485BPOS 1 form.htm
1933 Act File No. 2-91090
1940 Act File No. 811-4017

 

Form N-1A

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  
       
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.    
       
  Post-Effective Amendment No.   197
 
and/or
   
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940  
       
  Amendment No.   191
         

 

 

FEDERATED EQUITY FUNDS

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

Federated Investors Funds

4000 Ericsson Drive

Warrendale, PA 15086-7561

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(412) 288-1900

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

 

John W. McGonigle, Esquire

Federated Investors Tower

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222-3779

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):
   
X immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  on     pursuant to paragraph (b)
  60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  on      pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  on   pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485
 
If appropriate, check the following box:
   
  This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 

 

Prospectus
September 1, 2017
Share Class Ticker
R6 FKALX
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund

A Portfolio of Federated Equity Funds

A mutual fund seeking to provide capital appreciation by investing primarily in the common stocks of small companies that are traded on national security exchanges, the NASDAQ stock market and on the over-the-counter market.
As with all mutual funds, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Not FDIC Insured • May Lose Value • No Bank Guarantee


Fund Summary Information
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (the “Fund”)
RISK/RETURN SUMMARY: INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE
The Fund's investment objective is to provide capital appreciation.
RISK/RETURN SUMMARY: FEES AND EXPENSES
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold the Fund's Class R6 Shares (R6). If you purchase the Fund's R6 Shares through a broker acting as an agent on behalf of its customers, you may be required to pay a commission to such broker; such commissions, if any, are not reflected in the Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment) R6
Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases (as a percentage of offering price)

None
Maximum Deferred Sales Charge (Load) (as a percentage of original purchase price or redemption proceeds, as applicable)

None
Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends (and other Distributions) (as a percentage of offering price)

None
Redemption Fee (as a percentage of amount redeemed, if applicable)

None
Exchange Fee

None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fee

0.80%
Distribution (12b-1) Fee

None
Other Expenses

0.19%1
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses

0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

1.00%
Fee Waivers and/or Expense Reimbursements2

(0.11)%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waivers and/or Expense Reimbursements

0.89%
1 Because the Fund's R6 Shares are new, “Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.
2 The Adviser and certain of its affiliates on their own initiative have agreed to waive certain amounts of their respective fees and/or reimburse expenses. Total annual fund operating expenses (excluding Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, extraordinary expenses and proxy-related expenses paid by the Fund, if any) paid by the Fund's R6 class (after the voluntary waivers and/or reimbursements) will not exceed 0.88% (the “Fee Limit”) up to but not including the later of (the “Termination Date”): (a) September 1, 2018; or (b) the date of the Fund's next effective Prospectus. While the Adviser and its affiliates currently do not anticipate terminating or increasing these arrangements prior to the Termination Date, these arrangements may only be terminated or the Fee Limit increased prior to the Termination Date with the agreement of the Fund's Board of Trustees.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.
The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. Expenses assuming no redemption are also shown. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that operating expenses are as shown in the table above and remain the same. Although your actual costs and returns may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
Share Class 1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
R6:        
Expenses assuming redemption $102 $318 $552 $1,225
Expenses assuming no redemption $102 $318 $552 $1,225
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund's portfolio turnover rate was 48% of the average value of its portfolio.
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RISK/RETURN SUMMARY: INVESTMENTS, RISKS and PERFORMANCE
What are the Fund's Main Investment Strategies?
The Fund pursues its investment objective by investing primarily in the common stocks of small companies that are traded on national security exchanges, the NASDAQ stock market and on the over-the-counter market. Small companies will be defined as companies with market capitalizations similar to companies in the Russell 2000 Index (which had a market capitalization range of $24.9 million to $6.7 billion as of October 31, 2016) or the Standard & Poor's Small Cap 600 Index (which had a market capitalization range of $78.9 million to $3.9 billion as of October 31, 2016). The Fund will normally invest at least 80% of its net assets (which include the amount of any borrowing for investment purposes) in small companies and will notify shareholders at least 60 days in advance of any change in its investment policies that would permit the Fund to normally invest less than 80% of its net assets in investments in small companies. Such definition will be applied at the time of investment and the Fund will not be required to sell a stock because a company has grown outside the market capitalization range of small capitalization stocks.
Up to 30% of the Fund's net assets may be invested in foreign securities. When investing in foreign securities, the Fund's Adviser and Sub-Adviser (collectively, “Adviser”) may emphasize investment in a particular country or group of countries which may subject the Fund to the risks of investing in such country or group of countries to a greater extent than if the Fund's foreign security exposure was diversified over a greater number of countries. The Adviser's process for selecting investments is bottom-up and growth-oriented. The Fund may loan up to 30% of its total assets in the form of its portfolio securities to unaffiliated broker/dealers, banks or other recognized institutional borrowers to generate additional income. The Fund receives cash, U.S. Treasury obligations and/or other liquid securities as collateral. The Fund also may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities.
The Fund may invest in fixed-income securities, American Depositary Receipts and use derivative contracts (such as, for example, options, swaps and futures contracts) and/or hybrid instruments to implement elements of its investment strategy. For example, the Fund may use derivative contracts or hybrid instruments to increase or decrease the portfolio's exposure to the investment(s) underlying the derivative or hybrid instruments in an attempt to benefit from changes in the value of the underlying investment(s), to realize gains from trading a derivative contract or to hedge against potential losses. There can be no assurances the Fund's use of derivative contracts and/or hybrid instruments will work as intended.
What are the Main Risks of Investing in the Fund?
All mutual funds take investment risks. Therefore, it is possible to lose money by investing in the Fund. The primary factors that may reduce the Fund's returns include:
■  Stock Market Risk. The value of equity securities in the Fund's portfolio will fluctuate and, as a result, the Fund's Share price may decline suddenly or over a sustained period of time. Information publicly available about a company, whether from the company's financial statements or other disclosures or from third parties, or information available to some but not all market participants, can affect the price of a company's shares in the market. Among other factors, equity securities may decline in value because of an increase in interest rates or changes in the stock market. Recent and potential future changes in industry and/or economic trends, as well as changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or their governments, also can affect the level of interest rates and contribute to the development of or increase in volatility, illiquidity, shareholder redemptions and other adverse effects (such as a decline in a company's stock price), which could negatively impact the Fund's performance.
■  Risk Related to Investing for Growth. Due to their relatively high valuations, growth stocks are typically more volatile than value stocks. For instance, the price of a growth stock may experience a larger decline on a forecast of lower earnings, a negative fundamental development, or an adverse market development. Further, growth stocks may not pay dividends or may pay lower dividends than value stocks. This means they depend more on price changes for returns and may be more adversely affected in a down market compared to value stocks that pay higher dividends.
■  Small-Cap Company Risk. The Fund may invest in small capitalization (or “small-cap”) companies. Small-cap companies may have less liquid stock, a more volatile share price, unproven track records, a limited product or service base, and limited access to capital. The above factors could make small-cap companies more likely to fail than larger companies, and increase the volatility of the Fund's portfolio, performance and Share price.
■  Sector Risk. Because the Fund may allocate relatively more assets to certain industry sectors than others, the Fund's performance may be more susceptible to any developments which affect those sectors emphasized by the Fund.
■  Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk refers to the possibility that the Fund may not be able to sell a security or close out a derivative contract when it wants to. If this happens, the Fund will be required to continue to hold the security or keep the position open, and the Fund could incur losses. OTC derivative contracts generally carry greater liquidity risk than exchange-traded contracts.
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■  Risk of Foreign Investing. Because the Fund invests in securities issued by foreign companies, the Fund's Share price may be more affected by foreign economic and political conditions, taxation policies and accounting and auditing standards than could otherwise be the case.
■  Risk of Investing in American Depositary Receipts and Domestically Traded Securities of Foreign Issuers. Because the Fund may invest in American Depositary Receipts and other domestically traded securities of foreign companies, the Fund's Share price may be more affected by foreign economic and political conditions, taxation policies and accounting and auditing standards than would otherwise be the case.
■  Custodial Services and Related Investment Costs. Custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive due to differing settlement and clearance procedures than those of the United States. The inability of the Fund to make intended securities purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. In addition, security settlement and clearance procedures in some emerging market countries may not fully protect the Fund against loss of its assets.
■  Currency Risk. Exchange rates for currencies fluctuate daily. Foreign securities are normally denominated and traded in foreign currencies. As a result, the value of the Fund's foreign investments and the value of the shares may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar.
■  Eurozone Related Risk. A number of countries in the European Union (EU) have experienced, and may continue to experience, severe economic and financial difficulties. Additional EU member countries may also fall subject to such difficulties. These events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund's investments in euro-denominated securities and derivatives contracts, securities of issuers located in the EU or with significant exposure to EU issuers or countries.
■  Risk of Investing in Derivative Contracts and Hybrid Instruments. Derivative contracts and hybrid instruments involve risks different from, or possibly greater than, risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. Specific risk issues related to the use of such contracts and instruments include valuation and tax issues, increased potential for losses and/or costs to the Fund and a potential reduction in gains to the Fund. Each of these issues is described in greater detail in this Prospectus. Derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may also involve other risks described in this Prospectus such as stock market, credit, currency, liquidity and leverage risks.
■  Credit Risk. Credit risk includes the possibility that a party to a transaction (such as a derivative transaction) involving the Fund will fail to meet its obligations. This could cause the Fund to lose money or to lose the benefit of the transaction or prevent the Fund from selling or buying other securities to implement its investment strategy.
■  Leverage Risk. Leverage risk is created when an investment (such as a derivative transaction) exposes the Fund to a level of risk that exceeds the amount invested. Changes in the value of such an investment magnify the Fund's risk of loss and potential for gain.
■  Interest Rate Risk. Prices of fixed-income securities generally fall when interest rates rise. The longer the duration of a fixed-income security, the more susceptible it is to interest-rate risk. Recent and potential future changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or their governments are likely to affect the level of interest rates.
■  Technology Risk. The Adviser uses various technologies in managing the Fund, consistent with its investment objective and strategy described in this prospectus. For example, proprietary and third-party data and systems are utilized to support decision making for the Fund. Data imprecision, software or other technology malfunctions, programming inaccuracies and similar circumstances may impair the performance of these systems, which may negatively affect Fund performance.
The Shares offered by this Prospectus are not deposits or obligations of any bank, are not endorsed or guaranteed by any bank and are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. government, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.
Performance: Bar Chart and Table
Risk/Return Bar Chart
The Fund's Class R6 Shares (“R6 class”) will commence operations on or about September 1, 2017. The Fund currently offers five other classes of shares: Class A Shares (“A class”), Class B Shares, Class C Shares, Class R Shares and Institutional Shares.
For the periods prior to commencement of operations of the Fund's R6 class, the R6 class performance shown below is for the Fund's A class adjusted to reflect expenses of the Fund's R6 class for each year for which the expenses of the R6 class would have exceeded the actual expenses paid by the Fund's A class. The performance information has also been adjusted to reflect any applicable differences between the sales loads and charges imposed on the purchase and redemption of
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R6 Class and Class A shares, as well as, the removal of any voluntary waivers/reimbursements of Fund expenses that may have occurred during the periods prior to the commencement of operations of the R6 class. The Fund's R6 class would have annual returns substantially similar to those of the A class because the shares are invested in the same portfolio of securities and the annual returns would differ only to the extent that the classes do not have the same expenses.
The bar chart and performance table below reflect historical performance data for the Fund and are intended to help you analyze the Fund's investment risks in light of its historical returns. The bar chart shows the variability of the Fund's R6 class total returns on a calendar year-by-year basis. The Average Annual Total Return table shows returns for each class averaged over the stated periods, and includes comparative performance information. The Fund's performance will fluctuate, and past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of future results. Updated performance information for the Fund is available under the “Products” section at FederatedInvestors.com or by calling 1-800-341-7400.
  
The Fund's R6 class total return for the six-month period from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017, was 17.97%.
Within the periods shown in the bar chart, the Fund's R6 class highest quarterly return was 26.68% (quarter ended June 30, 2009). Its lowest quarterly return was (26.86)% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).
Average Annual Total Return Table
The Fund's R6 class will commence operations on or about September 1, 2017. For the periods prior to commencement of operations of the R6 class, the R6 class performance shown below is for the A class, adjusted as described above. In addition to Return Before Taxes, Return After Taxes is shown for the Fund's R6 class to illustrate the effect of federal taxes on Fund returns. Actual after-tax returns depend on each investor's personal tax situation, and are likely to differ from those shown. After-tax returns are calculated using a standard set of assumptions. The stated returns assume the highest historical federal income and capital gains tax rates. These after-tax returns do not reflect the effect of any applicable state and local taxes. After-tax returns are not relevant to investors holding Shares through a 401(k) plan, an Individual Retirement Account or other tax-advantaged investment plan.
(For the Period Ended December 31, 2016)
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
R6:      
Return Before Taxes 5.77% 14.83% 6.69%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 5.58% 11.91% 5.14%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 3.42% 11.33% 5.10%
Russell 2000® Growth Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
11.32% 13.74% 7.76%
Morningstar Small Growth Funds Average2 11.20% 12.33% 7.08%
1 The Russell 2000® Growth Index measures the performance of the small-cap growth segment of the U.S. equity universe.
2 Morningstar figures represent the average of the total returns reported by all the mutual funds designated by Morningstar as falling into the respective category indicated. They do not reflect sales charges.
Fund Management
The Fund's Investment Adviser (“Adviser”) is Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania. The Fund's Sub-Adviser is Federated Global Investment Management Corp. The Fund is managed by an investment team under the leadership of Hans P. Utsch, Head of the Federated Kaufmann Growth Equity Team. The following individuals are currently responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund's portfolio:
Hans P. Utsch, Senior Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2002.
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John Ettinger, Senior Investment Analyst & Senior Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since October 2003 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
Stephen DeNichilo, Senior Investment Analyst and Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2014 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since February 2012.
Barbara Miller, Senior Investment Analyst & Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2011 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
Tom M. Brakel, Senior Investment Analyst & Senior Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since July 2012 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since October 2003.
Jonathan Art, Senior Investment Analyst & Senior Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2013 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
Mark Bauknight, Senior Investment Analyst & Senior Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2013 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
Steven Abrahamson, Senior Investment Analyst, has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
Vivian Wohl, Senior Investment Analyst and Portfolio Manager, has been the Fund's portfolio manager since December 2014 and has been a member of the Fund's investment management team since December 2002.
purchase and sale of fund shares
You may purchase, redeem or exchange Shares of the Fund on any day the New York Stock Exchange is open. Shares may be purchased through a financial intermediary firm that has entered into a Fund selling and/or servicing agreement with the Distributor or an affiliate (“Financial Intermediary”) or directly from the Fund, by wire or by check. Please note that certain purchase restrictions may apply. Redeem or exchange Shares through a financial intermediary or directly from the Fund by telephone at 1-800-341-7400 or by mail.
There are no minimum initial or subsequent investment amounts required. The minimum investment amount for Systematic Investment Programs is $50.
TAX INFORMATION
The Fund's distributions are taxable as ordinary income or capital gains except when your investment is through a tax-advantaged investment plan.
What are the Fund's Investment Strategies?
The Fund's investment objective is to provide capital appreciation. While there is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective, it endeavors to do so by following the principal strategies and policies described in this Prospectus. The Fund's Statement of Additional Information (SAI) provides information about the Fund's non-principal strategies.
In seeking to meet its investment objective, the Fund invests primarily in the stocks of small companies that are traded on national security exchanges, the NASDAQ stock market and on the over-the-counter market. Up to 30% of the Fund's net assets may be invested in foreign securities. Solely for purposes of complying with this policy an issuer's security will be considered to be a foreign security if the security is denominated in a foreign currency or purchased on a securities exchange outside the United States. Certain securities not included in this definition of foreign securities may still be subject to risks of foreign investing that are described in this Prospectus. For example, an issuer that is organized in an offshore jurisdiction but who has its principal place of business or whose securities are traded principally on a securities exchange in the United States will not be considered a foreign security for purposes of this policy but may still be subject to risks associated with foreign securities. When investing in foreign securities, the Fund's Adviser may emphasize investment in a particular country or group of countries which may subject the Fund to the risks of investing in such country or group of countries to a greater extent than if the Fund's foreign security exposure was diversified over a greater number of countries. The Adviser's process for selecting investments is bottom-up and growth-oriented. When deciding which securities to buy the Fund considers:
■  the growth prospects of existing products and new product development;
■  the economic outlook of the industry;
■  the price of the security and its estimated fundamental value; and
■  relevant market, economic and political environments.
The Fund's Adviser uses a bottom-up approach to portfolio management. There is an emphasis on individual stock selection rather than trying to time the highs and lows of the market or concentrating in certain industries or sectors. This hands-on approach means that in addition to sophisticated computer analysis, the Adviser may conduct in-depth meetings with management, industry analysts and consultants. Through this interaction with companies, the Adviser seeks to develop a thorough knowledge of the dynamics of the businesses in which the Fund invests.
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The Fund assesses individual companies from the perspective of a long-term investor. The Adviser seeks to purchase stocks of companies that it believes:
■  are profitable and leaders in the industry;
■  have distinct products and services which address substantial markets;
■  can rapidly grow annual earnings over the next three to five years; and/or
■  have superior proven management and solid balance sheets.
Typically, the Fund sells an individual security when the company fails to meet expectations, there is a deterioration of underlying fundamentals or the intermediate- and long-term prospects become poor.
The Fund may also seek capital appreciation by buying securities in initial public offerings. The Fund will participate in such offerings without regard to the issuer's market capitalization. The Adviser may select initial public offerings based on its fundamental analysis of the issuer.
The Fund may loan up to 30% of its total assets in the form of its portfolio securities to unaffiliated broker/dealers, banks or other recognized institutional borrowers to generate additional income. The Fund receives cash, U.S. Treasury obligations and/or other liquid securities as collateral. The Fund also may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities.
The Fund may use derivative contracts and/or hybrid instruments to implement elements of its investment strategy. The types of derivatives that the Fund may use include, among others, futures, options and swaps. For example, the Fund may use derivative contracts or hybrid instruments to increase or decrease the portfolio's exposure to the investment(s) underlying the derivative or hybrid instruments in an attempt to benefit from changes in the value of the underlying investment(s). Additionally, by way of example, the Fund may use derivative contracts in an attempt to:
■  obtain premiums from the sale of derivative contracts;
■  realize gains from trading a derivative contract; or
■  hedge against potential losses.
  There can be no assurance that the Fund's use of derivative contracts or hybrid instruments will work as intended.
Because the Fund refers to small capitalization investments in its name, the Fund will notify shareholders at least 60 days in advance of any change in its investment policies that would permit the fund to normally invest less than 80% of its assets (which include the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in investments in small companies. For purposes of this limitation, small companies will be defined as companies with market capitalizations no greater than the companies in the Russell 2000 Index (which had a market capitalization range of $24.9 million to $6.7 billion as of October 31, 2016) or the Standard & Poor's Small Cap 600 Index (which had a market capitalization range of $78.9 million to $3.9 billion as of October 31, 2016). Such definition will be applied at the time of investment and the Fund will not be required to sell a stock because a company has grown outside the market capitalization range of small capitalization stocks.
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER
The Fund actively trades its portfolio securities in an attempt to achieve its investment objective. Active trading will cause the Fund to have an increased portfolio turnover rate, which is likely to generate shorter-term gains (losses) for its shareholders, which are taxed at a higher rate than longer-term gains (losses). Actively trading portfolio securities increases the Fund's trading costs and may have an adverse impact on the Fund's performance.
TEMPORARY INVESTMENTS
The Fund may temporarily depart from its principal investment strategies by investing its assets in shorter-term debt securities and similar obligations or holding cash. It may do this in response to unusual circumstances, such as: adverse market, economic or other conditions (for example, to help avoid potential losses or during periods when there is a shortage of appropriate securities); to maintain liquidity to meet shareholder redemptions; or to accommodate cash inflows. It is possible that such investments could affect the Fund's investment returns and/or the ability to achieve the Fund's investment objectives.
What are the Fund's Principal Investments?
The following provides general information on the Fund's principal investments. The Fund's Statement of Additional Information (SAI) provides information about the Fund's non-principal investments and may provide additional information about the Fund's principal investments.
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Equity Securities
Equity securities represent a share of an issuer's earnings and assets, after the issuer pays its liabilities. The Fund cannot predict the income it will receive from equity securities because issuers generally have discretion as to the payment of any dividends or distributions. However, equity securities offer greater potential for appreciation than many other types of securities, because their value increases directly with the value of the issuer's business.
The following describes the equity securities in which the Fund principally invests.
Common Stocks
Common stocks are the most prevalent type of equity security. Common stocks receive the issuer's earnings after the issuer pays its creditors and any preferred stockholders. As a result, changes in an issuer's earnings directly influence the value of its common stock.
Foreign Securities
An issuer's security will be considered to be a foreign security if the security is denominated in a foreign currency or purchased on a securities exchange outside the United States. Certain securities not included in this definition of foreign securities may still be subject to risks of foreign investing that are described in this Prospectus. For example, an issuer that is organized in a non-U.S. jurisdiction but who has its principal place of business or whose securities are traded principally on a securities exchange in the United States will not be considered a foreign security for purposes of this definition but may still be subject to risks associated with foreign securities. Foreign securities are primarily denominated in foreign currencies. Along with the risks normally associated with domestic securities of the same type, foreign securities are subject to currency risks and risks of foreign investing. Trading in certain foreign markets is also subject to liquidity risks.
ADRs and Domestically Traded Securities of Foreign Issuers (Types of Foreign Equity Securities)
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), which are traded in U.S. markets, represent interests in underlying securities issued by a foreign company and not traded in the United States. ADRs provide a way to buy shares of foreign-based companies in the United States rather than in overseas markets. ADRs are also traded in U.S. dollars, eliminating the need for foreign exchange transactions. The Fund may also invest in securities issued directly by foreign companies and traded in U.S. dollars in U.S. markets.
Foreign Exchange Contracts
In order to convert U.S. dollars into the currency needed to buy a foreign security, or to convert foreign currency received from the sale of a foreign security into U.S. dollars, the Fund may enter into spot currency trades. In a spot trade, the Fund agrees to exchange one currency for another at the current exchange rate. The Fund may also enter into derivative contracts in which a foreign currency is an underlying asset. The exchange rate for currency derivative contracts may be higher or lower than the spot exchange rate. Use of these derivative contracts may increase or decrease the Fund's exposure to currency risks.
Illiquid Securities
Illiquid securities are securities for which there is no readily available market or securities with legal or contractual restrictions. These may include private placements, repurchase agreements that the Fund cannot dispose of within seven days and securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933.
Fixed-Income Securities
Fixed-income securities pay interest, dividends or distributions at a specified rate. The rate may be a fixed percentage of the principal or may be adjusted periodically. In addition, the issuer of a fixed-income security must repay the principal amount of the security, normally within a specified time. Fixed-income securities provide more regular income than equity securities. However, the returns on fixed-income securities are limited and normally do not increase with the issuer's earnings. This limits the potential appreciation of fixed-income securities as compared to equity securities.
A security's yield measures the annual income earned on a security as a percentage of its price. A security's yield will increase or decrease depending upon whether it costs less (a “discount”) or more (a “premium”) than the principal amount. If the issuer may redeem the security before its scheduled maturity, the price and yield on a discount or premium security may change based upon the probability of an early redemption. Securities with higher risks generally have higher yields.
Derivative Contracts
Derivative contracts are financial instruments that require payments based upon changes in the values of designated securities, commodities, currencies, indices, or other assets or instruments including other derivative contracts, (each a “Reference Instrument” and collectively, “Reference Instruments”). Each party to a derivative contract may sometimes be referred to as a counterparty. Some derivative contracts require payments relating to an actual, future trade involving the
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Reference Instrument. These types of derivatives are frequently referred to as “physically settled” derivatives. Other derivative contracts require payments relating to the income or returns from, or changes in the market value of, a Reference Instrument. These types of derivatives are known as “cash-settled” derivatives, since they require cash payments in lieu of delivery of the Reference Instrument.
Many derivative contracts are traded on securities or commodities exchanges. In this case, the exchange sets all the terms of the contract except for the price. Investors make payments due under their contracts through the exchange. Most exchanges require investors to maintain margin accounts through their brokers to cover their potential obligations to the exchange. Parties to the contract make (or collect) daily payments to the margin accounts to reflect losses (or gains) in the value of their contracts. This protects investors against potential defaults by the other party to the contract. Trading contracts on an exchange also allows investors to close out their contracts by entering into offsetting contracts.
The Fund may also trade derivative contracts over-the-counter (OTC) in transactions negotiated directly between the Fund and a financial institution. OTC contracts do not necessarily have standard terms, so they may be less liquid and more difficult to close out than exchange-traded contracts. In addition, OTC contracts with more specialized terms may be more difficult to value than exchange-traded contracts, especially in times of financial stress.
The market for swaps and other OTC derivatives was largely unregulated prior to the enactment of federal legislation known as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”). Regulations enacted by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the CFTC) under the Dodd-Frank Act require the Fund to clear certain swap contracts through a clearing house or central counterparty (a CCP).
To clear a swap through the CCP, the Fund will submit the contract to, and post margin with, a futures commission merchant (FCM) that is a clearing house member. The Fund may enter into the swap with a financial institution other than the FCM and arrange for the contract to be transferred to the FCM for clearing, or enter into the contract with the FCM itself. If the Fund must centrally clear a transaction, the CFTC's regulations also generally require that the swap be executed on a registered exchange or through a market facility that is known as a swap execution facility or SEF. Central clearing is presently required only for certain swaps; the CFTC is expected to impose a mandatory central clearing requirement for additional derivative instruments over time.
The CCP, SEF and FCM are all subject to regulatory oversight by the CFTC. In addition, most derivative market participants are now regulated as swap dealers or major swap participants and are subject to certain minimum capital and margin requirements and business conduct standards. Similar regulatory requirements are expected to apply to derivative contracts that are subject to the jurisdiction of the SEC, although the SEC has not yet finalized its regulations. In addition, uncleared OTC swaps will be subject to regulatory collateral requirements that could adversely affect the Fund's ability to enter into swaps in the OTC market. These developments could cause the Fund to terminate new or existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments at an inopportune time.
Until the mandated rulemaking and regulations are implemented completely, it will not be possible to determine the complete impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulations on the Fund.
Depending on how the Fund uses derivative contracts and the relationships between the market value of a derivative contract and the Reference Instrument, derivative contracts may increase or decrease the Fund's exposure to the risks of the Reference Instrument, and may also expose the Fund to liquidity and leverage risks. OTC contracts also expose the Fund to credit risks in the event that a counterparty defaults on the contract, although this risk may be mitigated by submitting the contract for clearing through a CCP.
Payment obligations arising in connection with derivative contracts are frequently required to be secured with margin (which is commonly called “collateral”). To the extent necessary to meet such requirements, the Fund may purchase U.S. Treasury and/or government agency securities.
The Fund may invest in a derivative contract if it is permitted to own, invest in, or otherwise have economic exposure to the Reference Instrument. The Fund is not required to own a Reference Instrument in order to buy or sell a derivative contract relating to that Reference Instrument. The Fund may trade in the following specific types and/or combinations of derivative contracts:
Futures Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a Reference Instrument at a specified price, date and time. Entering into a contract to buy a Reference Instrument is commonly referred to as buying a contract or holding a long position in the asset. Entering into a contract to sell a Reference Instrument is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position in the Reference Instrument. Futures contracts are considered to be commodity contracts. The Adviser has claimed an exclusion from the definition of
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the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to the Fund and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation with respect to the Fund. Futures contracts traded OTC are frequently referred to as forward contracts. The Fund can buy or sell financial futures (such as index futures and security futures) as well as currency futures and currency forward contracts.
Option Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
Option contracts (also called “options”) are rights to buy or sell a Reference Instrument for a specified price (the “exercise price”) during, or at the end of, a specified period. The seller (or “writer”) of the option receives a payment, or premium, from the buyer, which the writer keeps regardless of whether the buyer uses (or exercises) the option. A call option gives the holder (buyer) the right to buy the Reference Instrument from the seller (writer) of the option. A put option gives the holder the right to sell the Reference Instrument to the writer of the option. Options may be bought or sold on a wide variety of Reference Instruments. Options that are written on futures contracts will be subject to margin requirements similar to those applied to futures contracts.
Swap Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
A swap contract (also known as a “swap”) is a type of derivative contract in which two parties agree to pay each other (swap) the returns derived from Reference Instruments. Swaps do not always involve the delivery of the Reference Instruments by either party, and the parties might not own the Reference Instruments underlying the swap. The payments are usually made on a net basis so that, on any given day, the Fund would receive (or pay) only the amount by which its payment under the contract is less than (or exceeds) the amount of the other party's payment. Swap agreements are sophisticated instruments that can take many different forms and are known by a variety of names. Common types of swaps in which the Fund may invest include interest rate swaps, caps and floors, total return swaps, credit default swaps and currency swaps.
OTHER INVESTMENTS, TRANSACTIONS, TECHNIQUES
Hybrid Instruments
Hybrid instruments combine elements of two different kinds of securities or financial instruments (such as a derivative contract). Frequently, the value of a hybrid instrument is determined by reference to changes in the value of a Reference Instrument (that is a designated security, commodity, currency, index or other asset or instrument including a derivative contract). The Fund may use hybrid instruments only in connection with permissible investment activities. Hybrid instruments can take on many forms including, but not limited to, the following forms. First, a common form of a hybrid instrument combines elements of a derivative contract with those of another security (typically a fixed-income security). In this case all or a portion of the interest or principal payable on a hybrid security is determined by reference to changes in the price of a Reference Instrument. Second, a hybrid instrument may also combine elements of a fixed-income security and an equity security. Third, hybrid instruments may include convertible securities with conversion terms related to a Reference Instrument.
Depending on the type and terms of the hybrid instrument, its risks may reflect a combination of the risks of investing in the Reference Instrument with the risks of investing in other securities, currencies and derivative contracts. Thus, an investment in a hybrid instrument may entail significant risks in addition to those associated with traditional investments or the Reference Instrument. Hybrid instruments are also potentially more volatile than traditional securities or the Reference Instrument. Moreover, depending on the structure of the particular hybrid, it may expose the Fund to leverage risks or carry liquidity risks.
Securities Lending
The Fund may lend portfolio securities to borrowers that the Adviser deems creditworthy. In return, the Fund receives cash or liquid securities from the borrower as collateral. The borrower must furnish additional collateral if the market value of the loaned securities increases. Also, the borrower must pay the Fund the equivalent of any dividends or interest received on the loaned securities.
The Fund will reinvest cash collateral in securities that qualify as an acceptable investment for the Fund. However, the Fund must pay interest to the borrower for the use of cash collateral.
Loans are subject to termination at the option of the Fund or the borrower. The Fund will not have the right to vote on securities while they are on loan. However, the Fund will attempt to terminate a loan in an effort to reacquire the securities in time to vote on matters that are deemed to be material by the Adviser. There can be no assurance that the Fund will have sufficient notice of such matters to be able to terminate the loan in time to vote thereon. The Fund may pay administrative and custodial fees in connection with a loan and may pay a negotiated portion of the interest earned on the cash collateral to a securities lending agent or broker. Securities lending activities are subject to interest rate risks and credit risks. These transactions create leverage risks.
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Asset Segregation
In order to secure its obligations in connection with derivative contracts or special transactions, the Fund will either own the underlying assets, enter into offsetting transactions or set aside cash or readily marketable securities. This requirement may cause the Fund to miss favorable trading opportunities, due to a lack of sufficient cash or readily marketable securities. This requirement may also cause the Fund to realize losses on offsetting or terminated derivative contracts or special transactions.
Investing in Securities of Other Investment Companies
The Fund may invest its assets in securities of other investment companies, including the securities of affiliated money market funds, as an efficient means of implementing its investment strategies and/or managing its uninvested cash. These other investment companies are managed independently of the Fund and incur additional fees and/or expenses which would, therefore, be borne indirectly by the Fund in connection with any such investment. However, the Adviser believes that the benefits and efficiencies of this approach should outweigh the potential additional fees and/or expenses. The Fund may invest in money market securities directly.
What are the Specific Risks of Investing in the Fund?
The following provides general information on the risks associated with the Fund's principal investments. Any additional risks associated with the Fund's non-principal investments are described in the Fund's SAI. The Fund's SAI also may provide additional information about the risks associated with the Fund's principal investments.
Stock Market Risk
The value of equity securities in the Fund's portfolio will rise and fall over time. These fluctuations could be a sustained trend or a drastic movement. Historically, the equity market has moved in cycles, and the value of the Fund's securities may fluctuate from day to day. The Fund's portfolio will reflect changes in prices of individual portfolio stocks or general changes in stock valuations. Consequently, the Fund's Share price may decline. The Adviser attempts to manage market risk by limiting the amount the Fund invests in each company's equity securities. However, diversification will not protect the Fund against widespread or prolonged declines in the stock market.
Information publicly available about a company, whether from the company's financial statements or other disclosures or from third parties, or information available to some but not all market participants, can affect the price of a company's shares in the market. The price of a company's shares depends significantly on the information publicly available about the company. The reporting of poor results by a company, the restatement of a company's financial statements or corrections to other information regarding a company or its business may adversely affect the price of its shares, as would allegations of fraud or other misconduct by the company's management. The Fund may also be disadvantaged if some market participants have access to material information not readily available to other market participants, including the Fund.
Economic, political and financial conditions, or industry or economic trends and developments, may from time to time, and for varying periods of time, cause volatility, illiquidity and/or other potentially adverse effects in the financial markets. The commencement, continuation or ending of government policies and economic stimulus programs, changes in monetary policy, increases or decreases in interest rates, or other factors or events that affect the financial markets may contribute to the development of or increase in volatility, illiquidity, shareholder redemptions and other adverse effects (such as a decline in a company's stock price), which could negatively impact the Fund's performance. For example, the value of equity securities may rise and fall in response to changes in interest rates. Market factors, such as the demand for particular equity securities, may cause the price of certain equity securities to fall while the prices of other securities rise or remain unchanged.
Risk Related to Investing for Growth
Due to their relatively high valuations, growth stocks are typically more volatile than value stocks. For instance, the price of a growth stock may experience a larger decline on a forecast of lower earnings, a negative fundamental development or an adverse market development. Further, growth stocks may not pay dividends or may pay lower dividends than value stocks. This means they depend more on price changes for returns and may be more adversely affected in a down market compared to value stocks that pay higher dividends.
Small-Cap Company Risk
The Fund may invest in small capitalization (or “small-cap”) companies. Market capitalization is determined by multiplying the number of a company's outstanding shares by the current market price per share. Generally, the smaller the market capitalization of a company, the fewer the number of shares traded daily, the less liquid its stock and the more volatile its price. Companies with smaller market capitalizations also tend to have unproven track records, a limited product or
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service base and limited access to capital. Newer companies with unproven business strategies also tend to be smaller companies. The above factors increase risks and make these companies more likely to fail than companies with larger market capitalizations, and could increase the volatility of the Fund's portfolio and performance. Shareholders should expect that the value of the Fund's Shares will be more volatile than a fund that invests exclusively in mid-cap or large-cap companies.
SECTOR RISK
Companies with similar characteristics may be grouped together in broad categories called sectors. Sector risk is the possibility that a certain sector may underperform other sectors or the market as a whole. As the Adviser allocates more of the Fund's portfolio holdings to a particular sector, the Fund's performance will be more susceptible to any economic, business or other developments which generally affect that sector.
Liquidity Risk
Trading opportunities are more limited for equity securities that are not widely held. This may make it more difficult to sell or buy a security at a favorable price or time. Consequently, the Fund may have to accept a lower price to sell a security, sell other securities to raise cash or give up an investment opportunity, any of which could have a negative effect on the Fund's performance. Infrequent trading of securities may also lead to an increase in their price volatility.
Liquidity risk also refers to the possibility that the Fund may not be able to sell a security or close out a derivative contract when it wants to. If this happens, the Fund will be required to continue to hold the security or keep the position open, and the Fund could incur losses.
OTC derivative contracts generally carry greater liquidity risk than exchange-traded contracts. This risk may be increased in times of financial stress, if the trading market for OTC derivative contracts becomes restricted.
RISK OF FOREIGN INVESTING
Foreign securities pose additional risks because foreign economic or political conditions may be less favorable than those of the United States. Securities in foreign markets may also be subject to taxation policies that reduce returns for U.S. investors.
Foreign companies may not provide information (including financial statements) as frequently or completely as companies in the United States. Foreign companies may also receive less coverage than U.S. companies by market analysts and the financial press. In addition, foreign countries may lack uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards or regulatory requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. These factors may prevent the Fund and its Adviser from obtaining information concerning foreign companies that is as frequent, extensive and reliable as the information available concerning companies in the United States.
Foreign countries may have restrictions on foreign ownership of securities or may impose exchange controls, capital flow restrictions or repatriation restrictions which could adversely affect the liquidity of the Fund's investments.
When the Fund's investment in foreign securities emphasizes a particular country or group of countries, the Fund may be significantly affected by the economic, political or regulatory developments affecting such country or group of countries. Additionally, natural disasters affecting such country or countries could have an adverse effect on the Fund's investment in companies located in such country.
Risk of Investing in ADRs and Domestically Traded Securities of Foreign Issuers
Because the Fund may invest in ADRs and other domestically traded securities of foreign companies, the Fund's Share price may be more affected by foreign economic and political conditions, taxation policies and accounting and auditing standards than would otherwise be the case.
CUSTODIAL SERVICES AND RELATED INVESTMENT COSTS
Custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. Such markets have settlement and clearance procedures that differ from those in the United States. In certain markets, there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. The inability of the Fund to make intended securities purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of a portfolio security caused by settlement problems could result in losses to the Fund due to a subsequent decline in value of the portfolio security. In addition, security settlement and clearance procedures in some emerging market countries may not fully protect the Fund against loss of its assets.
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Currency Risk
Exchange rates for currencies fluctuate daily. The combination of currency risk and market risks tends to make securities traded in foreign markets more volatile than securities traded exclusively in the United States. The Adviser and Sub-Adviser attempt to manage currency risk by limiting the amount the Fund invests in securities denominated in a particular currency. However, diversification will not protect the Fund against a general increase in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies.
Investing in currencies or securities denominated in a foreign currency, entails risk of being exposed to a currency that may not fully reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the economy of the country or region utilizing the currency. In addition, it is possible that a currency (such as, for example, the euro) could be abandoned in the future by countries that have already adopted its use, and the effects of such an abandonment on the applicable country and the rest of the countries utilizing the currency are uncertain but could negatively affect the Fund's investments denominated in the currency. If a currency used by a country or countries is replaced by another currency, the Fund's Adviser and Sub-Adviser would evaluate whether to continue to hold any investments denominated in such currency, or whether to purchase investments denominated in the currency that replaces such currency, at the time. Such investments may continue to be held, or purchased, to the extent consistent with the Fund's investment objective(s) and permitted under applicable law.
Many countries rely heavily upon export-dependent businesses and any strength in the exchange rate between a currency and the U.S. dollar or other currencies can have either a positive or a negative effect upon corporate profits and the performance of investments in the country or region utilizing the currency. Adverse economic events within such country or region may increase the volatility of exchange rates against other currencies, subjecting the Fund's investments denominated in such country's or region's currency to additional risks.
eurozone Related risk
A number of countries in the European Union (EU) have experienced, and may continue to experience, severe economic and financial difficulties. Additional EU member countries may also fall subject to such difficulties. These events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund's investments in euro-denominated securities and derivatives contracts, securities of issuers located in the EU or with significant exposure to EU issuers or countries. If the euro is dissolved entirely, the legal and contractual consequences for holders of euro-denominated obligations and derivative contracts would be determined by laws in effect at such time. Such investments may continue to be held, or purchased, to the extent consistent with the Fund's investment objective(s) and permitted under applicable law. These potential developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could adversely affect the value of the Shares.
Certain countries in the EU have had to accept assistance from supra-governmental agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, the European Stability Mechanism (the ESM) or other supra-governmental agencies. The European Central Bank has also been intervening to purchase Eurozone debt in an attempt to stabilize markets and reduce borrowing costs. There can be no assurance that these agencies will continue to intervene or provide further assistance and markets may react adversely to any expected reduction in the financial support provided by these agencies. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences.
In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro and/or withdraw from the EU. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, could be significant and far-reaching. In June 2016, the United Kingdom (U.K.) approved a referendum to leave the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” which sparked depreciation in the value of the British pound, short-term declines in global stock markets and heightened risk of continued worldwide economic volatility. As a result of Brexit, there is considerable uncertainty as to the arrangements that will apply to the U.K.'s relationship with the EU and other countries leading up to, and following, its withdrawal. This long-term uncertainty may affect other countries in the EU and elsewhere. Further, the U.K.'s departure from the EU may cause volatility within the EU, triggering prolonged economic downturns in certain European countries or sparking additional member states to contemplate departing the EU. In addition, Brexit can create actual or perceived additional economic stresses for the U.K., including potential for decreased trade, capital outflows, devaluation of the British pound, wider corporate bond spreads due to uncertainty and possible declines in business and consumer spending as well as foreign direct investment.
Risk of Investing in Derivative Contracts and Hybrid Instruments
The Fund's exposure to derivative contracts and hybrid instruments (either directly or through its investment in another investment company) involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. First, changes in the value of the derivative contracts and hybrid instruments in which the Fund invests may not be correlated with changes in the value of the underlying Reference Instruments or, if they are correlated, may move in the opposite direction than originally anticipated. Second, while some strategies involving derivatives may reduce the risk of loss, they may also reduce potential gains or, in some cases, result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in portfolio holdings. Third, there is a risk that derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may
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be erroneously priced or improperly valued and, as a result, the Fund may need to make increased cash payments to the counterparty. Fourth, exposure to derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may have tax consequences to the Fund and its shareholders. For example, derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may cause the Fund to realize increased ordinary income or short-term capital gains (which are treated as ordinary income for Federal income tax purposes) and, as a result, may increase taxable distributions to shareholders. In addition, under certain circumstances certain derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may cause the Fund to: (a) incur an excise tax on a portion of the income related to those contracts and instruments; and/or (b) reclassify, as a return of capital, some or all of the distributions previously made to shareholders during the fiscal year as dividend income. Fifth, a common provision in OTC derivative contracts permits the counterparty to terminate any such contract between it and the Fund, if the value of the Fund's total net assets declines below a specified level over a given time period. Factors that may contribute to such a decline (which usually must be substantial) include significant shareholder redemptions and/or a marked decrease in the market value of the Fund's investments. Any such termination of the Fund's OTC derivative contracts may adversely affect the Fund (for example, by increasing losses and/or costs, and/or preventing the Fund from fully implementing its investment strategies). Sixth, the Fund may use a derivative contract to benefit from a decline in the value of a Reference Instrument. If the value of the Reference Instrument declines during the term of the contract, the Fund makes a profit on the difference (less any payments the Fund is required to pay under the terms of the contract). Any such strategy involves risk. There is no assurance that the Reference Instrument will decline in value during the term of the contract and make a profit for the Fund. The Reference Instrument may instead appreciate in value creating a loss for the Fund. Seventh, a default or failure by a CCP or an FCM (also sometimes called a “futures broker”), or the failure of a contract to be transferred from an Executing Dealer to the FCM for clearing, may expose the Fund to losses, increase its costs, or prevent the Fund from entering or exiting derivative positions, accessing margin, or fully implementing its investment strategies. The central clearing of a derivative and trading of a contract over a SEF could reduce the liquidity in, or increase costs of entering into or holding, any contracts. Finally, derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may also involve other risks described in this Prospectus, such as stock market, interest rate, credit, currency,.
Credit Risk
Credit risk includes the possibility that a party to a transaction (such as a derivative transaction) involving the Fund will fail to meet its obligations. This could cause the Fund to lose the benefit of the transaction or prevent the Fund from selling or buying other securities to implement its investment strategy. Credit risk also includes the possibility that an issuer will default on a security by failing to pay interest or principal when due. If an issuer defaults, the Fund will lose money.
Leverage Risk
Leverage risk is created when an investment, which includes, for example, an investment in a derivative contract, exposes the Fund to a level of risk that exceeds the amount invested. Changes in the value of such an investment magnify the Fund's risk of loss and potential for gain. Investments can have these same results if their returns are based on a multiple of a specified index, security or other benchmark.
Interest Rate Risk
Prices of fixed-income securities rise and fall in response to changes in interest rates. Generally, when interest rates rise, prices of fixed-income securities fall. However, market factors, such as the demand for particular fixed-income securities, may cause the price of certain fixed-income securities to fall while the prices of other securities rise or remain unchanged.
The longer the duration of a fixed-income security, the more susceptible it is to interest rate risk. Recent and potential future changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or their governments are likely to affect the level of interest rates. Duration measures the price sensitivity of a fixed-income security given a change in interest rates. Certain factors, such as the presence of call features, may cause a particular fixed-income security, or the Fund as a whole, to exhibit less sensitivity to changes in interest rates.
technology Risk
The Adviser uses various technologies in managing the Fund, consistent with its investment objective(s) and strategy described in this Prospectus. For example, proprietary and third-party data and systems are utilized to support decision-making for the Fund. Data imprecision, software or other technology malfunctions, programming inaccuracies and similar circumstances may impair the performance of these systems, which may negatively affect Fund performance.
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What Do Shares Cost?
CALCULATION OF NET ASSET VALUE
When the Fund receives your transaction request in proper form (as described in this Prospectus), it is processed at the next calculated net asset value of a Share (NAV) plus any applicable front-end sales charge (“public offering price”). A Share's NAV is determined as of the end of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), each day the NYSE is open. The Fund calculates the NAV of each class by valuing the assets allocated to the Share's class, subtracting the liabilities allocated to each class and dividing the balance by the number of Shares of the class outstanding. The NAV for each class of Shares may differ due to the level of expenses allocated to each class as well as a result of the variance between the amount of accrued investment income and capital gains or losses allocated to each class and the amount actually distributed to shareholders of each class. The Fund's current NAV and/or public offering price may be found at FederatedInvestors.com, via online news sources and in certain newspapers.
You can purchase, redeem or exchange Shares any day the NYSE is open.
When the Fund holds securities that trade principally in foreign markets on days the NYSE is closed, the value of the Fund's assets may change on days you cannot purchase or redeem Shares. This may also occur when the U.S. markets for fixed-income securities are open on a day the NYSE is closed.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values investments as follows:
■  Equity securities listed on an exchange or traded through a regulated market system are valued at their last reported sale price or official closing price in their principal exchange or market.
■  Fixed-income securities are fair valued using price evaluations provided by a pricing service approved by the Board of Trustees (“Board”).
■  Derivative contracts listed on exchanges are valued at their reported settlement or closing price, except that options are valued at the mean of closing bid and asked quotations.
■  Over-the-counter (OTC) derivative contracts are fair valued using price evaluations provided by a pricing service approved by the Board.
If any price, quotation, price evaluation or other pricing source is not readily available when the NAV is calculated, if the Fund cannot obtain price evaluations from a pricing service or from more than one dealer for an investment within a reasonable period of time as set forth in the Fund's valuation policies and procedures, or if information furnished by a pricing service, in the opinion of the Valuation Committee, is deemed not representative of the fair value of such security, the Fund uses the fair value of the investment determined in accordance with the procedures generally described below. There can be no assurance that the Fund could obtain the fair value assigned to an investment if it sold the investment at approximately the time at which the Fund determines its NAV per share.
Shares of other mutual funds are valued based upon their reported NAVs. The prospectuses for these mutual funds explain the circumstances under which they will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.
Fair Valuation and Significant Events Procedures
The Board has ultimate responsibility for determining the fair value of investments for which market quotations are not readily available. The Board has appointed a Valuation Committee comprised of officers of the Fund, the Adviser and certain of the Adviser's affiliated companies to assist in determining fair value and in overseeing the calculation of the NAV. The Board has also authorized the use of pricing services recommended by the Valuation Committee to provide fair value evaluations of the current value of certain investments for purposes of calculating the NAV. In the event that market quotations and price evaluations are not available for an investment, the Valuation Committee determines the fair value of the investment in accordance with procedures adopted by the Board. The Board periodically reviews and approves the fair valuations made by the Valuation Committee and any changes made to the procedures. The Fund's SAI discusses the methods used by pricing services and the Valuation Committee to assist the Board in valuing investments.
Using fair value to price investments may result in a value that is different from an investment's most recent closing price and from the prices used by other mutual funds to calculate their NAVs. The application of the fair value procedures to an investment represent a good faith determination of such investment's fair value. There can be no assurance that the Fund could obtain the fair value assigned to an investment if it sold the investment at approximately the time at which the Fund determines its NAV per share.
The Board also has adopted procedures requiring an investment to be priced at its fair value whenever the Adviser determines that a significant event affecting the value of the investment has occurred between the time as of which the price of the investment would otherwise be determined and the time as of which the NAV is computed. An event is considered significant if there is both an affirmative expectation that the investment's value will change in response to the event and a reasonable basis for quantifying the resulting change in value.
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Examples of significant events that may occur after the close of the principal market on which a security is traded, or after the time of a price evaluation provided by a pricing service or a dealer, include:
■  With respect to securities traded principally in foreign markets, significant trends in U.S. equity markets or in the trading of foreign securities index futures contracts;
■  Political or other developments affecting the economy or markets in which an issuer conducts its operations or its securities are traded; and
■  Announcements concerning matters such as acquisitions, recapitalizations or litigation developments or a natural disaster affecting the issuer's operations or regulatory changes or market developments affecting the issuer's industry.
The Board has adopted procedures whereby the Valuation Committee uses a pricing service to determine the fair value of equity securities traded principally in foreign markets when the Adviser determines that there has been a significant trend in the U.S. equity markets or in index futures trading. For other significant events, the Fund may seek to obtain more current quotations or price evaluations from alternative pricing sources. If a reliable alternative pricing source is not available, the Valuation Committee will determine the fair value of the investment using another method approved by the Board. The Board has ultimate responsibility for any fair valuations made in response to a significant event.
The fair valuation of securities following a significant event can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities for short-term traders to profit at the expense of long-term investors in the Fund. For example, such arbitrage opportunities may exist when the market on which portfolio securities are traded closes before the Fund calculates its NAV, which is typically the case with Asian and European markets. However, there is no assurance that these significant event procedures will prevent dilution of the NAV by short-term traders. See “Account and Share InformationFrequent Trading Policies” for other procedures the Fund employs to deter such short-term trading.
COMMISSIONS ON SHARES
The Fund does not charge any front-end load, deferred sales charge or other asset-based fee for sales or distribution of Shares. However, if you purchase Shares through a broker acting solely as an agent on behalf of its customers, you may be required to pay a commission to the broker in an amount determined and separately disclosed to you by the broker.
Because the Fund is not a party to any such commission arrangement between you and your broker, any purchases and redemptions of Shares will be made at the applicable net asset value (before imposition of the sales commission). Any such commissions charged by a broker are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the “Risk/Return Summary: Fees and Expenses” section of the Fund's Prospectus and described above nor are they reflected in the “Performance: Bar Chart and Table,” because they are not charged by the Fund.
How is the Fund Sold?
The Fund offers the following Share classes: Class A Shares (A), Class B Shares (B), Class C Shares (C), Class R Shares (R), Institutional Shares (IS) and Class R6 Shares (R6) each representing interests in a single portfolio of securities. This Prospectus relates only to the R6 Class. All Share classes have different sales charges and other expenses which affect their performance. The additional classes of Shares, which are offered by a separate prospectus, may be preferable for certain shareholders. Please note that certain purchase restrictions may apply. Contact your financial intermediary or call 1-800-341-7400 for more information concerning another class.
Under the Distributor's Contract with the Fund, the Distributor, Federated Securities Corp., offers Shares on a continuous, best-efforts basis. The Distributor is a subsidiary of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”).
The Fund's Distributor markets the R6 class to Eligible Investors, as described below. The R6 Shares are sold at net asset value and are not subject to any minimum initial or subsequent investment amounts. In connection with a request to purchase the R6 class, you should provide documentation sufficient to verify your status as an Eligible Investor.
R6 Shares do not carry sales commissions or pay Rule 12b-1 fees, or make similar payments to financial intermediaries. As a general matter, the R6 class is not available for direct investment by natural persons. Individual shareholders who purchase R6 Shares through retirement platforms or other intermediaries will not be eligible to hold R6 Shares outside of their respective plan or intermediary platform.
Following are categories of Eligible Investors:
■  An investor participating in a wrap program or other fee-based program sponsored by a financial intermediary;
■  An investor participating in a no-load network or platform sponsored by a financial intermediary where Federated has entered into an agreement with the intermediary;
■  A trustee/director, employee or former employee of the Fund, the Adviser, the Distributor and their affiliates; an immediate family member of these individuals or a trust, pension or profit-sharing plan for these individuals;
■  An employer-sponsored retirement plan;
■  A trust institution investing on behalf of its trust customers;
■  An investor, other than a natural person, purchasing Shares directly from the Fund;
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■  A Federated Fund;
■  An investor (including a natural person) who acquired the R6 class of a Federated fund pursuant to the terms of an agreement and plan of reorganization which permits the investor to acquire such shares; and
■  In connection with an acquisition of an investment management or advisory business, or related investment services, products or assets, by Federated or its investment advisory subsidiaries, an investor (including a natural person) who: (1) becomes a client of an investment advisory subsidiary of Federated; or (2) is a shareholder or interest holder of a pooled investment vehicle or product that becomes advised or subadvised by a Federated investment advisory subsidiary as a result of such an acquisition other than as a result of a fund reorganization transaction pursuant to an agreement and plan of reorganization.
A shareholder in the Fund's Shares may convert their Shares at net asset value to any other share class of the Fund if the shareholder meets the investment minimum and eligibility requirements for the share class into which the conversion is sought, as applicable. This share conversion program is not applicable to the Fund's Class B Shares. The share conversion program is not applicable to the Fund's Class A Shares and Class C Shares subject to a contingent deferred sales charge, if applicable. For Class C Shares purchased through a financial intermediary after June 30, 2017, such shares may only be converted to another share class of the same Fund if: (i) the shares are no longer subject to a CDSC or the financial intermediary agrees to reimburse the Fund's distributor the CDSC otherwise payable upon the sale of such shares; (ii) the shareholder meets the investment minimum and eligibility requirements for the share class into which the conversion is sought, as applicable; and (iii) (A) the conversion is made to facilitate the shareholder's participation in a self-directed brokerage (non-advice) account or a fee-based advisory program offered by the intermediary; or (B) the conversion is part of a multiple-client transaction through a particular financial intermediary as pre-approved by the Fund's Administrator. Such conversion of classes should not result in a realization event for tax purposes. Contact your financial intermediary or call 1-800-341-7400 to convert your Shares.
How to Purchase Shares
You may purchase Shares of the Fund any day the NYSE is open. The Fund reserves the right to reject any request to purchase or exchange Shares. New investors must submit a completed New Account Form.
Where the Fund offers more than one Share class and you do not specify the class choice on your New Account Form or form of payment (e.g., Federal Reserve wire or check), you automatically will receive the A class.
For important account information, see the section “Security and Privacy Protection.”
Eligible Investors may purchase Shares through a financial intermediary, directly from the Fund or through an exchange from another Federated fund in the manner described above under “How is the Fund Sold?”
There is no minimum initial or subsequent investment amount required.
THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY
■  Establish an account with the financial intermediary; and
■  Submit your purchase order to the financial intermediary before the end of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time).
You will receive the next calculated NAV if the financial intermediary forwards the order on the same day, and forwards your payment by the prescribed trade settlement date (typically within one to three business days) to the Fund's transfer agent, State Street Bank and Trust Company (“Transfer Agent”). You will become the owner of Shares and receive dividends when your payment is received in accordance with these time frames (provided that, if payment is received in the form of a check, the check clears). If your payment is not received in accordance with these time frames, or a check does not clear, your purchase will be canceled and you could be liable for any losses, fees or expenses incurred by the Fund or the Fund's Transfer Agent.
Financial intermediaries should send payments according to the instructions in the sections “By Wire” or “By Check.”
Financial intermediaries may impose higher or lower minimum investment requirements on their customers than those imposed by the Fund. Keep in mind that financial intermediaries may charge you fees for their services in connection with your Share transactions.
DIRECTLY FROM THE FUND
■  Establish your account with the Fund by submitting a completed New Account Form; and
■  Send your payment to the Fund by Federal Reserve wire or check.
You will become the owner of Shares and your Shares will be priced at the next calculated NAV after the Fund receives your wire or your check. If your check does not clear, your purchase will be canceled and you could be liable for any losses or fees incurred by the Fund or the Fund's Transfer Agent.
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By Wire
To facilitate processing your order, please call the Fund before sending the wire. Send your wire to:
State Street Bank and Trust Company
Boston, MA
Dollar Amount of Wire
ABA Number 011000028
BNF: 23026552
Attention: Federated EDGEWIRE
Wire Order Number, Dealer Number or Group Number
Nominee/Institution Name
Fund Name and Number and Account Number
You cannot purchase Shares by wire on holidays when wire transfers are restricted.
By Check
Make your check payable to The Federated Funds, note your account number on the check, and send it to:
The Federated Funds
P.O. Box 8600
Boston, MA 02266-8600
If you send your check by a private courier or overnight delivery service that requires a street address, send it to:
The Federated Funds
30 Dan Road
Canton, MA 02021-2809
Payment should be made in U.S. dollars and drawn on a U.S. bank. The Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request. For example, to protect against check fraud the Fund may reject any purchase request involving a check that is not made payable to The Federated Funds (including, but not limited to, requests to purchase Shares using third-party checks) or involving temporary checks or credit card checks.
By Direct Deposit
You may establish Payroll Deduction/Direct Deposit arrangements for investments into the Fund by either calling a Client Service Representative at 1-800-341-7400; or by completing the Payroll Deduction/Direct Deposit Form, which is available on FederatedInvestors.com under Customer Service/Find a Form. You will receive a confirmation when this service is available.
THROUGH AN EXCHANGE
You may purchase Fund Shares through an exchange from another Federated fund. To do this you must:
■  meet any applicable shareholder eligibility requirements;
■  ensure that the account registrations are identical;
■  meet any applicable minimum initial investment requirements; and
■  receive a prospectus for the fund into which you wish to exchange.
An exchange is treated as a redemption and a subsequent purchase, and is a taxable transaction. The Fund reserves the right to reject any request to purchase or exchange Shares. The Fund may modify or terminate the exchange privilege at any time.
By Online Account Services
You may access your accounts online to purchase shares through Federated's Shareholder Account Access system once you have registered for access. Online transactions may be subject to certain limitations including limitations as to the amount of the transaction. For more information about the services available through Shareholder Account Access, please visit www.FederatedInvestors.com and select “My Investments,” or call (800) 245-4770 to speak with a Client Service Representative.
BY SYSTEMATIC INVESTMENT PROGRAM (SIP)
Once you have opened an account, you may automatically purchase additional Shares on a regular basis by completing the SIP section of the New Account Form or by contacting the Fund or your financial intermediary. The minimum investment amount for SIPs is $50.
BY AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE (ACH)
Once you have opened an account, you may purchase additional Shares through a depository institution that is an ACH member. This purchase option can be established by completing the appropriate sections of the New Account Form.
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RETIREMENT INVESTMENTS
You may purchase Shares as retirement investments (such as qualified plans or transfer of assets). Call your financial intermediary or the Fund for information on retirement investments. We suggest that you discuss retirement investments with your tax adviser. You may be subject to an account fee charged by your financial intermediary.
How to Redeem and Exchange Shares
You should redeem or exchange Shares:
■  through a financial intermediary if you purchased Shares through a financial intermediary; or
■  directly from the Fund if you purchased Shares directly from the Fund.
Shares of the Fund may be redeemed for cash, or exchanged for shares of other Federated funds as described herein, on days on which the Fund computes its NAV. Redemption requests may be made by telephone or in writing.
Redemption proceeds normally are wired or mailed within one business day after receiving a timely request in proper form. Depending upon the method of payment, when shareholders receive redemption proceeds can differ. Payment may be delayed for up to seven days under certain circumstances (see “Limitations on Redemption Proceeds”).
For important account information, see the section “Security and Privacy Protection.”
THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY
Submit your redemption or exchange request to your financial intermediary by the end of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time). The redemption amount you will receive is based upon the next calculated NAV after the Fund receives the order from your financial intermediary.
DIRECTLY FROM THE FUND
By Telephone
You may redeem or exchange Shares by simply calling the Fund at 1-800-341-7400.
If you call before the end of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), you will receive a redemption amount based on that day's NAV.
By Mail
You may redeem or exchange Shares by sending a written request to the Fund.
You will receive a redemption amount based on the next calculated NAV after the Fund receives your written request in proper form.
Send requests by mail to:
The Federated Funds
P.O. Box 8600
Boston, MA 02266-8600
Send requests by private courier or overnight delivery service to:
The Federated Funds
30 Dan Road
Canton, MA 02021-2809
All requests must include:
■  Fund name and Share class, account number and account registration;
■  amount to be redeemed or exchanged;
■  signatures of all shareholders exactly as registered; and
■  if exchanging, the Fund name and Share class, account number and account registration into which you are exchanging.
Call your financial intermediary or the Fund if you need special instructions.
Signature Guarantees
Signatures must be guaranteed by a financial institution which is a participant in a Medallion signature guarantee program if:
■  your redemption will be sent to an address other than the address of record;
■  your redemption will be sent to an address of record that was changed within the last 30 days;
■  a redemption is payable to someone other than the shareholder(s) of record; or
■  transferring into another fund with a different shareholder registration.
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A Medallion signature guarantee is designed to protect your account from fraud. Obtain a Medallion signature guarantee from a bank or trust company, savings association, credit union or broker, dealer or securities exchange member. A notary public cannot provide a signature guarantee.
By Online Account Services
You may access your accounts online to redeem or exchange shares through Federated's Shareholder Account Access system once you have registered for access. Online transactions may be subject to certain limitations including limitations as to the amount of the transaction. For more information about the services available through Shareholder Account Access, please visit www.FederatedInvestors.com and select “My Investments,” or call (800) 245-4770 to speak with a Client Service Representative.
PAYMENT METHODS FOR REDEMPTIONS
Your redemption proceeds will be mailed by check to your address of record. The following payment options are available if you complete the appropriate section of the New Account Form or an Account Service Options Form. These payment options require a signature guarantee if they were not established when the account was opened:
■  An electronic transfer to your account at a financial institution that is an ACH member; or
■  Wire payment to your account at a domestic commercial bank that is a Federal Reserve System member.
Methods the Fund May Use to Meet Redemption Requests
The Fund intends to pay Share redemptions in cash. To ensure that the Fund has cash to meet Share redemptions on any day, the Fund typically expects to hold a cash or cash equivalent reserve or sell portfolio securities.
In unusual or stressed circumstances, the Fund may generate cash through inter-fund borrowing or lending. The SEC has granted an exemption that permits the Fund and all other funds advised by subsidiaries of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated funds”) to lend and borrow money for certain temporary purposes directly to and from other Federated funds. Inter-fund borrowing and lending is permitted only: (a) to meet shareholder redemption requests; (b) to meet commitments arising from “failed” trades; and (c) for other temporary purposes. All inter-fund loans must be repaid in seven days or less.
In addition, the Fund participates with certain other Federated funds, on a several basis, in an up to $500,000,000 unsecured, 364-day, committed, revolving line of credit (LOC) agreement. The LOC was made available to finance temporarily the repurchase or redemption of Shares of the Fund, failed trades, payment of dividends, settlement of trades and for other short-term, temporary or emergency general business purposes. The Fund cannot borrow under the LOC if an inter-fund loan is outstanding.
Although the Fund intends to pay Share redemptions in cash, it reserves the right to pay the redemption proceeds in whole or in part by an “in-kind” distribution of the Fund's portfolio securities.
LIMITATIONS ON REDEMPTION PROCEEDS
Redemption proceeds normally are wired or mailed within one business day after receiving a request in proper form. Payment may be delayed for up to seven days:
■  to allow your purchase to clear (as discussed below);
■  during periods of market volatility;
■  when a shareholder's trade activity or amount adversely impacts the Fund's ability to manage its assets; or
■  during any period when the Federal Reserve wire or applicable Federal Reserve banks are closed, other than customary weekend and holiday closings.
If you request a redemption of Shares recently purchased by check (including a cashier's check or certified check), money order, bank draft or ACH, your redemption proceeds may not be made available for up to seven calendar days to allow the Fund to collect payment on the instrument used to purchase such Shares. If the purchase instrument does not clear, your purchase order will be canceled and you will be responsible for any losses incurred by the Fund as a result of your canceled order.
In addition, the right of redemption may be suspended, or the payment of proceeds may be delayed (including beyond seven days), during any period:
■  when the NYSE is closed, other than customary weekend and holiday closings;
■  when trading on the NYSE is restricted, as determined by the SEC;
■  in which an emergency exists, as determined by the SEC, so that disposal of the Fund's investments or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable; or
■  as the SEC may by order permit for the protection of Fund shareholders.
You will not accrue interest or dividends on uncashed redemption checks from the Fund if those checks are undeliverable and returned to the Fund.
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redemptions from retirement accounts
In the absence of your specific instructions, 10% of the value of your redemption from a retirement account in the Fund may be withheld for taxes. This withholding only applies to certain types of retirement accounts.
EXCHANGE PRIVILEGE
You may exchange Shares of the Fund. To do this, you must:
■  meet any applicable shareholder eligibility requirements;
■  ensure that the account registrations are identical;
■  meet any applicable minimum initial investment requirements; and
■  receive a prospectus for the fund into which you wish to exchange.
An exchange is treated as a redemption and a subsequent purchase, and is a taxable transaction. The Fund reserves the right to reject any request to purchase or exchange Shares. The Fund may modify or terminate the exchange privilege at any time.
In addition, the Fund may terminate your exchange privilege if your exchange activity is found to be excessive under the Fund's frequent trading policies. See “Account and Share InformationFrequent Trading Policies.”
You may exchange Shares for shares of any Federated fund or share class that does not have a stated sales charge or contingent deferred sales charge, except Federated Government Reserves Fund.
Systematic Withdrawal/Exchange Program
You may automatically redeem or exchange Shares. The minimum amount for all new or revised systematic redemptions or exchanges of Shares is $50 per transaction per fund. Complete the appropriate section of the New Account Form or an Account Service Options Form or contact your financial intermediary or the Fund. Your account value must meet the minimum initial investment amount at the time the program is established. This program may reduce, and eventually deplete, your account. Payments should not be considered yield or income.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS
Telephone Transactions
The Fund will record your telephone instructions. If the Fund does not follow reasonable procedures, it may be liable for losses due to unauthorized or fraudulent telephone instructions.
Share Certificates
The Fund does not issue share certificates.
Security and Privacy Protection
ONLINE ACCOUNT and TELEPHONE ACCESS SECURITY
Federated Investors, Inc. will not be responsible for losses that result from unauthorized transactions, unless Federated does not follow procedures designed to verify your identity. When initiating a transaction by telephone or online, shareholders should be aware that any person with access to your account and other personal information including PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) may be able to submit instructions by telephone or online. Shareholders are responsible for protecting their identity by using strong usernames and complex passwords which utilize combinations of mixed case letters, numbers and symbols, and change passwords and PINs frequently.
Using Federated's Account Access website means you are consenting to sending and receiving personal financial information over the Internet, so you should be sure you are comfortable with the risks. You will be required to accept the terms of an online agreement and to establish and utilize a password in order to access online account services. The Transfer Agent has adopted security procedures to confirm that internet instructions are genuine. The Transfer Agent will also send you written confirmation of share transactions. The Transfer Agent, the Fund and any of its affiliates will not be liable for losses or expenses that occur from fraudulent Internet instructions reasonably believed to be genuine.
The Transfer Agent or the Fund will employ reasonable procedures to confirm that telephone transaction requests are genuine, which may include recording calls, asking the caller to provide certain personal identification information, sending you written confirmation, or requiring other confirmation security procedures. The Transfer Agent, the Fund and any of its affiliates will not be liable for relying on instructions submitted by telephone that the Fund reasonably believes to be genuine.
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ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING COMPLIANCE
To help the government fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering activities, federal law requires financial institutions to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each new customer who opens a Fund account and to determine whether such person's name appears on governmental lists of known or suspected terrorists or terrorist organizations. Pursuant to the requirements under the Patriot Act, the information obtained will be used for compliance with the Patriot Act or other applicable laws, regulations and rules in connection with money laundering, terrorism or other illicit activities.
Information required includes your name, residential or business address, date of birth (for an individual), and other information that identifies you, including your social security number, tax identification number or other identifying number. The Fund cannot waive these requirements. The Fund is required by law to reject your Account Application if the required information is not provided. If, after reasonable effort, the Fund is unable to verify your identity or that of any other person(s) authorized to act on your behalf, or believes it has identified potentially suspicious, fraudulent or criminal activity, the Fund reserves the right to close your account and redeem your shares at the next calculated NAV without your permission. Any applicable contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC) will be assessed upon redemption of your shares.
The Fund has a strict policy designed to protect the privacy of your personal information. A copy of Federated Investors' privacy policy notice was given to you at the time you opened your account. The Fund sends a copy of the privacy notice to you annually. You may also obtain the privacy notice by calling the Fund, or through Federated Investors' website.
Account and Share Information
CONFIRMATIONS AND ACCOUNT STATEMENTS
You will receive confirmation of purchases, redemptions and exchanges (except for systematic transactions). In addition, you will receive periodic statements reporting all account activity, including systematic transactions, dividends and capital gains paid.
DIVIDENDS AND CAPITAL GAINS
The Fund declares and pays any dividends annually to shareholders. Dividends are paid to all shareholders invested in the Fund on the record date. The record date is the date on which a shareholder must officially own Shares in order to earn a dividend.
In addition, the Fund pays any capital gains at least annually and may make such special distributions of dividends and capital gains as may be necessary to meet applicable regulatory requirements. Your dividends and capital gains distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Shares without a sales charge, unless you elect cash payments. Dividends may also be reinvested without sales charges in shares of any class of any other Federated fund of which you are already a shareholder.
If you purchase Shares just before the record date for a dividend or capital gain distribution, you will pay the full price for the Shares and then receive a portion of the price back in the form of a taxable distribution, whether or not you reinvest the distribution in Shares. Therefore, you should consider the tax implications of purchasing Shares shortly before the record date for a dividend or capital gain. Contact your financial intermediary or the Fund for information concerning when dividends and capital gains will be paid.
Under the federal securities laws, the Fund is required to provide a notice to shareholders regarding the source of distributions made by the Fund if such distributions are from sources other than ordinary investment income. In addition, important information regarding the Fund's distributions, if applicable, is available via the link to the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation.
Small Distributions and Uncashed Checks
Generally, dividend and/or capital gain distributions payable by check in an amount of less than $25 will be automatically reinvested in additional shares. This policy does not apply if you have elected to receive cash distributions that are directly deposited into your bank account via wire or ACH.
Additionally, if one or more dividend or capital gain distribution checks are returned as “undeliverable,” or remain uncashed for 180 days, all subsequent dividend and capital gain distributions will be reinvested in additional shares. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed distribution checks. For questions on whether reinvestment applies to your distributions, please contact a Client Service Representative at 1-800-341-7400.
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TAX INFORMATION
The Fund sends an IRS Form 1099 and an annual statement of your account activity to assist you in completing your federal, state and local tax returns. Fund distributions of dividends and capital gains are taxable to you whether paid in cash or reinvested in the Fund. Dividends are taxable at different rates depending on the source of dividend income. Distributions of net short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income. Distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains regardless of how long you have owned your Shares.
Fund distributions are expected to be both dividends and capital gains. Redemptions and exchanges are taxable sales. Please consult your tax adviser regarding your federal, state and local tax liability.
FREQUENT TRADING POLICIES
Frequent or short-term trading into and out of the Fund can have adverse consequences for the Fund and shareholders who use the Fund as a long-term investment vehicle. Such trading in significant amounts can disrupt the Fund's investment strategies (e.g., by requiring it to sell investments at inopportune times or maintain excessive short-term or cash positions to support redemptions), increase brokerage and administrative costs and affect the timing and amount of taxable gains distributed by the Fund. Investors engaged in such trading may also seek to profit by anticipating changes in the Fund's NAV in advance of the time as of which NAV is calculated.
The Fund's Board has approved policies and procedures intended to discourage excessive frequent or short-term trading of the Fund's Shares. The Fund's fair valuation procedures are intended in part to discourage short-term trading strategies by reducing the potential for these strategies to succeed. See “What Do Shares Cost?” The Fund also monitors trading in Fund Shares in an effort to identify disruptive trading activity. The Fund monitors trades into and out of the Fund within a period of 30 days or less. The Fund may also monitor trades into and out of the Fund for potentially disruptive trading activity over periods longer than 30 days. The size of Share transactions subject to monitoring varies. Where it is determined that a shareholder has exceeded the detection amounts twice within a period of 12 months, the Fund will temporarily prohibit the shareholder from making further purchases or exchanges of Fund Shares. If the shareholder continues to exceed the detection amounts for specified periods, the Fund will impose lengthier trading restrictions on the shareholder, up to and including permanently prohibiting the shareholder from making any further purchases or exchanges of Fund Shares. Whether or not the specific monitoring limits are exceeded, the Fund's management or the Adviser may determine from the amount, frequency or pattern of purchases and redemptions or exchanges that a shareholder is engaged in excessive trading that is or could be detrimental to the Fund and other shareholders and may prohibit the shareholder from making further purchases or exchanges of Fund Shares. No matter how the Fund defines its limits on frequent trading of Fund Shares, other purchases and sales of Fund Shares may have adverse effects on the management of the Fund's portfolio and its performance.
The Fund's frequent trading restrictions do not apply to purchases and sales of Fund Shares by other Federated funds. These funds impose the same frequent trading restrictions as the Fund at their shareholder level. In addition, allocation changes of the investing Federated fund are monitored, and the managers of the recipient fund must determine that there is no disruption to their management activity. The intent of this exception is to allow investing fund managers to accommodate cash flows and other activity that result from non-abusive trading in the investing fund, without being stopped from such trading because the aggregate of such trades exceeds the monitoring limits. Nonetheless, as with any trading in Fund Shares, purchases and redemptions of Fund Shares by other Federated funds could adversely affect the management of the Fund's portfolio and its performance.
The Fund will not restrict transactions made on a non-discretionary basis by certain asset allocation programs, wrap programs, fund of funds, collective funds or other similar accounts that have been pre-approved by Federated (“Approved Accounts”). The Fund will continue to monitor transactions by the Approved Accounts and will seek to limit or restrict even non-discretionary transactions by Approved Accounts that are determined to be disruptive or harmful to the Fund.
The Fund's objective is that its restrictions on short-term trading should apply to all shareholders that are subject to the restrictions, regardless of the number or type of accounts in which Shares are held. However, the Fund anticipates that limitations on its ability to identify trading activity to specific shareholders, including where Shares are held through intermediaries in multiple or omnibus accounts, will mean that these restrictions may not be able to be applied uniformly in all cases.
Other funds in the Federated family of funds may impose different monitoring policies or in some cases, may not monitor for frequent or short-term trading. Under normal market conditions such monitoring policies are designed to protect the funds being monitored and their shareholders and the operation of such policies and shareholder investments under such monitoring are not expected to have materially adverse impact on the Federated funds or their shareholders. If you plan to exchange your fund shares for shares of another Federated fund, please read the prospectus of that other Federated fund for more information.
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PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information concerning the Fund's portfolio holdings is available via the link to the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation. A complete listing of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of each calendar quarter is posted on the website 30 days (or the next business day) after the end of the quarter and remains posted for six months thereafter. Summary portfolio composition information as of the close of each month is posted on the website 15 days (or the next business day) after month-end and remains posted until replaced by the information for the succeeding month. The summary portfolio composition information may include identification of the Fund's top 10 holdings and a percentage breakdown of the portfolio by sector.
You may also access portfolio information as of the end of the Fund's fiscal quarters via the link to the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation. The Fund's Annual and Semi-Annual Shareholder Reports contain complete listings of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of the Fund's second and fourth fiscal quarters. The Fund's Form N-Q filings contain complete listings of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of the Fund's first and third fiscal quarters. Fiscal quarter information is made available on the website within 70 days after the end of the fiscal quarter. This information is also available in reports filed with the SEC at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
In addition, from time to time (for example, during periods of unusual market conditions), additional information regarding the Fund's portfolio holdings and/or composition may be posted to Federated's website. If and when such information is posted, its availability will be noted on, and the information will be accessible from, the home page of the website.
Who Manages the Fund?
The Board governs the Fund. The Board selects and oversees the Adviser, Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania. The Adviser manages the Fund's assets, including buying and selling portfolio securities. Federated Advisory Services Company (FASC), an affiliate of the Adviser, provides research, quantitative analysis, equity trading and transaction settlement and certain support services to the Adviser. The fee for these services is paid by the Adviser and not by the Fund.
The address of the Adviser and FASC is Federated Investors Tower, 1001 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3779.
The Adviser has delegated daily management of some or all of the Fund assets to the Sub-Adviser, Federated Global Investment Management Corp., who is paid by the Adviser and not by the Fund, based on the portion of securities the Sub-Adviser manages. The Sub-Adviser's address is 101 Park Avenue, 41st Floor, New York, NY 10178.
The Adviser, Sub-Adviser and other subsidiaries of Federated advise approximately 124 equity, fixed-income and money market mutual funds as well as a variety of other pooled investment vehicles, private investment companies and customized separately managed accounts (including non-U.S./offshore funds) which totaled approximately $365.9 billion in assets as of December 31, 2016. Federated was established in 1955 and is one of the largest investment managers in the United States with approximately 1,400 employees. Federated provides investment products to approximately 8,500 investment professionals and institutions.
The Adviser advises approximately 19 equity mutual funds (including sub-advised funds) which totaled approximately $23.2 billion in assets as of December 31, 2016.
The Sub-Adviser advises approximately 19 equity mutual funds (including sub-advised funds) as well as a variety of separately managed accounts, institutional separate accounts and private investment companies and other pooled investment vehicles (including non-U.S./offshore funds), which totaled approximately $11.2 billion in assets as of December 31, 2016.
PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
The Fund is managed by the Federated Kaufmann Growth Equity Team. Portfolio Managers and Investment Analysts are members of the Team and make investment decisions with respect to a portion of the Fund's portfolio, with the oversight of Hans P. Utsch. The team members responsible for security selection make investment decisions or recommendations with respect to sectors or industries to which they are assigned.
Investment Team Member Business Experience Primary Role in Fund Management
Hans P. Utsch Member of Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Senior Portfolio Manager and Head of Kaufmann Growth Equity Team; Vice President of the Trust; joined Federated in 2001; formerly Chairman of the Board and Secretary of Edgemont Asset Management Corp., and President and Portfolio Manager to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) from 1984-2001; B.A., Amherst College; M.B.A., Columbia University. Senior Portfolio Manager; sets investment strategy; security selection; and team oversight
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Investment Team Member Business Experience Primary Role in Fund Management
John Ettinger Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Senior Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2001; formerly Investment Analyst with Edgemont Asset Management Corp., Adviser to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) from 1996-2001; B.A., Duke University; received Chartered Financial Analyst designation. Senior Portfolio Manager; sets investment strategy; security selection; research and analytical support
Stephen DeNichilo Member of the Fund's Investment team since February 2012; Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2012; formerly Senior Research Analyst with ACK Asset Management, LLC from 2010 to 2012 and Equity Research Analyst with Thomson, Horstmann & Bryant, Inc., from 2006 to 2010; B.S., Villanova University; M.B.A., Fordham University; received Chartered Financial Analyst designation. Portfolio Manager; sets investment strategy; security selection; research and analytical support
Barbara Miller Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2002; formerly Vice President and Equity Analyst with Goldman Sachs from 1999-2001 and Principal/Equity Analyst with Alex Brown & Sons from 1992-1999; B.A., Brown University; M.B.A., Harvard Business School. Portfolio Manager; security selection; research and analytical support
Tom M. Brakel Member of the Fund's Investment Team since October 2003 ; Senior Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2003; formerly Analyst with New Vernon Associates from 2002 to 2003, BioPharma Fund from 2000 to 2002 and Mehta Partners from 1998 to 1999; U.S. pharmaceutical experience includes six years at Organon Inc.; M.D., Erasmus University, The Netherlands; M.B.A., Stanford University. Senior Portfolio Manager; security selection; research and analytical support
Jonathan Art Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Senior Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2001; formerly Investment Analyst with Edgemont Asset Management Corp., Adviser to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) from 1995-2001; B.E.S., The Johns Hopkins University; M.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Senior Portfolio Manager; security selection; research and analytical support
Mark Bauknight Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Senior Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2001; formerly Investment Analyst with Edgemont Asset Management Corp., Adviser to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) from 1997-2001; Two B.A. degrees, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; M.B.A., University of Oxford. Senior Portfolio Manager; security selection; research and analytical support
Steven Abrahamson Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2001; formerly Investment Analyst with Edgemont Asset Management Corp., Adviser to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) since 2001; B.S., Bucknell University; M.B.A., Duke University. Senior Investment Analyst; security selection; research and analytical support
Vivian Wohl Member of the Fund's Investment Team since December 2002; Portfolio Manager and Senior Investment Analyst; joined Federated in 2002; formerly Investment Analyst with Edgemont Asset Management Corp., Adviser to The Kaufmann Fund, Inc. (predecessor to the Kaufmann Fund) since 1999; formerly First Vice president and Senior Analyst with Merrill Lynch from 1997 to 1999 and Managing Director and Senior Research Analyst with Robertson Stephens & Co. from 1987 to 1997; B.A., Cornell University; M.B.A., Columbia University. Portfolio Manager; security selection; research and analytical support
The Fund's SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers' compensation, management of other accounts and ownership of securities in the Fund.
ADVISORY FEES
The Fund's investment advisory contract provides for payment to the Adviser of an annual investment advisory fee of 0.80% of the Fund's average daily net assets. The Adviser may voluntarily waive a portion of its fee or reimburse the Fund for certain operating expenses. The Adviser and its affiliates have also agreed to certain “Fee Limits” as described in the footnote to the “Risk/Return Summary: Fees and Expenses” table found in the “Fund Summary” section of the Prospectus.
A discussion of the Board's review of the Fund's investment advisory contract is available in the Fund's annual and semi-annual shareholder reports for the periods ended October 31 and April 30, respectively.
24

Financial Information
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The Financial Highlights will help you understand the Fund's financial performance for its past five fiscal years. Some of the information is presented on a per Share basis. Total returns represent the rate an investor would have earned (or lost) on an investment in the Fund, assuming reinvestment of any dividends and capital gains.
The Fund's fiscal year end is October 31. As the Fund's R6 class first fiscal year will end on October 31, 2017, audited fiscal year end information is not available as of the date of this Prospectus.
The Financial Highlights information presented in this Prospectus is for the Fund's A class and is for illustrative purposes only. Please note, however, that the R6 class is subject to different fees and expenses than the A class, and therefore the financial performance of the two share classes may differ accordingly.
This information has been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Fund's audited financial statements, is included in the Annual Report. Information for the six-months ended April 30, 2017 is unaudited.
25

Financial HighlightsClass A Shares
(For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period)
  Six Months
Ended
(unaudited)
4/30/2017
Year Ended October 31,
  2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $23.94 $25.38 $28.77 $29.88 $25.26 $23.24
Income From Investment Operations:            
Net investment income (loss) (0.11)1 (0.17)1 (0.22)1 (0.32)1 (0.26)1 (0.26)1
Net realized and unrealized gain on investments and foreign currency transactions 4.52 0.76 2.09 4.16 6.50 3.94
TOTAL FROM INVESTMENT OPERATIONS 4.41 0.59 1.87 3.84 6.24 3.68
Less Distributions:            
Distributions from net realized gain on investments and foreign currency transactions (0.19) (2.03) (5.26) (4.95) (1.62) (1.66)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $28.16 $23.94 $25.38 $28.77 $29.88 $25.26
Total Return2 18.52% 2.27% 7.12% 13.37% 26.65% 17.00%
Ratios to Average Net Assets:            
Net expenses 1.96%3 1.95%4 1.95%4 1.95%4 1.95%4 1.95%4
Net investment income (loss) (0.84)%3 (0.73)% (0.83)% (1.11)% (0.97)% (1.09)%
Expense waiver/reimbursement5 0.13%3 0.14% 0.12% 0.23% 0.32% 0.35%
Supplemental Data:            
Net assets, end of period (000 omitted) $341,682 $343,323 $600,840 $466,020 $463,557 $525,581
Portfolio turnover 22% 48% 88% 65% 66% 44%
1 Per share numbers have been calculated using the average shares method.
2 Based on net asset value, which does not reflect the sales charge, redemption fee or contingent deferred sales charge, if applicable. Total returns for periods of less than one year are not annualized.
3 Computed on an annualized basis.
4 The net expense ratio is calculated without reduction for fees paid indirectly for expense offset arrangements. The net expense ratios are 1.95%, 1.95%, 1.95%, 1.95% and 1.95% for the years ended October 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively, after taking into account these expense reductions.
5 This expense decrease is reflected in both the net expense and the net investment income (loss) ratios shown above.
Further information about the Fund's performance is contained in the Fund's Annual Report, dated October 31, 2016, which can be obtained free of charge.
26

Appendix A: Hypothetical Investment and Expense Information
The following chart provides additional hypothetical information about the effect of the Fund's expenses, including investment advisory fees and other Fund costs, on the Fund's assumed returns over a 10-year period. The chart shows the estimated expenses that would be incurred in respect of a hypothetical investment of $10,000, assuming a 5% return each year, and no redemption of Shares. The chart also assumes that the Fund's annual expense ratio stays the same throughout the 10-year period and that all dividends and distributions are reinvested. The annual expense ratio used in the chart is the same as stated in the “Fees and Expenses” table of this Prospectus (and thus may not reflect any fee waiver or expense reimbursement currently in effect). The maximum amount of any sales charge that might be imposed on the purchase of Shares (and deducted from the hypothetical initial investment of $10,000; the “Front-End Sales Charge”) is reflected in the “Hypothetical Expenses” column. The hypothetical investment information does not reflect the effect of charges (if any) normally applicable to redemptions of Shares (e.g., deferred sales charges, redemption fees). Mutual fund returns, as well as fees and expenses, may fluctuate over time, and your actual investment returns and total expenses may be higher or lower than those shown below.
FEDERATED KAUFMANN SMALL CAP FUND - R6 CLASS
ANNUAL EXPENSE RATIO: 1.00%
MAXIMUM FRONT-END SALES CHARGE: NONE
Year Hypothetical
Beginning
Investment
Hypothetical
Performance
Earnings
Investment
After
Returns
Hypothetical
Expenses
Hypothetical
Ending
Investment
1 $10,000.00 $500.00 $10,500.00 $102.00 $10,400.00
2 $10,400.00 $520.00 $10,920.00 $106.08 $10,816.00
3 $10,816.00 $540.80 $11,356.80 $110.32 $11,248.64
4 $11,248.64 $562.43 $11,811.07 $114.74 $11,698.59
5 $11,698.59 $584.93 $12,283.52 $119.33 $12,166.53
6 $12,166.53 $608.33 $12,774.86 $124.10 $12,653.19
7 $12,653.19 $632.66 $13,285.85 $129.06 $13,159.32
8 $13,159.32 $657.97 $13,817.29 $134.23 $13,685.69
9 $13,685.69 $684.28 $14,369.97 $139.59 $14,233.12
10 $14,233.12 $711.66 $14,944.78 $145.18 $14,802.44
Cumulative   $6,003.06   $1,224.63  
27

An SAI dated September 1, 2017, is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. Additional information about the Fund and its investments is contained in the Fund's SAI and Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to shareholders as they become available. The Annual Report's Management's Discussion of Fund Performance discusses market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund's performance during its last fiscal year. The SAI contains a description of the Fund's policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of its portfolio securities. To obtain the SAI, Annual Report, Semi-Annual Report and other information without charge, and to make inquiries, call your financial intermediary or the Fund at 1-800-341-7400.
These documents, as well as additional information about the Fund (including portfolio holdings, performance and distributions), are also available on Federated's website at FederatedInvestors.com.
You can obtain information about the Fund (including the SAI) by writing to or visiting the SEC's Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. You may also access Fund information from the EDGAR Database on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. You can purchase copies of this information by contacting the SEC by email at publicinfo@sec.gov or by writing to the SEC's Public Reference Section, Washington, DC 20549. Call 1-202-551-8090 for information on the Public Reference Room's operations and copying fees.
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund
Federated Investors Funds
4000 Ericsson Drive
Warrendale, PA 15086-7561
Contact us at FederatedInvestors.com
or call 1-800-341-7400.
Federated Securities Corp., Distributor
Investment Company Act File No. 811-4017
CUSIP 31421N683
Q453934 (9/17)
Federated is a registered trademark of Federated Investors, Inc.
2017 ©Federated Investors, Inc.
Statement of Additional Information
September 1, 2017
Share Class Ticker
R6 FKALX
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund
Federated Investors Funds
4000 Ericsson Drive
Warrendale, PA 15086-7561
Contact us at FederatedInvestors.com
or call 1-800-341-7400.
Federated Securities Corp., Distributor
Q453937 (9/17)
Federated is a registered trademark
of Federated Investors, Inc.
2017 ©Federated Investors, Inc.
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund

A Portfolio of Federated Equity Funds

This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a Prospectus. Read this SAI in conjunction with the Prospectus for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (“Fund”), dated September 1, 2017.
This SAI incorporates by reference the Fund's Annual Report. Obtain the Prospectus or the Annual Report without charge by calling 1-800-341-7400.


How is the Fund Organized?
The Fund is a diversified portfolio of Federated Equity Funds (“Trust”). The Trust is an open-end, management investment company that was established under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on April 17, 1984. The Trust may offer separate series of shares representing interests in separate portfolios of securities.
The Board of Trustees (the “Board”) has established seven classes of shares of the Fund, known as Class A Shares, Class B Shares, Class C Shares, Class R Shares, Institutional Shares, Class R6 Shares and Class T Shares (“Shares”). This SAI relates to Class R6 Shares. The Fund's investment adviser is Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania and the Fund's sub-adviser is Federated Global Investment Management Corp. (collectively, the “Adviser”).
What are the Fund's Investment Strategies?
The Fund may invest in the securities listed in this SAI as part of its non-principal investment strategy. For example, the Fund may seek to provide exposure to certain other securities, such as warrants and convertible securities. The Fund's cash position will normally be invested in traditional cash investments such as money market funds, U.S. Treasury Bills or repurchase agreements.
Securities in Which the Fund Invests
The principal securities or other investments in which the Fund invests are described in the Fund's Prospectus. The Fund also may invest in securities or other investments as non-principal investments for any purpose that is consistent with its investment objective. The following information is either additional information in respect of a principal security or other investment referenced in the Prospectus or information in respect of a non-principal security or other investment (in which case there is no related disclosure in the Prospectus).
Securities Descriptions and Techniques
Equity Securities
Equity securities represent a share of an issuer's earnings and assets, after the issuer pays its liabilities. The Fund cannot predict the income it will receive from equity securities because issuers generally have discretion as to the payment of any dividends or distributions. However, equity securities offer greater potential for appreciation than many other types of securities, because their value increases directly with the value of the issuer's business.
Preferred Stocks
Preferred stocks have the right to receive specified dividends or distributions before the issuer makes payments on its common stock. Some preferred stocks also participate in dividends and distributions paid on common stock. Preferred stocks may also permit the issuer to redeem the stock. The Fund may also treat such redeemable preferred stock as a fixed-income security.
Interests in Other Limited Liability Companies
Entities such as limited partnerships, limited liability companies, business trusts and companies organized outside the United States may issue securities comparable to common or preferred stock.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)
REITs are real estate investment trusts (including foreign REITs and REIT-like entities) that lease, operate and finance commercial real estate. REITs in the United States are exempt from federal corporate income tax if they limit their operations and distribute most of their income. Such tax requirements limit a U.S. REIT's ability to respond to changes in the commercial real estate market.
Warrants
Warrants give the Fund the option to buy the issuer's equity securities at a specified price (the “exercise price”) at a specified future date (the “expiration date”). The Fund may buy the designated securities by paying the exercise price before the expiration date. Warrants may become worthless if the price of the stock does not rise above the exercise price by the expiration date. This increases the market risks of warrants as compared to the underlying security. Rights are the same as warrants, except companies typically issue rights to existing stockholders.
1

Depositary Receipts (A Type of Equity Security)
Depositary receipts represent interests in underlying securities issued by a foreign company. Depositary receipts are not traded in the same market as the underlying security. The foreign securities underlying American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are traded outside the United States. ADRs provide a way to buy shares of foreign-based companies in the United States rather than in overseas markets. ADRs are also traded in U.S. dollars, eliminating the need for foreign exchange transactions. The foreign securities underlying European Depositary Receipts (EDRs), Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs) and International Depositary Receipts (IDRs) are traded globally or outside the United States. Depositary receipts involve many of the same risks of investing directly in foreign securities, including currency risks and risks of foreign investing.
Fixed-Income Securities
Fixed-income securities pay interest, dividends or distributions at a specified rate. The rate may be a fixed percentage of the principal or may be adjusted periodically. In addition, the issuer of a fixed-income security must repay the principal amount of the security, normally within a specified time. Fixed-income securities provide more regular income than equity securities. However, the returns on fixed-income securities are limited and normally do not increase with the issuer's earnings. This limits the potential appreciation of fixed-income securities as compared to equity securities.
A security's yield measures the annual income earned on a security as a percentage of its price. A security's yield will increase or decrease depending upon whether it costs less (a “discount”) or more (a “premium”) than the principal amount. If the issuer may redeem the security before its scheduled maturity, the price and yield on a discount or premium security may change based upon the probability of an early redemption. Securities with higher risks generally have higher yields.
Government Securities (A Fixed-Income Security)
Government securities are issued or guaranteed by a federal agency or instrumentality acting under federal authority. Some government securities, including those issued by Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States and are guaranteed only as to the timely payment of interest and principal.
Other government securities receive support through federal subsidies, loans or other benefits but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. For example, the U.S. Treasury is authorized to purchase specified amounts of securities issued by (or otherwise make funds available to) the Federal Home Loan Bank System, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and Tennessee Valley Authority in support of such obligations.
Some government agency securities have no explicit financial support and are supported only by the credit of the applicable agency, instrumentality or corporation. The U.S. government has provided financial support to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, but there is no assurance that it will support these or other agencies in the future.
Investors regard government securities as having minimal credit risks, but not as low as Treasury securities.
The Fund treats mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by a federal agency or instrumentality as government securities.
Although such a guarantee helps protect against credit risk, it does not eliminate it entirely or reduce other risks.
Additional Information Related to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The extreme and unprecedented volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets beginning in 2008 led to market concerns regarding the ability of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 7, 2008, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to: (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator's appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator.
In connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the Treasury has entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements (SPAs) with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which establish the Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The senior preferred stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Although the SPAs are subject to amendment from time to time, currently the Treasury is obligated to provide such financial contributions up to an aggregate maximum amount determined by a formula set forth in the SPAs, and until such aggregate maximum amount is reached, there is not a specific end date to the Treasury's obligations.
2

The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac's and Fannie Mae's operations and activities under the SPAs, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, downgrades or upgrades in the credit ratings assigned to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs) or ratings services, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.
In addition, the future of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and other U.S. government-sponsored enterprises that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (GSEs), remains in question as the U.S. government continues to consider options ranging from structural reform, nationalization, privatization, or consolidation, to outright elimination. The issues that have led to significant U.S. government support for Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae have sparked serious debate regarding the continued role of the U.S. government in providing mortgage loan liquidity.
Corporate Debt Securities (A Fixed-Income Security)
Corporate debt securities are fixed-income securities issued by businesses. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most prevalent types of corporate debt securities. The Fund may also purchase interests in bank loans to companies. The credit risks of corporate debt securities vary widely among issuers.
In addition, the credit risk of an issuer's debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (“senior”) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (“subordinated)” securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of subordinated securities. Some subordinated securities, such as trust preferred and capital securities notes, also permit the issuer to defer payments under certain circumstances. For example, insurance companies issue securities known as surplus notes that permit the insurance company to defer any payment that would reduce its capital below regulatory requirements.
Commercial Paper (A Type of Corporate Debt Security)
Commercial paper is an issuer's obligation with a maturity of less than nine months. Companies typically issue commercial paper to pay for current expenditures. Most issuers constantly reissue their commercial paper and use the proceeds (or bank loans) to repay maturing paper. If the issuer cannot continue to obtain liquidity in this fashion, its commercial paper may default. The short maturity of commercial paper generally reduces both the market and credit risks as compared to other debt securities of the same issuer.
Bank Instruments (A Fixed-Income Security)
Bank instruments are unsecured interest bearing deposits with banks. Bank instruments include, but are not limited to, bank accounts, time deposits, certificates of deposit and banker's acceptances. Yankee instruments are denominated in U.S. dollars and issued by U.S. branches of foreign banks. Eurodollar instruments are denominated in U.S. dollars and issued by non-U.S. branches of U.S. or foreign banks.
Demand Instruments (A Type of Corporate Debt Security)
Demand instruments are corporate debt securities that require the issuer or a third party, such as a dealer or bank (the “Demand Provider”), to repurchase the security for its face value upon demand. Some demand instruments are “conditional,” so that the occurrence of certain conditions relieves the Demand Provider of its obligation to repurchase the security. Other demand instruments are “unconditional,” so that there are no conditions under which the Demand Provider's obligation to repurchase the security can terminate. The Fund treats demand instruments as short-term securities, even though their stated maturity may extend beyond one year.
Convertible Securities (A Fixed-Income Security)
Convertible securities are fixed-income securities or preferred stocks that the Fund has the option to exchange for equity securities at a specified conversion price. The option allows the Fund to realize additional returns if the market price of the equity securities exceeds the conversion price. For example, the Fund may hold fixed-income securities that are convertible into shares of common stock at a conversion price of $10 per share. If the market value of the shares of common stock reached $12, the Fund could realize an additional $2 per share by converting its fixed-income securities.
3

Convertible securities have lower yields than comparable fixed-income securities. In addition, at the time a convertible security is issued the conversion price exceeds the market value of the underlying equity securities. Thus, convertible securities may provide lower returns than non-convertible fixed-income securities or equity securities depending upon changes in the price of the underlying equity securities. However, convertible securities permit the Fund to realize some of the potential appreciation of the underlying equity securities with less risk of losing its initial investment.
The Fund treats convertible securities as both fixed-income and equity securities for purposes of its investment policies and limitations because of their unique characteristics.
Foreign Government Securities (A Type of Foreign Fixed-Income Security)
Foreign government securities generally consist of fixed-income securities supported by national, state or provincial governments or similar political subdivisions. Foreign government securities also include debt obligations of supranational entities, such as international organizations designed or supported by governmental entities to promote economic reconstruction or development, international banking institutions and related government agencies. Examples of these include, but are not limited to, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”), the Asian Development Bank, the European Investment Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.
Foreign government securities also include fixed-income securities of quasi-governmental agencies that are either issued by entities owned by a national, state or equivalent government or are obligations of a political unit that are not backed by the national government's full faith and credit. Further, foreign government securities include mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by national, state or provincial governmental instrumentalities, including quasi-governmental agencies.
Treasury Securities (A Type of Fixed-Income Security)
Treasury securities are direct obligations of the federal government of the United States. Treasury securities are generally regarded as having minimal credit risks. The Fund may receive Treasury securities as collateral on portfolio securities, loans and may invest in Treasury securities on a short-term basis.
Derivative Contracts
Derivative contracts are financial instruments that require payments based upon changes in the values of designated securities, commodities, currencies, indices, or other assets or instruments including other derivative contracts (each a “Reference Instrument” and collectively, “Reference Instruments”). Each party to a derivative contract may sometimes be referred to as a counterparty. Some derivative contracts require payments relating to an actual, future trade involving the Reference Instrument. These types of derivatives are frequently referred to as “physically settled” derivatives. Other derivative contracts require payments relating to the income or returns from, or changes in the market value of, a Reference Instrument. These types of derivatives are known as “cash-settled” derivatives, since they require cash payments in lieu of delivery of the Reference Instrument.
Many derivative contracts are traded on securities or commodities exchanges. In this case, the exchange sets all the terms of the contract except for the price. Investors make payments due under their contracts through the exchange. Most exchanges require investors to maintain margin accounts through their brokers to cover their potential obligations to the exchange. Parties to the contract make (or collect) daily payments to the margin accounts to reflect losses (or gains) in the value of their contracts. This protects investors against potential defaults by the other party to the contract. Trading contracts on an exchange also allows investors to close out their contracts by entering into offsetting contracts.
For example, the Fund could close out an open contract to buy an asset at a future date by entering into an offsetting contract to sell the same asset on the same date. If the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is less, the Fund realizes a loss. Exchanges may limit the amount of open contracts permitted at any one time. Such limits may prevent the Fund from closing out a position. If this happens, the Fund will be required to keep the contract open (even if it is losing money on the contract), and to make any payments required under the contract (even if it has to sell portfolio securities at unfavorable prices to do so). Inability to close out a contract could also harm the Fund by preventing it from disposing of or trading any assets it has been using to secure its obligations under the contract.
The Fund may also trade derivative contracts over-the-counter (OTC) in transactions negotiated directly between the Fund and a financial institution. OTC contracts do not necessarily have standard terms, so they may be less liquid and more difficult to close out than exchange-traded contracts. In addition, OTC contracts with more specialized terms may be more difficult to value than exchange-traded contracts, especially in times of financial stress.
The market for swaps and other OTC derivatives was largely unregulated prior to the enactment of federal legislation known as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”). Regulations enacted by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the CFTC) under the Dodd-Frank Act require the Fund to clear certain swap contracts through a clearinghouse or central counterparty (a CCP).
4

To clear a swap through the CCP, the Fund will submit the contract to, and post margin with, a futures commission merchant (FCM) that is a clearinghouse member. The Fund may enter into the swap with a financial institution other than the FCM and arrange for the contract to be transferred to the FCM for clearing, or enter into the contract with the FCM itself. If the Fund must centrally clear a transaction, the CFTC's regulations also generally require that the swap be executed on a registered exchange or through a market facility that is known as a swap execution facility or “SEF.” Central clearing is presently required only for certain swaps, and the CFTC is expected to impose a mandatory central clearing requirement for additional derivative instruments over time.
The CCP, SEF, and FCM are all subject to regulatory oversight by the CFTC. In addition, most derivative market participants are now regulated as swap dealers or major swap participants and are subject to certain minimum capital and margin requirements and business conduct standards. Similar regulatory requirements are expected to apply to derivative contracts that are subject to the jurisdiction of the SEC, although the SEC has not yet finalized its regulations. In addition, uncleared OTC swaps will be subject to regulatory collateral requirements that could adversely affect the Fund's ability to enter into swaps in the OTC market. These developments could cause the Fund to terminate new or existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments at an inopportune time.
Until the mandated rulemaking and regulations are implemented completely, it will not be possible to determine the complete impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulations on the Fund.
Depending on how the Fund uses derivative contracts and the relationships between the market value of a derivative contract and the Reference Instrument, derivative contracts may increase or decrease the Fund's exposure to the risks of the Reference Instrument, and may also expose the fund to liquidity and leverage risks. OTC contracts also expose the Fund to credit risks in the event that a counterparty defaults on the contract, although this risk may be mitigated by submitting the contract for clearing through a CCP.
The Fund may invest in a derivative contract if it is permitted to own, invest in, or otherwise have economic exposure to the Reference Instrument. The Fund is not required to own a Reference Instrument in order to buy or sell a derivative contract relating to that Reference Instrument. The Fund may trade in the following specific types and/or combinations of derivative contracts:
Futures Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a Reference Instrument at a specified price, date and time. Entering into a contract to buy a Reference Instrument is commonly referred to as buying a contract or holding a long position in the asset. Entering into a contract to sell a Reference Instrument is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position in the Reference Instrument. Futures contracts are considered to be commodity contracts. The Adviser has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to the Fund and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation with respect to the Fund. Futures contracts traded OTC are frequently referred to as forward contracts. The Fund can buy or sell financial futures (such as interest rate futures, index futures and security futures), as well as, currency futures and currency forward contracts.
Interest-Rate Futures
An interest-rate futures contract is an exchange-traded contract for which the Reference Instrument is an interest-bearing, fixed-income security or an inter-bank deposit. Two examples of common interest rate futures contracts are U.S. Treasury futures contracts and Eurodollar futures contracts. The Reference Instrument for a U.S. Treasury futures contract is a U.S. Treasury security. The Reference Instrument for a Eurodollar futures contract is the London Interbank Offered Rate (commonly referred to as LIBOR); Eurodollar futures contracts enable the purchaser to obtain a fixed rate for the lending of funds over a stated period of time and the seller to obtain a fixed rate for a borrowing of funds over that same period.
Index Futures
An index futures contract is an exchange-traded contract to make or receive a payment based upon changes in the value of an index. An index is a statistical composite that measures changes in the value of designated Reference Instruments. An index is usually computed by a sum product of a list of the designated Reference Instruments' current prices and a list of weights assigned to these Reference Instruments.
Security Futures
A security futures contract is an exchange-traded contract to purchase or sell in the future a specific quantity of a security (other than a Treasury security) or a narrow-based securities index at a certain price. Presently, the only available security futures contracts use shares of a single equity security as the Reference Instrument. However, it is possible that in the future security futures contracts will be developed that use a single fixed-income security as the Reference Instrument.
5

Currency Futures and Currency Forward Contracts (Types of Futures Contracts)
A currency futures contract is an exchange-traded contract to buy or sell a particular currency at a specific price at some time in the future (commonly three months or more). A currency forward contract is not an exchange-traded contract and represents an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, at a price set at the time of the contract and for a period agreed upon by the parties which may be either a window of time or a fixed number of days from the date of the contract. Currency futures and forward contracts are highly volatile, with a relatively small price movement potentially resulting in substantial gains or losses to the Fund. Additionally, the Fund may lose money on currency futures and forward contracts if changes in currency rates do not occur as anticipated or if the Fund's counterparty to the contract were to default.
Option Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
Option contracts (also called “options”) are rights to buy or sell a Reference Instrument for a specified price (the “exercise price”) during, or at the end of, a specified period. The seller (or “writer”) of the option receives a payment, or premium, from the buyer, which the writer keeps regardless of whether the buyer uses (or exercises) the option. Options may be bought or sold on a wide variety of Reference Instruments. Options that are written on futures contracts will be subject to margin requirements similar to those applied to futures contracts.
The Fund may buy and/or sell the following types of options:
Call Options
A call option gives the holder (buyer) the right to buy the Reference Instrument from the seller (writer) of the option. The Fund may use call options in the following ways:
■  Buy call options on a Reference Instrument in anticipation of an increase in the value of the Reference Instrument; and
■  Write call options on a Reference Instrument to generate income from premiums, and in anticipation of a decrease or only limited increase in the value of the Reference Instrument. If the Fund writes a call option on a Reference Instrument that it owns and that call option is exercised, the Fund foregoes any possible profit from an increase in the market price of the Reference Instrument over the exercise price plus the premium received.
Put Options
A put option gives the holder the right to sell the Reference Instrument to the writer of the option. The Fund may use put options in the following ways:
■  Buy put options on a Reference Instrument in anticipation of a decrease in the value of the Reference Instrument; and
■  Write put options on a Reference Instrument to generate income from premiums, and in anticipation of an increase or only limited decrease in the value of the Reference Instrument. In writing puts, there is a risk that the Fund may be required to take delivery of the Reference Instrument when its current market price is lower than the exercise price.
The Fund may also buy or write options, as needed, to close out existing option positions.
Finally, the Fund may enter into combinations of options contracts in an attempt to benefit from changes in the prices of those options contracts (without regard to changes in the value of the Reference Instrument).
Swap Contracts (A Type of Derivative)
A swap contract (also known as a “swap”) is a type of derivative contract in which two parties agree to pay each other (swap) the returns derived from Reference Instruments. Most swaps do not involve the delivery of the underlying assets by either party, and the parties might not own the Reference Instruments. The payments are usually made on a net basis so that, on any given day, the Fund would receive (or pay) only the amount by which its payment under the contract is less than (or exceeds) the amount of the other party's payment. Swap agreements are sophisticated instruments that can take many different forms and are known by a variety of names. Common swap agreements that the Fund may use include:
Interest Rate Swaps
Interest rate swaps are contracts in which one party agrees to make regular payments equal to a fixed or floating interest rate times a stated principal amount (commonly referred to as a “notional principal amount”) in return for payments equal to a different fixed or floating rate times the same principal amount, for a specific period. For example, a $10 million London Interbank Offered Rate (commonly referred to as LIBOR) swap would require one party to pay the equivalent of the London Interbank Offered Rate of interest (which fluctuates) on $10 million principal amount in exchange for the right to receive the equivalent of a stated fixed rate of interest on $10 million principal amount.
Caps and Floors (A Type of Swap Contract)
Caps and Floors are contracts in which one party agrees to make payments only if an interest rate or index goes above (Cap) or below (Floor) a certain level in return for a fee from the other party.
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Total Return Swaps
A total return swap is an agreement between two parties whereby one party agrees to make payments of the total return from a Reference Instrument (or a basket of such instruments) during the specified period, in return for payments equal to a fixed or floating rate of interest or the total return from another Reference Instrument. Alternately, a total return swap can be structured so that one party will make payments to the other party if the value of a Reference Instrument increases, but receive payments from the other party if the value of that instrument decreases.
Credit Default Swaps
A credit default swap (CDS) is an agreement between two parties whereby one party (the “Protection Buyer”) agrees to make payments over the term of the CDS to the other party (the “Protection Seller”), provided that no designated event of default, restructuring or other credit related event (each a “Credit Event”) occurs with respect to the Reference Instrument that is usually a particular bond, loan or the unsecured credit of an issuer, in general (the “Reference Obligation”). Many CDS are physically settled, which means that if a Credit Event occurs, the Protection Seller must pay the Protection Buyer the full notional value, or “par value,” of the Reference Obligation in exchange for delivery by the Protection Buyer of the Reference Obligation or another similar obligation issued by the issuer of the Reference Obligation (the “Deliverable Obligation”). The Counterparties agree to the characteristics of the Deliverable Obligation at the time that they enter into the CDS. Alternately, a CDS can be “cash settled,” which means that upon the occurrence of a Credit Event, the Protection Buyer will receive a payment from the Protection Seller equal to the difference between the par amount of the Reference Obligation and its market value at the time of the Credit Event. The Fund may be either the Protection Buyer or the Protection Seller in a CDS. If the Fund is a Protection Buyer and no Credit Event occurs, the Fund will lose its entire investment in the CDS (i.e., an amount equal to the payments made to the Protection Seller over the term of the CDS). However, if a Credit Event occurs, the Fund (as Protection Buyer) will deliver the Deliverable Obligation and receive a payment equal to the full notional value of the Reference Obligation, even though the Reference Obligation may have little or no value. If the Fund is the Protection Seller and no Credit Event occurs, the Fund will receive a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the CDS. However, if a Credit Event occurs, the Fund (as Protection Seller) will pay the Protection Buyer the full notional value of the Reference Obligation and receive the Deliverable Obligation from the Protection Buyer. A CDS may involve greater risks than if the Fund invested directly in the Reference Obligation. For example, a CDS may increase credit risk since the Fund has exposure to both the issuer of the Reference Obligation and the Counterparty to the CDS.
Currency Swaps
Currency swaps are contracts which provide for interest payments in different currencies. The parties might agree to exchange the notional principal amounts of the currencies as well (commonly called a “foreign exchange swap”).
Other investments, transactions, techniques
Repurchase Agreements
Repurchase agreements are transactions in which the Fund buys a security from a dealer or bank and agrees to sell the security back at a mutually agreed-upon time and price. The repurchase price exceeds the sale price, reflecting the Fund's return on the transaction. This return is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying security. The Fund will enter into repurchase agreements only with banks and other recognized financial institutions, such as securities dealers, deemed creditworthy by the Adviser.
The Fund's custodian or subcustodian will take possession of the securities subject to repurchase agreements. The Adviser or subcustodian will monitor the value of the underlying security each day to ensure that the value of the security always equals or exceeds the repurchase price.
Repurchase agreements are subject to credit risks.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Reverse repurchase agreements (which are considered a type of special transaction for asset segregation or asset coverage purposes) are repurchase agreements in which the Fund is the seller (rather than the buyer) of the securities, and agrees to repurchase them at an agreed-upon time and price. A reverse repurchase agreement may be viewed as a type of borrowing by the Fund. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to credit risks. In addition, reverse repurchase agreements create leverage risks because the Fund must repurchase the underlying security at a higher price, regardless of the market value of the security at the time of repurchase.
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Delayed Delivery Transactions
Delayed delivery transactions, including when issued transactions, are arrangements in which the Fund buys securities for a set price, with payment and delivery of the securities scheduled for a future time. During the period between purchase and settlement, no payment is made by the Fund to the issuer and no interest accrues to the Fund. The Fund records the transaction when it agrees to buy the securities and reflects their value in determining the price of its shares. Settlement dates may be a month or more after entering into these transactions so that the market values of the securities bought may vary from the purchase prices. Therefore, delayed delivery transactions create interest rate risks for the Fund. Delayed delivery transactions also involve credit risks in the event of a counterparty default. These transactions create leverage risks.
Investing in Exchange-Traded Funds
The Fund may invest in exchange-traded funds (ETFs) as an efficient means of carrying out its investment strategies. As with traditional mutual funds, ETFs charge asset-based fees, although these fees tend to be relatively low. ETFs are traded on stock exchanges or on the over-the-counter market. ETFs do not charge initial sales charges or redemption fees and investors pay only customary brokerage fees to buy and sell ETF shares.
Hybrid Instruments
Hybrid instruments combine elements of two different kinds of securities or financial instruments (such as a derivative contract). Frequently, the value of a hybrid instrument is determined by reference to changes in the value of a Reference Instrument (that is a designated security, commodity, currency, index, or other asset or instrument including a derivative contract). Hybrid instruments can take on many forms including, but not limited to, the following forms. First, a common form of a hybrid instrument combines elements of a derivative contract with those of another security (typically a fixed-income security). In this case all or a portion of the interest or principal payable on a hybrid security is determined by reference to changes in the price of a Reference Instrument. Second, a hybrid instrument may also combine elements of a fixed-income security and an equity security. Third, hybrid instruments may include convertible securities with conversion terms related to a Reference Instrument.
Depending on the type and terms of the hybrid instrument, its risks may reflect a combination of the risks of investing in the Reference Instrument with the risks of investing in other securities, currencies and derivative contracts. Thus, an investment in a hybrid instrument may entail significant risks in addition to those associated with traditional securities or the Reference Instrument. Hybrid instruments are also potentially more volatile than traditional securities or the Reference Instrument. Moreover, depending on the structure of the particular hybrid, it may expose the Fund to leverage risks or carry liquidity risks.
Credit Linked Note (A Type of Hybrid Instrument)
A credit linked note (CLN) is a type of hybrid instrument in which a special purpose entity issues a structured note (the “Note Issuer”) with respect to which the Reference Instrument is a single bond, a portfolio of bonds, or the unsecured credit of an issuer, in general (each a “Reference Credit”). The purchaser of the CLN (the “Note Purchaser”) invests a par amount and receives a payment during the term of the CLN that equals a fixed or floating rate of interest equivalent to a high rated funded asset (such as a bank certificate of deposit) plus an additional premium that relates to taking on the credit risk of the Reference Credit. Upon maturity of the CLN, the Note Purchaser will receive a payment equal to: (i) the original par amount paid to the Note Issuer, if there is no occurrence of a designated event of default, restructuring or other credit event (each a “Credit Event”) with respect to the issuer of the Reference Credit; or (ii) the market value of the Reference Credit, if a Credit Event has occurred. Depending upon the terms of the CLN, it is also possible that the Note Purchaser may be required to take physical delivery of the Reference Credit in the event of a Credit Event. Most credit linked notes use a corporate bond (or a portfolio of corporate bonds) as the Reference Credit. However, almost any type of fixed-income security (including foreign government securities), index or derivative contract (such as a credit default swap) can be used as the Reference Credit.
Equity Linked Note (A Type of Hybrid Instrument)
An equity linked note (ELN) is a type of hybrid instrument that provides the noteholder with exposure to a single equity security, a basket of equity securities, or an equity index (the “Reference Equity Instrument”). Typically, an ELN pays interest at agreed rates over a specified time period and, at maturity, either converts into shares of a Reference Equity Instrument or returns a payment to the noteholder based on the change in value of a Reference Equity Instrument.
Hedging
Hedging transactions are intended to reduce specific risks. For example, to protect the Fund against circumstances that would normally cause the Fund's portfolio securities to decline in value, the Fund may buy or sell a derivative contract that would normally increase in value under the same circumstances. The Fund may also attempt to hedge by using combinations of different derivative contracts, or derivative contracts and securities. The Fund's ability to hedge may be limited by the costs of the derivative contracts. The Fund may attempt to lower the cost of hedging by entering into transactions that provide only limited protection,
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including transactions that: (1) hedge only a portion of its portfolio; (2) use derivative contracts that cover a narrow range of circumstances; or (3) involve the sale of derivative contracts with different terms. Consequently, hedging transactions will not eliminate risk even if they work as intended. In addition, hedging strategies are not always successful, and could result in increased expenses and losses to the Fund.
Asset Segregation
In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and SEC staff positions regarding the interpretation of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (“1940 Act”), with respect to derivatives that create a future payment obligation of the Fund, the Fund must “set aside” (referred to sometimes as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or staff-approved measures, while the derivative contracts are open. For example, with respect to forwards and futures contracts that are not contractually required to “cash-settle,” the Fund must cover its open positions by setting aside cash or readily marketable securities equal to the contracts' full, notional value. With respect to forwards and futures that are contractually required to “cash-settle,” however, the Fund is permitted to set aside cash or readily marketable securities in an amount equal to the Fund's daily marked-to-market (net) obligations, if any (i.e., the Fund's daily net liability, if any), rather than the notional value.
The Fund will employ another approach to segregating assets to cover options that it sells. If the Fund sells a call option, the Fund will set aside either the Reference Instrument subject to the option, cash or readily marketable securities with a value that equals or exceeds the current market value of the Reference Instrument. In no event, will the value of the cash or readily marketable securities set aside by the Fund be less than the exercise price of the call option. If the Fund sells a put option, the Fund will set aside cash or readily marketable securities with a value that equals or exceeds the exercise price of the put option.
The Fund's asset segregation approach for swap agreements varies among different types of swaps. For example, if the Fund enters into a credit default swap as the Protection Buyer, then it will set aside cash or readily marketable securities necessary to meet any accrued payment obligations under the swap. By comparison, if the Fund enters into a credit default swap as the Protection Seller, then the Fund will set aside cash or readily marketable securities equal to the full notional amount of the swap that must be paid upon the occurrence of a Credit Event. For some other types of swaps, such as interest rate swaps, the Fund will calculate the obligations of the counterparties to the swap on a net basis. Consequently, the Fund's current obligation (or rights) under this type of swap will equal only the net amount to be paid or received based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty to the swap (the “net amount”). The net amount currently owed by or to the Fund will be accrued daily and the Fund will set aside cash or readily marketable securities equal to any accrued but unpaid net amount owed by the Fund under the swap.
The Fund may reduce the liquid assets segregated to cover obligations under a derivative contract by entering into an offsetting derivative contract. For example, if the Fund sells a put option for the same Reference Instrument as a call option the Fund has sold, and the exercise price of the call option is the same as or higher than the exercise price of the put option, then the Fund may net its obligations under the options and set aside cash or readily marketable securities (including any margin deposited for the options) with a value equal to the greater of: (a) the current market value of the Reference Instrument deliverable under the call option; or (b) the exercise price of the put option.
By setting aside cash or readily marketable securities equal to only its net obligations under swaps and certain cash-settled derivative contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to segregate cash or readily marketable securities equal to the full notional value of such contracts. The use of leverage involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors.” Unless the Fund has other cash or readily marketable securities to set aside, it cannot trade assets set aside in connection with derivative contracts or special transactions without entering into an offsetting derivative contract or terminating a special transaction. This may cause the Fund to miss favorable trading opportunities or to realize losses on derivative contracts or special transactions. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future to comply with any changes in the positions articulated from time to time by the SEC and its staff.
Generally, special transactions do not cash-settle on a net basis. Consequently, with respect to special transactions, the Fund will set aside cash or readily marketable securities with a value that equals or exceeds the Fund's obligations.
Illiquid Securities
The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. Illiquid securities are securities for which there is no readily available market or securities with legal or contractual restrictions. These may include private placements and repurchase agreements that the fund cannot dispose of within seven days, and securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933 (“1933 Act”). Rule 144A allows certain qualified institutional investors to trade privately placed securities despite the fact that such securities are not registered under the 1933 Act. In deciding whether to purchase such securities, the Fund, acting pursuant to guidelines approved by the Board, will consider the frequency of such trades and quotes, the number of dealers and potential purchasers, dealer undertakings to make a market, the nature of the securities and the marketplace trades.
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Borrowing for Leverage
The Fund may borrow from banks for temporary or emergency purposes, clearing transactions or for other investment purposes. Borrowing to purchase securities is a speculative practice known as leveraging, which increases stock market risk by magnifying the effect of any change in the market value of the Fund's portfolio. Interest paid on any borrowed funds may have the effect of lowering the Fund's return. In addition, the Fund may have to sell the securities when it would normally keep them in order to make interest payments.
Short Sales
The Fund may sell a security short in an effort to take advantage of an anticipated decline in the price of the security. In a short sale, the Fund sells a security it does not own, and must borrow the security in order to deliver it at completion of the sale. The Fund then has an obligation to replace the borrowed security (e.g., to purchase the security at a future date and deliver it to the lender of the security). In order to cover its obligation to purchase such securities in the future, the Fund holds short-term liquid securities such as money market funds, U.S. Treasury securities or government agency securities. If the value of the security declines between the time that the Fund borrows the security and the time it repurchases and returns the security to the lender, the Fund makes a profit on the difference (less any interest, fees and/or dividend payments the Fund is required to pay the lender). If it has to buy the security back at a higher price, a loss results. The Fund may incur expenses in selling securities short and such expenses are investment expenses of the Fund.
Inter-Fund Borrowing and Third-Party Lending Arrangements
Inter-Fund Borrowing
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has granted an exemption that permits the Fund and all other funds advised by subsidiaries of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated funds”) to lend and borrow money for certain temporary purposes directly to and from other Federated funds. Participation in this inter-fund lending program is voluntary for both borrowing and lending Federated funds, and an inter-fund loan is only made if it benefits each participating Federated fund. Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”) administers the program according to procedures approved by the Fund's Board, and the Board monitors the operation of the program. Any inter-fund loan must comply with certain conditions set out in the exemption, which are designed to assure fairness and protect all participating Federated funds.
For example, inter-fund lending is permitted only: (a) to meet shareholder redemption requests; (b) to meet commitments arising from “failed” trades; and (c) for other temporary purposes. All inter-fund loans must be repaid in seven days or less. The Fund's participation in this program must be consistent with its investment policies and limitations, and must meet certain percentage tests. Inter-fund loans may be made only when the rate of interest to be charged is more attractive to the lending Federated fund than market-competitive rates on overnight repurchase agreements (“Repo Rate”) and more attractive to the borrowing Federated fund than the rate of interest that would be charged by an unaffiliated bank for short-term borrowings (“Bank Loan Rate”), as determined by the Board. The interest rate imposed on inter-fund loans is the average of the Repo Rate and the Bank Loan Rate.
Third-Party Line of Credit
The Fund participates with certain other Federated Funds, on a several basis, in an up to $500,000,000 unsecured, 364-day, committed, revolving line of credit (LOC) agreement. The LOC was made available to finance temporarily the repurchase or redemption of shares of the Fund, failed trades, payment of dividends, settlement of trades and for other short-term, temporary or emergency general business purposes. The Fund cannot borrow under the LOC if an inter-fund loan is outstanding. The Fund's ability to borrow under the LOC also is subject to the limitations of the 1940 Act and various conditions precedent that must be satisfied before the Fund can borrow. Loans under the LOC are charged interest at a fluctuating rate per annum equal to the highest, on any day, of: (a) (i) the federal funds effective rate; (ii) the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR); and (iii) 0.0%; plus (b) a margin. The LOC also requires the Fund to pay, quarterly in arrears and at maturity, its pro rata share of a commitment fee based on the amount of the lenders' commitment that has not been utilized. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, there were no outstanding loans. During the most recently ended fiscal year, the Fund did not utilize the LOC.
Investment Ratings for Investment-Grade Securities
The Adviser will determine whether a security is investment-grade based upon the credit ratings given by one or more nationally recognized rating services. For example, Standard & Poor's, a rating service, assigns ratings to investment-grade securities (AAA, AA, A and BBB including modifiers, sub-categories or gradations) based on their assessment of the likelihood of the issuer's inability to pay interest or principal (default) when due on each security. Lower credit ratings correspond to higher credit risk. If a
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security has not received a rating, the Fund must rely entirely upon the Adviser's credit assessment that the security is comparable to investment-grade. The presence of a ratings modifier, sub-category, or gradation (for example, a (+) or (-) ) is intended to show relative standing within the major rating categories and does not affect the security credit rating for purposes of the Fund's investment parameters.
Investment Risks
There are many risk factors which may affect an investment in the Fund. The Fund's principal risks are described in its Prospectus. The following information is either additional information in respect of a principal risk factor referenced in the Prospectus or information in respect of a non-principal risk factor applicable to the Fund (in which case there is no related disclosure in the Prospectus).
Call Risk
Call risk is the possibility that an issuer may redeem a fixed-income security before maturity (a “call”) at a price below its current market price. An increase in the likelihood of a call may reduce the security's price.
If a fixed-income security is called, the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds in other fixed-income securities with lower interest rates, higher credit risk, or other less favorable characteristics.
Risk Associated with Noninvestment-Grade Securities
Securities rated below investment grade, also known as junk bonds, generally entail greater economic credit and liquidity risk than investment-grade securities. For example, their prices are more volatile, economic downturns and financial setbacks may affect their prices more negatively, and their trading market may be more limited.
Risk Related to the Economy
The value of the Fund's portfolio may decline in tandem with a drop in the overall value of the markets in which the Fund invests and/or the stock market based on negative developments in the United States and global economies. Economic, political and financial conditions may from time to time, cause volatility, illiquidity or other potentially adverse effects in the financial markets, including the fixed income market. The commencement, continuation or ending of government policies and economic stimulus programs, changes in monetary policy, increases or decreases in interest rates, or other factors or events that affect the financial markets, including the fixed income markets, may contribute to the development of or increase in volatility, illiquidity, shareholder redemptions and other factors, which could negatively impact the Fund's performance. A general rise in interest rates, which could result from a change in government policies, has the potential to cause investors to move out of fixed-income securities on a large scale, which may increase redemptions from funds that hold large amounts of fixed-income securities, and may result in decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income markets. Among other investments, lower-grade bonds may be particularly sensitive to changes in the economy.
REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUST (REIT) RISK
Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) including foreign REITS and REIT-like entities, are subject to risks associated with the ownership of real estate. Some REITs experience market risk due to investment in a limited number of properties, in a narrow geographic area, or in a single property type, which increases the risk that such REIT could be unfavorably affected by the poor performance of a single investment or investment type. These companies are also sensitive to factors such as changes in real estate values and property taxes, interest rates, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, supply and demand, and the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer. Borrowers could default on or sell investments that a REIT holds, which could reduce the cash flow needed to make distributions to investors. In addition, REITs may also be affected by tax and regulatory requirements impacting the REITs' ability to qualify for preferential tax treatments or exemptions. REITs require specialized management and pay management expenses. REITs also are subject to physical risks to real property, including weather, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war, or other events that destroy real property. Foreign REITS and REIT-like entities can also be subject to currency risk, emerging market risk, limited public information, illiquid trading and the impact of local laws.
REITs include equity REITs and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, equity and mortgage REITs are dependent upon management skills and generally may not be diversified. Equity and mortgage REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, and self-liquidations. In addition, equity and mortgage REITs could possibly fail to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under applicable tax laws or to maintain their exemptions from
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registration under the 1940 Act. The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower's or a lessee's ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments. In addition, even many of the larger REITs in the industry tend to be small to medium-sized companies in relation to the equity markets as a whole.
Risk of Investing in Derivative Contracts and Hybrid Instruments
The Fund's exposure to derivative contracts and hybrid instruments (either directly or through its investment in another investment company) involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. First, changes in the value of the derivative contracts and hybrid instruments in which the Fund invests may not be correlated with changes in the value of the underlying Reference Instruments or, if they are correlated, may move in the opposite direction than originally anticipated. Second, while some strategies involving derivatives may reduce the risk of loss, they may also reduce potential gains or, in some cases, result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in portfolio holdings. Third, there is a risk that derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may be erroneously priced or improperly valued and, as a result, the Fund may need to make increased cash payments to the counterparty. Fourth, exposure to derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may have tax consequences to the Fund and its shareholders. For example, derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may cause the Fund to realize increased ordinary income or short-term capital gains (which are treated as ordinary income for Federal income tax purposes) and, as a result, may increase taxable distributions to shareholders. In addition, under certain circumstances certain derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may cause the Fund to: a) incur an excise tax on a portion of the income related to those contracts and instruments; and/or b) reclassify, as a return of capital, some or all of the distributions previously made to shareholders during the fiscal year as dividend income. Fifth, a common provision in OTC derivative contracts permits the counterparty to terminate any such contract between it and the Fund, if the value of the Fund's total net assets declines below a specified level over a given time period. Factors that may contribute to such a decline (which usually must be substantial) include significant shareholder redemptions and/or a marked decrease in the market value of the Fund's investments. Any such termination of the Fund's OTC derivative contracts may adversely affect the Fund (for example, by increasing losses and/or costs, and/or preventing the Fund from fully implementing its investment strategies). Sixth, the Fund may use a derivative contract to benefit from a decline in the value of a Reference Instrument. If the value of the Reference Instrument declines during the term of the contract, the Fund makes a profit on the difference (less any payments the Fund is required to pay under the terms of the contract). Any such strategy involves risk. There is no assurance that the Reference Instrument will decline in value during the term of the contract and make a profit for the Fund. The Reference Instrument may instead appreciate in value creating a loss for the Fund. Seventh, a default or failure by a CCP or an FCM (also sometimes called a “futures broker”), or the failure of a contract to be transferred from an Executing Dealer to the FCM for clearing, may expose the Fund to losses, increase its costs, or prevent the Fund from entering or exiting derivative positions, accessing margin or fully implementing its investment strategies. The central clearing of a derivative and trading of a contract over a SEF could reduce the liquidity in, or increase costs of entering into or holding, any contracts. Finally, derivative contracts and hybrid instruments may also involve other risks described herein or in the Fund's prospectus, such as stock market, interest rate, credit, currency, liquidity and leverage risks.
Risk Associated with the Investment Activities of Other Accounts
Investment decisions for the Fund are made independently from those of other accounts managed by the Adviser and accounts managed by affiliates of the Adviser. Therefore, it is possible that investment-related actions taken by such other accounts could adversely impact the Fund with respect to, for example, the value of Fund portfolio holdings, and/or prices paid to or received by the Fund on its portfolio transactions, and/or the Fund's ability to obtain or dispose of portfolio securities. Related considerations are discussed elsewhere in this SAI under “Brokerage Transactions and Investment Allocation.”
short selling risk
A short sale by the Fund involves borrowing securities from a lender which are then sold in the open market. At a future date, the securities are repurchased by the Fund and returned to the lender. While the securities are borrowed, the proceeds from the sale are deposited with the lender and the Fund pays interest to the lender. If the value of the securities declines between the time that the Fund borrows the securities and the time it repurchases and returns the securities to the lender, the Fund makes a profit on the difference (less any interest the Fund is required to pay the lender). Short selling involves risk. There is no assurance that securities will decline in value during the period of the short sale and make a profit for the Fund. Securities sold short may instead appreciate in value creating a loss for the Fund. The Fund also may experience difficulties repurchasing and returning the borrowed securities if a liquid market for the securities does not exist. The lender may also recall borrowed securities at any time. The lender from whom the Fund has borrowed securities may go bankrupt and the Fund may lose the collateral it has deposited with the lender. The Fund will adhere to controls and limits that are intended to offset these risks by short selling only liquid securities and by limiting the amount of exposure for short sales.
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RISK OF INVESTING IN EMERGING MARKET COUNTRIES
Securities issued or traded in emerging markets, including frontier markets, generally entail greater risks than securities issued or traded in developed markets. For example, their prices may be significantly more volatile than prices in developed countries. Emerging market economies may also experience more severe downturns (with corresponding currency Devaluations) than developed economies. The economies of frontier market countries generally are smaller than those of traditional emerging market countries, and frontier capital markets and legal systems are typically less developed. As a result, investments in frontier markets are subject to increased risks from extreme price volatility and illiquidity, government ownership of private enterprise or other protectionism, volatile currency movements, inadequate investor protection, and fraud and corruption.
Emerging markets may have relatively unstable governments and may present the risk of nationalization of businesses, expropriation, confiscatory taxation or, in certain instances, reversion to closed market, centrally-planned economies. These same risks exist and may be greater in frontier markets.
Exchange-Traded Funds Risk
An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate up or down, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs may be subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of an ETF's shares may trade above or below their net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF's shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF's shares may be halted if the listing exchange's officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are delisted from the exchange or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.
CYBER SECURITY RISK
Like other funds and business enterprises, the use of the Internet and other electronic media and technology exposes the Fund, the Fund's shareholders, and the Fund's service providers, and their respective operations, to potential risks from cyber-security attacks or incidents (collectively, “cyber-events”). Cyber-events may include, for example, unauthorized access to systems, networks or devices (such as, for example, through “hacking” activity), infection from or spread of malware, computer viruses or other malicious software code, corruption of data, and attacks which shut down, disable, slow or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes or website or internet access, functionality or performance. Like other funds and business enterprises, the Fund and its service providers have experienced, and will continue to experience, cyber-events consistently. Cyber-events have not had a material adverse effect on the Fund's business operations or performance. In addition to intentional cyber-events, unintentional cyber-events can occur, such as, for example, the inadvertent release of confidential information. Any cyber-event could adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders and cause the Fund to incur financial loss and expense, as well as face exposure to regulatory penalties, reputational damage and additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures. A cyber-event may cause the Fund, or its service providers, to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity (such as, for example, the loss of the ability to process transactions, calculate the Fund's NAV, or allow shareholders to transact business), and/or fail to comply with applicable privacy and other laws. Among other potentially harmful effects, cyber-events also may result in theft, unauthorized monitoring and failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support the Fund and its service providers. In addition, cyber-events affecting issuers in which the Fund invests could cause the Fund's investments to lose value. The Fund's Adviser and its relevant affiliates have established risk management systems reasonably designed to seek to reduce the risks associated with cyber-events, however, there is no guarantee that the efforts of the Adviser or its affiliates, or other service providers, will succeed, either entirely or partially. Among other reasons, the nature of malicious cyber-attacks is becoming increasingly sophisticated and the Fund's Adviser, and its relevant affiliates, cannot control the cyber systems and cyber security systems of issuers or third-party service providers.
Investment Objective and Investment Limitations
Fundamental Investment Objective
The Fund's investment objective is to provide capital appreciation. The investment objective may not be changed by the Fund's Board without shareholder approval.
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Investment Limitations
Diversification
With respect to securities comprising 75% of the value of its total assets, the Fund will not purchase securities of any one issuer (other than cash; cash items; securities issued or guaranteed by the government of the United States or its agencies or instrumentalities and repurchase agreements collateralized by such U.S. government securities; and securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, more than 5% of the value of its total assets would be invested in the securities of that issuer, or the Fund would own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of that issuer.
Borrowing Money and Issuing Senior Securities
The Fund may borrow money, directly or indirectly, and issue senior securities to the maximum extent permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended.
Investing in Real Estate
The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate, provided that this restriction does not prevent the Fund from investing in issuers which invest, deal or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate or interests therein, or investing in securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein. The Fund may exercise its rights under agreements relating to such securities, including the right to enforce security interests and to hold real estate acquired by reason of such enforcement until that real estate can be liquidated in an orderly manner.
Investing in Commodities
The Fund may not purchase or sell physical commodities, provided that the Fund may purchase securities of companies that deal in commodities.
Underwriting
The Fund may not underwrite the securities of other issuers, except that the Fund may engage in transactions involving the acquisition, disposition or resale of its portfolio securities, under circumstances where it may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act.
Lending
The Fund may not make loans, provided that this restriction does not prevent the Fund from purchasing debt obligations, entering into repurchase agreements, lending its assets to broker/dealers or institutional investors and investing in loans, including assignments and participation interests.
Concentration
The Fund will not make investments that will result in the concentration of its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry. Government securities, municipal securities and bank instruments will not be deemed to constitute an industry.
The above limitations cannot be changed unless authorized by the Board and by the vote of a majority of the Fund's outstanding voting securities, as defined by the 1940 Act. The following limitations, however, may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified before any material change in these limitations becomes effective.
Investing in Commodities
For purposes of the commodities limitation, investments in transactions involving futures contracts and options, forward currency contracts, swap transactions and other financial contracts that settle by payment of cash are not deemed to be investments in commodities.
Pledging Assets
The Fund will not mortgage, pledge or hypothecate any assets, provided that this shall not apply to the transfer of securities in connection with any permissible borrowings or to collateral arrangements in connection with permissible activities.
Purchases on Margin
The Fund will not purchase securities on margin, provided that the Fund may obtain short-term credits necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of securities, and further provided that the Fund may make margin deposits in connection with its use of financial options and futures, forward and spot currency contracts, swap transactions and other financial contracts or derivative instruments.
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Illiquid Securities
The Fund will not purchase securities for which there is no readily available market, or enter into repurchase agreements or purchase time deposits that the Fund cannot dispose of within seven days, if immediately after and as a result, the value of such securities would exceed, in the aggregate, 15% of the Fund's net assets.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
For purposes of its policies and limitations the Fund considers certificates of deposit and demand and time deposits issued by a U.S. branch of a domestic bank or savings and loan having capital, surplus and undivided profits in excess of $100,000,000 at the time of investment to be “cash items” and “bank instruments.”
Except with respect to borrowing money, if a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction.
To conform to the current view of the SEC that only domestic bank instruments may be excluded from industry concentration limitations, as a matter of non-fundamental policy, the Fund will not exclude foreign bank instruments from industry concentration limits as long as the policy of the SEC remains in effect. In addition, investments in bank instruments, and investments in certain industrial development bonds funded by activities in a single industry will be deemed to constitute investment in an industry, except when held for temporary defensive purposes. The investment of more than 25% of the value of the Fund's total assets in any one industry will constitute “concentration.”
In applying the concentration restriction: (1) utility companies will be divided according to their services, for example, gas, gas transmission, electric and telephone will each be considered a separate industry; (2) financial service companies will be classified according to the end users of their services, for example, automobile finance, bank finance and diversified finance will each be considered a separate industry; and (3) asset-backed securities will be classified according to the underlying assets securing such securities.
Non-fundamental names rule policy
Because the Fund refers to small capitalization investments in its name, the Fund will notify shareholders at least 60 days in advance of any change in its investment policies that would permit the Fund to normally invest less than 80% of its net assets (which include the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in investments in small companies.
What Do Shares Cost?
Determining Market Value of Securities
A Share's net asset value (NAV) is determined as of the end of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) each day the NYSE is open. The Fund calculates the NAV of each class by valuing the assets allocated to the Share's class, subtracting the liabilities allocated to each class and dividing the balance by the number of Shares of the class outstanding. The NAV for each class of Shares may differ due to the level of expenses allocated to each class as well as a result of the variance between the amount of accrued investment income and capital gains or losses allocated to each class and the amount actually distributed to shareholders of each class. The NAV is calculated to the nearest whole cent per Share.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values investments as follows:
■  Equity securities listed on a U.S. securities exchange or traded through the U.S. national market system are valued at their last reported sale price or official closing price in their principal exchange or market. If a price is not readily available, such equity securities are valued based upon the mean of closing bid and asked quotations from one or more dealers.
■  Other equity securities traded primarily in the United States are valued based upon the mean of closing bid and asked quotations from one or more dealers.
■  Equity securities traded primarily through securities exchanges and regulated market systems outside the United States are valued at their last reported sale price or official closing price in their principal exchange or market. These prices may be adjusted for significant events occurring after the closing of such exchanges or market systems as described below. If a price is not readily available, such equity securities are valued based upon the mean of closing bid and asked quotations from one or more dealers.
■  Fixed-income securities are fair valued using price evaluations provided by a pricing service approved by the Board. The methods used by pricing services to determine such price evaluations are described below. If a price evaluation from a pricing service is not readily available, such fixed-income securities are fair valued based upon price evaluations from one or more dealers.
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■  Futures contracts listed on exchanges are valued at their reported settlement price. Option contracts listed on exchanges are valued based upon the mean of closing bid and asked quotations reported by the exchange or from one or more futures commission merchants.
■  OTC derivative contracts are fair valued using price evaluations provided by a pricing service approved by the Board. The methods used by pricing services to determine such price evaluations are described below. If a price evaluation from a pricing service is not readily available, such derivative contracts are fair valued based upon price evaluations from one or more dealers or using a recognized pricing model for the contract.
■  Shares of other mutual funds or non-exchange-traded investment companies are valued based upon their reported NAVs. The prospectuses for these mutual funds explain the circumstances under which they will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.
If any price, quotation, price evaluation or other pricing source is not readily available when the NAV is calculated, if the Fund cannot obtain price evaluations from a pricing service or from more than one dealer for an investment within a reasonable period of time as set forth in the Fund's valuation policies and procedures, or if information furnished by a pricing service, in the opinion of the Valuation Committee, is deemed not representative of the fair value of such security, the Fund will use the fair value of the investment determined in accordance with the procedures described below. There can be no assurance that the Fund could purchase or sell an investment at the price used to calculate the Fund's NAV. The Fund will not use a pricing service or dealer who is an affiliated person of the Adviser to value investments.
Noninvestment assets and liabilities are valued in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). The NAV calculation includes expenses, dividend income, interest income, other income and realized and unrealized investment gains and losses through the date of the calculation. Changes in holdings of investments and in the number of outstanding Shares are included in the calculation not later than the first business day following such change. Any assets or liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from one or more currency dealers.
The Fund follows procedures that are common in the mutual fund industry regarding errors made in the calculation of its NAV. This means that, generally, the Fund will not correct errors of less than one cent per Share or errors that did not result in net dilution to the Fund.
Fair Valuation and Significant Events Procedures
The Board has ultimate responsibility for determining the fair value of investments for which market quotations are not readily available. The Board has appointed a Valuation Committee comprised of officers of the Fund, the Adviser and certain of the Adviser's affiliated companies to assist in determining fair value and in overseeing the calculation of the NAV. The Board has also authorized the use of pricing services recommended by the Valuation Committee to provide price evaluations of the current fair value of certain investments for purposes of calculating the NAV.
Pricing Service Valuations. Based on the recommendations of the Valuation Committee, the Board has authorized the Fund, subject to Board oversight, to use pricing services that provide daily fair value evaluations of the current value of certain investments, primarily fixed-income securities and OTC derivatives contracts. Different pricing services may provide different price evaluations for the same security because of differences in their methods of evaluating market values. Factors considered by pricing services in evaluating an investment include the yields or prices of investments of comparable quality, coupon, maturity, call rights and other potential prepayments, terms and type, reported transactions, indications as to values from dealers and general market conditions. A pricing service may find it more difficult to apply these and other factors to relatively illiquid or volatile investments, which may result in less frequent or more significant changes in the price evaluations of these investments. If a pricing service determines that it does not have sufficient information to use its standard methodology, it may evaluate an investment based on the present value of what investors can reasonably expect to receive from the issuer's operations or liquidation.
Special valuation considerations may apply with respect to the Fund's “odd-lot” positions, if any, as the Fund may receive lower prices when it sells such positions than it would receive for sales of institutional round lot positions. Typically, these securities are valued assuming orderly transactions of institutional round lot sizes, but the Fund may hold or, from time to time, transact in such securities in smaller, odd lot sizes.
The Valuation Committee engages in oversight activities with respect to the Fund's pricing services, which includes, among other things, monitoring significant or unusual price fluctuations above predetermined tolerance levels from the prior day, back-testing of pricing services' prices against actual sale transactions, conducting periodic due diligence meetings and reviews and periodically reviewing the inputs, assumptions and methodologies used by these pricing services. If information furnished by a pricing service is not readily available or, in the opinion of the Valuation Committee, is deemed not representative of the fair value of such security, the security will be fair valued by the Valuation Committee in accordance with procedures established by the Trustees as discussed below in “Fair Valuation Procedures.”
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Some pricing services provide a single price evaluation reflecting the bid-side of the market for an investment (a “bid” evaluation). Other pricing services offer both bid evaluations and price evaluations indicative of a price between the prices bid and asked for the investment (a “mid” evaluation). The Fund normally uses bid evaluations for any U.S. Treasury and Agency securities, mortgage-backed securities and municipal securities. The Fund normally uses mid evaluations for any other types of fixed-income securities and any OTC derivative contracts.
Fair Valuation Procedures. The Board has established procedures for determining the fair value of investments for which price evaluations from pricing services or dealers and market quotations are not readily available. The procedures define an investment's “fair value” as the price that the Fund might reasonably expect to receive upon its current sale. The procedures assume that any sale would be made to a willing buyer in the ordinary course of trading. The procedures require consideration of factors that vary based on the type of investment and the information available. Factors that may be considered in determining an investment's fair value include: (1) the last reported price at which the investment was traded; (2) information provided by dealers or investment analysts regarding the investment or the issuer; (3) changes in financial conditions and business prospects disclosed in the issuer's financial statements and other reports; (4) publicly announced transactions (such as tender offers and mergers) involving the issuer; (5) comparisons to other investments or to financial indices that are correlated to the investment; (6) with respect to fixed-income investments, changes in market yields and spreads; (7) with respect to investments that have been suspended from trading, the circumstances leading to the suspension; and (8) other factors that might affect the investment's value.
The Valuation Committee is responsible for the day-to-day implementation of these procedures subject to Board oversight. The Valuation Committee may also authorize the use of a financial valuation model to determine the fair value of a specific type of investment. The Board periodically reviews and approves the fair valuations made by the Valuation Committee and any changes made to the procedures.
Using fair value to price investments may result in a value that is different from an investment's most recent closing price and from the prices used by other mutual funds to calculate their NAVs. The application of the fair value procedures to an investment represent a good faith determination of an investment's fair value. There can be no assurance that the Fund could obtain the fair value assigned to an investment if it sold the investment at approximately the time at which the Fund determines its NAV per share.
Significant Events. The Board has adopted procedures requiring an investment to be priced at its fair value whenever the Adviser determines that a significant event affecting the value of the investment has occurred between the time as of which the price of the investment would otherwise be determined and the time as of which the NAV is computed. An event is considered significant if there is both an affirmative expectation that the investment's value will change in response to the event and a reasonable basis for quantifying the resulting change in value. Examples of significant events that may occur after the close of the principal market on which a security is traded, or the time of a price evaluation provided by a pricing service or a dealer, include:
■  With respect to securities traded principally in foreign markets, significant trends in U.S. equity markets or in the trading of foreign securities index futures contracts;
■  Political or other developments affecting the economy or markets in which an issuer conducts its operations or its securities are traded; and
■  Announcements concerning matters such as acquisitions, recapitalizations or litigation developments, or a natural disaster affecting the issuer's operations or regulatory changes or market developments affecting the issuer's industry.
The Board has adopted procedures whereby the Valuation Committee uses a pricing service to determine the fair value of equity securities traded principally in foreign markets when the Adviser determines that there has been a significant trend in the U.S. equity markets or in index futures trading. The pricing service uses models that correlate changes between the closing and opening price of equity securities traded primarily in non-U.S. markets to changes in prices in U.S.-traded securities and derivative contracts. The pricing service seeks to employ the model that provides the most significant correlation based on a periodic review of the results. The model uses the correlation to adjust the reported closing price of a foreign equity security based on information available up to the close of the NYSE.
For other significant events, the Fund may seek to obtain more current quotations or price evaluations from alternative pricing sources. If a reliable alternative pricing source is not available, the fair value of the investment is determined using the methods discussed above in “Fair Valuation Procedures.” The Board has ultimate responsibility for any fair valuations made in response to a significant event.
How is the Fund Sold?
Under the Distributor's Contract with the Fund, the Distributor (“Federated Securities Corp.”) offers Shares on a continuous, best-efforts basis.
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Purchases In-Kind
You may contact the Distributor to request a purchase of Shares using securities you own. The Fund reserves the right to determine whether to accept your securities and the minimum market value to accept. The Fund will value your securities in the same manner as it values its assets. An in-kind purchase may be treated as a sale of your securities for federal tax purposes; please consult your tax adviser regarding potential tax liability.
Subaccounting Services
Certain financial intermediaries may wish to use the transfer agent's subaccounting system to minimize their internal recordkeeping requirements. The transfer agent may charge a fee based on the level of subaccounting services rendered. Financial intermediaries holding Shares in a fiduciary, agency, custodial or similar capacity may charge or pass through subaccounting fees as part of or in addition to normal trust or agency account fees. They may also charge fees for other services that may be related to the ownership of Shares. This information should, therefore, be read together with any agreement between the customer and the financial intermediary about the services provided, the fees charged for those services and any restrictions and limitations imposed.
Redemption In-Kind
Although the Fund generally intends to pay Share redemptions in cash, it reserves the right, on its own initiative or in response to a shareholder request, to pay the redemption price in whole or in part by a distribution of the Fund's portfolio securities.
Because the Fund has elected to be governed by Rule 18f-1 under the 1940 Act, the Fund is obligated to pay Share redemptions to any one shareholder in cash only up to the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of the net assets represented by such Share class during any 90-day period.
Any Share redemption payment greater than this amount will also be in cash unless the Fund elects to pay all or a portion of the remainder of the redemption in portfolio securities, valued in the same way as the Fund determines its NAV.
Redemption in-kind is not as liquid as a cash redemption. Shareholders receiving the portfolio securities could have difficulty selling them, may incur related transaction costs and would be subject to risks of fluctuations in the securities' values prior to sale.
Massachusetts Partnership Law
Under certain circumstances, shareholders may be held personally liable as partners under Massachusetts law for obligations of the Trust. To protect its shareholders, the Trust has filed legal documents with Massachusetts that expressly disclaim the liability of its shareholders for acts or obligations of the Trust.
In the unlikely event a shareholder is held personally liable for the Trust's obligations, the Trust is required by the Declaration of Trust to use its property to protect or compensate the shareholder. On request, the Trust will defend any claim made and pay any judgment against a shareholder for any act or obligation of the Trust. Therefore, financial loss resulting from liability as a shareholder will occur only if the Trust itself cannot meet its obligations to indemnify shareholders and pay judgments against them.
Account and Share Information
Voting Rights
Each Share of the Fund gives the shareholder one vote in Trustee elections and other matters submitted to shareholders for vote.
All Shares of the Trust have equal voting rights, except that in matters affecting only a particular Fund or class, only shares of that Fund or class are entitled to vote.
Trustees may be removed by the Board or by shareholders at a special meeting. A special meeting of shareholders will be called by the Board upon the written request of shareholders who own at least 10% of the Trust's outstanding Shares of all series entitled to vote.
As of August 1, 2017, the following shareholders owned of record, beneficially or both, 5% or more of outstanding Class A Shares: Pershing LLC, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 1,379,549 Shares (11.56%); ctag:ba] National Financial Services LLC, New York, NY, owned approximately 1,338,066 Shares (11.21%); Edward D. Jones & Co., St. Louis, MO, owned approximately 892,667 Shares (7.48%); Charles Schwab & Co. Inc., San Francisco, CA, owned approximately 761,720 Shares (6.38%); Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC, St. Louis, MO, owned approximately 743,831 Shares (6.23%) and Raymond James, St. Petersburg, FL, owned approximately 704,305 Shares (5.90%).
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As of August 1, 2017, the following shareholders owned of record, beneficially or both, 5% or more of outstanding Class B Shares: Charles Schwab & Co. Inc., San Francisco, CA, owned approximately 124,342 Shares (20.12%); American Enterprise Inv Svc, Minneapolis, MN, owned approximately 103,078 Shares (16.68%); Pershing LLC, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 101,179 Shares (16.37%); Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC, St. Louis, MO, owned approximately 41,689 Shares (6.74%) and National Financial Services, LLC, New York, NY, owned approximately 38,122 Shares (6.16%).
As of August 1, 2017, the following shareholders owned of record, beneficially or both, 5% or more of outstanding Class C Shares: Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC, St. Louis, MO, owned approximately 884,355 Shares (15.97%); Morgan Stanley & Co., Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 810,194 Shares (14.63%); Pershing LLC, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 665,573 Shares (12.01%); UBS WM USA, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 452,233 Shares (8.16%); Raymond James, St. Petersburg, FL, owned approximately 368,750 Shares (6.65%); National Financial Services, LLC, New York, NY, owned approximately 352,098 Shares (6.35%) and Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., San Francisco, CA, owned approximately 293,707 Shares (5.30%).
As of August 1, 2017, the following shareholders owned of record, beneficially of both, 5% or more of outstanding Class R Shares: Reliance Trust Co., Atlanta, GA, owned approximately 93,895 Shares (6.38%).
As of August 1, 2017, the following shareholders owned of record, beneficially or both, 5% or more of outstanding Institutional Shares Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC, St. Louis, MO, owned approximately 1,017,742 Shares (18.06%); Morgan Stanley & Co., Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 721,138 Shares (12.79%); Emjay Company, Greenwood Village, CO, owned approximately 599,125 Shares (10.63%); MLPFS, Jacksonville, FL, owned approximately 526,328 Shares (9.34%); UBS WM USA, Weehawken, NJ, owned approximately 445,007 Shares (7.89%); Charles Schwab & Co. Inc., San Francisco, CA, owned approximately 391,006 Shares (6.93%); National Financial Services LLC, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 304,129 Shares (5.39%) and Pershing LLC, Jersey City, NJ, owned approximately 285,115 Shares (5.06%).
Tax Information
Federal Income Tax
The Fund intends to meet requirements of Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code (“Code”) applicable to regulated investment companies. If these requirements are not met, it will not receive special tax treatment and will be subject to federal corporate income tax.
The Fund will be treated as a single, separate entity for federal income tax purposes so that income earned and capital gains and losses realized by the Trust's other portfolios will be separate from those realized by the Fund.
Tax Basis Information
The Fund's Transfer Agent is required to provide you with the cost basis information on the sale of any of your Shares in the Fund, subject to certain exceptions.
Foreign Investments
If the Fund purchases foreign securities, its investment income may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes that could reduce the return on these securities. Tax treaties between the United States and foreign countries, however, may reduce or eliminate the amount of foreign taxes to which the Fund would be subject. The effective rate of foreign tax cannot be predicted since the amount of Fund assets to be invested within various countries is uncertain. However, the Fund intends to operate so as to qualify for treaty-reduced tax rates when applicable.
Distributions from the Fund may be based on estimates of book income for the year. Book income generally consists solely of the income generated by the securities in the portfolio, whereas tax-basis income includes, in addition, gains or losses attributable to currency fluctuation. Due to differences in the book and tax treatment of fixed-income securities denominated in foreign currencies, it is difficult to project currency effects on an interim basis. Therefore, to the extent that currency fluctuations cannot be anticipated, a portion of distributions to shareholders could later be designated as a return of capital, rather than income, for income tax purposes, which may be of particular concern to certain trusts.
Certain foreign corporations may qualify as Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFIC). There are special rules prescribing the tax treatment of such an investment by the Fund, which could subject the Fund to federal income tax.
If more than 50% of the value of the Fund's assets at the end of the tax year is represented by stock or securities of foreign corporations, the Fund will qualify for certain Code provisions that allow its shareholders to claim a foreign tax credit or deduction on their U.S. income tax returns. The Code may limit a shareholder's ability to claim a foreign tax credit. Shareholders who elect to deduct their portion of the Fund's foreign taxes rather than take the foreign tax credit must itemize deductions on their income tax returns.
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Who Manages and Provides Services to the Fund?
Board of Trustees
The Board of Trustees is responsible for managing the Trust's business affairs and for exercising all the Trust's powers except those reserved for the shareholders. The following tables give information about each Trustee and the senior officers of the Fund. Where required, the tables separately list Trustees who are “interested persons” of the Fund (i.e., “Interested” Trustees) and those who are not (i.e., “Independent” Trustees). Unless otherwise noted, the address of each person listed is Federated Investors Tower, 1001 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3779. The address of all Independent Trustees listed is 4000 Ericsson Drive, Warrendale, PA 15086-7561; Attention: Mutual Fund Board. As of December 31, 2016, the Trust comprised 14 portfolios, and the Federated Fund Complex consisted of 40 investment companies (comprising 124 portfolios). Unless otherwise noted, each Officer is elected annually. Unless otherwise noted, each Trustee oversees all portfolios in the Federated Fund Complex and serves for an indefinite term.
As of August 1, 2017, the Fund's Board and Officers as a group owned less than 1% of the Fund's outstanding Shares.
qualifications of Independent Trustees
Individual Trustee qualifications are noted in the “Independent Trustees Background and Compensation” chart. In addition, the following characteristics are among those that were considered for each existing Trustee and will be considered for any Nominee Trustee.
■  Outstanding skills in disciplines deemed by the Independent Trustees to be particularly relevant to the role of Independent Trustee and to the Federated funds, including legal, accounting, business management, the financial industry generally and the investment industry particularly.
■  Desire and availability to serve for a substantial period of time, taking into account the Board's current mandatory retirement age of 75 years.
■  No conflicts which would interfere with qualifying as independent.
■  Appropriate interpersonal skills to work effectively with other Independent Trustees.
■  Understanding and appreciation of the important role occupied by Independent Trustees in the regulatory structure governing regulated investment companies.
■  Diversity of background.
Interested Trustees Background and Compensation
Name
Birth Date
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) for Past Five Years,
Other Directorships Held and Previous Position(s)
Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total Compensation
From Fund and
Federated Fund Complex
(past calendar year)
J. Christopher Donahue*
Birth Date: April 11, 1949
President and Trustee
Indefinite Term
Began serving: September 1999
Principal Occupations: Principal Executive Officer and President of certain of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Director or Trustee of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; President, Chief Executive Officer and Director, Federated Investors, Inc.; Chairman and Trustee, Federated Investment Management Company; Trustee, Federated Investment Counseling; Chairman and Director, Federated Global Investment Management Corp.; Chairman and Trustee, Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania; Trustee, Federated Shareholder Services Company; Director, Federated Services Company.
Previous Positions: President, Federated Investment Counseling; President and Chief Executive Officer, Federated Investment Management Company, Federated Global Investment Management Corp. and Passport
Research, Ltd.; Chairman, Passport Research, Ltd.
$0 $0
20

Name
Birth Date
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) for Past Five Years,
Other Directorships Held and Previous Position(s)
Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total Compensation
From Fund and
Federated Fund Complex
(past calendar year)
John B. Fisher*
Birth Date: May 16, 1956
Trustee
Indefinite Term
Began serving: May 2016
Principal Occupations: Principal Executive Officer and President of certain of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Director or Trustee of certain of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Vice President, Federated Investors, Inc.; President, Director/Trustee and CEO, Federated Advisory Services Company, Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania, Federated Global Investment Management Corp., Federated Investment Counseling, Federated Investment Management Company; President of some of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex and Director, Federated Investors Trust Company.
Qualifications: President and Director of the Institutional Sales Division of Federated Securities Corp.; President and Director of Federated Investment Counseling; President and CEO of Passport Research, Ltd.; Director, Edgewood Securities Corp.; Director, Federated Services Company; Director, Federated Investors, Inc.; Chairman and Director, Southpointe Distribution Services, Inc. and President, Technology, Federated Services Company.
$0 $0
* Reasons for “interested” status: J. Christopher Donahue and John B. Fisher are interested due to their beneficial ownership of shares of Federated Investors, Inc. and due to positions they hold with Federated and its subsidiaries.
Interested Trustees Background and Compensation
Name
Birth Date
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) for Past Five Years,
Other Directorships Held and Previous Position(s)
Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total Compensation
From Fund and
Federated Fund Complex
(past calendar year)
John T. Collins
Birth Date: January 24, 1947
Trustee
Indefinite Term
Began serving: October 2013
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; formerly, Chairman and CEO, The Collins Group, Inc. (a private equity firm) (Retired).
Other Directorships Held: Director, Current Chair of the Compensation Committee, KLX Corp.
Qualifications: Mr. Collins has served in several business and financial management roles and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. Collins previously served as Chairman and CEO, The Collins Group, Inc. (a private equity firm). Mr. Collins serves as Chairman Emeriti, Bentley University. Mr. Collins previously served as Director and Audit Committee Member, Bank of America Corp.; Director, FleetBoston Financial Corp.; and Director, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Harvard University Affiliate Hospital).
$744.91 $275,000
G. Thomas Hough
Birth Date: February 28,1955
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: August 2015
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; formerly, Vice Chair, Ernst & Young LLP (public accounting firm) (Retired).
Other Directorships Held: Director, Chair of the Audit Committee, Governance Committee, Publix Super Markets, Inc.; Director, Member of the Audit Committee and Technology Committee of Equifax, Inc.
Qualifications: Mr. Hough has served in accounting, business management and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. Hough most recently held the position of Americas Vice Chair of Assurance with Ernst & Young LLP (public accounting firm). Mr. Hough is an Executive Committee member of the United States Golf Association; he serves on the President's Cabinet and Business School Board of Visitors for the University of Alabama and is on the Business School Board of Visitors for Wake Forest University.
$854.53 $275,000
21

Name
Birth Date
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) for Past Five Years,
Other Directorships Held and Previous Position(s)
Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total Compensation
From Fund and
Federated Fund Complex
(past calendar year)
Maureen Lally-Green
Birth Date: July 5, 1949
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: August 2009
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; Dean of the Duquesne University School of Law; Adjunct Professor of Law, Duquesne University School of Law; formerly, Interim Dean of the Duquesne University School of Law; Associate General Secretary and Director, Office of Church Relations, Diocese of Pittsburgh.
Other Directorships Held: Director, CONSOL Energy Inc.
Qualifications: Judge Lally-Green has served in various legal and business roles and directorship positions throughout her career. Judge Lally-Green previously served as: Associate General Secretary, Diocese of Pittsburgh; a member of the Superior Court of Pennsylvania; and as a Professor of Law, Duquesne University School of Law. Judge Lally-Green also currently holds the positions on either a public or not for profit Board of Directors as follows: Director and Chair, UPMC Mercy Hospital; Regent, St. Vincent Seminary; Director and Vice Chair, Our Campaign for the Church Alive!, Inc.; Director, Saint Vincent College; Member, Pennsylvania State Board of Education (public); and Director and Chair, Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School, Inc. Judge Lally-Green has held the positions of: Director, Auberle; Director, Epilepsy Foundation of Western and Central Pennsylvania; Director, Ireland Institute of Pittsburgh; Director, Saint Thomas More Society; Director, Catholic High Schools of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, Inc.; and Director, Pennsylvania Bar Institute.
$744.91 $275,000
Peter E. Madden
Birth Date: March 16, 1942
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: November 1991
Principal Occupation: Director or Trustee, and Chair of the Board of Directors or Trustees, of the Federated Fund Complex; Retired.
Other Directorships Held: None.
Qualifications: Mr. Madden has served in several business management, mutual fund services and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. Madden previously served as President, Chief Operating Officer and Director, State Street Bank and Trust Company (custodian bank) and State Street Corporation (financial services). He was Director, VISA USA and VISA International; and Chairman and Director, Massachusetts Bankers Association. Mr. Madden served as Director, Depository Trust Corporation; and Director, The Boston Stock Exchange. Mr. Madden also served as a Representative to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts General Court.
$910.66 $335,000
Charles F. Mansfield, Jr.
Birth Date: April 10, 1945
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: January 1999
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; Management Consultant.
Other Directorships Held: None.
Qualifications: Mr. Mansfield has served as a Marine Corps officer and in several banking, business management, educational roles and directorship positions throughout his long career. He remains active as a Management Consultant.
$677.19 $250,000
Thomas M. O'Neill
Birth Date: June 14, 1951
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: August 2006
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee, Chair of the Audit Committee of the Federated Fund Complex; Sole Proprietor, Navigator Management Company (investment and strategic consulting).
Other Directorships Held: None.
Qualifications: Mr. O'Neill has served in several business, mutual fund and financial management roles and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. O'Neill serves as Director, Medicines for Humanity and Director, The Golisano Children's Museum of Naples, Florida. Mr. O'Neill previously served as Chief Executive Officer and President, Managing Director and Chief Investment Officer, Fleet Investment Advisors; President and Chief Executive Officer, Aeltus Investment Management, Inc.; General Partner, Hellman, Jordan Management Co., Boston, MA; Chief Investment Officer, The Putnam Companies, Boston, MA; Credit Analyst and Lending Officer, Fleet Bank; Director and Consultant, EZE Castle Software (investment order management software); and Director, Midway Pacific (lumber).
$794.56 $300,000
22

Name
Birth Date
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) for Past Five Years,
Other Directorships Held and Previous Position(s)
Aggregate
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total Compensation
From Fund and
Federated Fund Complex
(past calendar year)
P. Jerome Richey
Birth Date: February 23, 1949
Trustee
Indefinite Term
Began serving: October 2013
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; Management Consultant; formerly, Senior Vice Chancellor and Chief Legal Officer, University of Pittsburgh and Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer, CONSOL Energy Inc.
Other Directorships Held: None.
Qualifications: Mr. Richey has served in several business and legal management roles and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. Richey most recently held the positions of Senior Vice Chancellor and Chief Legal Officer, University of Pittsburgh. Mr. Richey previously served as Chairman of the Board, Epilepsy Foundation of Western Pennsylvania and Chairman of the Board, World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh. Mr. Richey previously served as Chief Legal Officer and Executive Vice President, CONSOL Energy Inc. and Board Member, Ethics Counsel and Shareholder, Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney PC (a law firm).
$677.19 $250,000
John S. Walsh
Birth Date: November 28, 1957
Trustee

Indefinite Term
Began serving: January 1999
Principal Occupations: Director or Trustee of the Federated Fund Complex; President and Director, Heat Wagon, Inc. (manufacturer of construction temporary heaters); President and Director, Manufacturers Products, Inc. (distributor of portable construction heaters); President, Portable Heater Parts, a division of Manufacturers Products, Inc.
Other Directorships Held: None.
Qualifications: Mr. Walsh has served in several business management roles and directorship positions throughout his career. Mr. Walsh previously served as Vice President, Walsh & Kelly, Inc. (paving contractors).
$714.27 $250,000
OFFICERS*
Name
Birth Date
Address
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) and Previous Position(s)
John W. McGonigle
Birth Date: October 26, 1938
EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY
Officer since: April 1984
Principal Occupations: Executive Vice President and Secretary of the Federated Fund Complex; Vice Chairman, Executive Vice President, Secretary and Director, Federated Investors, Inc.
Previous Positions: Trustee, Federated Investment Management Company and Federated Investment Counseling; Director, Federated Global Investment Management Corp., Federated Services Company and Federated Securities Corp.
Lori A. Hensler
Birth Date: January 6, 1967
Treasurer
Officer since: February 2013
Principal Occupations: Principal Financial Officer and Treasurer of the Federated Fund Complex; Senior Vice President, Federated Administrative Services; Financial and Operations Principal for Federated Securities Corp. and Edgewood Services, Inc.; and Assistant Treasurer, Federated Investors Trust Company. Ms. Hensler has received the Certified Public Accountant designation.
Previous Positions: Controller of Federated Investors, Inc.; Senior Vice President and Assistant Treasurer, Federated Investors Management Company; Treasurer, Federated Investors Trust Company; Assistant Treasurer, Federated Administrative Services, Federated Administrative Services, Inc., Federated Securities Corp., Edgewood Services, Inc., Federated Advisory Services Company, Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania, Federated Global Investment Management Corp., Federated Investment Counseling, Federated Investment Management Company, Passport Research, Ltd. and Federated MDTA, LLC; Financial and Operations Principal for Federated Securities Corp., Edgewood Services, Inc. and Southpointe Distribution Services, Inc.
Peter J. Germain
Birth Date: September 3, 1959
CHIEF LEGAL OFFICER
Officer since: January 2005
Principal Occupations: Mr. Germain is Chief Legal Officer of the Federated Fund Complex. He is General Counsel and Vice President, Federated Investors, Inc.; President, Federated Administrative Services and Federated Administrative Services, Inc.; Vice President, Federated Securities Corp.; Secretary, Federated Private Asset Management, Inc.; and Secretary, Retirement Plan Service Company of America. Mr. Germain joined Federated in 1984 and is a member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association.
Previous Positions: Deputy General Counsel, Special Counsel, Managing Director of Mutual Fund Services, Federated Investors, Inc.; Senior Vice President, Federated Services Company; and Senior Corporate Counsel, Federated Investors, Inc.
Richard B. Fisher
Birth Date: May 17, 1923
Vice President
Officer since: April 1987
Principal Occupations: Vice Chairman or Vice President of some of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Vice Chairman, Federated Investors, Inc.; Chairman, Federated Securities Corp.
Previous Positions: President and Director or Trustee of some of the Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Executive Vice President, Federated Investors, Inc.; Director and Chief Executive Officer, Federated Securities Corp.
23

Name
Birth Date
Address
Positions Held with Trust
Date Service Began
Principal Occupation(s) and Previous Position(s)
Stephen Van Meter
Birth Date: June 5, 1975
CHIEF COMPLIANCE OFFICER AND SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT
Officer since: July 2015
Principal Occupations: Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of the Federated Fund Complex; Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of Federated Investors, Inc. and Chief Compliance Officer of certain of its subsidiaries. Mr. Van Meter joined Federated in October 2011. He holds FINRA licenses under Series 3, 7, 24 and 66.
Previous Positions: Mr. Van Meter previously held the position of Compliance Operating Officer, Federated Investors, Inc. Prior to joining Federated, Mr. Van Meter served at the United States Securities and Exchange Commission in the positions of Senior Counsel, Office of Chief Counsel, Division of Investment Management and Senior Counsel, Division of Enforcement.
Stephen F. Auth
Birth Date: September 13, 1956
101 Park Avenue
41st Floor
New York, NY 10178
CHIEF INVESTMENT OFFICER
Officer since: November 2002
Principal Occupations: Stephen F. Auth is Chief Investment Officer of various Funds in the Federated Fund Complex; Executive Vice President, Federated Investment Counseling, Federated Global Investment Management Corp. and Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania.
Previous Positions: Executive Vice President, Federated Investment Management Company and Passport Research, Ltd. (investment advisory subsidiary of Federated); Senior Vice President, Global Portfolio Management Services Division; Senior Vice President, Federated Investment Management Company and Passport Research, Ltd.; Senior Managing Director and Portfolio Manager, Prudential Investments.
* Officers do not receive any compensation from the Fund.
In addition, the Fund has appointed an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.
DIRECTOR/TRUSTEE EMERITUS PROGRAM
The Board has created a position of Director/Trustee Emeritus, whereby an incumbent Director/Trustee who has attained the age of 75 and completed a minimum of five years of service as a director/trustee, may, in the sole discretion of the Committee of Independent Directors/Trustees (“Committee”), be recommended to the full Board of Directors/Trustees of the Fund to serve as Director/Trustee Emeritus.
A Director/Trustee Emeritus that has been approved as such receives an annual fee in an amount equal to a percent of the annual base compensation paid to a Director/Trustee. Effective August 16, 2013, in the case of a Director/Trustee Emeritus who had previously served at least five years but less than 10 years as a Director/Trustee, the percent will be 10%. In the case of a Director/Trustee Emeritus who had previously served at least 10 years as a Director/Trustee, the percent will be 20%. Directors/Trustees Emeritus appointed prior to August 16, 2013, are paid 20% of the annual base compensation. In addition, the Director/Trustee Emeritus will be reimbursed for any expenses incurred in connection with their service, including expenses of travel and lodging incurred in attendance at Board meetings. Director/Trustee Emeritus will continue to receive relevant materials concerning the Funds, will be expected to attend at least one regularly scheduled quarterly meeting of the Board of Directors/Trustees each year and will be available to consult with the Committees or its representatives at reasonable times as requested by the Chairman; however, a Director/Trustee Emeritus does not have any voting rights at Board meetings and is not subject to election by shareholders of the Funds.
The Director/Trustee Emeritus will be permitted to serve in such capacity at the pleasure of the Committee, but the annual fee will cease to be paid at the end of the calendar year during which he or she has attained the age of 80 years, thereafter the position will be honorary.
The following table shows the fees paid to each Director/Trustee Emeritus for the Fund's most recently ended fiscal year and the portion of that fee paid by the Fund or Trust.1
EMERITUS Trustees and Compensation
Director/Trustee Emeritus
Compensation
From Fund
(past fiscal year)
Total
Compensation
Paid to
Director/Trustee
Emeritus1
John T. Conroy, Jr. $140.47 $50,000.00
Nicholas Constantakis $140.47 $50,000.00
Robert J. Nicholson $140.47 $49,909.78
James F. Will $140.47 $50,000.00
1 The fees paid to each Director/Trustee are allocated among the funds that were in existence at the time the Director/Trustee elected Emeritus status, based on each fund's net assets at that time.
24

BOARD LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE
As required under the terms of certain regulatory settlements, the Chairman of the Board is not an interested person of the Fund and neither the Chairman, nor any firm with which the Chairman is affiliated, has a prior relationship with Federated or its affiliates or (other than his position as a Trustee) with the Fund.
Committees of the Board
Board
Committee
Committee
Members
Committee Functions Meetings Held
During Last
Fiscal Year
Executive J. Christopher Donahue
Peter E. Madden
John S. Walsh
In between meetings of the full Board, the Executive Committee generally may exercise all the powers of the full Board in the management and direction of the business and conduct of the affairs of the Trust in such manner as the Executive Committee shall deem to be in the best interests of the Trust. However, the Executive Committee cannot elect or remove Board members, increase or decrease the number of Trustees, elect or remove any Officer, declare dividends, issue shares or recommend to shareholders any action requiring shareholder approval. One
Audit John T. Collins
G. Thomas Hough
Maureen Lally-Green
Thomas M. O'Neill
The purposes of the Audit Committee are to oversee the accounting and financial reporting process of the Fund, the Fund's internal control over financial reporting and the quality, integrity and independent audit of the Fund's financial statements. The Committee also oversees or assists the Board with the oversight of compliance with legal requirements relating to those matters, approves the engagement and reviews the qualifications, independence and performance of the Fund's independent registered public accounting firm, acts as a liaison between the independent registered public accounting firm and the Board and reviews the Fund's internal audit function. Nine
Nominating John T. Collins
G. Thomas Hough
Maureen Lally-Green
Peter E. Madden
Charles F. Mansfield, Jr.
Thomas M. O'Neill
P. Jerome Richey
John S. Walsh
The Nominating Committee, whose members consist of all Independent Trustees, selects and nominates persons for election to the Fund's Board when vacancies occur. The Committee will consider candidates recommended by shareholders, Independent Trustees, officers or employees of any of the Fund's agents or service providers and counsel to the Fund. Any shareholder who desires to have an individual considered for nomination by the Committee must submit a recommendation in writing to the Secretary of the Fund, at the Fund's address appearing on the back cover of this SAI. The recommendation should include the name and address of both the shareholder and the candidate and detailed information concerning the candidate's qualifications and experience. In identifying and evaluating candidates for consideration, the Committee shall consider such factors as it deems appropriate. Those factors will ordinarily include: integrity, intelligence, collegiality, judgment, diversity, skill, business and other experience, qualification as an “Independent Trustee,” the existence of material relationships which may create the appearance of a lack of independence, financial or accounting knowledge and experience and dedication and willingness to devote the time and attention necessary to fulfill Board responsibilities. One
BOARD'S ROLE IN RISK OVERSIGHT
The Board's role in overseeing the Fund's general risks includes receiving performance reports for the Fund and risk management reports from Federated's Chief Risk Officer at each regular Board meeting. The Chief Risk Officer is responsible for enterprise risk management at Federated, which includes risk management committees for investment management and for investor services. The Board also receives regular reports from the Fund's Chief Compliance Officer regarding significant compliance risks.
On behalf of the Board, the Audit Committee plays a key role overseeing the Fund's financial reporting and valuation risks. The Audit Committee meets regularly with the Fund's Principal Financial Officer and outside auditors, as well as with Federated's Chief Audit Executive to discuss financial reporting and audit issues, including risks relating to financial controls.
25

Board Ownership Of Shares In The Fund And In The Federated Family Of Investment Companies As Of December 31, 2016
Interested Board
Member Name
Dollar Range of
Shares Owned in
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund
Aggregate
Dollar Range of
Shares Owned in
Federated Family of
Investment Companies
J. Christopher Donahue Over $100,000 Over $100,000
John B. Fisher None Over $100,000
Independent Board
Member Name
   
John T. Collins None Over $100,000
G. Thomas Hough None $50,001-$100,000
Maureen Lally-Green None Over $100,000
Peter E. Madden None Over $100,000
Charles F. Mansfield, Jr. $1-$10,000 Over $100,000
Thomas M. O'Neill None Over $100,000
P. Jerome Richey None Over $100,000
John S. Walsh Over $100,000 Over $100,000
Investment Adviser
The Adviser conducts investment research and makes investment decisions for the Fund.
The Adviser is a wholly owned subsidiary of Federated.
The Adviser shall not be liable to the Trust or any Fund shareholder for any losses that may be sustained in the purchase, holding or sale of any security or for anything done or omitted by it, except acts or omissions involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties imposed upon it by its contract with the Trust.
Investment Personnel Information
As a general matter, certain conflicts of interest may arise in connection with investment personnel's management of a fund's investments, on the one hand, and the investments of other accounts for which the investment personnel is responsible, on the other. For example, it is possible that the various accounts managed could have different investment strategies that, at times, might conflict with one another to the possible detriment of the Fund. Alternatively, to the extent that the same investment opportunities might be desirable for more than one account, possible conflicts could arise in determining how to allocate them. Other potential conflicts can include, for example, conflicts created by specific investment personnel compensation arrangements (including, for example, the allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other accounts or activities for which the investment personnel are responsible in calculating the investment personnel's compensation), and conflicts relating to selection of brokers or dealers to execute Fund portfolio trades and/or specific uses of commissions from Fund portfolio trades (for example, research or “soft dollars”). The Adviser has adopted policies and procedures and has structured investment personnel's compensation in a manner reasonably designed to safeguard the Fund from being negatively affected as a result of any such potential conflicts.
The following information about the Fund's Investment Personnel is provided as of the end of the Fund's most recently completed fiscal year unless otherwise indicated.
Hans Utsch, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Hans Utsch
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: None.
26

Hans Utsch is paid a fixed base salary and various annual incentives. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentives include certain guaranteed amounts, plus variable amounts based on achievement of certain product-specific revenue targets, plus a variable amount that is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology. There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine this annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Utsch is also the portfolio manager for funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Utsch is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Utsch may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Pursuant to the terms of a business agreement, Mr. Utsch's annual incentives may include certain guaranteed amounts.
John Ettinger, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by John Ettinger
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: $100,001-$500,000.
John Ettinger is paid a fixed-base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive amount is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, and may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if an analyst has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager or analyst may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Ettinger is also a portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Ettinger is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting
27

assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, a portion of Mr. Ettinger's' IPP score is based on the performance for which he provides research and analytic support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Ettinger may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Stephen DeNichilo, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Stephen DeNichilo
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 1/$72.3 million
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: $100,001-$500,000.
Stephen DeNichilo is paid a fixed base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive is a variable amount that is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, which may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if an analyst has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager or analyst may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. DeNichilo is also a portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. DeNichilo is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, a portion of Mr. DeNichilo' IPP score is based on the performance for which he provides research and analytic support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. DeNichilo may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Barbara Miller, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Barbara Miller
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: $50,001-$100,000.
28

Barbara Miller is paid a fixed-base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive amount is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, and may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager may be excluded. As noted above, Ms. Miller is also the portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Ms. Miller is responsible in calculating her compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Ms. Miller provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account she manages or for which she provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Ms. Miller may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Thomas Brakel, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Thomas Brakel
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: $100,001-$500,000.
Thomas Brakel is paid a fixed-base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive amount is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, and may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Brakel is also the portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Brakel is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting
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assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Mr. Brakel provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account she manages or for which he provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Brakel may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Jonathan Art, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Jonathan Art
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: $10,001-$50,000.
Jonathan Art is paid a fixed base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive is a variable amount that is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, which may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Art is also the portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Art is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Mr. Art provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account he manages or for which he provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Art may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Mark Bauknight, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Mark Bauknight
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: None.
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Mark Bauknight is paid a fixed-base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive amount is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, and may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Bauknight is also the portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Bauknight is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Mr. Bauknight provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account he manages or for which he provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Bauknight may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Steven Abrahamson, Senior Investment Analyst
Types of Accounts Managed
by Steven Abrahamson
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: None.
Steven Abrahamson is paid a fixed base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the analyst's experience and performance. The annual incentive is a variable amount that is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, which may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this analyst role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager or analyst has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager or analyst may be excluded. As noted above, Mr. Abrahamson is also an analyst for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Mr. Abrahamson is responsible in calculating his compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting
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assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Mr. Abrahamson provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account he manages or for which he provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the Investment Team and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Mr. Abrahamson may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Vivian Wohl, Portfolio Manager
Types of Accounts Managed
by Vivian Wohl
Total Number of Additional Accounts
Managed/Total Assets*
Registered Investment Companies 3/$7.8 billion
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0/$0
Other Accounts 0/$0
* None of the Accounts has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the account.
Dollar value range of shares owned in the Fund: None.
Vivian Wohl is paid a fixed base salary and a variable annual incentive. Base salary is determined within a market competitive, position-specific salary range, based on the portfolio manager's experience and performance. The annual incentive is a variable amount that is determined based on multiple performance criteria using a Balanced Scorecard methodology, which may be paid entirely in cash, or in a combination of cash and restricted stock of Federated Investors, Inc. (“Federated”). There are three weighted performance categories in the Balanced Scorecard. Investment Product Performance (IPP) is the predominant factor. Of lesser importance are: Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication. The total Balanced Scorecard “score” is applied against an annual incentive opportunity that is competitive in the market for this portfolio manager role to determine the annual incentive payment.
IPP is measured on a rolling one, three and five calendar year pre-tax gross return basis versus the Fund's designated peer group of comparable accounts. Performance periods are adjusted if a portfolio manager or analyst has been managing an account for less than five years; accounts with less than one year of performance history under a portfolio manager or analyst may be excluded. As noted above, Ms. Wohl is also the portfolio manager for other funds/accounts in addition to the Fund. Such other funds/accounts may have different benchmarks and performance measures. The allocation or weighting given to the performance of the Fund or other funds/accounts or activities for which Ms. Wohl is responsible in calculating her compensation may be equal or can vary. For purposes of calculating the annual incentive amount, each fund/account managed by the portfolio manager currently is categorized into one IPP group (which may be adjusted periodically). Within each performance measurement period and IPP group, IPP currently is calculated on the basis of an assigned weighting to each fund/account managed or activity engaged in by the portfolio manager and included in the IPP group. At the fund/account level, the weighting assigned to the Fund is equal to the weighting assigned to other funds/accounts or activities used to determine IPP (but can be adjusted periodically). Additionally, Ms. Wohl provides research and analytical support for other accounts. IPP is calculated with an equal weighting of each account she manages or for which she provides research and analytical support. A portion of the bonus tied to the IPP score may be adjusted based on management's assessment of overall contributions to fund performance and any other factors as deemed relevant.
Financial Success and Leadership/Teamwork/Communication are assessed on a discretionary basis by the Chief Investment Officer in charge of the portfolio manager's group and the President & CEO, Federated Advisory Companies.
As a separate matter, Ms. Wohl may receive additional consideration based on achievement of specified revenue targets.
Services Agreement
Federated Advisory Services Company, an affiliate of the Adviser, provides research, quantitative analysis, equity trading and transaction settlement and certain support services to the Adviser. The fee for these services is paid by the Adviser and not by the Fund.
Other Related Services
Affiliates of the Adviser may, from time to time, provide certain electronic equipment and software to institutional customers in order to facilitate the purchase of Fund Shares offered by the Distributor.
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Code Of Ethics Restrictions On Personal Trading
As required by SEC rules, the Fund, its Adviser and its Distributor have adopted codes of ethics. These codes govern securities trading activities of investment personnel, Fund Trustees and certain other employees. Although they do permit these people to trade in securities, including those that the Fund could buy, as well as Shares of the Fund, they also contain significant safeguards designed to protect the Fund and its shareholders from abuses in this area, such as requirements to obtain prior approval for, and to report, particular transactions.
Voting Proxies On Fund Portfolio Securities
The Board has delegated to the Adviser authority to vote proxies on the securities held in the Fund's portfolio. The Board has also approved the Adviser's policies and procedures for voting the proxies, which are described below.
Proxy Voting Policies
The Adviser's general policy is to cast proxy votes in favor of management proposals and shareholder proposals that the Adviser anticipates will enhance the long-term value of the securities being voted. Generally, this will mean voting for proposals that the Adviser believes will: (a) improve the management of a company; (b) increase the rights or preferences of the voted securities; and/or (c) increase the chance that a premium offer would be made for the company or for the voted securities. This approach to voting proxy proposals will be referred to hereafter as the “General Policy.”
The following examples illustrate how the General Policy may apply to management proposals and shareholder proposals submitted for approval or ratification by holders of the company's voting securities. However, whether the Adviser supports or opposes a proposal will always depend on the specific circumstances described in the proxy statement and other available information.
On matters of corporate governance, generally the Adviser will vote in favor of: (1) a proposal to require a company's audit committee to be comprised entirely of independent directors; (2) shareholder proposals to declassify the board of directors; (3) shareholder proposals to require a majority voting standard in the election of directors; (4) proposals to grant shareholders the right to call a special meeting if owners of at least 25% of the outstanding stock agree; (5) a proposal to require independent tabulation of proxies and/or confidential voting of shareholders; (6) a proposal to ratify the board's selection of auditors, unless: (a) compensation for non-audit services exceeded 50% of the total compensation received from the company; or (b) the previous auditor was dismissed because of a disagreement with the company; (7) a proposal to repeal a shareholder rights plan (also known as a “poison pill”) and against the adoption of such a plan, unless the plan is designed to facilitate, rather than prevent, unsolicited offers for the company; (8) shareholder proposals to eliminate supermajority requirements in company bylaws; (9) shareholder proposals to separate the roles of chairman of the board and CEO; (10) shareholder proposals to allow shareholders owning at least 3% of the outstanding common stock for at least three years to nominate candidates for election to the board of directors (“Proxy Access”); (11) a full slate of directors, where the directors are elected as a group and not individually, unless more than half of the nominees are not independent; and (12) election of individual directors nominated in an uncontested election, but against any director who: (a) had not attended at least 75% of the board meetings during the previous year; (b) serves as the company's chief financial officer; (c) has committed himself or herself to service on a large number of boards, such that we deem it unlikely that the director would be able to commit sufficient focus and time to a particular company; (d) is the chair of the nominating or governance committee when the roles of chairman of the board and CEO are combined and there is no lead independent director; (e) served on the compensation committee during a period in which compensation appears excessive relative to performance and peers; or (f) served on a board that did not implement a shareholder proposal that Federated supported and received more than 50% shareholder support the previous year.
On matters of capital structure, generally the Adviser will vote against a proposal to authorize or issue shares that are senior in priority or voting rights to the voted securities, and in favor of a proposal to: (1) reduce the amount of shares authorized for issuance (subject to adequate provisions for outstanding convertible securities, options, warrants, rights and other existing obligations to issue shares); (2) grant authorities to issue shares with and without pre-emptive rights unless the size of the authorities would threaten to unreasonably dilute existing shareholders; and (3) authorize a stock repurchase program.
On matters relating to management compensation, generally the Adviser will vote in favor of stock incentive plans (including plans for directors) that align the recipients of stock incentives with the interests of shareholders, without creating undue dilution, and against: (1) the advisory vote on executive compensation plans (“Say On Pay”) when the plan has failed to align executive compensation with corporate performance; (2) the advisory vote on the frequency of the Say On Pay vote when the frequency is other than annual; (3) proposals that would permit the amendment or replacement of outstanding stock incentives having more favorable terms (e.g., lower purchase prices or easier vesting requirements); and (4) executive compensation plans that do not disclose the maximum amounts of compensation that may be awarded or the criteria for determining awards.
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On matters relating to corporate transactions, the Adviser will vote proxies consistent with the General Policy. The Adviser will vote proxies in contested elections of directors based upon its analysis of the opposing slates and their proposed business strategy and the expected impact on the long-term value of the securities being voted. The Adviser generally votes proxies against proposals submitted by shareholders without the favorable recommendation of a company's board. The Adviser believes that a company's board should manage its business and policies, and that shareholders who seek specific changes should strive to convince the board of their merits or seek direct representation on the board. However, the Adviser would vote for shareholder proposals not supported by the company's board that the Adviser regards as: (a) likely to result in an immediate and favorable improvement in the total return of the voted security; and (b) unlikely to be adopted by the company's board in the absence of shareholder direction.
In addition, the Adviser will not vote any proxy if it determines that the consequences or costs of voting outweigh the potential benefit of voting. For example, if a foreign market requires shareholders voting proxies to retain the voted shares until the meeting date (thereby rendering the shares “illiquid” for some period of time), the Adviser will not vote proxies for such shares. In addition, the Adviser is not obligated to incur any expense to send a representative to a shareholder meeting or to translate proxy materials into English.
To the extent that the Adviser is permitted to loan securities, the Adviser will not have the right to vote on securities while they are on loan. However, the Adviser will take all reasonable steps to recall shares prior to the record date when the meeting raises issues that the Adviser believes materially affect shareholder value, including, but not limited to, excessive compensation, mergers and acquisitions, contested elections and weak oversight by the audit committee. However, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will have sufficient notice of such matters to be able to terminate the loan in time to vote thereon.
If proxies are not delivered in a timely or otherwise appropriate basis, the Adviser may not be able to vote a particular proxy.
For an Adviser that employs a quantitative investment strategy for certain funds or accounts that does not make use of qualitative research (“Non-Qualitative Accounts”), the Adviser may not have the kind of research to make decisions about how to vote proxies for them. Therefore, the Adviser will vote the proxies of these Non-Qualitative Accounts as follows: (a) in accordance with the Standard Voting Instructions (defined below) adopted by the Adviser with respect to issues subject to the proxies; (b) if the Adviser is directing votes for the same proxy on behalf of a regular qualitative accounts and a Non-Qualitative Account, the Non-Qualitative Account would vote in the same manner as the regular qualitative account; (c) if neither of the first two conditions apply, as the proxy voting service is recommending; and (d) if none of the previous conditions apply, as recommended by the Proxy Voting Committee (Proxy Committee).
Proxy Voting Procedures
The Adviser has established a Proxy Voting Committee (“Proxy Committee”), to exercise all voting discretion granted to the Adviser by the Board in accordance with the proxy voting policies. To assist it in carrying out the day-to-day operations related to proxy voting, the Proxy Committee has created the Proxy Voting Management Group (PVMG). The day-to-day operations related to proxy voting are carried out by the Proxy Voting Operations Team (PVOT) and overseen by the PVMG. This work includes, interacting with a proxy voting service on the Proxy Committee's behalf; soliciting voting recommendations from the Adviser's investment professionals, as necessary; bringing voting recommendations to the Proxy Committee from the Adviser's investment professionals; filing any required proxy voting reports; providing proxy voting reports to clients and investment companies as they are requested from time to time; keeping the Proxy Committee informed of any issues related to proxy voting; and voting client shares as directed by the Proxy Committee.
The Adviser has hired a proxy voting service to obtain, vote and record proxies in accordance with the directions of the Proxy Committee. The Proxy Committee has supplied the proxy voting services with general instructions (the “Standard Voting Instructions”) that represent decisions made by the Proxy Committee in order to vote common proxy proposals. As the Proxy Committee believes that a shareholder vote is equivalent to an investment decision, the Proxy Committee retains the right to modify the Standard Voting Instructions at any time or to vote contrary to them at any time in order to cast proxy votes in a manner that the Proxy Committee believes is: (a) in the best interests of the Adviser's clients (and shareholders of the funds advised by the Adviser); and (b) will enhance the long-term value of the securities being voted. The proxy voting service may vote any proxy as directed in the Standard Voting Instructions without further direction from the Proxy Committee. However, if the Standard Voting Instructions require case-by-case direction for a proposal, the PVOT will work with the investment professionals and the proxy voting service to develop a voting recommendation for the Proxy Committee and to communicate the Proxy Committee's final voting decision to the proxy voting service. Further, if the Standard Voting Instructions require the PVOT to analyze a ballot question and make the final voting decision, the PVOT will report such votes to the Proxy Committee on a quarterly basis for review.
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Conflicts of Interest
The Adviser has adopted procedures to address situations where a matter on which a proxy is sought may present a potential conflict between the interests of the Fund (and its shareholders) and those of the Adviser or Distributor. This may occur where a significant business relationship exists between the Adviser (or its affiliates) and a company involved with a proxy vote. A company that is a proponent, opponent, or the subject of a proxy vote, and which to the knowledge of the Proxy Committee has this type of significant business relationship, is referred to below as an “Interested Company.”
The Adviser has implemented the following procedures in order to avoid concerns that the conflicting interests of the Adviser or its affiliates have influenced proxy votes. Any employee of the Adviser or its affiliates who is contacted by an Interested Company regarding proxies to be voted by the Adviser must refer the Interested Company to a member of the Proxy Committee, and must inform the Interested Company that the Proxy Committee has exclusive authority to determine how the proxy will be voted. Any Proxy Committee member contacted by an Interested Company must report it to the full Proxy Committee and provide a written summary of the communication. Under no circumstances will the Proxy Committee or any member of the Proxy Committee make a commitment to an Interested Company regarding the voting of proxies or disclose to an Interested Company how the Proxy Committee has directed such proxies to be voted. If the Standard Voting Instructions already provide specific direction on the proposal in question, the Proxy Committee shall not alter or amend such directions. If the Standard Voting Instructions require the Proxy Committee to provide further direction, the Proxy Committee shall do so in accordance with the proxy voting policies, without regard for the interests of the Adviser with respect to the Interested Company. If the Proxy Committee provides any direction as to the voting of proxies relating to a proposal affecting an Interested Company, it must disclose annually to the Fund's Board information regarding: the significant business relationship; any material communication with the Interested Company; the matter(s) voted on; and how, and why, the Adviser voted as it did. Alternatively, the Proxy Committee may seek direction from the Fund's Board on how a proposal concerning an Interested Company shall be voted, and shall follow any such direction provided by the Board. In seeking such direction, the Proxy Committee will disclose the reason such company is considered an Interested Company and may provide a recommendation on how such proposal should be voted and the basis for such recommendation.
In certain circumstances it may be appropriate for the Adviser to vote in the same proportion as all other shareholders, so as to not affect the outcome beyond helping to establish a quorum at the shareholders' meeting. This is referred to as “proportional voting.” If the Fund owns shares of another Federated mutual fund, the Adviser will proportionally vote the client's proxies for that fund or seek direction from the Board or the client on how the proposal should be voted. If the Fund owns shares of an unaffiliated mutual fund, the Adviser may proportionally vote the Fund's proxies for that fund depending on the size of the position. If the Fund owns shares of an unaffiliated exchange-traded fund, the Adviser will proportionally vote the Fund's proxies for that fund.
Downstream Affiliates
If the Proxy Committee gives further direction, or seeks to vote contrary to the Standard Voting Instructions, for a proxy relating to a portfolio company in which the Fund owns more than 10% of the portfolio company's outstanding voting securities at the time of the vote (Downstream Affiliate), the Proxy Committee must first receive guidance from counsel to the Proxy Committee as to whether any relationship between the Adviser and the portfolio company, other than such ownership of the portfolio company's securities, gives rise to an actual conflict of interest. If counsel determines that an actual conflict exists, the Proxy Committee must address any such conflict with the executive committee of the board of directors or trustees of any investment company client prior to taking any action on the proxy at issue.
Proxy Advisers' Conflicts of Interest
Proxy advisory firms may have significant business relationships with the subjects of their research and voting recommendations. For example, a proxy voting service client may be a public company with an upcoming shareholders' meeting and the proxy voting service has published a research report with voting recommendations. In another example, a proxy voting service board member also sits on the board of a public company for which the proxy voting service will write a research report. These and similar situations give rise to an actual or apparent conflict of interest.
In order to avoid concerns that the conflicting interests of the engaged proxy voting service have influenced proxy voting recommendations, the Adviser will take the following steps:
■  A due diligence team made up of employees of the Adviser and/or its affiliates will meet with the proxy voting service on an annual basis and determine through a review of their policies and procedures and through inquiry that the proxy voting service has established a system of internal controls that provide reasonable assurance that their voting recommendations are not influenced by the business relationships they have with the subjects of their research.
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■  Whenever the standard voting guidelines call for voting a proposal in accordance with the proxy voting service recommendation and the proxy voting service has disclosed that they have a conflict of interest with respect to that issuer, the PVOT will take the following steps: (a) the PVOT will obtain a copy of the research report and recommendations published by another proxy voting service for that issuer; (b) the Head of the PVOT, or his designee, will review both the engaged proxy voting service research report and the research report of the other proxy voting service and determine what vote will be cast. The PVOT will report all proxies voted in this manner to the Proxy Committee on a quarterly basis. Alternatively, the PVOT may seek direction from the Committee on how the proposal shall be voted.
Proxy Voting Report
A report on “Form N-PX” of how the Fund voted any proxies during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available via the Proxy Voting Record (Form N-PX) link associated with the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation. Form N-PX filings are also available at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
Portfolio Holdings Information
Information concerning the Fund's portfolio holdings is available via the link to the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation. A complete listing of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of each calendar quarter is posted on the website 30 days (or the next business day) after the end of the quarter and remains posted for six months thereafter. Summary portfolio composition information as of the close of each month is posted on the website 15 days (or the next business day) after month-end and remains posted until replaced by the information for the succeeding month. The summary portfolio composition information may include: identification of the Fund's top 10 holdings and a percentage breakdown of the portfolio by sector.
You may also access portfolio information as of the end of the Fund's fiscal quarters via the link to the Fund and share class name at www.FederatedInvestors.com/FundInformation. The Fund's Annual Shareholder Report and Semi-Annual Shareholder Report contain complete listings of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of the Fund's second and fourth fiscal quarters. The Fund's Form N-Q filings contain complete listings of the Fund's portfolio holdings as of the end of the Fund's first and third fiscal quarters. Fiscal quarter information is made available on the website within 70 days after the end of the fiscal quarter. This information is also available in reports filed with the SEC at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
The disclosure policy of the Fund and the Adviser prohibits the disclosure of portfolio holdings information to any investor or intermediary before the same information is made available to other investors. Employees of the Adviser or its affiliates who have access to nonpublic information concerning the Fund's portfolio holdings are prohibited from trading securities on the basis of this information. Such persons must report all personal securities trades and obtain pre-clearance for all personal securities trades other than mutual fund shares.
Firms that provide administrative, custody, financial, accounting, legal or other services to the Fund may receive nonpublic information about Fund portfolio holdings for purposes relating to their services. The Fund may also provide portfolio holdings information to publications that rate, rank or otherwise categorize investment companies. Traders or portfolio managers may provide “interest” lists to facilitate portfolio trading if the list reflects only that subset of the portfolio for which the trader or portfolio manager is seeking market interest. A list of service providers, publications and other third parties who may receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information appears in the Appendix to this SAI.
The furnishing of nonpublic portfolio holdings information to any third party (other than authorized governmental or regulatory personnel) requires the prior approval of the President of the Adviser and of the Chief Compliance Officer of the Fund. The President of the Adviser and the Chief Compliance Officer will approve the furnishing of nonpublic portfolio holdings information to a third party only if they consider the furnishing of such information to be in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. In that regard, and to address possible conflicts between the interests of Fund shareholders and those of the Adviser and its affiliates, the following procedures apply. No consideration may be received by the Fund, the Adviser, any affiliate of the Adviser or any of their employees in connection with the disclosure of portfolio holdings information. Before information is furnished, the third party must sign a written agreement that it will safeguard the confidentiality of the information, will use it only for the purposes for which it is furnished and will not use it in connection with the trading of any security. Persons approved to receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information will receive it as often as necessary for the purpose for which it is provided. Such information may be furnished as frequently as daily and often with no time lag between the date of the information and the date it is furnished. The Board receives and reviews annually a list of the persons who receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information and the purposes for which it is furnished.
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Brokerage Transactions And Investment Allocation
Equity securities may be traded in the over-the-counter market through broker/dealers acting as principal or agent, or in transactions directly with other investors. Transactions may also be executed on a securities exchange or through an electronic communications network. The Adviser seeks to obtain best execution of trades in equity securities by balancing the costs inherent in trading, including opportunity costs, market impact costs and commissions. As a general matter, the Adviser seeks to add value to its investment management by using market information to capitalize on market opportunities, actively seek liquidity and discover price. The Adviser continually monitors its trading results in an effort to improve execution. Fixed-income securities are generally traded in an over-the-counter market on a net basis (i.e., without commission) through dealers acting as principal or in transactions directly with the issuer. Dealers derive an undisclosed amount of compensation by offering securities at a higher price than they bid for them. Some fixed-income securities may have only one primary market maker. The Adviser seeks to use dealers it believes to be actively and effectively trading the security being purchased or sold, but may not always obtain the lowest purchase price or highest sale price with respect to a fixed-income security. The Adviser's receipt of research services (as described below) may also be a factor in the Adviser's selection of brokers and dealers. The Adviser may also direct certain portfolio trades to a broker that, in turn, pays a portion of the Fund's operating expenses. The Adviser makes decisions on portfolio transactions and selects brokers and dealers subject to review by the Fund's Board.
Investment decisions for the Fund are made independently from those of other accounts managed by the Adviser and accounts managed by affiliates of the Adviser. All of the Fund's trading in initial public offerings (IPO) will be done independently from any other accounts that are not managed by the Fund's portfolio managers. Although the Fund also expects to engage in non-IPO trading independently from any other such accounts, when the Fund and one or more of those accounts do invest in, or dispose of, the same security, available investments or opportunities for sales may be allocated among the Fund and the account(s) in a manner believed by the Adviser to be equitable. While the coordination and ability to participate in volume transactions may benefit the Fund, it is possible that this procedure could adversely impact the price paid or received and/or the position obtained or disposed of by the Fund. Conversely, it is possible that independent trading activity by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund, and by the Adviser's affiliates, could adversely impact the prices paid or received and/or position obtained or disposed of by the Fund.
Brokerage and Research Services
Brokerage services include execution of trades and products and services that relate to the execution of trades, including communications services related to trade execution, clearing and settlement, trading software used to route orders to market centers, software that provides algorithmic trading strategies and software used to transmit orders to direct market access (DMA) systems. Research services may include: advice as to the advisability of investing in securities; security analysis and reports; economic studies; industry studies; receipt of quotations for portfolio evaluations; and similar services. Research services assist the Adviser and its affiliates in terms of their overall investment responsibilities to funds and investment accounts for which they have investment discretion. However, particular brokerage and research services received by the Adviser and its affiliates may not be used to service every fund or account, and may not benefit the particular funds and accounts that generated the brokerage commissions. In addition, brokerage and research services paid for with commissions generated by the Fund may be used in managing other funds and accounts. To the extent that receipt of these services may replace services for which the Adviser or its affiliates might otherwise have paid, it would tend to reduce their expenses. The Adviser and its affiliates exercise reasonable business judgment in selecting brokers to execute securities transactions where receipt of research services is a factor. They determine in good faith that commissions charged by such persons are reasonable in relationship to the value of the brokerage and research services provided.
In all brokerage orders, the Fund's managers seek the most favorable prices and executions. Determining what may constitute the most favorable price and execution in a brokerage order involves a number of factors, including the overall direct net economic result to the Fund (involving both price paid or received and any commissions or other costs paid) and the efficiency with which the transaction is effected. The managers also consider the ongoing brokerage and research services provided to the Fund. The Fund will pay broker-dealers a commission for executing a particular transaction for the Fund that may be in excess of the amount of commission those or other broker-dealers may normally charge other institutional investors if the managers determine, in good faith, that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services received, viewed in terms of the particular transaction or of the overall benefits to the Fund.
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, the Fund's Adviser directed brokerage transactions to certain brokers in connection with the Adviser's receipt of research services. The total amount of these transactions was $547,665,842 for which the Fund paid $1,298,675 in brokerage commissions.
37

Administrator
Federated Administrative Services (FAS), a subsidiary of Federated, provides administrative personnel and services, including certain legal, compliance, recordkeeping and financial reporting services (“Administrative Services”), necessary for the operation of the Fund. FAS provides Administrative Services for a fee based upon the rates set forth below paid on the average daily net assets of the Fund. For purposes of determining the appropriate rate breakpoint, “Investment Complex” is defined as all of the Federated Funds subject to a fee under the Administrative Services Agreement with FAS. FAS is also entitled to reimbursement for certain out-of-pocket expenses incurred in providing Administrative Services to the Fund.
Administrative Services
Fee Rate
Average Daily Net Assets
of the Investment Complex
0.150 of 1% on the first $5 billion
0.125 of 1% on the next $5 billion
0.100 of 1% on the next $10 billion
0.075 of 1% on assets over $20 billion
Custodian
State Street Bank and Trust Company, Boston, Massachusetts, is custodian for the securities and cash of the Fund. Foreign instruments purchased by the Fund are held by foreign banks participating in a network coordinated by State Street Bank and Trust Company.
Transfer Agent And Dividend Disbursing Agent
State Street Bank and Trust Company, the Fund's registered transfer agent, maintains all necessary shareholder records.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund, Ernst & Young LLP, conducts its audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), which require it to plan and perform its audits to provide reasonable assurance about whether the Fund's financial statements and financial highlights are free of material misstatement.
Fees Paid by the Fund for Services
For the Year Ended October 31 2016 2015 2014
Advisory Fee Earned $8,982,553 $10,301,754 $10,278,702
Advisory Fee Waived $135 $$561,102
Advisory Fee Reimbursement $89,127 $92,146 $53,269
Sub-Advisory Fee $7,365,694 $8,454,428 $8,475,421
Brokerage Commissions $1,508,076 $2,343,258 $1,508,515
Net Administrative Fee $540,335 $620,183 $580,940
Net 12b-1 Fee:      
Class A Shares $870,699 $1,087,002 $989,868
Class B Shares $127,632 $171,687 $244,361
Class C Shares $1,197,203 $1,432,366 $1,400,999
Class R Shares $75,441 $79,567 $73,514
Net Shareholder Services Fee:      
Class A Shares $1,069,508 $1,337,533 $1,201,021
Class B Shares $42,544 $57,229 $81,453
Class C Shares $399,068 $477,455 $467,000
Fees are allocated among classes based on their pro rata share of Fund assets, except for marketing (Rule 12b-1) fees and shareholder services fees, which are borne only by the applicable class of Shares.
If the Fund's expenses are capped at a particular level, the cap does not include reimbursement to the Fund of any expenses incurred by shareholders who use the transfer agent's subaccounting facilities.
Shareholder Services Fee includes $12,819.34 paid to a company affiliated with management of Federated.
38

Financial Information
The Financial Statements for the Fund for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, and for the six months ended April 30, 2017, are incorporated herein by reference to the Annual Report to Shareholders of Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund dated October 31, 2016 and to the Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders dated April 30, 2017, respectively.
Investment Ratings
Standard & Poor's Rating Services (S&P) LONG-TERM Issue RATINGS
Issue credit ratings are based, in varying degrees, on S&P's analysis of the following considerations: the likelihood of payment-capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation; the nature of and provisions of the obligation; and the protection afforded by, and relative position of, the obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws affecting creditors' rights.
AAA—An obligation rated “AAA” has the highest rating assigned by S&P. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.
AA—An obligation rated “AA” differs from the highest rated obligations only to a small degree. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.
A—An obligation rated “A” is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.
BBB—An obligation rated “BBB” exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
Obligations rated “BB,” “B,” “CCC,” “CC” and “C” are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. “BB” indicates the least degree of speculation and “C” the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.
BB—An obligation rated “BB” is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B—An obligation rated “B” is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated “BB,” but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor's capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CCC—An obligation rated “CCC” is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CC—An obligation rated “CC” is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment.
C—A “C” rating is assigned to obligations that are currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, obligations that have payment arrearages allowed by the terms of the documents, or obligations of an issuer that is the subject of a bankruptcy petition or similar action which have not experienced a payment default. Among others, the “C” rating may be assigned to subordinated debt, preferred stock or other obligations on which cash payments have been suspended in accordance with the instrument's terms or when preferred stock is the subject of a distressed exchange offer, whereby some or all of the issue is either repurchased for an amount of cash or replaced by other instruments having a total value that is less than par.
D—An obligation rated “D” is in payment default. The “D” rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made within five business days, irrespective of any grace period. The “D” rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized. An obligation's rating is lowered to “D” upon completion of a distressed exchange offer, whereby some or all of the issue is either repurchased for an amount of cash or replaced by other instruments having a total value that is less than par.
The ratings from “AA” to “CCC” may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
39

S&P Rating Outlook
An S& P rating outlook assesses the potential direction of a long-term credit rating over the intermediate term (typically six months to two years). In determining a rating outlook, consideration is given to any changes in the economic and/or fundamental business conditions.
Positive—Positive means that a rating may be raised.
Negative—Negative means that a rating may be lowered.
Stable—Stable means that a rating is not likely to change.
Developing—Developing means a rating may be raised or lowered.
N.M.—N.M. means not meaningful.
S&P Short-Term Issue RATINGS
Short-term ratings are generally assigned to those obligations considered short-term in the relevant market. In the United States, for example, that means obligations with an original maturity of no more than 365 daysincluding commercial paper.
A-1—A short-term obligation rated “A-1” is rated in the highest category by S&P. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on these obligations is extremely strong.
A-2—A short-term obligation rated “A-2” is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory.
A-3—A short-term obligation rated “A-3” exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B—A short-term obligation rated “B” is regarded as vulnerable and has significant speculative characteristics. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
C—A short-term obligation rated “C” is currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
D—A short-term obligation rated “D” is in payment default. The “D” rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made within any stated grace period. However, any stated grace period longer than five business days will be treated as five business days. The “D” rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized.
MOODY'S Investor Services, Inc. (MOODY's) LONG-TERM RATINGS
Moody's long-term ratings are assigned to issuers or obligations with an original maturity of one year or more and reflect both on the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default.
Aaa—Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk.
Aa—Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
A—Obligations rated A are judged to be upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
Baa—Obligations rated Baa are judged to be medium-grade and subject to moderate credit risk and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Ba—Obligations rated Ba are judged to be speculative and are subject to substantial credit risk.
B—Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Caa—Obligations rated Caa are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
Ca—Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
C—Obligations rated C are the lowest rated and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
Moody's appends numerical modifiers 1, 2 and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aaa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.
MOODY'S Short-Term RATINGS
Moody's short-term ratings are assigned to obligations with an original maturity of 13 months or less and reflect the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments.
P-1—Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated P-1 have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
40

P-2—Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated P-2 have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-3—Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated P-3 have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
NP—Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.
FITCH, INC. (Fitch) LONG-TERM Debt RATINGs
Fitch long-term ratings report Fitch's opinion on an entity's relative vulnerability to default on financial obligations. The “threshold” default risk addressed by the rating is generally that of the financial obligations whose non-payment would best reflect the uncured failure of that entity. As such, Fitch long-term ratings also address relative vulnerability to bankruptcy, administrative receivership or similar concepts, although the agency recognizes that issuers may also make pre-emptive and therefore voluntary use of such mechanisms.
AAA: Highest Credit Quality—“AAA” ratings denote the lowest expectation of default risk. They are assigned only in cases of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.
AA: Very High Credit Quality—“AA” ratings denote expectations of very low default risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.
A: High Credit Quality—“A” ratings denote expectations of low default risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. This capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to adverse business or economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.
BBB: Good Credit Quality—“BBB” ratings indicate that expectations of default risk are currently low. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate, but adverse business or economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity.
BB: Speculative—“BB” ratings indicate an elevated vulnerability to default risk, particularly in the event of adverse changes in business or economic conditions over time; however, business or financial flexibility exists which supports the servicing of financial commitments.
B: Highly Speculative—“B” ratings indicate that material default risk is present, but a limited margin of safety remains. Financial commitments are currently being met; however, capacity for continued payment is vulnerable to deterioration in the business and economic environment.
CCC: Substantial Credit Risk—Default is a real possibility.
CC: Very High Levels of Credit Risk—Default of some kind appears probable.
C: Exceptionally High Levels of Credit Risk—Default is imminent or inevitable, or the issuer is in standstill. Conditions that are indicative of a “C” category rating for an issuer include: (a) the issuer has entered into a grace or cure period following non-payment of a material financial obligation; (b) the issuer has entered into a temporary negotiated waiver or standstill agreement following a payment default on a material financial obligation; or (c) Fitch otherwise believes a condition of “RD” or “D” to be imminent or inevitable, including through the formal announcement of a distressed debt exchange.
RD: Restricted Default—“RD” ratings indicate an issuer that in Fitch's opinion has experienced an uncured payment default on a bond, loan or other material financial obligation but which has not entered into bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation or other formal winding-up procedure, and which has not otherwise ceased operating. This would include: (a) the selective payment default on a specific class or currency of debt; (b) the uncured expiry of any applicable grace period, cure period or default forbearance period following a payment default on a bank loan, capital markets security or other material financial obligation; (c) the extension of multiple waivers or forbearance periods upon a payment default on one or more material financial obligations, either in series or in parallel; or (d) execution of a distressed debt exchange on one or more material financial obligations.
D: Default—“D” ratings indicate an issuer that in Fitch's opinion has entered into bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation or other formal winding-up procedure, or which has otherwise ceased business.
Default ratings are not assigned prospectively to entities or their obligations; within this context, non-payment on an instrument that contains a deferral feature or grace period will generally not be considered a default until after the expiration of the deferral or grace period, unless a default is otherwise driven by bankruptcy or other similar circumstance, or by a distressed debt exchange.
“Imminent” default typically refers to the occasion where a payment default has been intimated by the issuer, and is all but inevitable. This may, for example, be where an issuer has missed a scheduled payment, but (as is typical) has a grace period during which it may cure the payment default. Another alternative would be where an issuer has formally announced a distressed debt exchange, but the date of the exchange still lies several days or weeks in the immediate future.
41

In all cases, the assignment of a default rating reflects the agency's opinion as to the most appropriate rating category consistent with the rest of its universe of ratings, and may differ from the definition of default under the terms of an issuer's financial obligations or local commercial practice.
FITCH SHORT-TERM DEBT RATINGs
A Fitch short-term issuer or obligation rating is based in all cases on the short-term vulnerability to default of the rated entity or security stream and relates to the capacity to meet financial obligations in accordance with the documentation governing the relevant obligation. Short-Term Ratings are assigned to obligations whose initial maturity is viewed as “short-term” based on market convention. Typically, this means up to 13 months for corporate, sovereign, and structured obligations, and up to 36 months for obligations in U.S. public finance markets.
F1: Highest Short-Term Credit Quality—Indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments; may have an added “+” to denote any exceptionally strong credit feature.
F2: Good Short-Term Credit Quality—Good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.
F3: Fair Short-Term Credit Quality—The intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments is adequate.
B: Speculative Short-Term Credit Quality—Minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus heightened vulnerability to near-term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.
C: High Short-Term Default Risk—Default is a real possibility.
RD: Restricted Default—Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Applicable to entity ratings only.
D: Default—Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a short-term obligation.
A.M. BEST Company, Inc. (a.m. best) LONG-TERM DEBT and Preferred Stock RATINGS
A Best's long-term debt rating is Best's independent opinion of an issuer/entity's ability to meet its ongoing financial obligations to security holders when due.
aaa: Exceptional—Assigned to issues where the issuer has an exceptional ability to meet the terms of the obligation.
aa: Very Strong—Assigned to issues where the issuer has a very strong ability to meet the terms of the obligation.
a: Strong—Assigned to issues where the issuer has a strong ability to meet the terms of the obligation.
bbb: Adequate—Assigned to issues where the issuer has an adequate ability to meet the terms of the obligation; however, the issue is more susceptible to changes in economic or other conditions.
bb: Speculative—Assigned to issues where the issuer has speculative credit characteristics, generally due to a modest margin or principal and interest payment protection and vulnerability to economic changes.
b: Very Speculative—Assigned to issues where the issuer has very speculative credit characteristics, generally due to a modest margin of principal and interest payment protection and extreme vulnerability to economic changes.
ccc, cc, c: Extremely Speculative—Assigned to issues where the issuer has extremely speculative credit characteristics, generally due to a minimal margin of principal and interest payment protection and/or limited ability to withstand adverse changes in economic or other conditions.
d: In Default—Assigned to issues in default on payment of principal, interest or other terms and conditions, or when a bankruptcy petition or similar action has been filed.
Ratings from “aa” to “ccc” may be enhanced with a “+” (plus) or “-” (minus) to indicate whether credit quality is near the top or bottom of a category.
A.M. BEST SHORT-TERM DEBT RATINGS
A Best's short-term debt rating is Best's opinion of an issuer/entity's ability to meet its financial obligations having original maturities of generally less than one year, such as commercial paper.
AMB-1+ Strongest—Assigned to issues where the issuer has the strongest ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
AMB-1 Outstanding—Assigned to issues where the issuer has an outstanding ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
AMB-2 Satisfactory—Assigned to issues where the issuer has a satisfactory ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
AMB-3 Adequate—Assigned to issues where the issuer has an adequate ability to repay short-term debt obligations; however, adverse economic conditions likely will reduce the issuer's capacity to meet its financial commitments.
AMB-4 Speculative—Assigned to issues where the issuer has speculative credit characteristics and is vulnerable to adverse economic or other external changes, which could have a marked impact on the company's ability to meet its financial commitments.
d: In Default—Assigned to issues in default on payment of principal, interest or other terms and conditions, or when a bankruptcy petition or similar action has been filed.
42

A.M. Best Rating Modifiers
Both long- and short-term credit ratings can be assigned a modifier.
u—Indicates the rating may change in the near term, typically within six months. Generally is event-driven, with positive, negative or developing implications.
pd—Indicates ratings assigned to a company that chose not to participate in A.M. Best's interactive rating process. (Discontinued in 2010).
i—Indicates rating assigned is indicative.
A.M. BEST RATING OUTLOOK
A.M. Best Credit Ratings are assigned a Rating Outlook that indicates the potential direction of a credit rating over an intermediate term, generally defined as the next 12 to 36 months.
Positive—Indicates possible ratings upgrade due to favorable financial/market trends relative to the current trading level.
Negative—Indicates possible ratings downgrade due to unfavorable financial/market trends relative to the current trading level.
Stable—Indicates low likelihood of rating change due to stable financial/market trends.
Not Rated
Certain nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs) may designate certain issues as NR, meaning that the issue or obligation is not rated.
43

Addresses
Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund
Class R6 Shares
Federated Investors Funds
4000 Ericsson Drive
Warrendale, PA 15086-7561
Distributor
Federated Securities Corp.
Federated Investors Tower
1001 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3779
Investment Adviser
Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania
Federated Investors Tower
1001 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3779
Sub-Adviser
Federated Global Investment Management Corp.
101 Park Avenue, 41st Floor
New York, NY 10178
Custodian, Transfer Agent and Dividend Disbursing Agent
State Street Bank and Trust Company
P.O. Box 8600
Boston, MA 02266-8600
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Ernst & Young LLP
200 Clarendon Street
Boston, MA 02116-5072
44

Appendix
The following is a list of persons, other than the Adviser and its affiliates, that have been approved to receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information concerning the Federated Fund Complex; however, certain persons below might not receive such information concerning the Fund:
CUSTODIAN(S)
State Street Bank and Trust Company
Securities Lending Agent
Citibank, N.A.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Ernst & Young LLP
LEGAL COUNSEL
Goodwin Procter LLP
K&L Gates LLP
Financial Printer(S)
RR Donnelley & Sons Company
Proxy Voting Administrator
Glass Lewis & Co., LLC
SECURITY PRICING SERVICES
Interactive Data Corporation
Markit Group Limited
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC
Telemet America
Thomson Reuters Corporation
RATINGS AGENCIES
Fitch, Inc.
Moody's Investors Service, Inc.
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC
Other SERVICE PROVIDERS
Other types of service providers that have been approved to receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information include service providers offering, for example, trade order management systems, portfolio analytics, or performance and accounting systems, such as:
Bank of America Merrill Lynch
Barclays Inc.
Bloomberg L.P.
Citibank, N.A.
Electra Information Systems
FactSet Research Systems Inc.
FISGlobal
Informa Investment Solutions, Inc.
Investortools, Inc.
Morningstar, Inc.
MSCI Inc.
The Yield Book, Inc.
Wolters Kluwer N.V.
45

 

 

Item 28. Exhibits

(a)    
1 Conformed copy of Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust of the Registrant; (12)
2 Amendment Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7; (31)
3 Amendment No. 8; (19)
4 Amendment Nos. 9, 10 and 11; (21)
5 Amendment Nos. 12 and 13; (23)
6 Amendment Nos. 14, 15, 16 and 17; (24)
7 Amendment No. 18; (25)
8 Amendment No. 19; (29)
9 Amendment Nos. 20 and 21; (31)
10 Amendment No. 22; (33)
11 Amendment No. 23; (34)
12 Amendment No. 24; (36)
13 Amendment No. 25; (39)
14 Amendment No. 26; (40)
15 Amendment Nos. 27 & No. 28; (42)
16 Amendment Nos. 29 and 30; (43)
17 Amendment No. 31; (45)
18 Amendment No. 32; (46)
19 Amendment No. 33 (49)
20 Amendment Nos. 34, 35, 36 and 37 (55)
21 Amendment No. 38 and 39 (58)
22 Amendment Nos. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 (67)
23 Amendment No. 47 (74)
24 Amendment No. 48 (78)
25 Amendment No. 49 (83)
26 Amendment No. 50 (83)
27 Amendment No. 51 (85)
28 Amendment Nos. 52 and 53 (86)
29 Amendment No. 54 (91)
30 Amendment No. 55 (94)
31 Amendment Nos. 56, 57, 58 and 59 (+)

 

(b)    
1 Copy of Amended and Restated By-Laws of the Registrant; (12)
2 Amendment Nos. 5, 6 and 7; (18)
3 Amendment No. 8; (24)
4 Amendment No. 9; (29)
5 Amendment No. 10; (32)
6 Amendment No. 11; (37)
7 Amendment No. 12; (39)
8 Amendment No. 13; (70)

 

(c)    
1 Specimen Share Certificate for Federated Small Cap Strategies Fund; (7)
2 Specimen Share Certificate for Federated Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund; (8)
3 Specimen Share Certificate for Federated Capital Appreciation Fund; (9)
  As of September 1, 1997, Federated Securities Corp. stopped issuing share certificates.  

 

(d)    
1 Conformed copy of Investment Advisory Contract of the Registrant (Federated Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund); (5)
2 Conformed copy of Investment Advisory Contract on behalf of the Registrant, which includes Exhibit B for Federated Capital Appreciation Fund; (10)
3 Conformed copies of Exhibits D & E for Federated Large Cap Growth Fund and Federated Technology Fund, respectively; (19)
4 Conformed copy of Exhibit G to the Investment Advisory Contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund; (23)
5 Conformed copy of Exhibit I to the Investment Advisory Contract for Federated Market Opportunity Fund; (23)
6 Conformed copy of Amendment to Investment Advisory Contract of the Registrant; (23)
7 Conformed copy of Sub-Advisory Agreement for Federated Kaufmann Fund, which includes Exhibit A, dated December 1, 2001; (23)
8 Conformed copy of Sub-Advisory Agreement for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund, which includes Exhibit A; (24)
9 Conformed copy of Exhibit J to the Investment Advisory Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund; (24)
10 Conformed copy of Sub-Advisory Contract for Federated Market Opportunity Fund, which includes Exhibit A; (31)
11 Conformed copy of Sub-Advisory Contract for Federated Technology Fund, which includes Exhibit A; (31)
12 Conformed copy of Assignments of Federated Investment Management Company to Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania for Advisory and Sub-Advisory Contracts of Federated Capital Appreciation Fund, Federated Kaufmann Fund, Federated Small Cap Kaufmann Fund, Federated Market Opportunity Fund, and Federated Technology Fund; (31)
13 Conformed copy of Assignment of Federated Investment Management Company to Federated Global Investment Management Company for Advisory Contract of Federated Large Cap Growth Fund; (31)
14 Conformed copy of Assignment of Federated Investment Management Company to Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania for Advisory Contract of Federated Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund; (31)
15 Conformed copy of Investment Advisory Contract of the Registrant, which includes Exhibit A (Federated Strategic Value Fund); (33)
16 Conformed copy of the Sub-Advisory Contract for Federated Absolute Advantage Fund; (36)
17 Conformed copy of Exhibit B to the Investment Advisory of the Registrant; (36)
18 Conformed copy of Assignment of Federated Global Investment Management Corp. to Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania for Advisory Contract of Federated Large Cap Growth Fund; (39)
19 Conformed copy of Federated Global Investment Management Corp. for Federated InterContinental Fund; (42)
20 Conformed copy of Exhibit B to the investment advisory contract for Federated Kaufmann Large Cap Fund; (43)
21 Conformed copy of Sub-Advisory Agreement for Federated Kaufmann Large Cap Fund, including Exhibit A; (43)
22 Conformed copy of Investment Advisory Contract of the Registrant (Federated Prudent Bear Fund); (46)
23 Conformed copy of Exhibits B, C and D to the Investment Advisory Contract with Federated Global Investment Management Company; (47)
24 Conformed copy of Exhibit C to the Investment Advisory Contract with FEMCoPA; (47)
25 Conformed copy of Exhibit E to the Investment Advisory Contract with Federated Global Investment Management Corp. (55)
26 Conformed copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit A to the Investment Advisory Contract with Federated Global Investment Management Corp. for Federated InterContinental Fund; Conformed copy of Exhibit F to the Investment Advisory Contract for Federated Managed Risk Fund; (67)
27 Form of Sub-advisory Agreement with Federated Investment Management Company for Federated Managed Risk Fund; (68)
28 Form of Sub-advisory Agreement with Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania for Federated Managed Risk Fund; (68)
29 Form of Amendment #1 to Exhibit B to the Investment Advisory Contract with FEMCOPA; (69)
30 Conformed copy of Transfer and Assumption of Investment Advisory contract to Federated MDTA LLC on behalf of Federated MDT Mid-Cap Growth Strategies Fund; (70)
31 Conformed Copy of Co-Advisory Contract for Federated Managed Risk Funds and Federated Managed Volatility Fund (73)
32 Conformed Copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit G to the Investment Advisory Contract with FEMCOPA; (74)
33 Conformed Copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit J to the Investment Advisory Contract with FEMCOPA; (74)
34 Conformed copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit A to the Sub-Advisory Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (78)
35 Conformed Copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit A to the Sub-Advisory contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund (78)
36 Conformed Copy of Amendment #1 to Exhibit A to the Sub-Advisory contract for Federated Kaufmann Large Cap Fund (78)
37 Conformed Copy of Exhibit E to the Advisory Contract between the Registrant and Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania for Federated Global Strategic Value Dividend Fund (91)
38

Copy of Schedule 1 to Limited Power of Attorney

dated as of December 1, 2004(revised as of March 1, 2017)by Federated Equity Funds(the Trust "), acting on behalf of each of the series portfolios

listed below, and appointing Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania the attorney-in-fact of the Trust for Federated Global Strategic Value Dividend Fund, Federated International Strategic Value Dividend Fund, Federated Kaufmann Large Cap Fund, Federated Prudent Bear Fund and

Federated Strategic Value Dividend Fund

(94)

 

39 Conformed Copy of Amendment #2 to Exhibit J to the Investment Advisory Contract with FEMCOPA (+)
     
(e)    
1 Conformed copy of Distributor’s Contract of the Registrant; (10)
2 Conformed copies of Exhibits D and F to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund, (Class A and C Shares); (10)
3 Conformed copies of Exhibits G and I to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Capital Appreciation Fund, (Class A and C Shares); (10)
4 Conformed copy of Distributor’s Contract (Class B Shares); (16)
5 Conformed copies of Exhibits M and N to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Large Cap Growth Fund, (Class A and C Shares); (19)
6 Conformed copies of Exhibits O and P to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Communications Technology Fund, (Class A and C Shares); (19)
7 Conformed copy of Exhibits S & T to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Market Opportunity Fund (Class A and Class C Shares); (22)
8 Conformed copy of Exhibit U to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund (Class K Shares); (23)
9 Conformed copy of Exhibits V & W to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund (Class A and Class C Shares); (22)
10 Conformed copy of Amendment to the Distributor’s Contract of the Registrant, dated June 1, 2001; (23)
11 Conformed copy of Exhibit X to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (Class A Shares); (24)
12 Conformed copy of Exhibit Y to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (Class C Shares); (24)
13 Conformed copy of Exhibit Z to the Distributor's Contract for Federated Capital Appreciation Fund (Class K Shares); (28)
14 The Registrant hereby incorporates the conformed copy of the specimen Mutual Funds Sales and Service Agreement; Mutual Funds Service Agreement; and Plan Trustee/Mutual Funds Service Agreement from Item 24(b)(6)(ii)-(iv) of the Cash Trust Series II Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on July 24, 1995. (File No. 33-38550 and 811-6269)  
15 Conformed copy of Amendment to the Distributor’s Contract of the Registrant, dated October 1, 2003; (31)
16 Conformed copy of Amendment to the Distributor’s Contract (Class B Shares) of the Registrant, dated June 1, 2001; (31)
17 Conformed copy of Amendment to the Distributor’s Contract (Class B Shares) of the Registrant, dated October 1, 2003; (31)
18 Conformed copy of Exhibit AA and BB to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Strategic Value Fund (Class A and Class C Shares); (33)
19 Conformed copy of Exhibit CC to the Distributors Contract for Federated Strategic Value Fund (Institutional Shares); (35)
20 Conformed copy of Exhibits, DD, EE, FF and GG to the Distributors Contract; (36)
21 Conformed copy of Exhibit HH to Distributors Contract for Federated Mid-Cap Growth Strategies Fund; (39)
22 Conformed copy of Exhibit II, JJ, KK and LL to Distributors Contract for Federated InterContinental Fund; (42)
23 Conformed copy of Amendment 1 to Exhibit G, S, DD and JJ; (43)
24 Conformed copy of Exhibits to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Prudent Bear Fund (Class A Shares, Class C Shares); (46)
25 Conformed copy of Exhibits SS, TT, UU, YY, ZZ, AAA, BBB, CCC, DDD, EEE, FFF, GGG and HHH to the Distributor’s Contract; (47)
26 Conformed copy of Schedule A to the Distributor’s Contract for Class B Shares; (63)
27 Conformed copy of Exhibit III, JJJ, KKK and LLL to the Distributor’s Contract; (56)
28 Conformed copy of Exhibit MMM to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Clover Small Value Plan (Class R Shares) (59)
29 Conformed copy of Exhibit D, F, HH and III to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Mid-Cap Growth Strategies Fund (63)
30 Conformed copy of Exhibit NNN, OOO, PPP and QQQ to the Distributor’s Contract (67)
31 Copy of Schedule A to Class B Shares Distributor’s Contract (69)
32 Conformed copy of Exhibit RRR, SSS and TTT to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Managed Volatility Fund (73)
33 Conformed copy of Exhibit UUU to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (Institutional Shares) (78)
34 Conformed copy of Exhibit VVV to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Clover Small Value Fund (Class R6 Shares) and Exhibit WWW to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Strategic Value Dividend Fund (Class R6 Shares) (86)
35 Form of Exhibit XXX to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated InterContinental Fund, Federated International Strategic Value Dividend Fund, and Federated MDT-Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund (Class R6 Shares) and Exhibit YYY to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund (Institutional Shares) (86)
36 Conformed copy of Exhibits ZZZ, AAAA, BBBB and CCCC for Federated Global Strategic Value Dividend Fund Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Institutional Shares and Class R6 Shares. (91)
37 Conformed Copy of Exhibit DDDD for Federated Absolute Return Fund, Federated Clover Small Value Fund, Federated Clover Value Fund, Federated InterContinental Fund, Federated International Strategic Value Dividend Fund, Federated Kaufmann Fund, Federated Kaufmann Large Cap Fund, Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund, Federated MDT Mid-Cap Growth Fund, Federated Prudent Bear Fund, Federated Strategic Value Dividend Fund Class T Shares. (94)
38 Copy of Schedule A to Class B Shares Distributor’s Contract revised 3/1/17 (94)
39 Conformed Copy of Exhibit XXX to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated InterContinental Fund, Federated International Strategic Value Dividend Fund, and Federated MDT-Mid Cap Growth Strategies Fund (Class R6 Shares) and Exhibit YYY to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Fund (Institutional Shares) (94)
40 Conformed Copy of Exhibit EEEE to the Distributor’s Contract for Federated Kaufmann Small Cap Fund (Class R6 Shares) (+)

 

(f) Not applicable  

 

(g)    
1 Conformed Copy of the Custodian Agreement of the Registrant; (6)
2 Conformed copy of Custodian Fee Schedule; (15)
3 Conformed copy of Amendment to Custodian contract of the Registrant dated February 3, 2006; (39)
4 Conformed copy of the Fourth Amendment to the Custody Agreement of the Registrant dated October 23, 2009 (54)
5 Conformed copy of the Seventh Amendment to the Custody Agreement of the Registrant dated September 1, 2010 (57)
6 Conformed copy of the Custody Agreement, up to and including Tenth Amendment with attachments, between The Bank of New York Mellon and Funds dated March 1, 2011. (59)
7 Conformed copy of the Custodian Contract, up to and including Fifth Amendment with attachments, between State Street Bank and Funds dated March 1, 2011. (59)
8 Copy of Exhibit 1 to the Custodian Contract dated December 1, 1993 Revised as of September 20, 2013 (67)
9 Copy of Exhibit 1 to the Custodian Contract dated December 1, 1993, revised as of September 19, 2014; (74)
10 Conformed copy of the Custody Agreement, up to and including the Fourteenth Amendment with attachments, between The Bank of New York Mellon and Funds dated April 28, 2014; (74)
11

Copy of Exhibit A Schedule II of the Custody Agreement; Schedule I of the Joint Trading Account Agreement; Schedule I of the Foreign Custody Manager Agreement Revised 12/1/14

 

(94)
12

Copy of Exhibit B Amended and Restated

Section entitled “Funds” of the Non-Money Market Fund Fee Schedule(Exhibit D to Amendment dated November 8, 2007)Revised 12/1/14

(94)
13 Conformed copy of the Custody Agreement, up to and including the Nineteenth Amendment with attachments, between The Bank of New York Mellon and Funds dated December 1, 2016; (94)
14 Copy of Exhibit A Schedule II of the Custody Agreement; Schedule I of the Joint Trading Account Agreement; Schedule I of the Foreign Custody Manager Agreement Revised 12/1/16 (94)
15

Copy of Exhibit B Amended and Restated

Section entitled “Funds” of the Non-Money Market Fund Fee Schedule(Exhibit D to Amendment dated November 8, 2007)Revised 12/1/16

 

(94)
16 Copy of Exhibit 1 to Custodian Contract Between Federated Investment Companies, State Street Bank and Trust Company, and Federated Services Company Dated December 1, 1993, revised as of 3/1/17. (94)

 

(h)    
1 Conformed copy of Amended and Restated Agreement for Fund Accounting Services, Administrative Services, Shareholder Transfer Agency Services and Custody Services Procurement; (17)
2 Conformed copy of Amendment to Agreement for Fund Accounting Services, Administrative Services, Shareholder Transfer Agency Services and Custody Services Procurement; (23)
3 Conformed copy of Principal Shareholder Service’s Agreement (Class B Shares); (16)
4 Conformed copy of Exhibit 1 to the Principal Shareholder Service’s Agreement (Class B Shares); (23)
5 Conformed copy of Shareholder Services Agreement (Class B Shares); (16)
6 Conformed copy of Exhibit 1 to the Shareholder Services Agreement (Class B Shares); (23)
7 The Registrant hereby incorporates by reference the conformed copy of the Shareholder Services Sub-Contract between Fidelity and Federated Shareholder Services from Item 24(b)(9)(iii) of the Federated GNMA Trust Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on March 25, 1996 (File Nos. 2-75670 and 811-3375).  
8 Copy of the Schedule 1 of the Second Amended and Restated Services Agreement, dated January 18, 2013. (63)
9 The responses described in Item 23(e)(xiv) are hereby incorporated  by reference.  
10 The Registrant hereby incorporates the conformed copy of Amendment No. 2 to the Amended & Restated Agreement for Fund Accounting Services, Administrative Services, Transfer Agency Services and Custody Services Procurement from Item 23 (h)(v) of the Federated U.S. Government Securities:  2-5 Years Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on March 30, 2004. (File Nos. 2-75769 and 811-3387);  
11 The Registrant hereby incorporates the conformed copy of Amendment No. 3 to the Amended & Restated Agreement for Fund Accounting Services, Administrative Services, Transfer Agency Services and Custody Services Procurement from Item 23 (h)(v) of the Federated U.S. Government Securities: 2-5 Years Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on March 30, 2004. (File Nos. 2-75769 and 811-3387;  
12 The Registrant hereby incorporates by reference the conformed copy of the Agreement for Administrative Services, with Exhibit 1 and Amendments 1 and 2 attached, between Federated Administrative Services and the Registrant from Item 23(h)(iv)of the Federated Total Return Series, Inc. Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on November 29, 2004.  (File Nos. 33-50773 and 811-7115);  
13 The Registrant herby incorporates by reference the conformed copy of the Financial Administration and Accounting Services Agreement, with attached Exhibit A revised 3/1/06, from Item (h)(viii) of the Federated Total Return Government Bond Fund, Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on April 26, 2006. (File Nos. 33-60411 and 811-07309)  
14 The Registrant hereby incorporates by reference the conformed copy of Transfer Agency and Service Agreement between the Federated Funds listed on Schedule A revised 3/1/06 and State Street Bank and Trust Company from Item 23(h)(ix) of the Federated Total Return Government Bond Fund Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on April 26, 2006.  (File Nos. 33-60411 and 811-07309)  
15 The Registrant hereby incorporates by reference the conformed copy of Amendment No. 3 to the Agreement for administrative Services between Federated Administrative Services Company and the Registrant dated June 1, 2005, form Item 23 (h)(ii) of the Cash Trust Series, Inc. Registrant Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on July 27, 2005.  (File Nos. 33-29838 and 811-5843)  
16 The Registrant hereby incorporates the Copy of Schedule 1, revised 9/1/05, to the Second Amended and Restated Services Agreement, from Item h(ix) of the Federated Institutional Trust Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on September 28, 2005.  (File Nos. 33-54445 and 811-7193)  
17 Cop of Exhibit A, revised 1/18/2013, to the Financial Administration and Accounting Services Agreement. (63)
18 The Registrant hereby incorporates the Copy of Schedule 1, revised 6/1/05, to the Transfer Agency and Services Agreement between the Federated Funds and State Street Bank and Trust Company from , from Item h(xi) of the Federated Institutional Trust Registration Statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on September 28, 2005.  (File Nos. 33-54445 and 811-7193)  
19 The Registrant hereby incorporates the conformed copy of the Transfer Agency and Service Agreement between the Federated Funds and State Street Bank and Trust Company form Item 23(h)(ix) of the Federated Stock Trust Registration statement on Form N-1A, filed with the Commission on December 29, 2005. (File Nos. 33-60411 and 811-07309).  
20 The Registrant hereby incorporates the conformed copy of Schedule A to the Transfer Agency and the Service Agreement; (47)
21 Conformed copy of Amendment to Exhibit A and Amendment to Exhibit B of the Fund Accounting Agreement with The Bank of New York Mellon; (47)
22 Conformed copy of Schedule A to the Transfer Agency Agreement; (48)
23 Conformed copy of Exhibit A to the Financial Administration and Accounting Service Agreement; (48)
24 Conformed copy of Exhibit 1 to the Administrative Services Agreement; (48)
25 Conformed copy of Schedule 1 to the Second Amended and Restated Services Agreement; (48)
26 Conformed copy of Schedule A of the Shareholder Services Agreement for Class B Shares; (48)
27 Copy of Schedule A of the Principal Shareholder Services Agreement for Class B Shares, revised January 18, 2013; (63)
28 Conformed copy of Exhibit 1 to the Administrative Services Agreement; (53)
29 Conformed copy of the Third Amendment to the Fund Accounting Agreement of the Registrant dated October 23, 2009 (54)
30 Copy of Exhibit 1 to Agreement for Administrative Services, revised January 18, 2013; (63)
31 Conformed copy of the Fifth Amendment to the Fund Accounting Agreement of the Registrant dated September 1, 2010 (57)
32 Conformed copy of new Fund Accounting Agreement of the Registrant with The Bank of New York Mellon, up to and including the First Amendment, dated March 1, 2011 and March 25, 2011, respectively. (59)
33 Conformed copy of the new Financial Administration Accounting Services Agreement of the Registrant with State Street Bank and Trust, up to and including the First Amendment dated March 1, 2011 and March 25, 2011, respectively. (59)
34 Conformed copy of the Transfer Agency and Service Agreement between the Funds and State Street Bank and Trust Company, up to and including the First Amendment dated July 1, 2004 and January 1, 2008, respectively. (59)
35 Conformed copy of the Tax Services Agreement dated between the Bank of New York Mellon and Federated Administrative Services dated September 27, 2011 (59)
36 Conformed copy of the Services Agreement between Federated Equity Management Company of Pennsylvania and Federated Advisory Services Company dated January 1, 1994 and including Schedule 1 revised as of 8/31/2011 (59)
37 Conformed copy of the Services Agreement between Federated Global Investment Management Corp. and Federated Advisory Services Company dated January 1, 2004 and including Schedule 1 revised as of 8/31/2011 (59)
38 Conformed copy of the Shareholder Services Agreement between Federated Securities Corp. and Funds listed on Schedule A revised as of 2/21/2011 (59)
39 Conformed copy of Compliance Support Service Addendum to the Fund Accounting Agreement dated (61)
40

Copy of Exhibit 1 to Custodian Contract Between Federated Investment Companies, State Street Bank And Trust Company, and Federated Services Company, dated December 1, 1993 (revised January 18, 2013)

 

(63)
41 Copy of Schedule A to Shareholder Services Agreement, revised January 18, 2013; (63)
42 Conformed copy of Amended and Restated Agreement for Administrative Services dated September 1, 2012 (64)
43 Copy of Exhibit 1 to the Agreement for Administrative Services revised September 20, 2013 (67)
44 Copy of Schedule 1 to the Second Amended and Restated Services Agreement revised September 20, 2013 (67)
45 Copy of Schedule A to the Financial Administration Accounting and Services Agreement updated September 20, 2013 (67)
46 Conformed copy of Schedule A to the Transfer Agency and Service Agreement revised September 1, 2013 (68)
47 Copy of Schedule A to the Shareholder Services Agreement for Class B Shares, revised April 22, 2013 (69)
48 Copy of Schedule A to the Principal Shareholder Servicer’s Agreement for Class B Shares, revised April 22, 2013 (69)
49 Copy of Exhibit 1 to Agreement for Administrative Services dated September 19, 2014; (74)
50 Copy of Schedule 1 to the Second Amended and Restated Services Agreement, revised September 1, 2014; (74)
51 Conformed copy of Amendment to Financial Administration and Accounting Services dated as of March 1, 2015, by and among each of the investment companies listed on Exhibit A hereto (each, a “Trust”) and State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”); (94)
52 Copy of Exhibit A to the Financial Administration Accounting and Services Agreement (Updated as of 1/26/15); (94)
53 Conformed Amendment to Financial Administration and Accounting Services Agreement dated as of October 14, 2015, by and among each of the investment companies listed on Exhibit A hereto (each, a “Trust”) and State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street” or “Administrator”); (94)
54 Copy of Exhibit A to the Financial Administration Accounting and Services Agreement(Updated as of March 1, 2017); (94)
55 Conformed copy of the Fund Accounting Agreement, up to and including Sixth Amendment with attachments, between The Bank of New York Mellon and Funds dated December 1, 2016. (94)
56 Copy of Transfer Agency and Service Agreement between the Federated Funds and State Street Bank and Trust dated January 31, 2017 (94)

 

(i) Conformed copy of the Opinion and Consent of Counsel regarding legality of shares being registered; (6)

 

(j)    
1 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (Deloitte & Touche LLP); (41)
2 Conformed copy of Independent Registered Accounting Firm (Tait Weller& Baker) (42)
3 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent registered Public Accounting Firm (PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP) (45)
4 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to(Ernst & Young LLP) (62)
5 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FICF (KPMG LLP) (63)
6 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FISVF and FGLEF (KPMG LLP) (63)
7 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FMMGSF (KPMG LLP) (64)
8 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FICF (KPMG LLP) (66)
9 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FCSVF, FCVF and FPBF (KPMG LLP) (67)
10 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FKAUF, FKLCF, FKSCF and FSVF (Ernst & Young LLP) (75)
11 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FARF and FMMGSF (KPMG LLP) (75)
12 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FISVF, FICF and FGLEF (KPMG LLP) (76)
13 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FGLEF (KPMG LLP) (71)
14 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FEMEF (KPMG LLP) (72)
15 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FCSVF and FCVF (KPMG LLP); (74)
16 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FMRF (KPMG LLP) (77)
17 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, with respect to FCSVF, FCVF and FPBF (KPMG LLP) (79)
18 Conformed copy of Consent of Independent Registered