EX-13 7 dex13.htm 2005 FINANCIAL ANNUAL REPORT TO SHAREHOLDERS 2005 Financial Annual Report to Shareholders

Exhibit 13

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

SUMMARY OF SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA


($ IN MILLIONS EXCEPT PER SHARE INFORMATION)   2005        2004        2003        2002        2001  

Noninterest Income

                                                   

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 1,559.4        $ 1,330.3        $ 1,189.1        $ 1,161.0        $ 1,190.8  

Foreign Exchange Trading Profits

    180.2          158.0          109.6          106.4          139.8  

Treasury Management Fees

    71.2          88.1          95.6          96.3          86.4  

Security Commissions and Trading Income

    55.2          50.5          54.8          42.9          35.5  

Other Operating Income

    97.5          83.8          93.1          57.8          91.7  

Investment Security Gains

    .3          .2                   .3           
                                                     

Total Noninterest Income

    1,963.8          1,710.9          1,542.2          1,464.7          1,544.2  
                                                     

Net Interest Income

    661.4          561.1          548.2          601.8          595.6  

Provision for Credit Losses

    2.5          (15.0 )        2.5          37.5          66.5  
                                                     

Income before Noninterest Expenses

    2,622.7          2,287.0          2,087.9          2,029.0          2,073.3  
                                                     

Noninterest Expenses

                                                   

Compensation

    774.2          661.7          652.1          629.6          652.6  

Employee Benefits

    190.4          161.5          133.1          125.5          118.1  

Occupancy Expense

    133.7          121.5          132.7          101.8          95.7  

Equipment Expense

    83.2          84.7          88.2          85.0          80.1  

Other Operating Expenses

    553.4          503.1          450.7          418.1          399.4  
                                                     

Total Noninterest Expenses

    1,734.9          1,532.5          1,456.8          1,360.0          1,345.9  
                                                     

Income from Continuing Operations before Income Taxes

    887.8          754.5          631.1          669.0          727.4  

Provision for Income Taxes

    303.4          249.7          207.8          221.9          242.7  
                                                     

Income from Continuing Operations

  $ 584.4        $ 504.8        $ 423.3        $ 447.1        $ 484.7  

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations

             .8          (18.5 )                 2.8  
                                                     

Net Income

  $ 584.4        $ 505.6        $ 404.8        $ 447.1        $ 487.5  
                                                     

PER COMMON SHARE

                                                   

Net Income–Basic

  $ 2.68        $ 2.30        $ 1.84        $ 2.02        $ 2.18  

–Diluted

    2.64          2.27          1.80          1.97          2.11  

Cash Dividends Declared

    .86          .78          .70          .68          .635  

Book Value–End of Period (EOP)

    16.51          15.04          13.88          13.04          11.97  

Market Price–EOP

    51.82          48.58          46.28          35.05          60.22  
                                                     

Average Total Assets

  $ 45,974        $ 41,300        $ 39,115        $ 37,597        $ 35,633  

Senior Notes–EOP

    272          200          350          450          450  

Long-Term Debt–EOP

    2,818          2,625          2,541          2,637          2,648  

Floating Rate Capital Debt–EOP

    276          276          276          268          268  
                                                     

RATIOS

                                                   

Dividend Payout Ratio

    32.1 %        33.9 %        38.1 %        33.8 %        29.2 %

Return on Average Assets

    1.27          1.22          1.04          1.19          1.37  

Return on Average Common Equity

    17.01          16.07          13.81          16.20          19.34  

Tier 1 Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets–EOP

    9.71          10.98          11.06          11.13          10.88  

Total Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets–EOP

    12.28          13.31          13.96          14.13          14.25  

Leverage Ratio

    7.12          7.56          7.55          7.76          7.93  

Productivity Ratio

    155          152          147          156          163  

Average Stockholders’ Equity to Average Assets

    7.47          7.62          7.61          7.63          7.35  
                                                     

Stockholders–EOP

    3,239          3,525          3,288          3,130          3,183  

Staff–EOP (full-time equivalent)

    9,008          8,022          8,056          9,317          9,453  
                                                     

Note: Certain reclassifications have been made to prior periods’ financial information to conform to the current year’s presentation. Refer to Notes 3 and 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

PAGE 2   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

OVERVIEW OF CORPORATION

Focused Business Strategy. Northern Trust is a leading provider of global financial solutions for investment management, asset administration, fiduciary and banking needs of corporations, institutions, and affluent individuals. Northern Trust is exclusively focused on the custody, management and administration of client assets in two target market segments, affluent individuals through its Personal Financial Services (PFS) business unit and institutional investors worldwide through its Corporate and Institutional (C&IS) business unit. An important element in this strategy is increasing the penetration of the C&IS and PFS target markets with investment management and related services and products provided by a third business unit, Northern Trust Global Investments (NTGI). In executing this strategy, Northern Trust emphasizes service quality through a high level of service complemented by the effective use of technology. Operating and systems support for these business units is provided through the Worldwide Operations and Technology (WWOT) business unit.

Business Structure. Northern Trust Corporation (Corporation) is a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and was originally organized as a bank holding company in 1971 to hold all of the outstanding capital stock of The Northern Trust Company (Bank). The Bank is an Illinois banking corporation headquartered in the Chicago financial district and the Corporation’s principal subsidiary. PFS services are provided through a network of over 80 offices in 18 U.S. states as well as offices in the United Kingdom (U.K.). C&IS products are delivered to clients in approximately 40 countries through offices in North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.

Except where the context otherwise requires, the term “Northern Trust” refers to Northern Trust Corporation and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

 

FINANCIAL OVERVIEW

During 2005, Northern Trust achieved excellent financial results as evidenced by record net income of $584.4 million and net income per common share of $2.64, each increasing 16% from prior year levels. Our earnings growth exceeded Northern Trust’s long-term goal of earnings per share growth of 10% or greater. Return on average common stockholders’ equity was 17.01%, below our long-term financial goal of 18%-20%.

Northern Trust experienced double digit revenue growth in 2005. Revenues reached record levels, increasing 15% to $2.69 billion on a fully taxable equivalent (FTE) basis. Trust, investment and other servicing fees of $1.56 billion were the largest contributor to the growth in revenues, up 17% compared to the prior year, reflecting continued strong new business internationally. Our March 2005 acquisition of Baring Asset Management’s Financial Services Group (FSG) contributed $130.8 million in total revenues during 2005, and was neutral to corporate earnings per share after expenses and integration related costs.

Strong revenue growth was also driven by record net interest income during 2005 of $722.3 million on a FTE basis, up $107 million or 17%, primarily due to higher retail deposit spreads, an improved funding mix, and a 9% growth in our earning assets. Asset growth was achieved without sacrificing quality as evidenced by the strong credit quality of our loan portfolio. Nonperforming loans at year end totaled only $31 million, or 0.16% of total loans.

We achieved positive operating leverage in 2005. Noninterest expenses totaled $1.73 billion in 2005, an increase of 13% compared to the 15% increase in revenues. Our productivity ratio, defined as total revenue on a taxable equivalent basis divided by noninterest expenses, was 155% for 2005, an increase from 152% in 2004, yet below Northern Trust’s long-term productivity ratio goal of 160%.

Our success in the marketplace during 2005 was also marked by record assets under custody and record assets under management. Increased new business and improvement in equity markets drove assets under custody up 15% to $2.9 trillion and assets under management up 8% to $617.9 billion. Global custody assets increased 28% to $1.24 trillion at year-end, primarily due to Northern Trust’s continued success internationally.

During 2005, Northern Trust continued to focus on growth markets, expanding our geographic presence and broadening our capabilities to serve clients. The acquisition of FSG, the largest in our history, strengthens our global fund administration, hedge fund, private equity, and property administration capabilities. We also continued to grow our international business and strengthened the position of our industry leading private client business through geographic expansion of our national office network.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 3


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The financial strength of Northern Trust is also reflected in our strong capital levels as of December 31, 2005. During 2005, stockholders’ equity grew to $3.60 billion, primarily through the retention of earnings, offset in part by the repurchase of common stock pursuant to the Corporation’s share buyback program. In November 2005, the Board of Directors increased the quarterly dividend per common share 10% to $.23 for an annual dividend of $.92. The Board’s action reflects a policy of establishing the dividend rate commensurate with profitability while retaining sufficient earnings to allow for strategic initiatives and the maintenance of a strong balance sheet and capital ratios.

 

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Financial Services Group Acquisition. On March 31, 2005, Northern Trust closed its acquisition of Baring Asset Management’s Financial Services Group (FSG). The final adjusted purchase price totaled 261.5 million British pounds Sterling. FSG is a fund services group that offers institutional fund administration, custody, trust, and related services from offices in London, Dublin, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. The acquisition of FSG gives Northern Trust expanded fund administration capabilities, as well as new capabilities in hedge fund and private equity administration. FSG also brings Northern Trust significant technical expertise and talent in administering these asset classes.

FSG revenues in 2005 were $130.8 million and acquisition related funding costs were $19.8 million. Operating and integration expenses totaled $105.9 million. The after-tax impact of this acquisition was neutral to full year 2005 results.

 

Noninterest Income. Noninterest income represented 73% of total taxable equivalent revenue in 2005 compared with 74% in 2004 and 72% in 2003. Fees that are generated from asset management, custody and related fiduciary services are the largest component of revenues accounting for 58% of Northern Trust’s 2005 revenue base. The components of noninterest income and a discussion of significant changes in balances during 2005 and 2004 follow.

 

NONINTEREST INCOME


(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 1,559.4    $ 1,330.3    $ 1,189.1

Foreign Exchange Trading Profits

    180.2      158.0      109.6

Treasury Management Fees

    71.2      88.1      95.6

Security Commissions and Trading Income

    55.2      50.5      54.8

Other Operating Income

    97.5      83.8      93.1

Investment Security Gains

    .3      .2     
                     

Total Noninterest Income

  $ 1,963.8    $ 1,710.9    $ 1,542.2

 

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees. Trust, investment and other servicing fees accounted for 79% of total noninterest income and 58% of total taxable equivalent revenue in 2005. Trust, investment and other servicing fees for 2005, increased 17% to $1.56 billion from $1.33 billion in 2004, which was up 12% from $1.19 billion in 2003. Over the past five years, trust, investment and other servicing fees have increased at an annual compound growth rate of 6%. The current year includes $93.3 million from the FSG acquisition. For a more detailed discussion of trust, investment and other servicing fees, refer to the business unit reporting section beginning on page 8. Total assets under custody at December 31, 2005 were a record $2.93 trillion, up 15% from $2.55 trillion a year ago, and included $1.24 trillion of global custody assets. Managed assets totaled a record $617.9 billion, up 8% from $571.9 billion at the end of 2004.

Trust, investment and other servicing fees are generally based on the market value of assets custodied, managed and administered, the volume of transactions, securities lending volume and spreads, and fees for other services rendered. Certain investment management fee arrangements also may provide for performance fees, based on client portfolio returns exceeding predetermined levels. Based on analysis of historical trends and current asset and product mix, management estimates that a 10% rise or fall in overall equity markets would cause a corresponding increase or decrease in Northern Trust’s trust, investment and other servicing fees of approximately 4% and in total revenues of approximately 2%. In addition, C&IS trust relationships are generally priced to reflect earnings from activities such as foreign exchange trading and custody-related deposits that are not included in trust, investment and other servicing fees. Custody-related deposits maintained with bank subsidiaries and foreign branches are primarily interest-bearing and averaged $15.8 billion in 2005, $12.8 billion in 2004 and $11.2 billion in 2003.

 

PAGE 4   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY*   DECEMBER 31   

PERCENT

CHANGE

   

FIVE-YEAR
COMPOUND
GROWTH

RATE

 
($ IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2005/04        

Corporate & Institutional

  $ 2,699.7    $ 2,345.1    $ 1,900.9    $ 1,329.0    $ 1,492.3    15 %   13 %

Personal

    225.6      209.3      184.9      150.6      160.4    8     7  
                                                

Total Assets Under Custody

  $ 2,925.3    $ 2,554.4    $ 2,085.8    $ 1,479.6    $ 1,652.7    15 %   12 %
* Assets Under Custody do not include assets administered but not held under custody that were previously disclosed as Assets Under Administration.  
   
ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT   DECEMBER 31   

PERCENT

CHANGE

   

FIVE-YEAR
COMPOUND
GROWTH

RATE

 
($ IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2005/04        

Corporate & Institutional

  $ 500.7    $ 461.5    $ 374.3    $ 214.8    $ 225.9    8 %   17 %

Personal

    117.2      110.4      104.3      87.7      94.0    6     4  
                                                

Total Managed Assets

  $ 617.9    $ 571.9    $ 478.6    $ 302.5    $ 319.9    8 %   14 %

 

Foreign Exchange Trading Profits. Northern Trust provides foreign exchange services in the normal course of business as an integral part of its global custody services. Active management of currency positions, within conservative limits, also contributes to trading profits. Foreign exchange trading profits totaled $180.2 million in 2005, including $16.0 million from FSG, compared with $158.0 million in 2004. The increase reflects increased client activity offset in part by lower volatility in currency markets. 2004 foreign exchange results, which were 44% higher than the $109.6 million reported in 2003, reflected increased market volatility in the major currencies and increased client activity.

Treasury Management Fees. The fee portion of treasury management revenues totaled $71.2 million in 2005, a decrease of 19% from the $88.1 million reported in 2004 and compared with $95.6 million in 2003. Approximately half of the current year decrease was offset by improved net interest income as clients opted to pay for services via compensating deposit balances, consistent with historical experience in a higher interest rate environment.

Security Commissions and Trading Income. Revenues from security commissions and trading income totaled $55.2 million in 2005, compared with $50.5 million in 2004 and $54.8 million in 2003. This income is primarily generated from securities brokerage services provided by Northern Trust Securities, Inc. (NTSI). The 9% increase in 2005 primarily reflects higher revenue from security trades and transition management services for institutional clients, while the 8% decrease in 2004 reflected a reduction in revenue from security trades, particularly in the fixed income market.

Other Operating Income. The components of other operating income were as follows:

 

(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004      2003  

Loan Service Fees

  $ 18.1    $ 22.0      $ 24.0  

Banking Service Fees

    34.3      31.8        31.6  

Gain (Loss) from Equity Investments

    1.7      (.8 )      (2.7 )

Gain on Sale of a Retail Branch

                17.8  

Gain on Sale of Nonperforming Loans

         5.1         

Gain on Sale of Buildings

    7.9              

Other Income

    35.5      25.7        22.4  
                         

Total Other Operating Income

  $ 97.5    $ 83.8      $ 93.1  

 

The current year includes a $7.9 million gain resulting from the sale of two buildings while the prior year included a $5.1 million gain from the sale of two nonperfoming loans. After adjusting for these nonrecurring items, the remainder of the increase resulted primarily from higher custody-related deposit revenue. The 2003 results included a $17.8 million gain from the sale of a retail branch.

Investment Security Gains. Net security gains were $.3 million in 2005. This compares with net gains of $.2 million in 2004 and no gain or loss in 2003.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 5


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Net Interest Income. An analysis of net interest income on a FTE basis, major balance sheet components impacting net interest income, and related ratios is provided below.

 

ANALYSIS OF NET INTEREST INCOME [FTE]


                      PERCENT CHANGE  
($ IN MILLIONS)   2005     2004     2003     2005/04     2004/03  

Interest Income

  $ 1,590.6     $ 1,118.2     $ 1,055.7     42.2 %   5.9 %

FTE Adjustment

    60.9       54.4       52.4     11.9     3.8  
                                     

Interest Income–FTE

    1,651.5       1,172.6       1,108.1     40.8     5.8  

Interest Expense

    929.2       557.1       507.5     66.8     9.8  
                                     

Net Interest Income–FTE Adjusted

  $ 722.3     $ 615.5     $ 600.6     17.4 %   2.5 %
                                     

Net Interest Income–Unadjusted

  $ 661.4     $ 561.1     $ 548.2     17.9 %   2.4 %
                                     

AVERAGE BALANCE

                                   

Earning Assets

  $ 40,454.1     $ 37,009.7     $ 34,788.2     9.3 %   6.4 %

Interest-Related Funds

    34,198.7       30,896.5       29,434.8     10.7     5.0  

Net Noninterest-Related Funds

    6,255.4       6,113.2       5,353.4     2.3     14.2  
                                     
                      CHANGE IN PERCENTAGE  

AVERAGE RATE

                                   

Earning Assets

    4.08 %     3.17 %     3.19 %   .91     (.02 )

Interest-Related Funds

    2.72       1.80       1.72     .92     .08  

Interest Rate Spread

    1.36       1.37       1.47     (.01 )   (.10 )

Total Source of Funds

    2.29       1.51       1.46     .78     .05  

Net Interest Margin

    1.79 %     1.66 %     1.73 %   .13     (.07 )
                                     

Refer to pages 74 and 75 for a detailed analysis of net interest income.

 

Net interest income is defined as the total of interest income and amortized fees on earning assets, less interest expense on deposits and borrowed funds, adjusted for the impact of hedging activity with derivative instruments. Earning assets, which consist of securities, loans and money market assets, are financed by a large base of interest-bearing funds, including retail deposits, wholesale deposits, short-term borrowings, senior notes and long-term debt. Earning assets are also funded by net noninterest-related funds. Net noninterest-related funds consist of demand deposits, the reserve for credit losses and stockholders’ equity, reduced by nonearning assets including cash and due from banks, items in process of collection, buildings and equipment and other nonearning assets. Variations in the level and mix of earning assets, interest-bearing funds and net noninterest-related funds, and their relative sensitivity to interest rate movements, are the dominant factors affecting net interest income. In addition, net interest income is impacted by the level of nonperforming assets and client use of compensating deposit balances to pay for services.

Net interest income for 2005 was $661.4 million, up 18% from $561.1 million in 2004, which was up 2% from $548.2 million in 2003. When adjusted to a FTE basis, yields on taxable, nontaxable and partially taxable assets are comparable, although the adjustment to a FTE basis has no impact on net income. Net interest income on a FTE basis for 2005 was $722.3 million, an increase of 17% from $615.5 million in 2004 which in turn was up 2% from $600.6 million in 2003. The increase in net interest income in 2005 is primarily the result of a $3.4 billion or 9% increase in average earning assets, concentrated primarily in loans and securities and an improvement in the net interest margin. The net interest margin increased to 1.79% from 1.66% in the prior year due in large part to wider spreads earned on retail deposits and an improved funding mix.

Earning assets averaged $40.5 billion, up 9% from the $37.0 billion reported in 2004, which was up from $34.8 billion in 2003. The growth in average earning assets reflects a $1.3 billion increase in loans, a $1.7 billion increase in securities and a $397 million increase in money market assets.

Loans averaged $18.8 billion, 7% higher than last year. The year-to-year comparison reflects a 6% increase in average commercial loans to $3.5 billion. Residential mortgages rose 2% to average $8.2 billion and personal loans increased 7% to $2.8 billion. Non-U.S. loans in -

 

PAGE 6   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

creased to $933 million in 2005 from the prior year average of $510 million due in large part to the acquisition of FSG. The loan portfolio includes noninterest-bearing U.S. and non-U.S. overnight advances related to processing certain trust client investments, which averaged $696 million in 2005, up from $553 million a year ago. Securities averaged $9.9 billion in 2005, up 21% resulting primarily from higher levels of government sponsored agency and other asset-backed securities. Money market assets averaged $11.8 billion in 2005, up 3% from 2004 levels.

The increase in average earning assets of $3.4 billion was funded primarily through growth in interest-bearing deposits, offset in part by lower levels of other interest-related funds. The deposit growth was concentrated in foreign office time deposits, up $4.6 billion resulting from increased global custody activity and the FSG acquisition. Savings and money market deposits were down 1%, partially offset by slightly higher levels of savings certificates. Other interest-related funds averaged $7.9 billion, down $1.3 billion, principally from lower levels of federal funds purchased, offset in part by the issuance of Sterling denominated senior and subordinated notes, and higher levels of treasury investment program balances. Average net noninterest-related funds increased 2% and averaged $6.3 billion, due primarily to higher levels of noninterest-bearing deposits and other noninterest-related funding sources. Stockholders’ equity for the year averaged $3.43 billion, an increase of $289.5 million or 9% from 2004, principally due to the retention of earnings, offset in part by the repurchase of over 3.5 million shares of common stock at a total cost of $169.8 million ($48.05 average price per share) pursuant to the Corporation’s share buyback program.

The net interest spread decreased slightly to 1.36% in 2005, from 1.37% in 2004 while the net interest margin increased by 13 basis points to 1.79%. The improvement in the margin was due in large part to wider spreads earned on retail deposits, higher levels of noninterest-related funds, and an improved funding mix. For additional analysis of average balances and interest rate changes affecting net interest income, refer to the Average Statement of Condition with Analysis of Net Interest Income on pages 74 and 75.

 

Provision for Credit Losses. The provision for credit losses was $2.5 million compared with a negative $15.0 million provision in 2004 and a $2.5 million provision in 2003. For a discussion of the reserve and provision for credit losses, refer to pages 25 through 27.

 

Noninterest Expenses. Noninterest expenses for 2005 totaled $1.73 billion, up 13% from $1.53 billion in 2004, which was up 5% from $1.46 billion in 2003. FSG operating and integration expenses totaled $105.9 million for the period. The components of noninterest expenses and a discussion of significant changes in balances during 2005 and 2004 are provided below.

 

NONINTEREST EXPENSES


(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Compensation

  $ 774.2    $ 661.7    $ 652.1

Employee Benefits

    190.4      161.5      133.1

Occupancy Expense

    133.7      121.5      132.7

Equipment Expense

    83.2      84.7      88.2

Other Operating Expenses

    553.4      503.1      450.7
                     

Total Noninterest Expenses

  $ 1,734.9    $ 1,532.5    $ 1,456.8

 

Noninterest expenses in 2004 included an $11.6 million loss from securities processing activities and a $17.0 million charge for a litigation settlement. In 2003, Northern Trust conducted a strategic business review that resulted in 2003 noninterest expense charges for severance, office space and software retirements totaling $56.3 million.

The productivity ratio, defined as total revenue on a taxable equivalent basis divided by noninterest expenses, was 155% for 2005, 152% in 2004 and 147% in 2003.

Compensation and Benefits. Compensation and employee benefits of $964.6 million represented 56% of total noninterest expenses. The year-over-year increase was $141.4 million, or 17%, from $823.2 million in 2004, which was 5% higher than the $785.2 million in 2003. The 2005 balance included $56.8 million from the addition of FSG. Compensation costs, which are the largest component of noninterest expenses, totaled $774.2 million, reflecting the addition of FSG, annual salary increases and higher incentive compensation. The higher compensation level in 2004 compared with 2003 resulted primarily from annual salary increases and higher performance-based compensation as a result of record earnings and strong foreign exchange trading results. Included in the 2003 expenses was $20.6 million in severance-related costs. Staff on a full-time equivalent basis averaged 8,731 in 2005, up 9% compared with 8,004 in 2004 due primarily to the addition of approximately 800 FSG staff. Staff on a full-time equivalent ba -

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 7


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

sis totaled 9,008 at December 31, 2005 compared with 8,022 at December 31, 2004.

Employee benefit costs for 2005 totaled $190.4 million, up $28.9 million or 18% from $161.5 million in 2004, which was 21% higher than the $133.1 million in 2003. The current year reflects the addition of FSG and higher expenses related to employment taxes, pension and health care costs. The 2004 increase compared with 2003 reflects higher pension and health care costs, in addition to increased costs attributable to the employee stock ownership and defined contribution plans resulting from strong corporate performance.

Occupancy Expense. Net occupancy expense totaled $133.7 million, up 10% from $121.5 million in 2004, which was 8% lower than $132.7 million in 2003. Occupancy costs for 2005 included $12.2 million from FSG. After adjusting for FSG, occupancy expense was unchanged from the prior year. Included in the 2003 results was an $18.9 million charge associated with a reduction in required office space.

Equipment Expense. Equipment expense, comprised of depreciation, rental and maintenance costs, totaled $83.2 million, down 2% from $84.7 million in 2004, which was 4% lower than the $88.2 million in 2003. The decrease in the expense level for 2005 is the result of lower costs related to data line leases and computer maintenance. The 2004 results reflect decreased costs related to computer rental and maintenance, data line lease costs, and depreciation of furniture and personal computers.

 

Other Operating Expenses. The components of other operating expenses were as follows:

 

(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Outside Services Purchased

  $ 268.0    $ 228.0    $ 208.5

Software Amortization & Other Costs

    113.4      108.1      101.9

Business Promotion

    60.8      45.7      41.6

Other Intangibles Amortization

    20.4      9.8      10.4

Software Asset Retirements

              13.4

Other Expenses

    90.8      111.5      74.9
                     

Total Other Operating Expenses

  $ 553.4    $ 503.1    $ 450.7

 

Other operating expenses for 2005 totaled $553.4 million, up 10% from $503.1 million in 2004, which was up 12% from $450.7 million in 2003. Included in the current year is $34.7 million from the addition of FSG. The increase in outside services purchased was due primarily to higher consulting costs, including costs associated with the development and implementation of international expansion strategies, and growth-driven increases in fees for global custody and asset management sub-advisor services. Other expenses in 2004 included a $17.0 million charge related to a litigation settlement and an $11.6 million loss from securities processing activities. The increase in outside services purchased in 2004 was due primarily to growth-driven increases in fees for global custody and asset management sub-advisor services.

 

Provision for Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes was $303.4 million in 2005 compared with $249.7 million in 2004 and $207.8 million in 2003. The current year reflects a higher federal income tax provision resulting primarily from the higher level of pre-tax earnings for the year. The effective tax rate was 34% for 2005 and 33% for the preceding two years.

 

BUSINESS UNIT REPORTING

Northern Trust, under Chairman and Chief Executive Officer William A. Osborn, is organized around its two principal client-focused business units, C&IS and PFS. Investment management services and products are provided to the clients of these business units by NTGI. Operating and systems support is provided to each of the business units by WWOT. For financial management reporting purposes, the operations of NTGI and WWOT are allocated to C&IS and PFS. Mr. Osborn has been identified as the chief operating decision maker because he has final authority over resource allocation decisions and performance assessment.

C&IS and PFS results are presented in order to promote a greater understanding of their financial performance. The information, presented on an internal management-reporting basis, is derived from internal accounting systems that support Northern Trust’s strategic objectives and management structure. Management has developed accounting systems to allocate revenue and expenses related to each segment, as well as certain corporate support services, worldwide operations and systems development expenses. The management reporting systems also incorporate processes for allocating assets, liabilities and the applicable interest income and expense. Tier 1 and tier 2 capital are allocated based on the federal risk-based capital guidelines at a level that is consistent with Northern Trust’s consolidated capital ratios, coupled with management’s judgment of the operational risks inherent in the busi -

 

PAGE 8   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

ness. Allocations of capital and certain corporate expenses may not be representative of levels that would be required if the segments were independent entities. The accounting policies used for management reporting are the same as those described in note 1, “Accounting Policies,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Transfers of income and expense items are recorded at cost; there is no intercompany profit or loss on sales or transfers between business units. Northern Trust’s presentations are not necessarily consistent with similar information for other financial institutions. For management reporting purposes, certain corporate income and expense items are not allocated to the business units and are presented as part of “Treasury and Other.” These items include the impact of long-term debt, holding company investments, and certain corporate operating expenses.

 

The following table summarizes the consolidated results of operations of Northern Trust.

 

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


($ IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004      2003  

Noninterest Income

                       

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 1,559.4    $ 1,330.3      $ 1,189.1  

Other

    404.4      380.6        353.1  

Net Interest Income (FTE)*

    722.3      615.5        600.6  

Provision for Credit Losses

    2.5      (15.0 )      2.5  

Noninterest Expenses

    1,734.9      1,532.5        1,456.8  
                         

Income before Income Taxes*

    948.7      808.9        683.5  

Provision for Income Taxes*

    364.3      304.1        260.2  
                         

Income from Continuing Operations

    584.4      504.8        423.3  

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations

         .8        (18.5 )
                         

Net Income

  $ 584.4    $ 505.6      $ 404.8  
                         

Average Assets

  $ 45,974.1    $ 41,300.3      $ 39,115.2  
                         

*Stated on a fully taxable equivalent basis (FTE). The consolidated figures include $60.9 million, $54.4 million and $52.4 million of FTE adjustment for 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively.

 

Corporate and Institutional Services. The C&IS business unit, under the direction of Frederick H. Waddell, President—C&IS, is a leading worldwide provider of asset administration, asset management and related services to corporate and public entity retirement funds, foundation and endowment clients, fund managers, insurance companies and government funds. Asset custody, management, administration and related services encompass a full range of state-of-the-art capabilities including: worldwide master trust, asset servicing, fund administration, settlement and reporting; cash management; and investment risk and performance analytical services. Trust and asset servicing relationships managed by C&IS often include investment management, securities lending, transition management and commission recapture services provided through the NTGI business unit. In addition to asset administration and management services, C&IS offers a full range of commercial banking services through the Bank, placing special emphasis on developing and supporting institutional relationships in two target markets: large U.S. corporations and financial institutions (both U.S. and non-U.S.). C&IS provides foreign exchange services in Chicago, London, Singapore and Guernsey. The following table summarizes the results of operations of C&IS for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 on a management-reporting basis.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report   PAGE 9


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

CORPORATE AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


($ IN MILLIONS)   2005     2004     2003  

Noninterest Income

                       

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 852.5     $ 680.4     $ 590.3  

Other

    292.3       279.0       231.0  

Net Interest Income (FTE)

    246.9       180.0       155.5  

Provision for Credit Losses

    (2.0 )     (22.3 )     (17.0 )

Noninterest Expenses

    873.3       707.5       675.5  
                         

Income before Income Taxes

    520.4       454.2       318.3  

Provision for Income Taxes

    202.6       176.8       123.6  
                         

Income from Continuing Operations

    317.8       277.4       194.7  

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations

          .8       (18.5 )
                         

Net Income

  $ 317.8     $ 278.2     $ 176.2  

Percentage of Consolidated Net Income

    54 %     55 %     44 %
                         

Average Assets

  $ 27,815.1     $ 21,198.4     $ 17,132.0  

 

Net income for C&IS increased 14% in 2005 and totaled $317.8 million compared with $278.2 million in 2004, which increased 58% from $176.2 million in 2003. The operating results of Northern Trust Retirement Consulting, L.L.C., inclusive of the $20.2 million pre-tax loss on its disposal in 2003, are shown above as discontinued operations. Net income increased 14% in 2005 resulting primarily from record levels of trust, investment and other servicing fees and foreign exchange trading results, and higher net interest income. Income from continuing operations increased 42% in 2004 to $277.4 million compared with 2003 resulting primarily from record levels of trust, investment and other servicing fees and foreign exchange trading results, higher net interest income and a lower provision for credit losses.

C&IS Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees. C&IS trust, investment and other servicing fees are attributable to four general product types: Custody and Fund Administration Services, Investment Management, Securities Lending, and Other Services. Custody and fund administration services are priced, in general, using asset values at the beginning of the quarter. There are, however, fees within custody and fund administration services that are not related to asset values, but instead are based on transaction volumes or account fees. Investment management fees are primarily based on market values throughout the quarter. Securities lending revenue is impacted by market values and the demand for securities to be lent, which drives volumes, and the interest rate spread earned on the investment of cash deposited by investment firms as collateral for securities they have borrowed. The other services fee category in C&IS includes such products as benefit payment, performance analysis, electronic delivery, and other services. Revenues from these products are generally based on the volume of services provided or a fixed fee.

Trust, investment and other servicing fees in C&IS increased 25% in 2005 to $852.5 million from $680.4 million in 2004, which was up 15% from $590.3 million in 2003. The components of trust, investment and other servicing fees by product and a breakdown of assets under custody and under management by market follow.

 

CORPORATE AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES

TRUST, INVESTMENT AND OTHER SERVICING FEES BY PRODUCT


(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Custody and Fund Administration

  $ 400.0    $ 272.1    $ 227.1

Investment Management

    242.0      230.2      210.3

Securities Lending

    148.7      120.1      98.6

Other Services

    61.8      58.0      54.3
                     

Total Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 852.5    $ 680.4    $ 590.3

CORPORATE AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES

ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY BY MARKET


         DECEMBER 31
(IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

U.S. Corporate

  $ 565.5    $ 536.6    $ 500.6

Public Entities and Institutions

    681.8      633.7      577.1

International

    1,231.7      984.1      690.0

Securities Lending

    217.2      187.9      132.5

Other

    3.5      2.8      .7
                     

Total Assets Under Custody

  $ 2,699.7    $ 2,345.1    $ 1,900.9

 

PAGE 10   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

CORPORATE AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES

ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT BY MARKET


      DECEMBER 31
(IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

U.S. Corporate

  $ 85.5    $ 86.8    $ 78.8

Public Entities and Institutions

    91.7      93.2      89.8

International

    85.8      73.4      52.1

Securities Lending

    217.2      187.9      132.5

Other

    20.5      20.2      21.1
                     

Total Assets Under Management

  $ 500.7    $ 461.5    $ 374.3

 

The improvement in C&IS trust, investment and other servicing fees reflects growth in all major products. Custody and fund administration fees increased 47% to $400.0 million compared with $272.1 million a year ago, reflecting strong growth in global custody fees, including $87.0 million of revenue from FSG. Fees from investment management totaled $242.0 million compared with $230.2 million in the year-ago period. Higher investment management fees were generated by growth in the Northern Trust Global Advisors manager of managers business and higher fees from both active and passive management of equity securities. Securities lending fees totaled $148.7 million compared with $120.1 million last year, primarily reflecting higher volumes.

C&IS assets under custody totaled $2.70 trillion at December 31, 2005, 15% higher than $2.35 trillion at December 31, 2004. Managed assets totaled $500.7 billion and $461.5 billion at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, and as of the current year-end were invested 36% in equity securities, 12% in fixed income securities and 52% in cash and other assets. The cash and other assets that have been deposited by investment firms as collateral for securities they have borrowed from trust clients are invested by Northern Trust and are included in assets under custody and under management. The collateral totaled $217.2 billion and $187.9 billion at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.

C&IS Other Noninterest Income. Other noninterest income in 2005 increased 5% from the prior year primarily due to a 16% increase in foreign exchange trading profits, including $16.0 million from FSG, offset in part by a 19% decrease in treasury management fees. Approximately half of the decline in treasury management fees was offset by improved net interest income as clients opted to pay for services via compensating deposit balances, consistent with historical experience in a higher interest rate environment. The prior year included a $5.1 million gain from the sale of two nonperforming loans. The increase in other noninterest income in 2004 compared with 2003 resulted from a 43% increase in foreign exchange trading profits.

C&IS Net Interest Income. Net interest income increased 37% in 2005 resulting primarily from a $5.2 billion or 28% increase in average earning assets, primarily short-term money market assets and loans. The net interest margin improved from .96% in 2004 to 1.04% in 2005. Net interest income for 2004 increased 16% from the previous year resulting primarily from higher levels of average earnings assets, offset in part by a decline of 8 basis points in the net interest margin caused by a shift in the mix of assets with higher-margin loans being replaced with short-term money market assets.

C&IS Provision for Credit Losses. The provision for credit losses was a negative $2.0 million for 2005, resulting primarily from continued improvement in overall credit quality. This compares with a negative $22.3 million provision in the prior year, that resulted primarily from the elimination of reserves for two nonperforming loans which were sold and the continued improvement in the credit quality of the portfolio. The negative $17.0 million provision in 2003 resulted from cash payments received on loans rated internally in the two lowest credit categories.

C&IS Noninterest Expenses. Total noninterest expenses of C&IS, which include both the direct expenses of the business unit and indirect expense allocations from NTGI and WWOT for product and operating support, increased 23% in 2005 and 5% in 2004. Included in the current year expenses is $98.6 million of FSG operating and integration expenses. The growth in expenses for 2005 also reflects annual salary increases, higher incentive compensation, employee benefit charges, costs associated with business promotion and indirect expense allocations for product and operating support. The growth in expenses for 2004 reflected annual salary increases and higher performance-based pay, and increases in employee benefits, occupancy costs, business promotion efforts, and indirect expense allocations for product and operating support.

 

Personal Financial Services. The PFS business unit, under the direction of Sherry S. Barrat and William L. Morrison, Co-Presidents—PFS, provides personal trust, custody and investment management services; individual retirement accounts; guardianship and estate administration; qualified retirement plans; banking (including private banking); personal lending; and residential mortgage lending. PFS focuses on high net worth individuals, business owners, executives, retirees and established privately-held businesses.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 11


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

In 2005, the PFS office network continued to expand with the opening of permanent offices in Boston, Massachusetts and Minneapolis, Minnesota and a limited purpose trust company in Wilmington, Delaware. Northern Trust continued to invest in private client offices in existing markets by building new facilities and by expanding, remodeling and relocating existing offices. The PFS office network currently includes over 80 locations in 18 U.S. states as well as offices in the U.K. PFS also includes the Wealth Management Group, which provides customized products and services to meet the complex financial needs of families and individuals in the United States and throughout the world with assets typically exceeding $75 million.

 

The following table summarizes the results of operations of PFS for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 on a management-reporting basis.

 

PERSONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


($ IN MILLIONS)   2005     2004     2003  

Noninterest Income

                       

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 706.9     $ 649.9     $ 598.8  

Other

    98.3       93.1       115.2  

Net Interest Income (FTE)

    486.7       445.9       436.8  

Provision for Credit Losses

    4.5       7.3       19.5  

Noninterest Expenses

    796.5       766.5       720.7  
                         

Income before Income Taxes

    490.9       415.1       410.6  

Provision for Income Taxes

    190.2       160.8       157.7  
                         

Net Income

  $ 300.7     $ 254.3     $ 252.9  

Percentage of Consolidated Net Income

    52 %     50 %     62 %
                         

Average Assets

  $ 16,932.5     $ 16,185.4     $ 15,868.3  

 

PFS net income totaled $300.7 million in 2005, an increase of 18% from 2004, which in turn was 1% above the net income achieved in 2003. The increase in net income in 2005 resulted from a 9% growth in revenues while expenses increased by 4%. The slight increase in 2004 earnings was attributed primarily to revenue growth of 3% and a lower provision for credit losses, offset by a 6% increase in operating expenses.

PFS Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees. A summary of trust, investment and other servicing fees and assets under custody and under management by state and for Wealth Management follows.

 

PERSONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES

TRUST, INVESTMENT AND OTHER SERVICING FEES


(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Illinois

  $ 239.3    $ 226.2    $ 211.8

Florida

    177.0      166.5      157.3

California

    78.1      74.8      69.4

Arizona

    39.1      37.5      35.5

Texas

    28.7      26.8      24.1

Other

    55.7      41.5      32.2

Wealth Management

    89.0      76.6      68.5
                     

Total Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 706.9    $ 649.9    $ 598.8

PERSONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES

ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY


      DECEMBER 31
(IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Illinois

  $ 46.0    $ 45.8    $ 43.8

Florida

    30.1      28.8      27.6

California

    13.7      13.7      13.9

Arizona

    6.5      6.4      6.2

Texas

    5.4      5.2      4.8

Other

    10.2      8.8      13.8

Wealth Management

    113.7      100.6      74.8
                     

Total Assets Under Custody

  $ 225.6    $ 209.3    $ 184.9

 

PERSONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES

ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT


      DECEMBER 31
(IN BILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003

Illinois

  $ 34.8    $ 34.7    $ 33.6

Florida

    24.2      23.4      23.6

California

    9.3      9.2      9.4

Arizona

    5.1      5.0      4.7

Texas

    3.5      3.3      3.2

Other

    17.9      14.9      12.8

Wealth Management

    22.4      19.9      17.0
                     

Total Assets Under Management

  $ 117.2    $ 110.4    $ 104.3

 

PAGE 12   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Fees in the majority of the states that PFS operates in and all mutual fund-related revenue are billed monthly based on market values throughout the current quarter. PFS trust, investment and other servicing fees totaled a record $706.9 million for the year, compared with $649.9 million in 2004 and $598.8 million in 2003. The current year performance was positively impacted by improved equity markets, new business, and the addition of $6.3 million of fees from FSG, which are included within Other in the table on the preceding page. The 2004 performance was impacted by new business and improved equity markets.

At December 31, 2005, assets under custody in PFS totaled $225.6 billion, compared with $209.3 billion at December 31, 2004. Included in assets under custody are those for which Northern Trust has management responsibility. Managed assets totaled $117.2 billion at December 31, 2005 and were invested 50% in equity securities, 34% in fixed income securities and 16% in cash and other assets.

PFS Other Noninterest Income. Other noninterest income for 2005 totaled $98.3 million, up 6% compared with $93.1 million last year. The improvement from last year resulted primarily from a 14% increase in security commissions and trading income and a $3.2 million nonrecurring gain from the sale of a building. These increases were partially offset by a 13% reduction in treasury management fees as clients opted to pay for services via compensating deposit balances. Noninterest income for 2004 was 19% lower than the previous year primarily due to the $17.8 million gain from the 2003 sale of a retail branch.

PFS Net Interest Income. Net interest income of $486.7 million was 9% higher than the previous year. Average loan volume grew $907.5 million or 6%, while the net interest margin increased from 2.89% in 2004 to 3.00%. Net interest income for 2004 of $445.9 million was 2% higher than 2003 resulting primarily from an increase in average loan volume as the net interest margin remained unchanged.

PFS Provision for Credit Losses. The 2005 provision for credit losses of $4.5 million was $2.8 million lower than the previous year which was down $12.2 million from 2003. The lower provision resulted from the continued improvement in the credit quality of the portfolio. The 2004 provision for credit losses reflected cash payments received on loans rated internally in the two lowest credit categories and the continued improvement in the credit quality of the portfolio.

PFS Noninterest Expenses. PFS noninterest expenses, which include both the direct expenses of the business unit and indirect expense allocations from NTGI and WWOT for product and operating support, increased 4% in 2005 and 6% in 2004. The growth in expenses for 2005 reflects annual salary increases, higher incentive compensation, employee benefit charges, and costs associated with business promotion. In addition, indirect expense allocations for product and operating support increased $7.3 million or 2% from the prior year. The prior year results included a pre-tax charge of $17.0 million related to a litigation settlement. The remainder of the increase in 2004 expenses primarily reflected higher incentive compensation, employee benefit charges, legal services, and increased occupancy costs resulting from the remodeling and expansion of existing locations.

 

Northern Trust Global Investments. The NTGI business unit, under the direction of Terence J. Toth, President—NTGI, provides a broad range of investment management and related services and other products to U.S. and non-U.S. clients of C&IS and PFS through various subsidiaries of the Corporation. Clients include institutional and individual separately managed accounts, bank common and collective funds, registered investment companies, non-U.S. collective investment funds and unregistered private investment funds. NTGI offers both active and passive equity and fixed income portfolio management, as well as alternative asset classes (such as private equity and hedge funds of funds) and traditional multi-manager products and services. NTGI’s activities also encompass brokerage, securities lending, transition management and related services. NTGI’s business operates internationally and its revenues and expenses are fully allocated to C&IS and PFS.

At year-end, Northern Trust managed $617.9 billion in assets for personal and institutional clients, a new record, up 8% from $571.9 billion at year-end 2004. The increase in assets is attributable to improving equity markets and strong new business. Assets under management have grown at a five-year compound annual rate of 14%.

 

Worldwide Operations and Technology. The WWOT business unit, under the direction of Timothy J. Theriault, President—WWOT, supports all of Northern Trust’s business activities, including the processing and

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 13


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

product management activities of C&IS, PFS and NTGI. These activities are conducted principally in the operations and technology centers in Chicago and London. In 2005, Northern Trust began development of a leased facility in Bangalore, India that will supplement its Chicago and London operations.

 

Treasury and Other. The Corporate Financial Management Group, under the direction of Steven L. Fradkin, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, includes the Treasury, Corporate Controller, Corporate Treasurer, Corporate Development, Investor Relations and Strategic Sourcing functions. Treasury is responsible for managing the Bank’s wholesale funding, capital position and interest rate risk, as well as the portfolio of interest rate risk management instruments under the direction of the Corporate Asset and Liability Policy Committee. Treasury is also responsible for the investment portfolios of the Corporation and the Bank and provides investment advice and management services to the subsidiary banks. “Other” corporate income and expenses represent items that are not allocated to the business units and generally represent certain nonrecurring items and certain executive level compensation.

 

The following table summarizes the results of operations of Treasury and Other for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 on a management-reporting basis.

 

TREASURY AND OTHER

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


($ IN MILLIONS)   2005     2004     2003  

Other Noninterest Income

  $ 13.8     $ 8.5     $ 6.9  

Net Interest Income (Expense) (FTE)

    (11.3 )     (10.4 )     8.3  

Noninterest Expenses

    65.1       58.5       60.6  
                         

Loss before Income Taxes

    (62.6 )     (60.4 )     (45.4 )

Benefit for Income Taxes

    28.5       33.5       21.1  
                         

Net Income (Loss)

  $ (34.1 )   $ (26.9 )   $ (24.3 )
                         

Percentage of Consolidated Net Income

    (6 )%     (5 )%     (6 )%
                         

Average Assets

  $ 1,226.5     $ 3,916.5     $ 6,114.9  

 

Treasury and Other noninterest income was $13.8 million compared with $8.5 million in the prior year and included a $4.7 million nonrecurring gain on the sale of a building. Net interest income for 2005 was a negative $11.3 million compared with a negative $10.4 million in 2004 and $8.3 million in 2003. The decline in net interest income in 2004 from the previous year resulted from the decrease in the net interest margin, due in large part to a decline in the yield on the residential mortgage loan portfolio resulting from refinancing activity. In addition, low interest rates during this period compressed the spreads on short-term investing activity conducted by the Treasury Department.

Noninterest expenses totaled $65.1 million for 2005 compared with $58.5 million in the prior year. Contributing to the current year increase are higher allocations for product and operating support and increased costs associated with employee compensation and benefits. Expenses in 2004 after adjusting for a special charge in 2003, increased due to higher allocations for product and operating support and increased costs associated with employee compensation and benefits.

 

Corporate Risk Management Group. Headed by Jana R. Schreuder, Executive Vice President, the Corporate Risk Management Group includes the Credit Policy and Corporate Risk Management functions. The Credit Policy function is described in the “Loans and Other Extensions of Credit” section on page 20. The Corporate Risk Management Group monitors, measures and facilitates the measurement of risks across the businesses of the Corporation and its subsidiaries. Corporate Risk Management also includes the Economic Research function.

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

The use of estimates and assumptions is required in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and actual results could differ from those estimates. The Securities and Exchange Commission has issued guidance and proposed rules relating to the disclosure of critical accounting estimates. Critical accounting estimates are those that require management to make subjective or complex judgments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain

 

PAGE 14   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

and may change in subsequent periods. Changes that may be required in the underlying assumptions or estimates in these areas could have a material impact on Northern Trust’s future financial condition and results of operations.

For Northern Trust, accounting estimates that are viewed as critical are those relating to reserving for credit losses, pension plan accounting, and estimating useful lives of purchased and internally developed software. Management has discussed the development and selection of each critical accounting estimate with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

 

Reserve for Credit Losses. The reserve for credit losses represents management’s estimate of probable inherent losses that have occurred as of the date of the financial statements. The loan and lease portfolio and other credit exposures are regularly reviewed to evaluate the adequacy of the reserve for credit losses. In determining the level of the reserve, Northern Trust evaluates the reserve necessary for specific nonperforming loans and also estimates losses inherent in other credit exposures. The result is a reserve with the following components:

Specific Reserve. The amount of specific reserves is determined through a loan-by-loan analysis of nonperforming loans that considers expected future cash flows, the value of collateral and other factors that may impact the borrower’s ability to pay.

Allocated Inherent Reserve. The amount of the allocated portion of the inherent loss reserve is based on loss factors assigned to Northern Trust’s credit exposures based on internal credit ratings. These loss factors are primarily based on management’s judgment of estimated credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio as well as historical charge-off experience. The Credit Policy function, which is independent of business unit management, determines credit ratings at the time each loan is approved. These credit ratings are then subject to periodic reviews by Credit Policy. Credit ratings range from “1” for the strongest credits to “9” for the weakest credits; a “9” rated loan would normally represent a complete loss.

Unallocated Inherent Reserve. Management determines the unallocated portion of the inherent loss reserve based on factors that cannot be associated with a specific credit or loan category. These factors include management’s subjective evaluation of local and national economic and business conditions, portfolio concentration and changes in the character and size of the loan portfolio. The unallocated portion of the inherent loss reserve reflects management’s recognition of the imprecision inherent in the process of estimating probable credit losses.

Loans, leases and other extensions of credit deemed uncollectible are charged to the reserve. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the reserve. The related provision for credit losses, which is charged to income, is the amount necessary to adjust the reserve to the level determined through the above process. Actual losses may vary from current estimates and the amount of the provision may be either greater than or less than actual net charge-offs.

The control process maintained by Credit Policy and the lending staff and the quarterly analysis of specific and inherent loss components are the principal methods relied upon by management for the timely identification of, and adjustment for, changes in estimated credit loss levels. In addition to Northern Trust’s own experience, management also considers the experience of peer institutions and regulatory guidance.

Management’s estimates utilized in establishing an adequate reserve for credit losses are not dependent on any single assumption. Management evaluates numerous variables, many of which are interrelated or dependent on other assumptions and estimates, in determining reserve adequacy. Due to the inherent imprecision in accounting estimates, other estimates or assumptions could reasonably have been used in the current period and changes in estimates are reasonably likely to occur from period to period. However, management believes that the established reserve for credit losses appropriately addresses these uncertainties and is adequate to cover probable inherent losses which have occurred as of the date of the financial statements.

 

Pension Plan Accounting. As summarized in Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements, Northern Trust maintains a noncontributory defined benefit pension plan covering substantially all U.S. employees. Certain European-based employees also participate in various defined benefit pension plans that have been closed to new employees in prior years. Measuring cost and reporting liabilities resulting from defined benefit pension plans requires the use of several assumptions regarding future interest rates, asset returns, compensation increases and other actuarial-based projections relating to the plan. Due to the long-term nature of this obligation and the estimates that are required to be made, the assumptions used in determining the periodic pension expense and the projected pension obligation are closely monitored and annually re -

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 15


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

viewed for adjustments that may be required. Under generally accepted accounting principles, differences between these estimates and actual experience are amortized over the future working lifetime of eligible participants. As a result, these differences are not recognized as they occur but are recognized systematically and gradually over subsequent periods.

Northern Trust recognizes the significant impact that these pension-related assumptions have on the determination of the pension obligations and related expense and has established procedures for monitoring and setting these assumptions each year. These procedures include an annual review of actual demographic and investment experience with the pension plan’s actuaries. In addition to actual experience, adjustments to these assumptions consider published interest rate indices, known compensation trends and policies and economic conditions that may impact the estimated long-term rate of return on plan assets.

In determining the pension expense for the U.S. plan in 2005, Northern Trust utilized a discount rate of 5.75% for the Qualified Plan and 5.25% for the Nonqualified Plan. The rate of increase in the compensation level is based on a sliding scale that averaged 3.60%. The expected long-term rate of return on Qualified Plan assets was 8.75%.

In evaluating possible revisions to pension-related assumptions as of Northern Trust’s September 30, 2005 measurement date, the following events were considered:

Discount Rate: Northern Trust utilizes the Moody’s AA Corporate Bond rate in establishing the discount rate for the Qualified Plan since the duration of the bonds included in this index reasonably approximates the average duration of the plan’s liabilities. Since this benchmark rate declined 37 basis points, Northern Trust lowered the discount rate for the Qualified Plan from 5.75% to 5.50%. The reference rate for establishing the discount rate for the Nonqualified Plan is the long-term treasury bond rate. Historically, long-term treasury bond rates have fallen short of Corporate Bond rates by about 50 basis points. For this reason, Northern Trust elected to maintain the discount rate for the Nonqualified Plan at 50 basis points below the Qualified Plan discount rate, or 5.00%.

Compensation Level: No changes were recommended to the compensation scale assumption.

Rate of Return on Plan Assets: The expected return on plan assets is based on an estimate of the long-term rate of return on plan assets. Northern Trust utilized an asset return model to calculate the expected long-term rate of return on pension assets. The model considered the current asset mix and estimates of return by asset class and of inflation. As a result of this analysis, together with recent historical results, Northern Trust’s rate of return assumption for 2006 was set at 8.25%, a 50 basis point decline from 2005.

Mortality Table: Northern Trust moved to the RP2000 mortality table for both pre- and post-retirement assumptions. This table is more current than the previously used 1983 Group Annuity mortality table.

As a result of the pension-related assumptions currently utilized and other actuarial experiences of the qualified and nonqualified plans, the estimated U.S. pension expense is expected to increase by approximately $7.3 million in 2006.

In order to provide an understanding of the sensitivity of these assumptions on the expected periodic pension expense in 2006 and the projected benefit obligation, the following table is presented to show the effect of increasing or decreasing each of these assumptions by 25 basis points.

 

(IN MILLIONS)   25 BASIS
POINT
INCREASE
    25 BASIS
POINT
DECREASE
 

Increase (Decrease) in 2006 Pension Expense

           

Discount Rate Change

  (3.8 )   3.9  

Compensation Level Change

  2.1     (2.0 )

Rate of Return on Asset Change

  (1.1 )   1.1  

Increase (Decrease) in Projected Benefit Obligation

           

Discount Rate Change

  (22.0 )   22.7  

Compensation Level Change

  8.9     (8.7 )

 

Purchased and Internally Developed Software. A significant portion of Northern Trust’s products and services is dependent on complex and sophisticated computer systems based primarily on purchased and internally developed software programs. Under Northern Trust’s accounting policy, purchased software and allowable internal costs, including compensation, relating to software developed for internal use are capitalized. Capitalized software is then amortized over its estimated useful life, generally ranging from 3 to 10 years. Northern Trust believes that the accounting estimate relating to the determination and ongoing review of the estimated useful lives of capitalized software is a critical accounting

 

PAGE 16   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

policy. Northern Trust has this view because rapidly changing technology can unexpectedly change software functionality, resulting in a significant change in the useful life, including a complete write-off of software applications. In addition, product changes can also render existing software obsolete requiring a write-off of the carrying value of the asset.

In order to address this risk, Northern Trust’s accounting procedures require a quarterly review of significant software applications to confirm the reasonableness of asset book values and remaining useful lives. Modifications which may result from this process are reviewed by senior management. At December 31, 2005, capitalized software totaled $371.6 million and software amortization in 2005 totaled $86.3 million.

 

IMPLEMENTATION OF ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

Information related to new accounting pronouncements adopted during 2005 is contained in Notes 1 and 2 of the Consolidated Financial Statements on pages 42 and 43.

 

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES

Proposed significant capital expenditures are reviewed and approved by Northern Trust’s senior management. This process is designed to assure that the major projects to which Northern Trust commits its resources produce benefits compatible with corporate strategic goals.

Capital expenditures in 2005 included ongoing enhancements to Northern Trust’s hardware and software capabilities and expansion or renovation of several existing offices. Capital expenditures for 2005 totaled $198.0 million, of which $109.0 million was for software, $28.5 million was for building and leasehold improvements, $47.6 million for computer hardware and machinery and $12.9 million for furnishings. These capital expenditures are designed principally to support and enhance the transaction processing, investment management and securities handling capabilities of the trust and banking businesses, as well as relationship management and client interaction. Additional capital expenditures planned for systems technology will result in future expenses for the depreciation of hardware and amortization of software. Depreciation and software amortization associated with these capital expenditures are charged to equipment and other operating expenses, respectively.

 

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

Assets Under Custody. Northern Trust, in the normal course of business, holds assets under custody, management and administration in a fiduciary or agency capacity for its clients. In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S., these assets are not assets of Northern Trust and are not included in its consolidated balance sheet.

 

Financial Guarantees and Indemnifications. Northern Trust issues financial guarantees in the form of standby letters of credit to meet the liquidity and credit enhancement needs of its clients. Standby letters of credit obligate Northern Trust to meet certain financial obligations of its clients, if, under the contractual terms of the agreement, the clients are unable to do so. These instruments are primarily issued to support public and private financial commitments, including commercial paper, bond financing, initial margin requirements on futures exchanges and similar transactions.

Credit risk is the principal risk associated with these instruments. The contractual amounts of these instruments represent the credit risk should the instrument be fully drawn upon and the client defaults. To control the credit risk associated with issuing letters of credit, Northern Trust subjects such activities to the same credit quality and monitoring controls as its lending activities. Certain standby letters of credit have been secured with cash deposits or participated to others. Northern Trust is obligated to meet the entire financial obligation of these agreements and in certain cases is able to recover the amounts paid through recourse against cash deposits or other participants.

The following table shows the contractual amounts of standby letters of credit.

 

    DECEMBER 31
(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004

Standby Letters of Credit:

            

Corporate

  $ 968.7    $ 910.9

Industrial Revenue

    1,209.5      1,175.8

Other

    659.2      606.6
              

Total Standby Letters of Credit*

  $ 2,837.4    $ 2,693.3
              

*These amounts include $344.3 million and $294.9 million of standby letters of credit secured by cash deposits or participated to others as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. The weighted average maturity of standby letters of credit was 24 months at December 31, 2005 and 19 months at December 31, 2004.

 

As part of the Corporation’s securities custody activities and at the direction of trust clients, Northern Trust lends securities owned by clients to borrowers who are reviewed and approved by the Credit Policy Credit Ap -

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 17


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

proval Committee. In connection with these activities, Northern Trust has issued certain indemnifications to trust clients against loss resulting from the bankruptcy of the borrower of securities. The borrower is required to fully collateralize securities received with cash, marketable securities, or irrevocable standby letters of credit. As securities are loaned, collateral is maintained at a minimum of 100 percent of the fair value of the securities plus accrued interest, with the collateral revalued on a daily basis. The amount of securities loaned as of December 31, 2005 and 2004 subject to indemnification was $135.2 billion and $112.7 billion, respectively. Because of the borrower’s requirement to fully collateralize securities borrowed, management believes that the exposure to credit loss from this activity is negligible.

 

Variable Interests. In 1997, Northern Trust issued $150 million of Floating Rate Capital Securities, Series A, and $120 million of Floating Rate Capital Securities, Series B, through statutory business trusts wholly-owned by the Corporation (“NTC Capital I” and “NTC Capital II”, respectively). The sole assets of the trusts are Subordinated Debentures of Northern Trust Corporation that have the same interest rates and maturity dates as the corresponding distribution rates and redemption dates of the Floating Rate Capital Securities.

The outstanding principal amount of the Subordinated Debentures, net of discount, held by the trusts totaled $276.4 million as of December 31, 2005. The book value of the Series A and Series B Securities totaled $268.1 million as of December 31, 2005. Both Series A and B Securities qualify as tier 1 capital for regulatory purposes. NTC Capital I and NTC Capital II are considered variable interest entities. However, as the Corporation has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of the trusts, they are not consolidated by the Corporation.

Northern Trust has interests in other variable interest entities which are also not consolidated as Northern Trust is not considered the primary beneficiary of these entities. Northern Trust’s interests in these entities are not considered significant and do not have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Liquidity Risk Management. The objectives of liquidity risk management are to ensure that Northern Trust can meet its cash flow requirements and capitalize on business opportunities on a timely and cost effective basis. Management monitors the liquidity position on a daily basis to make funds available at a minimum cost to meet loan and deposit cash flows. The liquidity profile is also structured so that the capital needs of the Corporation and its banking subsidiaries are met. Management maintains a detailed liquidity contingency plan designed to adequately respond to dramatic changes in market conditions.

Liquidity is secured by managing the mix of items on the balance sheet and expanding potential sources of liquidity. The balance sheet sources of liquidity include the short-term money market portfolio, unpledged available for sale securities, maturing loans and the ability to securitize a portion of the loan portfolio. Further, liquidity arises from the diverse funding base and the fact that a significant portion of funding comes from clients that have other relationships with Northern Trust.

A significant source of liquidity is the ability to draw funding from both U.S. and non-U.S. markets. The Bank’s senior long-term debt is rated AA- by Standard & Poor’s, Aa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, and AA- by Fitch. These ratings allow the Bank to access capital markets on favorable terms.

Northern Trust maintains a liquid balance sheet with loans representing only 37% of total assets. Further, at December 31, 2005, there was a significant liquidity reserve on the consolidated balance sheet in the form of cash and due from banks, securities available for sale, and money market assets, which in aggregate totaled $29.0 billion or 54% of total assets.

The Corporation’s uses of cash consist mainly of dividend payments to the Corporation’s stockholders, the payment of principal and interest to note holders, purchases of its common stock and acquisitions. These cash needs are met largely by dividend payments from its subsidiaries, and by interest and dividends earned on investment securities and money market assets. Bank subsidiary dividends are subject to certain restrictions that are explained in Note 29 on page 66. Bank subsidiaries have the ability to pay dividends during 2006 equal to their 2006 eligible net profits plus $635.0 million. The Corporation’s liquidity, defined as the amount of marketable assets in excess of commercial paper, was strong at $198.1 million at year-end 2005. The cash flows of the Corporation are shown in Note 33 on page 72. The Corporation also has available a $50 million revolving line of credit.

 

PAGE 18   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following table shows Northern Trust’s contractual obligations at December 31, 2005.

 

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS   PAYMENT DUE BY PERIOD
(IN MILLIONS)   TOTAL    ONE YEAR
AND LESS
   1-3
YEARS
   4-5
YEARS
   OVER 5
YEARS

Bank-Senior Notes*

  $ 272.5    $ 100.0    $    $    $ 172.5

Subordinated Debt*

    1,007.4      100.0      100.0      200.0      607.4

Federal Home Loan Bank Borrowings*

    1,798.5      444.5      563.9      330.0      460.1

Floating Rate Capital Debt*

    278.4                     278.4

Capital Lease Obligations**

    16.3      2.4      5.0      4.6      4.3

Operating Leases**

    631.4      57.5      106.4      92.9      374.6

Purchase Obligations***

    240.3      92.3      122.3      19.8      5.9
                                   

Total Contractual Obligations

  $ 4,244.8    $ 796.7    $ 897.6    $ 647.3    $ 1,903.2
                                   

Note: Obligations as shown do not include deposit liabilities or interest requirements on funding sources.

* Refer to Notes 13 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

** Refer to Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

*** Purchase obligations consist primarily of ongoing operating costs related to outsourcing arrangements for certain cash management services and the support and maintenance of the Corporation’s technological requirements. Certain obligations are in the form of variable rate contracts and, in some instances, 2005 activity was used as a base to project future obligations.

 

Capital Management. One of management’s primary objectives is to maintain a strong capital position to merit and maintain the confidence of clients, the investing public, bank regulators and stockholders. A strong capital position helps Northern Trust take advantage of profitable investment opportunities and withstand unforeseen adverse developments. In 2005, capital levels were strengthened as average common equity increased 9.2% or $289.5 million reaching a record $3.6 billion at year-end. This increase in capital was accomplished after paying common dividends and buying back shares, which are activities used to manage the level of capital. The Board of Directors increased the quarterly dividend by 9.5% to $.23 per common share in 2005. The common dividend has increased 48% from its level five years ago. During 2005, the Corporation purchased 3,534,859 of its own common shares at a cost of $169.8 million, as part of its share buyback program. The buyback program is designed, among other things, to help offset the dilutive effect of stock issuances under the Corporation’s incentive stock programs. Under this program, the Corporation may purchase up to 3.2 million additional shares after December 31, 2005.

 

 

CAPITAL ADEQUACY       DECEMBER 31  
($ IN MILLIONS)   2005     2004  

TIER 1 CAPITAL

               

Common Stockholders’ Equity

  $ 3,601     $ 3,296  

Floating Rate Capital Securities

    268       268  

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

    (533 )     (232 )

Net Unrealized Gain on Securities

    6        

Nonfinancial Equity Investments

    (2 )     (1 )
                 

Total Tier 1 Capital

    3,340       3,331  
                 

TIER 2 CAPITAL

               

Reserve for Credit Losses Assigned to Loans and Leases

    125       131  

Off-Balance Sheet Credit Loss Reserve

    11       9  

Reserves Against Identified Losses

    (20 )     (24 )

Long-Term Debt*

    769       590  
                 

Total Tier 2 Capital

    885       706  
                 

Total Risk-Based Capital

  $ 4,225     $ 4,037  
                 

Risk-Weighted Assets**

  $ 34,414     $ 30,333  
                 

Total Assets–End of Period (EOP)

  $ 53,414     $ 45,277  

Average Fourth Quarter Assets**

    46,932       44,041  

Total Loans–EOP

    19,969       17,943  
                 

RATIOS

               

Risk-Based Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets

               

Tier 1

    9.7 %     11.0 %

Total (Tier 1 and Tier 2)

    12.3       13.3  

Leverage

    7.1       7.6  
                 

COMMON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY TO

               

Total Loans EOP

    18.0 %     18.4 %

Total Assets EOP

    6.7       7.3  
                 

*Long-Term Debt that qualifies for risk-based capital amortizes for the purpose of inclusion in tier 2 capital during the five years before maturity.

**Assets have been adjusted for goodwill and other intangible assets, net unrealized (gain) loss on securities and excess reserve for credit losses that have been excluded from tier 1 and tier 2 capital, if any.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 19


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The 2005 capital levels reflect Northern Trust’s ongoing retention of earnings to allow for strategic expansion while maintaining a strong balance sheet. The Corporation’s capital supported risk-weighted asset growth of 13.4% in 2005 with all of its capital ratios well above the ratios that are a requirement for regulatory classification as “well-capitalized”. At December 31, 2005, the Corporation’s tier 1 capital was 9.7% and total capital was 12.3% of risk-weighted assets. The “well-capitalized” minimum ratios are 6.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The Corporation’s leverage ratio (tier 1 capital to fourth quarter average assets) of 7.1% is also well above the “well-capitalized” minimum requirement of 5.0%. In addition, each of the subsidiary banks had a ratio of at least 8.0% for tier 1 capital, 11.0% for total risk-based capital, and 5.7% for the leverage ratio.

 

RISK MANAGEMENT

Asset Quality and Credit Risk Management—Securities. Northern Trust maintains a high quality securities portfolio, with 79% of the total portfolio composed of U.S. Treasury or government sponsored agency securities. The remainder of the portfolio consists of obligations of states and political subdivisions, preferred stock and other securities, including Federal Home Loan Bank stock and Federal Reserve Bank stock. At December 31, 2005, 81% of these securities were rated triple-A or double-A, 1% were rated single-A and 18% were below A or not rated by Standard and Poor’s and/or Moody’s Investors Service.

Northern Trust is an active participant in the repurchase agreement market. This market provides a relatively low cost alternative for short-term funding. Securities purchased under agreements to resell and securities sold under agreements to repurchase are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired or sold plus accrued interest. To minimize any potential credit risk associated with these transactions, the fair value of the securities purchased or sold is continuously monitored, limits are set on exposure with counterparties, and the financial condition of counterparties is regularly assessed. It is Northern Trust’s policy to take possession of securities purchased under agreements to resell. Securities sold under agreements to repurchase are held by the counterparty until the repurchase transaction matures.

 

Loans and Other Extensions of Credit. Credit risk is inherent in Northern Trust’s various lending activities. Northern Trust focuses its lending efforts on clients with existing trust or treasury management relationships or who are looking to build a full range of financial services. Credit risk is managed through the Credit Policy function, which is designed to assure adherence to a high level of credit standards. Credit Policy reports to the Corporation’s Head of Corporate Risk Management. Credit Policy provides a system of checks and balances for Northern Trust’s diverse credit-related activities by establishing and monitoring all credit-related policies and practices throughout Northern Trust and assuring their uniform application. These activities are designed to diversify credit exposure on an industry and client basis, thus lessening overall credit risk. These credit management activities also apply to Northern Trust’s use of derivative financial instruments, including foreign exchange contracts and interest risk management instruments.

Individual credit authority for commercial and other loans is limited to specified amounts and maturities. Credit decisions involving commitment exposure in excess of the specified individual limits are submitted to the appropriate Credit Approval Committee (Committee). Each Committee is chaired by the executive in charge of the area and has a Credit Policy officer as a voting participant. Each Committee’s credit approval authority is specified, based on commitment levels, credit ratings and maturities. Credits involving commitment exposure in excess of these limits require the approval of the Senior Credit Committee.

The Counterparty Risk Management Committee established by Credit Policy manages counterparty risk. This committee has sole credit authority for exposure to all non-U.S. banks, certain U.S. banks which Credit Policy deems to be counterparties and which do not have commercial credit relationships within the Corporation, and certain other exposures.

Under the auspices of Credit Policy, country exposure limits are reviewed and approved on a country-by-country basis.

As part of Northern Trust’s ongoing credit granting process, internal ratings are assigned to each client and credit before credit is extended, based on an assessment of creditworthiness. Credit Policy performs, at least annually, a review of selected significant credit exposures

 

PAGE 20   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

to identify, at the earliest possible stages, clients who might be facing financial difficulties. Internal credit ratings are also reviewed during this process. Above average risk loans receive special attention by both lending officers and Credit Policy. This approach allows management to take remedial action in an effort to deal with potential problems.

An integral part of the Credit Policy function is a formal review of past due and potential problem loans to determine which credits, if any, need to be placed on nonaccrual status or charged off. As more fully described on pages 25 through 27, the provision for credit losses is reviewed quarterly to determine the amount necessary to maintain an adequate reserve for credit losses.

A further way in which credit risk is managed is by requiring collateral. Management’s assessment of the borrower’s creditworthiness determines whether collateral is obtained. The amount and type of collateral held varies but may include deposits held in financial institutions, U.S. Treasury securities, other marketable securities, income-producing commercial properties, accounts receivable, property, plant and equipment, and inventory. Collateral values are monitored on a regular basis to ensure that they are maintained at an appropriate level.

The largest component of credit risk relates to the loan portfolio. In addition, credit risk is inherent in certain contractual obligations such as legally binding unfunded commitments to extend credit, commercial letters of credit and standby letters of credit. These contractual obligations and arrangements are discussed in Note 27, “Off-Balance Sheet Financial Instruments,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and are presented in the tables that follow.

 

COMPOSITION OF LOAN PORTFOLIO           DECEMBER 31
(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004    2003    2002    2001

U.S.

                                 

Residential Real Estate

  $ 8,340.5    $ 8,095.3    $ 7,975.3    $ 7,808.1    $ 7,427.9

Commercial

    3,539.7      3,190.0      3,405.3      3,968.3      4,741.6

Broker

    5.6      27.9      7.0      8.8      11.8

Commercial Real Estate

    1,524.3      1,307.5      1,297.1      1,168.5      1,025.6

Personal

    2,961.3      2,927.2      2,699.9      2,480.8      2,208.8

Other

    797.8      609.7      743.9      959.3      768.6

Lease Financing

    1,194.1      1,221.8      1,228.0      1,276.0      1,202.6
                                   

Total U.S.

  $ 18,363.3    $ 17,379.4    $ 17,356.5    $ 17,669.8    $ 17,386.9

Non-U.S.

    1,605.2      563.3      457.3      393.9      593.0
                                   

Total Loans and Leases

  $ 19,968.5    $ 17,942.7    $ 17,813.8    $ 18,063.7    $ 17,979.9

 

SUMMARY OF OFF-BALANCE SHEET FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS WITH CONTRACT

AMOUNTS THAT REPRESENT CREDIT RISK

          DECEMBER 31
(IN MILLIONS)   2005    2004

Unfunded Commitments to Extend Credit

            

One Year and Less

  $ 6,279.7    $ 6,650.2

Over One Year

    11,671.8      9,597.2
              

Total

  $ 17,951.5    $ 16,247.4
              

Standby Letters of Credit

    2,837.4      2,693.3

Commercial Letters of Credit

    31.4      32.1

Custody Securities Lent with Indemnification

    135,229.3      112,691.4

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 21


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

UNFUNDED COMMITMENTS TO EXTEND CREDIT AT DECEMBER 31, 2005

BY INDUSTRY SECTOR


(IN MILLIONS)   COMMITMENT EXPIRATION
INDUSTRY SECTOR  

TOTAL

COMMITMENTS

   ONE YEAR
AND LESS
   OVER ONE
YEAR
  

OUTSTANDING

LOANS

Finance and Insurance

  $ 2,110.9    $ 934.2    $ 1,176.7    $ 380.3

Holding Companies

    119.2      80.6      38.6      192.2

Manufacturing

    4,113.4      836.4      3,277.0      696.6

Mining

    184.1      22.8      161.3      7.7

Public Administration

    27.7      14.9      12.8      73.5

Retail Trade

    498.1      16.0      482.1      104.5

Security and Commodity Brokers

    140.6      110.6      30.0      5.6

Services

    3,579.5      1,281.5      2,298.0      1,376.6

Transportation and Warehousing

    370.3      75.2      295.1      55.9

Utilities

    357.3      37.5      319.8      18.5

Wholesale Trade

    743.0      204.7      538.3      327.4

Other Commercial

    305.2      91.4      213.8      306.5
                            

Total Commercial and Broker*

  $ 12,549.3    $ 3,705.8    $ 8,843.5    $ 3,545.3

Residential Real Estate

    1,759.0      188.4      1,570.6      8,340.5

Commercial Real Estate

    367.2      104.2      263.0      1,524.3

Personal

    2,639.9      1,862.5      777.4      2,961.3

Other

    407.9      327.5      80.4      797.8

Lease Financing

                   1,194.1

Non-U.S.

    228.2      91.3      136.9      1,605.2
                            

Total

  $ 17,951.5    $ 6,279.7    $ 11,671.8    $ 19,968.5
                            

*Commercial and Broker industry sector information is presented on the basis of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

 

Although credit exposure is well diversified, there are certain groups of credits that meet the accounting definition of credit risk concentrations under SFAS No. 107. According to this statement, group concentrations of credit risk exist if a number of borrowers or other counterparties are engaged in similar activities and have similar economic characteristics that would cause their ability to meet contractual obligations to be similarly affected by changes in economic or other conditions. The fact that a credit exposure falls into one of these groups does not necessarily indicate that the credit has a higher than normal degree of credit risk. These groups are: residential real estate, banks and bank holding companies, commercial real estate and commercial aircraft leases.

Residential Real Estate. The residential real estate loan portfolio, totaled $8.3 billion or 45% of total U.S. loans at December 31, 2005, compared with $8.1 billion or 47% at December 31, 2004. Residential real estate loans consist of conventional home mortgages and equity credit lines, which generally require a loan to collateral value of no more than 75% to 80% at inception.

Of the total $8.3 billion in residential real estate loans, $3.4 billion were in the greater Chicago area with the remainder distributed throughout the other geographic regions within the U.S. served by Northern Trust. Legally binding commitments to extend credit, which are primarily equity credit lines, totaled $1.8 billion and $1.5 billion at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.

Banks and Bank Holding Companies. On-balance sheet credit risk to banks and bank holding companies, both U.S. and non-U.S., consists primarily of short-term money market assets, which totaled $16.0 billion and $13.1 billion at December 31, 2005 and December 31, 2004, respectively, and noninterest-bearing demand balances maintained at correspondent banks, which totaled $2.9 billion and $1.8 billion at December 31, 2005 and December 31, 2004, respectively. Northern Trust also provides commercial financing to banks and bank holding companies with which it has a substantial business relationship. Northern Trust’s outstanding lending exposure to these entities, primarily U.S. bank holding companies located in the Greater Midwest, was not considered material to its consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2005 or 2004.

Commercial Real Estate. In managing its credit exposure, management has defined a commercial real estate loan as one where: (1) the borrower’s principal business activity is the acquisition or the development of real estate for commercial purposes; (2) the principal collateral is real estate held for commercial purposes, and loan repayment is expected to flow from the oper -

 

PAGE 22   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

ation of the property; or (3) the loan repayment is expected to flow from the sale or refinance of real estate as a normal and ongoing part of the business. Unsecured lines of credit to firms or individuals engaged in commercial real estate endeavors are included without regard to the use of loan proceeds. The commercial real estate portfolio consists of interim loans and commercial mortgages.

Short-term interim loans provide financing for the initial phases of the acquisition or development of commercial real estate, with the intent that the borrower will refinance the loan through another financial institution or sell the project upon its completion. The interim loans are primarily in those markets where Northern Trust has a strong presence and a thorough knowledge of the local economy. The interim loans, which totaled $459.5 million and $406.4 million as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, are composed primarily of loans to developers that are highly experienced and well known to Northern Trust.

Commercial mortgage financing, which totaled $1.1 billion and $901.1 million as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, is provided for the acquisition of income producing properties. Cash flows from the properties generally are sufficient to amortize the loan. These loans average less than $500,000 each and are primarily located in the suburban Chicago and Florida markets.

At December 31, 2005, legally binding commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit to commercial real estate developers totaled $367.2 million and $50.9 million, respectively. At December 31, 2004, legally binding commitments were $313.3 million and standby letters of credit were $37.5 million.

Commercial Aircraft Leases. Through its leasing subsidiary, Norlease, Inc., Northern Trust has entered into leveraged lease transactions involving commercial aircraft totaling $244 million, which are a part of the $1.2 billion lease financing portfolio at December 31, 2005. $144 million of the leveraged leases involve aircraft leases to non-U.S. airlines, where the leases are fully backed by a combination of pledged marketable securities and guarantees from either a U.S. based “AAA” rated insurance company or a large U.S.-based banking institution. $8 million represents leases to U.S. based airlines; $72 million to commercial transport companies; and the balance for commuter aircraft leases, which are guaranteed by aircraft manufacturers or by sovereign entities.

 

Non-U.S. Outstandings. As used in this discussion, non-U.S. outstandings are cross-border outstandings as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission. They consist of loans, acceptances, interest-bearing deposits with financial institutions, accrued interest and other monetary assets. Not included are letters of credit, loan commitments, and non-U.S. office local currency claims on residents funded by local currency liabilities. Non-U.S. outstandings related to a specific country are net of guarantees given by third parties resident outside the country and the value of tangible, liquid collateral held outside the country. However, transactions with branches of non-U.S. banks are included in these outstandings and are classified according to the country location of the non-U.S. banks’ head office.

Short-term interbank time deposits with non-U.S banks represent the largest category of non-U.S. outstandings. The Chicago head office and the London Branch actively participate in the interbank market with U.S. and non-U.S. banks. International commercial lending activities also include import and export financing for U.S.-based clients.

Northern Trust places deposits with non-U.S. counterparties that have high internal (Northern Trust) and external credit ratings. These non-U.S. banks are approved and monitored by Northern Trust’s Counterparty Risk Management Committee, which has credit authority for exposure to all non-U.S. banks and employs a review process that results in credit limits. This process includes financial analysis of the non-U.S. banks, use of an internal rating system and consideration of external ratings from rating agencies. Each counterparty is reviewed at least annually. Separate from the entity-specific review process, the average life to maturity of deposits with non-U.S. banks is deliberately maintained on a short-term basis in order to respond quickly to changing credit conditions. Additionally, the Committee performs a country-risk analysis and imposes limits to country exposure. The following table provides information on non-U.S. outstandings by country that exceed 1.00% of Northern Trust’s assets.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 23


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

NON-U.S. OUTSTANDINGS


(IN MILLIONS)   BANKS   

COMMERCIAL

AND OTHER

   TOTAL

AT DECEMBER 31, 2005

                   

France

  $ 1,727    $ 1    $ 1,728

United Kingdom

    1,636      29      1,665

Italy

    1,152           1,152

Ireland

    561      510      1,071

Germany

    837           837

Canada

    729      11      740

Belgium

    733           733

Switzerland

    645      10      655
                     

AT DECEMBER 31, 2004

                   

United Kingdom

  $ 2,032    $ 207    $ 2,239

France

    1,162           1,162

Belgium

    1,066           1,066

Sweden

    898      1      899

Netherlands

    815      51      866

Switzerland

    587      12      599

Canada

    542      25      567

Ireland

    533      24      557

Singapore

    423      39      462
                     

AT DECEMBER 31, 2003

                   

France

  $ 1,377    $    $ 1,377

United Kingdom

    1,348      17      1,365

Germany

    784      13      797

Netherlands

    595      16      611

Spain

    567           567

Belgium

    559      2      561

Ireland

    415      17      432

Italy

    420           420
                     

Countries whose aggregate outstandings totaled between .75% and 1.00% of total assets were as follows: Netherlands with aggregate outstandings of $432 million at December 31, 2005, Germany and Australia with aggregate outstandings of $800 million at December 31, 2004, and Switzerland, Canada and Singapore with aggregate outstandings of $1.0 billion at December 31, 2003.

 

NONPERFORMING ASSETS     DECEMBER 31
(IN MILLIONS)       2005        2004        2003        2002        2001

Nonaccrual Loans

                                 

U.S.

                                 

Residential Real Estate

  $ 5.0    $ 2.8    $ 4.5    $ 4.8    $ 5.0

Commercial

    16.1      29.5      75.3      87.6      99.3

Commercial Real Estate

         .1      .1      .7      4.3

Personal

    8.7      .5      .1      .3      .1

Non-U.S.

    1.2                    
                                   

Total Nonaccrual Loans

    31.0      32.9      80.0      93.4      108.7

Other Real Estate Owned

    .1      .2      .3      1.2      .8
                                   

Total Nonperforming Assets

  $ 31.1    $ 33.1    $ 80.3    $ 94.6    $ 109.5
                                   

90 Day Past Due Loans Still Accruing

  $ 29.9    $ 9.9    $ 21.0    $ 15.2    $ 14.5

 

PAGE 24   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Nonperforming Assets and 90 Day Past Due Loans. Nonperforming assets consist of nonaccrual loans and Other Real Estate Owned (OREO). OREO is comprised of commercial and residential properties acquired in partial or total satisfaction of problem loans. Past due loans are loans that are delinquent 90 days or more and still accruing interest. The level of 90 day past due loans at any reporting period can fluctuate widely based on the timing of cash collections, renegotiations and renewals.

Maintaining a low level of nonperforming assets is important to the ongoing success of a financial institution. In addition to the negative impact on both net interest income and credit losses, nonperforming assets also increase operating costs due to the expense associated with collection efforts. Northern Trust’s comprehensive credit review and approval process is a critical part of its ability to minimize nonperforming assets on a long-term basis.

The previous table presents the nonperforming assets and past due loans for the current and prior four years. Of the total loan portfolio of $20.0 billion at December 31, 2005, $31.0 million, or .15%, was nonaccrual, compared with $32.9 million, or .18%, at December 31, 2004.

Included in the portfolio of nonaccrual loans are those loans that meet the criteria of being “impaired.” A loan is impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that a creditor will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. As of December 31, 2005, impaired loans, all of which have been classified as nonaccrual, totaled $28.6 million, net of $4.8 million in charge-offs. These loans had $20.3 million of the reserve for credit losses allocated to them.

 

Provision and Reserve for Credit Losses. Changes in the reserve for credit losses were as follows:

 

(IN MILLIONS)   2005      2004      2003  

Balance at Beginning of Year

  $ 139.3      $ 157.2      $ 168.5  

Charge-Offs

    (7.6 )      (7.3 )      (22.3 )

Recoveries

    1.8        4.4        8.5  
                           

Net Charge-Offs

    (5.8 )      (2.9 )      (13.8 )

Provision for Credit Losses

    2.5        (15.0 )      2.5  
                           

Balance at End of Year

  $ 136.0      $ 139.3      $ 157.2  

 

The provision for credit losses is the charge to current earnings that is determined by management, through a disciplined credit review process, to be the amount needed to maintain a reserve that is sufficient to absorb probable credit losses that have been identified with specific borrower relationships (specific loss component) and for probable losses that are believed to be inherent in the loan and lease portfolios, unfunded commitments and standby letters of credit (inherent loss component). The following table shows (1) the specific portion of the reserve, (2) the allocated portion of the inherent reserve and its components by loan category and (3) the unallocated portion of the reserve at December 31, 2005 and each of the prior four year-ends.

 

ALLOCATION OF THE RESERVE FOR CREDIT LOSSES


    DECEMBER 31  
    2005     2004     2003     2002     2001  
($ IN MILLIONS)   RESERVE
AMOUNT
 

PERCENT
OF
LOANS
TO
TOTAL

LOANS

    RESERVE
AMOUNT
 

PERCENT
OF
LOANS
TO
TOTAL

LOANS

    RESERVE
AMOUNT
 

PERCENT
OF
LOANS
TO
TOTAL

LOANS

    RESERVE
AMOUNT
 

PERCENT
OF
LOANS
TO
TOTAL

LOANS

    RESERVE
AMOUNT
 

PERCENT
OF
LOANS
TO
TOTAL

LOANS

 

Specific Reserve

  $ 20.3   %   $ 24.0   %   $ 37.0   %   $ 25.0   %   $ 21.1   %

Allocated Inherent Reserve

                                                           

Residential

Real Estate

    12.4   42       11.6   45       11.9   45       11.5   43       9.7   41  

Commercial

    48.3   18       49.9   18       60.9   19       85.2   22       81.7   27  

Commercial

Real Estate

    17.7   7       17.1   7       16.8   7       15.5   7       14.8   6  

Personal

    6.1   15       5.5   16       5.2   15       5.0   14       3.8   12  

Other

      4         4         4         5         4  

Lease

Financing

    3.9   6       4.5   7       4.3   7       4.8   7       3.0   7  

Non-U.S.

    2.9   8       1.6   3       1.6   3       1.4   2       5.0   3  
                                                             

Total Allocated Inherent Reserve

  $ 91.3   100 %   $ 90.2   100 %   $ 100.7   100 %   $ 123.4   100 %   $ 118.0   100 %
                                                             

Unallocated
Inherent
Reserve

    24.4         25.1         19.5         20.1         22.5    
                                                             

Total Reserve
for Credit
Losses

  $ 136.0   100 %   $ 139.3   100 %   $ 157.2   100 %   $ 168.5   100 %   $ 161.6   100 %
                                                             

Reserve Assigned to:

                                                           

Loans and

Leases

  $ 125.4         $ 130.7         $ 149.2         $ 161.1         $ 154.3      

Unfunded

Commitments

and Standby

Letters of

Credit

    10.6           8.6           8.0           7.4           7.3      
                                                             

Total Reserve
for Credit
Losses

  $ 136.0         $ 139.3         $ 157.2         $ 168.5         $ 161.6      

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 25


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Specific Component of the Reserve. The specific component of the reserve is determined on a loan-by-loan basis as part of the regular review of impaired loans and potential charge-offs. The specific reserve is based on a loan’s current book value compared with the present value of its projected future cash flows, collateral value or market value, as is relevant for the particular loan.

At December 31, 2005, the specific reserve component amounted to $20.3 million compared with $24.0 million at the end of 2004. The $3.7 million decrease was due primarily to the charge-off of a commercial loan reserved for in a prior period and principal repayments. Offsetting these decreases in part were increased reserves on loans that were classified to nonperforming.

The decrease in the specific loss component of the reserve from $37.0 million in 2003 to $24.0 million in 2004 was due primarily to the elimination of reserves for two nonperforming loans which were sold, principal repayments, and charge-offs that had been reserved for in prior periods. Offsetting these decreases in part were additional reserves required on certain commercial loans that were classified to nonperforming.

Allocated Inherent Component of the Reserve. The allocated portion of the inherent reserve is based on management’s review of historical charge-off experience as well as its judgment regarding the performance of loans in each credit rating category over a period of time that management determines is adequate to reflect longer-term economic trends. One building block in reaching the appropriate allocated inherent reserve is an analysis of loans by credit rating categories. Credit ratings are determined by members of the Credit Policy function, which is independent of business unit management, at the time each loan is approved. These credit ratings are then subject to periodic reviews by Credit Policy. Credit ratings range from “1” for the strongest credits to “9” for the weakest credits; a “9” rated loan would normally represent a complete loss.

Several factors are considered by management in determining the level of the allocated inherent component of the reserve. One of the factors is the historical loss ratio for each credit rating category over the prior five years. The historical loss ratios are evaluated by management and adjusted based on current facts and circumstances. The historical loss factors on higher-risk loans, those rated “5” through “8”, are also refined by considering the current economic environment and regulatory guidelines in order to provide a more consistent and reliable method for taking account of credit trends in measuring loss exposure.

Management also maintains a reserve for the commercial, commercial real estate and non-U.S. segments of the portfolio that have credit ratings from “1” through “4”, in order to measure the loss estimated to be inherent in these riskier segments. Because of the higher degree of uncertainty in these portfolios and Northern Trust’s historical experience, which includes significant losses related to a small number of loans over brief periods of time, management believes it appropriate to maintain a reserve higher than recent charge-off experience would suggest. This is intended to prevent an understatement of reserves based upon over-reliance on more favorable economic conditions included in the historic look-back period.

The allocated inherent component of the reserve also covers the credit exposure associated with undrawn loan commitments and standby letters of credit. To determine the exposure on these instruments, management uses conversion rates used in risk-based capital calculations to determine the balance sheet equivalent amount and assigns a loss factor based on the methodology utilized for outstanding loans.

The allocated portion of the inherent reserve increased $1.1 million to $91.3 million at December 31, 2005 compared with $90.2 million at December 31, 2004. The increase in this component of the reserve is due primarily to growth in the loan portfolio offset partially by the reduction of higher risk loans as a result of principal repayments.

In 2004, the allocated portion of the inherent reserve decreased $10.5 million from $100.7 million at December 31, 2003. The decrease during 2004 was due primarily to the net reduction in the outstanding balance of lower-rated loans reflecting the receipt of principal repayments during a period of limited growth in commercial loan volumes.

Unallocated Inherent Component of the Reserve. The unallocated portion of the inherent loss reserve is based on management’s review of other factors affecting the determination of probable inherent losses, primarily in the commercial portfolio, which are not necessarily captured by the application of historical loss ratios. This portion of the reserve analysis involves the exercise of judgment and reflects considerations such as management’s view that the reserve should have a margin that

 

PAGE 26   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

recognizes the imprecision inherent in the process of estimating expected credit losses. The unallocated inherent portion of the reserve at year-end was $24.4 million compared with $25.1 million last year.

Other Factors. The total amount of the two highest risk loan groupings, those rated “7” and “8” (based on Northern Trust’s internal rating scale, which closely parallels that of the banking regulators), decreased $32 million to $78 million, of which $28.6 million was classified as impaired. This compares with $110 million last year-end when $30.3 million was classified as impaired. The decrease in 2005 primarily reflects the receipt of principal repayments and the migration of certain higher risk rated loans to lower risk credit ratings as a result of improving credit quality. There were no “9” rated loans reported at any time during the periods because loans are charged-off when they are so rated. At December 31, 2005, these highest risk loans represented .4% of outstanding loans.

Overall Reserve. In establishing the overall reserve level, management considers that 42% of the loan portfolio consists of lower risk residential mortgage loans. The evaluation of the factors above resulted in a reserve for credit losses of $136.0 million at December 31, 2005 compared with $139.3 million at the end of 2004. The reserve of $125.4 million assigned to loans and leases, as a percentage of total loans and leases was .63% at December 31, 2005, compared with .73% at December 31, 2004. The decrease in the reserve level reflects the continued overall improvement in the credit quality of the loan portfolio.

Reserves assigned to unfunded loan commitments and standby letters of credits totaled $10.6 million at December 31, 2005, compared with $8.6 million at December 31, 2004.

Provision. The provision for credit losses was $2.5 million for the year and net charge-offs totaled $5.8 million in 2005. This compares with a negative $15.0 million provision for credit losses and net charge-offs of $2.9 million in 2004.

 

MARKET RISK MANAGEMENT

Overview. To ensure adherence to Northern Trust’s interest rate and foreign exchange risk management policies, the Corporate Asset and Liability Policy Committee (ALCO) establishes and monitors guidelines to control the sensitivity of earnings to changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. The guidelines apply to both on- and off- balance sheet positions. The goal of the ALCO process is to maximize earnings while maintaining a high quality balance sheet and carefully controlling interest rate and foreign exchange risk.

 

Asset/Liability Management. Asset/liability management activities include lending, accepting and placing deposits, investing in securities, issuing debt, and hedging interest rate and foreign exchange risk with derivative financial instruments. The primary market risk associated with asset/liability management activities is interest rate risk and, to a lesser degree, foreign exchange risk.

Interest Rate Risk Management. Sensitivity of earnings to interest rate changes arises when yields on assets change in a different time period or in a different amount from that of interest costs on liabilities. To mitigate interest rate risk, the structure of the balance sheet is managed so that movements of interest rates on assets and liabilities (adjusted for off-balance sheet hedges) are highly correlated which allows Northern Trust’s interest-bearing assets and liabilities to contribute to earnings even in periods of volatile interest rates.

Northern Trust utilizes the following measurement techniques in the management of interest rate risk: simulation of earnings; simulation of the economic value of equity; and gap analysis. These three techniques are complementary and are used in concert to provide a comprehensive interest rate risk management capability.

Simulation of earnings is the primary tool used to measure the sensitivity of earnings to interest rate changes. Using modeling techniques, Northern Trust is able to measure the potential impact of different interest rate assumptions on pre-tax earnings. All U.S. dollar-based on-balance sheet positions, as well as derivative financial instruments (principally interest rate swaps) that are used to manage interest rate risk, are included in the model simulation.

Northern Trust used model simulations as of December 31, 2005 and December 31, 2004 to measure its earnings sensitivity relative to management’s most likely interest rate scenarios for the following year. Management’s most likely 2006 interest rate scenario assumes a rising interest rate environment during the first quarter of the year, a relatively stable second quarter, and moderately falling interest rates in the second half of the year. The interest sensitivity was tested by running alternative scenarios above and below the most likely interest rate outcome. The following table shows the estimated impact on 2006 and 2005 pre-tax earnings of 100 and 200 basis point upward and downward move -

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 27


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

ments in interest rates relative to management’s most likely interest rate assumptions. Each of the movements in interest rates was assumed to have occurred gradually over a one-year period. The 100 basis point increase, for example, consisted of twelve consecutive monthly increases of 8.3 basis points. The following assumptions were also incorporated into the model simulations:

  the balance sheet size was assumed to remain constant over the one-year simulation horizon;
  maturing assets and liabilities were replaced on the balance sheet with the same terms;
  prepayments on mortgage loans were projected under each rate scenario using a mortgage analytics system that incorporated market prepayment assumptions; and
  changes in the spreads between retail deposit rates and asset yields were estimated based on historical patterns and current competitive trends.

 

INTEREST RATE RISK SIMULATION OF PRE-TAX INCOME AS OF

DECEMBER 31, 2005 AND 2004


    ESTIMATED IMPACT ON  
(IN MILLIONS)  

2006

PRE-TAX
INCOME
INCREASE/
(DECREASE)

    

2005

PRE-TAX
INCOME
INCREASE/
(DECREASE)

 

INCREASE IN INTEREST RATES ABOVE MANAGEMENT’S INTEREST RATE FORECAST

                

100 Basis Points

  $ (8.0 )    $ (1.4 )

200 Basis Points

    (16.0 )      (3.1 )

DECREASE IN INTEREST RATES BELOW MANAGEMENT’S INTEREST RATE FORECAST

                

100 Basis Points

  $ 5.9      $ 1.0  

200 Basis Points

    8.9        (1.6 )

 

The simulations of earnings do not incorporate any management actions that might moderate the negative consequences of actual interest rate deviations. For that reason and others, they do not reflect likely actual results but serve as conservative estimates of interest rate risk.

A second technique used to measure interest rate risk is simulation of the economic value of equity, which is defined as the present value of assets minus the present value of liabilities net of the value of off-balance sheet instruments. This measurement of interest rate risk provides estimates of the potential future impact on the economic value of equity of various changes in interest rates. The potential effect of interest rate changes on economic equity is derived from the impact of such changes on the market values of assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet instruments. Northern Trust limits aggregate market risk, as measured in this fashion, to an acceptable level within the context of risk-return trade-offs.

The third technique that is used to measure interest rate risk is gap analysis. The calculation of the interest sensitivity gap measures the timing mismatches between assets and liabilities. This interest sensitivity gap is determined by subtracting the amount of liabilities from the volume of assets that reprice or mature in a particular time interval. A liability sensitive position results when more liabilities than assets reprice or mature within a given period. Under this scenario, as interest rates decline, increased net interest revenue will be generated. Conversely, an asset sensitive position results when more assets than liabilities reprice within a given period; in this instance, net interest revenue would benefit from an increasing interest rate environment. The economic impact of a liability or asset sensitive position depends on the magnitude of actual changes in interest rates relative to the current expectations of market price participants. Northern Trust utilizes interest rate risk gap analysis to measure and limit the interest rate risk of its assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet positions denominated in foreign currencies.

 

A variety of actions are used to implement risk management strategies including:

  purchases of securities;
  sales of securities that are classified as available for sale;
  sales of held for sale residential real estate loans;
  issuance of senior notes and subordinated notes;
  collateralized borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank;
  placing and taking Eurodollar time deposits; and
  hedging with various types of derivative financial instruments.

 

Northern Trust strives to use the most effective instruments for implementing its interest risk management strategies, considering the costs, liquidity, collateral and capital requirements of the various alternatives.

 

PAGE 28   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Foreign Exchange Risk Management. Northern Trust is exposed to non-trading foreign exchange risk as a result of its holdings of non-U.S. dollar denominated assets and liabilities, investment in non-U.S. subsidiaries, and other transactions in non-U.S. dollar currencies. To manage non-trading foreign exchange volatility and minimize the earnings impact of translation gains and losses, Northern Trust utilizes non-U.S. dollar denominated liabilities to fund non-U.S. dollar denominated net assets. If those currency offsets do not exist on the balance sheet, Northern Trust will use various foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate its currency exposure. The remaining foreign exchange positions that exist are managed as part of foreign exchange trading as described below.

 

Foreign Exchange Trading. Foreign exchange trading activities consist principally of providing foreign exchange services to clients. Most of these services are provided in connection with Northern Trust’s growing global custody business. However, in the normal course of business Northern Trust also engages in proprietary trading of non-U.S. currencies. The primary market risk associated with these activities is foreign exchange risk.

Foreign currency positions exist when aggregate obligations to purchase and sell a currency other than the U.S. dollar do not offset each other, or offset each other in different time periods and also include holdings of non-U.S. dollar denominated non-trading assets and liabilities that are not converted to U.S. dollars through the use of hedge contracts. Northern Trust mitigates the risk related to its non-U.S. currency positions by establishing limits on the amounts and durations of its positions. The limits on overnight inventory positions are generally lower than the limits established for intra-day trading activity. All overnight positions are monitored by a risk management function, which is separate from the trading function, to ensure that the limits are not exceeded. Although position limits are important in controlling foreign exchange risk, they are not a substitute for the experience or judgment of Northern Trust’s senior management and its currency traders, who have extensive knowledge of the non-U.S. currency markets. Non-U.S. currency positions and strategies are adjusted as needed in response to changing market conditions.

As part of its risk management activities, Northern Trust regularly measures the risk of loss associated with non-U.S. currency positions using a value at risk model. This statistical model provides an estimate, based on a 95% confidence level, of the potential loss in earnings that may be incurred if an adverse one-day shift in non-U.S. currency exchange rates were to occur. The model, which is based on a variance/co-variance methodology, incorporates historical currency price data and historical correlations in price movement among the currencies. All non-U.S. currency positions, including non-U.S. dollar denominated non-trading assets and liabilities that were not converted to U.S. dollars through the use of hedge contracts, are included in the model.

Northern Trust’s value at risk based on non-U.S. currency positions totaled $109 thousand and $134 thousand as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. Value at risk totals representing the average, high and low for 2005 were $173 thousand, $540 thousand and $39 thousand, respectively, with the average, high and low for 2004 being $221 thousand, $466 thousand and $104 thousand, respectively. These totals indicate the degree of risk inherent in non-U.S. currency positions as of year-end and during the year; however, it is not a prediction of an expected gain or loss. Actual future gains and losses will vary depending on market conditions and the size and duration of future non-U.S. currency positions. During 2005 and 2004, Northern Trust did not incur an actual trading loss in excess of the daily value at risk estimate.

 

Other Trading Activities. Market risk associated with other trading activities is negligible. Northern Trust is a party to various derivative financial instruments, most of which consist of interest rate swaps entered into to meet clients’ interest risk management needs. When Northern Trust enters into such swaps, its policy is to mitigate the resulting market risk with an offsetting swap or with futures contracts. Northern Trust carries in its trading portfolio a small inventory of securities that are held for sale to its clients. The interest rate risk associated with these securities is insignificant.

 

OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT

In providing banking and trust services, Northern Trust, in addition to safekeeping and managing trust and corporate assets, processes cash and securities transactions which expose Northern Trust to operating and fiduciary risk. Controls over such processing activities are closely monitored to safeguard the assets of

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 29


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Northern Trust and its clients. However, from time to time Northern Trust has incurred losses related to these risks and there can be no assurance that such losses will not occur in the future.

Operating risk is the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. This risk is mitigated through a system of internal controls that are designed to keep operating risk at levels appropriate to Northern Trust’s corporate standards in view of the risks inherent in the markets in which Northern Trust operates. The system of internal controls includes policies and procedures that require the proper authorization, approval, documentation and monitoring of transactions. Each business unit is responsible for complying with corporate policies and external regulations applicable to the unit, and is responsible for establishing specific procedures to do so. Northern Trust’s internal auditors monitor the overall effectiveness of the system of internal controls on an ongoing basis.

Fiduciary risk is the risk of loss that may occur as a result of breaching a fiduciary duty to a client. To limit this risk, the Trust Investment Committee establishes corporate policies and procedures to reduce the risk that obligations to clients would not be discharged faithfully or in compliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements. These policies and procedures provide guidance and establish standards related to the creation, sale, and management of investment products, trade execution, and counterparty selection.

 

FACTORS AFFECTING FUTURE RESULTS

This report contains statements that may be considered forward-looking, such as the statements relating to Northern Trust’s financial goals, dividend policy, expansion and business development plans, anticipated expense levels and projected profit improvements, business prospects and positioning with respect to market, demographic and pricing trends, strategic initiatives, re-engineering and outsourcing activities, new business results and outlook, changes in securities market prices, credit quality including reserve levels, planned capital expenditures and technology spending, anticipated tax benefits and expenses, and the effects of any extraordinary events and various other matters (including developments in litigation and regulation involving Northern Trust and changes in accounting policies, standards and interpretations) on Northern Trust’s business and results. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words or phrases such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “may increase,” “may fluctuate,” “plan,” “goal,” “strategy,” and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “should,” “would,” and “could.” Forward-looking statements are Northern Trust’s current estimates or expectations of future events or future results. Actual results could differ materially from the results indicated by these statements because the realization of those results is subject to many risks and uncertainties including:

  The future health of the U.S. economy, the economies of other nations or regions in which Northern Trust conducts significant business, and the international economy.
  Changes in the U.S. and other securities markets with respect to the market values of financial assets.
  Changes in foreign currency exchange rates that impact Northern Trust’s level of revenue and expense and net income and the U.S. dollar value of its investments in non-U.S. operations.
  Geopolitical risks and the risks of any extraordinary events (such as terrorist events, war and the U.S. government’s response to those events), contagious disease outbreaks, or epidemics or natural disasters.
  The pace and extent of continued globalization of investment activity and growth in worldwide financial assets.
  Regulatory and monetary policy developments.
  Obtaining regulatory approvals when required.
  Changes in accounting requirements or interpretations.
  Changes in tax laws or other legislation in the U.S. or other countries (including pension reform legislation) that could affect Northern Trust or its clients.
  Changes in the nature and activities of Northern Trust’s competition.
  Northern Trust’s success in maintaining existing business and continuing to generate new business in its existing markets.
  Northern Trust’s success in identifying and penetrating targeted markets, through acquisition, strategic alliance or otherwise.
  Northern Trust’s success in integrating recent and future acquisitions, strategic alliances, and preferred provider arrangements.
  The ability of each of Northern Trust’s principal businesses to maintain a product mix that achieves acceptable margins.

 

PAGE 30   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

  Northern Trust’s ability to continue to generate investment results that satisfy its clients and continue to develop its array of investment products.
  Northern Trust’s ability to continue to fund and accomplish innovation, improve risk management practices and controls, and address operating risks, including human errors or omissions, systems defects, systems interruptions, and breakdowns in processes or internal controls.
  Northern Trust’s success in controlling expenses.
  Risks and uncertainties inherent in the litigation and regulatory process.
  The risk of events that could harm Northern Trust’s reputation and so undermine the confidence of clients, counterparties, rating agencies, and stockholders.

Some of these risks and uncertainties that may affect future results are discussed in more detail in the sections of “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” captioned “Risk Management,” “Market Risk Management” and “Operational Risk Management” in the 2005 Financial Annual Report to Shareholders (pages 20-30), in the section of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in the 2005 Financial Annual Report to Shareholders captioned “Note 25, Contingent Liabilities” (pages 62-63), in the sections of “Item 1—Business” of the 2005 Annual Report on Form 10-K captioned “Government Polices,” “Competition” and “Regulation and Supervision” (pages 8-15) and “Item 1A—Risk Factors” of the 2005 Annual Report on Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements included in this report are based upon information presently available, and Northern Trust assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 31


MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL

CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

 

Management of Northern Trust Corporation and its subsidiaries (Northern Trust) is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. This internal control contains monitoring mechanisms, and actions are taken to correct deficiencies identified.

 

Management assessed Northern Trust’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005. This assessment was based on criteria for effective internal control over financial reporting described in “Internal Control—Integrated Framework” issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this assessment, management believes that, as of December 31, 2005, Northern Trust maintained effective internal control over financial reporting, including maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of Northern Trust, and policies and procedures that provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and that receipts and expenditures of Northern Trust are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of Northern Trust. Additionally, KPMG LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that audited Northern Trust’s consolidated financial statements as of, and for the year ended, December 31, 2005, included in this Financial Annual Report, has issued an attestation report (included herein on page 33) on management’s assessment of, and the effective operation of, Northern Trust’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

PAGE 32   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

TO THE STOCKHOLDERS AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF NORTHERN TRUST CORPORATION:

We have audited management’s assessment, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Controls over Financial Reporting, that Northern Trust Corporation and its subsidiaries (Northern Trust) maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005, based on criteria established in “Internal Control—Integrated Framework” issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Northern Trust’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management’s assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of Northern Trust’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management’s assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

In our opinion, management’s assessment that Northern Trust maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on criteria established in “Internal Control—Integrated Framework” issued by COSO. Also, in our opinion, Northern Trust maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005, based on criteria established in “Internal Control—Integrated Framework” issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Northern Trust Corporation and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2005, and our report dated February 28, 2006 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

 

/s/ KPMG LLP

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

FEBRUARY 28, 2006

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 33


CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET

 

            DECEMBER 31  
($ IN MILLIONS EXCEPT SHARE INFORMATION)   2005        2004  

ASSETS

                  

Cash and Due from Banks

  $ 2,996.2        $ 2,052.5  

Federal Funds Sold and Securities Purchased under Agreements to Resell (Note 6)

    4,845.1          1,339.9  

Time Deposits with Banks

    11,123.1          11,793.2  

Other Interest-Bearing

    67.5          34.4  

Securities (Notes 5 and 28)

                  

Available for Sale

    9,970.7          7,918.9  

Held to Maturity (Fair value–$1,161.6 in 2005 and $1,156.6 in 2004)

    1,135.5          1,120.2  

Trading Account

    2.8          2.6  
                    

Total Securities

    11,109.0          9,041.7  
                    

Loans and Leases (Notes 7 and 28)

                  

Commercial and Other

    11,628.0          9,847.4  

Residential Mortgages

    8,340.5          8,095.3  
                    

Total Loans and Leases (Net of unearned income–$451.1 in 2005 and $487.5 in 2004)

    19,968.5          17,942.7  
                    

Reserve for Credit Losses Assigned to Loans and Leases (Note 8)

    (125.4 )        (130.7 )

Buildings and Equipment (Notes 9 and 10)

    471.5          465.1  

Customers’ Acceptance Liability

    .7          2.0  

Trust Security Settlement Receivables

    317.0          148.9  

Other Assets (Notes 12 and 30)

    2,640.6          2,587.0  
                    

Total Assets

  $ 53,413.8        $ 45,276.7  
                    

LIABILITIES

                  

Deposits

                  

Demand and Other Noninterest-Bearing

  $ 5,383.6        $ 5,472.8  

Savings and Money Market

    8,278.9          7,950.6  

Savings Certificates

    1,565.2          1,494.0  

Other Time

    391.6          370.7  

Non-U.S. Offices–Demand

    2,043.2          904.2  

  –Time

    20,857.0          14,865.3  
                    

Total Deposits

    38,519.5          31,057.6  

Federal Funds Purchased

    1,096.9          1,018.3  

Securities Sold under Agreements to Repurchase (Note 6)

    1,610.8          2,847.9  

Commercial Paper

    144.6          145.4  

Other Borrowings

    2,647.9          1,416.0  

Senior Notes (Note 13)

    272.5          200.0  

Long-Term Debt (Note 13)

    2,818.1          2,624.6  

Floating Rate Capital Debt (Note 14)

    276.4          276.3  

Liability on Acceptances

    .7          2.0  

Other Liabilities (Notes 8 and 30)

    2,425.6          2,393.0  
                    

Total Liabilities

    49,813.0          41,981.1  
                    

STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

                  

Common Stock, $1.66 2/3 Par Value; Authorized 560,000,000 shares in 2005 and 2004; Outstanding 218,128,986 shares in 2005 and 219,067,733 shares in 2004 (Notes 15 and 17)

    379.8          379.8  

Retained Earnings

    3,672.1          3,300.6  

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Note 16)

    (18.7 )        (14.7 )

Common Stock Issuable–Stock Incentive Plans (Note 23)

    55.5          63.0  

Deferred Compensation

    (29.5 )        (25.0 )

Treasury Stock (at cost–9,792,538 shares in 2005 and 8,853,791 shares in 2004)

    (458.4 )        (408.1 )
                    

Total Stockholders’ Equity

    3,600.8          3,295.6  
                    

Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

  $ 53,413.8        $ 45,276.7  
                    

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements on pages 38–72.

 

PAGE 34   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME

 

                    FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31  
($ IN MILLIONS EXCEPT PER SHARE INFORMATION)   2005      2004      2003  

Noninterest Income

                         

Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees

  $ 1,559.4      $ 1,330.3      $ 1,189.1  

Foreign Exchange Trading Profits

    180.2        158.0        109.6  

Treasury Management Fees

    71.2        88.1        95.6  

Security Commissions and Trading Income

    55.2        50.5        54.8  

Other Operating Income (Note 19)

    97.5        83.8        93.1  

Investment Security Gains, net (Note 5)

    .3        .2         
                           

Total Noninterest Income

    1,963.8        1,710.9        1,542.2  
                           

Net Interest Income (Note 18)

                         

Interest Income

    1,590.6        1,118.2        1,055.7  

Interest Expense

    929.2        557.1        507.5  
                           

Net Interest Income

    661.4        561.1        548.2  

Provision for Credit Losses (Note 8)

    2.5        (15.0 )      2.5  
                           

Net Interest Income after Provision for Credit Losses

    658.9        576.1        545.7  
                           

Noninterest Expenses

                         

Compensation (Notes 23 and 24)

    774.2        661.7        652.1  

Employee Benefits (Note 22)

    190.4        161.5        133.1  

Occupancy Expense (Notes 9 and 10)

    133.7        121.5        132.7  

Equipment Expense (Notes 9 and 10)

    83.2        84.7        88.2  

Other Operating Expenses (Note 19)

    553.4        503.1        450.7  
                           

Total Noninterest Expenses

    1,734.9        1,532.5        1,456.8  
                           

Income from Continuing Operations before Income Taxes

    887.8        754.5        631.1  

Provision for Income Taxes (Note 21)

    303.4        249.7        207.8  
                           

Income from Continuing Operations

    584.4        504.8        423.3  
                           

Discontinued Operations (Note 3)

                         

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations of NTRC

           1.4        (10.0 )

Loss on Disposal of NTRC

                  (20.2 )

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

           (.6 )      11.7  
                           

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations

           .8        (18.5 )
                           

Net Income

  $ 584.4      $ 505.6      $ 404.8  
                           

Per Common Share (Note 17)

                         

Income from Continuing Operations–Basic

  $ 2.68      $ 2.30      $ 1.92  

 –Diluted

    2.64        2.26        1.89  

Net Income–Basic

  $ 2.68      $ 2.30      $ 1.84  

 –Diluted

    2.64        2.27        1.80  

Cash Dividends Declared

    .86        .78        .70  
                           

Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding–Basic

    218,101,996        219,492,478        220,203,094  

–Diluted

    221,557,188        223,135,699        224,067,844  

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 

 

                    FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31  
(IN MILLIONS)   2005      2004      2003  

Net Income

  $ 584.4      $ 505.6      $ 404.8  

Other Comprehensive Income (net of tax and reclassifications)

                         

Net Unrealized Losses on Securities Available for Sale

    (4.5 )      (3.4 )      (3.0 )

Net Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Cash Flow Hedge Designations

    (1.3 )      .2        (5.5 )

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments

    2.3        (.9 )      .5  

Minimum Pension Liability Adjustment

    (.5 )      (1.7 )      (8.0 )
                           

Other Comprehensive Income (Note 16)

    (4.0 )      (5.8 )      (16.0 )
                           

Comprehensive Income

  $ 580.4      $ 499.8      $ 388.8  
                           

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements on pages 38–72.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 35


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

    FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31
 
(IN MILLIONS)   2005      2004      2003  

PREFERRED STOCK

                         

Balance at January 1

  $      $      $ 120.0  

Series C Redeemed

                  (60.0 )

Series D Redeemed

                  (60.0 )
                           

Balance at December 31

                   
                           

COMMON STOCK

                         

Balance at January 1

    379.8        379.8        379.8  
                           

Balance at December 31

    379.8        379.8        379.8  
                           

RETAINED EARNINGS

                         

Balance at January 1

    3,300.6        2,990.7        2,775.3  

Net Income

    584.4        505.6        404.8  

Dividends Declared–Common Stock

    (187.7 )      (171.2 )      (154.2 )

Dividends Declared–Preferred Stock

                  (.6 )

Stock Issued–Incentive Plan and Awards

    (25.2 )      (24.5 )      (34.6 )
                           

Balance at December 31

    3,672.1        3,300.6        2,990.7  
                           

ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

                         

Balance at January 1

    (14.7 )      (8.9 )      7.1  

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

    (4.0 )      (5.8 )      (16.0 )
                           

Balance at December 31

    (18.7 )      (14.7 )      (8.9 )
                           

COMMON STOCK ISSUABLE–STOCK INCENTIVE PLANS

                         

Balance at January 1

    63.0        88.6        118.2  

Stock Issuable, net of Stock Issued

    (7.5 )      (25.6 )      (29.6 )
                           

Balance at December 31

    55.5        63.0        88.6  
                           

DEFERRED COMPENSATION

                         

Balance at January 1

    (25.0 )      (26.4 )      (40.2 )

Compensation Deferred

    (17.7 )      (11.5 )      (5.3 )

Compensation Amortized

    13.2        12.9        19.1  
                           

Balance at December 31

    (29.5 )      (25.0 )      (26.4 )
                           

TREASURY STOCK

                         

Balance at January 1

    (408.1 )      (368.5 )      (360.4 )

Stock Options and Awards

    119.5        111.0        104.9  

Stock Purchased

    (169.8 )      (150.6 )      (113.0 )
                           

Balance at December 31

    (458.4 )      (408.1 )      (368.5 )
                           

Total Stockholders’ Equity At December 31

  $ 3,600.8      $ 3,295.6      $ 3,055.3  
                           

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements on pages 38–72.

 

PAGE 36   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS

 

                FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31  
(IN MILLIONS)   2005      2004      2003  

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

                         

Net Income

  $ 584.4      $ 505.6      $ 404.8  

Adjustments to Reconcile Net Income to Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities:

                         

Provision for Credit Losses

    2.5        (15.0 )      2.5  

Depreciation on Buildings and Equipment

    85.0        82.6        82.2  

(Increase) Decrease in Receivables

    (129.1 )      11.0        (76.7 )

Increase (Decrease) in Interest Payable

    11.8        1.5        (9.0 )

Amortization and Accretion of Securities and Unearned Income

    (190.9 )      (113.4 )      (113.0 )

Severance Liability Relating to Staff Reductions, net (Note 20)

    (1.3 )      (6.4 )      7.7  

Reduction in Office Space Leased and Owned, net (Note 20)

    (4.9 )      (3.4 )      17.7  

Loss on Sale of NTRC Assets (Note 3)

                  20.2  

Gain on Sale of Retail Branch Assets (Note 19)

                  (17.8 )

Gain on Sale of Buildings (Note 19)

    (7.9 )              

Amortization and Retirement of Computer Software (Note 20)

    86.3        84.0        93.7  

Amortization of Intangibles

    20.4        9.8        10.4  

Deferred Income Tax

    70.9        96.5        87.9  

Net (Increase) Decrease in Trading Account Securities

    (.2 )      4.8        .3  

Other Operating Activities, net

    58.1        (3.6 )      (92.2 )
                           

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

    585.1        654.0        418.7  
                           

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

                         

Net (Increase) Decrease in Federal Funds Sold and Securities Purchased under
Agreements to Resell

    (3,505.2 )      (585.3 )      210.2  

Net (Increase) Decrease in Time Deposits with Banks

    3,588.6        (3,025.5 )      (499.5 )

Net (Increase) Decrease in Other Interest-Bearing Assets

    (33.1 )      8.4        56.5  

Purchases of Securities–Held to Maturity

    (99.8 )      (161.1 )      (215.4 )

Proceeds from Maturity and Redemption of Securities–Held to Maturity

    93.2        86.5        70.8  

Purchases of Securities–Available for Sale

    (56,789.3 )      (16,442.2 )      (20,287.0 )

Proceeds from Sale, Maturity and Redemption of Securities–Available for Sale

    54,841.6        16,804.7        17,795.1  

Net (Increase) Decrease in Loans and Leases

    (1,614.5 )      (82.9 )      283.3  

Purchases of Buildings and Equipment, net

    (85.9 )      (49.3 )      (81.9 )

Proceeds from Sale of Buildings

    21.2                

Purchases and Development of Computer Software

    (109.0 )      (83.8 )      (98.4 )

Net (Increase) Decrease in Trust Security Settlement Receivables

    (168.1 )      21.7        437.9  

Decrease in Cash Due to Acquisitions, net of Cash Acquired

    (464.9 )      (4.2 )      (133.3 )

Proceeds from Sale of Subsidiary and Branch Assets

                  35.4  

Other Investing Activities, net

    253.5        30.9        (60.7 )
                           

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

    (4,071.7 )      (3,482.1 )      (2,487.0 )
                           

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

                         

Net Increase in Deposits

    4,341.0        4,787.6        207.9  

Net Increase (Decrease) in Federal Funds Purchased

    78.6        (1,611.1 )      956.9  

Net Increase (Decrease) in Securities Sold under Agreements to Repurchase

    (1,237.1 )      1,020.1        263.8  

Net Increase (Decrease) in Commercial Paper

    (.8 )      3.1        (1.3 )

Net Increase (Decrease) in Short-Term Other Borrowings

    1,193.7        (581.4 )      139.4  

Proceeds from Term Federal Funds Purchased

    210.2        693.6        3,817.9  

Repayments of Term Federal Funds Purchased

    (212.2 )      (697.2 )      (3,826.3 )

Proceeds from Senior Notes & Long-Term Debt

    815.2        285.0        470.0  

Repayments of Senior Notes & Long-Term Debt

    (498.8 )      (351.1 )      (666.1 )

Treasury Stock Purchased

    (165.3 )      (147.6 )      (109.9 )

Net Proceeds from Stock Options

    50.6        35.4        25.4  

Cash Dividends Paid on Common Stock

    (183.5 )      (167.0 )      (149.9 )

Cash Dividends Paid on Preferred Stock

                  (.8 )

Redemption of Preferred Stock

                  (120.0 )

Other Financing Activities, net

    38.7        15.3        (15.0 )
                           

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

    4,430.3        3,284.7        992.0  
                           

Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Due from Banks

    943.7        456.6        (1,076.3 )

Cash and Due from Banks at Beginning of Year

    2,052.5        1,595.9        2,672.2  
                           

Cash and Due from Banks at End of Year

  $ 2,996.2      $ 2,052.5      $ 1,595.9  
                           

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:

                         

Interest Paid

  $ 917.3      $ 555.7      $ 516.6  

Income Taxes Paid

    179.6        165.0        91.6  
                           

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements on pages 38–72.

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 37


NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

1. Accounting Policies—The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and reporting practices prescribed for the banking industry. A description of the significant accounting policies follows:

A. Basis of Presentation. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Northern Trust Corporation (Corporation) and its wholly-owned subsidiary, The Northern Trust Company (Bank), and their wholly-owned subsidiaries. Throughout the notes, the term “Northern Trust” refers to the Corporation and its subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The consolidated statement of income includes results of acquired subsidiaries from the dates of acquisition.

B. Nature of Operations. The Corporation is a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. The Bank is an Illinois banking corporation headquartered in the Chicago financial district and the Corporation’s principal subsidiary. The Corporation conducts business in the United States (U.S.) and internationally through the Bank, four national bank subsidiaries, a federal savings bank subsidiary, three trust companies and various other U.S. and non-U.S. subsidiaries.

Northern Trust generates the majority of its revenues from its two primary business units: Corporate and Institutional Services (C&IS) and Personal Financial Services (PFS). Investment management services and products are provided to C&IS and PFS through a third business unit, Northern Trust Global Investments (NTGI). Operating and systems support for these business units are provided by a fourth business unit, Worldwide Operations and Technology (WWOT).

The C&IS business unit provides asset custody, management, administration and related services worldwide to corporate and public entity retirement funds, foundation and endowment clients, fund managers, insurance companies and government funds; a full range of commercial banking services to large U.S. corporations and financial institutions (U.S. and non-U.S.); and foreign exchange services for global custody clients. C&IS products are delivered to clients in 39 countries through offices in North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.

The PFS business unit provides personal trust, custody and investment management services, individual retirement accounts, guardianship and estate administration, qualified retirement plans, banking (including private banking), personal lending, and residential real estate mortgage lending. PFS focuses on high net worth individuals, business owners, executives, retirees and established privately-held businesses. PFS services are provided through a network of over 80 offices in 18 U.S. states as well as offices in the United Kingdom (U.K.).

C. Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

D. Foreign Currency Translation. Asset and liability accounts denominated in a foreign currency are translated into functional currencies at period end rates of exchange, except for buildings and equipment which are translated at exchange rates in effect at the date of acquisition. Results from remeasurement are reported in other operating income. Income and expense accounts are translated at period average rates of exchange.

Asset and liability accounts of entities with functional currencies that are not the U.S. dollar are translated at period end rates of exchange. Translation adjustments are reported, net of tax, directly to accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of stockholders’ equity. Income and expense accounts are translated at period average rates of exchange.

E. Securities. Securities Available for Sale are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses credited or charged, net of the tax effect, to accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses on securities available for sale are determined on a specific identification basis and are reported in the consolidated statement of income as investment security gains, net. Interest income is recorded on the accrual basis adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount.

Securities Held to Maturity consist of debt securities that management intends to, and Northern Trust has the ability to, hold until maturity. Such securities are reported at cost, adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount. Interest income is recorded on the accrual basis adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount.

 

PAGE 38   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Securities Held for Trading are stated at fair value. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on securities held for trading are reported in the consolidated statement of income under security commissions and trading income.

F. Derivative Financial Instruments. Northern Trust is a party to various derivative instruments as part of its risk management activities, to meet the risk management needs of its clients, and as part of its trading activity for its own account. Derivative financial instruments include interest rate swap and option contracts, foreign exchange contracts, credit default swaps, and similar contracts. Derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value and unrealized gains and receivables are reported as other assets and unrealized losses and payables are reported as other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.

Risk Management Instruments. Fair value, cash flow or net investment hedge derivatives are designated and formally documented as such contemporaneous with their transaction. The formal documentation describes the hedge relationship and identifies the hedging instruments and hedged items. Included in the documentation is a discussion of the risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking such hedges, as well as a description of the method for assessing hedge effectiveness at inception and on an ongoing basis. A formal assessment is performed on a calendar quarter basis to verify that derivatives used in hedging transactions continue to be highly effective as offsets to changes in fair value or cash flows of the hedged item. If a derivative ceases to be highly effective, or if the hedged item matures, is sold, or is terminated, or if a hedged forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, hedge accounting is terminated and the derivative is treated as if it were a client-related or trading instrument.

Fair value hedge designations are made between a derivative and a recognized asset or liability. Interest accruals and changes in fair value of the derivative are recognized as a component of the interest income or expense classification of the hedged item. Changes in fair value of the hedged asset or liability attributable to the risk being hedged are reflected in its carrying amount and are also recognized as a component of its interest income or expense.

Cash flow hedge designations are made between derivatives and forecasted cash inflows or outflows so as to hedge against variability due to a specific risk. The effective portion of unrealized gains and losses on such derivatives is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of stockholders’ equity. Any hedge ineffectiveness is recognized currently in the income or expense classification of the hedged item. When the hedged forecasted transaction impacts earnings, balances in other comprehensive income are reclassified to the same income or expense classification as the hedged item.

Net investment hedge designations are made between a foreign exchange contract or qualifying nonderivative instrument and a net investment in a non-U.S. branch or subsidiary. Changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income. Any ineffectiveness is recorded to other income only if the notional amount of the derivative exceeds the portion of the net investment designated as being hedged.

Other derivatives transacted as economic hedges of non-U.S. dollar denominated assets and liabilities and of credit risk are carried on the balance sheet at fair value and any changes in fair value are recognized currently in income.

Client-Related and Trading Instruments. Derivative financial instruments entered into to meet clients’ risk management needs or for trading purposes are carried at fair value, with realized and unrealized gains and losses included in foreign exchange trading profits and security commissions and trading income.

G. Loans and Leases. Loans that are held to maturity are reported at the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned income. Residential real estate loans classified as held for sale are reported at the lower of aggregate cost or market value. Loan commitments for residential real estate loans that will be classified as held for sale at the time of funding and which have an interest-rate lock are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value with subsequent gains or losses recognized as other income. Unrealized gains are reported as other assets, with unrealized losses reported as other liabilities. Other unfunded loan commitments that are not held for sale are carried at the amount of unamortized fees with a reserve for credit loss liability recognized for any probable losses.

Interest income on loans is recorded on an accrual basis unless, in the opinion of management, there is a question as to the ability of the debtor to meet the terms of the loan agreement, or interest or principal is more than 90 days contractually past due and the loan is not well-secured and in the process of collection. At the time a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, interest accrued

 

Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report    PAGE 39


NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

but not collected is reversed against interest income of the current period. Loans are returned to accrual status when factors indicating doubtful collectibility no longer exist. Interest collected on nonaccrual loans is applied to principal unless, in the opinion of management, collectibility of principal is not in doubt.

A loan is considered to be impaired when, based on current information and events, management determines that it is probable that Northern Trust will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Impaired loans are measured based upon the loan’s market price, the present value of expected future cash flows, discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, or at the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. If the loan valuation is less than the recorded value of the loan, a specific reserve is established for the difference.

Premiums and discounts on loans are recognized as an adjustment of yield using the interest method based on the contractual terms of the loan. Commitment fees that are considered to be an adjustment to the loan yield, loan origination fees and certain direct costs are deferred and accounted for as an adjustment to the yield.

Unearned lease income from direct financing and leveraged leases is recognized using the interest method. This method provides a constant rate of return on the unrecovered investment over the life of the lease. Lease residual values are established at the inception of the lease based on in-house valuations and market analyses provided by outside parties. Lease residual values are reviewed at least annually for other than temporary impairment. A decline in the estimated residual value of a leased asset determined to be other than temporary would be recorded as a reduction of other operating income in the period in which the decline is identified.

H. Reserve for Credit Losses. The reserve for credit losses represents management’s estimate of probable inherent losses which have occurred as of the date of the financial statements. The loan and lease portfolio and other credit exposures are regularly reviewed to evaluate the adequacy of the reserve for credit losses. In determining the level of the reserve, Northern Trust evaluates the reserve necessary for specific nonperforming loans and also estimates losses inherent in other credit exposures. The result is a reserve with the following components:

Specific Reserve. The amount of specific reserves is determined through a loan-by-loan analysis of nonperforming loans that considers expected future cash flows, the value of collateral and other factors that may impact the borrower’s ability to pay.

Allocated Inherent Reserve. The amount of the allocated portion of the inherent loss reserve is based on loss factors assigned to Northern Trust’s credit exposures based on internal credit ratings. These loss factors are primarily based on management’s judgment of estimated credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio as well as historical charge-off experience.

Unallocated Inherent Reserve. Management determines the unallocated portion of the inherent loss reserve based on factors that cannot be associated with a specific credit or loan category. These factors include management’s subjective evaluation of local and national economic and business conditions, portfolio concentration and changes in the character and size of the loan portfolio. The unallocated portion of the reserve for credit losses reflects management’s recognition of the imprecision inherent in the process of estimating probable credit losses.

Loans, leases and other extensions of credit deemed uncollectible are charged to the reserve. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the reserve. Actual losses may vary from current estimates and the amount of the provision may be either greater than or less than actual net charge-offs. The related provision for credit losses, which is charged to income, is the amount necessary to adjust the reserve to the level determined through the above process.

Although Northern Trust analyzes its exposure to credit losses from both on- and off-balance sheet activity as one process, the portion of the reserve assigned to loans and leases is reported as a contra asset, directly following loans and leases in the consolidated balance sheet. The portion of the reserve assigned to unfunded commitments and standby letters of credit is reported in other liabilities for financial reporting purposes.

I. Standby Letters of Credit and Bankers Acceptances. Fees on standby letters of credit are recognized in other operating income on the straight-line method over the lives of the underlying agreements. Northern Trust’s recorded liability for standby letters of credit, reflecting the obligation it has undertaken, is measured as the amount of unamortized fees on these instruments. Income from commissions on bankers acceptances is recognized in other operating income when the payment from the customer is received by the accepting bank.

J. Buildings and Equipment. Buildings and equipment owned are carried at original cost less accumulated

 

PAGE 40   Northern Trust Corporation       Financial Annual Report


NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

depreciation. The charge for depreciation is computed on the straight-line method based on the following range of lives: buildings—10 to 30 years; equipment—3 to 10 years; and leasehold improvements—the shorter of the lease term or 15 years. Leased properties meeting certain criteria are capitalized and amortized using the straight-line method over the lease period.

K. Other Real Estate Owned (OREO). OREO is comprised of commercial and residential real estate properties acquired in partial or total satisfaction of problem loans. OREO assets are carried at the lower of cost or fair value. Losses identified at the time of acquisition of such properties are charged against the reserve for credit losses assigned to loans and leases. Subsequent write-downs that may be required to the carrying value of these assets and losses realized from asset sales are charged to other operating expenses.

L. Unconsolidated Affiliates. Northern Trust’s 20% interest in RemitStream Solutions, LLC (lockbox services), its interest in EquiLend LLC (securities lending services) and its 50% interest in Helaba Northern Trust GMBH (investment management services) are carried on the equity method of accounting. The combined book value of these investments at December 31, 2005 totaled $2.4 million. Northern Trust’s $4.9 million investment in CLS Group Holdings (foreign exchange settlement services) is carried at cost.

M. Intangible Assets. Separately identifiable acquired intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives, primarily on a straight-line basis. Goodwill is not subject to amortization. Purchased software and allowable internal costs, including compensation relating to software developed for internal use, are capitalized. Software is being amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset, generally ranging from 3 to 10 years.

Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment on an annual basis.

N. Assets Under Custody and Trust, Investment and Other Servicing Fees. Assets held in fiduciary or agency capacities are not included in the consolidated balance sheet, since such items are not assets of Northern Trust.

Trust, investment and other servicing fees are recorded on the accrual basis, over the period in which the service is provided. Fees are a function of the market value of assets custodied, managed and administered, the volume of transactions, securities lending volume and spreads, and fees for other services rendered, as set forth in the underlying client agreement. This revenue recognition involves the use of estimates and assumptions, including components that are calculated bas