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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number 1-10524

UDR, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland

54-0857512

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1745 Shea Center Drive, Suite 200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129

(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (720283-6120

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

UDR

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

(Title of Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large Accelerated Filer þ

Accelerated Filer

Non-Accelerated Filer

Smaller Reporting Company 

Emerging Growth Company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the shares of common stock of UDR, Inc. held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023 was approximately $5.5 billion. This calculation excludes shares of common stock held by the registrant’s officers and directors and each person known by the registrant to beneficially own more than 5% of the registrant’s outstanding shares, as such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status should not be deemed conclusive for any other purpose. As of February 16, 2024, there were 329,224,105 shares of UDR, Inc.’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated by reference from UDR, Inc.’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

PART I

Item 1. Business

4

Item 1A. Risk Factors

14

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

31

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

31

Item 2. Properties

34

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

34

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

34

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

35

Item 6. [Reserved]

37

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

38

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

56

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

56

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

56

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

56

Item 9B. Other Information

57

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

57

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

58

Item 11. Executive Compensation

58

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

58

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

58

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

58

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

59

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

67

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PART I

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this Report to “UDR,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to UDR, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including United Dominion Realty, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership” or the “OP”) and UDR Lighthouse DownREIT L.P. (the “DownREIT Partnership”).

Forward-Looking Statements

This Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements concerning property acquisitions and dispositions, development activity and capital expenditures, capital raising activities, rent growth, occupancy and rental expense growth. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “likely,” “will,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the results of operations or plans expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.

The following factors, among others, could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:

general market and economic conditions;

the impact of inflation/deflation;

unfavorable changes in apartment market and economic conditions that could adversely affect occupancy levels and rental rates;

the failure of acquisitions, developments or redevelopments to achieve anticipated results;

possible difficulty in selling apartment communities;

competitive factors that may limit our ability to lease apartment homes or increase or maintain rents;

insufficient cash flow that could affect our debt financing and create refinancing risk;

failure to generate sufficient revenue, which could impair our debt service payments and distributions to stockholders;

development and construction risks that may impact our profitability;

potential damage from natural disasters, including hurricanes and other weather-related events, which could result in substantial costs to us;

risks from climate change that impacts our properties or operations;

risks from extraordinary losses for which we may not have insurance or adequate reserves;

risks from cybersecurity breaches of our information technology systems and the information technology systems of our third party vendors and other third parties;

the availability of capital and the stability of the capital markets;

changes in job growth, home affordability and the demand/supply ratio for multifamily housing;

the failure of automation or technology to help grow net operating income;

uninsured losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insurance retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage;

delays in completing developments and lease-ups on schedule or at expected rent and occupancy levels;

1

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our failure to succeed in new markets;

risks that third parties who have an interest in or are otherwise involved in projects in which we have an interest, including mezzanine borrowers, joint venture partners or other investors, do not perform as expected;

changing interest rates, which could increase interest costs and affect the market price of our securities;

potential liability for environmental contamination, which could result in substantial costs to us;

the imposition of federal taxes if we fail to qualify as a REIT under the Code in any taxable year;

our internal control over financial reporting may not be considered effective which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports, and in turn have an adverse effect on our stock price; and

changes in real estate laws, tax laws, rent control or stabilization laws or other laws affecting our business.

A discussion of these and other factors affecting our business and prospects is set forth in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors. We encourage investors to review these risk factors.

Although we believe that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, any of the assumptions could be inaccurate, and therefore such statements included in this Report may not prove to be accurate. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the results or conditions described in such statements or our objectives and plans will be achieved.

Forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except to the extent otherwise required by law.

Summary of Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 1A. Risk Factors herein. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

Unfavorable Apartment Market and Economic Conditions Could Adversely Affect Occupancy Levels, Rental Revenues and the Value of Our Real Estate Assets.
The Geographic Concentration of Our Communities in Certain Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Operations if a Particular Market is Adversely Impacted by Economic or Other Conditions.
We May Be Unable to Renew Leases or Relet Apartment Units as Leases Expire, or the Terms of Renewals or New Leases May Be Less Favorable Than Current Leases.
We Face Risks Related to Inflation/Deflation.
Competition Could Limit Our Ability to Lease Apartment Homes or Increase or Maintain Rents.
We May Not Realize the Anticipated Benefits of Past or Future Acquisitions, and the Failure to Integrate Acquired Communities and New Personnel Successfully Could Create Inefficiencies.
Competition Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Acquire Properties.
Development and Construction Risks Could Impact Our Profitability.
An Epidemic, Pandemic or Other Health Crisis, and Measures Intended to Prevent the Spread of Such an Event, Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on our Business, Results of Operations, Cash Flows and Financial Condition.
Bankruptcy or Defaults of Our Counterparties Could Adversely Affect Our Performance.

2

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We Could Incur Significant Insurance Costs and Some Potential Losses May Not Be Adequately Covered by Insurance.
The Adoption of, or Changes to, Rent Control, Rent Stabilization, Eviction, Tenants’ Rights and Similar Laws and Regulations in Our Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Results of Operations and Property Values.
A Breach of Information Technology Systems On Which We Rely Could Materially and Adversely Impact Our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Reputation.
Changing Interest Rates Could Increase Interest Costs and Adversely Affect Our Cash Flows and the Market Price of Our Common Stock.
Insufficient Cash Flow Could Affect Our Debt Financing and Create Refinancing Risk.
Failure to Generate Sufficient Income Could Impair Debt Service Payments and Distributions to Stockholders.
Failure To Maintain Our Current Credit Ratings Could Adversely Affect Our Cost of Funds, Related Margins, Liquidity, and Access to Capital Markets.
Disruptions in Financial Markets May Adversely Impact the Availability and Cost of Credit and Have Other Adverse Effects on Us and the Market Price of Our Common Stock.
We Would Incur Adverse Tax Consequences if We Failed to Qualify as a REIT.
Changes in Market Conditions and Volatility of Stock Prices Could Adversely Affect the Market Price of Our Common Stock.
We May Change the Dividend Policy for Our Common Stock in the Future.
Limitations on Share Ownership and Limitations on the Ability of Our Stockholders to Effect a Change in Control of Our Company Restrict the Transferability of Our Stock and May Prevent Takeovers That are Beneficial to Our Stockholders.

3

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Item 1. BUSINESS

General

UDR is a self-administered real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns, operates, acquires, renovates, develops, redevelops, disposes of, and manages multifamily apartment communities in targeted markets located in the United States. At December 31, 2023, our consolidated real estate portfolio consisted of 168 communities located in 21 markets, consisting of 55,550 completed apartment homes, which are held directly or through our subsidiaries, including the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership, and consolidated joint ventures. In addition, we have an ownership interest in 10,045 completed or to-be-completed apartment homes through unconsolidated joint ventures or partnerships, including 5,618 apartment homes owned by entities in which we hold preferred equity investments. At December 31, 2023, the Company was developing two wholly-owned communities totaling 415 homes, of which 56 have been completed.

UDR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to in this Report as the “Code.” To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must continue to meet certain tests which, among other things, generally require that our assets consist primarily of real estate assets, our income be derived primarily from real estate assets, and that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (other than our net capital gains) to our stockholders annually. As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes at the corporate level on our net income to the extent we distribute such net income to our stockholders annually. In 2023, we declared total distributions of $1.68 per common share and paid dividends of $1.64 per common share.

    

Dividends

    

Dividends

Declared in

Paid in

2023

2023

First Quarter

$

0.4200

$

0.3800

Second Quarter

 

0.4200

 

0.4200

Third Quarter

 

0.4200

 

0.4200

Fourth Quarter

 

0.4200

 

0.4200

Total

$

1.6800

$

1.6400

UDR was formed in 1972 as a Virginia corporation. In June 2003, we changed our state of incorporation from Virginia to Maryland. Our corporate offices are located at 1745 Shea Center Drive, Suite 200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado and our telephone number is (720) 283-6120. Our website is www.udr.com. The information contained on our website, including any information referred to in this Report as being available on our website, is not a part of or incorporated into this Report.

As of December 31, 2023, there were 189.9 million units in the Operating Partnership (“OP Units”) outstanding, of which 176.4 million OP Units (including 0.1 million of general partnership units), or 92.9%, were owned by UDR and 13.5 million OP Units, or 7.1%, were owned by outside limited partners. As of December 31, 2023, there were 32.4 million units in the DownREIT Partnership (“DownREIT Units”) outstanding, of which 21.4 million, or 66.0%, were owned by UDR and its subsidiaries and 11.0 million, or 34.0%, were owned by outside limited partners. The consolidated financial statements of UDR include the noncontrolling interests of the unitholders in the Operating Partnership and DownREIT Partnership.

Human Capital Management

As of December 31, 2023, our team at UDR comprises 1,397 full-time associates and 13 part-time associates, all of whom are dedicated to the success of our organization. Within this workforce, 991 associates are focused on roles directly associated with our communities, while the remaining associates contribute to various corporate functions. Our commitment to social responsibility extends to the entire employee lifecycle, encompassing recruitment, onboarding, development, engagement, and retention. Our overarching objective is to enhance the associate experience, foster diversity, and maintain a motivated workforce that fuels our growth and talent retention. This dedication to our UDR culture and values directly influences improved engagement, productivity, and the overall success of our organization.

Our UDR culture is defined by choice, transparency, and trust, empowering our associates to make decisions that align with their individual interests and benefit the Company as a whole. By prioritizing and enhancing the associate experience, we hope to enhance engagement levels, leading to increased customer satisfaction, higher employee

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retention, and superior results. We report to our Board of Directors at least annually with respect to our human capital initiatives, including evaluations and analyses.

Associate Compensation

Attracting, nurturing, and retaining top-tier, diverse talent across our organization is essential to our long-term success. An integral part of this process is our commitment to fair and attractive compensation practices. We continue to utilize our compensation market data tool that enables us to access near real-time market insights. This tool has been helpful in helping us to make informed decisions and adjust our salary ranges accordingly, helping us to remain competitive and attract and retain top talent. By staying up-to-date with the latest trends in the job market, we seek to provide fair and competitive compensation packages to our associates. We also conduct annual assessments of pay equity across various dimensions, such as gender, age, and ethnicity, for each job title. Our compensation programs are designed to include performance-driven bonuses. These metrics are presented annually to our executive leadership and Board of Directors for oversight purposes.

Associate Growth and Development

We firmly believe that frequent training is essential for associate job satisfaction, effectiveness, career progression, and retention. New associates participate in a comprehensive two-day onboarding process that covers our culture, values, mission, and administrative procedures. We offer a wide range of training opportunities tailored to individual needs.

In addition to mandatory regulatory training (e.g., harassment, cybersecurity, fair housing), associates can opt to receive management development training through programs like the ULEAD and the Level Up! Career Mobility Programs. These initiatives equip our associates with valuable skills for career advancement. In total, over 6,000 courses are available to our associates, spanning topics such as leasing skills, property maintenance, customer service, project management, and system applications. In 2023, our associates collectively invested 13,924 hours in training, averaging 10 hours per full time associate. We also implemented improved controls around timely completion of required courses. By the end of 2023, 95% of associates had completed annual technology IT security training, while 95% had completed fair housing, harassment, diversity and inclusion, and business ethics training.

Certifications play a crucial role in career progression in the apartment industry. We actively encourage our associates to pursue professional certifications that align with their interests and benefit the Company. These certifications range from master's degree programs to certified property manager programs to technical licenses. We offer partial tuition reimbursement to support associates in attaining these certifications. Each UDR associate participates in an annual performance review with their direct supervisor, providing feedback on career development and engagement levels.

Additionally, in 2023, the Company hired a Vice President of Organizational Development and Succession Planning. Organizational development and succession planning are critical components of the Company's long-term strategy as they help UDR to have the right talent in the right positions to drive success and growth.

Diversity and Inclusion

We prioritize respect, fairness, and the promotion of diverse perspectives, which contribute to our Company's growth and success. Our commitment extends to fostering a diverse and inclusive workplace environment that facilitates the development and advancement of all associates.

As of December 31, 2023, our workforce is comprised of 60% male and 40% female associates, with an ethnic composition of 53% White, 26% Hispanic/Latino, 13% Black, 2% Asian, and 6% Other. Our management team (including resident services managers and more senior job classifications) reflects a gender balance of 57% male and 43% female, with an ethnic breakdown of 61% White and 39% non-White. Over the three-year period ending December 31, 2023, 520 promotions occurred, with 48% of those promoted to resident services manager, director, or more senior job classifications being female and 26% non-White.

We provide resources, webinars, trainings, workshops, and tools to educate our associates on DEI-related topics. Our commitment to promoting diversity and inclusion remains as we strive to create a healthy and diverse work environment and attract candidates from all backgrounds, ethnicities, and genders.

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Associate Engagement and Outreach

Throughout 2023, we placed greater emphasis on increasing associate engagement and focused efforts on achieving this goal.  We implemented a quarterly pulse survey program and several measures aimed at improving communication, making data-driven decisions, and promoting collaboration between our operations and corporate teams. Centralizing information, creating an HR Monthly Newsletter, and initiating internal publications and recognition programs for associates were among the initiatives we undertook to facilitate better communication and foster a sense of community.

The quarterly pulse surveys we implemented in 2023 give us valuable insights into associate engagement, views on UDR culture, and work-life balance, among other key performance indicators. We find these surveys to be incredibly helpful and plan to continue conducting them to receive ongoing feedback.

We believe that our associates should be active in their communities, and we support their efforts. In 2023, UDR provided 1,041 hours of paid time off to associates for volunteer work with over 20 local organizations. We also organized food, clothing, and blood drives, as well as initiatives to promote non-profit organizations and causes, fostering a culture of giving back.

Employee Health, Wellness and Benefits

The health, wellness, and safety of our associates are paramount to UDR. We maintain an inclusive culture by prioritizing the well-being of our associates. Our monthly Wellness Newsletter covers a range of topics, including preventative care, fitness, mental health, and healthy eating habits.

In 2023, we reduced the benefits waiting period from two months to one month. In addition, we enhanced our behavioral health support mobile application, providing associates with 24/7 access to a care team of coaches and mental health professionals via text-based chats and self-guided activities at no additional cost to associates. This program was also expanded in 2023 to provide support to teen-age children for parents with teen-aged children. Finally, a new associate resource program was introduced, providing our associates with a comprehensive set of tools to assist them in every aspect of their life. This resource provides professional counseling and expert referrals for a wide array of personal and work-related concerns.

Our commitment to associate benefits is underscored by a third-party benefits survey, conducted in 2023, where 77% of respondents believed that UDR offered benefits meeting their needs. Utilizing feedback from this survey and our engagement survey, we enhanced the Lifestyle Spending Account. The Lifestyle Spending Account provides flexibility by allowing associates to allocate $1,000 annually to various health, wellness, and lifestyle categories. Furthermore, we implemented a 401(k) auto-enrollment for new hires at 3% of their salary that started in January 2024. We also provide a comprehensive set of employee benefits, including health, dental, and vision insurance coverage for all associates.

Reporting Segments

We report in two segments: Same-Store Communities and Non-Mature Communities/Other.

Our Same-Store Communities segment represents those communities acquired, developed, and stabilized prior to January 1, 2022, and held as of December 31, 2023. These communities were owned and had stabilized occupancy and operating expenses as of the beginning of the prior year, there is no plan to conduct substantial redevelopment activities, and the communities are not classified as held for disposition at year end. A community is considered to have stabilized occupancy once it achieves 90% occupancy for at least three consecutive months.

Our Non-Mature Communities/Other segment represents those communities that do not meet the criteria to be included in Same-Store Communities, including, but not limited to, recently acquired, developed and redeveloped communities, and the non-apartment components of mixed use properties. For additional information regarding our operating segments, see Note 16, Reportable Segments, in the Notes to the UDR Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Report.

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Business Objectives

Our principal business objective is to maximize the economic returns of our apartment communities in a sustainable manner to provide our stockholders with the greatest possible total return and value. To achieve this objective, we intend to continue to pursue the following goals and strategies:

own and operate a diversified portfolio of apartments in targeted markets in the United States, which are characterized by strong total income growth, high working age population growth, relatively robust rental versus single-family home affordability and favorable demand/supply ratio for multifamily housing, thus enhancing stability and predictability of returns to our stockholders;
manage real estate cycles by taking an opportunistic approach to buying, selling, renovating, redeveloping, and developing apartment communities;
empower site associates to manage our communities efficiently and effectively;
measure and reward associates based on specific performance targets; and
manage our capital structure with the intent of lowering our relative cost of capital to enhance profitability and predictability of liquidity, earnings and dividends.

2023 Highlights

Commitment to Shareholders

In July 2023, the Company marked its 51st year as a REIT and, in October 2023, paid its 204th consecutive quarterly dividend. The Company’s annualized declared 2023 dividend of $1.68 represented a 10.5% increase over the previous year.

Property Operations

Net income attributable to common stockholders was $439.5 million as compared to $82.5 million in the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by higher gains from dispositions of real estate, higher total net operating income (“NOI”), and higher interest income and other income/(expense) primarily due to realized and unrealized gains from our direct investment in SmartRent, Inc. (“SmartRent”) and higher interest income driven by higher notes receivable balances. These were partially offset by higher depreciation expense primarily due to communities acquired and completion of developments in 2023 and 2022, and higher interest expense primarily due to higher average interest rates and higher overall debt balances.

Total revenues increased 7.3% over the prior year primarily due to overall market rent growth and communities acquired and completion of developments during 2023 and 2022, partially offset by dispositions of real estate in 2023.

We achieved Same-Store revenue growth of 5.6% and Same-Store NOI growth of 6.0%.

Investing and Developments

We acquired six operating communities located in Dallas, Texas, and Austin, Texas, for approximately $354.6 million.

We contributed four wholly-owned operating communities to a newly formed joint venture in exchange for a 51.0% interest in the venture. We received approximately $247.9 million in cash proceeds from our joint venture partner at formation and we recognized gains of $325.9 million from the partial sale of the operating communities. The joint venture also acquired an operating community located in Norwood, Massachusetts, from a third party for $114.3 million.

We completed the development of one community located in Washington, D.C., with a total of 300 apartment homes.

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We recognized a gain of $25.3 million from the sale of an operating community located in Hillsboro, Oregon.

We funded an additional $21.8 million to two of our Developer Capital Program preferred equity investments.

We funded an additional $85.3 million to five of our notes receivable investments.

Balance Sheet

We amended our Working Capital Credit Facility to extend the maturity date from January 12, 2024 to January 12, 2025, plus a one-year extension option.

We repurchased 0.6 million shares of common stock for approximately $25.0 million.

ESG Report

We published our 2023 ESG Report on our website, which discloses our environmental and social initiatives, programs, and performance. The report’s ESG disclosures were, to the extent applicable, prepared in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Standards (core), the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) standards, and the Task Force for Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD) framework.

Refer to Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for further information on the Company’s activities in 2023.

Our Strategic Vision

Our strategic vision is to be the multifamily public REIT of choice for investors. We intend to realize this vision by executing on our strategic objectives, which are:

1.Maintaining a Diversified Portfolio and Allocating Capital to Accretive Investment Opportunities
2.Maintaining a Strong Balance Sheet
3.Consistently Driving Operating Excellence
4.Advancing a Strong Corporate Culture and Striving for High Resident Satisfaction

Maintaining a Diversified Portfolio and Allocating Capital to Accretive Investment Opportunities

We believe greater portfolio diversification, as defined by geographic concentration, location within a market (i.e., urban or suburban) and property quality (i.e., A or B), reduces the volatility of our same-store growth throughout the real estate cycle, appeals to a wider renter and investor audience, lessens the market risk associated with owning a homogenous portfolio, and provides more opportunities for accretive external growth when appropriate. Diversified characteristics of our portfolio include:

our consolidated apartment portfolio includes 168 communities located in 21 markets throughout the U.S., including both coastal and sunbelt locations;
our communities that are located proximate to each other within a market provide enhanced economics; and
our mix of urban/suburban communities is approximately 31%/69% and our mix of A/B quality properties is approximately 44%/56%.

We are focused on increasing our presence in markets with favorable job formation and income growth, high propensity to rent, strong relative affordability for rental versus homeownership, and a favorable demand/supply ratio for multifamily housing. Portfolio investment decisions consider internal analyses and third-party research.

Acquisitions and Dispositions

When evaluating potential acquisitions, we consider a wide variety of factors, including:

high working age population growth, relatively robust rental versus single-family home affordability, measured long-term new supply growth, overall potential for strong total income growth;

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the tax and regulatory environment of the market in which the property is located;
geographic location, including proximity to jobs, entertainment, transportation, and our existing communities which can deliver significant economies of scale;
our climate assessments for the market and sub-market in which the property is located;
construction quality, condition and design of the property;
current and projected cash flow of the property and the ability to increase cash flow;
ability of the property’s projected returns to exceed our cost of capital;
potential for capital appreciation of the property;
ability to increase the value and profitability of the property through operations and redevelopment;
terms of resident leases, including the potential for rent increases;
occupancy and demand by residents for properties of a similar type in the vicinity;
prospects for liquidity through sale, financing or refinancing of the property; and
competition from existing multifamily communities and the potential for the construction of new multifamily properties in the area.

We regularly monitor our assets to increase the quality and performance of our portfolio. Factors we consider in deciding whether to dispose of a property include:

whether it is in a market targeted for divestment or a reduction in investment;
current market price for an asset compared to projected economics for that asset;
potential increases in new construction in the market area;
areas with low job growth prospects;
near- and long-term capital expenditure needs for the asset; and
operating efficiencies.

The following table summarizes our apartment community acquisitions and dispositions and our consolidated year-end ownership position for the past five years (dollars in thousands):

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

Homes acquired

 

1,889

(a)

433

 

5,426

 

1,642

 

7,079

Homes disposed

 

1,604

(b)

90

 

651

 

599

 

Homes owned at December 31, 

 

55,550

 

54,999

 

53,229

 

48,283

 

47,010

Total real estate owned, at cost

$

16,023,859

$

15,570,072

$

14,740,803

$

13,071,472

$

12,602,101

(a)Excludes 173 apartment homes related to the consolidation of a joint venture that owns one operating community. In January 2024, the Company acquired the remaining interest in the operating community from the joint venture.
(b)Includes 1,328 apartment homes from the partial sale of four operating communities to a newly formed joint venture.

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Development Activities

Our objective in developing a community is to create value while improving the quality of our portfolio. How demographic trends, economic drivers, and multifamily fundamentals and valuations have trended over the long-term and our portfolio strategy generally govern our review process on where and when to allocate development capital. At December 31, 2023, the Company was developing two wholly-owned communities located in Addison, Texas and Tampa, Florida, totaling 415 homes, of which 56 have been completed, with a budget of $187.5 million, in which we have an investment of $160.4 million. The communities are estimated to be completed in the second quarter of 2024.

Redevelopment Activities

Our objective in redeveloping a community is twofold: we aim to grow rental rates while also producing a higher yielding and more valuable asset through asset quality improvement. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred $123.3 million in major renovations, which included major structural changes and/or architectural revisions to existing buildings. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had no communities at which it was conducting substantial redevelopment activities.

Joint Venture and Partnership Activities

We have entered into, and may continue in the future to enter into, joint ventures (including limited liability companies or partnerships) through which we own an indirect economic interest of less than 100% of the community or communities owned directly by such joint ventures. Our decision to either hold an apartment community in fee simple or have an indirect interest in the community through a joint venture is based on a variety of factors and considerations, including: (i) the economic and tax terms required by the seller of land or a community; (ii) our desire to diversify our portfolio of communities by market, submarket and product type; (iii) our desire at times to preserve our capital resources to maintain liquidity or balance sheet strength; and (iv) our projections, in some circumstances, that we will achieve higher returns on our invested capital or reduce our risk if a joint venture vehicle is used. Each joint venture agreement is individually negotiated, and our ability to operate and/or dispose of a community in our sole discretion may be limited to varying degrees depending on the terms of the joint venture agreement.

Maintaining a Strong Balance Sheet

We maintain a capital structure that we believe allows us to proactively source potential investment opportunities in the marketplace. We have structured our debt maturity schedule to be able to opportunistically access both secured and unsecured debt markets when appropriate.

As part of our plan to finance our activities, we utilize proceeds from debt and equity offerings and refinancings to extend maturities, pay down existing debt, fund development and redevelopment activities, and acquire apartment communities.

Consistently Driving Operational Excellence

Investment in new technologies continues to drive operating efficiencies in our business and helps us to better meet the changing needs of our business and our residents. Our residents can conduct business with us 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including completing online leasing applications and renewals and submitting maintenance or other requests throughout our portfolio using our web-based resident internet portal or, increasingly, a smart-device application.

As a result of transforming our operations through technology, residents’ satisfaction has improved, and our operating teams have become more efficient. Web-based technologies have also resulted in declining marketing and advertising costs, improved cash management, and better pricing management of our available apartment homes.

Advancing a Strong Corporate Culture and Ensuring High Resident Satisfaction

Refer to Human Capital Management section above, for further information on the Company’s corporate culture.

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Competitive Conditions

Competition for new residents is generally intense across our markets. Some competing communities offer amenities that our communities do not have. Competing communities can use rental concessions or lower rents to obtain temporary competitive advantages. Also, some competing communities are larger or newer than our communities. The competitive position of each community is different depending upon many factors, including sub-market supply and demand. In addition, other real estate investors compete with us to acquire existing properties, redevelop existing properties, and to develop new properties. These competitors include insurance companies, pension and investment funds, public and private real estate companies, investment companies and other public and private apartment REITs, some of which may have greater resources, or lower capital costs, than we do.

We believe that, in general, we are well-positioned to compete effectively for residents and investments. We believe our competitive advantages include:

a fully integrated organization with property management, development, redevelopment, acquisition, marketing, sales and financing expertise;
scalable operating and support systems, which include automated systems to meet the changing needs of our residents and to effectively focus on our internet-based marketing efforts;
access to diversified sources of capital;
geographic diversification with a presence in 21 markets across the country; and
significant presence in many of our major markets that allows us to be a local operating expert.

Moving forward, we will continue to improve lease management, improve expense control, increase resident retention efforts and align employee incentive plans with metrics that impact our bottom-line performance. We believe this plan of operation, coupled with the portfolio’s strengths in targeting renters across a geographically diverse platform, should position us for continued operational upside.

Communities

At December 31, 2023, our consolidated real estate portfolio included 168 communities with a total of 55,550 completed apartment homes. The overall quality of our portfolio generally enables us to raise rents and to attract residents with higher levels of disposable income who are more likely to absorb such rents.

At December 31, 2023, the Company was developing two wholly-owned communities located in Addison, Texas, and Tampa, Florida, totaling 415 homes, of which 56 have been completed, with a budget of $187.5 million, in which we have an investment of $160.4 million. The communities are estimated to be completed in the second quarter of 2024.

At December 31, 2023, the Company had no communities at which it was conducting substantial redevelopment activities.

Same-Store Community Comparison

We believe that one pertinent quantitative measurement of the performance of our portfolio is tracking the results of our Same-Store Communities’ NOI, which is total rental revenue, less rental and other operating expenses excluding property management. Our Same-Store Community population is comprised of operating communities which we own and have stabilized occupancy, revenues and expenses as of the beginning of the prior year.

Net income attributable to common stockholders was $439.5 million as compared to $82.5 million in the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by higher gains from dispositions of real estate, higher total NOI, and higher interest income and other income/(expense) primarily due to realized and unrealized gains from our direct investment in SmartRent, Inc. (“SmartRent”) and higher interest income driven by higher notes receivable balances, partially offset by higher depreciation expense due to communities acquired and completion of developments in 2023 and 2022, and higher interest expense primarily due to higher average interest rates and higher overall debt balances.

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For the year ended December 31, 2023, our Same-Store NOI increased by $58.8 million compared to the prior year. Our Same-Store Community properties provided 93.1% of our total NOI for the year ended December 31, 2023. The increase in NOI for the 51,368 Same-Store apartment homes, or 92.5% of our portfolio, was primarily driven by an increase in market rental rates, an increase in reimbursement, ancillary and fee income and a decrease in insurance expense, partially offset by the impact from rent concessions, higher bad debt, higher vacancy loss, higher repair and maintenance expense, higher utility expense and higher real estate tax expense.

Revenue growth in 2024 may be impacted by adverse developments affecting the general economy, inclusive of economic conditions as a result of a recession, reduced occupancy rates, increased rental concessions, new supply, increased bad debt and other factors which may adversely impact our ability to increase rents.

Tax Matters

UDR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. To continue to qualify as a REIT, UDR must continue to meet certain tests that, among other things, generally require that our assets consist primarily of real estate assets, our income be derived primarily from real estate assets, and that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (other than net capital gains) to our stockholders annually. Provided we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes at the corporate level on our net income to the extent such net income is distributed to our stockholders annually. Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT, we will continue to be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and property.

We may utilize our taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) to engage in activities that REITs may be prohibited from performing, including the provision of management and other services to third parties and the conduct of certain nonqualifying real estate transactions. Our TRS generally is taxable as a regular corporation, and therefore, subject to federal, state and local income taxes.

Inflation

Inflation primarily impacts our results of operations as a result of wage pressures and increases in utilities and repair and maintenance costs. In addition, inflation could also impact our general and administrative expenses, the interest on our debt if variable or refinanced in a high-inflationary environment, our cost of capital, and our cost of development, redevelopment, maintenance or other operating activities. However, the majority of our apartment leases have initial terms of 12 months or less, which in an inflationary environment, and absent other factors such as increased supply, generally enables us to compensate for inflationary effects by increasing rents on our apartment homes. Although an extreme or sustained escalation in costs could have a negative impact on our residents and their ability to absorb rent increases, we do not believe this had a material impact on our results for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Environmental Matters

Various environmental laws govern certain aspects of the ongoing operation of our communities. Such environmental laws include those regulating the existence of asbestos-containing materials in buildings, management of surfaces with lead-based paint (and notices to residents about the lead-based paint), use of active underground petroleum storage tanks, and waste-management activities. The failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to a government enforcement action and/or claims for damages by a private party.

To date, compliance with federal, state and local environmental protection regulations has not had a material effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. We have a property management plan for hazardous materials. As part of the plan, Phase I environmental site investigations and reports have been completed for each property we acquire. In addition, all proposed acquisitions are inspected prior to acquisition. The inspections are conducted by qualified environmental consultants, and we review the issued report prior to the purchase or development of any property. Nevertheless, it is possible that the environmental assessments will not reveal all environmental liabilities, or that some material environmental liabilities exist of which we are unaware. In some cases, we have abandoned otherwise economically attractive acquisitions because the costs of removal or control of hazardous materials have been prohibitive or we have been unwilling to accept the potential risks involved. We do not believe we will be required to engage in any large-scale abatement at any of our properties. We believe that through professional environmental inspections and testing for asbestos, lead paint and other hazardous materials, coupled with a relatively conservative posture toward accepting known environmental risk, we can minimize our exposure to potential liability associated with environmental hazards.

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Federal legislation requires owners and landlords of residential housing constructed prior to 1978 to disclose to potential residents or purchasers of the communities any known lead paint hazards and imposes treble damages for failure to provide such notification. In addition, lead based paint in any of the communities may result in lead poisoning in children residing in that community if chips or particles of such lead based paint are ingested, and we may be held liable under state laws for any such injuries caused by ingestion of lead based paint by children living at the communities.

We are unaware of any environmental hazards at any of our properties that individually or in the aggregate may have a material adverse impact on our operations or financial position. We have not been notified by any governmental authority, and we are not otherwise aware, of any material non-compliance, liability, or claim relating to environmental liabilities in connection with any of our properties. We do not believe that the cost of continued compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on us or our financial condition or results of operations. Future environmental laws, regulations, or ordinances, however, may require additional remediation of existing conditions that are not currently actionable. Also, if more stringent requirements are imposed on us in the future, the costs of compliance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our financial condition.

Insurance

We carry comprehensive general liability coverage on our communities, with limits of liability customary within the multi-family apartment industry to insure against liability claims and related defense costs. We are also insured, with limits of liability customary within the multi-family apartment industry, against the risk of direct physical damage on a replacement cost basis, including loss of rental income during the reconstruction period.

Available Information

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. You may obtain a free copy of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports on the day of filing with the SEC on our website at www.udr.com, or by sending an e-mail message to ir@udr.com.

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Item 1A.

RISK FACTORS

There are many factors that affect the business and the results of operations of the Company, some of which are beyond its control. The following is a description of important factors that may cause the Company’s actual results in future periods to differ materially from those currently expected or discussed in forward-looking statements set forth in this Report relating to our financial results, operations and business prospects. Forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except to the extent otherwise required by law.

Risks Related to Our Real Estate Investments and Our Operations

Unfavorable Apartment Market and Economic Conditions Could Adversely Affect Occupancy Levels, Rental Revenues and the Value of Our Real Estate Assets. Unfavorable market conditions in the areas in which we operate or unfavorable economic conditions generally, may significantly affect our occupancy levels, our rental rates and collections, the value of our properties and our ability to acquire or dispose of apartment communities on economically favorable terms. Our ability to lease our properties at favorable rates is adversely affected by the increase in supply in the multifamily and other rental markets and is dependent upon the overall level in the economy, which is adversely affected by, among other things, job losses and unemployment levels, recession, debt levels, housing markets, stock market volatility and uncertainty about the future. Some of our major expenses generally do not decline when related rents decline. We would expect that declines in our occupancy levels and rental revenues would cause us to have less cash available to pay our indebtedness and to distribute to our stockholders, which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market value of our securities. Factors that have in the past and may in the future affect our occupancy levels, our rental revenues, and/or the value of our properties include the following, among others:

downturns in global, national, regional and local economic conditions, particularly increases in unemployment;
declines in mortgage interest rates, making alternative housing options more affordable;
government or builder incentives with respect to home ownership, making alternative housing options more attractive;
local real estate market conditions, including oversupply of, or reduced demand for, apartment homes;
declines in the financial condition of our tenants, which may make it more difficult for us to collect rents from some tenants;
changes in market rental rates;
our ability to renew leases or re-lease space on favorable terms;
the timing and costs associated with property improvements, repairs or renovations;
changes in household formation; and
rent control or stabilization laws, or other laws regulating or impacting rental housing, which could prevent us from raising rents to offset increases in operating costs or otherwise impact us.

The Geographic Concentration of Our Communities in Certain Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Operations if a Particular Market is Adversely Impacted by Economic or Other Conditions. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 73.3% of our total NOI was generated from communities located in Metropolitan D.C. (14.9%), Boston, MA (11.3%), Orange County, CA (10.9%), Dallas, TX (8.6%),the San Francisco Bay Area, CA (8.2%), New York, NY (7.7%), Seattle, WA (6.3%) and Tampa, FL (5.4%). As a result, if any one or more of these markets is adversely impacted by regional or local economic conditions or real estate market conditions, such conditions may have a greater adverse impact on our results of operations than if our portfolio was more geographically diverse. In addition, if one or more of these markets is adversely affected by changes in regional or local regulations, including those related to rent control or stabilization, such regulations may have a greater adverse impact on our results of operations than if our portfolio was more geographically diverse.

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We May Be Unable to Renew Leases or Relet Apartment Units as Leases Expire, or the Terms of Renewals or New Leases May Be Less Favorable Than Current Leases. When our residents decide to leave our apartments, whether because their leases are not renewed or they leave prior to their lease expiration date, we may not be able to relet their apartment units. Even if leases are renewed or we can relet the apartment units, the terms of renewal or reletting may be less favorable than current lease terms. Furthermore, because the majority of our apartment leases have initial terms of 12 months or less, our rental revenues are impacted by declines in market rents more quickly than if our leases were for longer terms. If we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the apartment units, or if the rental rates upon renewal or reletting are lower than expected rates, then our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. If residents do not experience increases in their income or if they experience decreases in their income or job losses, we may be unable to increase or maintain rent and/or delinquencies may increase.

We Face Certain Risks Related to Our Retail and Commercial Space. Certain of our properties include retail or commercial space that we lease to third parties. The long-term nature of our retail and commercial leases (generally five to ten years with market-based or fixed-price renewal options) and the characteristics of many of our tenants (generally small and/or local businesses) may subject us to certain risks. The longer-term leases could result in below market lease rates over time, particularly in an inflationary environment. We may require guarantees and other credit support which may prove to be inadequate or uncollectable, and the failure rate of small and/or local businesses may be higher than average. We may not be able to lease new space for rents that are consistent with our projections or for market rates. Also, when leases for our retail or commercial space terminate either at the end of the lease or because a tenant leaves early, the space may not be relet or the terms of reletting, including the cost of allowances and concessions to tenants, may be less favorable than the prior lease terms or we may incur additional expenses related to modifications of the spaces in order to satisfy new tenants. Our properties compete with other properties with retail or commercial space. The presence of competitive alternatives may adversely affect our ability to lease space and the level of rents we can obtain. Our retail or commercial tenants have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, financial distress or bankruptcy, or may fail to comply with their contractual obligations, seek concessions in order to continue operations, or cease their operations, which could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

We Face Risks Related to Inflation/Deflation. Substantial inflationary or deflationary pressures could have a negative effect on rental rates and property operating expenses. The U.S. economy has recently experienced high rates of inflation, which has increased our operating expenses due to higher third party vendor costs and increased our interest expense due to higher interest rates on our variable rate debt. Although the short-term nature of our apartment leases may, absent other factors, enable us to compensate for inflationary effects by increasing rents on our apartment homes, an extreme or sustained escalation in costs could have a negative impact on our residents and their ability to absorb rent increases. The general risk of inflation is that interest on our debt, general and administrative expenses, materials costs, labor costs, and other expenses increase at a rate faster than increases in our rental rates, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

We Are Subject to Certain Risks Associated with Selling Apartment Communities, Which Could Limit Our Operational and Financial Flexibility. We periodically dispose of apartment communities that no longer meet our strategic objectives, but adverse market conditions may make it difficult to sell apartment communities we own. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms we set, or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser or to close the sale of a property. Furthermore, we may be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a property can be sold or the purchase price may be reduced to cover any cost of correcting defects or making improvements. These conditions may limit our ability to dispose of properties and to change our portfolio in order to meet our strategic objectives, which could in turn adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or our ability to fund other activities in which we may want to engage such as the purchase of properties, development or redevelopment, or funding the Developer Capital Program. We are also subject to the following risks in connection with sales of our apartment communities, among others:

a significant portion of the proceeds from some property sales may be held by intermediaries in order for such sales to qualify as like-kind exchanges under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” so that any related capital gain can be deferred for federal income tax purposes. As a result, we may not have immediate access to all of the cash proceeds generated from our property sales; and
federal tax laws limit our ability to profit on the sale of communities or interests in communities that we have owned for less than two years, and this limitation may prevent us from selling communities when market conditions are favorable.

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Competition Could Limit Our Ability to Lease Apartment Homes or Increase or Maintain Rents. Our apartment communities compete with numerous housing alternatives in attracting residents, including other apartment communities, condominiums and single-family rental homes, as well as owner occupied single- and multi-family homes. Competitive housing in a particular area, including new supply, could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and increase or maintain rents, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We May Not Realize the Anticipated Benefits of Past or Future Acquisitions, and the Failure to Integrate Acquired Communities and New Personnel Successfully Could Create Inefficiencies. We have acquired in the past, and if presented with attractive opportunities we intend to acquire in the future, apartment communities that meet our investment criteria. Our acquisition activities and their success are subject to the following risks, among others:

we may be unable to obtain financing for acquisitions on favorable terms, or at all, which could cause us to delay or even abandon potential acquisitions;
even if we are able to finance an acquisition, cash flow from the acquisition may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments on the debt used to finance the acquisition;
even if we enter into an acquisition agreement for an apartment community, we may not complete the acquisition for a variety of reasons after incurring certain acquisition-related costs;
we may incur significant costs and divert management attention in connection with the evaluation and negotiation of potential acquisitions, including potential acquisitions that we subsequently do not complete;
when we acquire an apartment community, we may invest additional amounts in it with the intention of increasing profitability, and these additional investments may not produce the anticipated improvements in profitability;
the expected occupancy rates, rental rates and expenses may differ from actual results; and
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate acquired apartment communities and new personnel into our existing operations, and the failure to successfully integrate such apartment communities or personnel will result in inefficiencies that could materially and adversely affect our expected return on our investments and our overall profitability.

Competition Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Acquire Properties. In the past, other real estate investors, including insurance companies, pension and investment funds, developer partnerships, investment companies and other public and private apartment REITs, have competed with us to acquire existing properties and to develop new properties, and such competition in the future may limit attractive investment opportunities, which could adversely affect our ability to grow or acquire properties profitably or with attractive returns.

Development and Construction Risks Could Impact Our Profitability. In the past we have selectively pursued the development and construction of apartment communities, and we intend to do so in the future as appropriate opportunities arise. Development activities have been, and in the future may be, conducted through wholly-owned affiliated companies or through joint ventures with unaffiliated parties. Our development and construction activities are subject to the following risks, among others:

we may be unable to obtain construction financing for development activities on favorable terms, or at all, which could cause us to delay or even abandon potential developments;
we may experience supply chain constraints, which could result in increased development costs or delay initial occupancy dates for all or a portion of a development community;
we may be unable to obtain, or face delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental or quasi-governmental permits and authorizations, which could result in increased development costs, delay initial occupancy dates for all or a portion of a development community, and require us to abandon our activities entirely with respect to a project for which we are unable to obtain permits or authorizations;
costs may be higher or yields may be less than anticipated as a result of delays in completing projects, costs that exceed budget, defaults by our counterparties, and/or higher than expected concessions for lease-up and lower rents than expected;

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we may abandon development opportunities that we have already begun to explore, and we may fail to recover expenses already incurred in connection with exploring such development opportunities;
we may be unable to complete construction and lease-up of a community on schedule, or we may incur development or construction costs that exceed our original estimates, and we may be unable to charge rents that would compensate for any increase in such costs;
occupancy rates, rents and concessions at a newly developed community may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including market and economic conditions, preventing us from meeting our expected return on our investment and our overall profitability goals; and
when we sell communities or properties that we developed or renovated to third parties, we may be subject to warranty or construction defect claims that are uninsured or exceed the limits of our insurance.

An Epidemic, Pandemic or Other Health Crisis, and Measures Intended to Prevent the Spread of Such an Event, Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on our Business, Results of Operations, Cash Flows and Financial Condition. We face risks related to an epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis, which have impacted, and in the future could impact, the markets in which we operate and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. The impact of an epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis, and measures to prevent the spread of such an event, could materially and adversely affect our business in a number of ways. Our rental revenue and operating results depend significantly on the occupancy levels at our properties and the ability of our residents and retail and commercial tenants to meet their rent obligations to us, which have been in certain cases, and could in the future be, adversely affected by, among other things, job losses, furloughs, store closures, lower incomes, uncertainty about the future as a result of an epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis and related governmental actions, including eviction moratoriums, shelter-in-place orders, prohibitions or limits on charging certain fees, and limitations on collections and or rent increases, which have affected, and, if such restrictions are not lifted, or are reinstated, or new restrictions imposed, may continue to affect our ability to collect rent or enforce legal or contractual remedies for the failure to pay rent, which have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our ability to remove residents or retail and commercial tenants who are not paying rent and our ability to rent their units or other space to new residents or retail and commercial tenants, respectively. In addition, the federal government has in the past allocated, and federal, state or local governments may in the future allocate, funds to rent relief programs. In certain locations, the funds available may not be sufficient to pay all past due rent and reallocation of such funds may result in markets in which we operate not having access to the funds anticipated. Further, certain of our residents with past due rent have not qualified, and may not in the future qualify, to participate in such programs. In addition, some of such programs have required, and programs in the future may require, the forgiveness of a portion of the past due rent or agreeing to other limitations that may adversely affect our business in order to participate or may only provide funds to pay a portion of the past due rent. In addition, while certain locations have adopted programs that may reimburse past due rent owed by residents who have left a community, such programs have only been adopted in a minority of our markets. It is uncertain how any rent relief programs will impact our business in the future.

State, local, and federal governments also have increased, and may in the future increase, property taxes or other taxes or fees, or may enact new taxes or fees, in order to increase revenue in connection with an epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis, which has in the past increased, and may in the future increase, our expenses. Our development and construction projects, including those in our Developer Capital Program, also have been and could in the future be adversely affected by factors related to an epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis. An epidemic, pandemic or other health crisis, or related impacts thereof also could adversely affect the businesses and financial conditions of our counterparties, including our joint venture partners, participants in the Developer Capital Program, and general contractors and their subcontractors, and their ability to satisfy their obligations to us and to complete transactions or projects with us as intended.

Bankruptcy or Defaults of Our Counterparties Could Adversely Affect Our Performance. We have relationships with and we execute transactions with or receive services from many counterparties, such as general contractors engaged in connection with our development activities, borrowers, or joint venture partners, among others. As a result, bankruptcies or defaults by these counterparties or their subcontractors have resulted in, and in the future could result in, services not being provided as expected, projects not being completed on time, on budget, or at all, or contractual obligations to us not being satisfied. Further, volatility in the financial markets and economic weakness could affect the counterparties’ ability to complete transactions with us as intended. Either circumstance could result in disruptions to our operations that may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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Property Ownership Through Partnerships and Joint Ventures May Limit Our Ability to Act Exclusively in Our Interest. We have in the past and may in the future develop and/or acquire properties through partnerships and joint ventures, including those in which we own a preferred interest, with other persons or entities when we believe circumstances warrant the use of such structures. As of December 31, 2023, we had active unconsolidated joint ventures and partnerships, including our preferred equity investments, with a total equity investment of $952.9 million. We have in the past, and could in the future, become engaged in a dispute with one or more of our partners which could adversely impact us. Moreover, our partners may have business, economic or other objectives that are inconsistent with our objectives, including objectives that relate to the appropriate timing and terms of any sale or refinancing of a property. In some instances, our partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest. Also, our partners have in the past failed and may in the future fail to make capital contributions when due and our partners or the project may otherwise not act or perform as expected, which may require us to contribute additional capital or take other actions that may negatively impact the project or our return. In addition, we may be responsible to our partners for indemnifiable losses. In general, we and our partners may each have the right to trigger a buy-sell or other similar arrangement, which arrangement or other factors could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partner’s interest or other property, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction and may result in the valuation of our interest in the partnership or joint venture (if we are the seller) or of the other partner’s interest in the partnership or joint venture (if we are the buyer) at levels which may not be representative of the valuation that would result from an arm’s length marketing process and could cause us to recognize unanticipated capital gains or losses or the loss of fee income.

We may also be subject to other risks in connection with partnerships or joint ventures, including (i) a deadlock if we and our partner are unable to agree upon certain major and other decisions (which could result in litigation or disposing of an asset at a time at which we otherwise would not sell the asset), (ii) limitations on our ability to liquidate our position in the partnership or joint venture without the consent of the other partner, and (iii) requirements to provide guarantees in favor of lenders with respect to the indebtedness of the joint venture.

We May Not be Permitted to Dispose of Certain Properties or Pay Down the Indebtedness Associated with Those Properties When We Might Otherwise Desire to do so Without Incurring Additional Costs. In connection with certain property acquisitions, we have agreed with the sellers that we will not dispose of the acquired properties or reduce the mortgage indebtedness on such properties for significant periods of time unless we pay certain of the resulting tax costs of the sellers or dispose of the property in a transaction in which a gain is not recognized for federal income tax purposes by such sellers, and we may enter into similar agreements in connection with future property acquisitions. These agreements could result in us retaining properties that we would otherwise sell or not paying down or refinancing indebtedness that we would otherwise pay down or refinance. However, subject to certain conditions, we retain the right to substitute other property or debt to meet these obligations to the sellers.

We Could Incur Significant Insurance Costs and Some Potential Losses May Not Be Adequately Covered by Insurance. We have a comprehensive insurance program covering our properties and operating activities with limits of liability, deductibles and self-insured retentions that we believe are comparable to similarly situated companies, including within the multifamily industry. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate. There are, however, certain types of extraordinary losses that may not be adequately covered under our insurance program. In addition, we will sustain losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insured retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage.

If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the future revenue from the property. In such an event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property. Material losses in excess of insurance proceeds may occur in the future. If one or more of our properties were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could seriously disrupt our operations, delay revenue and result in large expenses to repair or rebuild the property. Such events could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The cost of insuring our apartment communities and our operations is a component of expense. Insurance premiums and the terms and conditions of insurance policies are subject to significant fluctuations and changes, which are generally outside of our control. We insure our properties and our operations with insurance companies that we believe have a good rating at the time our policies are put into effect. The financial condition of one or more insurance companies that insure us may be negatively impacted, which could result in their inability to pay on future insurance claims. Their inability to pay future claims may have a negative impact on our financial results. In addition, the failure, or exit or partial exit from an insurance market, of one or more insurance companies or other changes in insurance markets in general may affect our ability to obtain insurance coverage in the amounts that we seek, or at all, increase the

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costs to renew or replace our insurance policies, cause us to self-insure a portion of the risk, or increase the cost of insuring properties.

Failure to Succeed in New Markets May Limit Our Growth. We have acquired in the past, and we may acquire in the future if opportunities we believe are appropriate arise, apartment communities that are outside of our existing markets. Entering into new markets may expose us to a variety of risks, and we may not be able to operate successfully in new markets. These risks include, among others:

inability to accurately evaluate local apartment market conditions and local economies;
inability to hire and retain key personnel;
lack of familiarity with local governmental and permitting procedures; and
inability to achieve budgeted financial results.

Failure to Succeed with New Initiatives May Limit Our Ability to Grow NOI. We have in the past developed and may in the future develop initiatives that are intended to drive operating efficiencies and grow NOI, including smart home technologies and self-service options that are accessible to residents through smart devices or otherwise. Such initiatives in the past have involved and in the future may involve our associates having new or different responsibilities and processes. We may incur significant costs and divert resources in connection with such initiatives, and these initiatives may not perform as projected, which could adversely affect our results of operations and the market price of our common stock.

Potential Liability for Environmental Contamination Could Result in Substantial Costs. Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, as a current or former owner or operator of real estate, we could be required to investigate and remediate the effects of contamination of currently or formerly owned real estate by hazardous or toxic substances, often regardless of our knowledge of or responsibility for the contamination and solely by virtue of our current or former ownership or operation of the real estate. In addition, we could be held liable to a governmental authority or to third parties for property damage and for investigation and clean-up costs incurred in connection with the contamination or we could be required to incur additional costs to change how the property is constructed or operated due to presence of such substances. These costs could be substantial, and in many cases environmental laws create liens in favor of governmental authorities to secure their payment. The presence of such substances or a failure to properly remediate any resulting contamination could materially and adversely affect our ability to borrow against, sell or rent an affected property.

In addition, our properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws, including laws governing the management of wastes and underground and aboveground storage tanks. Noncompliance with these environmental, health and safety laws could subject us to liability. Changes in laws could increase the potential costs of compliance with environmental laws, health and safety laws or increase liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures or may otherwise adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

As the owner or operator of real property, we may also incur liability based on various building conditions. For example, buildings and other structures on properties that we currently own or operate or those we acquire or operate in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained, asbestos-containing material, or ACM, or other hazardous substances. Environmental, health and safety laws require that ACM and other hazardous substances be properly managed and maintained and may impose fines or penalties on owners, operators or employers for non-compliance with those requirements.

These requirements include special precautions, such as removal, abatement or air monitoring, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, renovation or demolition of a building, potentially resulting in substantial costs. In addition, we may be subject to liability for personal injury or property damage sustained as a result of exposure to ACM or other hazardous substances or releases of ACM or other hazardous substances into the environment.

We cannot assure you that costs or liabilities incurred as a result of environmental or building condition issues will not adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our Properties May Contain or Develop Harmful Mold or Suffer from Other Indoor Air Quality Issues, Which Could Lead to Liability for Adverse Health Effects or Property Damage or Cost for Remediation. When excessive

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moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants or to increase ventilation, which could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants or others for property damage or personal injury.

Compliance or Failure to Comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or Other Safety Regulations and Requirements Could Result in Substantial Costs. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended (the “Americans with Disabilities Act”) generally requires that public buildings, including our properties, be made accessible to disabled persons. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by the federal government or the award of damages to private litigants. Claims have been asserted, and in the future claims may be asserted, against us with respect to some of our properties or operations under the Americans with Disabilities Act. If, under the Americans with Disabilities Act, we are required to make substantial alterations and capital expenditures in one or more of our properties or otherwise related to our operations, including the removal of access barriers, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if claims arise, we may expend resources and incur costs in investigating and resolving such claims even if we or our property was in compliance with the law.

Our properties are subject to various federal, state and local regulatory requirements, such as state and local fire and life safety requirements and federal, state and local accessibility requirements in addition to those imposed by the Americans with Disabilities Act. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could incur fines or private damage awards. We do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether compliance with future requirements will require significant unanticipated expenditures that could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

The Adoption of, or Changes to, Rent Control, Rent Stabilization, Eviction, Tenants’ Rights and Similar Laws and Regulations in Our Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Results of Operations and Property Values. Various state and local governments as well as the Federal government have enacted and may continue to enact rent control, rent stabilization, or limitations, and similar laws, regulations and policies that could limit our ability to raise rents or charge certain fees, including laws or court orders, either of which could have a retroactive effect. For example, in June 2019, the State of New York enacted new rent control regulations known as the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019 and, in October of 2019, the State of California enacted the Tenant Protection Act of 2019. We have seen a recent increase in governments enacting or considering, or being urged to consider, such laws and regulations. Federal, state and local governments or courts also have made, and may make in the future, changes to laws related to allowable fees and rents, eviction and other tenants’ rights laws and regulations (including changes that apply retroactively) that could adversely impact our results of operations and the value of our properties. Laws and regulations regarding rent control, rent stabilization, eviction, tenants’ rights, and similar matters, as well as any lawsuits against us arising from such laws and regulations, may limit our ability to charge market rents, increase rents, evict delinquent tenants or charge fees, or recover increases in our operating expenses, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of our properties.

Compliance with or Changes in Real Estate Tax and Other Laws and Regulations Could Adversely Affect Our Funds from Operations and Our Ability to Make Distributions to Stockholders. We are subject to federal, state and local laws, regulations, rules and ordinances at locations where we operate regarding a wide variety of matters that could affect, directly or indirectly, our operations. Generally, we do not directly pass through costs resulting from compliance with or changes in real estate tax laws to residential property tenants. We also do not generally pass through increases in income, service or other taxes to tenants under leases. These costs may adversely affect net operating income and the ability to make distributions to stockholders. Similarly, compliance with or changes in (i) laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on properties or the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, (ii) laws and regulations regulating housing, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, or (iii) employment related laws, among others, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, changes in federal and state legislation and regulation on climate change may result in increased capital expenditures to improve the energy efficiency of our existing communities and also may require us to spend more on our new development communities

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without a corresponding increase in revenue. In addition, existing laws could be interpreted in a manner that restricts our ability to use systems that we currently use in our operations and we may face litigation or regulatory risk in connection with such laws. Future compliance with new laws of general applicability, laws applicable to companies in our industry, or laws applicable to public companies generally could increase our costs and could have an adverse effect on our financial performance.

Risk of Litigation. From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings, lawsuits, and other claims with respect to our properties or operations. For example, we are currently a defendant in a consolidated class action lawsuit and a lawsuit filed by the District of Columbia involving RealPage, which is one of our vendors. An unfavorable resolution of any litigation may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, litigation may result in substantial costs and expenses and significantly divert the attention of management.

Risk of Damage from Catastrophic Weather and Natural Events. Our communities are located in areas that have experienced, and in the future may experience, catastrophic weather and other natural events from time to time, including mudslides, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, deep freezes, snow or ice storms, or other severe inclement weather. These adverse weather and natural events could cause damage or losses that may be greater than insured levels. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, we could lose our capital invested in the affected community, as well as anticipated future revenue from that community. We would also continue to be obligated to repay any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the community. Any such loss could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Risk of Potential Climate Change. To the extent significant changes in the climate in areas where our communities are located occur, we may experience extreme weather conditions and changes in precipitation and temperature or water levels, all of which could result in physical damage to, and/or a decrease in demand for, our communities located in these areas or communities that are otherwise affected by these changes. Should the impact of such climate changes be material in nature, or occur for lengthy periods of time, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risk of Earthquake Damage. Some of our communities are located in areas subject to earthquakes, including in the general vicinity of earthquake faults. We cannot assure you that an earthquake would not cause damage or losses greater than insured levels. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, we could lose our capital invested in the affected community, as well as anticipated future revenue from that community. We may also continue to be obligated to repay any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the community. Any such loss could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Insurance coverage for earthquakes can be costly due to limited industry capacity. As a result, we may experience shortages in desired coverage levels if market conditions are such that insurance is not available or the cost of insurance makes it, in management’s view, economically impractical.

Risk of Accidental Death or Injury Due to Fire, Natural Disasters or Other Hazards. The accidental death or injury of persons living in our communities due to fire, natural disasters, other hazards, or acts or omissions of third parties could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Our insurance coverage may not cover all losses associated with such events, and we may experience difficulty marketing communities where any such events have occurred, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Actual or Threatened Terrorist Attacks May Have an Adverse Effect on Our Business and Operating Results and Could Decrease the Value of Our Assets. Actual or threatened terrorist attacks and other acts of violence, destruction or war could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. Attacks or other similar actions that directly impact one or more of our apartment communities could significantly affect our ability to operate those communities and thereby impair our ability to achieve our expected results. Further, our insurance coverage may not cover all losses caused by a terrorist attack or similar events. In addition, the adverse effects that such violent acts and threats of future attacks could have on the U.S. economy could similarly have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Mezzanine Loan or Other Loan Assets Involve Greater Risks of Loss than Senior Loans Secured by Income-Producing Properties. We have originated in the past and may in the future originate mezzanine loans, which take the form of subordinated loans secured by second mortgages on the underlying property, which may be under development, or subordinated loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning the property, which may be under development, or a pledge of the ownership interests of the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the property, which may be under development, or loans that are not secured. Mezzanine loans may involve a higher degree

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of risk than a senior mortgage secured by real property, because the security for the loan may lose all or substantially all of its value as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender and because it is in second position and there may not be adequate equity in the property and unsecured loans involve higher risk by virtue of being unsecured. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, we may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity may not be sufficient to satisfy our mezzanine loan. If a borrower defaults on our loan or debt senior to our loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, our mezzanine or other loan will be satisfied only after the senior debt. As a result, we may not recover some of or all our investment. In addition, mezzanine loans typically have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the property and increasing the risk of loss of principal. Further, foreclosing on our security interest may be delayed or otherwise impacted by the existence of the senior loan, the senior lender’s decision regarding whether to enforce its remedies, or the timing of the senior lender’s foreclosure or enforcement of other remedies with respect to such loan. If there is a default on the senior debt or an inability to refinance the senior debt, we may contribute additional capital or take other actions that we would not otherwise pursue absent such default or failure. In addition, in the event of a default or other changes in the circumstances of an investment, including a change in the value of the applicable property, we may be required to change the manner in which the investment is accounted for, including our ability to recognize earnings, or recognize an allowance for loan loss or a loss on consolidation.

Risk Related to Preferred Equity Investments. We have made in the past and may in the future make preferred equity investments in corporations, limited partnerships, limited liability companies or other entities that have been formed for the purpose of directly or indirectly acquiring, developing and/or managing real property. Generally, we will not have the ability to control the daily operations of the entity, and we will not have the ability to select or remove a majority of the members of the board of directors, managers, general partner or partners or similar governing body of the entity or otherwise control its operations. Although we would seek to maintain sufficient influence over the entity to achieve our objectives, our partners may have interests that differ from ours and may be in a position to take actions without our consent that are inconsistent with our interests. Further, if our partners were to fail to invest additional capital in the entity when required, which has happened in the past, or otherwise do not perform as expected, we may have to invest additional capital to protect our investment. Our partners have in the past failed, and may in the future fail, to develop or operate the real property, operate the entity, refinance property indebtedness or sell the real property in the manner intended and as a result the entity may not be able to redeem our investment or pay the return expected to us in a timely manner or at all. In addition, we may not be able to dispose of our investment in the entity in a timely manner or at the price at which we would want to divest or at all. Further, the entity may need to refinance third-party debt on terms that are inconsistent with our interests or are terms on which we would not elect to incur debt, or the entity may default on third-party debt. To the extent the entity defaults on third-party debt or is unable to refinance such debt or a portion thereof, we may acquire such debt or otherwise take action, including contributing additional capital, to protect our position that we would not take absent the default or inability to refinance. Such activities have in the past involved and may in the future involve foreclosing on the security interest in the property secured by such debt or seeking a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure or similar remedy, and such activities may involve delays or create other risks, including the risk of claims from our partners. In the event that such an entity fails to meet expectations, defaults on its debt, or becomes insolvent or the investment or the underlying property otherwise does not perform as expected, we may lose all or part of our investment in the entity, be delayed in recovering our investment or the expected returns or directly or indirectly take over the property or the management thereof at a time at which we would not done so absent the failure to meet expectations or the default. In addition, in the event of a default or other changes in the circumstances of an investment, including a change in the value of the applicable property, we may be required to change the manner in which the investment is accounted for, including our ability to recognize earnings, or recognize an impairment or a loss on consolidation.

Risks Related to Ground Leases. We have entered into in the past and may in the future enter into, as either landlord or tenant, a long-term ground lease with respect to a property or a portion thereof. Such ground leases may contain a rent reset provision that requires both parties to agree to a new rent or is based upon factors, for example fair market rent, that are not objective and are not within our control. We may not be able to agree with the counterparty to a revised rental rate, or the revised rental rate may be set by external factors, which could result in a different rental rate than we forecasted. In the past we have had disagreements with respect to revised rental rates and certain of such disagreements have gone to arbitration (for resolution as provided in the applicable lease agreement) and have been resolved in a manner adverse to us. In addition, the other party may not perform as expected under the ground lease or there may be a dispute with the other party to the ground lease. Any of these circumstances could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

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We May Experience a Decline in the Fair Value of Our Assets and Be Forced to Recognize Impairment Charges, Which Could Adversely Impact Our Financial Condition, Liquidity and Results of Operations and the Market Price of Our Common Stock. A decline in the fair value of our assets may require us to recognize an impairment against such assets under generally accepted accounting principles as in effect in the United States (“GAAP”) if we were to determine that, with respect to any assets in unrealized loss positions, we do not have the ability and intent to hold such assets for a period of time sufficient to allow for recovery to the amortized cost of such assets. If such a determination were to be made, we would recognize unrealized losses through earnings and write down the amortized cost of such assets to a new cost basis, based on the fair value of such assets on the date they are considered to be impaired. Such impairment charges reflect non-cash losses at the time of recognition; subsequent disposition or sale of such assets could further affect our future losses or gains, as they are based on the difference between the sale price received and adjusted amortized cost of such assets at the time of sale. If we are required to recognize asset impairment charges in the future, these charges could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and the market price of our common stock.

Any Material Weaknesses Identified in Our Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Could Have an Adverse Effect on the Market Price of Our Common Stock. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate and report on our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls as a result of changes to our business or otherwise, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected and we could fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, if we have one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which in turn could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

A Breach of Information Technology Systems On Which We Rely Could Materially and Adversely Impact Our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Reputation. We rely on information technology systems, including the internet and networks and systems and software developed, maintained and controlled by third party vendors and other third parties, to process, transmit and store information and to manage or support our business processes. Third party vendors may collect and hold personally identifiable information and other confidential information of our tenants, prospective tenants and employees. We also maintain such information and financial and business information regarding us and persons and entities with which we do business on our information technology systems. While we take steps, and generally require third party vendors to take steps, to protect the security of the information maintained in our and third party vendors’ information technology systems, including associate training and testing and the use of commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmitting and storing of the information, it is possible that our or our third party vendors’ security measures will not be able to prevent human error or the systems’ or software’s improper functioning, or the loss, misappropriation, disclosure or corruption of personally identifiable information or other confidential or sensitive information, including information about our tenants and employees. Cybersecurity breaches, including physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, malware, phishing scams, attacks by hackers, breaches due to employee error or misconduct, and similar breaches, can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized access to information maintained on our information technology systems or the information technology systems of our third party vendors or other third parties or otherwise cause disruption or negative impacts to occur to our business and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. While we maintain cyber risk insurance to provide some coverage for certain risks arising out of cybersecurity breaches, there is no assurance that such insurance would cover all or a significant portion of the costs or consequences associated with a cybersecurity breach or other occurrence or that such insurance will continue to be available at rates that we consider reasonable or at all. We have in the past experienced cybersecurity breaches on our information technology systems or relating to software that we utilize, and, while none to date have been material, we expect such breaches may occur in the future. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to information technology systems become more varied and sophisticated and the occurrence of such breaches becomes more frequent, we and our third party vendors and other third parties may be unable to adequately anticipate these techniques or breaches or implement appropriate preventative measures. Any failure to prevent cybersecurity breaches and maintain the proper function, security and availability of our or our third party vendors’ and other third parties’ information technology systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation and brand, damage our competitive position, make it difficult for us to attract and retain residents or other tenants, and subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our Business and Operations Would Suffer in the Event of Information Technology System Failures. Despite system redundancy and the existence of disaster recovery plans for our information technology systems, our information

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technology systems and the information technology systems maintained by our third party vendors are vulnerable to damage arising from any number of sources beyond our or our third party vendors’ control, including energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication failures. Any failure to maintain proper function and availability of our or third parties’ information technology systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation, subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A Failure to Keep Pace with Developments in Technology Could Impair our Operations or Competitive Position. Our business continues to demand the use of sophisticated systems, software and technology. These systems, software and technologies must be refined, updated and replaced on a regular basis in order for us to meet our business requirements and our residents’ demands and expectations. If we are unable to do so on a timely basis or at a reasonable cost, or fail to do so, our business could suffer. Also, we may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new system, software or technology, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or could adversely affect our results of operations.

Social Media Presents Risks. The use of social media could cause us to suffer brand damage or unintended information disclosure. Negative posts or communications about us on a social networking website could damage our reputation. Further, employees or others may disclose non-public information regarding us or our business or otherwise make negative comments regarding us on social networking or other websites, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. As social media evolves, we will be presented with new risks and challenges.

Our Success Depends on Our Senior Management. Our success depends upon the retention of our senior management, whose continued service is not guaranteed. We may not be able to find qualified replacements for the individuals who make up our senior management if their services should no longer be available to us. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in U.S. Accounting Standards May Materially and Adversely Affect Our Reported Results of Operations. Accounting for public companies in the United States is in accordance with GAAP, which is established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), an independent body whose standards are recognized by the SEC as authoritative for publicly held companies. Uncertainties posed by various initiatives of accounting standard-setting by the FASB and the SEC, which create and interpret applicable accounting standards for U.S. companies, may change the financial accounting and reporting standards or their interpretation and application of these standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes could have a material impact on our reported financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in potentially material restatements of prior period financial statements.

Third-Party Expectations Relating to Environmental, Social and Governance Factors May Impose Additional Costs and Expose Us to New Risks. There is an increasing focus from certain investors, tenants, employees, and other stakeholders concerning corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social and governance factors. In addition, there is an increased focus on such matters by various regulatory authorities, including the SEC and the state of California, and the activities and expense required to comply with new laws, regulations or standards may be significant. Some investors may use these factors to guide their investment strategies and, in some cases, may choose not to invest in us if they believe our policies relating to corporate responsibility are inadequate. Third-party providers of corporate responsibility ratings and reports on companies have increased in number, resulting in varied and in some cases inconsistent standards. In addition, the criteria by which companies’ corporate responsibility practices are assessed and the regulations applicable thereto are evolving, which could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives or activities to satisfy such new criteria or regulations. Further, if we elect not to or are unable to satisfy such new criteria or do not meet the criteria of a specific third-party provider or investor, some investors may conclude that our policies with respect to corporate responsibility are inadequate. We may face reputational damage in the event that our corporate responsibility procedures or standards do not meet the standards set by various constituencies. Furthermore, if our competitors’ corporate responsibility performance is perceived to be greater than ours, potential or current investors may elect to invest in our competitors instead. In addition, we have communicated certain initiatives and goals regarding environmental, social and governance matters, and we may in the future communicate revised or additional initiatives or goals. We could fail, or be perceived to fail, in our achievement of such initiatives or goals, or we could be criticized for the scope of such initiatives or goals. If we fail to satisfy the expectations of investors, tenants and other stakeholders, our initiatives are not executed as planned, or we do not satisfy our goals, our reputation and financial results could be adversely affected.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financings

Changing Interest Rates Could Increase Interest Costs and Adversely Affect Our Cash Flows and the Market Price of Our Common Stock. We currently have, and expect to incur in the future, interest-bearing debt, including unsecured commercial paper, at rates that vary with market interest rates. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $479.7 million of variable rate indebtedness outstanding, which constitutes approximately 8.3% of total outstanding indebtedness as of such date, and we have experienced increases in the interest rates on such indebtedness, which has increased our interest expense and adversely impacted our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, as a result of rising interest rates, the costs of hedging transactions have increased significantly and may continue to increase. Continued increases in interest rates would further increase our interest expenses and increase the costs of refinancing existing indebtedness and of issuing new debt, including unsecured commercial paper. The effect of prolonged interest rate increases could negatively impact our ability to service our indebtedness, make distributions to security holders, make acquisitions and develop properties.

Insufficient Cash Flow Could Affect Our Debt Financing and Create Refinancing Risk. We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our operating income and cash flow could be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, could restrict or limit our ability to incur additional debt, or could restrict our borrowing capacity under our line of credit due to debt covenant restraints. Sufficient cash flow may not be available to make all required debt payments and satisfy our distribution requirements to maintain our status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In addition, the amounts under our line of credit may not be available to us and we may not be able to access the commercial paper market if our operating performance falls outside the constraints of our debt covenants. We are also likely to need to refinance substantially all of our outstanding debt as it matures. We may not be able to refinance existing debt, or the terms of any refinancing may not be as favorable as the terms of the existing debt, which could create pressure to sell assets or to issue additional equity when we would otherwise not choose to do so. In addition, our failure to comply with our debt covenants could result in a requirement to repay our indebtedness prior to its maturity, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flow, increase our financing costs and impact our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Failure to Generate Sufficient Income Could Impair Debt Service Payments and Distributions to Stockholders. If our apartment communities do not generate sufficient revenue to meet rental expenses, our ability to make required payments of interest and principal on our debt and to pay dividends or distributions to our stockholders will be adversely affected. The following factors, among others, may affect the income generated by our apartment communities:

the national and local economies;
local real estate market conditions, such as an oversupply of apartment homes;
tenants’ or prospective tenants’ perceptions of the safety, convenience, and attractiveness of our communities and the neighborhoods where they are located;
our ability to provide adequate management, maintenance and insurance;
rental expenses, including real estate taxes and utilities;
competition from other apartment communities or alternative housing options;
changes in interest rates and the availability of financing;
changes in governmental regulations and the related costs of compliance; and
changes in tax and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing.

Expenses associated with our investment in an apartment community, such as debt service, real estate taxes, insurance, labor costs and maintenance costs, are generally not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in revenue from that community. If a community is mortgaged to secure payment of debt and we are unable to make the mortgage payments, we could sustain a loss as a result of foreclosure on the community or the exercise of other remedies by the mortgage holder.

Our Debt Level May Be Increased. Our ability to incur debt is limited by covenants in our bank and other credit agreements. We manage our debt to be in compliance with these debt covenants, but subject to compliance with these

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covenants, we may increase the amount of our debt at any time without a concurrent improvement in our ability to service the additional debt.

Financing May Not Be Available and Could Be Dilutive. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends on our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit, construction loans and other forms of secured debt, commercial paper and other forms of unsecured debt, and equity financing, including common and preferred equity. We and other companies in the real estate industry have experienced limited availability of financing from time to time, including due to disruptions and uncertainty in the equity and credit markets and regulatory changes directly or indirectly affecting financing markets, for example the changes in terms on construction loans brought about by the Basel III capital requirements and the associated “High Volatility Commercial Real Estate” designation, which has adversely impacted the availability of loans, including construction loans, and the proceeds of and the interest rates thereon. Restricted lending practices could impact our ability to obtain financing or refinancing for our properties. If we issue additional equity securities to finance developments and acquisitions instead of incurring debt, the interests of our existing stockholders could be diluted.

Failure To Maintain Our Current Credit Ratings Could Adversely Affect Our Cost of Funds, Related Margins, Liquidity, and Access to Capital Markets. Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s routinely evaluate our debt and have given us ratings on our senior unsecured debt, commercial paper program and preferred stock. These ratings are based on a number of factors, which include their assessment of our financial strength, liquidity, capital structure, asset quality, and sustainability of cash flows and earnings. Due to changes in these factors and market conditions, we may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings, which could adversely affect our cost of funds and related margins, liquidity, and access to capital markets, including our ability to access the commercial paper market.

Disruptions in Financial Markets May Adversely Impact the Availability and Cost of Credit and Have Other Adverse Effects on Us and the Market Price of Our Common Stock. Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance, our debt obligations will depend on our operating and financial performance, which in turn is subject to prevailing economic conditions and to financial, business and other factors beyond our control. The global equity and credit markets have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, periods of extraordinary turmoil and volatility. These circumstances may materially and adversely impact liquidity in the financial markets at times, making terms for certain financings less attractive or in some cases unavailable. Disruptions and uncertainty in the equity and credit markets, including as a result of bank failures and uncertainty in the banking sector generally, may negatively impact our ability to refinance existing indebtedness and access additional financing for acquisitions, development of our properties and other purposes at reasonable terms or at all, which may negatively affect our business and the market price of our common stock. We also rely on the financial institutions that are parties to our revolving credit facility and other credit facilities. If these institutions become capital constrained, tighten their lending standards or become insolvent or if they experience excessive volumes of borrowing requests from other borrowers within a short period of time, they may be unable or unwilling to honor their funding commitments to us, which would adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolving credit facility. If we are not successful in refinancing our existing indebtedness when it becomes due, we may be forced to dispose of properties on disadvantageous terms, which might adversely affect our ability to service other debt and to meet our other obligations. A prolonged downturn in the financial markets may cause us to seek alternative sources of potentially less attractive financing and may require us to adjust our business plan accordingly. These events also may make it more difficult or costly for us to raise capital through the issuance of our common or preferred stock.

A Change in U.S. Government Policy or Support Regarding Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac Could Have a Material Adverse Impact on Our Business. While in recent years we have decreased our borrowings from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are a major source of financing to participants in the multifamily housing markets including potential purchasers of our properties. Potential options for the future of agency mortgage financing in the U.S. have been, and may in the future be, suggested that could involve a reduction in the amount of financing Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are able to provide, limitations on the loans that the agencies may make, which may not include loans secured by properties like our properties, or the phase out of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. While we believe Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will continue to provide liquidity to our sector, should they discontinue doing so, have their mandates changed or reduced or be disbanded or reorganized by the government, or if there is reduced government support for multifamily housing generally, it may adversely affect interest rates, capital availability, development of multifamily communities and the value of multifamily residential real estate and, as a result, may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The Soundness of Financial Institutions Could Adversely Affect Us. We have relationships with many financial institutions, including lenders under our credit facilities, and, from time to time, we execute transactions with

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counterparties in the financial services industry. Actual events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transactional counterparties or other companies in the financial services industry generally, or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, could result in losses or defaults by these institutions or counterparties or could lead to market-wide liquidity problems. Disruptions and uncertainty with respect to financial institutions, including as a result of bank failures and liquidity concerns, may negatively impact our ability to refinance existing indebtedness and access additional financing for acquisitions, development of our properties and other purposes at reasonable terms or at all, which may negatively affect our business and the market price of our common stock. In addition, in the event that the volatility of the financial markets adversely affects our financial institutions or other counterparties, we or other parties to the transactions with us may be unable to complete transactions as intended, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Interest Rate Hedging Contracts May Be Ineffective and May Result in Material Charges. From time to time when we anticipate issuing debt securities, we may seek to limit our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates during the period prior to the pricing of the securities by entering into interest rate hedging contracts. We may do this to increase the predictability of our financing costs. Also, from time to time we may rely on interest rate hedging contracts to limit our exposure under variable rate debt to unfavorable changes in market interest rates. If the terms of new debt securities are not within the parameters of, or market interest rates fall below that which we incur under a particular interest rate hedging contract, the contract is ineffective. Furthermore, the settlement of interest rate hedging contracts has involved and may in the future involve material charges. In addition, our use of interest rate hedging arrangements may expose us to additional risks, including a risk that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement may fail to honor its obligations. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance that our hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition. Termination of these hedging agreements typically involves costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs.

Risks Related to Tax Laws

We Would Incur Adverse Tax Consequences if We Failed to Qualify as a REIT. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. Our qualification as a REIT requires us to satisfy numerous requirements, some on an annual and quarterly basis, established under highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations, and involves the determination of various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control. We intend that our current organization and method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT, but we may not so qualify or we may not be able to remain so qualified in the future. In addition, U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs and other corporations and the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended at any time, potentially with retroactive effect. Future legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT or adversely affect our stockholders.

If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we would be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, and would not be allowed to deduct dividends paid to our stockholders in computing our taxable income. Also, unless the Internal Revenue Service granted us relief under certain statutory provisions, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we first failed to qualify as a REIT. The additional tax liability from the failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce or eliminate the amount of cash available for investment or distribution to our stockholders. This would likely have a significant adverse effect on the value of our securities and our ability to raise additional capital. In addition, we would no longer be required to make distributions to our stockholders. Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT, we will continue to be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and property.

Certain of our subsidiaries have also elected to be taxed as REITs under the Code, and are therefore subject to the same risks in the event that any such subsidiary fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year.

Dividends Paid by REITs Generally Do Not Qualify for Reduced Tax Rates. In general, the maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for dividends paid to individual U.S. stockholders is 20%. Unlike dividends received from a corporation that is not a REIT, our regular dividends (i.e., dividends other than capital gain dividends) paid to individual stockholders generally are not eligible for the reduced rates. However, individual U.S. stockholders generally may deduct 20% of such regular dividends under Section 199A of the Code, reducing the effective tax rate applicable to such dividends (although such provision will expire after 2025 absent future legislation).

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We Conduct a Portion of Our Business Through Taxable REIT Subsidiaries, Which Are Subject to Certain Tax Risks. We have established or invested in and conduct a portion of our business through taxable REIT subsidiaries. Despite our qualification as a REIT, taxable REIT subsidiaries must pay income tax on their taxable income. In addition, we must comply with various tests to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, and our income from and investments in taxable REIT subsidiaries generally do not constitute permissible income and investments for certain of these tests. While we will attempt to ensure that our dealings with taxable REIT subsidiaries will not adversely affect our REIT qualification, we cannot provide assurance that we will successfully achieve that result. Furthermore, we may be subject to a 100% penalty tax, we may jeopardize our ability to retain future gains on real property sales, or taxable REIT subsidiaries may be denied deductions, to the extent our dealings with taxable REIT subsidiaries are not deemed to be arm’s length in nature or are otherwise not respected.

REIT Distribution Requirements Limit Our Available Cash. As a REIT, we are subject to annual distribution requirements, which limit the amount of cash we retain for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our net REIT taxable income, excluding any net capital gain, in order for our distributed earnings not to be subject to corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code. However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.

Certain Property Transfers May Generate Prohibited Transaction Income, Resulting in a Penalty Tax on Gain Attributable to the Transaction. From time to time, we may transfer or otherwise dispose of some of our properties. Under the Code, any gain resulting from transfers of properties that we hold as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business would be treated as income from a prohibited transaction and subject to a 100% penalty tax. Since we acquire properties for investment purposes, we do not believe that our occasional transfers or disposals of property are prohibited transactions. However, whether property is held for investment purposes is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. The Internal Revenue Service may contend that certain transfers or disposals of properties by us are prohibited transactions. If the Internal Revenue Service were to argue successfully that a transfer or disposition of property constituted a prohibited transaction, then we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any gain allocable to us from the prohibited transaction and we may jeopardize our ability to retain future gains on real property sales. In addition, income from a prohibited transaction might adversely affect our ability to satisfy the income tests for qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.

Changes to the U.S. Federal Income Tax Laws, including the Enactment of Certain Tax Reform Measures, Could Have an Adverse Impact on Our Business and Financial Results. In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments in real estate and REITs, and it is possible that additional legislation may be enacted in the future. There can be no assurance that future changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws or regulatory changes will not be proposed or enacted that could impact our business and financial results. The REIT rules are regularly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department, which may result in revisions to regulations and interpretations in addition to statutory changes. If enacted, certain of such changes could have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.

We cannot predict whether, when or to what extent any new U.S. federal tax laws, regulations, interpretations or rulings will impact the real estate investment industry or REITs. Prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential future changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our shares.

We May Be Adversely Affected by Changes in State and Local Tax Laws and May Become Subject to Tax Audits from Time to Time. Because we are organized and qualify as a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income taxes, but we are subject to certain state and local taxes. From time to time, changes in state and local tax laws or regulations may result in an increase in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and local jurisdictions in which we own apartment communities may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional state and local taxes. These increased tax costs could adversely affect our financial condition and the amount of cash available for the payment of distributions to our stockholders. In the normal course of business, we or our affiliates (including entities through which we own real estate) may also become subject to federal, state or local tax audits. If we (or such entities) become subject to federal, state or local tax audits, the ultimate result of such audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership Intend to Qualify as Partnerships, but Cannot Guarantee That They Will Qualify. The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership intend to qualify as partnerships for federal income tax purposes, and we intend to take that position for all income tax reporting purposes. If classified as partnerships, the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership generally will not be taxable entities and will not incur federal income tax liability. However, the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership would be treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes if they were “publicly traded partnerships,” unless at least 90% of their income was qualifying income as defined in the Code. A “publicly traded partnership” is a partnership whose partnership interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof). Although neither the Operating Partnership’s nor the DownREIT Partnership’s partnership units are traded on an established securities market, because of the redemption rights of their limited partners, the Operating Partnership’s and DownREIT Partnership’s units held by limited partners could be viewed as readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof), and the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership may not qualify for one of the “safe harbors” under the applicable tax regulations. Qualifying income for the 90% test generally includes passive income, such as real property rents, dividends and interest. The income requirements applicable to REITs and the definition of qualifying income for purposes of this 90% test are similar in most respects. The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership may not meet this qualifying income test. If either the Operating Partnership or the DownREIT Partnership were to be taxed as a corporation, it would incur substantial tax liabilities, and we would then fail to qualify as a REIT for tax purposes, unless it qualified for relief under certain statutory savings provisions, and our ability to raise additional capital would be impaired. In addition, even if the 90% test were met if the Operating Partnership or the DownREIT Partnership were a publicly traded partnership, there could be adverse tax impacts for certain limited partners.

Qualifying as a REIT Involves Highly Technical and Complex Provisions of the Code. Our qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Moreover, new legislation, court decisions or administrative guidance, in each case possibly with retroactive effect, may make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. Our qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. Our ability to satisfy the REIT income and asset tests depends upon our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals, and upon our ability to successfully manage the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence, including in cases where we own an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Ownership of Our Stock

Changes in Market Conditions and Volatility of Stock Prices Could Adversely Affect the Market Price of Our Common Stock. The stock markets, including the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), on which we list our common stock, have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. As a result, the market price of our common stock has been, and in the future could be similarly volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. In addition to the risks listed in this “Risk Factors” section, a number of factors could negatively affect the price per share of our common stock, including:

general market and economic conditions;
actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends or our payment of dividends in shares of our stock;
changes in our funds from operations or earnings estimates;
difficulties or inability to access capital or extend or refinance existing debt;
decreasing (or uncertainty in) real estate valuations;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry;

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the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of their equity securities in comparison to other equity securities (including securities issued by other real estate companies);
general stock and bond market conditions, including changes in interest rates on fixed income securities, that may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to demand a higher annual yield from future dividends;
a change in analyst ratings;
additions or departures of key management personnel;
adverse market reaction to any additional debt we incur in the future;
speculation in the press or investment community;
terrorist activity or geopolitical events (including the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine and the military conflict in Israel and Gaza), which may adversely affect the markets in which our securities trade, possibly increasing market volatility and causing the further erosion of business and consumer confidence and spending;
failure to qualify as a REIT;
strategic decisions by us or by our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestments, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;
failure to satisfy listing requirements of the NYSE;
governmental regulatory action and changes in tax laws; and
the issuance of additional shares of our common stock, or the perception that such sales might occur, including under our at-the-market equity distribution program.

Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. These factors may cause the market price of shares of our common stock to decline, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business or prospects.

We May Change the Dividend Policy for Our Common Stock in the Future. The decision to declare and pay dividends on our common stock, as well as the timing, amount and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, funds from operations, liquidity, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual prohibitions or other limitations under our indebtedness, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code, state law and such other factors as our board of directors considers relevant. Any change in our dividend policy could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Maryland Law May Limit the Ability of a Third Party to Acquire Control of Us, Which May Not be in Our Stockholders Best Interests. Maryland business statutes may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us. As a Maryland corporation, we are subject to various Maryland laws which may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire our Company and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if our acquisition would be in our stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between us and any person who acquires beneficial ownership of shares of our stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without our board of directors’ prior approval. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 66 2/3% of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price. Maryland law also provides generally that a person who acquires shares of our equity stock that represents 10% (and certain higher levels) of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote.

Limitations on Share Ownership and Limitations on the Ability of Our Stockholders to Effect a Change in Control of Our Company Restrict the Transferability of Our Stock and May Prevent Takeovers That are Beneficial to Our Stockholders. One of the requirements for maintenance of our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes is that no more than 50% in value of our outstanding capital stock may be owned by five or fewer individuals, including entities specified in the Code, during the last half of any taxable year. Our charter contains ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our stock primarily to assist us in complying with this and other REIT ownership

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requirements; however, the restrictions may have the effect of preventing a change of control which does not threaten our REIT status. These restrictions include a provision that generally limits ownership by any person of more than 9.9% of the value of our outstanding equity stock, unless our board of directors exempts the person from such ownership limitation, provided that any such exemption shall not allow the person to exceed 13% of the value of our outstanding equity stock. Absent such an exemption from our board of directors, the transfer of our stock to any person in excess of the applicable ownership limit, or any transfer of shares of such stock in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs, will be considered null and void, and the intended transferee of such stock will acquire no rights in such shares. These provisions of our charter may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing someone from taking control of us, even though a change of control might involve a premium price for our stockholders or might otherwise be in our stockholders’ best interests.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Given the prevalence of cybersecurity threats, cybersecurity represents a critical component of the Company’s overall approach to risk management. The Company’s cybersecurity policies, standards and practices are integrated into the Company’s enterprise risk management (“ERM”) approach, and cybersecurity risks are among the core enterprise risks that are subject to oversight by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”). The Company’s cybersecurity policies, standards and practices are derived from recognized frameworks established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) and other applicable industry standards, and the Company is working to obtain NIST certification. Many members of the Company’s cybersecurity team are certified by and have received training from the International Information Security Consortium (“IISC”). The Company generally approaches cybersecurity threats through a cross-functional, multilayered approach, with specific the goals of: (i) identifying, attempting to prevent and mitigating cybersecurity threats to the Company; (ii) preserving the confidentiality, security and availability of the information that we collect and store to use in our business; (iii) protecting the Company’s intellectual property; (iv) protecting personally identifiable data and maintaining the confidence of our customers, clients and business partners; and (v) providing appropriate public disclosure of cybersecurity risks and incidents when required.

Risk Management and Strategy

Consistent with overall ERM policies and practices, the Company’s cybersecurity program focuses on the following areas:

Vigilance: The Company operates cybersecurity threat functions 24/7 with the specific goal of identifying, attempting to prevent and mitigating cybersecurity threats and responding to cybersecurity incidents in accordance with our established incident response and recovery plans.
Systems Safeguards: The Company deploys systems safeguards that are designed to protect the Company’s information systems from cybersecurity threats, including firewalls, intrusion prevention and detection systems, anti-malware functionality and access controls, which are evaluated and improved through ongoing vulnerability assessments and cybersecurity threat intelligence.
Collaboration: The Company utilizes collaboration mechanisms established with public and private entities, including intelligence and enforcement agencies, industry groups and third-party service providers, to identify, assess and respond to cybersecurity risks.
Third-Party Risk Management: The Company maintains a risk-based approach to identifying and overseeing cybersecurity risks presented by third parties, including vendors, service providers and other external users of the Company’s systems, as well as the systems of third parties that could adversely impact our business in the event of a cybersecurity incident affecting those third-party systems. Third-party vendors are assessed against a standardized vendor risk assessment process before being engaged and the Company requests vendors to annually recertify that their security controls comply with established industry standards and applicable legal requirements.

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Insider Threat Management: In order to try to mitigate cybersecurity threats to our systems, the Company attempts to provide associates with the minimum access to our systems required in order for a given associate to perform his or her assigned duties. We also perform reviews of access to both our administrative and financial systems as part of our annual compliance procedures, and, when duties and resources allow, rotate job responsibilities.
Training: Upon employment and at least annually thereafter the Company provides mandatory training for our associates regarding cybersecurity threats, which reinforces the Company’s information security policies, standards and practices, and such training is scaled to reflect the roles, responsibilities, and information systems access of such personnel. The Company’s cybersecurity team performs regular phishing tests for associates and provides remedial training for associates who fail such tests. In addition, members of our cybersecurity team received specialized cybersecurity training.
Incident Response and Recovery Planning: The Company has established and maintains incident response and recovery plans that address the Company’s response to a cybersecurity incident and the recovery from a cybersecurity incident, and such plans are assessed and evaluated on a regular basis. All meaningful cybersecurity incidents are reported to the Company’s legal department by our cybersecurity team.
Governance, Communication, Coordination and Disclosure: The Company utilizes a cross-functional approach to address the risk from cybersecurity threats, involving management personnel from the Company’s technology, operations, legal, risk management, internal audit and other key business functions, third-party vendors and consultants, as well as the members of the Board and the Audit and Risk Management Committee of the Board (the “Audit Committee”) in an ongoing dialogue regarding cybersecurity threats and incidents, while also implementing controls and procedures for the escalation of cybersecurity incidents when appropriate so that decisions regarding the disclosure and reporting of such incidents can be made by management in a timely manner. Our Senior Vice President – Chief Technology Officer reports on our cybersecurity posture to the Audit Committee quarterly and the Board is updated at least annually.

A key part of the Company’s strategy for managing risks from cybersecurity threats is the ongoing assessment and testing of the Company’s processes and practices through auditing, assessments, tabletop exercises, vulnerability testing and other exercises focused on evaluating the effectiveness of our cybersecurity measures. The Company engages third parties, including legal counsel, to perform assessments on our cybersecurity measures, including information security maturity assessments, penetration testing inclusive of our resident facing apps and devices, audits and independent reviews of our information security control environment and operating effectiveness. The material results of such assessments, audits and reviews are reported to the Audit Committee and the Board, and the Company adapts its cybersecurity policies, standards, processes, and practices as necessary based on the information provided by the assessments, audits, and reviews. In addition, in 2023 outside legal counsel conducted an exercise regarding preparation for cyber events attended by our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, President and Chief Financial Officer and other members of senior management.

Governance

The Board, in coordination with the Audit Committee, oversees the management of risks from cybersecurity threats, including the policies, standards, processes and practices that the Company’s management implements to address risks from cybersecurity threats. The Board and the Audit Committee each receive presentations and reports on cybersecurity risks, which address a wide range of topics including, for example, recent developments, evolving standards, vulnerability assessments, third-party and independent reviews, the threat environment, new tools and vendors being used by the Company related to cybersecurity, technological trends and information security considerations arising with respect to the Company’s peers and third parties. The Board and the Audit Committee also receive information regarding any cybersecurity incident when appropriate, as well as ongoing updates regarding such incident until it has been addressed. At least once each year the Board and the Audit Committee at least quarterly discuss the Company’s approach to cybersecurity risk management with the Company’s Chief Technology Officer.

The Company’s Chief Technology Officer is the member of the Company’s management that is principally responsible for overseeing the Company’s cybersecurity risk management program, in partnership with other business leaders across the Company. The Chief Technology Officer and our Vice President, Information Security work in coordination with the other members of the Information Security Management System Committee (“ISMS”), which includes department heads and IT personnel. The Chief Technology Officer also provides monthly reports regarding

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information technology including cybersecurity to our senior management including our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, President and Chief Financial Officer, Senior Vice President – Chief Investment Officer, Senior Vice President – Operations, Senior Vice President – Chief Accounting Officer, Senior Vice President – Acquisitions and Dispositions, and Senior Vice President – General Counsel. The Company’s Chief Technology Officer has served in various roles in information technology and information security for over 23 years. The Chief Technology Officer holds an undergraduate degree in computer science and a master’s degree in business administration. The Company’s Vice President, Information Security holds an undergraduate degree in computer science and management science, has attained a professional certification of Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) from the IISC and has served in various roles in information technology and information security for over 15 years. In addition, our Vice President, Information Security is a member of InfraGard.

The Company’s Chief Technology Officer and Vice President, Information Security, in coordination with the ISMS, work collaboratively across the Company to implement a program designed to protect the Company’s information systems from cybersecurity threats and to promptly respond to any cybersecurity incidents. To facilitate the success of this program, our IT security team and, when necessary, multidisciplinary teams throughout the Company are deployed to address cybersecurity threats and to respond to cybersecurity incidents in accordance with the Company’s incident response and recovery plans. Through the ongoing communications from these teams, the Chief Technology Officer and the Vice President, Information Security monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents, and report such incidents to the ISMS and other members of management and the Audit Committee or the Board when appropriate.

To date the Company has not been materially affected by a cybersecurity incident or cybersecurity threat and no incident has occurred that is reasonably likely to affect the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.

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Item 2. PROPERTIES

At December 31, 2023, our consolidated apartment portfolio included 168 communities located in 21 markets, with a total of 55,550 completed apartment homes.

The table below set forth a summary of real estate portfolio by geographic market of the Company at December 31, 2023.

SUMMARY OF REAL ESTATE PORTFOLIO BY GEOGRAPHIC MARKET AT DECEMBER 31, 2023

    

    

Percentage

    

Total

    

Average

Number of

Number of

of Total

Carrying

Average

Home Size

Apartment

Apartment

Carrying

Value

Encumbrances

Cost per

Physical

(in square

Communities

Homes

Value

(in thousands)

(in thousands)

Home

Occupancy

feet)

WEST REGION

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Orange County, CA

 

8

 

4,305

 

8.6

%  

$

1,371,309

$

$

318,539

 

96.4

%  

856

San Francisco, CA

 

14

 

3,309

 

7.5

%  

 

1,209,227

 

67,017

 

365,436

 

93.7

%  

837

Seattle, WA

 

14

 

2,702

 

6.9

%  

 

1,111,182

 

 

411,244

 

97.2

%  

859

Monterey Peninsula, CA

 

7

 

1,567

 

1.2

%  

 

197,561

 

 

126,076

 

95.6

%  

728

Los Angeles, CA

 

4

 

1,225

 

3.0

%  

 

482,945

 

 

394,241