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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________ 
Form 10-K
_______________________________________________________ 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission file number: 1-10864
__________________________________________________________ 
UHG Logo Clean.jpg
UnitedHealth Group Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 41-1321939
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
UnitedHealth Group Center 55343
9900 Bren Road East 
Minnetonka,Minnesota
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(952) 936-1300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
______________________________________________________  
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par valueUNHNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_________________________________________________________  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 was $444,627,758,226 (based on the last reported sale price of $480.64 per share on June 30, 2023 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange), excluding only shares of voting stock held beneficially by directors, executive officers and subsidiaries of the registrant.
As of January 31, 2024, there were 921,934,109 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $.01 par value per share, issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.



UNITEDHEALTH GROUP
Table of Contents
 
  Page
Part I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
Item 16.








PART I
ITEM  1.    BUSINESS
OUR BUSINESSES
Overview
The terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “its,” “UnitedHealth Group,” or the “Company” used in this report refer to UnitedHealth Group Incorporated and its subsidiaries.
UnitedHealth Group Incorporated is a health care and well-being company with a mission to help people live healthier lives and help make the health system work better for everyone. Our two distinct, yet complementary businesses — Optum and UnitedHealthcare — are working to help build a modern, high-performing health system through improved access, affordability, outcomes and experiences for the individuals and organizations we are privileged to serve.
The ability to analyze complex data and apply deep health care expertise and insights allows us to serve patients, consumers, care providers, businesses, communities and governments with more innovative products and complete, end-to-end offerings for many of the biggest challenges facing health care today.
Optum seeks to create a higher-performing, value-oriented and more connected approach to health care. Bringing together clinical expertise, technology and data to make care simpler, more effective and more affordable, we seek to advance whole-person health, creating a seamless consumer experience and supporting clinicians with insights to deliver personalized, evidence-based care. Optum serves the broad health care marketplace, including patients and consumers, payers, care providers, employers, governments and life sciences companies, through its Optum Health, Optum Insight and Optum Rx businesses. These businesses improve overall health system performance by optimizing health care quality and delivery, reducing costs and improving patient, consumer and provider experience, leveraging distinctive capabilities in data and analytics, pharmacy care services, health care operations, population health and health financial services.
UnitedHealthcare offers a full range of health benefits designed to simplify the health care experience and make it more affordable for consumers to access high-quality care. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual serves consumers and employers, ranging from sole proprietorships to large, multi-site and national employers and public sector employers. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement delivers health and well-being benefits to seniors and other Medicare eligible consumers. UnitedHealthcare Community & State serves consumers who are economically disadvantaged, the medically underserved and those without the benefit of employer sponsored health benefits coverage.
We have four reportable segments:
Optum Health;
Optum Insight;
Optum Rx; and
UnitedHealthcare, which includes UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement and UnitedHealthcare Community & State.
Optum
Optum is an information and technology-enabled health services business serving the broad health care marketplace, including:
Those who need care: patients who need the right care, information, resources, products and engagement to improve their health, achieve their health goals and receive an improved patient experience that is personalized, comprehensive and delivered in all care settings, including in-home and virtually.
Those who provide care: physicians, hospitals, pharmacies and others seeking to improve the health system and reduce the administrative burden allowing for providers to focus time on patients leading to the best possible patient care and experiences while achieving better health outcomes at lower costs. Improved health outcomes are achieved by utilizing our clinical expertise, data and analytics to better understand, treat and prevent consumers’ health conditions and ensure they receive the best evidence-based care.
Those who pay for care: consumers; employers; health plans; and state, federal and municipal agencies devoted to ensuring the people they sponsor receive high-quality care, administered and delivered efficiently and effectively, all while driving health equity so that every individual, family and community has access to the care they need.
Those who innovate for care: global life sciences organizations dedicated to developing more effective approaches to care, enabling technologies and medicines to improve care delivery and health outcomes.
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Optum operates three business segments which combine distinctive capabilities in value-based care, population health, health care operations, data and analytics and pharmacy care services:
Optum Health delivers patient-centered care, care management, wellness and consumer engagement, and health financial services;
Optum Insight offers data, analytics, research, consulting, technology and managed services solutions; and
Optum Rx provides diversified pharmacy care services.
Optum Health
Optum Health provides comprehensive and patient-centered care, addressing the physical, mental, social, and financial well-being of 103 million consumers and serves more than 100 health payer partners. We engage people in the most appropriate care settings, including clinical sites, in-home and virtual. Optum Health delivers primary, specialty, surgical and urgent care; helps patients and providers navigate and address complex, chronic and behavioral health needs; offers post-acute care planning services; and serves consumers and care providers through advanced, on-demand digital health technologies, such as telehealth and remote patient monitoring, and innovative health care financial services. Optum Health works directly with patients, consumers, care delivery systems, providers, employers, payers, and public-sector entities to provide high quality, accessible and equitable care with improved health outcomes and reduced total cost of care. Optum Health enables care providers to transition from traditional fee-for-service payment models to performance-based delivery and payment models designed to improve patient health outcomes and experience through value-based care.
Optum Health offerings include fully accountable value-based arrangements, where Optum Health assumes responsibility for health care costs in exchange for a monthly premium. Offerings also include administrative fee arrangements, where Optum Health manages or administers products and services in exchange for a monthly fee, and fee-for-service arrangements, where Optum Health delivers health-related products and medical services for patients at a contracted fee.
Optum Financial, including Optum Bank, serves consumers through more than 24 million consumer accounts with nearly $22 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2023. Organizations across the health system rely on Optum Financial to manage and improve payment flows through its highly automated, scalable, end-to-end digital payment and financing systems and integrated card solutions. For financial services offerings, Optum Financial charges fees and earns investment income on managed funds.
Optum Health sells its products primarily through its direct sales force, strategic collaborations and external producers in three key areas: employers, including large, mid-sized and small employers; payers including health plans, third-party administrators (TPAs), underwriter/stop-loss carriers and individual product intermediaries; and public entities including the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Veterans Affairs, Defense, and other federal, state and local health care agencies.
Optum Insight
Optum Insight connects the health care system with services, analytics and platforms that make clinical, administrative and financial processes simpler and more efficient for all participants in the health care system. Hospital systems, physicians, health plans, public entities, life sciences companies and other organizations comprising the health care industry depend on Optum Insight to help them improve performance and reduce costs through administrative efficiency and payment simplification, advance care quality through evidence-based standards built directly into clinical workflows, meet compliance mandates and modernize their core operating systems to meet the changing needs of the health system.
Health Systems. Serves hospitals, physicians and other care providers to improve operating performance, better coordinate care and reduce administrative costs through technology and services to improve population health management, patient engagement, revenue cycle management and strategic growth plans.
Health Plans. Serves health plans by improving financial performance and enhancing outcomes through proactive analytics, a comprehensive payment integrity portfolio and technology-enabled and staff-supported risk and quality services. Optum Insight helps health plans navigate a dynamic environment defined by shifts in employer vs. public-sector coverage, the demand for affordable benefit plans and the need to leverage new technology to reduce complexity.
State Governments. Provides advanced technology and analytics services to modernize the administration of critical safety net programs, such as Medicaid, while improving cost predictability.
Life Sciences Companies. Combines data and analytics expertise with comprehensive technologies and health care knowledge to help life sciences companies, including those in pharmaceuticals and medical technology, adopt a more comprehensive approach to advancing therapeutic discoveries and improving clinical outcomes.
Many of Optum Insight’s software and information products and professional services are delivered over extended periods, often several years. Optum Insight maintains an order backlog to track unearned revenues under these long-term arrangements.
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The backlog consists of estimated revenue from signed contracts, other legally binding agreements and anticipated contract renewals based on historical experience with Optum Insight’s customers. Optum Insight’s aggregate backlog as of December 31, 2023 was approximately $32.1 billion, of which $18.7 billion is expected to be realized within the next 12 months. The aggregate backlog includes $11.9 billion related to affiliated agreements. Optum Insight’s aggregate backlog as of December 31, 2022, was $30.0 billion, including $10.7 billion related to affiliated agreements.
Optum Insight’s products and services are sold primarily through a direct sales force. Optum Insight’s products are also supported and distributed through an array of alliances and business partnerships with other technology vendors, who integrate and interface Optum Insight’s products with their applications.
Optum Rx
Optum Rx provides a full spectrum of pharmacy care services through its network of more than 65,000 retail pharmacies, through home delivery, specialty and community health pharmacies, the provision of in-home and community-based infusion services and through rare disease and gene therapy support services. It also offers direct-to-consumer solutions.
Optum Rx manages a broad range of prescription drug spend, including widely available retail drugs as well as limited and ultra-limited distribution drugs in oncology, HIV, pain management and ophthalmology. Optum Rx serves the growing pharmacy needs of people with behavioral health and substance use disorders. In 2023, Optum Rx managed $159 billion in pharmaceutical spending, including $63 billion in specialty pharmaceutical spending.
Optum Rx serves health benefits providers, large national employer plans, unions and trusts, purchasing coalitions and public-sector entities. Optum Rx sells its services through direct sales, health insurance brokers and other health care consultants.
Optum Rx offers multiple clinical programs, digital tools and services to help clients manage overall pharmacy and health care costs in a clinically appropriate manner which are designed to deliver improved consumer experiences, better health outcomes and a lower total cost of care. Optum Rx provides various utilization management, medication management, quality assurance, adherence and counseling programs to complement each client’s plan design and clinical strategies. Optum Rx is accelerating the integration of medical, pharmacy and behavioral care and treating the whole patient by embedding our pharmacists as key members of the patient care team.
UnitedHealthcare
Through its health benefits offerings, UnitedHealthcare is enabling better health, creating a better health care experience for its customers and helping to control rising health care costs. UnitedHealthcare’s market position is built on:
strong local-market relationships;
the breadth of product offerings, based upon extensive expertise in distinct market segments in health care;
service and advanced technology, including digital consumer engagement;
competitive medical and operating cost positions;
effective clinical engagement; and
innovation for customers and consumers.
UnitedHealthcare uses Optum’s capabilities to help coordinate and provide patient care, improve affordability of medical care, analyze cost trends, manage pharmacy care services, work with care providers more effectively and create a simpler and more satisfying consumer and physician experience.
In the United States, UnitedHealthcare arranges for discounted access to care through networks which, as of December 31, 2023, include 1.8 million physicians and other health care professionals and nearly 7,200 hospitals and other facilities.
UnitedHealthcare is subject to extensive government regulation. See further discussion of our regulatory environment below under “Government Regulation” and in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual
Domestically, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual offers a comprehensive array of consumer-oriented health benefit plans and services for large national employers, public sector employers, mid-sized employers, small businesses, and individuals. As of December 31, 2023, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual provides access to medical services for 27.3 million people. Globally, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual serves 7.8 million people with medical and dental benefits, typically in exchange for a monthly premium per member, residing principally in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru, but also in more than 150 other countries. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual offers health care delivery in our principal global markets
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through hospitals, outpatient and ambulatory clinics and surgery centers to UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual global members and consumers served by other payers.
Through its risk-based product offerings, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual assumes the risk of both medical and administrative costs for its customers in return for a monthly premium which is typically a fixed rate per individual served for a one-year period. Through its administrative and other management services arrangements to customers who elect to self-fund the health care costs of their employees and employees’ dependents, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual receives a fixed monthly service fee per individual served. These customers retain the risk of financing medical benefits for their employees and employees’ dependents, while UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual provides services such as coordination and facilitation of medical and related services to customers, consumers and health care professionals, administration of transaction processing and access to a contracted network of physicians, hospitals and other health care professionals, including dental and vision professionals. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual is focused on providing informed benefit solutions that create customized plan designs and clinical programs for employers that contribute to well-being and reduce the total cost of care along with providing simpler consumer experiences in response to market dynamics.
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual typically distributes its products through a variety of channels, dependent upon the specific product, including: through consultants or direct sales, in collaboration with brokers and agents, through wholesale agents or agencies who contract with health insurance carriers to distribute individual or group benefits, through professional employer organizations and associations and through both multi-carrier and its own proprietary private exchange marketplaces.
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s major product families include consumer engagement products, such as high-deductible consumer driven benefit plans and a variety of innovative consumer centric products; traditional products; clinical and pharmacy products; and specialty benefits, such as vision, dental, hearing, accident protection, critical illness, disability and hospital indemnity offerings.
UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement
UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides health and well-being services to seniors and other Medicare eligible consumers, addressing their unique needs. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement has distinct benefit designs, pricing, underwriting, clinical program management and marketing capabilities dedicated to health products and services in this market.
UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement offers a selection of products allowing people choice in obtaining the health coverage and services they need as their circumstances change. These offerings include care management and health system navigator services, clinical management programs, nurse health line services, 24-hour access to health care information, access to discounted health services from a network of care providers and administrative services.
UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement has extensive distribution capabilities and experience, including direct marketing to consumers on behalf of its key clients, including AARP, the nation’s largest membership organization dedicated to the needs of people age 50 and over, and state and U.S. government agencies. Products are also offered through agents, employer groups and digital channels.
Major product categories include:
Medicare Advantage. Provides health care coverage for seniors and other eligible Medicare beneficiaries through the Medicare Advantage program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), including Medicare Advantage HMO plans, Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans, Point-of-Service plans, Private-Fee-for-Service plans and Special Needs Plans (SNPs). Under the Medicare Advantage program, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides health benefits coverage in exchange for a fixed monthly premium per member from CMS plus, in some cases, monthly consumer premiums. Premium amounts received from CMS vary based on the geographic areas in which individuals reside; demographic factors such as age, gender and institutionalized status; and the health status of the individual. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement served 7.7 million people through its Medicare Advantage products as of December 31, 2023.
We have continued to enhance our offerings, focusing on more digital and physical care resources in the home, expanding our concierge navigation services and enabling the home as a safe and effective setting of care. For example, through our HouseCalls program, nurse practitioners performed more than 2.7 million clinical preventive home care visits in 2023 to address unmet care opportunities and close gaps in care.
Medicare Part D. Provides Medicare Part D benefits to beneficiaries through its Medicare Advantage and stand-alone Medicare Part D plans. The stand-alone Medicare Part D plans address a large spectrum of people’s needs and preferences for their prescription drug coverage, including low-cost prescription options. As of December 31, 2023, UnitedHealthcare enrolled 10.2 million people in the Medicare Part D programs, including 3.3 million individuals in stand-alone Medicare Part D plans, with the remainder in Medicare Advantage plans incorporating Medicare Part D coverage.
Medicare Supplement. Provides a full range of supplemental products at diverse price points. These products cover various levels of coinsurance and deductible gaps to which seniors are exposed in the traditional Medicare program. UnitedHealthcare
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Medicare & Retirement served 4.4 million seniors nationwide through various Medicare Supplement products in association with AARP as of December 31, 2023.
Premium revenues from CMS represented 40% of UnitedHealth Group’s total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, most of which were generated by UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement.
UnitedHealthcare Community & State
UnitedHealthcare Community & State is dedicated to serving state programs caring for the economically disadvantaged, the medically underserved and those without the benefit of employer-funded health care coverage, typically in exchange for a monthly premium per member from the state program. UnitedHealthcare Community & State’s primary customers oversee Medicaid plans, including Temporary Assistance to Needy Families; Children’s Health Insurance Programs (CHIP); Dual SNPs (DSNPs); Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS); Aged, Blind and Disabled; and other federal, state and community health care programs. As of December 31, 2023, UnitedHealthcare Community & State participated in programs in 32 states and the District of Columbia, and served more than 7.8 million people; including 1.3 million people through Medicaid expansion programs in 19 states under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).
States using managed care services for Medicaid beneficiaries select health plans by using a formal bid process or by awarding individual contracts. These health plans and care programs are designed to address the complex needs of the populations they serve, including the chronically ill, people with disabilities and people with a higher risk of medical, behavioral and social conditions. UnitedHealthcare Community & State administers benefits for the unique needs of children, pregnant women, adults, seniors and those who are institutionalized or are nursing home eligible. These individuals often live in medically underserved areas and are less likely to have a consistent relationship with the medical community or a care provider. They also often face significant social and economic challenges.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION
Our businesses are subject to comprehensive U.S. federal and state and international laws and regulations. We are regulated by agencies which generally have discretion to issue regulations and interpret and enforce laws and rules. U.S. federal and state and international governments continue to consider and enact various legislative and regulatory proposals which could materially impact certain aspects of the health care system. New laws, regulations and rules, or changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations and rules, including as a result of changes in the political environment, could adversely affect our businesses.
See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks related to our compliance with U.S. federal and state and international laws and regulations.
U.S. Federal Laws and Regulation
When we contract with the federal government, we are subject to federal laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. government contracts. CMS regulates our UnitedHealthcare businesses and certain aspects of our Optum businesses. Payments by CMS to our businesses are subject to regulations, including those governing fee-for-service and the submission of information relating to the health status of enrollees for purposes of determining the amounts of certain payments to us. CMS also has the right to audit our performance to determine our compliance with CMS contracts and regulations and the quality of care we provide to Medicare beneficiaries. Our commercial business is further subject to CMS audits related to medical loss ratios (MLRs) and risk adjustment data.
UnitedHealthcare Community & State has Medicaid and CHIP contracts, which are subject to federal regulations regarding services to be provided to Medicaid enrollees, payment for those services and other aspects of these programs. There are many regulations affecting Medicare and Medicaid compliance, and the regulatory environment with respect to these programs is complex.
Our businesses are also subject to laws and regulations relating to consumer protection, anti-fraud and abuse, anti-kickbacks, false claims, prohibited referrals, inappropriate reduction or limitation of health care services, anti-money laundering, securities and antitrust compliance.
Privacy, Security and Data Standards Regulation. Certain of our operations are subject to regulation under the administrative simplification provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended (HIPAA), which apply to both the group and individual health insurance markets, including self-funded employee benefit plans. Federal regulations related to HIPAA contain minimum standards for electronic transactions and code sets and for the privacy and security of protected health information.
Our businesses must comply with the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) which regulates matters relating to privacy, security and data standards. HITECH imposes requirements on uses and disclosures of
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health information; includes contracting requirements for HIPAA business associate agreements; extends parts of HIPAA privacy and security provisions to business associates; adds federal data breach notification requirements for covered entities and business associates and reporting requirements to HHS and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and, in some cases, to the local media; strengthens enforcement and imposes higher financial penalties for HIPAA violations and, in certain cases, imposes criminal penalties for individuals, including employees. In the conduct of our business, depending on the circumstances, we may act as either a covered entity or a business associate.
The use and disclosure of individually identifiable health data by our businesses are also regulated in some instances by other federal laws, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) or state statutes implementing GLBA. These federal laws and state statutes generally require insurers to provide customers with notice regarding how their non-public personal health and financial information is used and the opportunity to “opt out” of certain disclosures before the insurer shares such information with a third party, and generally prescribe safeguards for the protection of personal information. Neither the GLBA nor HIPAA privacy regulations preempt more stringent state laws and regulations, which may apply to us, as discussed below. Federal consumer protection laws may also apply in some instances to privacy and security practices related to personally identifiable information.
ERISA. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), regulates how our services are provided to or through certain types of employer-sponsored health benefit plans. ERISA is a set of laws and regulations subject to interpretation by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) as well as the federal courts. ERISA sets forth standards on how our business units may do business with employers who sponsor employee health benefit plans, particularly those who maintain self-funded plans. Regulations established by the DOL subject us to additional requirements for administration of benefits, claims payment and member appeals under health care plans governed by ERISA.
State Laws and Regulation
Health Care Regulation. Our insurance and HMO subsidiaries must be licensed by the jurisdictions in which they conduct business. All of the states in which our subsidiaries offer insurance and HMO products regulate those products and operations. The states require periodic financial reports and establish minimum capital or restricted cash reserve requirements. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) has adopted model regulations, which require expanded governance practices and risk and solvency assessment reporting. Most states have adopted these or similar measures to expand the scope of regulations relating to corporate governance and internal control activities of HMOs and insurance companies. We are required to maintain a risk management framework and file a confidential self-assessment report with state insurance regulators. We file reports annually with Connecticut, our lead regulator, and with New York, as required by the state’s regulation.
Our health plans and insurance companies are regulated under state insurance holding company regulations. Such regulations generally require registration with applicable state departments of insurance and the filing of reports describing capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain affiliated transactions and general business operations. Most state insurance holding company laws and regulations require prior regulatory approval of acquisitions and material affiliated transfers of assets, as well as transactions between the regulated companies and their parent holding companies or affiliates. These laws may restrict the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends to our holding companies.
Some of our business activity is subject to other health care-related regulations and requirements, including PPO, Managed Care Organization (MCO), utilization review (UR), TPA, pharmacy care services, durable medical equipment or care provider-related regulations and licensure requirements. These regulations differ from state to state and may contain network, contracting, product and rate, licensing and financial and reporting requirements. Health care-related laws and regulations set specific standards for delivery of services, appeals, grievances and payment of claims, adequacy of health care professional networks, fraud prevention, protection of consumer health information, pricing and underwriting practices and covered benefits and services. State health care anti-fraud and abuse prohibitions encompass a wide range of activities, including kickbacks for referral of members, billing for unnecessary medical services and improper marketing. Certain of our businesses are subject to state general agent, broker and sales distribution laws and regulations. UnitedHealthcare Community & State and certain of our Optum businesses are subject to regulation by state Medicaid agencies which oversee the provision of benefits to our Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries and to our beneficiaries dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. We also contract with state governmental entities and are subject to state laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of state government contracts.
State Privacy and Security Regulations. A number of states have adopted laws and regulations which may affect our privacy and security practices, such as state laws governing the use, disclosure and protection of social security numbers and protected health information or which are designed to implement GLBA or protect credit card account data. State and local authorities increasingly focus on the importance of protecting individuals from identity theft, with a significant number of states enacting laws requiring businesses to meet minimum cyber-security standards and notify individuals of security breaches involving personal information. State consumer protection laws may also apply to privacy and security practices related to personally identifiable information, including information related to consumers and care providers. Different approaches to state privacy
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and insurance regulation and varying enforcement philosophies may materially and adversely affect our ability to standardize our products and services across state lines. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks related to compliance with state privacy and security regulations.
Corporate Practice of Medicine and Fee-Splitting Laws. Certain of our businesses function as direct medical service providers and, as such, are subject to additional laws and regulations. Some states have corporate practice of medicine laws prohibiting specific types of entities from practicing medicine or employing physicians to practice medicine. Moreover, some states prohibit certain entities from engaging in fee-splitting practices, which involve sharing in the fees or revenues of a professional practice. These prohibitions may be statutory or regulatory, or may be imposed through judicial or regulatory interpretation. The laws, regulations and interpretations in certain states have been subject to limited judicial and regulatory interpretation and are subject to change.
Pharmacy and Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) Regulations
Optum Rx’s businesses include home delivery, specialty and compounding pharmacies, as well as clinic-based pharmacies which must be licensed as pharmacies in the states in which they are located. Certain of our pharmacies must also register with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and individual state controlled substance authorities to dispense controlled substances. In addition to adhering to the laws and regulations in the states where our pharmacies are located, we also are required to comply with laws and regulations in some non-resident states where we deliver pharmaceuticals, including those requiring us to register with the board of pharmacy in the non-resident state. These non-resident states generally expect our pharmacies to follow the laws of the state in which the pharmacies are located, but some non-resident states also require us to comply with their laws where pharmaceuticals are delivered. Additionally, certain of our pharmacies which participate in programs for Medicare and state Medicaid providers are required to comply with applicable Medicare and Medicaid provider rules and regulations. Other laws and regulations affecting our pharmacies include federal and state statutes and regulations governing the labeling, packaging, advertising and adulteration of prescription drugs and dispensing of controlled substances. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks related to our pharmacy care services businesses.
Federal and state legislation regulating PBM activities affects both our ability to limit access to a pharmacy provider network or remove network providers. Additionally, many states limit our ability to manage and establish maximum allowable costs for generic prescription drugs. With respect to formulary services, a number of government entities, including CMS, HHS and state departments of insurance, regulate the administration of prescription drug benefits offered through federal or state exchanges. Many states also regulate the scope of prescription drug coverage, as well as the delivery channels to receive such prescriptions, for insurers, MCOs and Medicaid managed care plans. These regulations could limit or preclude (i) certain plan designs, (ii) limited networks, (iii) use of particular care providers or distribution channels, (iv) copayment differentials among providers and (v) formulary tiering practices.
Legislation seeking to regulate PBM activities introduced or enacted at the federal or state level could impact our business practices with others in the pharmacy supply chain, including pharmaceutical manufacturers and network providers. In addition, organizations like the NAIC periodically issue model regulations while credentialing organizations, like the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the Utilization Review Accreditation Commission (URAC), may establish standards impacting PBM pharmacy activities. Although these model regulations and standards do not have the force of law, they may influence states to adopt their recommendations and impact the services we deliver to our clients.
Consumer Protection Laws
Certain of our businesses participate in direct-to-consumer activities and are subject to regulations applicable to online communications and other general consumer protection laws and regulations such as the Federal Tort Claims Act, the Federal Postal Service Act and the FTC’s Telemarketing Sales Rule. Most states also have similar consumer protection laws.
Certain laws, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, give the FTC, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and state attorneys general the ability to regulate, and bring enforcement actions relating to, telemarketing practices and certain automated outbound contacts such as phone calls, texts or emails. Under certain circumstances, these laws may provide consumers with a private right of action. Violations of these laws could result in substantial statutory penalties and other sanctions.
Banking Regulation
Optum Bank is subject to regulation by federal banking regulators, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which performs annual examinations to ensure the bank is operating in accordance with federal safety and soundness requirements, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which may perform periodic examinations to ensure the bank is in compliance with applicable consumer protection statutes, regulations and agency guidelines. Optum Bank is also subject to supervision and regulation by the Utah State Department of Financial Institutions, which carries out annual examinations to ensure the bank is operating in accordance with state safety and soundness requirements and performs periodic examinations of
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the bank’s compliance with applicable state banking statutes, regulations and agency guidelines. In the event of unfavorable examination results from any of these agencies, the bank could become subject to increased operational expenses and capital requirements, enhanced governmental oversight and monetary penalties.
Non-U.S. Regulation
Certain of our businesses operate internationally and are subject to regulation in the jurisdictions in which they are organized or conduct business. These regulatory regimes vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In addition, our non-U.S. businesses and operations are subject to U.S. laws regulating the conduct and activities of U.S.-based businesses operating outside the United States, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which prohibits offering, promising, providing or authorizing others to give anything of value to a foreign government official to obtain or retain business or otherwise secure a business advantage.
COMPETITION
As a diversified health care company, we operate in highly competitive markets across the full expanse of health care benefits and services. Our competitors include organizations ranging from startups to highly sophisticated Fortune 50 global enterprises, for-profit and non-profit companies, and private and government-sponsored entities. New entrants to our markets and business combinations among our competitors and suppliers also contribute to a dynamic and competitive environment. We compete fundamentally on the quality and value we provide to those we serve which can include elements such as product and service innovation; use of technology; consumer and provider engagement and satisfaction; and sales, marketing and pricing. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for additional discussion of our risks related to competition.  
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
We have obtained trademark registration for the UnitedHealth Group, Optum and UnitedHealthcare names and logos. We own registrations for certain of our other trademarks in the United States and abroad. We hold a portfolio of patents and have patent applications pending from time to time. We are not substantially dependent on any single patent or group of related patents.
Unless otherwise noted, trademarks appearing in this report are trademarks owned by us. We disclaim any proprietary interest in the marks and names of others.
HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our more than 440,000 employees, as of December 31, 2023, including nearly 160,000 clinical professionals, are guided by our mission to help people live healthier lives and help make the health system work better for everyone. Our mission and cultural values of integrity, compassion, inclusion, relationships, innovation, performance and quality align with our long-term business strategy to increase access to care, make care more affordable, enhance the care experience, improve health outcomes and advance health equity. Our mission and values attract individuals who are determined to make a difference – individuals whose talent, innovation, engagement and empowerment are critical in our ability to achieve our mission.
We are committed to developing our people and culture by creating an inclusive environment where people of diverse backgrounds, experiences and perspectives make us better. Our approach is data-driven and leader-led and uses enterprise and business scorecards to ensure our leaders are accountable for a consistent focus on hiring, developing, advancing and retaining diverse talent. We have embedded inclusion and diversity throughout our culture, including in our talent acquisition and talent management practices; leadership development; careers; learning and skills; and systems and processes. We strive to maintain a sustainable and diverse talent pipeline by building strong strategic partnerships and outreach through early career programs, internships and apprenticeships. We support career coaching, mentorship and accelerated leadership development programs to ensure mobility and advancement for our diverse talent. To foster an engaged workforce and an inclusive culture, we invest in a broad array of skills-based learning and culture development programs. We rely on a shared leadership framework, which clearly and objectively defines our expectations, enables an environment where everyone has the opportunity to learn and grow, and helps us identify, develop and deploy talent to help achieve our mission.
We prioritize pay equity by regularly evaluating and reviewing our compensation practices by gender, ethnicity and race. Receiving on-going feedback from our team members is another way to strengthen and reinforce a culture of inclusion. Our Employee Experience Index measures an employee’s sense of commitment and belonging to our company and is a metric in the Stewardship section of our annual incentive plan. Our Sustainability Report, which can be accessed on our website at www.unitedhealthgroup.com, provides further information about our people and culture.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers as of February 28, 2024, including the business experience of each executive officer during the past five years:
NameAgePosition
Andrew Witty59Chief Executive Officer
Dirk McMahon64President and Chief Operating Officer
John Rex62Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Rupert Bondy62Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary
Erin McSweeney59Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer
Thomas Roos51Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
Brian Thompson49Chief Executive Officer of UnitedHealthcare
Our Board of Directors elects executive officers annually. Our executive officers serve until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or until their earlier death, resignation, removal or disqualification.
Andrew Witty has served as Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors of UnitedHealth Group since February 2021. Previously, Andrew served as Chief Executive Officer of Optum from July 2018 to April 2021, President of UnitedHealth Group from November 2019 to February 2021 and as a UnitedHealth Group director from August 2017 to March 2018. Prior to joining UnitedHealth Group, he was Chief Executive Officer and a board member of GlaxoSmithKline, a global pharmaceutical company, from 2008 to 2017.
Dirk McMahon has served as President and Chief Operating Officer of UnitedHealth Group since February 2021. He previously served as Chief Executive Officer of UnitedHealthcare from June 2019 to April 2021, President and Chief Operating Officer of Optum from April 2017 to June 2019 and Executive Vice President, Operations at UnitedHealth Group from November 2014 to April 2017. Dirk also served as Chief Executive Officer of Optum Rx from November 2011 to November 2014. Prior to 2011, he held various positions in UnitedHealthcare in operations, technology and finance.
John Rex has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of UnitedHealth Group since June 2016. From March 2012 to June 2016, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Optum. Prior to joining Optum in 2012, John was a Managing Director at JP Morgan, a global financial services firm.
Rupert Bondy has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer of UnitedHealth Group since March 2022 and additionally as Corporate Secretary since April 2022. Prior to joining UnitedHealth Group, Rupert served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary at Reckitt Benckiser Group, a consumer goods group focused on hygiene, health and nutrition products, from January 2017 to February 2022. Prior to his service with Reckitt Benckiser Group, he served as Group General Counsel of BP plc, an international energy company, and, among his prior positions, as Senior Vice President and General Counsel of GlaxoSmithKline, a global pharmaceutical company.
Erin McSweeney has served as Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer of UnitedHealth Group since March 2022. From February 2021 to March 2022, Erin served as chief of staff to UnitedHealth Group’s Office of the Chief Executive. From January 2017 to February 2021, she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer at Optum. Prior to joining UnitedHealth Group, Erin was Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer for EMC Corporation, an international technology company.
Tom Roos has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer of UnitedHealth Group since August 2015. Prior to joining UnitedHealth Group, Tom was a Partner at Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm.
Brian Thompson has served as Chief Executive Officer of UnitedHealthcare since April 2021. Prior to his service in this role, he served as Chief Executive Officer of UnitedHealthcare's government programs including Medicare & Retirement and Community & State from July 2019 to April 2021; as Chief Executive Officer of Medicare & Retirement from April 2017 to July 2019; and as Chief Financial Officer of UnitedHealthcare’s Employer & Individual and Medicare & Retirement businesses from August 2010 to April 2017.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Our executive offices are located at UnitedHealth Group Center, 9900 Bren Road East, Minnetonka, Minnesota 55343; our telephone number is (952) 936-1300. You can access our website at www.unitedhealthgroup.com to learn more about our company. We make periodic and current reports and amendments available, free of charge, on our website, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish these reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Information on or linked to our website is neither part of nor incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other SEC filings.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
The statements, estimates, projections or outlook contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (PSLRA). When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in future filings by us with the SEC, in our news releases, presentations to securities analysts or investors, and in oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our executive officers, the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “forecast,” “outlook,” “plan,” “project,” “should” or similar words or phrases are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are intended to take advantage of the “safe harbor” provisions of the PSLRA. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties which may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement in this report speaks only as of the date of this report and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances, including unanticipated events, after the date of this report.
The following discussion contains cautionary statements regarding our business, which investors and others should consider. We do not undertake to address in future filings with the SEC or other communications regarding our business or results of operations how any of these factors may have caused our results to differ from discussions or information contained in our previous filings or communications. In addition, any of the matters discussed below may have affected past, as well as current, forward-looking statements about future results. Any or all forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in any other SEC filings or public statements we make may turn out to be wrong. Our forward-looking statements can be affected by inaccurate assumptions we might make or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties. Many factors discussed below will be important in determining our future results. By their nature, forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or results and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions which are difficult to predict or quantify.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
If we fail to estimate, price for and manage our medical costs or design benefits in an effective manner, the profitability of our risk-based products and services could decline and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Through our risk-based benefit products, we assume the risk of both medical and administrative costs for our customers in return for monthly premiums. We generally use approximately 80% to 85% of our premium revenues to pay the costs of health care services delivered to these customers. The profitability of our products depends in large part on our ability to predict and effectively price for and manage medical costs. Our Optum Health business also enters into fully accountable value-based arrangements with payers. Premium revenues from risk-based products constitute nearly 80% of our total consolidated revenues. Estimates of benefit expense payments involve extensive judgement and are subject to considerable inherent variability. Relatively small differences between predicted and actual medical costs, or utilization rates as a percentage of revenues, can result in significant changes in our financial results. If we fail to predict accurately, or effectively price for or manage, the costs of providing care under risk-based arrangements, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We manage medical costs through underwriting criteria, product design, negotiation of competitive provider contracts and care management programs. Total medical costs are affected by the number of individual services rendered, the cost of each service and the type of service rendered. Although we base the premiums we charge on our estimates of future medical costs over the fixed contract period, many factors may cause, and have previously caused, actual costs to exceed those estimated and reflected in premiums or bids. These factors may include medical cost inflation, increased use of services, business mix, unexpected differences among new customer populations, increased cost of individual services, costs to deliver care, large-scale medical emergencies, the potential effects of climate change, pandemics, the introduction of new or costly drugs or increases in drug prices, treatments and technology, new treatment guidelines, newly mandated benefits or other regulatory changes and insured population characteristics. Cost increases in excess of our forecasts typically cannot be recovered in the fixed premium period through higher premiums. For Optum Health’s fully accountable value-based care, any inability to provide higher-quality outcomes and better experiences at lower costs or to integrate our care delivery models could impact our results of operations, financial positions and cash flows.
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In addition, the financial results we report for any particular period include estimates of costs incurred for which claims are still outstanding. These estimates involve an extensive degree of judgment. If these estimates prove inaccurate, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to maintain properly the integrity or availability of our data or successfully consolidate, integrate, upgrade or expand our existing information systems, or if our technology products do not operate as intended, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business depends on the integrity and timeliness of the data we use to serve our members, customers and health care professionals and to operate our business. If the data we rely upon to run our businesses is found to be inaccurate or unreliable or if we fail to effectively maintain or protect the integrity of our data and information systems, including systems powered by or incorporating artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML), we could experience failures in our health, wellness and information technology products; lose existing customers; have difficulty attracting new customers; experience problems in determining medical cost estimates and establishing appropriate pricing; have difficulty preventing, detecting and controlling fraud; have disputes with customers, physicians and other health care professionals; become subject to regulatory sanctions, penalties, investigations or audits; incur increases in operating expenses; or suffer other adverse consequences.
The volume of health care data generated, and the uses of data, including electronic health records, are rapidly expanding. We depend on the integrity of the data in our information systems to implement new and innovative services, automate and deploy new technologies to simplify administrative processes and clinical decision making, price our products and services adequately, provide effective service to our customers and consumers in an efficient and uninterrupted fashion, provide timely payments to care providers, and accurately report our results of operations. In addition, connectivity among technologies is becoming increasingly important and recent trends toward greater consumer engagement in health care require new and enhanced technologies, including more sophisticated applications for mobile devices and new tools and products that leverage AI/ML to improve the customer experience. We anticipate that fast-evolving AI/ML technologies, including generative AI, will play an increasingly important role in our information systems and customer-facing technology products. Our ability to protect and enhance existing systems and develop new systems to keep pace with changes in information processing technology (including AI/ML), regulatory standards and changing customer preferences will require an ongoing commitment of significant development and operational resources. If these commitments fail to provide the anticipated benefits, if we are unable to successfully anticipate future technology developments, or if the cost to keep pace with the technological changes exceed our estimates, we could be exposed to reputational harm and experience adverse effects on our business.
We may not successfully implement our initiatives to consolidate the number of systems we operate, upgrade and expand our information systems’ capabilities, integrate and enhance our systems and develop new systems to keep pace with recent regulations and changes in information processing technology. Failure to protect, consolidate and integrate our systems successfully could result in higher than expected costs.
Some of our businesses sell and install software products which may contain unexpected design defects or may encounter unexpected complications during installation or when used with other technologies utilized by the customer. A failure of our technology products to operate as intended and in a seamless fashion with other products could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Uncertain and rapidly evolving U.S. federal and state, non-U.S. and international laws and regulations related to health data and health information technologies, including those powered by or incorporating AI/ML, may alter the competitive landscape or impose new compliance requirements and could materially and adversely affect the configuration of our information systems and platforms, and our ability to compete in our markets.
If we or third parties we rely on sustain cyber-attacks or other privacy or data security incidents resulting in disruption to our operations or the disclosure of protected personal information or proprietary or confidential information, we could suffer a loss of revenue and increased costs, negative operational affects, exposure to significant liability, reputational harm and other serious negative consequences.
We routinely process, store and transmit large amounts of data in our operations, including protected personal information subject to privacy, security or data breach notification laws, as well as proprietary or confidential information relating to our business or third parties. Some of the data we process, store and transmit may be outside of the United States due to our information technology systems and international business operations. We are regularly the target of attempted cyber-attacks and other security threats and have previously been, and may in the future be, subject to compromises of the information technology systems we use, information we hold, or information held on our behalf by third parties. While we have programs in place to detect, contain and respond to data security incidents and provide employee awareness training regarding phishing, malware and other cyber threats to protect against cyber risks and security incidents, we expect that we will continue to experience these incidents, some of which may negatively affect our business. Further, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and are increasing in sophistication, in part due to use of evolving AI/ML technologies (including generative AI), and because our businesses are changing as well, we
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may be unable to anticipate these techniques and threats, detect data security incidents or implement adequate preventive measures. Threat actors and hackers have previously been, and may in the future be, able to negatively affect our operations by penetrating our security controls and causing system and operational disruptions or shutdowns, accessing, misappropriating or otherwise compromising protected personal information or proprietary or confidential information or that of third parties, and developing and deploying viruses, ransomware and other malware that can attack our systems, exploit any security vulnerabilities, and disrupt or shutdown our systems and operations. In addition, hardware, software, or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects or other problems which could unexpectedly compromise our information security controls. Our systems may also be vulnerable to financial fraud schemes, misplaced or lost data, human error, malicious social engineering, or other events which could negatively affect the data or financial accounts, proprietary or confidential information relating to our business or third parties, or our operations. There have previously been and may be in the future heightened vulnerabilities due to the lack of physical supervision and on-site infrastructure for remote workforce operations and for recently-acquired or non-integrated businesses. We rely in some circumstances on third-party vendors to process, store and transmit large amounts of data for our business whose operations are subject to similar risks.
The costs to eliminate or address the foregoing security threats and vulnerabilities before or after a cyber-incident could be material. We have business continuation and resiliency plans which are maintained, updated and tested regularly in an effort to contain and remediate potential disruptions or cyber events. If our remediation efforts are not successful, we may experience operational interruptions, delays, or cessation of service and loss of existing or potential customers. In addition, compromises of our security measures or the unauthorized dissemination of sensitive personal information, proprietary information or confidential information about us, our customers or other third parties, previously and in the future, could expose us or them to the risk of financial or medical identity theft, negative operational affects, expose us or them to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in litigation and liability, including regulatory penalties, for us, damage our brand and reputation, or otherwise harm our business.
If we fail to compete effectively to maintain or increase our market share, including maintaining or increasing enrollments in businesses providing health benefits, our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Our businesses face significant competition in all of the geographic markets in which we operate. In particular geographies or product segments, our competitors may have certain competitive advantages. Our competitive position may also be adversely affected by significant merger and acquisition activity in the industries in which we operate, among both our competitors and suppliers. Consolidation may make it more difficult for us to retain or increase our customer base, improve the terms on which we do business with our suppliers, or maintain or increase our profitability.
In addition, our success in the health care marketplace and future growth depends on our ability to develop and deliver innovative and potentially disruptive products and services to satisfy evolving market demands. If we do not continue to innovate and provide products and services which are useful and relevant to health care payers, consumers and our customers, we may not remain competitive and risk losing market share to existing competitors and disruptive new market entrants. We may face risks from new technologies and market entrants which could affect our existing relationship with health plan enrollees in these areas. We could sustain competitive disadvantages and loss of market share if we fail to continue developing innovative care models, including by accelerating the transition of care to value-based models that achieve higher quality outcomes and better experiences at lower costs and expand access to virtual and in-home care. Additionally, our competitive position could be adversely affected by any failure to develop and apply innovative technologies and other effective data and analytics capabilities or to provide services to our clients focused on these technologies and capabilities.
Our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows also could be materially and adversely affected if we do not compete effectively in our markets, if we set rates too high or too low in highly competitive markets, if we do not design and price our products properly and competitively, if we are unable to innovate and deliver products and services demonstrating value to our customers, if we do not provide a satisfactory level of services, if membership or demand for other services does not increase as we expect or declines, or if we lose accounts with more profitable products while retaining or increasing membership in accounts with less profitable products. The resumption of Medicaid redeterminations has impacted our membership levels and may impact our ability to maintain market share if we are unable to retain or add new consumers to other benefit offerings.
If we fail to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with health care payers, physicians, hospitals and other service providers, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
We depend substantially on our continued ability to contract with health care payers (as a service provider to those payers), as well as physicians, hospitals, pharmaceutical benefit service providers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and other care and service providers at competitive prices. If we fail to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with health care providers, whether in-network or out-of-network, our failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations,
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financial position and cash flows. In addition, some of our activities related to network design, provider participation in networks and provider payments could result in disputes, which may be costly and attract negative publicity.
In any particular market, physicians and health care providers could refuse to contract with us, demand higher payments, or take other actions which could result in higher medical costs, less desirable products for customers or difficulty meeting regulatory or accreditation requirements. In some markets, certain health care providers, particularly hospitals, physician and hospital organizations or multi-specialty physician groups, may have significant market positions which could diminish our bargaining power. In addition, Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs); physician group management services organizations (which aggregate physician practices for administrative efficiency); and other organizational structures adopted by physicians, hospitals and other care providers may change the way in which these providers do business with us and may change the competitive landscape. Such organizations or groups of physicians may compete directly with us, which could adversely affect our business, and our results of operations, financial position and cash flows by impacting our relationships with these providers or affecting the way we price our products and estimate our costs, which might require us to incur costs to change our operations in an effort to mitigate these impacts. In addition, if these providers refuse to contract with us, use their market position to negotiate favorable contracts or place us at a competitive disadvantage, our ability to market products or to be profitable in those areas could be materially and adversely affected.
Our health care benefits businesses have risk-based arrangements with some physicians, hospitals and other health care providers. These arrangements limit our exposure to the risk of increasing medical costs, but expose us to risk related to the adequacy of the financial and medical care resources of the health care providers. To the extent a risk-based health care provider organization faces financial difficulties or otherwise is unable to perform its obligations under the arrangement, we may be held responsible for unpaid health care claims which should have been the responsibility of the health care provider and for which we have already paid the provider. Further, payment or other disputes between a primary care provider and specialists with whom the primary care provider contracts could result in a disruption in the provision of services to our members or a reduction in the services available to our members. Health care providers with which we contract may not properly manage the costs of services, maintain financial solvency or avoid disputes with other providers. They may also fail to provide us with the information we need to effectively conduct our businesses, such as information enabling us to estimate costs of care. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on the provision of services to our members and our operations.
Some providers that render services to our members do not have contracts with us. In some instances, those providers may dispute the payment for these services and may institute litigation or arbitration relying on state and federal laws that define the compensation that must be paid to out-of-network providers in some circumstances.
The success of some of our businesses depends on maintaining satisfactory relationships with physicians as our employees, independent contractors or joint venture partners. The physicians who practice medicine or contract with our affiliated physician organizations could terminate their provider contracts or otherwise become unable or unwilling to continue practicing medicine or contracting with us. We face and will likely continue to face heightened competition to acquire or manage physician practices or to employ or contract with individual physicians. Our revenues could be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to maintain or expand satisfactory relationships with physicians, to acquire, recruit or, in some instances, employ physicians, or to retain enrollees following physician departures. In addition, our affiliated physician organizations contract with competitors of UnitedHealthcare. Our businesses could suffer if our affiliated physician organizations fail to maintain relationships with or fail to adequately price their contracts with these third-party payer competitors.
Further, physicians, hospitals, pharmaceutical benefit service providers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and certain health care providers are customers of our Optum businesses. Physicians also provide medical services at facilities owned by our Optum businesses. Given the importance of health care providers and other constituents to our businesses, failure to maintain satisfactory relationships with them could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We are routinely subject to various private party and governmental legal actions and investigations, which could damage our reputation and, if resolved unfavorably, could result in substantial penalties or monetary damages and materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We are routinely made party to a variety of private party and governmental legal actions and investigations related to, among other matters, the design, management and delivery of our product and service offerings. Any failure by us to adhere to the laws and regulations applicable to our businesses could subject us to civil and criminal penalties.
Legal actions to which we are a party have included and in the future could include matters related to health care benefits coverage and payment of claims (including disputes with enrollees, customers and contracted and non-contracted physicians, hospitals and other health care professionals), tort claims (including claims related to the delivery of health care services, such as medical malpractice by personnel at our affiliates’ facilities, or by health care practitioners who are employed by us, have contractual relationships with us, or serve as providers to our managed care networks, including as a result of a failure to adhere
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to applicable clinical, quality and/or patient safety standards), antitrust claims (including as a result of changes in the enforcement of antitrust laws), whistleblower claims (including claims under the False Claims Act or similar statutes), matters related to our use of personal information or other proprietary data, claims related to alleged failure of our technology products to operate properly or fairly, contract and labor disputes, tax claims and claims related to disclosure of certain business practices. In addition, some of our pharmacy services operations are subject to clinical quality, patient safety and other risks inherent in the dispensing, packaging and distribution of drugs, including claims related to purported dispensing and other operational errors. We may also be party to certain class action lawsuits brought by health care professional groups and consumers. We operate in jurisdictions outside of the United States where contractual rights, tax positions and applicable regulations may be subject to interpretation or uncertainty to a greater degree than in the United States, and therefore subject to dispute by customers, government authorities or others.
We are largely self-insured with regard to litigation risks, including claims of medical malpractice against our affiliated physicians and us. Although we record liabilities for our estimates of the probable costs resulting from self-insured matters, it is possible the level of actual losses will significantly exceed the liabilities recorded. Additionally, physicians and other healthcare providers have become subject to an increasing number of legal actions alleging medical malpractice and general professional liabilities. Even in states that have imposed caps on damages for such actions, litigants are seeking recoveries under new theories of liability that might not be subject to the caps on damages. These actions involve significant defense costs and could result in substantial monetary damages or damage to our reputation.
We cannot predict the outcome of significant legal actions in which we are involved. Even in situations where we engage external insurers, our coverage may not be sufficient to cover the entirety of certain claims. We incur expenses to resolve these matters and current and future legal actions could further increase our cost of doing business and materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows. Moreover, certain legal actions could result in adverse publicity which could damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our ability to retain our current business or grow our market share in some markets and businesses.
Our business could suffer, and our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected, if we fail to successfully manage our strategic alliances, to complete, manage or integrate acquisitions and other significant strategic transactions or relationships domestically or outside the United States.
As part of our business strategy, we frequently engage in discussions with third parties regarding possible investments, acquisitions, divestitures, strategic alliances, joint ventures and outsourcing transactions and often enter into agreements relating to such transactions. If we fail to meet the needs of our alliance or joint venture partners, including by developing additional products and services, providing high levels of service, pricing our products and services competitively or responding effectively to applicable federal and state regulatory changes, our alliances and joint ventures could be damaged or terminated, which in turn could adversely impact our reputation, business and results of operations. Further, governmental actions, such as actions by the FTC or DOJ, may affect our ability to complete strategic transactions, which could adversely affect our future growth. If we fail to identify and successfully complete transactions to meet our strategic objectives, including as a result of antitrust regulatory enforcement actions, such as those that have been brought against us in the past, we may be required to expend resources to develop products and technology internally, be placed at a competitive disadvantage or be adversely affected by negative market perceptions, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
Successful acquisitions also require us to effectively integrate the acquired business into our existing operations, including our internal control environment and culture, or otherwise leveraging its operations which may present risks different from those presented by organic growth and may be difficult for us to manage. In addition, even with appropriate diligence, pre-acquisition practices of an acquired business have in the past and may in the future expose us to legal challenges and investigations that could subject us to criminal fines or reputational harm. Even if we are ultimately successful, defending such claims may be costly and result in negative publicity. If we cannot successfully integrate our acquired businesses and realize contemplated revenue growth opportunities, cost savings and other synergies, our business, prospects, results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
As we operate our business outside of the United States, we face risks different from those presented by acquisitions of domestic businesses, including risks in adapting to new markets, languages, business, labor and cultural practices and regulatory environments. Managing these risks could require us to devote significant senior management attention and other resources to the acquired businesses before we realize anticipated synergies or other benefits from those businesses. These risks vary widely by country and, outside of the United States, may include political instability, government intervention, unanticipated court decisions, discriminatory regulation and currency exchange controls or other restrictions, which could prevent us from transferring funds from these operations out of the countries in which our acquired businesses operate, or converting local currencies we hold into U.S. dollars or other currencies.
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Foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations have had and may in future periods have an impact on our shareholders’ equity from period to period, which could adversely affect our debt to debt-plus-equity ratio, and our future revenues, costs and cash flows from international operations. Any measures we may implement to reduce the effect of volatile currencies may be costly or ineffective.
We are subject to risks associated with public health crises arising from large-scale medical emergencies, pandemics, natural disasters and other extreme events, which have and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and financial performance.
Large-scale medical emergencies, pandemics, natural disasters, public health crises and other extreme events could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, cash flows, financial conditions and results of operations. For example, disruptions in public and private infrastructure resulting from such events could increase our operating costs and impair our ability to provide services to our clients and customers. In addition, as a result of these events, the premiums and fees we charge may not be sufficient to cover our medical and administrative costs, deferred medical care could be sought in future periods at potentially higher acuity levels, we could experience reduced demand for our services, and our clinical and non-clinical workforce could be affected and sustain a reduced capacity to handle demand for care. Public health crises arising from natural disasters, such as wildfires, hurricanes, and snowstorms, or effects of climate change could impact our business operations and result in increased medical care costs. Government enactment of emergency powers in response to public health crises could disrupt our business operations, including by restricting availability of or our ability to deliver pharmaceuticals or other supplies, and could increase the risk of shortages of necessary items.
Our sales performance will suffer if we do not adequately attract, retain and provide support to a network of independent producers and consultants.
Our products and services are sold in part through nonexclusive producers and consultants for whose services and allegiance we must compete. Our sales could be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to attract, retain and support independent producers and consultants or if our sales strategy is not appropriately aligned across distribution channels. Our relationships with producers could be impaired by changes in our business practices and the terms of our relationships, including commission levels.
Our businesses are subject to risks associated with unfavorable economic conditions.
Unfavorable economic conditions may have a range of impacts on the demand for our products and services. Such conditions also have caused and in future periods could continue to cause employers to stop offering certain health care coverage as an employee benefit or elect to offer particular coverage on a voluntary, employee-funded basis to reduce their operating costs. In addition, unfavorable economic conditions could adversely impact our ability to increase premiums or result in the cancellation by certain customers of our products and services. These conditions could lead to a decrease in people served and in the premium and fee revenues we generate.
A prolonged unfavorable economic environment could constrain state and federal budgets and result in reduced reimbursements or payments in our federal and state government health care coverage programs, including Medicare, Medicaid and CHIP. A reduction in state Medicaid reimbursement rates could be implemented retroactively to apply to payments already negotiated or received from the government. In addition, state and federal budgetary pressures could cause the affected governments to impose new or a higher level of taxes or assessments for our commercial programs, such as premium taxes on health insurance and surcharges or fees on select fee-for-service and capitated medical claims. Any of these developments or actions could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
A prolonged unfavorable economic environment could also adversely impact the financial position of hospitals and other care providers which could negatively affect our contracted rates with these parties and increase our medical costs or materially and adversely affect their ability to purchase our service offerings. Further, unfavorable economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our financial results by impacting the customers of our Optum businesses, including health plans, hospitals, care providers, employers and others.
Our failure to attract, develop, retain, and manage the succession of key employees and executives could adversely affect our business, results of operations and future performance.
We depend on our ability to attract, develop and retain qualified employees and executives, including those with diverse backgrounds, experiences and skills, to operate and expand our business. While we have development and succession plans in place for our key employees and executives, these plans do not guarantee that the services of our key employees and executives will continue to be available to us. If we are unable to attract, develop, retain and effectively manage the development and succession plans for key employees and executives, our business, results of operations and future performance could be adversely affected. Experienced and highly skilled employees and executives in the health care and technology industries are in high demand and the market for their services is competitive. We may have difficulty in replacing key executives because of the limited number of qualified individuals in these industries with the breadth of skills and experience required to operate and
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successfully expand our business. Adverse changes to our corporate culture could harm our business operations and our ability to retain key employees and executives.
Our investment portfolio may sustain losses which could adversely affect our profitability.
Market fluctuations could impair the value of our investment portfolio and our profitability. Volatility in interest rates affects our interest income and the market value of our investments in debt securities of varying maturities which constitute the substantial majority of the fair value of our investments as of December 31, 2023. In addition, a delay in payment of principal or interest by issuers, or defaults by issuers (primarily issuers of our investments in corporate and municipal bonds), could reduce our investment income and require us to write down the value of our investments which could adversely affect our profitability and equity.
Our investments may not produce total positive returns and we may sell investments at prices which are less than their carrying values. Changes in the value of our investment assets, as a result of interest rate fluctuations, changes in issuer financial or market conditions, illiquidity or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on our equity. In addition, if it should become necessary for us to liquidate a material portion of our investment portfolio on an accelerated basis, such an action could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and the capital position of our regulated subsidiaries.
If the value of our intangible assets is materially impaired, our results of operations, equity and credit ratings could be materially and adversely affected.
As of December 31, 2023, our goodwill and other intangible assets had a carrying value of $119 billion, representing 43% of our total consolidated assets. We periodically evaluate our goodwill and other intangible assets to determine whether all or a portion of their carrying values may be impaired, in which case a charge to earnings may be necessary. The value of our goodwill may be materially and adversely impacted if businesses we acquire perform in a manner inconsistent with our assumptions. In addition, from time to time we divest businesses, and any such divestiture could result in significant asset impairment and disposition charges, including those related to goodwill and other intangible assets. Any future evaluations requiring an impairment of our goodwill and other intangible assets could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and equity in the period in which the impairment occurs. A material decrease in equity could, in turn, adversely affect our credit ratings.
If we are not able to protect our proprietary rights to our databases, software and related products, or other intellectual property, our ability to market our knowledge and information-related businesses could suffer.
We rely on our agreements with customers, confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties, and our trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights and patents to protect our proprietary rights. These legal protections and precautions may not prevent misappropriation of our proprietary information. In addition, intellectual property rights inherent in software are the subject of substantial litigation, and we expect our software products to be increasingly subject to third-party infringement claims as the number of products and competitors in the health care-focused software industry segment grows. Such litigation and misappropriation of our proprietary information could hinder our ability to market and sell products and services which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Any downgrades in our credit ratings could increase our borrowing and operating costs.
Claims paying ability, financial strength and debt ratings by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations are important factors in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Ratings information is broadly disseminated and generally used by customers and creditors. We believe our claims paying ability and financial strength ratings are important factors in marketing our products to certain of our customers. Our credit ratings impact both the cost and availability of future borrowings. Each of the credit rating agencies reviews its ratings periodically. Our ratings reflect each credit rating agency’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations or obligations to policyholders. We may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings in the future. Any downgrades in our credit ratings could materially increase our costs of or ability to access funds in the debt capital markets and otherwise materially increase our operating costs.

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Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Business
Our business activities in the United States and other countries are highly regulated and new laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations or their enforcement or application could materially and adversely affect our business.
We are regulated by federal, state and local governments in the United States and other countries where we do business. Our insurance and HMO subsidiaries must be licensed by and are subject to regulation in the jurisdictions in which they conduct business. For example, states require periodic financial reports and enforce minimum capital or restricted cash reserve requirements. Health plans and insurance companies are also regulated under state insurance holding company regulations and some of our activities may be subject to other health care-related regulations and requirements, including regulations and licensure requirements related to PPOs, MCOs, UR and TPAs. Under state guaranty association laws, certain insurance companies can be assessed (up to prescribed limits) for certain obligations to the policyholders and claimants of impaired or insolvent insurance companies which write the same line or similar lines of business. Any such assessment could expose our insurance entities and other insurers to the risk they would be required to pay a portion of an impaired or insolvent insurance company’s claims through state guaranty associations.
Some of our businesses provide products or services to government agencies. For example, some of our Optum and UnitedHealthcare businesses hold government contracts or provide services related to government contracts and are subject to U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. self-referral, anti-kickback, medical necessity, risk adjustment, false claims and other laws and regulations governing government contractors and the use of government funds. Our relationships with these government agencies are subject to the terms of our contracts with the agencies and to laws and regulations regarding government contracts. Among others, certain laws and regulations restrict or prohibit companies from performing work for government agencies which might be viewed to involve an actual or potential conflict of interest. These laws and regulations may limit our ability to pursue and perform certain types of engagements, thereby materially and adversely affecting our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Some of our Optum businesses are also subject to regulations distinct from those faced by our insurance and HMO subsidiaries, some of which could impact our relationships with physicians, hospitals and customers. These regulations include state telemedicine regulations; debt collection laws; banking regulations; distributor and producer licensing requirements; state corporate practice of medicine restrictions; fee-splitting rules; and health care facility licensure and certificate of need requirements. These risks and uncertainties may materially and adversely affect our ability to market or provide our products and services, or to achieve targeted operating margins, or may increase the regulatory burdens under which we operate.
The laws and rules governing our businesses and interpretations of those laws and rules are subject to frequent and often unpredictable change. For example, legislative, administrative and public policy changes to the ACA have been and likely will continue to be considered, and we cannot predict if the ACA will be further modified. Additionally, changes in tax laws or unfavorable resolutions of exams could create additional tax liabilities.
The integration of entities we acquire into our businesses may affect the way in which existing laws and rules apply to us, including by subjecting us to laws and rules which did not previously apply to us. The broad latitude given to the agencies administering, interpreting and enforcing current and future regulations governing our businesses could compel us to change how we do business, renegotiate existing contracts and other arrangements, restrict revenue and enrollment growth, increase our health care and administrative costs and capital requirements, or expose us to increased liability in courts for coverage determinations, resolution of commercial disputes and other actions.
We also must obtain and maintain regulatory approvals to market many of our products and services, increase prices for some regulated products and services and complete or integrate strategic transactions. For example, premium rates for our health insurance and managed care products are subject to regulatory review or approval in many states and by the federal government. Additionally, we must submit data on proposed rate increases to HHS on many of our products for monitoring purposes. Geographic and product expansions of our businesses may be subject to state and federal regulatory approvals. Delays in obtaining necessary approvals or our failure to obtain or maintain adequate approvals could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We also currently operate outside of the United States and in the future may acquire or commence additional businesses based outside of the United States, increasing our exposure to non-U.S. regulatory regimes. Our failure to comply with U.S. or non-U.S. laws and regulations governing our conduct outside the United States or to establish constructive relationships with non-U.S. regulators could adversely affect our ability to market our products and services or to do so at targeted operating margins, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Non-U.S. regulatory regimes, which vary by jurisdiction, encompass, among other matters, local and cross-border taxation, licensing, tariffs, intellectual property, investment, capital (including minimum solvency margin and reserve requirements), management control, labor, anti-fraud, anti-corruption and privacy and data protection regulations (including requirements for cross-border data transfers). Any foreign regulator or court may take an approach to the interpretation, implementation and enforcement of
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industry regulations which could differ from the approach taken by U.S. regulators or courts. In addition, our non-U.S. businesses and operations are subject to U.S. laws regulating the conduct and activities of U.S.-based businesses operating outside the United States, such as the FCPA, which prohibits offering, promising, providing or authorizing others to give anything of value to a foreign government official to obtain or retain business or otherwise secure a business advantage.
The health care industry is regularly subject to negative publicity, including as a result of governmental investigations, adverse media coverage and political debate concerning industry regulation. Negative publicity may adversely affect our stock price and damage our reputation, and expose us to unexpected or unwarranted regulatory scrutiny.
As a result of our participation in various government health care programs, both as a payer and as a service provider to payers, we are exposed to additional risks associated with program funding, enrollments, payment adjustments, audits and government investigations which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We participate in various federal, state and local government health care benefit programs, including as a payer in Medicare Advantage, Medicare Part D, various Medicaid programs and CHIP, and receive substantial revenues from these programs. Some of our Optum businesses also provide services to payers participating in government health care programs. A reduction or less than expected increase, or a protracted delay, in government funding for these programs or change in allocation methodologies, or termination of the contract at the option of the government, has affected and in future periods may materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
The government health care programs in which we participate are generally subject to frequent changes, including changes which may reduce the number of persons enrolled or eligible for coverage (such as Medicaid eligibility redeterminations in certain states), reduce the amount of reimbursement or payment levels, reduce our participation in, or prevent our expansion into, certain service areas or markets, or increase our administrative or medical costs under such programs. Revenues for these programs depend on periodic funding from the federal government or applicable state governments and allocation of the funding through various payment mechanisms. Funding for these government programs depends on many factors outside of our control, including general economic conditions and budgetary constraints at the federal or applicable state level. For example, CMS in the past has reduced or frozen Medicare Advantage benchmarks and additional cuts to Medicare Advantage benchmarks are possible. In addition, from time to time, CMS makes changes to the way it calculates Medicare Advantage risk adjustment payments. Although we have adjusted members’ benefits and premiums on a selective basis, ceased to offer benefit plans in certain counties, and intensified both our medical and operating cost management in response to the benchmark reductions and other funding pressures, these or other strategies may not fully address the funding pressures in the Medicare Advantage program. In addition, payers in the Medicare Advantage program may be subject to reductions in payments from CMS as a result of decreased funding or recoupment pursuant to government audit. States have also made changes in rates and reimbursements for Medicaid members and audits can result in unexpected recoupments.
Under the Medicaid managed care program, state Medicaid agencies solicit bids from eligible health plans to continue their participation in the acute care Medicaid health programs. If we are not successful in obtaining renewals of state Medicaid managed care contracts, we risk losing the members who were enrolled in those Medicaid programs. Under the Medicare Part D program, to qualify for automatic enrollment of low income members, our bids must result in an enrollee premium below a regional benchmark, which is calculated by the government after all regional bids are submitted. If the enrollee premium is not below the government benchmark, we risk losing the members who were auto-assigned to us and will not have additional members auto-assigned to us. Chronic failure to meet the benchmarks could result in termination of these government contracts. In general, our bids are based upon certain assumptions regarding enrollment, utilization, medical costs and other factors. If any of these assumptions are materially incorrect, either as a result of unforeseen changes to the programs on which we bid, implementation of material program or policy changes after our bid submission, or submission by our competitors at lower rates than our bids, our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Many of the government health care coverage programs we participate in are subject to the prior satisfaction of certain conditions or performance standards or benchmarks. For example, as part of the ACA, CMS has a system providing various quality bonus payments to Medicare Advantage plans meeting specified quality star ratings at the individual plan or local contract level. The star rating system considers various measures adopted by CMS, including, among others, quality of care, preventive services, chronic illness management, handling of appeals and customer satisfaction. Plans must have a rating of four stars or higher to qualify for bonus payments. If we do not maintain or continue to improve our star ratings, our plans may not be eligible for quality bonuses and we may experience a negative impact on our revenues and the benefits our plans can offer, which could materially and adversely affect the marketability of our plans and the number of people we serve. Any changes in standards or care delivery models applying to government health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, or our inability to maintain or improve our quality scores and star ratings to meet evolving government performance requirements or to match the performance of our competitors could result in limitations to our participation in or exclusion from these or other government programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
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CMS uses various payment mechanisms to allocate funding and adjust monthly capitation payments for Medicare programs. For Medicare Advantage plans, these adjustments are made according to the predicted health status of each beneficiary as supported by data from health care providers. For Medicare Part D plans, payment adjustments are driven by risk-sharing provisions based on a comparison of costs forecasted in our annual bids to actual prescription drug costs. Some state Medicaid programs utilize a similar process. For example, our UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement and UnitedHealthcare Community & State businesses submit information relating to the health status of enrollees to CMS or state agencies for purposes of determining the amount of certain payments to us. CMS and the Office of Inspector General for HHS periodically perform risk adjustment data validation (RADV) audits of selected Medicare health plans to validate the coding practices of and supporting documentation maintained by health care providers. Some of our local plans have been selected for such audits, which in the past have resulted and in future periods could result in retrospective adjustments to payments made to our health plans, fines, corrective action plans or other adverse action by CMS.
We have been involved, and in the future may become involved in routine, regular and special governmental investigations, audits, reviews and assessments. Such investigations, audits, reviews or assessments sometimes arise out of, or prompt claims by private litigants or whistleblowers regarding, among other allegations, claims that we failed to disclose certain business practices or, as a government contractor, submitted false or erroneous claims to the government. Government investigations, audits, reviews and assessments could lead to government actions, which have resulted and in future periods could result in adverse publicity, the assessment of damages, civil or criminal fines or penalties, or other sanctions, including restrictions or changes in the way we conduct business, loss of licensure or exclusion from participation in government programs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Our pharmacy care services businesses face regulatory and operational risks and uncertainties which may differ from the risks of our other businesses.
We provide pharmacy care services through our Optum Rx and UnitedHealthcare businesses. Each business is subject to federal and state anti-kickback, beneficiary inducement and other laws governing the relationships of the business with pharmaceutical manufacturers, physicians, pharmacies, customers and consumers. In addition, federal and state legislatures regularly consider new regulations for the industry which could materially affect current industry practices, including potential new legislation and regulations regarding the receipt or disclosure of rebates and other fees from pharmaceutical companies, the development and use of formularies and other utilization management tools, the use of average wholesale prices or other pricing benchmarks, pricing for specialty pharmaceuticals, limited access to networks and pharmacy network reimbursement methodologies. Further, various governmental agencies have conducted and continue to conduct investigations and studies into certain PBM practices, which have resulted and in future periods may result in PBMs agreeing to civil penalties, including the payment of money and entry into corporate integrity agreements, or could materially and adversely impact the PBM business model. As a provider of pharmacy benefit management services, Optum Rx is also subject to an increasing number of licensure, registration and other laws and accreditation standards. Optum Rx conducts business through home delivery, specialty and compounding pharmacies, pharmacies located in community mental health centers and home infusion, which subjects it to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations, including those of the DEA and individual state controlled substance authorities, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Boards of Pharmacy.
We could face potential claims in connection with purported errors by our home delivery, specialty or compounding or clinic-based pharmacies or the provision of home infusion services, as well as claims related to the inherent risks in the packaging and distribution of pharmaceuticals and other health care products. Disruptions from any of our home delivery, specialty pharmacy or home infusion services could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
In addition, our pharmacy care services businesses provide services to sponsors of health benefit plans subject to ERISA. A private party or the DOL, which is the agency that enforces ERISA, could assert that fiduciary obligations imposed by the statute apply to some or all of the services provided by our pharmacy care services businesses even where those businesses are not contractually obligated to assume fiduciary obligations. If a court were to determine such fiduciary obligations apply, we could be subject to claims for breaches of fiduciary obligations or claims we entered into prohibited transactions.
If we fail to comply with applicable privacy, security, technology and data laws, regulations and standards, including with respect to third-party service providers utilizing protected personal information on our behalf, our business, reputation, results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
The collection, maintenance, protection, use, transmission, disclosure and disposal of protected personal information are regulated at the federal, state, international and industry levels and addressed in requirements imposed on us by contracts with customers. Additionally, legislative and regulatory action in the United States at the federal, state and local levels, as well as internationally, is emerging in the areas of AI/ML and automation. These laws, regulations and requirements are subject to change. Compliance with new privacy, security, technology and data laws, regulations and requirements may result in increased operating costs, and may constrain or require us to alter our business model or operations.
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Internationally, many of the jurisdictions in which we operate have established their own data security and privacy legal framework with which we or our customers must comply. We expect there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, information security, and AI/ML and automation in the European Union, UK, Chile, India and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impacts such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our businesses or the businesses of our customers. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) imposes stringent European Union data protection requirements on us or our customers, and prescribes substantial penalties for noncompliance.
Many of our businesses are also subject to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, which is a multifaceted security standard designed to protect payment card account data.
HIPAA requires business associates as well as covered entities to comply with specified privacy and security requirements. While we provide for appropriate protections through our contracts with our third-party service providers and in certain cases assess their security controls, we have limited oversight or control over their actions and practices. Several of our businesses act as business associates to their covered entity customers and, as a result, collect, use, disclose and maintain protected personal information in order to provide services to these customers. HHS administers its audit program to assess HIPAA compliance efforts by covered entities and business associates. An audit resulting in findings or allegations of noncompliance could damage our reputation and subject us to monetary and other sanctions.
Through our Optum businesses, we maintain a database of administrative and clinical data statistically de-identified in accordance with HIPAA standards. Noncompliance or findings of noncompliance with applicable laws, regulations or requirements, or the occurrence of any privacy or security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of protected personal information, whether by us or by one of our third-party service providers, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business and, among other consequences, could subject us to mandatory disclosure to the media, loss of existing or new customers, significant increases in the cost of managing and remediating privacy or security incidents, and material fines, penalties and litigation awards. Any of these consequences could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
As an enterprise, we increasingly rely on new and evolving technologies, including those powered by or incorporating AI/ML, as part of our internal operations and in the delivery of our products and services. New technologies have potential and power to improve and optimize operational processes and clinical outcomes across the healthcare system, but also present ethical, technological, legal, regulatory and other risks. With respect to AI/ML, we have developed and implemented policies and procedures intended to promote and sustain responsible design, development, and use of AI/ML, consistent with industry best practices. Any inadequacy or failure in compliance with our responsible use of AI/ML policies and procedures or emerging laws, regulations and standards governing AI/ML use could cause our technology products not to operate as intended or to produce outcomes that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Restrictions on our ability to obtain funds from our regulated subsidiaries could materially and adversely affect our ability to reinvest in our business, service our debt and return capital to our shareholders.
Because we operate as a holding company, we are dependent on dividends and administrative expense reimbursements from our subsidiaries to fund our obligations. Many of these subsidiaries are regulated by state departments of insurance or similar regulatory authorities. We are also required by law or regulation to maintain specific prescribed minimum amounts of capital in these subsidiaries. The levels of capitalization required depend primarily on the volume of premium revenues generated by the applicable subsidiary. In most states, we are required to seek approval by state regulatory authorities before we transfer money or pay dividends from our regulated subsidiaries exceeding specified amounts. An inability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends to their parent companies in the desired amounts or at the time of our choosing could adversely affect our ability to reinvest in our business through capital expenditures or business acquisitions, as well as our ability to maintain our corporate quarterly dividend payment, repurchase shares of our common stock and repay our debt. If we are unable to obtain sufficient funds from our subsidiaries to fund our obligations, our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY
UnitedHealth Group manages cybersecurity and data protection through a continuously evolving framework. The framework allows us to identify, assess and mitigate the risks we face, and assists us in establishing policies and safeguards to protect our systems and the information of those we serve.
Our cybersecurity program is managed by our Chief Digital and Technology Officer and Chief Information Security Officer. The Audit and Finance Committee of the Board of Directors has oversight of our cybersecurity program and is responsible for reviewing and assessing the Company’s cybersecurity and data protection policies, procedures and resource commitment, including key risk areas and mitigation strategies. As part of this process, the Audit and Finance Committee receives regular updates from the Chief Digital and Technology Officer and Chief Information Security Officer on critical issues related to our information security risks, cybersecurity strategy, supplier risk and business continuity capabilities.
The Company’s framework includes an incident management and response program that continuously monitors the Company’s information systems for vulnerabilities, threats and incidents; manages and takes action to contain incidents that occur; remediates vulnerabilities; and communicates the details of threats and incidents to management, including the Chief Digital and Technology Officer and Chief Information Security Officer, as deemed necessary or appropriate. Pursuant to the Company’s incident response plan, incidents are reported to the Audit and Finance Committee, appropriate government agencies and other authorities, as deemed necessary or appropriate, considering the actual or potential impact, significance and scope.
We work to require our third-party partners and contractors to handle data in accordance with our data privacy and information security requirements and applicable laws. We regularly engage with our suppliers, partners, contractors, service providers and internal development teams to identify and remediate vulnerabilities in a timely manner and monitor system upgrades to mitigate future risk, and ensure they employ appropriate and effective controls and continuity plans for their systems and operations.
To ensure that our program is designed and operating effectively, our infrastructure and information systems are audited periodically by internal and external auditors. We have obtained various certifications from industry-recognized certifying organizations as a result of certain external audits. We also perform regular vulnerability assessments and penetration tests to improve system security and address emerging security threats. Our internal audit team independently assesses security controls against our enterprise policies to evaluate compliance and leverages a combination of auditing and security frameworks to evaluate how leading practices are applied throughout our enterprise. Audit results and remediation progress are reported to and monitored by senior management and the Audit and Finance Committee. We also periodically partner with industry-leading cybersecurity firms to assess our cybersecurity program. These assessments complement our other assessment work by evaluating our cybersecurity program as a whole.
We complete an enterprise information risk assessment as part of our overall enterprise information security risk management assessment, which is overseen by our Chief Information Security Officer. This risk assessment is a review of internal and external threats that evaluates changes to the information risk landscape to inform the investments and program enhancements to be made in the future to rapidly respond and recover from potential attacks, including rebuild and recovery protocols for key systems. We evaluate our enterprise information security risk to ensure we address any unexpected or unforeseen changes in the risk environment or our systems and the resulting impacts are communicated to the Company’s overall enterprise risk management program.
We believe our Chief Digital and Technology Officer and Chief Information Security Officer have the appropriate knowledge and expertise to effectively manage our cybersecurity program. The Chief Digital and Technology Officer has experience leading enterprise digital transformation efforts for a large multinational corporation and held several leadership and growth positions at a global technology consulting and services firm before joining UnitedHealth Group. Our Chief Information Security Officer has experience leading a global digital portfolio for a large multinational corporation and held key leadership roles for a large technology and software company, including overseeing information security, before joining UnitedHealth Group.
As of December 31, 2023, the Company has not identified any risks from cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, but there can be no assurance that any such risk will not materially affect the Company in the future. For further information about the cybersecurity risks we face, and potential impacts, see Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
On February 22, 2024, we disclosed the occurrence of a cybersecurity incident. We continue to investigate the extent of the incident, which we believe was committed by cybercrime threat actors. As of the date of this report, we have not determined the incident is reasonably likely to materially impact our financial condition or results of operations.
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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
We own and lease real properties to support our business operations in the United States and other countries. Our reportable segments use these facilities for their respective business purposes, and we believe the current facilities are suitable for their respective uses and are adequate for our anticipated future needs.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required by this Item 3 is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the captions “Legal Matters” and “Government Investigations, Audits and Reviews” in Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
MARKET AND HOLDERS
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol UNH. On January 31, 2024, there were 9,853 holders of record of our common stock.
DIVIDEND POLICY
In June 2023, our Board of Directors increased the Company’s quarterly cash dividend to shareholders to an annual rate of $7.52 compared to $6.60 per share, which the Company had paid since June 2022. Declaration and payment of future quarterly dividends is at the discretion of the Board and may be adjusted as business needs or market conditions change.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities (a)
Fourth Quarter 2023
For the Month EndedTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Number of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Plans or Programs
(in millions)(in millions)(in millions)
October 31, 20231.0 $524.30 1.0 16.7
November 30, 20230.9 537.53 0.9 15.8
December 31, 20230.9 544.83 0.9 14.9
Total2.8 $535.34 2.8 
(a)    In November 1997, our Board of Directors adopted a share repurchase program, which the Board evaluates periodically. In June 2018, the Board of Directors renewed our share repurchase program with an authorization to repurchase up to 100 million shares of our common stock in open market purchases or other types of transactions (including prepaid or structured repurchase programs). There is no established expiration date for the program. The Board of Directors from time to time may further amend the share repurchase program in order to increase the authorized number of shares which may be repurchased under the program.
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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following performance graph compares the cumulative five-year total return to shareholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the S&P Health Care Index, the Dow Jones US Industrial Average Index and the S&P 500 Index for the five-year period ended December 31, 2023. The comparisons assume the investment of $100 on December 31, 2018 in our common stock and in each index, and the reinvestment of dividends when paid.
UNH 2023 Performance Graph.jpg
12/1812/1912/2012/2112/2212/23
UnitedHealth Group$100.00 $119.99 $145.43 $211.18 $225.85 $227.65 
S&P Health Care Index100.00 120.82 137.07 172.89 169.51 172.99 
Dow Jones US Industrial Average100.00 125.34 137.53 166.34 154.92 180.00 
S&P 500 Index100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance. The preceding stock performance graph shall not be deemed incorporated by reference by any general statement incorporating by reference this Annual Report on Form 10-K into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates such information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such Acts.
ITEM 6.     Reserved
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read together with the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements thereto included in Part II Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” Readers are cautioned the statements, estimates, projections or outlook contained in this report, including discussions regarding financial prospects, economic conditions, trends and uncertainties contained in this Item 7, may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the PSLRA. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties which may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. A description of some of the risks and uncertainties can be found further below in this Item 7 and in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Discussions of year-over-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 are not included in this Form 10-K and can be found in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of the Company’s Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
General
UnitedHealth Group is a health care and well-being company with a mission to help people live healthier lives and help make the health system work better for everyone. Our two distinct, yet complementary businesses — Optum and UnitedHealthcare — are working to help build a modern, high-performing health system through improved access, affordability, outcomes and experiences for the individuals and organizations we are privileged to serve.
We have four reportable segments across our two businesses:
Optum Health;
Optum Insight;
Optum Rx; and
UnitedHealthcare, which includes UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement and UnitedHealthcare Community & State.
Further information on our business and reportable segments is presented in Part I, Item 1, “Business” and in Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Business Trends
Our businesses participate in the United States and certain other international health markets. In the United States, health care spending has grown consistently for many years and comprises 18% of gross domestic product (GDP). We expect overall spending on health care to continue to grow in the future, due to inflation, medical technology and pharmaceutical advancement, regulatory requirements, demographic trends in the population and national interest in health and well-being. The rate of market growth may be affected by a variety of factors, including macroeconomic conditions, which could impact our results of operations, including our continued efforts to control health care costs.
Pricing Trends. To price our health care benefits, products and services, we start with our view of expected future costs, including care patterns, inflation and labor market dynamics. We frequently evaluate and adjust our approach in each of the local markets we serve, considering relevant factors, such as product positioning, price competitiveness and environmental, competitive, legislative and regulatory considerations, including minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) thresholds and similar revenue adjustments. We will continue seeking to balance growth and profitability across all these dimensions.
The commercial risk market remains highly competitive in the small group, large group and individual segments. We expect broad-based competition to continue as the industry adapts to individual and employer needs.
Medicare Advantage funding continues to be pressured, as discussed below in “Regulatory Trends and Uncertainties and we have observed increased care patterns as discussed below in “Medical Cost Trends.” Our 2024 benefit design approach contemplates these trends.
In Medicaid, we believe the payment rate environment creates the risk of continued downward pressure on Medicaid margin percentages. We continue to take a prudent, market-sustainable posture for both new business and maintenance of existing relationships. We continue to advocate for actuarially sound rates commensurate with our medical cost trends and we remain dedicated to partnering with those states that are committed to the long-term viability of their programs.
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Medical Cost Trends. Our medical cost trends primarily relate to changes in unit costs; care activity; and prescription drug costs. During 2023, we observed increased care patterns, primarily related to outpatient procedures for seniors, which we expect will persist throughout 2024, and may continue in future periods. We endeavor to mitigate those increases by engaging physicians and consumers with information and helping them make clinically sound choices, with the objective of helping them achieve high-quality, affordable care.
Medicaid Redeterminations. The resumption of Medicaid redeterminations have impacted the number of people served through our Medicaid offerings, partially offset by an increase in consumers served through our commercial offerings as we endeavor to ensure that people and families have continued access to care.
Delivery System and Payment Modernization. The health care market continues to change based on demographic shifts, new regulations, political forces and both payer and patient expectations. Health plans and care providers are being called upon to work together to close gaps in care and improve overall care quality and patient experience, improve the health of populations and reduce costs. We are working to accelerate this vision through the innovation and integration of our care delivery models including in-clinic, in-home, behavioral and virtual care, and by using our data and analytics to provide clinicians with the necessary information in order to provide the best possible care in the most cost efficient setting. We continue to see a greater number of people enrolled in fully accountable value-based plans rewarding high-quality, affordable care and fostering collaboration.
This trend is creating needs for health management services which can coordinate care around the primary care physician, including new primary care channels, and for investments in new clinical and administrative information and management systems, which we believe provide growth opportunities for our Optum business platform. A key focus of our future growth is to accelerate the transition from fee-for-service care delivery and payment models to fully accountable value-based care. This transition requires initial costs such as system enhancements, integrated care coordination technology, physician training and clinical engagement. Enhanced clinical engagement is a critical step to improving the health outcomes of the people we serve and should result in lower costs to the overall health system over time.
Regulatory Trends and Uncertainties
Following is a summary of management’s view of the trends and uncertainties related to regulatory matters. For additional information regarding regulatory trends and uncertainties, see Part I, Item 1 “Business - Government Regulation” and Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Medicare Advantage Rates. Medicare Advantage rate notices over the years have at times resulted in industry base rates well below industry forward medical trend. For example, the Final Notice for 2024 rates resulted in an industry base rate decrease, as did the January 2024 Advance Notice for 2025 rates, both of which are well short of what is an increasing industry forward medical cost trend, creating continued pressure in the Medicare Advantage program. Further, substantial revisions to the risk adjustment model, which serves to adjust rates to reflect a patient’s health status and care resource needs, will continue to result in reduced funding and potentially benefits for people, especially those with some of the greatest health and social challenges.
As a result of ongoing Medicare funding pressures, there are adjustments we can make to partially offset these rate pressures and reductions for a particular period. For example, we can seek to intensify our medical and operating cost management, make changes to the size and composition of our care provider networks, adjust member benefits and implement or increase the member premiums supplementing the monthly payments we receive from the government. Additionally, we decide annually on a county-by-county basis where we will offer Medicare Advantage plans.
Pending Disposition. On December 22, 2023, we entered into an agreement to sell our operations in Brazil to a private investor, subject to regulatory approval and other closing conditions. We completed the disposition on February 6, 2024, and will record a loss of approximately $7 billion in the quarter ended March 31, 2024, the majority of which was due to foreign currency translation losses in accumulated other comprehensive income.
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SELECTED OPERATING PERFORMANCE ITEMS
The following represents a summary of select 2023 year-over-year operating comparisons to 2022.
Consolidated revenues increased by 15%, UnitedHealthcare revenues increased 13% and Optum revenues grew 24%.
UnitedHealthcare served nearly 1.1 million more people, driven by growth in commercial and senior offerings.
Earnings from operations increased by 14%, including an increase of 14% at UnitedHealthcare and 13% at Optum.
Diluted earnings per common share increased 13% to $23.86.
Cash flows from operations were $29.1 billion.
Return on equity was 27.0%.
RESULTS SUMMARY
The following table summarizes our consolidated results of operations and other financial information:
(in millions, except percentages and per share data)For the Years Ended December 31,Change
2023202220212023 vs. 2022
Revenues:
Premiums$290,827 $257,157 $226,233 $33,670 13 %
Products42,583 37,424 34,437 5,159 14 
Services34,123 27,551 24,603 6,572 24 
Investment and other income
4,089 2,030 2,324 2,059 101 
Total revenues371,622 324,162 287,597 47,460 15 
Operating costs:
Medical costs241,894 210,842 186,911 31,052 15 
Operating costs54,628 47,782 42,579 6,846 14 
Cost of products sold38,770 33,703 31,034 5,067 15 
Depreciation and amortization
3,972 3,400 3,103 572 17 
Total operating costs339,264 295,727 263,627 43,537 15 
Earnings from operations32,358 28,435 23,970 3,923 14 
Interest expense(3,246)(2,092)(1,660)(1,154)55 
Earnings before income taxes29,112 26,343 22,310 2,769 11 
Provision for income taxes(5,968)(5,704)(4,578)(264)
Net earnings23,144 20,639 17,732 2,505 12 
Earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
(763)(519)(447)(244)47 
Net earnings attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders
$22,381 $20,120 $17,285 $2,261 11 %
Diluted earnings per share attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders
$23.86 $21.18 $18.08 $2.68 13 %
Medical care ratio (a)83.2 %82.0 %82.6 %1.2 %
Operating cost ratio14.7 14.7 14.8 — 
Operating margin8.7 8.8 8.3 (0.1)
Tax rate20.5 21.7 20.5 (1.2)
Net earnings margin (b)6.0 6.2 6.0 (0.2)
Return on equity (c)27.0 %27.2 %25.2 %(0.2)%
________
(a)Medical care ratio (MCR) is calculated as medical costs divided by premium revenue.
(b)Net earnings margin attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders.
(c)Return on equity is calculated as net earnings attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders divided by average shareholders’ equity. Average shareholders’ equity is calculated using the shareholders’ equity balance at the end of the preceding year and the shareholders’ equity balances at the end of each of the four quarters of the year presented.
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2023 RESULTS OF OPERATIONS COMPARED TO 2022 RESULTS
Consolidated Financial Results
Revenues
The increases in revenues were primarily driven by growth in the number of people served throughout the year in Medicare Advantage and Medicaid, pricing trends and growth across the Optum businesses. Revenues also increased due to increased investment income, primarily driven by increased interest rates.
Medical Costs and MCR
Medical costs increased primarily due to growth in people served throughout the year in Medicare Advantage and Medicaid. The MCR increased as a result of elevated care activity, primarily relating to outpatient care for seniors, and business mix.
Operating Cost Ratio
The operating cost ratio was consistent primarily due to operating cost management, offset by business mix and investments to support future growth.
Reportable Segments
See Note 14 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on our segments. We utilize various metrics to evaluate and manage our reportable segments, including individuals served by UnitedHealthcare by major market segment and funding arrangement, people served by Optum Health and adjusted scripts for Optum Rx. These metrics are the main drivers of revenue, earnings and cash flows at each business. The metrics also allow management and investors to evaluate and understand business mix, including the level and scope of services provided to people and pricing trends when comparing the metrics to revenue by segment.
The following table presents a summary of the reportable segment financial information:
 For the Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 vs. 2022
Revenues
UnitedHealthcare$281,360 $249,741 $222,899 $31,619 13 %
Optum Health95,319 71,174 54,065 24,145 34 
Optum Insight18,932 14,581 12,199 4,351 30 
Optum Rx116,087 99,773 91,314 16,314 16 
Optum eliminations(3,703)(2,760)(2,013)(943)34 
Optum
226,635 182,768 155,565 43,867 24 
Eliminations(136,373)(108,347)(90,867)(28,026)26 
Consolidated revenues$371,622 $324,162 $287,597 $47,460 15 %
Earnings from operations
UnitedHealthcare$16,415 $14,379 $11,975 $2,036 14 %
Optum Health6,560 6,032 4,462 528 
Optum Insight4,268 3,588 3,398 680 19 
Optum Rx5,115 4,436 4,135 679 15 
Optum
15,943 14,056 11,995 1,887 13 
Consolidated earnings from operations
$32,358 $28,435 $23,970 $3,923 14 %
Operating margin
UnitedHealthcare5.8 %5.8 %5.4 %— %
Optum Health6.9 8.5 8.3 (1.6)
Optum Insight22.5 24.6 27.9 (2.1)
Optum Rx4.4 4.4 4.5 — 
Optum
7.0 7.7 7.7 (0.7)
Consolidated operating margin8.7 %8.8 %8.3 %(0.1)%




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UnitedHealthcare
The following table summarizes UnitedHealthcare revenues by business:
 For the Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 vs. 2022
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual - Domestic$67,187 $63,599 $60,023 $3,588 %
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual - Global (a)9,307 8,668 8,345 639 
UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual - Total (a)76,494 72,267 68,368 4,227 
UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement
129,862 113,671 100,552 16,191 14 
UnitedHealthcare Community & State
75,004 63,803 53,979 11,201 18 
Total UnitedHealthcare revenues$281,360 $249,741 $222,899 $31,619 13 %
(a) On January 1, 2022, we realigned our operating segments to combine UnitedHealthcare Global and UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual.
The following table summarizes the number of individuals served by our UnitedHealthcare businesses, by major market segment and funding arrangement:
 December 31,Change
(in thousands, except percentages)2023202220212023 vs. 2022
Commercial - domestic:
Risk-based8,115 8,045 7,985 70 %
Fee-based19,200 18,640 18,595 560 
Total commercial - domestic27,315 26,685 26,580 630 
Medicare Advantage7,695 7,105 6,490 590 
Medicaid7,845 8,170 7,655 (325)(4)
Medicare Supplement (Standardized)4,355 4,375 4,395 (20)— 
Total community and senior19,895 19,650 18,540 245 
Total UnitedHealthcare - domestic medical47,210 46,335 45,120 875 
Commercial - global5,540 5,360 5,510 180 
Total UnitedHealthcare - medical52,750 51,695 50,630 1,055 %
Supplemental Data:
Medicare Part D stand-alone3,315 3,295 3,700 20 %
UnitedHealthcare’s revenues increased due to growth in the number of people served throughout the year in Medicare Advantage, Medicaid and commercial offerings. People served in Medicaid as of December 31, 2023 decreased primarily due to redeterminations, largely occurring in the second half of 2023, partially offset by increased people served with higher acuity needs. Earnings from operations increased due to increased investment income and the factors impacting revenue, partially offset by elevated care activity, primarily relating to outpatient care for seniors.
Optum
Total revenues and earnings from operations increased due to growth across the Optum businesses. The results by segment were as follows:
Optum Health
Revenues at Optum Health increased primarily due to organic growth in patients served under value-based care arrangements and business combinations. Earnings from operations increased due to cost management initiatives and increased investment income, partially offset by higher senior outpatient and behavioral health care activity and costs associated with serving newly added patients under value-based care arrangements. Optum Health served approximately 103 million people as of December 31, 2023 compared to 102 million people as of December 31, 2022.
Optum Insight
Revenues and earnings from operations at Optum Insight increased due to growth in business services as a result of business combinations and growth in technology services.
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Optum Rx
Revenues and earnings from operations at Optum Rx increased due to growth in pharmacy offerings and higher script volumes from both new clients and growth in existing clients. Earnings from operations also increased as a result of continued supply chain and operating cost management initiatives. Optum Rx fulfilled 1,542 million and 1,438 million adjusted scripts in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
LIQUIDITY, FINANCIAL CONDITION AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Liquidity
Introduction
We manage our liquidity and financial position in the context of our overall business strategy. We continually forecast and manage our cash, investments, working capital balances and capital structure to meet the short-term and long-term obligations of our businesses while seeking to maintain liquidity and financial flexibility. Cash flows generated from operating activities are principally from earnings before noncash expenses.
Our regulated subsidiaries generate significant cash flows from operations and are subject to, among other things, minimum levels of statutory capital, as defined by their respective jurisdictions, and restrictions on the timing and amount of dividends paid to their parent companies.
Our U.S. regulated subsidiaries paid their parent companies dividends of $8.0 billion and $8.8 billion in 2023 and 2022, respectively. See Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further detail concerning our regulated subsidiary dividends.
Our nonregulated businesses also generate significant cash flows from operations available for general corporate use. Cash flows generated by these entities, combined with dividends from our regulated entities and financing through the issuance of long-term debt as well as issuance of commercial paper or the ability to draw under our committed credit facilities, further strengthen our operating and financial flexibility. We use these cash flows to expand our businesses through acquisitions, reinvest in our businesses through capital expenditures, repay debt and return capital to our shareholders through dividends and repurchases of our common stock.
Summary of our Major Sources and Uses of Cash and Cash Equivalents
 For the Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)2023202220212023 vs. 2022
Sources of cash:
Cash provided by operating activities$29,068 $26,206 $22,343 $2,862 
Issuances of long-term debt and short-term borrowings, net of repayments4,280 12,536 2,481 (8,256)
Proceeds from common share issuances
1,353 1,253 1,355 100 
Customer funds administered
— 5,548 622 (5,548)
Cash received for dispositions685 3,414 15 (2,729)
Total sources of cash35,386 48,957 26,816 
Uses of cash:
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash assumed
(10,136)(21,458)(4,821)11,322 
Common share repurchases(8,000)(7,000)(5,000)(1,000)
Cash dividends paid(6,761)(5,991)(5,280)(770)
Purchases of property, equipment and capitalized software
(3,386)(2,802)(2,454)(584)
Purchases of investments, net of sales and maturities (1,777)(6,837)(1,843)5,060 
Purchases of redeemable noncontrolling interests(730)(176)(1,338)(554)
Customer funds administered(521)— — (521)
Other(2,110)(2,737)(1,564)627 
Total uses of cash(33,421)(47,001)(22,300)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
97 34 (62)63 
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents$2,062 $1,990 $4,454 $72 
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2023 Cash Flows Compared to 2022 Cash Flows
Increased cash flows provided by operating activities were driven by changes in working capital accounts and increased net earnings. Other significant changes in sources or uses of cash year-over-year included decreased cash paid for acquisitions and net purchases of investments, offset by decreased net issuances of short-term borrowings and long-term debt, customer funds administered and cash from dispositions.
Financial Condition
As of December 31, 2023, our cash, cash equivalent, available-for-sale debt securities and equity securities balances of $75.2 billion included $25.4 billion of cash and cash equivalents (of which $1.3 billion was available for general corporate use), $44.9 billion of debt securities and $4.9 billion of equity securities. Given the significant portion of our portfolio held in cash equivalents, we do not anticipate fluctuations in the aggregate fair value of our financial assets to have a material impact on our liquidity or capital position. Other sources of liquidity, primarily from operating cash flows and our commercial paper program, which is fully supported by our bank credit facilities, reduce the need to sell investments during adverse market conditions. See Note 4 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further detail concerning our fair value measurements.
Our available-for-sale debt portfolio had a weighted-average duration of 4.0 years and a weighted-average credit rating of “Double A” as of December 31, 2023. When multiple credit ratings are available for an individual security, the average of the available ratings is used to determine the weighted-average credit rating.
Capital Resources and Uses of Liquidity
Cash Requirements. The Company’s cash requirements within the next twelve months include medical costs payable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt, other current liabilities, and purchase commitments and other obligations. We expect the cash required to meet these obligations to be primarily generated through cash flows from current operations; cash available for general corporate use; and the realization of current assets, such as accounts receivable.
Our long-term cash requirements under our various contractual obligations and commitments include:
Debt obligations. See Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further detail of our long-term debt and the timing of expected future payments. Interest coupon payments are typically paid semi-annually.
Operating leases. See Note 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further detail of our obligations and the timing of expected future payments.
Purchase and other obligations. These include $7.9 billion, $3.7 billion of which is expected to be paid within the next twelve months, of fixed or minimum commitments under existing purchase obligations for goods and services, including agreements cancelable with the payment of an early termination penalty, and remaining capital commitments for venture capital funds and other funding commitments. These amounts exclude agreements cancelable without penalty and liabilities to the extent recorded in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023.
Other liabilities. These include other long-term liabilities reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023, including obligations associated with certain employee benefit programs, unrecognized tax benefits and various long-term liabilities, which have some inherent uncertainty in the timing of these payments.
Redeemable noncontrolling interests. See Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further detail. We do not have any material potential required redemptions in the next twelve months.
We expect the cash required to meet our long-term obligations to be primarily generated through future cash flows from operations. However, we also have the ability to generate cash to satisfy both our current and long-term requirements through the issuance of commercial paper, issuance of long-term debt, or drawing under our committed credit facilities or the ability to sell investments. We believe our capital resources are sufficient to meet future, short-term and long-term, liquidity needs.
Short-Term Borrowings. Our revolving bank credit facilities provide liquidity support for our commercial paper borrowing program, which facilitates the private placement of senior unsecured debt through independent broker-dealers, and are available for general corporate purposes. For more information on our commercial paper and bank credit facilities, see Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
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Our revolving bank credit facilities contain various covenants, including covenants requiring us to maintain a defined debt to debt-plus-shareholders’ equity ratio of not more than 60%, subject to increase in certain circumstances set forth in the applicable credit agreement. As of December 31, 2023, our debt to debt-plus-shareholders’ equity ratio, as defined and calculated under the credit facilities, was 38%.
Long-Term Debt. Periodically, we access capital markets to issue long-term debt for general corporate purposes, such as to meet our working capital requirements, to refinance debt, to finance acquisitions or for share repurchases. For more information on our debt, see Note 8 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Credit Ratings. Our credit ratings as of December 31, 2023 were as follows:
  
Moody’sS&P GlobalFitchA.M. Best
 RatingsOutlookRatingsOutlookRatingsOutlookRatingsOutlook
Senior unsecured debtA2StableA+StableAStableAStable
Commercial paperP-1n/aA-1n/aF1n/aAMB-1+n/a
The availability of financing in the form of debt or equity is influenced by many factors, including our profitability, operating cash flows, debt levels, credit ratings, debt covenants and other contractual restrictions, regulatory requirements and economic and market conditions. A significant downgrade in our credit ratings or adverse conditions in the capital markets may increase the cost of borrowing for us or limit our access to capital.
Share Repurchase Program. As of December 31, 2023, we had Board of Directors’ authorization to purchase up to 15 million shares of our common stock. The Board of Directors from time to time may further amend the share repurchase program in order to increase the authorized number of shares which may be repurchased under the program. For more information on our share repurchase program, see Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Dividends. In June 2023, our Board of Directors increased the Company’s quarterly cash dividend to shareholders to an annual rate of $7.52 compared to $6.60 per share. For more information on our dividend, see Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Pending Acquisitions. As of December 31, 2023, we have entered into agreements to acquire companies in the health care sector, subject to regulatory approval and other customary closing conditions. The total anticipated capital required for these acquisitions, excluding the payoff of acquired indebtedness, is approximately $6 billion.
We do not have other significant contractual obligations or commitments requiring cash resources. However, we continually evaluate opportunities to expand our operations, which include internal development of new products, programs and technology applications and may include acquisitions.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Critical accounting estimates are those estimates requiring management to make challenging, subjective or complex judgments, often because they must estimate the effects of matters inherently uncertain and may change in subsequent periods. Critical accounting estimates involve judgments and uncertainties which are sufficiently sensitive and may result in materially different results under different assumptions and conditions.
Medical Costs Payable
Medical costs and medical costs payable include estimates of our obligations for medical care services rendered on behalf of consumers, but for which claims have either not yet been received or processed. Depending on the health care professional and type of service, the typical billing lag for services can be up to 90 days from the date of service. Approximately 90% of claims related to medical care services are known and settled within 90 days from the date of service.
In each reporting period, our operating results include the effects of more completely developed medical costs payable estimates associated with previously reported periods. If the revised estimate of prior period medical costs is less than the previous estimate, we will decrease reported medical costs in the current period (favorable development). If the revised estimate of prior period medical costs is more than the previous estimate, we will increase reported medical costs in the current period (unfavorable development). Medical costs in 2023, 2022 and 2021 included favorable medical cost development related to prior years of $840 million, $410 million and $1.7 billion, respectively.
In developing our medical costs payable estimates, we apply different estimation methods depending on the month for which incurred claims are being estimated. For example, for the most recent two months, we estimate claim costs incurred by applying
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observed medical cost trend factors to the average per member per month (PMPM) medical costs incurred in prior months for which more complete claim data is available, supplemented by a review of near-term completion factors.
Completion Factors. A completion factor is an actuarial estimate, based upon historical experience and analysis of current trends, of the percentage of incurred claims during a given period adjudicated by us at the date of estimation. Completion factors are the most significant factors we use in developing our medical costs payable estimates for periods prior to the most recent two months. Completion factors include judgments in relation to claim submissions such as the time from date of service to claim receipt, claim levels and processing cycles, as well as other factors. If actual claims submission rates from providers (which can be influenced by a number of factors, including provider mix and electronic versus manual submissions), actual care activity incurred (which can be influenced by pandemics or seasonal illnesses, such as influenza), or our claim processing patterns are different than estimated, our reserve estimates may be significantly impacted.
The following table illustrates the sensitivity of these factors and the estimated potential impact on our medical costs payable estimates for those periods as of December 31, 2023:
Completion Factors
(Decrease) Increase in Factors
Increase (Decrease)
In Medical Costs Payable
(in millions)
(0.75)%$880 
(0.50)585 
(0.25)292 
0.25(290)
0.50(579)
0.75(867)
Medical Cost Per Member Per Month Trend Factors. Medical cost PMPM trend factors are significant factors we use in developing our medical costs payable estimates for the most recent two months. Medical cost trend factors are developed through a comprehensive analysis of claims incurred in prior months, provider contracting and expected unit costs, benefit design and a review of a broad set of health care utilization indicators. These factors include but are not limited to pharmacy utilization trends, inpatient hospital authorization data and seasonal and other incidence data from the National Centers for Disease Control. We also consider macroeconomic variables such as GDP growth, employment and disposable income. A large number of factors can cause the medical cost trend to vary from our estimates, including: our ability and practices to manage medical and pharmaceutical costs, changes in level and mix of services utilized; mix of benefits offered, including the impact of co-pays and deductibles; changes in medical practices; and catastrophes, epidemics and pandemics.
The following table illustrates the sensitivity of these factors and the estimated potential impact on our medical costs payable estimates for the most recent two months as of December 31, 2023:
Medical Cost PMPM Quarterly Trend
Increase (Decrease) in Factors
Increase (Decrease)
In Medical Costs Payable
(in millions)
3%$1,128 
2752 
1376 
(1)(376)
(2)(752)
(3)(1,128)
The completion factors and medical costs PMPM trend factors analyses above include outcomes considered reasonably likely based on our historical experience estimating liabilities for incurred but not reported benefit claims.
Management believes the amount of medical costs payable is reasonable and adequate to cover our liability for unpaid claims as of December 31, 2023; however, actual claim payments may differ from established estimates as discussed above. Assuming a hypothetical 1% difference between our December 31, 2023 estimates of medical costs payable and actual medical costs payable, excluding AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance and any potential offsetting impact from premium rebates, 2023 net earnings would have increased or decreased by approximately $245 million.
For more detail related to our medical cost estimates, see Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
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Goodwill
We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently when an event occurs or circumstances change indicating the carrying value may not be recoverable. When testing goodwill for impairment, we may first assess qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value. During a qualitative analysis, we consider the impact of changes, if any, to the following factors: macroeconomic, industry and market factors; cost factors; changes in overall financial performance; and any other relevant events and uncertainties impacting a reporting unit. If our qualitative assessment indicates a goodwill impairment is more likely than not, we perform additional quantitative analyses. We may also elect to skip the qualitative testing and proceed directly to the quantitative testing. For reporting units where a quantitative analysis is performed, we perform a test measuring the fair values of the reporting units and comparing them to their carrying values, including goodwill. If the fair value is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit, an impairment is recognized for the difference, up to the carrying amount of goodwill.
We estimate the fair values of our reporting units using a discounted cash flow method which includes assumptions about a wide variety of internal and external factors. Significant assumptions used in the discounted cash flow method include financial projections of free cash flow, including revenue trends, medical costs trends, operating productivity, income taxes and capital levels; long-term growth rates for determining terminal value beyond the discretely forecasted periods; and discount rates. For each reporting unit, comparative market multiples are used to corroborate the results of our discounted cash flow test.
Financial projections and long-term growth rates used for our reporting units are consistent with, and use inputs from, our internal long-term business plan and strategies. Discount rates are determined for each reporting unit and include consideration of the implied risk inherent in their forecasts. Our most significant estimate in the discount rate determinations involves our adjustments to the peer company weighted average costs of capital reflecting reporting unit-specific factors. We have not made any adjustments to decrease a discount rate below the calculated peer company weighted average cost of capital for any reporting unit. Company-specific adjustments to discount rates are subjective and thus are difficult to measure with certainty. The passage of time and the availability of additional information regarding areas of uncertainty with respect to the reporting units’ operations could cause these assumptions to change in the future. Additionally, as part of our quantitative impairment testing, we perform various sensitivity analyses on certain key assumptions, such as discount rates and cash flow projections to analyze the potential for a material impact. As of October 1, 2023, we completed our annual impairment tests for goodwill with all of our reporting units having fair values substantially in excess of their carrying values.
LEGAL MATTERS
A description of our legal proceedings is presented in Note 12 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
CONCENTRATIONS OF CREDIT RISK
Investments in financial instruments such as marketable securities and accounts receivable may subject us to concentrations of credit risk. Our investments in marketable securities are managed under an investment policy authorized by our Board of Directors. This policy limits the amounts which may be invested in any one issuer and generally limits our investments to U.S. government and agency securities, state and municipal securities and corporate debt obligations of investment grade. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited due to the large number of employer groups and other customers constituting our client base. As of December 31, 2023, there were no significant concentrations of credit risk.
ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our primary market risks are exposures to changes in interest rates impacting our investment income and interest expense and the fair value of certain of our fixed-rate investments and debt, as well as foreign currency exchange rate risk of the U.S. dollar primarily to the Brazilian real and Chilean peso.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $34 billion of financial assets on which the interest rates received vary with market interest rates, which may significantly impact our investment income. Also as of December 31, 2023, $20 billion of our financial liabilities, which include debt and deposit liabilities, were at interest rates which vary with market rates, either directly or through the use of related interest rate swap contracts.
The fair value of our fixed-rate investments and debt also varies with market interest rates. As of December 31, 2023, $43 billion of our investments were fixed-rate debt securities and $44 billion of our debt was non-swapped fixed-rate term debt. An increase in market interest rates decreases the market value of fixed-rate investments and fixed-rate debt. Conversely, a decrease in market interest rates increases the market value of fixed-rate investments and fixed-rate debt.

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We manage exposure to market interest rates by diversifying investments across different fixed-income market sectors and debt across maturities, as well as by matching a portion of our floating-rate assets and liabilities, either directly or through the use of interest rate swap contracts. Unrealized gains and losses on investments in available-for-sale debt securities are reported in comprehensive income.
The following tables summarize the impact of hypothetical changes in market interest rates across the entire yield curve by 1% point or 2% points as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 on our investment income and interest expense per annum and the fair value of our investments and debt (in millions, except percentages):
December 31, 2023
Increase (Decrease) in Market Interest RateInvestment
Income Per
Annum
Interest
Expense Per
Annum
Fair Value of
Financial Assets
Fair Value of
Financial Liabilities
2 %$688 $393 $(3,642)$(8,142)
1344 196 (1,871)(4,444)
(1)(344)(180)1,954 5,391 
(2)(688)(360)3,964 11,992 
December 31, 2022
Increase (Decrease) in Market Interest RateInvestment
Income Per
Annum
Interest
Expense Per
Annum
Fair Value of
Financial Assets
Fair Value of
Financial Liabilities
2%$629 $327 $(3,390)$(7,365)
1314 164 (1,746)(4,002)
(1)(314)(135)1,838 4,808 
(2)(629)(266)3,746 10,641 
Note: The impact of hypothetical changes in interest rates may not reflect the full 100 or 200 basis point change on interest income and interest expense or on the fair value of financial assets and liabilities as the rates are assumed to not fall below zero.
We have an exposure to changes in the value of foreign currencies, primarily the Brazilian real and the Chilean peso, to the U.S. dollar in translation of UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s international business operating results at the average exchange rate over the accounting period, and assets and liabilities at the exchange rate at the end of the accounting period. The gains or losses resulting from translating foreign assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars are included in equity and comprehensive income.
An appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Brazilian real or Chilean peso reduces the carrying value of the net assets denominated in those currencies. For example, as of December 31, 2023, a hypothetical 10% and 25% increase in the value of the U.S. dollar against those currencies would have caused a reduction in net assets of approximately $590 million and $1.3 billion, respectively. We manage exposure to foreign currency earnings risk primarily by conducting our international business operations in their functional currencies.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $4.9 billion of investments in equity securities, primarily consisting of venture investments, employee savings plan related investments and non-U.S. dollar fixed-income funds. Valuations in non-U.S. dollar funds are subject to foreign exchange rates. 
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of UnitedHealth Group Incorporated and Subsidiaries:
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of UnitedHealth Group Incorporated and Subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 28, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the Audit and Finance Committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Medical Care Services Incurred but not Reported (IBNR) - Refer to Notes 2 and 7 to the financial statements.
Critical Audit Matter Description
Medical costs payable includes estimates of the Company’s obligations for medical care services rendered on behalf of insured consumers, for which claims have either not yet been received or processed. The Company develops estimates for medical care services incurred but not reported (IBNR) using an actuarial model that requires management to exercise certain judgments in developing its estimates. Judgments made by management include medical cost per member per month trend factors and completion factors, which include assumptions over the time from date of service to claim receipt, the impact of actual care activity, and processing cycles.
We identified medical care services IBNR as a critical audit matter because it requires significant management assumptions in estimating the liability. This required complex auditor judgment, and an increased extent of effort, including the involvement of actuarial specialists in performing procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s methods, assumptions, and judgments in developing estimates for medical care services IBNR.
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How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to medical care services IBNR included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s estimate of the IBNR for these services, including controls over the judgments in both the completion factors and the medical cost per member per month trend factors, as well as controls over the claims and membership data used in the estimation process.
We tested the underlying claims and membership data and other information that served as the basis for the actuarial analysis, to test that the inputs to the actuarial estimate were complete and accurate.
With the assistance of actuarial specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the actuarial methods and assumptions used by management to estimate IBNR for these services by:
Performing an overlay of the historical claims data used in management’s current year model to the data used in prior periods to validate that there were no material changes to the claims data tested in prior periods.
Developing an independent estimate of the IBNR for these services and comparing our estimate to management’s estimate.
Performing a retrospective review comparing management’s prior year estimate of IBNR to claims processed in 2023 with dates of service in 2022 or prior.

/S/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Minneapolis, Minnesota
February 28, 2024
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2002.
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UnitedHealth Group
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except per share data)December 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$25,427 $23,365 
Short-term investments4,201 4,546 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $1,000 and $877
21,276 17,681 
Other current receivables, net of allowances of $2,084 and $1,433
17,694 12,769 
Assets under management3,755 4,087 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets6,084 6,621 
Total current assets78,437 69,069 
Long-term investments47,609 43,728 
Property, equipment and capitalized software, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization of $7,039 and $6,930
11,450 10,128 
Goodwill103,732 93,352 
Other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $7,279 and $6,137
15,194 14,401 
Other assets17,298 15,027 
Total assets$273,720 $245,705 
Liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interests and equity
Current liabilities:
Medical costs payable$32,395 $29,056 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities31,958 27,715 
Short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt4,274 3,110 
Unearned revenues3,355 3,075 
Other current liabilities27,072 26,281 
Total current liabilities99,054 89,237 
Long-term debt, less current maturities58,263 54,513 
Deferred income taxes3,021 2,769 
Other liabilities14,463 12,839 
Total liabilities174,801 159,358 
Redeemable noncontrolling interests4,498 4,897 
Equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value - 10 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value - 3,000 shares authorized; 924 and 934 issued and outstanding
9 9 
Retained earnings95,774 86,156 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(7,027)(8,393)
Nonredeemable noncontrolling interests
5,665 3,678 
Total equity94,421 81,450 
Total liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interests and equity$273,720 $245,705 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

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UnitedHealth Group
Consolidated Statements of Operations
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per share data)202320222021
Revenues:
Premiums$290,827 $257,157 $226,233 
Products42,583 37,424 34,437 
Services34,123 27,551 24,603 
Investment and other income4,089 2,030 2,324 
Total revenues371,622 324,162 287,597 
Operating costs:
Medical costs241,894 210,842 186,911 
Operating costs54,628 47,782 42,579 
Cost of products sold38,770 33,703 31,034 
Depreciation and amortization3,972 3,400 3,103 
Total operating costs339,264 295,727 263,627 
Earnings from operations32,358 28,435 23,970 
Interest expense(3,246)(2,092)(1,660)
Earnings before income taxes29,112 26,343 22,310 
Provision for income taxes(5,968)(5,704)(4,578)
Net earnings23,144 20,639 17,732 
Earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests(763)(519)(447)
Net earnings attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders
$22,381 $20,120 $17,285 
Earnings per share attributable to UnitedHealth Group common shareholders:
Basic
$24.12 $21.47 $18.33 
Diluted
$23.86 $21.18 $18.08 
Basic weighted-average number of common shares outstanding
928 937 943 
Dilutive effect of common share equivalents10 13 13 
Diluted weighted-average number of common shares outstanding
938 950 956 
Anti-dilutive shares excluded from the calculation of dilutive effect of common share equivalents
6 3 1 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
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UnitedHealth Group
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)202320222021
Net earnings$23,144 $20,639 $17,732 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Gross unrealized gains (losses) on investment securities during the period1,139 (4,292)(1,028)
Income tax effect(263)984 248 
Total unrealized gains (losses), net of tax876 (3,308)(780)
Gross reclassification adjustment for net realized (gains) losses included in net earnings(90)139