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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number 1-10524

UDR, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland

54-0857512

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1745 Shea Center Drive, Suite 200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129

(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (720283-6120

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

UDR

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

(Title of Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large Accelerated Filer þ

Accelerated Filer

Non-Accelerated Filer

Smaller Reporting Company 

Emerging Growth Company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the shares of common stock of UDR, Inc. held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2021 was approximately $9.5 billion. This calculation excludes shares of common stock held by the registrant’s officers and directors and each person known by the registrant to beneficially own more than 5% of the registrant’s outstanding shares, as such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status should not be deemed conclusive for any other purpose. As of February 11, 2022, there were 318,264,646 shares of UDR, Inc.’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated by reference from UDR, Inc.’s definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

PART I

Item 1. Business

4

Item 1A. Risk Factors

15

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

32

Item 2. Properties

32

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

32

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

33

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

34

Item 6. [Reserved]

36

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

37

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

58

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

58

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

58

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

58

Item 9B. Other Information

59

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

59

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

60

Item 11. Executive Compensation

60

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

60

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

60

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

60

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

61

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

69

Table of Contents

PART I

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this Report to “UDR,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to UDR, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including United Dominion Realty, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership” or the “OP”) and UDR Lighthouse DownREIT L.P. (the “DownREIT Partnership”).

Forward-Looking Statements

This Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements concerning property acquisitions and dispositions, development activity and capital expenditures, capital raising activities, rent growth, occupancy, rental expense growth and expected or potential impacts of the novel coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “likely,” “will,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the results of operations or plans expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, among other things, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread or address its effects, unfavorable changes in the apartment market, changing economic conditions, the impact of inflation/deflation on rental rates and property operating expenses, expectations concerning the availability of capital and the stability of the capital markets, the impact of competition and competitive pricing, acquisitions, developments and redevelopments not achieving anticipated results, delays in completing developments and redevelopments, delays in completing lease-ups on schedule or at expected rent and occupancy levels, expectations on job growth, home affordability and demand/supply ratio for multifamily housing, expectations concerning development and redevelopment activities, expectations on occupancy levels and rental rates, expectations concerning joint ventures and partnerships with third parties, expectations that automation will help grow net operating income, and expectations on annualized net operating income.

The following factors, among others, could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread or address its effects;

general market and economic conditions;

unfavorable changes in apartment market and economic conditions that could adversely affect occupancy levels and rental rates, including as a result of COVID-19;

the failure of acquisitions to achieve anticipated results;

possible difficulty in selling apartment communities;

competitive factors that may limit our ability to lease apartment homes or increase or maintain rents;

insufficient cash flow that could affect our debt financing and create refinancing risk;

failure to generate sufficient revenue, which could impair our debt service payments and distributions to stockholders;

development and construction risks that may impact our profitability;

potential damage from natural disasters, including hurricanes and other weather-related events, which could result in substantial costs to us;

risks from climate change that impacts our properties or operations;

risks from extraordinary losses for which we may not have insurance or adequate reserves;

risks from cybersecurity breaches of our information technology systems and the information technology systems of our third party vendors and other third parties;

1

Table of Contents

uninsured losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insurance retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage;

delays in completing developments and lease-ups on schedule;

our failure to succeed in new markets;

risks that third parties who have an interest in or are otherwise involved in projects in which we have an interest, including mezzanine borrowers, joint venture partners or other investors, do not perform as expected;

changing interest rates, which could increase interest costs and affect the market price of our securities;

potential liability for environmental contamination, which could result in substantial costs to us;

the imposition of federal taxes if we fail to qualify as a REIT under the Code in any taxable year;

our internal control over financial reporting may not be considered effective which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports, and in turn have an adverse effect on our stock price; and

changes in real estate laws, tax laws, rent control or stabilization laws or other laws affecting our business.

A discussion of these and other factors affecting our business and prospects is set forth in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors. We encourage investors to review these risk factors.

Although we believe that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, any of the assumptions could be inaccurate, and therefore such statements included in this Report may not prove to be accurate. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the results or conditions described in such statements or our objectives and plans will be achieved.

Forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except to the extent otherwise required by law.

Summary of Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 1A. Risk Factors herein. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

The Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic and Measures Intended to Prevent its Spread Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on our Business, Results of Operations, Cash Flows and Financial Condition.
Unfavorable Apartment Market and Economic Conditions Could Adversely Affect Occupancy Levels, Rental Revenues and the Value of Our Real Estate Assets.
The Geographic Concentration of Our Communities in Certain Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Operations if a Particular Market is Adversely Impacted by Economic or Other Conditions.
We May Be Unable to Renew Leases or Relet Apartment Units as Leases Expire, or the Terms of Renewals or New Leases May Be Less Favorable Than Current Leases.
Competition Could Limit Our Ability to Lease Apartment Homes or Increase or Maintain Rents.
We May Not Realize the Anticipated Benefits of Past or Future Acquisitions, and the Failure to Integrate Acquired Communities and New Personnel Successfully Could Create Inefficiencies.
Competition Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Acquire Properties.

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Development and Construction Risks Could Impact Our Profitability.
Bankruptcy or Defaults of Our Counterparties Could Adversely Affect Our Performance.
We Could Incur Significant Insurance Costs and Some Potential Losses May Not Be Adequately Covered by Insurance.
The Adoption of, or Changes to, Rent Control, Rent Stabilization, Eviction, Tenants’ Rights and Similar Laws and Regulations in Our Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Results of Operations and Property Values.
A Breach of Information Technology Systems On Which We Rely Could Materially and Adversely Impact Our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Reputation.
Insufficient Cash Flow Could Affect Our Debt Financing and Create Refinancing Risk.
Failure to Generate Sufficient Income Could Impair Debt Service Payments and Distributions to Stockholders.
Changing Interest Rates Could Increase Interest Costs and Adversely Affect Our Cash Flow and the Market Price of Our Securities.
Failure To Maintain Our Current Credit Ratings Could Adversely Affect Our Cost of Funds, Related Margins, Liquidity, and Access to Capital Markets.
Disruptions in Financial Markets May Adversely Impact Availability and Cost of Credit and Have Other Adverse Effects on Us and the Market Price of UDR’s Stock.
We Would Incur Adverse Tax Consequences if UDR Failed to Qualify as a REIT.
Changes in Market Conditions and Volatility of Stock Prices Could Adversely Affect the Market Price of UDR’s Common Stock.
We May Change the Dividend Policy for UDR’s Common Stock in the Future.
Limitations on Share Ownership and Limitations on the Ability of UDR’s Stockholders to Effect a Change in Control of Our Company Restricts the Transferability of UDR’s Stock and May Prevent Takeovers That are Beneficial to UDR’s Stockholders.

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Item 1. BUSINESS

General

UDR is a self-administered real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns, operates, acquires, renovates, develops, redevelops, disposes of, and manages multifamily apartment communities in targeted markets located in the United States. At December 31, 2021, our consolidated real estate portfolio consisted of 160 communities located in 21 markets, consisting of 53,229 completed apartment homes, which are held directly or through our subsidiaries, including the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership, and consolidated joint ventures. In addition, we have an ownership interest in 6,570 completed or to-be-completed apartment homes through unconsolidated joint ventures or partnerships, including 3,733 apartment homes owned by entities in which we hold preferred equity investments. At December 31, 2021, the Company was developing five wholly-owned communities totaling 1,417 homes, none of which have been completed.

UDR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to in this Report as the “Code.” To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must continue to meet certain tests which, among other things, generally require that our assets consist primarily of real estate assets, our income be derived primarily from real estate assets, and that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (other than our net capital gains) to our stockholders annually. As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes at the corporate level on our net income to the extent we distribute such net income to our stockholders annually. In 2021, we declared total distributions of $1.45 per common share and paid dividends of $1.4475 per common share.

    

Dividends

    

Dividends

Declared in

Paid in

2021

2021

First Quarter

$

0.3625

$

0.3600

Second Quarter

 

0.3625

 

0.3625

Third Quarter

 

0.3625

 

0.3625

Fourth Quarter

 

0.3625

 

0.3625

Total

$

1.4500

$

1.4475

UDR was formed in 1972 as a Virginia corporation. In June 2003, we changed our state of incorporation from Virginia to Maryland. Our corporate offices are located at 1745 Shea Center Drive, Suite 200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado and our telephone number is (720) 283-6120. Our website is www.udr.com. The information contained on our website, including any information referred to in this Report as being available on our website, is not a part of or incorporated into this Report.

As of December 31, 2021, there were 186.1 million units in the Operating Partnership (“OP Units”) outstanding, of which 176.2 million OP Units (including 0.1 million of general partnership units), or 94.7%, were owned by UDR and 9.9 million OP Units, or 5.3%, were owned by outside limited partners. As of December 31, 2021, there were 32.4 million units in the DownREIT Partnership (“DownREIT Units”) outstanding, of which 20.6 million, or 63.6%, were owned by UDR and its subsidiaries and 11.8 million, or 36.4%, were owned by outside limited partners. The consolidated financial statements of UDR include the noncontrolling interests of the unitholders in the Operating Partnership and DownREIT Partnership.

Human Capital Management

As of February 11, 2022, we had 1,219 full-time associates and 10 part-time associates, all of whom were employed by UDR. Of such number 815 associates are employed in roles that are located at or that are solely related to our communities and the remainder are employed in corporate roles. Recruiting and retaining our associates, as well as assisting them in their professional development, are critically important in successfully managing our business. UDR’s culture is one based on innovation, inclusion, empowerment, adaptability, and execution, and understanding and maintaining our culture is fundamental to recruiting and retaining associates. To that end, in 2020 we updated our culture statement and launched an associate facing culture website to ensure that our associates understand our culture and have an opportunity to participate in its evolution.

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Associate Compensation

Attracting, developing, and retaining high-quality and diverse associates are critical to the long-term success of our Company. Implementing fair, non-biased compensation practices is our starting point. We also use various recruiting methods depending on job function, including an associate referral program, internet-based recruiting platforms, and third-party recruiting agencies. With respect to compensation, we utilize market surveys and other third-party information when determining salary ranges, and we design our compensation programs to include bonus potential to incentivize performance. In addition, we evaluate gender- and diversity-based job-title-specific compensation metrics quarterly to actively monitor pay equity, identify areas for improvement and as part of the Company’s on-going Next Generation Platform implementation. These results are provided annually to our Board of Directors.

Associate Growth and Development

We believe that training is important to our associates’ job satisfaction, is essential to furthering their effectiveness, and helps in career advancement and associate retention, helping us to create a more efficient workforce. Accordingly, we offer a wide variety of training opportunities. In addition to training designed to address regulatory and statutory matters (e.g., harassment, cybersecurity, fair housing, etc.), associates have the option of participating in management development through our Certified Manager and Career Mobility Programs. These programs are designed to enable our associates to acquire skills that will be useful to them as they progress in their career. In total, there are over 5,000 courses available to our associates. Examples of program topics include: leasing skills, basic property maintenance, customer service, project management, and system applications. In aggregate, our associates engaged in 24,422 hours of training in 2021, or an average of 20 hours per associate. In addition, we enhanced our controls around required training to ensure that associates complete these courses in a timely manner. As of our 2021 year end measurement, 91% of associates completed annual technology IT security training, 99% of associates completed fair housing training, 96% of associates completed annual harassment training, 97% of associates completed diversity and inclusion training, and 95% of associates completed our annual business ethics training.

Certifications are important in the apartment business, and we encourage our associates to become professionally certified in areas that interest them and are beneficial to the Company. Certifications range from master’s degree programs to certified property manager programs, to technical licenses for HVAC systems, all of which equip our associates with knowledge and the potential for career-expansion opportunities. UDR offers partial tuition reimbursement related to attaining these certifications.

Each UDR associate is required to engage in an annual performance review with their direct supervisor. Among other things, the performance review establishes the associate’s training plans for the upcoming year and provides feedback on career development for each associate.

In addition, we monitor associate turnover and take action when issues are identified if appropriate.

Diversity and Inclusion

We are committed to creating and maintaining a diverse and inclusive workplace environment that supports the development and advancement of all associates.

As of December 31, 2021, our total workforce is 59% male and 41% female. The ethnicity of our workforce is 56% White, 26% Hispanic/Latino, 10% Black, 3% Asian and 5% Other. “Other” includes: American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Not Specified or two or more races.

As of December 31, 2021, our management team (associates with the title of community director or director and higher job classifications) is 53% male and 47% female. The ethnicity of our management team is 80% White and 20% non-White.

Over the three-year period ending December 31, 2021, 642 associates were promoted. Of the associates that were promoted to the positions of community director, director, or a higher job classification during the period, 51% were female and 22% were non-White.

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Associate Engagement and Outreach

We conduct an associate engagement survey every two to three years, which surveys all associates on a variety of issues. The results of our 2021 survey showed that 94% of associates feel that they can build relationships with colleagues, 89% of associates feel that they are treated fairly and 87% of associates feel that they can succeed and thrive at work. We believe that our associates should also be involved in their communities and that we should assist with those efforts. In 2019, UDR provided 2,558 hours of paid time off for our associates to be used for volunteer work with more than 25 local organizations that make a difference in the communities in which we operate. UDR provides paid time off during specified, Company-wide volunteer days in 2019 and our associates responded with a 25% year-over-year increase in volunteer hours. While the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the program in 2020, we were able to re-implement it on a limited basis in 2021.

COVID-19 and Employee Safety, Health and Wellness

The safety, health and wellness of our associates is a top priority for our associates. The COVID-19 pandemic provided unique challenges to the Company. In response, we developed a number of integrated policies and programs since the beginning of the pandemic to help ensure the safety and well-being of our associates:

Personal Protective Equipment
Additional time off for COVID-related matters
One-time bonuses
Flexible work schedules
Work-from-home options
Vacation buy-out programs
Mental wellness programs

These policies and programs have continued to evolve as the landscape has changed during the pandemic.

In addition, in connection with on-going efforts with respect to associate health and well-being in 2020, we distributed to all associates a brochure setting forth the mental health programs that our associates may access. In early 2021, we rolled out access to a confidential on-demand behavioral health support mobile application, providing associates 24/7 access to a care team comprised of coaches and mental health professionals through text-based chats and self-guided activities at no cost to the associate. We also provide all associates with the opportunity to participate in a wide set of employee benefits, including health, dental and vision insurance coverage.

Reporting Segments

We report in two segments: Same-Store Communities and Non-Mature Communities/Other.

Our Same-Store Communities segment represents those communities acquired, developed, and stabilized prior to January 1, 2020, and held as of December 31, 2021. These communities were owned and had stabilized occupancy and operating expenses as of the beginning of the prior year, there is no plan to conduct substantial redevelopment activities, and the communities are not classified as held for disposition at year end. A community is considered to have stabilized occupancy once it achieves 90% occupancy for at least three consecutive months.

Our Non-Mature Communities/Other segment represents those communities that do not meet the criteria to be included in Same-Store Communities, including, but not limited to, recently acquired, developed and redeveloped communities, and the non-apartment components of mixed use properties. For additional information regarding our operating segments, see Note 16, Reportable Segments, in the Notes to the UDR Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Report.

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Business Objectives

Our principal business objective is to maximize the economic returns of our apartment communities to provide our stockholders with the greatest possible total return and value. To achieve this objective, we intend to continue to pursue the following goals and strategies:

own and operate a diversified portfolio of apartments in targeted markets in the United States, which are characterized by strong total income growth, high working age population growth, relatively robust rental versus single-family home affordability and measured new supply growth, thus enhancing stability and predictability of returns to our stockholders;
manage real estate cycles by taking an opportunistic approach to buying, selling, renovating, redeveloping, and developing apartment communities;
empower site associates to manage our communities efficiently and effectively;
measure and reward associates based on specific performance targets; and
manage our capital structure to provide a low relative cost of capital to enhance profitability and predictability of liquidity, earnings and dividends.

2021 Highlights

Commitment to Shareholders

In July 2021, the Company marked its 49th year as a REIT and, in November 2021, paid its 196th consecutive quarterly dividend. The Company’s annualized declared 2021 dividend of $1.45 represented a 0.7% increase over the previous year.

Property Operations

Net income attributable to common stockholders was $145.8 million as compared to $60.0 million in the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by higher total net operating income (“NOI”), higher gains from dispositions of real estate, higher investment income from unconsolidated entities primarily due to unrealized gains from SmartRent, Inc. (“SmartRent”), a portfolio investment of an unconsolidated fund, becoming a public company, lower interest expense primarily due to lower debt extinguishment costs and lower interest rates partially offset by higher debt balances.

Total revenues increased 4.0% over the prior year primarily due to communities acquired during 2021 and 2020 and overall rent growth.

We achieved Same-Store revenue growth of 1.5% and Same-Store NOI growth of 0.5%.

Investing and Developments

We acquired a to-be-developed parcel of land located in Tampa, Florida, for approximately $6.6 million.

We previously had a secured note with an unaffiliated third party with an aggregate commitment of $20.0 million. The note was secured by a parcel of land and related land improvements located in Alameda, California. The developer defaulted on the loan, and as a result of the default, we took title to the property pursuant to a deed in lieu of foreclosure.

We commenced the development of one community located in Addison, Texas, with a total of 405 apartment homes.

We acquired or increased our ownership interest in twelve operating communities with a total of 5,426 apartment homes located in markets within which we already operate for a combined purchase price of approximately $1.5 billion.

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We recognized gains of $136.1 million from the sale of two operating communities located in Anaheim, California.

We contributed $64.6 million to three investments under our Developer Capital Program, which earn preferred returns ranging between 9.0% and 9.7%.

Balance Sheet

We assumed three fixed rate mortgage notes payable with an aggregate outstanding balance of $183.3 million and a fair value of $201.3 million in connection with the acquisition of three operating properties, which carry a weighted average interest rate of 3.93%.

We entered into an amended and restated credit agreement, which increased our maximum aggregate borrowing capacity on our unsecured revolving credit facility to $1.3 billion from $1.1 billion, extended the maturity date to January 31, 2026, with two six-month extensions, and lowered the margin range for the interest rate. The amended agreement also extended the maturity date of our $350.0 million unsecured term loan to January 31, 2027 and lowered the margin range for the interest rate.

We amended our Working Capital Credit Facility to extend the maturity date from January 14, 2022 to January 12, 2024 and lowered the margin range for the interest rate.

We issued $300.0 million of 2.10% senior unsecured medium-term notes due June 15, 2033. The proceeds were used to redeem all of our $300.0 million 4.00% senior unsecured medium-term notes due October 2025.

We issued an additional $200.0 million of our 3.00% medium-term notes due 2031. This was a further issuance of and forms a single series with the $400.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2031 Notes that were issued in August 2019. The notes were priced at 106.388% of the principal amount to yield 2.259%.

We settled 19.5 million shares under forward sales agreements as part of our ATM programs and previously announced forward sales agreements for net proceeds of approximately $899.1 million.

Corporate Responsibility Report

We have published our 2021 Annual Corporate Responsibility Report on our website, which discloses our environmental and social programs and performance. The report’s Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures were prepared in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Standards (core), the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) standards, and the Task Force for Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD) framework.

Refer to Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for further information on the Company’s activities in 2021.

COVID-19 Update

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and on March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency with respect to COVID-19. The pandemic led governments and other authorities around the world, including federal, state and local authorities in the United States, to impose measures intended to control its spread, including restrictions on freedom of movement and business operations such as travel bans, border closings, business closures, quarantines and shelter-in-place or similar orders. While many of such measures have been lifted, they may be reinstated or other measures imposed. Further, while vaccines have been developed and are being administered, it is unclear when or if vaccines may allow a return to full pre-pandemic activity levels.

While operations have been allowed to fully or partially re-open, no assurance can be given that closures or restrictions will not be reinstated or new measures imposed in the future. Our headquarters, all of our properties and our

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corporate offices are located in areas that have been subject to shelter-in-place orders and restrictions on the types of businesses that may continue to operate or the manner in which they may operate, for example restrictions on capacity. These orders and restrictions and other impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, the ability of our residents and retail and commercial tenants to pay their rent. It is still uncertain how various legislation or orders adopted by the federal government and state and local governments, or those that may be modified or enacted in the future, may continue to impact the ability of our residents and retail and commercial tenants to pay their rent. The governmental actions intended to prevent the spread of COVID-19 also caused us to reduce staffing at certain of our locations, and have impacted, and may continue to impact, our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. Further, the federal government and a number of the states, counties and municipalities in which we operate have adopted, and may extend or reinstate, eviction moratoriums, either directly or indirectly (such as through direction to law enforcement or courts not to serve notices or take actions related to eviction) or have otherwise modified their eviction processes or requirements, which have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our ability to enforce our legal and contractual rights and our ability to remove, in a timely manner, residents or retail and commercial tenants who are not paying their rent and our ability to rent their units or other space to new residents or retail and commercial tenants, respectively. In addition, certain jurisdictions have restricted our ability to charge certain fees, including fees for late payment of rent, and certain jurisdictions have adopted limits on our ability to increase rents. Earlier in the pandemic, we received more requests from our residents and retail and commercial tenants for assistance with respect to paying rent than we have historically received. In response, we instituted a number of initiatives to assist residents and other tenants, including rent deferrals, payment plans, and waiving late payment fees when appropriate. Recently, the federal government has allocated funds to rent relief programs run by state and local authorities. Certain of such programs were slow to begin operating and in certain locations funds are taking longer than expected to be distributed. Further, in certain locations, adequate funds may not exist to assist with all unpaid rent. Additionally, certain of our residents with past due rent may not qualify to receive assistance under such programs. In addition, some of such programs have required, and programs in the future may require, the forgiveness of a portion of the past due rent or other limitations or restrictions in order to participate, or may only provide funds to pay a portion of the past due rent. It remains uncertain how such programs will impact our business. Also vaccine mandates that have been adopted or may be adopted by the federal government or in states and localities in which we operate may impact our ability to operate our business in the ordinary course.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company performed an analysis in accordance with the ASC 842, Leases, guidance to assess the collectibility of its operating lease receivables in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis included an assessment of collectibility of current and future rents and whether those lease payments were no longer probable of collection. In accordance with the leases guidance, if lease payments are no longer deemed to be probable over the life of the lease contract, we recognize revenue only when cash is received, and all existing contractual operating lease receivables and straight-line lease receivables are reserved.

As a result of its analysis, the Company reduced its reserve to approximately $13.2 million for multifamily tenant lease receivables and increased its reserve to approximately $6.1 million for retail tenant lease receivables (inclusive of $4.0 million of reserves on straight-line lease receivables) for its wholly-owned communities and communities held by joint ventures. In aggregate, the reduction in reserve is reflected as a $0.1 million increase to Rental income and a $0.1 million increase to Income/(loss) from unconsolidated entities on the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2021. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company reserved approximately $13.5 million of multifamily tenant lease receivables and approximately $6.0 million of retail tenant lease receivables (inclusive of $3.3 million of reserves on straight-line lease receivables) for its wholly-owned communities and communities held by joint ventures. In aggregate, the reserve is reflected as a $18.4 million reduction to Rental income and a $1.1 million reduction to Income/(loss) from unconsolidated entities on the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2020. The impact to deferred leasing commissions was not material for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $3.1 million on its investment in equity securities of a non-core investment. The Company did not recognize any other adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets or asset impairment charges due to the COVID-19 pandemic for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

As of January 31, 2022, we had collected 97.3%, 96.7% and 95.7% of billed monthly rents for our multifamily residents for October, November and December, respectively. January cash rents received are similar when compared to those for October, November and December at corresponding times of prior months.

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Our Strategic Vision

Our strategic vision is to be the multifamily public REIT of choice. We intend to realize this vision by executing on our strategic objectives, which are:

1.Maintaining a Diversified Portfolio and Allocating Capital to Accretive Investment Opportunities
2.Maintaining a Strong Balance Sheet
3.Consistently Driving Operating Excellence
4.Advancing a Strong Corporate Culture and Ensuring High Resident Satisfaction

Maintaining a Diversified Portfolio and Allocating Capital to Accretive Investment Opportunities

We believe greater portfolio diversification, as defined by geographic concentration, location within a market (i.e., urban or suburban) and property quality (i.e., A or B), reduces the volatility of our same-store growth throughout the real estate cycle, appeals to a wider renter and investor audience and lessens the market risk associated with owning a homogenous portfolio. Diversified characteristics of our portfolio include:

our consolidated apartment portfolio includes 160 communities located in 21 markets throughout the U.S., including both coastal and sunbelt locations;
our communities that are located proximate to each other within a market provide enhanced economics; and
our mix of urban/suburban communities is approximately 30%/70% and our mix of A/B quality properties is approximately 42%/58%.

We are focused on increasing our presence in markets with favorable job formation, high propensity to rent, low single-family home affordability, and a favorable demand/supply ratio for multifamily housing. Portfolio investment decisions consider internal analyses and third-party research.

Acquisitions and Dispositions

When evaluating potential acquisitions, we consider a wide variety of factors, including:

high working age population growth, relatively robust rental versus single-family home affordability, measured new supply growth, overall potential for strong total income growth;
the tax and regulatory environment of the market in which the property is located;
geographic location, including proximity to jobs, entertainment, transportation, and our existing communities which can deliver significant economies of scale;
construction quality, condition and design of the property;
current and projected cash flow of the property and the ability to increase cash flow;
ability of the property’s projected returns to exceed our cost of capital;
potential for capital appreciation of the property;
ability to increase the value and profitability of the property through operations and redevelopment;
terms of resident leases, including the potential for rent increases;
occupancy and demand by residents for properties of a similar type in the vicinity;
prospects for liquidity through sale, financing or refinancing of the property; and
competition from existing multifamily communities and the potential for the construction of new multifamily properties in the area.

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We regularly monitor our assets to increase the quality and performance of our portfolio. Factors we consider in deciding whether to dispose of a property include:

whether it is in a market targeted for divestment or a reduction in investment;
current market price for an asset compared to projected economics for that asset;
potential increases in new construction in the market area;
areas with low job growth prospects;
near- and long-term capital expenditure needs for the asset; and
operating efficiencies.

The following table summarizes our apartment community acquisitions and dispositions and our consolidated year-end ownership position for the past five years (dollars in thousands):

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Homes acquired

 

5,426

 

1,642

 

7,079

 

 

462

Homes disposed

 

651

 

599

 

 

868

 

218

Homes owned at December 31, 

 

53,229

 

48,283

 

47,010

 

39,931

 

39,998

Total real estate owned, at cost

$

14,740,803

$

13,071,472

$

12,602,101

$

10,196,159

$

10,177,206

Development Activities

Our objective in developing a community is to create value while improving the quality of our portfolio. How demographic trends, economic drivers, and multifamily fundamentals and valuations have trended over the long-term and our portfolio strategy generally govern our review process on where and when to allocate development capital. At December 31, 2021, the Company was developing five wholly-owned communities located in Addison, Texas, Denver, Colorado, Dublin, California, Washington, D.C., and King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, totaling 1,417 homes, none of which have been completed, with a budget of $501.5 million, in which we have an investment of $388.6 million. The communities are estimated to be completed between the second quarter of 2022 and the second quarter of 2023.

Redevelopment Activities

Our objective in redeveloping a community is twofold: we aim to grow rental rates while also producing a higher yielding and more valuable asset through asset quality improvement. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we incurred $40.3 million in major renovations, which included major structural changes and/or architectural revisions to existing buildings. As of December 31, 2021, the Company was not redeveloping any communities.

Joint Venture and Partnership Activities

We have entered into, and may continue in the future to enter into, joint ventures (including limited liability companies or partnerships) through which we would own an indirect economic interest of less than 100% of the community or communities owned directly by such joint ventures. Our decision to either hold an apartment community in fee simple or have an indirect interest in the community through a joint venture is based on a variety of factors and considerations, including: (i) the economic and tax terms required by the seller of land or a community; (ii) our desire to diversify our portfolio of communities by market, submarket and product type; (iii) our desire at times to preserve our capital resources to maintain liquidity or balance sheet strength; and (iv) our projections, in some circumstances, that we will achieve higher returns on our invested capital or reduce our risk if a joint venture vehicle is used. Each joint venture agreement is individually negotiated, and our ability to operate and/or dispose of a community in our sole discretion may be limited to varying degrees depending on the terms of the joint venture agreement.

Maintaining a Strong Balance Sheet

We maintain a capital structure that we believe allows us to proactively source potential investment opportunities in the marketplace. We have structured our debt maturity schedule to be able to opportunistically access both secured and unsecured debt markets when appropriate.

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As part of our plan to finance our activities, we utilize proceeds from debt and equity offerings and refinancings to extend maturities, pay down existing debt, fund development and redevelopment activities, and acquire apartment communities.

Consistently Driving Operational Excellence

Investment in new technologies continues to drive operating efficiencies in our business and help us to better meet the changing needs of our business and our residents. Our residents can conduct business with us 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and complete online leasing applications and renewals throughout our portfolio using our web-based resident internet portal or, increasingly, a smart-device application.

As a result of transforming our operations through technology, residents’ satisfaction has improved, and our operating teams have become more efficient. Web-based technologies have also resulted in declining marketing and advertising costs, improved cash management, and better pricing management of our available apartment homes.

Competitive Conditions

Competition for new residents is generally intense across our markets. Some competing communities offer amenities that our communities do not have. Competing communities can use rental concessions or lower rents to obtain temporary competitive advantages. Also, some competing communities are larger or newer than our communities. The competitive position of each community is different depending upon many factors, including sub-market supply and demand. In addition, other real estate investors compete with us to acquire existing properties, redevelop existing properties, and to develop new properties. These competitors include insurance companies, pension and investment funds, public and private real estate companies, investment companies and other public and private apartment REITs, some of which may have greater resources, or lower capital costs, than we do.

We believe that, in general, we are well-positioned to compete effectively for residents and investments. We believe our competitive advantages include:

a fully integrated organization with property management, development, redevelopment, acquisition, marketing, sales and financing expertise;
scalable operating and support systems, which include automated systems to meet the changing electronic needs of our residents and to effectively focus on our internet marketing efforts;
access to sources of capital;
geographic diversification with a presence in 21 markets across the country; and
significant presence in many of our major markets that allows us to be a local operating expert.

Moving forward, we will continue to optimize lease management, improve expense control, increase resident retention efforts and align employee incentive plans with metrics that impact our bottom-line performance. We believe this plan of operation, coupled with the portfolio’s strengths in targeting renters across a geographically diverse platform, should position us for continued operational upside.

Communities

At December 31, 2021, our consolidated real estate portfolio included 160 communities with a total of 53,229 completed apartment homes. The overall quality of our portfolio generally enables us to raise rents and to attract residents with higher levels of disposable income who are more likely to absorb such rents.

At December 31, 2021, the Company was developing five wholly-owned communities located in Addison, Texas, Denver, Colorado, Dublin, California, Washington, D.C., and King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, totaling 1,417 homes, none of which have been completed, with a budget of $501.5 million, in which we have an investment of $388.6 million. The communities are estimated to be completed between the second quarter of 2022 and the second quarter of 2023.

At December 31, 2021, the Company was not redeveloping any communities.

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Same-Store Community Comparison

We believe that one pertinent quantitative measurement of the performance of our portfolio is tracking the results of our Same-Store Communities’ NOI, which is total rental revenue, less rental and other operating expenses excluding property management. Our Same-Store Community population is comprised of operating communities which we own and have stabilized occupancy, revenues and expenses as of the beginning of the prior year.

Net income attributable to common stockholders was $145.8 million as compared to $60.0 million in the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by higher total NOI, higher gains from dispositions of real estate, higher investment income from unconsolidated entities primarily due to unrealized gains from SmartRent, a portfolio investment of an unconsolidated fund becoming a public company, lower interest expense primarily due to lower debt extinguishment costs and lower interest rates, partially offset by higher debt balances.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, our Same-Store NOI increased by $3.9 million compared to the prior year. Our Same-Store Community properties provided 91.2% of our total NOI for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in NOI for the 45,143 Same-Store apartment homes, or 84.8% of our portfolio, was primarily driven by lower rent concessions, lower vacancy, lower bad debt expense, a decrease in personnel expense and an increase in reimbursement, ancillary and fee income, partially offset by a decrease in rental rates and higher repair and maintenance expense, insurance expense, and real estate tax expense.

Revenue growth in 2022 may be impacted by adverse developments affecting the general economy, inclusive of economic conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced occupancy rates, increased rental concessions, new supply, increased bad debt and other factors which may adversely impact our ability to increase rents.

Tax Matters

UDR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. To continue to qualify as a REIT, UDR must continue to meet certain tests that, among other things, generally require that our assets consist primarily of real estate assets, our income be derived primarily from real estate assets, and that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (other than net capital gains) to our stockholders annually. Provided we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes at the corporate level on our net income to the extent such net income is distributed to our stockholders annually. Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT, we will continue to be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and property.

We may utilize our taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) to engage in activities that REITs may be prohibited from performing, including the provision of management and other services to third parties and the conduct of certain nonqualifying real estate transactions. Our TRS generally is taxable as a regular corporation, and therefore, subject to federal, state and local income taxes.

Inflation

Inflation primarily impacts our results of operations as a result of wage pressures and increases in utilities and repair and maintenance costs. In addition, inflation could also impact our general and administrative expenses, the interest on our debt if variable or refinanced in a high-inflationary environment, and our cost of development activities. However, the majority of our apartment leases have initial terms of 12 months or less, which generally enables us to compensate for inflationary effects by increasing rents on our apartment homes. Although an extreme escalation in costs could have a negative impact on our residents and their ability to absorb rent increases, we do not believe this had a material impact on our results for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Environmental Matters

Various environmental laws govern certain aspects of the ongoing operation of our communities. Such environmental laws include those regulating the existence of asbestos-containing materials in buildings, management of surfaces with lead-based paint (and notices to residents about the lead-based paint), use of active underground petroleum storage tanks, and waste-management activities. The failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to a government enforcement action and/or claims for damages by a private party.

To date, compliance with federal, state and local environmental protection regulations has not had a material effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. We have a property management plan for hazardous

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materials. As part of the plan, Phase I environmental site investigations and reports have been completed for each property we acquire. In addition, all proposed acquisitions are inspected prior to acquisition. The inspections are conducted by qualified environmental consultants, and we review the issued report prior to the purchase or development of any property. Nevertheless, it is possible that the environmental assessments will not reveal all environmental liabilities, or that some material environmental liabilities exist of which we are unaware. In some cases, we have abandoned otherwise economically attractive acquisitions because the costs of removal or control of hazardous materials have been prohibitive or we have been unwilling to accept the potential risks involved. We do not believe we will be required to engage in any large-scale abatement at any of our properties. We believe that through professional environmental inspections and testing for asbestos, lead paint and other hazardous materials, coupled with a relatively conservative posture toward accepting known environmental risk, we can minimize our exposure to potential liability associated with environmental hazards.

Federal legislation requires owners and landlords of residential housing constructed prior to 1978 to disclose to potential residents or purchasers of the communities any known lead paint hazards and imposes treble damages for failure to provide such notification. In addition, lead based paint in any of the communities may result in lead poisoning in children residing in that community if chips or particles of such lead based paint are ingested, and we may be held liable under state laws for any such injuries caused by ingestion of lead based paint by children living at the communities.

We are unaware of any environmental hazards at any of our properties that individually or in the aggregate may have a material adverse impact on our operations or financial position. We have not been notified by any governmental authority, and we are not otherwise aware, of any material non-compliance, liability, or claim relating to environmental liabilities in connection with any of our properties. We do not believe that the cost of continued compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on us or our financial condition or results of operations. Future environmental laws, regulations, or ordinances, however, may require additional remediation of existing conditions that are not currently actionable. Also, if more stringent requirements are imposed on us in the future, the costs of compliance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our financial condition.

Insurance

We carry comprehensive general liability coverage on our communities, with limits of liability customary within the multi-family apartment industry to insure against liability claims and related defense costs. We are also insured, with limits of liability customary within the multi-family apartment industry, against the risk of direct physical damage in amounts necessary to reimburse us on a replacement cost basis for costs incurred to repair or rebuild each property, including loss of rental income during the reconstruction period.

Available Information

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. You may obtain a free copy of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports on the day of filing with the SEC on our website at www.udr.com, or by sending an e-mail message to ir@udr.com.

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Item 1A.

RISK FACTORS

There are many factors that affect the business and the results of operations of the Company, some of which are beyond its control. The following is a description of important factors that may cause the Company’s actual results of operations in future periods to differ materially from those currently expected or discussed in forward-looking statements set forth in this Report relating to our financial results, operations and business prospects. Forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except to the extent otherwise required by law.

Risks Related to Our Real Estate Investments and Our Operations

The Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic and Measures Intended to Prevent its Spread Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on our Business, Results of Operations, Cash Flows and Financial Condition.

Since being first reported in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread globally, including to every state in the United States. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and on March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency with respect to COVID-19. The pandemic led governments and other authorities around the world, including federal, state and local authorities in the United States, to impose measures intended to control its spread, including restrictions on freedom of movement and business operations such as travel bans, border closings, business closures, quarantines and shelter-in-place orders. While operations have been allowed to fully or partially re-open, no assurance can be given that similar closures or restrictions will not be reinstated or new restrictions imposed in the future. Our headquarters and all of our properties and our corporate offices are located in areas that have been subject to shelter-in-place orders and restrictions on the types of businesses that may continue to operate or the manner in which they may operate, and no assurance can be given that such restrictions or other restrictions will not be reinstated in the future.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures to prevent its spread could materially and adversely affect our business in a number of ways. Our rental revenue and operating results depend significantly on the occupancy levels at our properties and the ability of our residents and retail and commercial tenants to meet their rent obligations to us, which have been in certain cases, and could continue to be, adversely affected by, among other things, job losses, furloughs, store closures, lower incomes and uncertainty about the future as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental actions. In addition, numerous state, local and federal efforts, including eviction moratoriums, shelter-in-place orders, prohibitions on charging certain fees and limitations on collection laws, have affected, and, if such restrictions are not lifted, or are reinstated, or new restrictions imposed, may continue to affect our ability to collect rent or enforce legal or contractual remedies for the failure to pay rent, which have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our ability to remove residents or retail and commercial tenants who are not paying rent and our ability to rent their units or other space to new residents or retail and commercial tenants, respectively. Although many of these measures have been lifted, additional cases of COVID-19 and new variants thereof have resulted in, and may continue to result in, governments reinstating these or similar measures. Early in 2021, the federal government allocated funds to rent relief programs to be run by state and local authorities. Under certain of such programs funds have not been, and may not be distributed in a timely manner. In certain locations the funds available may not be sufficient to pay all past due rent and reallocation of such funds may result in markets in which we operate not having access to the funds anticipated. Further, certain of our residents with past due rent may not qualify to participate in such programs. In addition, some of such programs have required, and programs in the future may require, the forgiveness of a portion of the past due rent or agreeing to other limitations that may adversely affect our business in order to participate or may only provide funds to pay a portion of the past due rent. In addition, while certain locations have adopted programs that may reimburse past due rent owed by residents who have left a community, such programs have only been adopted in a minority of our markets and most of the programs that have been adopted are not yet distributing funds. It is uncertain how the rent relief programs will impact our business. State, local, and federal governments also have increased, and may in the future increase, property taxes or other taxes, or fees, or may enact new taxes or fees, in order to increase revenue, which has in the past increased, and may in the future increase our expenses. Our development and construction projects, including those in our Developer Capital Program, also could be adversely affected, including as a result of disruptions in supply chains or as a result of delayed construction schedules due to social distancing efforts, vaccine mandates impacting staffing, or occurrences of the virus at a construction site although, to date, such impacts have not been material. The COVID-19 pandemic or related impacts thereof also could adversely affect the businesses and financial conditions of our counterparties, including our joint venture partners, participants in the Developer Capital Program, and general contractors and their subcontractors, and their ability to satisfy their obligations to us and to

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complete transactions or projects with us as intended. Further, state and local governments have instituted, or such authorities or the federal government could in the future institute, vaccine mandates that apply to our associates in certain jurisdictions, which may impact our ability to operate our business in the ordinary course or result in an increased cost to do so. In addition, a significant number of our retail tenants were, and may in the future be, forced to close, either temporarily or completely, or operate on a limited basis as a result of COVID-19 and related government actions, including staffing challenges created thereby, which has resulted in, and could continue to result in, delays in rent payments, rent concessions, early lease terminations or tenant bankruptcies.

The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration and intensity of the pandemic, the emergence and characteristics of new variants, the timing and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines (including against COVID-19 variant strains), the creation and duration of, or the reinstatement of, government measures to mitigate the pandemic or address its effects, including vaccine mandates, the timing and effectiveness of government rent relief programs and the timing and effectiveness of vaccine administration, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, we are not able at this time to estimate the full effect of these factors on our business, but the adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.

Unfavorable Apartment Market and Economic Conditions Could Adversely Affect Occupancy Levels, Rental Revenues and the Value of Our Real Estate Assets. Unfavorable market conditions in the areas in which we operate or unfavorable economic conditions generally, including as a result of COVID-19, may significantly affect our occupancy levels, our rental rates and collections, the value of our properties and our ability to acquire or dispose of apartment communities on economically favorable terms. Our ability to lease our properties at favorable rates is adversely affected by the increase in supply in the multifamily and other rental markets and is dependent upon the overall level in the economy, which is adversely affected by, among other things, job losses and unemployment levels, recession, debt levels, housing markets, stock market volatility and uncertainty about the future. Some of our major expenses generally do not decline when related rents decline. We would expect that declines in our occupancy levels and rental revenues would cause us to have less cash available to pay our indebtedness and to distribute to UDR’s stockholders, which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market value of our securities. Factors that may affect our occupancy levels, our rental revenues, and/or the value of our properties include the following, among others:

downturns in the global, national, regional and local economic conditions, particularly increases in unemployment;
declines in mortgage interest rates, making alternative housing more affordable;
government or builder incentives with respect to home ownership, making alternative housing options more attractive;
local real estate market conditions, including oversupply of, or reduced demand for, apartment homes;
declines in the financial condition of our tenants, which may make it more difficult for us to collect rents from some tenants;
changes in market rental rates;
our ability to renew leases or re-lease space on favorable terms;
the timing and costs associated with property improvements, repairs or renovations;
changes in household formation; and
rent control or stabilization laws, or other laws regulating or impacting rental housing, which could prevent us from raising rents to offset increases in operating costs or otherwise impact us.

The Geographic Concentration of Our Communities in Certain Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Operations if a Particular Market is Adversely Impacted by Economic or Other Conditions. For the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 56.6% of our total NOI was generated from communities located in Metropolitan D.C. (17.0%), Orange County, CA (13.3%), Boston, MA (11.7%), the San Francisco Bay Area, CA (7.6%) and Seattle, WA (7.0%). As a result, if any one or more of these markets is adversely impacted by regional or local economic conditions or real estate market conditions, such conditions may have a greater adverse impact on our results of operations than if our portfolio was more geographically diverse. For example, the urban core markets of New York, NY, San Francisco Bay Area, CA, and Boston, MA have been more adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in

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comparison to our other markets, resulting in larger decreases in rental income from elevated rent concessions and lower occupancy in those markets. In addition, if one or more of these markets is adversely affected by changes in regional or local regulations, including those related to rent control or stabilization, such regulations may have a greater adverse impact on our results of operation than if our portfolio was more geographically diverse.

We May Be Unable to Renew Leases or Relet Apartment Units as Leases Expire, or the Terms of Renewals or New Leases May Be Less Favorable Than Current Leases. When our residents decide to leave our apartments, whether because they decide not to renew their leases or they leave prior to their lease expiration date, we may not be able to relet their apartment units. Even if the residents do renew or we can relet the apartment units, the terms of renewal or reletting may be less favorable than current lease terms. Furthermore, because the majority of our apartment leases have initial terms of 12 months or less, our rental revenues are impacted by declines in market rents more quickly than if our leases were for longer terms. If we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the apartment units, or if the rental rates upon renewal or reletting are lower than expected rates, then our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. If residents do not experience increases in their income or if they experience decreases in their income or job losses, we may be unable to increase or maintain rent and/or delinquencies may increase.

We Face Certain Risks Related to Our Retail and Commercial Space. Certain of our properties include retail or commercial space that we lease to third parties. The long term nature of our retail and commercial leases (generally five to ten years with market-based or fixed-price renewal options) and the characteristics of many of our tenants (generally small and/or local businesses) may subject us to certain risks, including risks related to such tenants being required not to operate, or to operate on a limited basis, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The longer term leases could result in below market lease rates over time, particularly in an inflationary environment. Tenants may provide guarantees and other credit support which may prove to be inadequate or uncollectable, and the failure rate of small and/or local businesses may be higher than average. We may not be able to lease new space for rents that are consistent with our projections or for market rates. Also, when leases for our retail or commercial space terminate either at the end of the lease or because a tenant leaves early, the space may not be relet or the terms of reletting, including the cost of allowances and concessions to tenants, may be less favorable than the prior lease terms or we may incur additional expenses related to modifications of the spaces in order to satisfy new tenants. Our properties compete with other properties with retail or commercial space. The presence of competitive alternatives may adversely affect our ability to lease space and the level of rents we can obtain. Our retail or commercial tenants have in the past and may in the future experience financial distress or bankruptcy, or fail to comply with their contractual obligations, seek concessions in order to continue operations, or cease their operations, which could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Risk of Inflation/Deflation. Substantial inflationary or deflationary pressures could have a negative effect on rental rates and property operating expenses. The general risk of inflation is that interest on our debt, general and administrative expenses and other expenses increase at a rate faster than increases in our rental rates, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

We Are Subject to Certain Risks Associated with Selling Apartment Communities, Which Could Limit Our Operational and Financial Flexibility. We periodically dispose of apartment communities that no longer meet our strategic objectives, but adverse market conditions may make it difficult to sell apartment communities we own. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms we set, or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a property. Furthermore, we may be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a property can be sold or the purchase price may be reduced to cover any cost of correcting defects or making improvements. These conditions may limit our ability to dispose of properties and to change our portfolio in order to meet our strategic objectives, which could in turn adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or our ability to fund other activities in which we may want to engage such as the purchase of properties, development or redevelopment, or funding the Developer Capital Program. We are also subject to the following risks in connection with sales of our apartment communities, among others:

a significant portion of the proceeds from some property sales may be held by intermediaries in order for such sales to qualify as like-kind exchanges under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” so that any related capital gain can be deferred for federal income tax purposes. As a result, we may not have immediate access to all of the cash proceeds generated from our property sales; and

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federal tax laws limit our ability to profit on the sale of communities that we have owned for less than two years, and this limitation may prevent us from selling communities when market conditions are favorable.

Competition Could Limit Our Ability to Lease Apartment Homes or Increase or Maintain Rents. Our apartment communities compete with numerous housing alternatives in attracting residents, including other apartment communities, condominiums and single-family rental homes, as well as owner occupied single- and multi-family homes. Competitive housing in a particular area could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and increase or maintain rents, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We May Not Realize the Anticipated Benefits of Past or Future Acquisitions, and the Failure to Integrate Acquired Communities and New Personnel Successfully Could Create Inefficiencies. We have selectively acquired in the past, and if presented with attractive opportunities we intend to selectively acquire in the future, apartment communities that meet our investment criteria. Our acquisition activities and their success are subject to the following risks, among others:

we may be unable to obtain financing for acquisitions on favorable terms, including but not limited to interest rates, term and/or loan-to-value ratios, or at all, all of which could cause us to delay or even abandon potential acquisitions;
even if we are able to finance the acquisition, cash flow from the acquisition may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments on the debt used to finance the acquisition;
even if we enter into an acquisition agreement for an apartment community, we may not complete the acquisition for a variety of reasons after incurring certain acquisition-related costs;
we may incur significant costs and divert management attention in connection with the evaluation and negotiation of potential acquisitions, including potential acquisitions that we subsequently do not complete;
when we acquire an apartment community, we may invest additional amounts in it with the intention of increasing profitability, and these additional investments may not produce the anticipated improvements in profitability;
the expected occupancy rates and rental rates may differ from actual results; and
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate acquired apartment communities and new personnel into our existing operations, and the failure to successfully integrate such apartment communities or personnel will result in inefficiencies that could materially and adversely affect our expected return on our investments and our overall profitability.

Competition Could Adversely Affect Our Ability to Acquire Properties. In the past, other real estate investors, including insurance companies, pension and investment funds, developer partnerships, investment companies and other public and private apartment REITs, have competed with us to acquire existing properties and to develop new properties, and such competition in the future may make it more difficult for us to acquire attractive investment opportunities on favorable terms, which could adversely affect our ability to grow or acquire properties profitably or with attractive returns.

Development and Construction Risks Could Impact Our Profitability. In the past we have selectively pursued the development and construction of apartment communities, and we intend to do so in the future as appropriate opportunities arise. Development activities have been, and in the future may be, conducted through wholly-owned affiliated companies or through joint ventures with unaffiliated parties. Our development and construction activities are subject to the following risks, among others:

we may be unable to obtain construction financing for development activities on favorable terms, including but not limited to interest rates, term and/or loan-to-value ratios, or at all, which could cause us to delay or even abandon potential developments;
we may be unable to obtain, or face delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental or quasi-governmental permits and authorizations, which could result in increased development costs, could delay initial occupancy dates for all or a portion of a development community, and could require us to abandon our activities entirely with respect to a project for which we are unable to obtain permits or authorizations;

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cost may be higher or yields may be less than anticipated as a result of delays in completing projects, costs that exceed budget, defaults by our counterparties, and/or higher than expected concessions for lease-up and lower rents than expected;
we may abandon development opportunities that we have already begun to explore, and we may fail to recover expenses already incurred in connection with exploring such development opportunities;
we may be unable to complete construction and lease-up of a community on schedule, or incur development or construction costs that exceed our original estimates, and we may be unable to charge rents that would compensate for any increase in such costs;
occupancy rates, rents and concessions at a newly developed community may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including market and economic conditions, preventing us from meeting our expected return on our investment and our overall profitability goals; and
when we sell communities or properties that we developed or renovated to third parties, we may be subject to warranty or construction defect claims that are uninsured or exceed the limits of our insurance.

Bankruptcy or Defaults of Our Counterparties Could Adversely Affect Our Performance. We have relationships with and, from time to time, we execute transactions with or receive services from many counterparties, such as general contractors engaged in connection with our development activities, borrowers, or joint venture partners, among others. As a result, bankruptcies or defaults by these counterparties or their subcontractors have resulted in, and in the future could result in, services not being provided as expected, projects not being completed on time, or on budget, or at all, or contractual obligations to us not being satisfied, or volatility in the financial markets and economic weakness could affect the counterparties’ ability to complete transactions with us as intended, both of which could result in disruptions to our operations that may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Property Ownership Through Partnerships and Joint Ventures May Limit Our Ability to Act Exclusively in Our Interest. We have in the past and may in the future develop and/or acquire properties in partnerships and joint ventures, including those in which we own a preferred interest, with other persons or entities when we believe circumstances warrant the use of such structures. As of December 31, 2021, we had active joint ventures and partnerships, including our preferred equity investments, with a total equity investment of $702.5 million. We have in the past and could in the future become engaged in a dispute with one or more of our partners which could adversely impact us. Moreover, our partners may have business, economic or other objectives that are inconsistent with our objectives, including objectives that relate to the appropriate timing and terms of any sale or refinancing of a property. In some instances, our partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest. Also, our partners might fail to make capital contributions when due or may otherwise not act as expected, which may require us to contribute additional capital or may negatively impact the project. In addition, we may be responsible to our partners for indemnifiable losses. In general, we and our partners may each have the right to trigger a buy-sell or other similar arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partner’s interest, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction and may result in the valuation of our interest in the partnership or joint venture (if we are the seller) or of the other partner’s interest in the partnership or joint venture (if we are the buyer) at levels which may not be representative of the valuation that would result from an arm’s length marketing process and could cause us to recognize unanticipated capital gains or losses or the loss of fee income.

We are also subject to other risks in connection with partnerships or joint ventures, including (i) a deadlock if we and our partner are unable to agree upon certain major and other decisions (which could result in litigation or disposing of an asset at a time at which we otherwise would not sell the asset), (ii) limitations on our ability to liquidate our position in the partnership or joint venture without the consent of the other partner, and (iii) requirements to provide guarantees in favor of lenders with respect to the indebtedness of the joint venture.

We May Not be Permitted to Dispose of Certain Properties or Pay Down the Indebtedness Associated with Those Properties When We Might Otherwise Desire to do so Without Incurring Additional Costs. In connection with certain property acquisitions, we have agreed with the sellers that we will not dispose of the acquired properties or reduce the mortgage indebtedness on such properties for significant periods of time unless we pay certain of the resulting tax costs of the sellers or dispose of the property in a transaction in which a gain is not recognized for federal income tax purposes by such sellers, and we may enter into similar agreements in connection with future property acquisitions. These agreements could result in us retaining properties that we would otherwise sell or not paying down or refinancing indebtedness that we would otherwise pay down or refinance. However, subject to certain conditions, we retain the right to substitute other property or debt to meet these obligations to the sellers.

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We Could Incur Significant Insurance Costs and Some Potential Losses May Not Be Adequately Covered by Insurance. We have a comprehensive insurance program covering our properties and operating activities with limits of liability, deductibles and self-insured retentions customary within the multifamily industry. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate. There are, however, certain types of extraordinary losses which may not be adequately covered under our insurance program. In addition, we will sustain losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insured retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage.

If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. In such an event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property. Material losses in excess of insurance proceeds may occur in the future. If one or more of our properties were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could seriously disrupt our operations, delay revenue and result in large expenses to repair or rebuild the property. Such events could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The cost of insuring our apartment communities and our operations is a component of expense. Insurance premiums and the terms and conditions of insurance policies are subject to significant fluctuations and changes, which are generally outside of our control. We insure our properties and our operations with insurance companies that we believe have a good rating at the time our policies are put into effect. The financial condition of one or more insurance companies that insure us may be negatively impacted, which could result in their inability to pay on future insurance claims. Their inability to pay future claims may have a negative impact on our financial results. In addition, the failure, or exit or partial exit from an insurance market, of one or more insurance companies may affect our ability to obtain insurance coverage in the amounts that we seek, or at all, or increase the costs to renew or replace our insurance policies, or cause us to self-insure a portion of the risk, or increase the cost of insuring properties.

Failure to Succeed in New Markets May Limit Our Growth. We have acquired in the past, and we may acquire in the future if opportunities we believe are appropriate arise, apartment communities that are outside of our existing markets. Entering into new markets may expose us to a variety of risks, and we may not be able to operate successfully in new markets. These risks include, among others:

inability to accurately evaluate local apartment market conditions and local economies;
inability to hire and retain key personnel;
lack of familiarity with local governmental and permitting rules and procedures; and
inability to achieve budgeted financial results.

Failure to Succeed with New Initiatives May Limit Our Ability to Grow NOI. We have in the past developed and may in the future develop initiatives that are intended to drive operating efficiencies and grow NOI, including smart home technologies and self-service options that are accessible to residents through smart devices or otherwise. Such initiatives in the past have involved and in the future may involve our associates having new or different responsibilities and processes. We may incur significant costs and divert resources in connection with such initiatives, and these initiatives may not perform as projected, which could adversely affect our results of operations and the market price of UDR’s common stock.

Potential Liability for Environmental Contamination Could Result in Substantial Costs. Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, as a current or former owner or operator of real estate, we could be required to investigate and remediate the effects of contamination of currently or formerly owned real estate by hazardous or toxic substances, often regardless of our knowledge of or responsibility for the contamination and solely by virtue of our current or former ownership or operation of the real estate. In addition, we could be held liable to a governmental authority or to third parties for property damage and for investigation and clean-up costs incurred in connection with the contamination or we could be required to incur additional costs to change how the property is constructed or operated due to presence of such substances. These costs could be substantial, and in many cases environmental laws create liens in favor of governmental authorities to secure their payment. The presence of such substances or a failure to properly remediate any resulting contamination could materially and adversely affect our ability to borrow against, sell or rent an affected property.

In addition, our properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws, including laws governing the management of wastes and underground and aboveground storage tanks. Noncompliance

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with these environmental, health and safety laws could subject us to liability. Changes in laws could increase the potential costs of compliance with environmental laws, health and safety laws or increase liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures or may otherwise adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

As the owner or operator of real property, we may also incur liability based on various building conditions. For example, buildings and other structures on properties that we currently own or operate or those we acquire or operate in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained, asbestos-containing material, or ACM, or other hazardous substances. Environmental, health and safety laws require that ACM and other hazardous substances be properly managed and maintained and may impose fines or penalties on owners, operators or employers for non-compliance with those requirements.

These requirements include special precautions, such as removal, abatement or air monitoring, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, renovation or demolition of a building, potentially resulting in substantial costs. In addition, we may be subject to liability for personal injury or property damage sustained as a result of exposure to ACM or other hazardous substances or releases of ACM or other hazardous substances into the environment.

We cannot assure you that costs or liabilities incurred as a result of environmental or building condition issues will not adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our Properties May Contain or Develop Harmful Mold or Suffer from Other Indoor Air Quality Issues, Which Could Lead to Liability for Adverse Health Effects or Property Damage or Cost for Remediation. When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants or to increase ventilation, which could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants or others for property damage or personal injury.

Compliance or Failure to Comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or Other Safety Regulations and Requirements Could Result in Substantial Costs. The Americans with Disabilities Act generally requires that public buildings, including our properties, be made accessible to disabled persons. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by the federal government or the award of damages to private litigants. Claims have been asserted, and in the future claims may be asserted, against us with respect to some of our properties under the Americans with Disabilities Act. If, under the Americans with Disabilities Act, we are required to make substantial alterations and capital expenditures in one or more of our properties, including the removal of access barriers, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if claims arise, we may expend resources and incur costs in investigating and resolving such claims even if our property was in compliance with the law.

Our properties are subject to various federal, state and local regulatory requirements, such as state and local fire and life safety requirements and federal, state and local accessibility requirements in addition to those imposed by the Americans with Disabilities Act. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could incur fines or private damage awards. We do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether compliance with future requirements will require significant unanticipated expenditures that could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

The Adoption of, or Changes to, Rent Control, Rent Stabilization, Eviction, Tenants’ Rights and Similar Laws and Regulations in Our Markets Could Have an Adverse Effect on Our Results of Operations and Property Values. Various state and local governments have enacted and may continue to enact rent control, rent stabilization, or limitations, and similar laws and regulations that could limit our ability to raise rents or charge certain fees, including laws or court orders, either of which could have a retroactive effect. For example, in June 2019, the State of New York enacted new rent control regulations known as the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019 and, in October of 2019, the State of California enacted the Tenant Protection Act of 2019. We have seen a recent increase in governments enacting or considering, or being urged to consider, such laws and regulations. Federal, state and local governments or courts also have made, and may make in the future, changes to laws related to allowable fees and rents,

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eviction and other tenants’ rights laws and regulations (including changes in response to COVID-19 and other changes that apply retroactively) that could adversely impact our results of operations and the value of our properties. Laws and regulations regarding rent control, rent stabilization, eviction, tenants’ rights, and similar matters, as well as any lawsuits against us arising from such laws and regulations, may limit our ability to charge market rents, limit our ability to increase rents, evict delinquent tenants or change fees, or recover increases in our operating expenses, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of our properties.

Compliance with or Changes in Real Estate Tax and Other Laws and Regulations Could Adversely Affect Our Funds from Operations and Our Ability to Make Distributions to Stockholders. We are subject to federal, state and local laws, regulations, rules and ordinances at locations where we operate regarding a wide variety of matters that could affect, directly or indirectly, our operations. Generally, we do not directly pass through costs resulting from compliance with or changes in real estate tax laws to residential property tenants. We also do not generally pass through increases in income, service or other taxes to tenants under leases. These costs may adversely affect net operating income and the ability to make distributions to stockholders. Similarly, compliance with or changes in (i) laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on properties or the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, (ii) laws and regulations regulating housing, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, or (iii) employment related laws, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, changes in federal and state legislation and regulation on climate change may result in increased capital expenditures to improve the energy efficiency of our existing communities and also may require us to spend more on our new development communities without a corresponding increase in revenue.

Risk of Damage from Catastrophic Weather and Natural Events. Our communities are located in areas that have or in the future may experience catastrophic weather and other natural events from time to time, including mudslides, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, snow or ice storms, or other severe inclement weather. These adverse weather and natural events could cause damage or losses that may be greater than insured levels. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, we could lose our capital invested in the affected community, as well as anticipated future revenue from that community. We would also continue to be obligated to repay any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the community. Any such loss could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Risk of Potential Climate Change. To the extent significant changes in the climate in areas where our communities are located occur, we may experience extreme weather conditions and changes in precipitation and temperature or water levels, all of which could result in physical damage to, and/or a decrease in demand for, our communities located in these areas or communities that are otherwise affected by these changes. Should the impact of such climate changes be material in nature, or occur for lengthy periods of time, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risk of Earthquake Damage. Some of our communities are located in areas subject to earthquakes, including in the general vicinity of earthquake faults. We cannot assure you that an earthquake would not cause damage or losses greater than insured levels. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, we could lose our capital invested in the affected community, as well as anticipated future revenue from that community. We may also continue to be obligated to repay any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the community. Any such loss could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Insurance coverage for earthquakes can be costly due to limited industry capacity. As a result, we may experience shortages in desired coverage levels if market conditions are such that insurance is not available or the cost of insurance makes it, in management’s view, economically impractical.

Risk of Accidental Death or Injury Due to Fire, Natural Disasters or Other Hazards. The accidental death or injury of persons living in our communities due to fire, natural disasters, other hazards, or acts or omissions of third parties could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Our insurance coverage may not cover all losses associated with such events, and we may experience difficulty marketing communities where any such events have occurred, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Actual or Threatened Terrorist Attacks May Have an Adverse Effect on Our Business and Operating Results and Could Decrease the Value of Our Assets. Actual or threatened terrorist attacks and other acts of violence, destruction or war could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. Attacks or other similar actions that directly impact one or more of our apartment communities could significantly affect our ability to operate those communities and thereby impair our ability to achieve our expected results. Further, our insurance coverage may not cover all losses caused by a terrorist attack or similar events. In addition, the adverse effects that such violent acts and threats of future

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attacks could have on the U.S. economy could similarly have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Mezzanine Loan Assets Involve Greater Risks of Loss than Senior Loans Secured by Income-Producing Properties. We have in the past and may in the future originate mezzanine loans, which take the form of subordinated loans secured by second mortgages on the underlying property or subordinated loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning the property or a pledge of the ownership interests of the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the property. Mezzanine loans may involve a higher degree of risk than a senior mortgage secured by real property, because the security for the loan may lose all or substantially all of its value as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender and because it is in second position and there may not be adequate equity in the property. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, we may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity may not be sufficient to satisfy our mezzanine loan. If a borrower defaults on our mezzanine loan or debt senior to our loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, our mezzanine loan will be satisfied only after the senior debt. As a result, we may not recover some of or all our investment. In addition, mezzanine loans typically have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the property and increasing the risk of loss of principal.

Risk Related to Preferred Equity Investments. We have made in the past and may in the future make preferred equity investments in corporations, limited partnerships, limited liability companies or other entities that have been formed for the purpose of directly or indirectly acquiring, developing or managing real property. Generally, we will not have the ability to control the daily operations of the entity, and we will not have the ability to select or remove a majority of the members of the board of directors, managers, general partner or partners or similar governing body of the entity or otherwise control its operations. Although we would seek to maintain sufficient influence over the entity to achieve our objectives, our partners may have interests that differ from ours and may be in a position to take actions without our consent or that are inconsistent with our interests. Further, if our partners were to fail to invest additional capital in the entity when required, we may have to invest additional capital to protect our investment. Our partners may fail to develop or operate the real property, operate the entity, refinance property indebtedness or sell the real property in the manner intended and as a result the entity may not be able to redeem our investment or pay the return expected to us in a timely manner if at all. In addition, we may not be able to dispose of our investment in the entity in a timely manner or at the price at which we would want to divest. In the event that such an entity fails to meet expectations or becomes insolvent, we may lose our entire investment in the entity.

Risks Related to Ground Leases. We have in the past and may in the future enter into, as either landlord or tenant, a long-term ground lease with respect to a property or a portion thereof. Such ground leases may contain a rent reset provision that requires both parties to agree to a new rent or is based upon factors, for example fair market rent, that are not objective and are not within our control. We may not be able to agree with the counterparty to a revised rental rate, or the revised rental rate may be set by external factors, which could result in a different rental rate than we forecasted. In the past we have had disagreements with respect to revised rental rates and certain of such disagreements have gone to arbitration (for resolution as provided in the applicable lease agreement) and have been resolved in a manner adverse to us. In addition, the other party may not perform as expected under the ground lease or there may be a dispute with the other party to the ground lease. Any of these circumstances could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

We May Experience a Decline in the Fair Value of Our Assets and Be Forced to Recognize Impairment Charges, Which Could Adversely Impact Our Financial Condition, Liquidity and Results of Operations and the Market Price of UDRs Common Stock. A decline in the fair value of our assets may require us to recognize an impairment against such assets under generally accepted accounting principles as in effect in the United States (“GAAP”), if we were to determine that, with respect to any assets in unrealized loss positions, we do not have the ability and intent to hold such assets for a period of time sufficient to allow for recovery to the amortized cost of such assets. If such a determination were to be made, we would recognize unrealized losses through earnings and write down the amortized cost of such assets to a new cost basis, based on the fair value of such assets on the date they are considered to be impaired. Such impairment charges reflect non-cash losses at the time of recognition; subsequent disposition or sale of such assets could further affect our future losses or gains, as they are based on the difference between the sale price received and adjusted amortized cost of such assets at the time of sale. If we are required to recognize asset impairment charges in the future, these charges could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and the per share trading price of UDR’s common stock.

Any Material Weaknesses Identified in Our Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Could Have an Adverse Effect on UDRs Stock Price. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate and report on our

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internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls as a result of changes to our business or otherwise, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely harmed and we could fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, if we have one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which in turn could have an adverse effect on the per share trading price of UDR’s common stock.

A Breach of Information Technology Systems On Which We Rely Could Materially and Adversely Impact Our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Reputation. We rely on information technology systems, including the internet and networks and systems and software developed, maintained and controlled by third party vendors and other third parties, to process, transmit and store information and to manage or support our business processes. Third party vendors may collect and hold personally identifiable information and other confidential information of our tenants, prospective tenants and employees. We also maintain financial and business information regarding us and persons and entities with which we do business on our information technology systems. While we take steps, and generally require third party vendors to take steps, to protect the security of the information maintained in our and third party vendors’ information technology systems, including associate training and testing and the use of commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmitting and storing of the information, it is possible that our or our third party vendors’ security measures will not be able to prevent human error or the systems’ or software’s improper functioning, or the loss, misappropriation, disclosure or corruption of personally identifiable information or other confidential or sensitive information, including information about our tenants and employees. Cybersecurity breaches, including physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, malware, phishing scams, attacks by hackers, breaches due to employee error or misconduct, and similar breaches, can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized access to information maintained on our information technology systems or the information technology systems of our third party vendors or other third parties or otherwise cause disruption or negative impacts to occur to our business and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. While we maintain cyber risk insurance to provide some coverage for certain risks arising out of cybersecurity breaches, there is no assurance that such insurance would cover all or a significant portion of the costs or consequences associated with a cybersecurity breach or other occurrence or that such insurance will continue to be available at rates that we consider reasonable or at all. We have in the past experienced cybersecurity breaches on our information technology systems or relating to software that we utilize, and, while none to date have been material, we expect such breaches may occur in the future. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to information technology systems become more varied and sophisticated and the occurrence of such breaches becomes more frequent, we and our third party vendors and other third parties may be unable to adequately anticipate these techniques or breaches or implement appropriate preventative measures. Any failure to prevent cybersecurity breaches and maintain the proper function, security and availability of our or our third party vendors’ and other third parties’ information technology systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation and brand, damage our competitive position, make it difficult for us to attract and retain residents or other tenants, and subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our Business and Operations Would Suffer in the Event of Information Technology System Failures. Despite system redundancy and the existence of disaster recovery plans for our information technology systems, our information technology systems and the information technology systems maintained by our third party vendors are vulnerable to damage arising from any number of sources beyond our or our third party vendors’ control, including energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication failures. Any failure to maintain proper function and availability of our or third parties’ information technology systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation, subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A Failure to Keep Pace with Developments in Technology Could Impair our Operations or Competitive Position. Our business continues to demand the use of sophisticated systems, software and technology. These systems, software and technologies must be refined, updated and replaced on a regular basis in order for us to meet our business requirements and our residents’ demands and expectations. If we are unable to do so on a timely basis or at a reasonable cost, or fail to do so our business could suffer. Also, we may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new system, software or technology, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or could adversely affect our results of operation.

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Social Media Presents Risks. The use of social media could cause us to suffer brand damage or unintended information disclosure. Negative posts or communications about us on a social networking website could damage our reputation. Further, employees or others may disclose non-public information regarding us or our business or otherwise make negative comments regarding us on social networking or other websites, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. As social media evolves we will be presented with new risks and challenges.

Our Success Depends on Our Senior Management. Our success depends upon the retention of our senior management, whose continued service is not guaranteed. We may not be able to find qualified replacements for the individuals who make up our senior management if their services should no longer be available to us. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in U.S. Accounting Standards May Materially and Adversely Affect Our Reported Results of Operations. Accounting for public companies in the United States is in accordance with GAAP, which is established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), an independent body whose standards are recognized by the SEC as authoritative for publicly held companies. Uncertainties posed by various initiatives of accounting standard-setting by the FASB and the SEC, which create and interpret applicable accounting standards for U.S. companies, may change the financial accounting and reporting standards or their interpretation and application of these standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes could have a material impact on our reported financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in potentially material restatements of prior period financial statements.

Third-Party Expectations Relating to Environmental, Social and Governance Factors May Impose Additional Costs and Expose Us to New Risks. There is an increasing focus from certain investors, tenants, employees, and other stakeholders concerning corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social and governance factors. In addition, there is an increased focus on such matters by various regulatory authorities. Some investors may use these factors to guide their investment strategies and, in some cases, may choose not to invest in us if they believe our policies relating to corporate responsibility are inadequate. Third-party providers of corporate responsibility ratings and reports on companies have increased in number, resulting in varied and in some cases inconsistent standards. In addition, the criteria by which companies’ corporate responsibility practices are assessed and the regulations applicable thereto are evolving, which could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives or activities to satisfy such new criteria or regulations. Further, if we elect not to or are unable to satisfy such new criteria or do not meet the criteria of a specific third-party provider, some investors may conclude that our policies with respect to corporate responsibility are inadequate. We may face reputational damage in the event that our corporate responsibility procedures or standards do not meet the standards set by various constituencies. Furthermore, if our competitors’ corporate responsibility performance is perceived to be greater than ours, potential or current investors may elect to invest in our competitors instead. In addition, in the event that we communicate certain initiatives and goals regarding environmental, social and governance matters, we could fail, or be perceived to fail, in our achievement of such initiatives or goals, or we could be criticized for the scope of such initiatives or goals. If we fail to satisfy the expectations of investors, tenants and other stakeholders or our initiatives are not executed as planned, our reputation and financial results could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financings

Insufficient Cash Flow Could Affect Our Debt Financing and Create Refinancing Risk. We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our operating income and cash flow will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, could restrict or limit our ability to incur additional debt, or could restrict our borrowing capacity under our line of credit due to debt covenant restraints. Sufficient cash flow may not be available to make all required debt payments and satisfy UDR’s distribution requirements to maintain its status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In addition, the amounts under our line of credit may not be available to us and we may not be able to access the commercial paper market if our operating performance falls outside the constraints of our debt covenants. We are also likely to need to refinance substantially all of our outstanding debt as it matures. We may not be able to refinance existing debt, or the terms of any refinancing may not be as favorable as the terms of the existing debt, which could create pressures to sell assets or to issue additional equity when we would otherwise not choose to do so. In addition, our failure to comply with our debt covenants could result in a requirement to repay our indebtedness prior to its maturity, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flow, and increase our financing costs and impact our ability to make distributions to UDR’s stockholders.

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Failure to Generate Sufficient Income Could Impair Debt Service Payments and Distributions to Stockholders. If our apartment communities do not generate sufficient revenue to meet rental expenses, our ability to make required payments of interest and principal on our debt securities and to pay dividends or distributions will be adversely affected. The following factors, among others, may affect the income generated by our apartment communities:

the national and local economies;
local real estate market conditions, such as an oversupply of apartment homes;
tenants’ perceptions of the safety, convenience, and attractiveness of our communities and the neighborhoods where they are located;
our ability to provide adequate management, maintenance and insurance;
rental expenses, including real estate taxes and utilities;
competition from other apartment communities;
changes in interest rates and the availability of financing;
changes in governmental regulations and the related costs of compliance; and
changes in tax and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing.

Expenses associated with our investment in an apartment community, such as debt service, real estate taxes, insurance and maintenance costs, are generally not reduced when circumstances cause a reduction in revenue from that community. If a community is mortgaged to secure payment of debt and we are unable to make the mortgage payments, we could sustain a loss as a result of foreclosure on the community or the exercise of other remedies by the mortgage holder.

Changing Interest Rates Could Increase Interest Costs and Adversely Affect Our Cash Flow and the Market Price of Our Securities. We currently have, and expect to incur in the future, interest-bearing debt, including unsecured commercial paper, at rates that vary with market interest rates. As of December 31, 2021, UDR had approximately $311.5 million of variable rate indebtedness outstanding, which constitutes approximately 5.8% of total outstanding indebtedness as of such date. An increase in interest rates would increase our interest expenses and increase the costs of refinancing existing indebtedness and of issuing new debt, including unsecured commercial paper. Accordingly, higher interest rates could adversely affect cash flow and our ability to service our debt and to make distributions to security holders. The effect of prolonged interest rate increases could negatively impact our ability to make acquisitions and develop properties.

The Phase-Out of LIBOR and Transition to an Alternative Benchmark Interest Rate Could Have Adverse Effects. The administrator of LIBOR ceased the publication of the one week and two month LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021, and intends to cease the publication of the remaining USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on June 30, 2023. The Alternative Reference Rate Committee has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the preferred alternative to LIBOR. SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities, published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. It is expected that new contracts will not reference LIBOR and will instead use SOFR or other alternative reference rates. Due to the broad use of LIBOR as a reference rate, all financial market participants, including us, are impacted by the risks associated with this transition and therefore it could adversely affect our operations and cash flows.

Our Debt Level May Be Increased. Our ability to incur debt is limited by covenants in our bank and other credit agreements. We manage our debt to be in compliance with these debt covenants, but subject to compliance with these covenants, we may increase the amount of our debt at any time without a concurrent improvement in our ability to service the additional debt.

Financing May Not Be Available and Could Be Dilutive. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends on our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit, construction loans and other forms of secured debt, commercial paper and other forms of unsecured debt, and equity financing, including common and preferred equity. We and other companies in the real estate industry have experienced limited availability of financing from time to time, including due to regulatory changes directly or indirectly affecting financing markets, for

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example the changes in terms on construction loans brought about by the Basel III capital requirements and the associated “High Volatility Commercial Real Estate” designation, which has adversely impacted the availability of loans, including construction loans, and the proceeds of and the interest rate thereon. Restricted lending practices could impact our ability to obtain financing or refinancing for our properties. If we issue additional equity securities to finance developments and acquisitions instead of incurring debt, the interests of UDR’s existing stockholders could be diluted.

Failure To Maintain Our Current Credit Ratings Could Adversely Affect Our Cost of Funds, Related Margins, Liquidity, and Access to Capital Markets. Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s routinely evaluate our debt and have given us ratings on our senior unsecured debt, commercial paper program and preferred stock. These ratings are based on a number of factors, which included their assessment of our financial strength, liquidity, capital structure, asset quality, and sustainability of cash flow and earnings. Due to changes in these factors and market conditions, we may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings, which could adversely affect our cost of funds and related margins, liquidity, and access to capital markets, including our ability to access the commercial paper market.

Disruptions in Financial Markets May Adversely Impact Availability and Cost of Credit and Have Other Adverse Effects on Us and the Market Price of UDRs Stock. Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance, our debt obligations will depend on our operating and financial performance, which in turn is subject to prevailing economic conditions and to financial, business and other factors beyond our control. The global equity and credit markets have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, periods of extraordinary turmoil and volatility. These circumstances may materially and adversely impact liquidity in the financial markets at times, making terms for certain financings less attractive or in some cases unavailable. Disruptions and uncertainty in the equity and credit markets may negatively impact our ability to refinance existing indebtedness and access additional financing for acquisitions, development of our properties and other purposes at reasonable terms or at all, which may negatively affect our business and the market price of UDR’s common stock. We also rely on the financial institutions that are parties to our revolving credit facility and other credit facilities. If these institutions become capital constrained, tighten their lending standards or become insolvent or if they experience excessive volumes of borrowing requests from other borrowers within a short period of time, they may be unable or unwilling to honor their funding commitments to us, which would adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolving credit facility. If we are not successful in refinancing our existing indebtedness when it becomes due, we may be forced to dispose of properties on disadvantageous terms, which might adversely affect our ability to service other debt and to meet our other obligations. A prolonged downturn in the financial markets may cause us to seek alternative sources of potentially less attractive financing, and may require us to adjust our business plan accordingly. These events also may make it more difficult or costly for us to raise capital through the issuance of UDR’s common or preferred stock.

A Change in U.S. Government Policy or Support Regarding Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac Could Have a Material Adverse Impact on Our Business. While in recent years we have decreased our borrowing from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are a major source of financing to participants in the multifamily housing market including potential purchasers of our properties. Potential options for the future of agency mortgage financing in the U.S. have been, and may in the future be, suggested that could involve a reduction in the amount of financing Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are able to provide, limitations on the loans that the agencies may make, which may not include loans secured by properties like our properties, or the phase out of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. While we believe Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will continue to provide liquidity to our sector, should they discontinue doing so, have their mandates changed or reduced or be disbanded or reorganized by the government, or if there is reduced government support for multifamily housing generally, it may adversely affect interest rates, capital availability, development of multifamily communities and the value of multifamily residential real estate and, as a result, may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The Soundness of Financial Institutions Could Adversely Affect Us. We have relationships with many financial institutions, including lenders under our credit facilities, and, from time to time, we execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, financial institutions or the financial services industry generally, could result in losses or defaults by these institutions. In the event that the volatility of the financial markets adversely affects these financial institutions or counterparties, we or other parties to the transactions with us may be unable to complete transactions as intended, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Interest Rate Hedging Contracts May Be Ineffective and May Result in Material Charges. From time to time when we anticipate issuing debt securities, we may seek to limit our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates during the period prior to the pricing of the securities by entering into interest rate hedging contracts. We may do this to increase the predictability of our financing costs. Also, from time to time we may rely on interest rate hedging contracts to limit

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our exposure under variable rate debt to unfavorable changes in market interest rates. If the terms of new debt securities are not within the parameters of, or market interest rates fall below that which we incur under a particular interest rate hedging contract, the contract is ineffective. Furthermore, the settlement of interest rate hedging contracts has involved and may in the future involve material charges. In addition, our use of interest rate hedging arrangements may expose us to additional risks, including a risk that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement may fail to honor its obligations. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance that our hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition. Termination of these hedging agreements typically involves costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs.

Risks Related to Tax Laws

We Would Incur Adverse Tax Consequences if UDR Failed to Qualify as a REIT. UDR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. Our qualification as a REIT requires us to satisfy numerous requirements, some on an annual and quarterly basis, established under highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations, and involves the determination of various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control. We intend that our current organization and method of operation enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT, but we may not so qualify or we may not be able to remain so qualified in the future. In addition, U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs and other corporations and the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended at any time, potentially with retroactive effect. Future legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT or adversely affect UDR’s stockholders.

If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we would be subject to federal income tax (including, for periods prior to 2018, any applicable alternative minimum tax) on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, and would not be allowed to deduct dividends paid to UDR’s stockholders in computing our taxable income. Also, unless the Internal Revenue Service granted us relief under certain statutory provisions, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we first failed to qualify as a REIT. The additional tax liability from the failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce or eliminate the amount of cash available for investment or distribution to UDR’s stockholders. This would likely have a significant adverse effect on the value of our securities and our ability to raise additional capital. In addition, we would no longer be required to make distributions to UDR’s stockholders. Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT, we will continue to be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and property.

Certain of our subsidiaries have also elected to be taxed as REITs under the Code, and are therefore subject to the same risks in the event that any such subsidiary fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year.

Dividends Paid by REITs Generally Do Not Qualify for Reduced Tax Rates. In general, the maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for dividends paid to individual U.S. stockholders is 20%. Unlike dividends received from a corporation that is not a REIT, our regular dividends (i.e., dividends other than capital gain dividends) paid to individual stockholders generally are not eligible for the reduced rates. However, individual U.S. stockholders generally may deduct 20% of such regular dividends under Section 199A of the Code, reducing the effective tax rate applicable to such dividends (although such provision will expire after 2025 absent future legislation).

UDR Conducts a Portion of Its Business Through Taxable REIT Subsidiaries, Which Are Subject to Certain Tax Risks. We have established and conduct a portion of our business through taxable REIT subsidiaries. Despite UDR’s qualification as a REIT, its taxable REIT subsidiaries must pay income tax on their taxable income. In addition, we must comply with various tests to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, and our income from and investments in our taxable REIT subsidiaries generally do not constitute permissible income and investments for certain of these tests. While we will attempt to ensure that our dealings with our taxable REIT subsidiaries will not adversely affect our REIT qualification, we cannot provide assurance that we will successfully achieve that result. Furthermore, we may be subject to a 100% penalty tax, we may jeopardize our ability to retain future gains on real property sales, or our taxable REIT subsidiaries may be denied deductions, to the extent our dealings with our taxable REIT subsidiaries are not deemed to be arm’s length in nature or are otherwise not respected.

REIT Distribution Requirements Limit Our Available Cash. As a REIT, UDR is subject to annual distribution requirements, which limit the amount of cash we retain for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our net REIT taxable income, excluding any net capital gain, in order for our distributed earnings not to be subject to corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to

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UDR’s stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code. However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.

Certain Property Transfers May Generate Prohibited Transaction Income, Resulting in a Penalty Tax on Gain Attributable to the Transaction. From time to time, we may transfer or otherwise dispose of some of our properties. Under the Code, any gain resulting from transfers of properties that we hold as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business would be treated as income from a prohibited transaction and subject to a 100% penalty tax. Since we acquire properties for investment purposes, we do not believe that our occasional transfers or disposals of property are prohibited transactions. However, whether property is held for investment purposes is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. The Internal Revenue Service may contend that certain transfers or disposals of properties by us are prohibited transactions. If the Internal Revenue Service were to argue successfully that a transfer or disposition of property constituted a prohibited transaction, then we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any gain allocable to us from the prohibited transaction and we may jeopardize our ability to retain future gains on real property sales. In addition, income from a prohibited transaction might adversely affect UDR’s ability to satisfy the income tests for qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.

Changes to the U.S. Federal Income Tax Laws, including the Enactment of Certain Tax Reform Measures, Could Have an Adverse Impact on Our Business and Financial Results. In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments in real estate and REITs, including the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Federal legislation intended to ameliorate the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), has been enacted that makes technical corrections to, or modifies on a temporary basis, certain of the provisions of the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017, and it is possible that additional such legislation may be enacted in the future. The full impact of the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017 and the CARES Act may not become evident for some period of time. In addition, there can be no assurance that future changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws or regulatory changes will not be proposed or enacted that could impact our business and financial results. The REIT rules are regularly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department, which may result in revisions to regulations and interpretations in addition to statutory changes. If enacted, certain of such changes could have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.

We cannot predict whether, when or to what extent any new U.S. federal tax laws, regulations, interpretations or rulings will impact the real estate investment industry or REITs. Prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential future changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our shares.

We May Be Adversely Affected by Changes in State and Local Tax Laws and May Become Subject to Tax Audits from Time to Time. Because UDR is organized and qualifies as a REIT, it is generally not subject to federal income taxes, but it is subject to certain state and local taxes. From time to time, changes in state and local tax laws or regulations are enacted, which may result in an increase in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and local jurisdictions in which we own apartment communities may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional state and local taxes. These increased tax costs could adversely affect our financial condition and the amount of cash available for the payment of distributions to UDR’s stockholders. In the normal course of business, we or our affiliates (including entities through which we own real estate) may also become subject to federal, state or local tax audits. If we (or such entities) become subject to federal, state or local tax audits, the ultimate result of such audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership Intend to Qualify as Partnerships, but Cannot Guarantee That They Will Qualify. The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership intend to qualify as partnerships for federal income tax purposes, and intend to take that position for all income tax reporting purposes. If classified as partnerships, the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership generally will not be taxable entities and will not incur federal income tax liability. However, the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership would be treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes if they were “publicly traded partnerships,” unless at least 90% of their income was qualifying income as defined in the Code. A “publicly traded partnership” is a partnership whose partnership interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof). Although neither the Operating Partnership’s nor the DownREIT Partnership’s partnership units are traded on an established securities market, because of the redemption rights of their limited partners, the Operating Partnership’s and DownREIT Partnership’s units held by limited partners could be viewed as

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readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof), and the Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership may not qualify for one of the “safe harbors” under the applicable tax regulations. Qualifying income for the 90% test generally includes passive income, such as real property rents, dividends and interest. The income requirements applicable to REITs and the definition of qualifying income for purposes of this 90% test are similar in most respects. The Operating Partnership and the DownREIT Partnership may not meet this qualifying income test. If either the Operating Partnership or the DownREIT Partnership were to be taxed as a corporation, it would incur substantial tax liabilities, and UDR would then fail to qualify as a REIT for tax purposes, unless it qualified for relief under certain statutory savings provisions, and our ability to raise additional capital would be impaired. In addition, even if the 90% test were met if the Operating Partnership or the DownREIT Partnership were a publicly traded partnership, there could be adverse tax impacts for certain limited partners.

Qualifying as a REIT Involves Highly Technical and Complex Provisions of the Code. Our qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Moreover, new legislation, court decisions or administrative guidance, in each case possibly with retroactive effect, may make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. Our qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. Our ability to satisfy the REIT income and asset tests depends upon our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals, and upon our ability to successfully manage the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence, including in cases where we own an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Ownership of UDR’s Stock

Changes in Market Conditions and Volatility of Stock Prices Could Adversely Affect the Market Price of UDRs Common Stock. The stock markets, including the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), on which we list UDR’s common stock, have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, the market price of UDR’s common stock has been, and in the future could be similarly volatile, and investors in UDR’s common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. In addition to the risks listed in this “Risk Factors” section, a number of factors could negatively affect the price per share of UDR’s common stock, including:

general market and economic conditions;
actual or anticipated variations in UDR’s quarterly operating results or dividends or UDR’s payment of dividends in shares of UDR’s stock;
changes in our funds from operations or earnings estimates;
difficulties or inability to access capital or extend or refinance existing debt;
decreasing (or uncertainty in) real estate valuations;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry;
the general reputation of real estate investment trusts and the attractiveness of their equity securities in comparison to other equity securities (including securities issued by other real estate companies);
general stock and bond market conditions, including changes in interest rates on fixed income securities, that may lead prospective purchasers of UDR’s stock to demand a higher annual yield from future dividends;
a change in analyst ratings;
additions or departures of key management personnel;
adverse market reaction to any additional debt we incur in the future;
speculation in the press or investment community;

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terrorist activity which may adversely affect the markets in which UDR’s securities trade, possibly increasing market volatility and causing the further erosion of business and consumer confidence and spending;
failure to qualify as a REIT;
strategic decisions by us or by our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestments, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;
failure to satisfy listing requirements of the NYSE;
governmental regulatory action and changes in tax laws; and
the issuance of additional shares of UDR’s common stock, or the perception that such sales might occur, including under UDR’s at-the-market equity distribution program.

Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. These factors may cause the market price of shares of UDR’s common stock to decline, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business or our prospects.

We May Change the Dividend Policy for UDRs Common Stock in the Future. The decision to declare and pay dividends on UDR’s common stock, as well as the timing, amount and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, funds from operations, liquidity, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual prohibitions or other limitations under our indebtedness, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code, state law and such other factors as our board of directors considers relevant. Any change in our dividend policy could have an adverse effect on the market price of UDR’s common stock.

Maryland Law May Limit the Ability of a Third Party to Acquire Control of Us, Which May Not be in UDRs Stockholders Best Interests. Maryland business statutes may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us. As a Maryland corporation, we are subject to various Maryland laws which may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire our Company and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if our acquisition would be in UDR’s stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between us and any person who acquires beneficial ownership of shares of UDR’s stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without our board of directors’ prior approval. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 66 2/3 % of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price. Maryland law also provides generally that a person who acquires shares of our equity stock that represents 10% (and certain higher levels) of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote.

Limitations on Share Ownership and Limitations on the Ability of UDRs Stockholders to Effect a Change in Control of Our Company Restricts the Transferability of UDRs Stock and May Prevent Takeovers That are Beneficial to UDRs Stockholders. One of the requirements for maintenance of our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes is that no more than 50% in value of our outstanding capital stock may be owned by five or fewer individuals, including entities specified in the Code, during the last half of any taxable year. Our charter contains ownership and transfer restrictions relating to UDR’s stock primarily to assist us in complying with this and other REIT ownership requirements; however, the restrictions may have the effect of preventing a change of control, which does not threaten REIT status. These restrictions include a provision that generally limits ownership by any person of more than 9.9% of the value of our outstanding equity stock, unless our board of directors exempts the person from such ownership limitation, provided that any such exemption shall not allow the person to exceed 13% of the value of our outstanding equity stock. Absent such an exemption from our board of directors, the transfer of UDR’s stock to any person in excess of the applicable ownership limit, or any transfer of shares of such stock in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs, will be considered null and void, and the intended transferee of such stock will acquire no rights in such shares. These provisions of our charter may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing someone from taking control of us, even though a change of control might involve a premium price for UDR’s stockholders or might otherwise be in UDR’s stockholders’ best interests.

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Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2. PROPERTIES

At December 31, 2021, our consolidated apartment portfolio included 160 communities located in 21 markets, with a total of 53,229 completed apartment homes.

The table below set forth a summary of real estate portfolio by geographic market of the Company at December 31, 2021.

SUMMARY OF REAL ESTATE PORTFOLIO BY GEOGRAPHIC MARKET AT DECEMBER 31, 2021

    

    

Percentage

    

Total

    

Average

Number of

Number of

of Total

Carrying

Average

Home Size

Apartment

Apartment

Carrying

Value

Encumbrances

Cost per

Physical

(in square

Communities

Homes

Value

(in thousands)

(in thousands)

Home

Occupancy

feet)

WEST REGION

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Orange County, CA

 

10

 

4,685

 

9.8

%  

$

1,441,597

$

$

307,705

 

97.5

%  

862

San Francisco, CA

 

11

 

2,751

 

6.1

%  

 

898,625

 

27,000

 

326,654

 

95.3

%  

841

Seattle, WA

 

15

 

2,984

 

7.7

%  

 

1,133,479