in which we conduct business are the Euro, the British Pound, the Japanese Yen, the Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar. The reporting currency of our Consolidated Financial Statements is the U.S. dollar. As the values of the foreign currencies in which we operate fluctuate over time relative to the U.S. dollar, the Company is exposed to both foreign currency translation and transaction risk.

Translation risk arises as our foreign currency assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars because the functional currencies of our foreign operations are generally denominated in the local currency. Adjustments resulting from the translation of these assets and liabilities are deferred and recorded as a component of stockholders’ equity. A measure of the potential impact of foreign currency translation can be determined through a sensitivity analysis of our cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2023, we had $1.3 billion of cash and cash equivalents, with a substantial portion denominated in foreign currencies. If the exchange rates of the foreign currencies we hold all changed in comparison to the U.S. dollar by 10%, the amount of cash and cash equivalents we would have reported on December 31, 2023 could have increased or decreased by approximately $79.3 million. The translation of our foreign currency revenues and expenses historically has not had a material impact on our consolidated earnings because movements in and among the major currencies in which we operate tend to impact our revenues and expenses fairly equally. However, our earnings could be impacted during periods of significant exchange rate volatility, or when some or all of the major currencies in which we operate move in the same direction against the U.S. dollar.
 
Transaction risk arises when we enter into a transaction that is denominated in a currency that may differ from the local functional currency. As these transactions are translated into the local functional currency, a gain or loss may result, which is recorded in current period earnings. We typically enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to mitigate the effects of some of this foreign currency transaction risk. Our outstanding foreign currency forward exchange contracts as of December 31, 2023 had an immaterial net unrealized gain.

CREDIT RISK
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of short-term, highly liquid investments classified as cash equivalents, fees receivable, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts. The majority of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts are with large investment grade commercial banks. Fees receivable balances deemed to be collectible from customers have limited concentration of credit risk due to our diverse customer base and geographic dispersion.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
 
Our financial statements for 2023, 2022 and 2021, together with the reports of KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, are included herein in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.

None.

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

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We have established disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that the information we are required to disclose in our reports filed or submitted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC, and such information is accumulated and communicated to our executive management team, including our chief executive officer and our chief financial officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Management conducted an evaluation, as of December 31, 2023, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Based upon that evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have concluded that, as of December 31, 2023, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective..

MANAGEMENT’S ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Gartner management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions and that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth in the Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Management’s assessment was reviewed with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Based on its assessment of internal control over financial reporting, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2023, Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting was effective. The effectiveness of management’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Part IV, Item 15.

CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

There have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2023 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.

No director or Section 16 officer adopted or terminated a trading arrangement intended to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c) or a non-Rule 10b5–1 trading arrangement during the three months ended December 31, 2023.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.
31


PART III

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “The Board of Directors,” “Proposal One: Election of Directors,” “Executive Officers,” “Corporate Governance,” “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports” (if necessary) and “Proxy and Voting Information — Available Information” in the Company’s 2024 Proxy Statement. See also Item 1. Business — Available Information.

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Discussion & Analysis,” “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures,” “Compensation Committee Report,” “The Board of Directors - Compensation of Directors,” “The Board of Directors - Director Compensation Table,” “Corporate Governance - Risk Oversight - Risk Assessment of Compensation Policies and Practices,” and “Corporate Governance - Compensation Committee” in the Company’s 2024 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures — Equity Compensation Plan Information” and “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in the Company’s 2024 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Transactions With Related Persons” and “Corporate Governance — Director Independence” in the Company’s 2024 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the caption “Proposal Three: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in the Company’s 2024 Proxy Statement.

32


PART IV
 
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
 
(a) 1. and 2. Financial Statements and Schedules
 
The reports of our independent registered public accounting firm and financial statements listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements herein are filed as part of this report.
 
All financial statement schedules not listed in the Index have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
 
3. Exhibits
EXHIBIT NUMBERDESCRIPTION OF DOCUMENT
Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company.
By-laws of Gartner, Inc. (as amended through April 29, 2021).
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 22, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.500% Senior Notes due 2028.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.750% Senior Notes due 2030.
Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the Lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent.
Amended and Restated Guarantee and Collateral Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc. each subsidiary guarantor party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 18, 2021, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $600,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.625% Senior Notes due 2029.
Description of Gartner, Inc.’s Common Stock.
2011 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended and restated, as of September 1, 2021.
Long-Term Incentive Plan, June 1, 2023 Amendment and Restatement.
Second Amended and Restated Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of February 14, 2019.
Amendment to Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of April 29, 2021.
Company Deferred Compensation Plan, effective January 1, 2009.
Form of 2021 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2021 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2023 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2023 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2024 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2024 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2024 Restricted Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of Restricted Stock Unit Agreement for non-employee directors.
33


Enhanced Executive Rewards Policy.
Subsidiaries of Registrant.
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
Power of Attorney (see Signature Page).
Certification of chief executive officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of chief financial officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification under Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Gartner, Inc. Compensation Recoupment (Clawback) Policy.
101.INS*XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
101.SCH*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CAL*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.LAB*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PRE*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
101.DEF*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
104*Cover Page Interactive Data File, formatted in Inline XBRL (included as Exhibit 101).
 
*Filed with this document.
+Management compensation plan or arrangement.
(1)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 6, 2005.
(2)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 5, 2021.
(3)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 23, 2020.
(4)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 28, 2020.
(5)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 21, 2021.
(6)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 23, 2022.
(7)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Proxy Statement (Schedule 14A) filed on April 19, 2021.
(8)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 22, 2019.
(9)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 20, 2009.
(10)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2021.
(11)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on August 1, 2018.
(12)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Proxy Statement (Schedule 14A) filed on April 17, 2023.
(13)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 16, 2023.

34


INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (KPMG LLP, New York, NY, Auditor Firm ID: 185)
 
All financial statement schedules have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements or notes thereto.

35


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Unrecognized tax benefits

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it believes such position is more likely than not of being sustained if challenged. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has recorded gross unrecognized tax benefits of $148.4 million. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50 percent likelihood of being realized. The Company uses estimates and assumptions in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits.

We identified the assessment of unrecognized tax benefits related to transfer pricing as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax law and its estimate of the ultimate resolution of its tax positions.

The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits process, including transfer pricing. We involved tax and transfer pricing professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in assessing unrecognized tax benefits by:

36


evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax laws and income tax consequences of intercompany transactions

assessing transfer pricing practices for compliance with relevant tax laws and regulations

analyzing the Company’s tax positions and determination of unrecognized tax benefits, including the associated effect in other jurisdictions

In addition, we evaluated the Company’s ability to estimate its unrecognized tax benefits by comparing historical unrecognized tax benefits to actual results upon conclusion of examinations by applicable taxing authorities.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1996.

New York, New York
February 15, 2024

37


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 15, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
New York, New York
February 15, 2024
38


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA)
 
 December 31,
 20232022
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$1,318,999 $697,999 
Fees receivable, net of allowances of $9,000 for both periods
1,601,228 1,556,786 
Deferred commissions380,479 363,079 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets127,180 119,207 
Assets held-for-sale 49,036 
Total current assets3,427,886 2,786,107 
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements, net262,718 264,581 
Operating lease right-of-use assets366,809 436,592 
Goodwill2,937,260 2,930,211 
Intangible assets, net501,958 584,714 
Other assets339,288 297,531 
Total Assets$7,835,919 $7,299,736 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$1,127,604 $1,115,198 
Deferred revenues2,640,515 2,443,762 
Current portion of long-term debt9,600 7,800 
Liabilities held-for-sale 30,840 
Total current liabilities3,777,719 3,597,600 
Long-term debt, net of deferred financing fees2,448,696 2,453,607 
Operating lease liabilities513,406 597,267 
Other liabilities415,464 423,464 
Total Liabilities7,155,285 7,071,938 
Stockholders’ Equity:  
Preferred stock:  
$0.01 par value, authorized 5,000,000 shares; none issued or outstanding
  
Common stock:  
$0.0005 par value, 250,000,000 shares authorized; 163,602,067 shares issued for both periods
82 82 
Additional paid-in capital2,320,289 2,179,604 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net(76,331)(101,610)
Accumulated earnings4,739,292 3,856,826 
Treasury stock, at cost, 85,264,526 and 84,428,513 common shares, respectively
(6,302,698)(5,707,104)
Total Stockholders’ Equity 680,634 227,798 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity $7,835,919 $7,299,736 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

39


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Revenues:   
Research$4,887,046 $4,604,791 $4,101,392 
Conferences505,164 389,273 214,449 
Consulting514,746 481,782 418,121 
Total revenues5,906,956 5,475,846 4,733,962 
Costs and expenses:   
Cost of services and product development1,903,240 1,693,771 1,444,093 
Selling, general and administrative2,701,542 2,480,944 2,155,658 
Depreciation98,645 93,410 102,802 
Amortization of intangibles92,458 98,536 109,603 
Acquisition and integration charges9,587 9,079 6,055 
    Gain from sale of divested operation(135,410)  
Total costs and expenses4,670,062 4,375,740 3,818,211 
Operating income1,236,894 1,100,106 915,751 
Interest income38,526 4,880 1,893 
Interest expense(132,772)(126,203)(118,513)
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims 3,077  152,310 
Other income, net1,404 48,412 18,429 
Income before income taxes1,147,129 1,027,195 969,870 
Provision for income taxes264,663 219,396 176,310 
Net income$882,466 $807,799 $793,560 
Net income per share:   
Basic$11.17 $10.08 $9.33 
Diluted$11.08 $9.96 $9.21 
Weighted average shares outstanding:   
Basic79,004 80,178 85,026 
Diluted79,680 81,067 86,177 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

40


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(IN THOUSANDS)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Net income$882,466 $807,799 $793,560 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:   
Foreign currency translation adjustments11,677 (39,679)(6,621)
Interest rate swaps - net change in deferred gain or loss15,086 17,075 21,781 
Pension plans - net change in deferred actuarial gain or loss(1,484)2,425 2,637 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax25,279 (20,179)17,797 
Comprehensive income$907,745 $787,620 $811,357 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

41


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(IN THOUSANDS)
 
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss, Net
Accumulated
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2020$82 $1,968,930 $(99,228)$2,255,467 $(3,034,823)$1,090,428 
Net income— — — 793,560 — 793,560 
Other comprehensive income— — 17,797 — — 17,797 
Issuances under stock plans— 7,396 — — 10,854 18,250 
Common share repurchases— — — — (1,647,547)(1,647,547)
Stock-based compensation expense— 98,570 — — — 98,570 
Balance at December 31, 202182 2,074,896 (81,431)3,049,027 (4,671,516)371,058 
Net income— — — 807,799 — 807,799 
Other comprehensive loss— — (20,179)— — (20,179)
Issuances under stock plans— 14,142 — — 8,154 22,296 
Common share repurchases— — — — (1,043,742)(1,043,742)
Stock-based compensation expense— 90,566 — — — 90,566 
Balance at December 31, 202282 2,179,604 (101,610)3,856,826 (5,707,104)227,798 
Net income— — — 882,466 — 882,466 
Other comprehensive income— — 25,279 — — 25,279 
Issuances under stock plans— 10,844 — — 14,368 25,212 
Common share repurchases (including excise tax)— — — — (609,962)(609,962)
Stock-based compensation expense— 129,841 — — — 129,841 
Balance at December 31, 2023$82 $2,320,289 $(76,331)$4,739,292 $(6,302,698)$680,634 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

42


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(IN THOUSANDS)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Operating activities:   
Net income$882,466 $807,799 $793,560 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization191,103 191,946 212,405 
Stock-based compensation expense129,841 90,566 98,570 
Deferred taxes(64,173)(30,702)(41,567)
Gain from sale of divested operation(135,410)  
Loss on impairment of lease related assets, net20,368 53,970 49,537 
Reduction in the carrying amount of operating lease right-of-use assets70,207 70,086 75,125 
Amortization and write-off of deferred financing fees4,689 4,574 4,162 
Gain on de-designated swaps(3,925)(52,308)(20,204)
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions and divestitures:
Fees receivable, net(24,662)(240,696)(145,346)
Deferred commissions(13,716)5,574 (124,874)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(7,893)(3,039)(15,913)
Other assets(34,528)8,440 (18,287)
Deferred revenues169,917 297,124 324,059 
Accounts payable and accrued and other liabilities(28,547)(101,912)121,243 
Cash provided by operating activities1,155,737 1,101,422 1,312,470 
Investing activities:   
Additions to property, equipment and leasehold improvements(103,124)(108,050)(59,834)
Acquisitions - cash paid (net of cash acquired)(3,800)(9,508)(22,939)
Proceeds from sale of divested operation161,081   
Other  2,306 
Cash provided by (used in) investing activities54,157 (117,558)(80,467)
Financing activities:   
Proceeds from employee stock purchase plan25,107 22,231 18,173 
Proceeds from borrowings  600,000 
Payments for deferred financing fees  (7,320)
Payments on revolving credit facility  (5,000)
Payments on borrowings(7,800)(5,931)(107,915)
Purchases of treasury stock(606,188)(1,043,742)(1,655,547)
Cash used in financing activities(588,881)(1,027,442)(1,157,609)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash621,013 (43,578)74,394 
Effects of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(13)(18,425)(26,375)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of year698,599 760,602 712,583 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of year $1,319,599 $698,599 $760,602 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:   
Cash paid during the year for:   
Interest$119,038 $112,825 $101,885 
Income taxes, net of refunds received$306,682 $174,802 $253,379 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
43


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies
 
Business. Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight that drives smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission-critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for nearly 15,000 enterprises in approximately 90 countries and territories — across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Segments. Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting. Note 9 — Revenue and Related Matters and Note 16 — Segment Information describe the products and services offered by each of our segments and provide additional financial information for those segments.

Basis of presentation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), as defined in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”), for financial information and with the applicable instructions of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Regulation S-X.

The fiscal year of Gartner is the twelve-month period from January 1 through December 31. All references to 2023, 2022 and 2021 herein refer to the fiscal year unless otherwise indicated. When used in these notes, the terms “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Principles of consolidation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
 
Use of estimates. The preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future events. These estimates and the underlying assumptions affect the amounts of assets and liabilities reported, disclosures about contingent assets and liabilities, and reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Such estimates include the valuation of fees receivable, goodwill, intangible assets and other long-lived assets, as well as tax accruals and other liabilities. In addition, estimates are used in revenue recognition, income tax expense or benefit, performance-based compensation charges, depreciation and amortization. Management believes its use of estimates in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements to be reasonable.

Management continually evaluates and revises its estimates using historical experience and other factors, including the general economic environment and actions it may take in the future. Management adjusts these estimates when facts and circumstances dictate. However, these estimates may involve significant uncertainties and judgments and cannot be determined with precision. In addition, these estimates are based on management’s best judgment at a point in time. As a result, differences between our estimates and actual results could be material and would be reflected in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements in future periods.

Business acquisitions. The Company accounts for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as prescribed by FASB ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations. The acquisition method of accounting requires the Company to record the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date, with certain exceptions. Any excess of the consideration transferred over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired, including identifiable intangible assets, is recorded as goodwill. Under the acquisition method, the operating results of acquired companies are included in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on the date of acquisition. The Company completed business acquisitions in both 2022 and 2021. Note 2 — Acquisitions and Divestiture provides additional information regarding those business acquisitions.