10-K 1 f10k2019_chinarecycling.htm ANNUAL REPORT

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2019

 

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

 

Commission file number: 000-12536

 

China Recycling Energy Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada   90-0093373

(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

  (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
     

4/F, Tower C

Rong Cheng Yun Gu Building Keji 3rd Road, Yanta District

Xi An City, Shaan Xi Province

China

   710075
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

(011) 86-29-8765-1098

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class  

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value   CREG   NASDAQ Capital Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

NONE

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐   No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐   No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the past 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of the “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “non-accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

  Large Accelerated Filer Accelerated Filer
  Non-Accelerated Filer Smaller reporting company
    Emerging Growth Company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐   No ☒

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the closing sales price for the common stock of $0.42, as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market, was approximately $5,636,175.

 

As of May 14, 2020, there were 2,232,642 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

As previously reported in a Current Report on Form 8-K we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on April 17, 2020, on April 13, 2020 we filed a certificate of change (“Certificate of Change”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada, pursuant to which, on April 13, 2020, we effected a reverse stock split of our common stock, $0.001 per share at a rate of 1-for-10, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in our issued and outstanding shares of common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”).

 

Upon effectiveness of the Reverse Stock Split, every 10 outstanding shares of our common stock were, without any further action by us, or any holder thereof, combined into and automatically became 1 share of our common stock, and 100,000,000 authorized shares of our common stock became 10,000,000 authorized shares of our common stock. Any fractional shares were rounded up to one whole common share. All shares of our common stock eliminated as a result of the Reverse Stock Split have been cancelled such that they have been returned to our authorized and unissued capital stock, and our capital has been reduced by an amount equal to the par value of the common stock so retired. The Reverse Stock Split became effective for trading purposes at the market opening on April 15, 2020.

 

Unless specifically stated in this annual report on Form 10-K, all share and per share numbers in this annual report relating to our common stock prior to the effectiveness of the Reverse Stock Split have been adjusted to give effect to the Reverse Stock Split.

 

 

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I   1
Item 1. Business 1
Item 1A. Risk Factors 20
Item 2. Properties 31
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 31
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 31
     
PART II   32
Item 5. Market for Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Small Business Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 32
Item 6. Selected Financial Data 32
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 32
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 48
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data F-1
Item 9. Changes In and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 49
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 49
Item 9B. Other Information 49
     
PART III   50
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 50
Item 11. Executive Compensation 54
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters 56
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, Director Independence 57
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 57
     
PART IV   60
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules 60
Item 16. 10-K Summary 62

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PART I

 

When we use the terms “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company,” we mean China Recycling Energy Corporation, a Nevada corporation, and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd. (“Yinghua”) and Sifang Holdings Co., Ltd. (“Sifang”), and Sifang’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Huahong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Huahong”) and Shanghai TCH, Shanghai TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Company, Ltd. (“Xi’an TCH”), Xi’an TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiary Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd. (“Erdos TCH”) and Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co., Ltd (“Zhongxun”) and Xi’an TCH’s 90% and Shanghai TCH’s 10% owned subsidiary Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

General

 

We are currently engaged in the recycling energy business, providing energy savings and recycling products and services. We are a leading developer of waste energy recycling projects for industrial applications in China, and we believe we are the only developer to use a Build-Operate-Transfer (“BOT”) model to provide energy saving and recovery facilities for multiple energy intensive industries in China. Our waste energy recycling projects allow customers which use substantial amounts of electricity to recapture previously wasted pressure, heat, and gas from their manufacturing processes to generate electricity. We currently offer waste energy recycling systems to companies for use in iron and steel, nonferrous metal, cement, coal and petrochemical plants. We construct our projects at our customer’s facility and the electricity produced is used on-site by the customer. While some of our competitors offer projects targeting one or two verticals, we serve multiple verticals.

 

We develop fully customized projects across several verticals to better meet customer’s energy recovery needs. Our waste pressure-to-energy solution primarily consists of the Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (“TRT”), a system that utilizes high pressure gas emitted from the blast furnace top to drive turbine units and generate electricity. Our waste heat-to-energy solution primarily consists of heat power generation projects for applications in cement, steel, coking coal, and nonferrous metal industries, which collect the residual heat from various manufacturing processes, e.g. the entrance and exit ends of the cement rotary kilns, to generate electricity. Our waste gas-to-energy solution primarily consists of the Waste Gas Power Generation system (“WGPG”) and the Combined Cycle Power Plant (the “CCPP”). A WGPG system utilizes flammable waste gas from coal mining, petroleum exploitation, refinery processing or other sources as a fuel source to generate electricity through the use of a gas turbine. A CCPP system employs more than one power generating cycle to utilize the waste gas, which not only generates electricity by burning the flammable waste gas in a gas turbine (as a WGPG) but also uses the waste heat from burning the gas to make steam to generate additional electricity via a steam turbine.

 

We provide a clean-technology and energy-efficient solution aimed at reducing the air pollution and energy shortage problems in China. Our projects capture industrial waste energy to produce low-cost electricity, enabling industrial manufacturers to reduce their energy costs, lower their operating costs, and extend the life of primary manufacturing equipment. In addition, our waste energy recycling projects allow our industrial customers to reduce their reliance on China’s centralized national power grid, which is prone to black-outs or brown-outs or is completely inaccessible from certain remote areas. Our projects generally produce lower carbon dioxide emissions and other pollutants, and are hence more environmentally friendly than other forms of power generation.

 

Since 2007, we have primarily used the BOT model to serve our customers. For each project, we design, finance, construct and install the waste energy recycling projects for our customers, operate the projects for five to 20 years, and then transfer the projects to the owners. The BOT model creates a win-win solution for both our customers and us. We provide the capital expenditure financing in exchange for attractive returns on each project; our customers can focus their capital resources on their core businesses, do not need to invest additional capitals to comply with government environmental regulations, reduce noise and emissions and reduce their energy costs. We in turn efficiently recapture our costs through the stream of lease payments.

 

1

 

 

On September 9, 2019, we entered into a letter of intent to acquire a controlling interest in Xi’an Yineng Zhihui Technology Co., Ltd. (“YNZH”), a next generation energy storage solution provider in China.  YNZH is a leading comprehensive high-tech intelligent energy service company integrated with energy efficiency improvement and storage management in China. The energy efficiency management is to fully use big data cloud computing technology, effectively adopt the combination of the mature international and domestic clean energy technologies to make the customers’ energy management more efficient, more economical, more secure and more scientific. The terms of this proposed transaction are currently being negotiated.

 

We are headquartered in China. Our principal executive offices are located at 4/F, Tower C, Rong Cheng Yun Gu Building, Keji 3rd Road, Yanta District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, China, and our telephone number at this location is +86-29-8765-1098.

 

Company Overview and History

 

The Company was incorporated on May 8, 1980 as Boulder Brewing Company under the laws of the State of Colorado. On September 6, 2001, the Company changed its state of incorporation to the State of Nevada. In 2004, the Company changed its name from Boulder Brewing Company to China Digital Wireless, Inc. and on March 8, 2007, again changed its name from China Digital Wireless, Inc. to its current name, China Recycling Energy Corporation. The Company, through its subsidiaries, provides energy saving solutions and services, including selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers, project investment, investment management, economic information consulting, technical services, financial leasing, purchase of financial leasing assets, disposal and repair of financial leasing assets, consulting and ensuring of financial leasing transactions in the Peoples Republic of China (“PRC”).

 

Our business is primarily conducted through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Yinghua and Sifeng, Sifeng’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Huahong and Shanghai TCH, Shanghai TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiary Erdos TCH and Xi’an TCH’s 90% owned and Shanghai TCH’s 10% owned subsidiary Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., and Zhongxun. Shanghai TCH was established as a foreign investment enterprise in Shanghai under the laws of the PRC on May 25, 2004, and currently has registered capital of $29.80 million. Xi’an TCH was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province under the laws of the PRC in November 2007. Erdos TCH was incorporated in April 2009. Huahong was incorporated in February 2009. Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. was incorporated in July 2013. Xi’an TCH owns 90% and Shanghai TCH owns 10% of Zhonghong. Zhonghong provides energy saving solutions and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. Zhongxun was incorporated in March 2014 and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Xi’an TCH.

 

The Company is in the process of transforming and expanding into an energy storage integrated solution provider. We plan to pursue disciplined and targeted expansion strategies for market areas we currently do not serve. We actively seek and explore opportunities to apply energy storage technologies to new industries or segments with high growth potential, including industrial and commercial complexes, large scale photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, remote islands without electricity, and smart energy cities with multi-energy supplies. By supporting and motivating all kinds of the electric power market to participate in resource development and utilization of demand response, we plan to provide services including peak shaving with compensation and frequency modulation. We intend to gradually form motor load performance for peak and low-hours, which will account for about 3% of the annual maximum power load on the demand side and to ensure the electricity supply and demand balance for situations of non-severe power shortages.

 

Our Projects

 

We design, finance, construct, operate and eventually transfer waste energy recycling projects to meet the energy saving and recovery needs of our customers. Our waste energy recycling projects use the pressure, heat or gas, which is generated as a byproduct of a variety of industrial processes, to create electricity. The residual energy from industrial processes, which was traditionally wasted, may be captured in a recovery process and utilized by our waste energy recycling projects to generate electricity burning additional fuel and additional emissions. Among a wide variety of waste-to-energy technologies and solutions, we primarily focus on waste pressure to energy systems, waste heat to energy systems and waste gas power generation systems. We do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of our waste energy recycling projects. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated onsite project for our customers.

 

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Waste Pressure to Energy Systems

 

TRT is a power generating system utilizing the exhaust pressure and heat from industrial processes in the iron, steel, petrochemical, chemical and non-ferrous metals industries, often from blast furnace gases in the metal production industries. Without TRT power systems, blast furnace gas is treated by various de-pressurizing valves to decrease its pressure and temperature before the gas is transmitted to end users. No electricity is generated during the process and noise and heat pollution is released. In a TRT system, the blast furnace gas produced during the smelting process is directed through the system to decrease its pressure and temperature. The released pressure and heat is then utilized to drive the turbine unit to generate electricity, which is then transmitted back to the producer. We believe our projects are superior to those of our competitors due to the inclusion of advanced dry-type de-dusting technology, joined turbine systems, and automatic power grid synchronization.

 

Waste Heat to Energy Systems

 

Waste heat to energy systems utilize waste heat generated in industrial production to generate electricity. The waste heat is trapped to heat a boiler to create steam and power a steam turbine. Our waste heat to energy systems have used waste heat from cement production and from metal production. We invested in and have built two cement low temperature heat power generation systems. These projects can use about 35% of the waste heat generated by the cement kiln and generate up to 50% of the electricity needed to operate the cement plant.

 

Waste Gas to Energy Systems

 

Our Waste Gas to Energy Systems primarily include Waste Gas Power Generation (“WGPG”) systems and Combined Cycle Power Plant (“CCPP”) systems. WGPG uses the flammable waste gases emitted from industrial production processes such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, and oil gas, to power gas-fired generators to create energy. A CCPP system employs more than one power generating cycle to utilize the waste gas, which is more efficient because it not only generates electricity by burning the flammable waste gas in a gas-fired generator (WGPG) but also uses the waste heat from burning the gas to make steam to generate additional electricity via a steam generator (CCPP).

 

Shanghai TCH and its Subsidiaries

 

Shanghai TCH was established as a foreign investment enterprise in Shanghai under the laws of the PRC on May 25, 2004 and has a registered capital of $29.80 million. Xi’an TCH was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province under the laws of the PRC on November 8, 2007. In February 2009, Huahong was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi province. Erdos TCH was incorporated in April 2009 in Erdos, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd (“Zhonghong”). Xi’an TCH owns 90% and Shanghai TCH owns 10% of Zhonghong, which provides energy saving solutions and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers.

 

As of December 31, 2019, Shanghai TCH, through its subsidiaries, had sales or sales-type leases with the following parties: (i) Pucheng (for two biomass power generation (“BMPG”) systems). In addition, as of December 31, 2019, Erdos TCH leased power and steam generating systems from waste heat from metal refining to Erdos (a total of five systems) and charges Erdos a leasing fee based on actual electricity generated.

  

3

 

 

Erdos TCH – Joint Venture

 

On April 14, 2009, the Company formed Erdos TCH as a joint venture (the “JV” or “Erdos TCH”) with Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd. (“Erdos”) to recycle waste heat from Erdos’ metal refining plants to generate power and steam to be sold back to Erdos. The JV has a term of 20 years with a total investment for the project estimated at $79 million (RMB 500 million) and an initial investment of $17.55 million (RMB 120 million). Erdos contributed 7% of the total investment for the project, and Xi’an TCH contributed 93%. According to Xi’an TCH and Erdos’ agreement on profit distribution, Xi’an TCH and Erdos will receive 80% and 20%, respectively, of the profit from the JV until Xi’an TCH receives the complete return of its investment. Xi’an TCH and Erdos will then receive 60% and 40%, respectively, of the profit from the JV. On June 15, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Erdos entered into a share transfer agreement, pursuant to which Erdos transferred and sold its 7% ownership interest in the JV to Xi’an TCH for $1.29 million (RMB 8 million), plus certain accumulated profits as described below. Xi’an TCH paid the $1.29 million in July 2013 and, as a result, became the sole stockholder of Erdos TCH. In addition, Xi’an TCH is required to pay Erdos accumulated profits from inception up to June 30, 2013 in accordance with the supplementary agreement entered on August 6, 2013. In August 2013, Xi’an TCH paid 20% of the accumulated profit (calculated under PRC GAAP) of $226,000 to Erdos. Erdos TCH currently has two power generation systems in Phase I with a total of 18 MW power capacity, and three power generation systems in Phase II with a total of 27 MW power capacity.

 

With the current economic conditions in China, the government has limited and reduced over capacity and production in the iron and steel industry, which has resulted in a sharp decrease of Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd’s production of ferrosilicon, its revenue and cash flows, and has made it difficult for Erdos to make the monthly minimum lease payment.

 

After considering the challenging economic conditions facing Erdos, and to maintain the long-term cooperative relationship between the parties, which we believe will continue to produce long-term benefits, on April 28, 2016, Erdos TCH and Erdos entered into a supplemental agreement, effective May 1, 2016. Under the supplemental agreement, Erdos TCH cancelled monthly minimum lease payments from Erdos, and agreed to charge Erdos based on actual electricity sold at RMB 0.30 / KWH, which such price will be adjusted annually based on prevailing market conditions.

 

The Company evaluated the modified terms for payments based on actual electricity sold as minimum lease payments as defined in ASC 840-10-25-4, since lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. The Company wrote off the net investment receivables of these leases at the lease modification date.

 

Pucheng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On June 29, 2010, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation (“BMPG”) Project Lease Agreement with PuchengXinHeng Yuan Biomass Power Generation Co., Ltd. (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. Under this lease agreement, Xi’an TCH leased a set of 12MW BMPG systems to Pucheng at a minimum of $279,400 (RMB 1,900,000) per month for a term of 15 years. (“Pucheng Phase I”).

 

On September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a BMPG Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Pucheng Transfer Agreement”) with Pucheng Xin Heng Yuan Biomass Power Generation Corporation (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. The Pucheng Transfer Agreement provided for the sale by Pucheng to Xi’an TCH of a set of 12 MW BMPG systems with the completion of system transformation for a purchase price of RMB 100 million ($16.48 million) in the form of 8,766,547 shares of common stock of the Company at $1.87 per share (the share and per share numbers were not adjusted for the Reverse Stock Split). Also on September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH also entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng (the “Pucheng Lease”). Under the Pucheng Lease, Xi’an TCH leases this same set of 12 MW BMPG system to Pucheng, and combines this lease with the lease for the 12 MW BMPG station of Pucheng Phase I project, under a single lease to Pucheng for RMB 3.8 million ($0.63 million) per month (the “Pucheng Phase II Project”). The term for the consolidated lease is from September 2013 to June 2025. The lease agreement for the 12 MW station from Pucheng Phase I project terminated upon the effective date of the Pucheng Lease. The ownership of two 12 MW BMPG systems will transfer to Pucheng at no additional charge when the Pucheng Lease expires.

 

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Shenqiu Yuneng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On May 25, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Letter of Intent with Shenqiu YuNeng Thermal Power Co., Ltd. (“Shenqiu”) to reconstruct and transform a Thermal Power Generation System owned by Shenqiu into a 75T/H BMPG System for $3.57 million (RMB 22.5 million). The project commenced in June 2011 and was completed in the third quarter of 2011. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation Asset Transfer Agreement with Shenqiu (the “Shenqiu Transfer Agreement”). Pursuant to the Shenqiu Transfer Agreement, Shenqiu sold Xi’an TCH a set of 12 MW BMPG systems (after Xi’an TCH converted the system for BMPG purposes). As consideration for the BMPG systems, Xi’an TCH paid Shenqiu $10.94 million (RMB 70 million) in cash in three installments within six months upon the transfer of ownership of the systems. By the end of 2012, all the consideration was paid. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu also entered into a Biomass Power Generation Project Lease Agreement (the “2011 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease a set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu at a monthly rental rate of $286,000 (RMB 1.8 million) for 11 years. Upon expiration of the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost. In connection with the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Shenqiu paid one month’s rent as a security deposit to Xi’an TCH, in addition to providing personal guarantees.

 

On October 8, 2012, Xi’an TCH entered into a Letter of Intent for technical reformation of Shenqiu Project Phase II with Shenqiu for technical reformation to enlarge the capacity of the Shenqiu Project Phase I (the “Shenqiu Phase II Project”). The technical reformation involved the construction of another 12 MW BMPG system. After the reformation, the generation capacity of the power plant increased to 24 MW. The project commenced on October 25, 2012 and was completed during the first quarter of 2013. The total cost of the project was $11.1 million (RMB 68 million). On March 30, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement (the “2013 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2013 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease the second set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu for $239,000 (RMB 1.5 million) per month for 9.5 years. When the 2013 Shenqiu Lease expires, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost.

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai, a resident of China, entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred two Biomass Power Generation Projects in Shenqiu (“Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”) to Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF”) as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREE as consideration for the transfer of the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects (See Note 10). The transfer was completed on February 15, 2019.

 

Yida Coke Oven Gas Power Generation Projects

 

On June 28, 2014, Xi’an TCH entered into an Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Transfer Agreement”) with Qitaihe City Boli Yida Coal Selection Co., Ltd. (“Yida”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. The Transfer Agreement provided for the sale to Xi’an TCH of a 15 MW coke oven WGPG station, which was converted from a 15 MW coal gangue power generation station from Yida. As consideration for the Transfer Asset, Xi’an TCH paid Yida RMB 115 million ($18.69 million) in the form of the common stock shares of the Company at the average closing price per share of the Stock for the 10 trading days prior to the closing date of the transaction. The exchange rate between US Dollar and Chinese RMB in connection with the stock issuance was the rate equal to the middle rate published by the People’s Bank of China on the closing date of the assets transfer.

 

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On June 28, 2014, Xi’an TCH also entered into a Coke Oven Gas Power Generation Project Lease Agreement (the “Lease Agreement”) with Yida. Under the Lease Agreement, Xi’an TCH leased the Transfer Asset to Yida for RMB 3 million ($0.49 million) per month, and the term of the lease is from June 28, 2014 to June 27, 2029. Yida will also provide an RMB 3 million ($0.49 million) security deposit (without interest) for the lease. Xi’an TCH will transfer the Transfer Asset back to Yida at no cost at the end of the lease term.

 

On June 22, 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Coal Oven Gas Power Generation Project Repurchase Agreement (the “Repurchase Agreement”) with Yida. Under the Repurchase Agreement, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Yida all the project assets for RMB 112,000,000 ($16.89 million) (the “Transfer Price”) with Yida’s retention of ownership of the Shares. Yida agreed to make the following payments: (i) the outstanding monthly leasing fees for April and May 2016 of RMB 6,000,000 ($0.90 million) to Xi’an TCH within 5 business days from the execution of the Repurchase Agreement; (ii) a payment of RMB 50,000,000 ($7.54 million) of the Transfer Price to Xi’an TCH within 5 business days from the execution of the Repurchase Agreement; and (iii) a payment of the remaining RMB 62,000,000 ($9.35 million) of the Transfer Price to Xi’an TCH within 15 business days from the execution of the Repurchase Agreement. Under the Repurchase Agreement, ownership of the project assets was transferred from Xi’an TCH to Yida within 3 business days after Xi’an TCH received the full Transfer Price and the outstanding monthly leasing fees. In July 2016, the Company received the full payment of the Transfer Price and title to the system was transferred at that time. The Company recorded a $0.42 million loss from this transaction in 2016.

  

The Fund Management Company and the HYREF Fund

 

On June 25, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd (“Hongyuan Huifu”) jointly established Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Beijing Co., Ltd (the “Fund Management Company”) with registered capital of RMB 10 million ($1.45 million). Xi’an TCH made an initial capital contribution of RMB 4 million ($650,000) and has a 40% ownership interest in the Fund Management Company. With respect to the Fund Management Company, voting rights and dividend rights are allocated 80% and 20% between Hongyuan Huifu and Xi’an TCH, respectively.

 

The Fund Management Company is the general partner of Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF Fund”), a limited liability partnership established July 18, 2013 in Beijing. The Fund Management Company made an initial capital contribution of RMB 5 million ($830,000) to the HYREF Fund. An initial amount of RMB 460 million ($77 million) was fully subscribed by all partners for the HYREF Fund. The HYREF Fund has three limited partners: (1) China Orient Asset Management Co., Ltd., which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 280 million ($46.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a preferred limited partner; (2) Hongyuan Huifu, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 100 million ($16.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is an ordinary limited partner; and (3) the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 75 million ($12.5 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a secondary limited partner. The term of the HYREF Fund’s partnership is six years from the date of its establishment, expiring on July 18, 2019. The term is four years from the date of contribution for the preferred limited partner, and four years from the date of contribution for the ordinary limited partner. The size of the HYREF Fund is RMB 460 million ($76.66 million). The HYREF Fund was formed for the purpose of investing in Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., a then 90% owned subsidiary of Xi’an TCH, for the construction of two coke dry quenching (“CDQ”) waste heat power generation (“WHPG”) stations with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”) and one CDQ WHPG station with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”).

 

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Chengli Waste Heat Power Generation Projects

 

On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed a new company, “Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.” (“Zhonghong”), with registered capital of RMB 30 million ($4.85 million). Xi’an TCH paid RMB 27 million ($4.37 million) and owns 90% of Zhonghong. Zhonghong is engaged to provide energy saving solution and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF agreed to transfer its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH for consideration of RMB 3 million ($0.44 million). The transfer was completed on January 22, 2019.

 

On July 24, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”). The parties entered into a supplement agreement on July 26, 2013. Pursuant to these agreements, Zhonghong agreed to design, build and maintain a 25 MW CDQ system and a CDQ WHPG system to supply power to Chengli, and Chengli agreed to pay energy saving fees (the “Chengli Project”). Chengli will contract the operation of the system to a third party contractor that is mutually agreed to by Zhonghong. In addition, Chengli will provide the land for the CDQ system and CDQ WHPG system at no cost to Zhonghong. The term of these Agreements is 20 years. The watt hours generated by the Chengli Project will be charged at RMB 0.42 ($0.068) per KWH (excluding tax). The operating time shall be based upon an average 8,000 hours annually. If the operating time is less than 8,000 hours per year due to a reason attributable to Chengli, then time charged shall be 8,000 hours a year, and if it is less than 8,000 hours due to a reason attributable to Zhonghong, then it shall be charged at actual operating hours. The construction of the Chengli Project was completed in the second quarter of 2015 and the project successfully completed commissioning tests in the first quarter of 2017. The Chengli Project is now operational, however, due to intensifying environmental protection, the local environmental authorities required the project owner constructing CDQ sewage treatment to complete supporting works, which were completed and passed through acceptance inspection during the quarter ended September 30, 2018. However, the owner of Chengli Project changed from Chengli to Shandong Boxing Shengli Technology Company Ltd. (“Shengli”). This change resulted from transfer of the equity ownership of Chengli to Shengli (a private company). Chengli, a 100% state-owned enterprise that is 100% owned by the local Power Supply Bureau, is not allowed to carry out the tertiary industry, and Shengli, the new owner, is not entitled to the high on-grid prices, and thus demanded a renegotiation of the settlement terms for the project. At present, the Company is negotiating with the new project owner on the lease term, settlement method and settlement price, but no agreement has been reached.

  

On July 22, 2013, Zhonghong entered into an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) General Contractor Agreement for the Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. CDQ Power Generation Project (the “Chengli Project”) with Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”). Zhonghong, as the owner of the Chengli Project, contracted EPC services for a CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system for Chengli to Huaxin. Huaxin shall provide construction, equipment procurement, transportation, installation and adjustment, test run, construction engineering management and other necessary services to complete the Chengli Project and ensure the CDQ system and CDQ WHPG system for Chengli meet the inspection and acceptance requirements and work normally. The Chengli Project is a turn-key project in which Huaxin is responsible for monitoring the quality, safety, duration and cost of the Chengli Project. The total contract price is RMB 200 million ($33.34 million), which includes all materials, equipment, labor, transportation, electricity, water, waste disposal, machinery and safety costs.

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, the “HYREF”, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong will transfer Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment of loan at RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the CDQ WHPG Station when conditions under the Buy Back Agreement are met (see Note 10). The transfer was completed on January 22, 2019.

 

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Tianyu Waste Heat Power Generation Project

 

On July 19, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement (the “Tianyu Agreement”) for Energy Management of CDQ and CDQ WHPG with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd (“Tianyu”). Pursuant to the Tianyu Agreement, Zhonghong will design, build, operate and maintain two sets of 25 MW CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for two subsidiaries of Tianyu – Xuzhou Tian’an Chemical Co., Ltd (“Xuzhou Tian’an”) and Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu”) – to be located at Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu’s respective locations (the “Tianyu Project”). Upon completion of the Tianyu Project, Zhonghong will charge Tianyu an energy saving fee of RMB 0.534 ($0.087) per KWH (excluding tax). The operating time will be based upon an average 8,000 hours annually for each of Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu. If the operating time is less than 8,000 hours per year due to a reason attributable to Tianyu, then time charged will be 8,000 hours a year. Because of the overcapacity and pollution of the iron and steel and related industries, the government has imposed production limitations for the energy-intensive enterprises with heavy pollution, including Xuzhou Tian’an. Xuzhou Tian’an has slowed the construction process for its dry quenching production line which caused the delay of our project. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project is anticipated to be completed by the second quarter of 2019. Xuzhou Tian’an will provide the land for the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for free. Xuzhou Tian’an has also guaranteed that it will purchase all of the power generated by the CDQ WHPG systems. The Xuzhou Huayu Project is currently on hold due to a conflict between Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. and local residents on certain pollution-related issues. The local government has acted in its capacity to coordinate the resolution of this issue. The local residents were requested to move from the hygienic buffer zone of the project location with compensatory payments from the government. Xuzhou Huayu was required to stop production and implement technical innovations to mitigate pollution discharge including sewage treatment, dust collection, noise control, and recycling of coal gas. Currently, some local residents have moved. Xuzhou Huayu has completed the implementation of the technical innovations of sewage treatment, dust collection, and noise control, and the Company is waiting for local governmental agencies to approve these technical innovations so that we can resume construction. Due to the stricter administration of environmental protection policies and recent increase of environmental protections for the coking industry in Xuzhou, all local coking, as well as steel iron enterprises, are facing a similar situation of suspended production while rectifying technologies and procedures. The Company expects to receive governmental acceptance and approval and to resume construction in the second quarter of 2019.

 

On July 22, 2013, Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. entered into an EPC General Contractor Agreement for the Xuzhou Tianyu Group CDQ Power Generation Project (the “Project”) with Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”). Zhonghong as the owner of the Project contracted EPC for the two sets of CDQ and 25 MW CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu to Huaxin —one for Xuzhou Tian’an and one for Xuzhou Huayu. Huaxin shall provide construction, equipment procurement, transportation, installation and adjustment, test run, construction engineering management and other necessary works to complete the Project and ensure the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu meet the inspection and acceptance requirements and work normally. The Project is a turn- key project and Huaxin is responsible for the quality, safety, duration and cost of the Project. The total contract price is RMB 400 million ($66.67 million), of which RMB 200 million ($33.34 million) is for the Xuzhou Tian’an system and RMB 200 million is for the Xuzhou Huayu system. The price is a cover-all price, which includes but not limited to all the materials, equipment, labor, transportation, electricity, water, waste disposal, machinery and safety matters.

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai, entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong will transfer a CDQ WHPG station (under construction) located in Xuzhou City for Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu Project”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to the “HYREF” as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project). The transfer was completed on February 15, 2019.

 

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Zhongtai Waste Heat Power Generation Energy Management Cooperative Agreement

 

On December 6, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a CDQ and WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement (the “Zhongtai Agreement”) with Xuzhou Zhongtai Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zhongtai”), a limited liability company incorporated in Jiangsu Province, China.

 

Pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement, Xi’an TCH will design, build and maintain a 150 ton per hour CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system (the “Project”) and sell the power to Zhongtai, and Xi’an TCH will also build a furnace to generate steam from the waste heat of the smoke pipeline and sell the steam to Zhongtai.

 

The construction period of the Project is expected to be 18 months from the date when conditions are ready for construction to begin. Zhongtai will start to pay an energy saving fee from the date when the WHPG station passes the required 72-hour test run. The term of payment is 20 years. For the first 10 years of the term, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.534 ($0.089) per KWH (including value added tax) for the power generated from the system. For the second 10 years of the term, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.402 ($0.067) per KWH (including value added tax). During the term of the contract the energy saving fee shall be adjusted at the same percentage as the change of local grid electricity price. Zhongtai shall also pay an energy saving service fee for the steam supplied by Xi’an TCH at RMB 100 ($16.67) per ton (including value added tax). Zhongtai and its parent company will provide guarantees to ensure Zhongtai will fulfill its obligations under the Agreement. Upon the completion of the term, Xi’an TCH will transfer the systems to Zhongtai at RMB 1 ($0.16). Zhongtai shall provide waste heat to the systems for no less than 8,000 hours per year and waste gas volume no less than 150,000 Nm3 per hour with a temperature no less than 950°C. If these requirements are not met, the term of the Zhongtai Agreement will be extended accordingly. If Zhongtai wants to terminate the Zhongtai Agreement early, it shall provide Xi’an TCH a 60 day notice and pay the termination fee and compensation for the damages to Xi’an TCH according to the following formula: (i) if it is less than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount plus Xi’an TCH’s annual investment return times five years minus the years in which the system has already operated; or (ii) if it is more than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests the termination, Zhongtai shall pay Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount minus total amortization cost (the amortization period is 10 years).

 

On March 14, 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Xuzhou Zhongtai CDQ and Waste Heat Power Generation System Transfer Agreement (the “Transfer Agreement”) with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated in China (the “Contractor”).

  

The Transfer Agreement provides for the sale to Zhongtai of all the assets of the Project under construction from Xi’an TCH. Additionally, Xi’an TCH will transfer to Zhongtai the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) Contract for the Project, which Xi’an TCH had entered into with the Contractor in connection with the Project. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Zhongtai is to pay to Xi’an TCH an aggregate purchase price of RMB 167,360,000 ($25.75 million and the “Transfer Price”), on the following schedule: (i) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.69 million) of the Transfer Price was paid within 20 business days from the execution of the Transfer Agreement; (ii) RMB 30,000,000 ($4.32 million) of the Transfer Price was paid within 20 business days upon the completion of the construction of the Project but not later than July 30, 2016; and (iii) RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) of the Transfer Price was to be paid before July 30, 2017. The temporary ownership of the Project was transferred from Xi’an TCH to Zhongtai after the Xi’an TCH received the first payment of RMB 50,000,000, and the full ownership of the Project is to be officially transferred to Zhongtai upon full payment of the Transfer Price. The Zhongtai Agreement is to be terminated and Xi’an TCH will agree not to pursue any breach of contract liability against the Zhongtai under the Zhongtai Agreement when Zhongtai fully pays the Transfer Price according to the terms of the Transfer Agreement. If the Transfer Price is not fully paid on time pursuant to the Transfer Agreement, the Transfer Agreement automatically terminates and Xi’an TCH retains ownership of the Project, and both parties would continue to possess their respective rights and obligations according to the Zhongtai Agreement and assume the liabilities for breach of the Zhongtai Agreement. Xuzhou Taifa Special Steel Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Taifa”) has guaranteed the payments by Zhongtai. The Company recorded a $2.82 million loss from this transaction in 2016. In 2016, Xi’an TCH received the first payment of $7.70 million and the second payment of $4.32 million. However, the Company received a repayment commitment letter from Zhongtai on February 23, 2018, in which Zhongtai committed to pay the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) no later than the end of July 2018; in July 2018, Zhongtai and the Company reached a further oral agreement to extend the repayment term of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) by another two to three months. In August 2018, the Company received $1,070,000 from Zhongtai; as of December 31, 2018, the Company had receivables from Zhongtai for $11.66 million (with bad debt allowance of $3.50 million). On January 23, 2019, Zhongtai provided an acknowledgement letter to the Company stating they expect to repay the remaining balance of $11.66 million by the end of 2019 once they resume normal production.

 

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Formation of Zhongxun

 

On March 24, 2014, Xi’an TCH incorporated a new subsidiary, Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co., Ltd (“Zhongxun”) with registered capital of $5,695,502 (RMB 35,000,000), to be paid no later than October 1, 2028. Zhongxun is 100% owned by Xi’an TCH and is mainly engaged in project investment, investment management, economic information consulting, and technical services. Zhongxun has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this report.

 

Formation of Yinghua

 

On February 11, 2015, the Company incorporated a new subsidiary, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd (“Yinghua”) with registered capital of $30,000,000, to be paid within 10 years from the date the business license is issued. Yinghua is 100% owned by the Company and is mainly engaged in financial leasing, purchase of financial leasing assets, disposal and repair of financial leasing assets, consulting and ensuring of financial leasing transactions, and related factoring business. Yinghua has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this report.

 

Summary of Sales-Type Lease at December 31, 2019 Status at December 31, 2019

 

As of December 31, 2019, Xi’an TCH had the following sales-type leases: BMPG systems to Pucheng Phase I and II (15 and 11-year terms, respectively). On February 15, 2019, Xi’an TCH transferred the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects to Mr. Chonggong Bai.

 

Asset Repurchase Agreement

 

During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company entered into or completed the following Asset Repurchase Agreements:

 

On November 16, 2015, Xi’an TCH entered into a Transfer Agreement of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system with Rongfeng and Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated in China (“Xi’an Huaxin”). The Transfer Agreement provided for the sale to Rongfeng of the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project (the “Project”) from Xi’an TCH. Additionally, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Rongfeng the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) Contract for the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project which Xi’an TCH had entered into with Xi’an Huaxin in connection with the Project. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Rongfeng will pay to Xi’an TCH an aggregate purchase price of RMB 165,200,000 ($25.45 million), whereby (a) RMB 65,200,000 ($10.05 million) will be paid by Rongfeng to Xi’an TCH within 20 business days after the Transfer Agreement is signed, (b) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) will be paid by Rongfeng to Xi’an TCH within 20 business days after the Project is completed, but no later than March 31, 2016 and (c) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) will be paid by Rongfeng to Xi’an TCH no later than September 30, 2016. Mr. Cheng Li, the largest stockholder of Rongfeng, has personally guaranteed the payments. The ownership of the Project was conditionally transferred to Rongfeng within 3 business days following the initial payment of RMB 65,200,000 ($10.05 million) by Rongfeng to Xi’an TCH and the full ownership of the Project has been officially transferred to Rongfeng after it completes the entire payment pursuant to the Transfer Agreement. The Company recorded a $3.78 million loss from this transaction in 2015. The Company received full payment of $25.45 million in 2016.

 

In March 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Transfer Agreement of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin (the “Transfer Agreement”). Under the Transfer Agreement, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Zhongtai all of the assets associated with the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project (the “Project”), which is under construction pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement. Xi’an Huaxin will continue to construct and complete the Project and Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer all its rights and obligation under the “EPC” Contract to Zhongtai. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Zhongtai agreed to pay to Xi’an TCH an aggregate transfer price of RMB 167,360,000 ($25.77 million) including payments of: (i) RMB 152,360,000 ($23.46 million) for the construction of the Project; and (ii) RMB 15,000,000 ($2.31 million) as payment for partial loan interest accrued during the construction period. Those amounts have been, or will be, paid by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH according to the following schedule: (a) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) was paid within 20 business days after the Transfer Agreement was signed; (b) RMB 30,000,000 ($4.32 million) will be paid within 20 business days after the Project is completed, but no later than July 30, 2016; and (c) RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) will be paid no later than July 30, 2017. Xuzhou Taifa Special Steel Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Taifa”) has guaranteed the payments from Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH. The ownership of the Project was conditionally transferred to Zhongtai following the initial payment of RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH and the full ownership of the Project will be officially transferred to Zhongtai after it completes all payments pursuant to the Transfer Agreement. Xi’an TCH received the first payment of $7.70 million and the second payment of $4.32 million in 2016. The Company recorded a $2.82 million loss from this transaction. As of the date of this report, the Company has not yet received the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million). However, the Company received a repayment commitment letter from Zhongtai on February 23, 2018, in which Zhongtai committed to pay the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) no later than the end of July 2018. In July 2018, Zhongtai and the Company reached a further oral agreement to extend the repayment term of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) by another two to three months. In August 2018, the Company received $1,070,000 from Zhongtai. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had receivables from Zhongtai for $11.66 million (with bad debt allowance of $3.50 million). On January 23, 2019, Zhongtai provided an acknowledgement letter to the Company stating they expect to repay the remaining balance of $11.66 million by the end of 2019 once they resume normal production.

 

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Industry and Market Overview

 

Overview of Waste-to-Energy Industry

 

The waste energy recycling industry concentrates mostly on power-intensive manufacturing and production processes, such as iron, steel and nonferrous metal production, cement production, and coal and petrochemical plants. Our waste energy recycling projects allow customers to recapture previously wasted pressure, heat, and gas from their manufacturing and production processes and use this waste to generate electricity. Waste energy recycling projects are installed at a customer’s facility and the electricity produced can be used on-site to lower energy costs and create a more efficient production process. The industry verticals at the vanguard of this trend are metallurgical production (including iron & steel), cement, coal mining, coke production and petrochemicals.

 

The industry also includes the conversion of biomass to electricity. For thousands of years, biomass, biological material derived from living organisms like plants and their byproducts, was burned to produce heat so as to convert it to energy. A number of non- combustion methods are now available to convert raw biomass into a variety of gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels that can be used directly in a power plant to generate electricity.

 

Waste-to-Energy Industry Growth

 

China has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization in recent years, increasing the demand for electricity. In the PRC, growth in energy consumption has exceeded growth in gross domestic product, causing a shortage of electricity with blackouts and brownouts over much of the country. Much of the energy demand has been due to the expansion of energy intensive industrial sectors such as steel, cement, and chemicals. China’s increasing modernization and industrialization has made it the world’s largest consumer of energy.

 

One result of this massive increase in electric generation capacity has been the rise of harmful emissions. China has surpassed the United States to become the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the country faces enormous challenges from the pollution brought about by its consumption of conventional energy. On September 12, 2013, the State Council has released the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control. The action plan has proposed that in five years, China will witness the overall improvement of air quality and dramatic drop of seriously polluted days. China will strive to gradually eliminate the seriously polluted weather and notably better the national air quality in another five years or longer.

 

Description of WGPG (Waste Gas Power Generation)

 

During the process of industrial production, some by-products, such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, oil gas, and others are created with certain high intensive thermal energy. The waste gas can be collected and used as a fuel by gas turbine system to generate power energy.

 

Gas turbines are a set of hi-tech equipment and devices that is crucial to the energy development strategy of China. Gas turbine, which uses flammable gas as fuel and combines with recycling power generating technology, has many merits. These include high efficiency power generation, low investment, short construction periods, small land usage, water savings, environment protection and more. We believe the market prospect of the gas turbine industry is promising.

 

Through years of research, development and experimental applications, this gas-to-energy system has started to be applied into some high energy intensive industrial plants, such as in the course of iron-smelting in metallurgy plants. Metallurgical enterprises, as the biggest industrial energy user in China, consume 13%-15% of the nation’s electricity. Electricity consumed by the iron-smelting industry accounts for 40% of that consumed by metallurgical enterprises. If all top furnaces in the iron-smelting industry are equipped with gas recovery systems, electricity consumption may decrease by 30-45%. Furthermore, environmental pollution will be reduced while energy efficiency is improved in those heavy industries.

 

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Stringent Environmental Standards and Increasing Government Supports

 

Since energy is a major strategic issue affecting the development of the Chinese economy, the Chinese government has promoted the development of recycling and encouraged enterprises to use waste energy recycling projects of the type we sell and service. Similar to previous five year periods, the China National Environment Protection Plan, for the 13th five year period (2016-2020), is focused on high energy consumption industries, including specific programs to support the building of waste energy recycling projects for application in iron, steel and nonferrous metal plants and in cement production lines. Given the worsening environment and insufficient energy supply in China, the Chinese government has implemented policies to curb pollution and reduce wasteful energy usage. The Renewable Energy Law, strict administrative measures to restrict investment and force consolidation in energy wasting industries, and the requirement to install energy-saving and environment protecting equipment whenever possible are just some ways the government is emphasizing the need to reduce emissions and to maximize energy creation. Local government officials, who sometimes flout central government policies for the sake of local GDP growth, are now required to tie emission, energy usage and pollution to GDP growth. If local emissions of pollutants grow faster than the local GDP, these local officials face the risk of losing their jobs. Such determination and strict enforcement by the central and local governments provide a good backdrop and growth opportunity for CREG’s business activities.

 

The following tables show the funds invested, or expected to be invested, in the environmental protection industry by the Chinese government.

 

 

  

 

 

Source: China National Environmental Protection Plan in the 13th Five Year Plan (2016-2020).

 

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In recent years, China attaches great importance to the problem of environmental pollution, and has invested a lot of manpower and capital cost in air pollution control. It is estimated that in 2020, the total output value of China’s environmental protection industry will reach nearly RMB 10 trillion.

  

 

 

The 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) covers a crucial period in China’s economic and social development. Environmental protection and low-carbon development will be one of the top priority considerations during this period. The government, private enterprises and the public sector will seek to jointly implement the strictest environmental protection system to realize environmental improvement, control carbon emissions, honor climate commitments and deeply participate into global climate governance. China aims to hit the CO2 emissions peak by around 2030 and reduce CO2 emissions per unit of the GDP by 60 percent to 65 percent from the 2005 level on or before 2030.

 

Waste-to-Energy is a Cost-Effective Means to Meet Rising Energy Needs

 

According to the International Energy Agency, China will need to increase its electricity generating capacity to meet its future needs. This demand may mean price increases for electricity in China. With the need for more energy, in particular energy that does not cause additional emissions, and the relative low price of the waste-to-energy production we provide, we believe that our markets will continue to expand.

 

Since China has been experiencing a dramatic surge in its energy consumption as well as widespread energy shortages, recycling energy is not only an attractive alternative to other sources of energy as part of a national diversification strategy to avoid dependence on any one energy source or politically sensitive energy supplies, but also a proven solution to make the use of energy more efficient. Under current economic conditions and current tax and regulatory regimes, waste energy recycling projects generally can create price- competitive electricity compared to electricity generated from fossil fuels or other renewable sources. Our customers can reduce energy costs significantly by installing our waste energy recycling projects. Compared to electricity from the national grid, the generating cost from recycling energy is lower, which means our customers can leverage the waste-to-energy projects to generate low-cost electricity, reducing energy costs for the manufacturing process. The current national grid electricity rate ranges from RMB 0.45-0.50/kWh and our operated recycling rate ranges from 0.35-0.45/kWh subject to project type, generating scale and local situation.

 

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Customers of our energy recycling projects may also qualify for credits from the Clean Development Mechanism (“CDM”). The CDM is an international arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in ventures that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. In 2005, China’s government promulgated “Measures for Operation and Management of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in China” (“China CDM Measures”) to facilitate the application and operation of CDM project activities in China. Our energy recycling solutions are of a kind which falls into the beneficial categories accredited by the China CDM Measures. If our customers can get approval from the Chinese government and successfully register their projects in the United Nations’ CDM Executive Board, they can receive additional revenue income through exchanging their Certified Emission Reductions (“CER”) credits with investors in industrialized countries.

 

Trends in Industries We Principally Service

 

Iron, Steel and Nonferrous Metal Industry

 

As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China’s iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention.

 

Environmental pollution, shortage of resources and energy shortage have been identified in China as three major challenges for China’s nonferrous metal industry. China aims to save 1.7 million tons of coal and 6 billion kWh of electricity per year, as well as reduce sulfur dioxide by 850,000 tons annually as part of the industrial upgrading for the nonferrous metallurgy sector and, at the same time, to improve the utilization efficiency for resources. In China, the utilization rate for the nonferrous metal mineral resources is 60%, which is 10 to 15% lower than developed countries. The utilization rate for associated nonferrous metals is only 40%, which is 20% lower than developed nations. In addition, parts of nonferrous mines located in different cities are disorganized with random mining, causing severe wastes of resources.

 

Coal and Petrochemicals

 

Flammable waste gases emitted from industrial production processes, such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, oil or gas can be used to power gas-fired generators to create energy. Two large producers of these waste gases are coal mining and petrochemical refining. The PRC is the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal is the dirtiest fossil fuel and a major cause of methane gas emissions, a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Methane gas is found naturally in coal beds. In the 1950s, China began recovering methane to make mines safer. Now, as then, most of the captured methane is released into the air but it could be used as a clean energy source using waste energy recycling technologies.

 

Biomass Waste-to-Energy Industry

 

In China, agricultural waste and biogas are two main sources for biomass waste. China has more than 600 million tons of wasted straw produced every year. It also has 19 billion tons of forest biomass, of which 300 million tons can be utilized as an energy source. The straw burning power industry will grow faster in China with supportive policies, development of new technologies and the formation of raw material collection and storage systems, according to the National Development and Reform Commission. Electricity generated from straw has a preferential price of RMB 0.25 per kWh higher than coal-fueled power when sold to the state grid. In addition, straw power plants enjoy a series of preferential policies including tax exemption.

 

Biogas technology captures methane gases emitted from compostable materials and burns it to power a turbine to produce electricity. The waste that is usually disposed of in landfills is converted into liquid or gaseous fuels. By utilizing the resource from waste cellulosic or organic materials, biomass energy can be generated through the fermentation process.

 

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Our Strategies

 

Maintain Core Verticals to Increase Market Share in China

 

We focus on waste-to-energy projects for specific verticals, such as steel, cement, nonferrous metal and coal mining. We plan to continue our focus on such core verticals and leverage our expertise to expand our market share. We intend to expand our waste-to-energy power generating capacity rapidly in order to meet the anticipated growth of demand in China’s energy efficiency industrial applications and to gain market share. We continually identify potential customers in our core verticals.

 

Expand to New Business of Energy Storage with Future High Growth Potentials

 

We are in the process of transforming into an energy storage integrated solution provider. We plan to pursue disciplined and targeted expansion strategies for market areas that we currently do not serve. We are actively seeking and exploring opportunities to apply energy storage technologies to new industries or segments with high growth potential, including industrial and commercial complexes, large scale photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, remote islands without electricity, and smart energy cities with multi-energy supplies. By supporting and motivating all kinds of the electric power market to participant in resource development and utilization of demand response, we plan to provide services including peak shaving with compensation and frequency modulation. We intend to gradually form motor load performance for peak and low-hours, which will account for about 3% of the annual maximum power load on the demand side and to ensure the electricity supply and demand balance for situations of non-severe power shortages.

 

User-side energy storage is the outlet of distributed (and renewable) energy power output with high viscosity, high assets resale value, and stable cash flow income. Resource integration layout in 2020 will form an ecological chain of supply-transmission- distribution-consumption by integrating power generation assets that have high efficiency and low valuation. In this system, energy storage will play an important role to realize long distance transmission, reduce transmission loss, enhance the stability of the power supply, and provide users with multiple energy pricing mechanisms and comprehensive service. With the large-scale operation of energy storage projects in China and the Asia-pacific region, technology will gradually be improved and prices will decrease, which will provide the opportunity for vertical integration with teams in the industry that have a long time experience in the energy storage industry and technical reserves.

 

Continually Enhance Research and Development Efforts

 

We plan to devote resources to research and development in order to enhance our waste-to-energy design and engineering capabilities. We anticipate that our in-house design and engineering team will provide additional competitive advantages, including flexibility to quickly design and evaluate new technologies or applications in response to changing market trends.

  

Selectively Acquire Waste-to-Energy Power Plants

 

While we have experienced substantial organic growth, we plan to pursue a disciplined acquisition strategy to accelerate our growth. Our strategy will focus on obtaining additional power generating capacity, research and development capabilities and access to new markets and customers.

 

Our Business Models

 

We have sold our products to our customers under two models: the BOT model and the operating lease model, although we emphasize the BOT model which we believe is more economically beneficial to us and to our customers.

 

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BOT Model

 

We primarily engage in the BOT model to provide waste-to-energy solutions to our customers:

 

“Build”

 

We work directly with customers for each of our waste-to-energy projects. Our working process starts with a team of engineers that assesses and analyzes the specific needs of the customer to establish the design layout, equipment procurement list and capital expenditure budget for the project. Our sales team works closely with our engineering staff to present and negotiate the model with the customer.

 

After the signing of a contract, we finance the entire capital expenditure budget ourselves and commence the construction and installation of the project. We do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of the waste-to-energy power generation facility. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated on-site waste energy recycling project for our customer. The construction and installation period ranges from three to 12 months subject to the project type, size and complexity.

 

We usually engage an EPC general contractor, who is experienced in power plant and waste energy recycling project construction, to take charge of equipment procurement, project construction and installation. Our team of five engineers participates in and monitors the equipment purchase process; this team also oversees the construction and installation activities to ensure that they are completed on time and meet our rigorous standards and specifications.

 

“Operate”

 

After the project has been installed at the customer site and passed a series of stringent tests, we, currently, outsource the operation to a third-party vendor. The operation period ranges from five to 20 years subject to the terms of each contract.

 

During the operation period, the customer can purchase all the electricity at a below-market price. We collect energy-saving- based lease payments from the customer; the lease term is equivalent to the operation period, ranging from five to 20 years, and the payments are based on the sale by us as lessor to our customers as lessee of energy generated by the waste energy recycling project at below-market rates. The customer’s payments are based on a minimum operation schedule agreed upon by us with our customer, and are collateralized by assets of the customer and/or third party guarantees. To reduce risk, we offer leasing services across a wide variety of industries and only target larger manufacturers or state-owned enterprises. Operation in excess of the minimum schedule enables us to receive additional revenues from the excess energy generated and sold to the customer.

 

“Transfer”

 

Based on the specific terms for each project, we eventually transfer the waste energy recycling project to the customer at no cost or a nominal cost upon the completion of the operation/lease period.

 

Why BOT

 

Waste-to-energy projects are capital intensive, which requires the manufacturers to invest a considerable amount of cash to purchase equipment during the construction period. As a BOT service provider, we fund all contracted projects on our own or jointly with our customers; such financing arrangements can help our customers by removing or reducing the heavy capital expenditure burden required by specific projects, thereby allowing them to concentrate on their core business. While technologically mature in advanced countries, waste-to-energy projects are still new to most of China’s industrial companies and require intensive technology or know-how with respect to energy recycling and power generation. It is time-consuming or not feasible for industrial manufacturers to equip themselves with adequate expertise and technicians. Our specific sector knowledge and rich project experience allow us to construct, operate and maintain the power plants efficiently and to respond to operational issues in a timely and cost-efficient manner.

 

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In exchange for upfront capital investment, we require secured power generating capacity during the operation period and guaranteed attractive internal rates of return from each project. Our operation period ranges from five to 20 years, during which we are entitled to sell the recycled electricity to those customers at a predetermined rate. Such electricity sales are secured by long-term electricity production agreements with guarantees, which result in minimum annual payments. We employ a process of stringent and systematic internal scrutiny on new customer development so as to minimize operational and default risk; for some smaller or non-SOE businesses, we require property collateral, management or third party guarantees, and/or prepayment of three months. As such, our cash inflow schedule from each in-operation project is fixed and predictable providing clear financial visibility. Our payback period is generally two to three years, depending on the project size.

 

In our experience, this BOT model is well received by our existing and potential customers in China. The insufficient supply of BOT vendors to the market is wholly due to the funding limitations of most of the recycling energy solution providers. Not all of our competitors have the ability to access sufficient capital on a timely basis.

 

Operating Lease Model

 

In the past, we also recorded rental income from two separate one-year operating leases. Under the operating leases, we leased waste-energy systems and subleased the systems to a customer for a greater amount. We choose not to renew our lease agreements, and we do not generally expect any revenue in the future through such model.

 

Contractor and Equipment Suppliers

 

We generally conduct our project construction through an EPC general contractor. We select the EPC general contractor for each project through a bidding process; then we sign a contract with the selected contractor for that project. The general contractor may outsource parts of our project construction to subcontractors according to the complexity and economics of the project. The general contractor is responsible for purchasing equipment to satisfy the requirements of the project we design for our customer. We generally do not purchase equipment directly from the equipment suppliers, but our general contractors obtain our consent before selecting the equipment suppliers. Our engineering department is involved in the equipment supplier selection process together with our general contractors and makes sure our stringent standards and requirements have been appropriately applied in selection of the equipment. We currently have engaged Shaanxi Huaxin Energy Engineering Co., Ltd.for our projects under construction, and we also maintain relationships with many other quality general contractors in China, including Wuxi Guolian, CITIC Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., A-Power Energy Generation Systems, Ltd.

 

As mentioned above, we do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of our waste energy recycling projects. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated onsite system. The key equipment used in our projects are the boilers and turbine generators, which represent the majority of equipment cost for each project. Though we do not place the direct procurement orders, we believe we maintain good relationships with those power generation equipment suppliers, and these relationships help provide cost-effective equipment purchasing by the general contractor for our intended projects and ensure the timely completion of these projects. We have well-established business relationships with most of the suppliers from whom our general contractors procure equipment, including Hangzhou Boiler Plant, Beijing Zhongdian Electric Machinery, Chengdu Engine Group, Shanghai Electric Group, China Aviation Gas Turbine Co. Ltd and Xuji Electric. Therefore, we believe that we have a strong position and support in equipment supply and installation, which benefits us, the general contractors and our customers.

 

Main Customers

 

Our customers are mainly mid- to large-size enterprises in China involving high energy-consuming businesses. Following our selection process described in the next paragraph, we conduct stringent evaluation procedures to identify and qualify potential customers and projects. To lower our investment and operational risk, we target companies with geographic or industry competitive advantages, with strong reputations and in good financial condition. Generally, our targets include steel and nonferrous metal mills with over 3 million tons of production capacity per year, cement plants with over 2 million tons of production capacity per year that utilize new- suspension-line process, and coking plants with over 600 tons production capacity per year. Our existing customers operate in Shanxi province, Shaan’xi province, Shandong province, Jiangsu province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomic Region in China.

 

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Marketing and Sales

 

We market and sell our projects nationwide through our direct sales force of two employees based in Xi’an, China. Our marketing programs include industrial conferences, trade fairs, sales training, and trade publication advertising. Our sales and marketing group works closely with our research and development and engineering departments to coordinate our project development activities, project launches and ongoing demand and supply planning. We market our projects directly to the industrial manufacturers who can utilize our energy recovery projects in their manufacturing processes, including steel, cement, nonferrous metal, coal and petrochemical industries.

 

Our management team has long-standing relationships with our existing customers and those companies that we consider to be potential customers. We also maintain relationships with municipal governments, which often sponsor or subsidize potential customers that can utilize our projects.

 

Geographic Distribution of Sales

 

Sales outside the U.S. accounted for 100% of revenue in 2019 and 2018.

 

Seasonality

 

For the most part, the Company’s business and sales are not subject to any seasonality factors.

 

Intellectual Property Rights

 

Licenses

 

From time to time, we enter into license agreements with third parties under which we obtain or grant rights to patented or proprietary technology.

 

Research and Development

 

We believe that our research and development (“R&D”) efforts are among the best in the waste heat, gas and pressure to energy industry, particularly with regards to practical usage and application.

 

To develop new and practical solutions for our customers, our R&D team also has the support of our on-site and project engineers who provide feedback and numerous ideas to the R&D team from their daily experiences with installation and operation of various waste gas, heat or pressure to energy projects. Our cooperative relationship with the Shanghai Electric Distributed Energy Sources Technology Co., Ltd. gives us access to the latest developments in energy and waste-to-energy technologies as well as technical support of the R&D teams of the R & D team of Distributed Energy Sources of Central Research Institute of Shanghai Electric Group.

 

Government and Environmental Management System

 

We hold all licenses that the various levels of Chinese government require for our operations.

 

Competition

 

In the past, waste energy recycling projects have been installed mainly by the industrial plants themselves. These plants hire general contractors to purchase waste energy recycling equipment manufactured by third parties and with design support from government design institutes, which usually charge a one-time design fee, construct the projects on-site. Pressure has increased on Chinese producers to become more energy-efficient, but many mid-sized companies do not have the special technical expertise or the capital to install and operate such waste energy recycling projects. Many companies have begun to outsource these functions to third- party providers, creating an opportunity in a growing market.

 

We are a leading developer of industrial waste energy recycling projects in China. To our knowledge, we are the only non-state owned enterprise primarily using a BOT model to provide energy saving and recovery systems for various energy intensive industries, such as cement, steel and metallurgy industries. We face competition from an array of market participants.

 

Our main competitors as third-party providers are state owned research institutes or their wholly owned construction companies; however, smaller private companies occasionally employ a BOT model to provide waste-to-energy systems. The state-owned enterprises include Equipment and System Engineer Co., Ltd. of Hangzhou Steam Turbine & Power Group (Hangzhou Turbine) and Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd of China National Material Group, Sinoma Development Co., Ltd. The private companies include China Senyuan Electronic Co., Ltd., Dalian East New Energy Development Co. Ltd.Top Resource Conservation Engineering Co., Ltd. and Nanjing Kaisheng Kaineng Environmental Energy.

 

We believe that there is a larger market in the waste-to-energy industry in China for systems constructed on the “Engineering Procurement Construction” or “EPC” model in which customers purchase the services of a contractor to construct a system for the customer at the customer’s expense. Service providers include Dalian East New Energy Development, Nanjing Kaisheng Cement Technology and Engineering Co., Ltd., Jiangxi Sifang Energy Co., Ltd., Beijing Century Benefits Co., Ltd., Beijing Shineng Zhongjin Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Kunming Sunwise Co., Ltd. and China Everbright International Ltd. We compete with EPC providers for waste-to-energy projects when potential customers are able to obtain external financing or have the necessary capital.

 

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We believe that we offer advantages over our competitors in several ways:

 

Our management team has over 20 years of industry experience and expertise;

 

We have the capabilities to provide TRT, CHPG and WGPG systems, while our competitors usually concentrate on one type or another;

 

We have the capabilities and experience in undertaking large scale projects; and

 

We provide BOT or capital lease services to the customers, while our competitors usually use an EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) or turnkey contract model.

 

Employees

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had 16 employees:

 

Management: Employees

 

Administration: Employees

 

Marketing: 2 Employees

 

Accounting & Finance: Employees

 

Project Officer:  2 Employees

 

All of our personnel are employed full-time and none of them are represented under collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

 

Costs and Effects of Compliance with Environmental Laws

 

There were many new laws, regulations, rules and notices regarding the environment and energy production adopted, promulgated and put into force during past years. The Chinese government is putting more stringent requirements and urgency on reducing pollution and emissions and improving energy efficiency nationwide. Our products are designed and constructed to comply with the environmental laws and regulations of China. As our systems allow our customers to use waste heat and gases to create energy, we help reduce the overall environmental impact of our customers. Since our business focuses on recycling energy, the effect of the strengthening of environmental laws in China may be to increase demand for the products and services we offer and others like them.

 

Available Information

 

We file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and other reports from time to time. The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The Company is an electronic filer and the SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains the reports, proxy and information statements, and other information filed electronically. Our website address is www.creg-cn.com. Please note that our website address is provided as an inactive textual reference only. The information provided on our website is not part of this report, and is therefore not incorporated by reference unless such information is otherwise specifically referenced elsewhere in this report.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

Risks Related to our Common Stock

 

The market price for our common stock may be volatile.

 

The market price for our common stock is highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

announcements of new services by us or our competitors;

 

announcements by our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

conditions in the energy recycling market;

 

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other companies involved in the same industry;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretation or principles;

 

loss of external funding sources;

 

failure to maintain compliance with NASDAQ listing rules;

 

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

potential litigation;

 

conditions in the market; or

 

relatively small size of shares of our common stock available for purchase.

 

In addition, the securities markets from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

Shareholders could experience substantial dilution.

 

We may issue additional shares of our capital stock to raise additional cash for working capital. If we issue additional shares of our capital stock, our shareholders will experience dilution in their respective percentage ownership in the company.

 

We have no present intention to pay dividends.

 

We have not paid dividends or made other cash distributions on our common stock during any of the past three years, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain any future earnings for working capital and to finance current operations and expansion of our business.

 

A large portion of our common stock is controlled by a small number of shareholders.

 

A large portion of our common stock is held by a small number of shareholders. As a result, these shareholders are able to influence the outcome of shareholder votes on various matters, including the election of directors and extraordinary corporate transactions including business combinations. In addition, the occurrence of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock, or the perception that these sales could occur, may affect our stock price and could impair our ability to obtain capital through an offering of equity securities. Furthermore, the current ratios of ownership of our common stock reduce the public float and liquidity of our common stock which can in turn affect the market price of our common stock.

 

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We may be unable to maintain compliance with NASDAQ Marketplace Rules which could cause our common stock to be delisted from the NASDAQ Capital Market. This could result in the lack of a market for our common stock, cause a decrease in the value of our common stock, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Under the NASDAQ Marketplace Rules our common stock must maintain a minimum price of $1.00 per share for continued inclusion on the NASDAQ Capital Market. The per share price of our common stock has fluctuated significantly. We cannot guarantee that our stock price will remain at or above $1.00 per share and if the price again drops below $1.00 per share, the stock could become subject to delisting. If our common stock is delisted, trading of the stock will most likely take place on an over-the-counter market established for unlisted securities. An investor is likely to find it less convenient to sell, or to obtain accurate quotations in seeking to buy, our common stock on an over-the-counter market, and many investors may not buy or sell our common stock due to difficulty in accessing over-the-counter markets, or due to policies preventing them from trading in securities not listed on a national exchange or other reasons. For these reasons and others, delisting would adversely affect the liquidity, trading volume and price of our common stock, causing the value of an investment in us to decrease and having an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations by limiting our ability to attract and retain qualified executives and employees and limiting our ability to raise capital.

 

On November 26, 2019, we received a written notification from the NASDAQ Stock Market Listing Qualifications Staff (the “Staff”) indicating that the Company has been granted until May 25, 2020, to regain compliance with the $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement for continued listing on the NASDAQ Capital Market pursuant to NASDAQ Listing Rule (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”). That notification provided that if at any time the closing bid price of the Company’s securities is at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days, NASDAQ will provide written confirmation of compliance and this matter will be closed.  On April 29, 2020, the Company received a letter from NASDAQ confirming that the Company regained compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement. For ten consecutive business days, beginning from April 15, 2020 to April 28, 2020, the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock has been at $1.00 per share or greater, and therefore the Company has regained compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement.

  

Risks Related to Our Business Operations

 

In recent years, the growth of Chinese economy has experienced slowdown, and if the growth of the economy continues to slow or if the economy contracts, our financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

The rapid growth of the PRC economy has historically resulted in widespread growth opportunities in industries across China. As a result of the global financial crisis and the inability of enterprises to gain comparable access to the same amounts of capital available in past years, the business climate has changed and growth of private enterprise in the PRC have slowed down. An economic slowdown could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. Further, if economic growth slows, and if, in conjunction, inflation is allowed to proceed unchecked, our costs would likely increase, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to increase our prices to an extent that would offset the increase in our expenses.

 

We depend on the waste energy of our customers to generate electricity.

 

We acquire waste pressure, heat and gases from steelworks, cement, coking or metallurgy plants and use these to generate power. Therefore, our power generating capacity depends on the availability of an adequate supply of our “raw materials” from our customers. If we do not have enough supply, power generated for those customers will be impeded. Since our contracts are often structured so that we receive compensation based on the amount of energy we supply, a reduction in production may cause problems for our revenues and results of operations.

 

Our revenue depends on gaining new customers and project contracts and purchase commitments from customers.

 

Currently and historically, we have only had a limited number of projects in process at any time. Thus, our revenues have historically resulted, and are expected to continue in the immediate future to result, primarily from the sale and operation of our waste energy recycling projects that, once completed, typically produce ongoing revenues from energy production. Customers may change or delay orders for any number of reasons, such as force majeure or government approval factors that are unrelated to us. As a result, in order to maintain and expand our business, we must continue to develop and obtain new orders. However, it is difficult to predict whether and when we will receive such orders or project contracts due to the lengthy process, which may be affected by factors that we do not control, such as market and economic conditions, financing arrangements, commodity prices, environmental issues and government approvals.

 

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We may require additional funds to run our business and may be required to raise these funds on terms which are not favorable to us or which reduce our stock price.

 

We may need to complete additional equity or debt financings to fund our operations. Our inability to obtain additional financing could adversely affect our business. Financings may not be available at all or on terms favorable to us. In addition, these financings, if completed, may not meet our capital needs and could result in substantial dilution to our stockholders.

 

Changes in the economic and credit environment could have an adverse effect on demand for our projects, which would in turn have a negative impact on our results of operations, our cash flows, our financial condition, our ability to borrow and our stock price.

 

Since late 2008 and continuing through 2018, global market and economic conditions have been disrupted and volatile. Concerns over slowdown of Chinese economy, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, to this increased volatility. These factors, combined with declining business and consumer confidence and increased unemployment, precipitated a global recession. It is difficult to predict how long the current economic conditions will persist or whether they will deteriorate further. As a result, these conditions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The slow growth of global economy has also resulted in tighter credit conditions, which may lead to higher financing costs. Although poor market conditions can act as an incentive for our customers to reduce their energy costs, if the global economic slowdown persists and has material adverse effects on our customers’ business, our customers may delay or cancel their plan of installing waste energy recycling projects.

 

Decreases in the price of coal, oil and gas or a decline in popular support for “green” energy technologies could reduce demand for our waste energy recycling projects, which could materially harm our ability to grow our business.

 

Higher coal, oil and gas prices provide incentives for customers to invest in “green” energy technologies such as our waste energy recycling projects that reduce their need for fossil fuels. Conversely, lower coal, oil and gas prices would tend to reduce the incentive for customers to invest in capital equipment to produce electric power or seek out alternative energy sources. Demand for our projects and services depends in part on the current and future commodity prices of coal, oil and gas. We have no control over the current or future prices of these commodities.

 

In addition, popular support by governments, corporations and individuals for “green” energy technologies may change. Because of the ongoing development of, and the possible change in support for, “green” energy technologies we cannot assure you that negative changes to this industry will not occur. Changes in government or popular support for “green” energy technologies could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects and results of operations.

 

Changes in the growth of demand for or pricing of electricity could reduce demand for our waste energy recycling projects, which could materially harm our ability to grow our business.

 

Our revenues are dependent on the ability to provide savings on energy costs for our clients. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of the PRC, China’s total electricity consumption in 2018 was 6.84 trillion kilowatt-hours, up 8.5 percent year on year, the highest growth rate since 2012. The growth in electricity consumption increases due to the continued development of the Chinese economy. However, such growth is unpredictable and depends on general economic conditions and consumer demand, both of which are beyond our control. Furthermore, pricing of electricity in the PRC is set in advance by the state or local electricity administration and may be artificially depressed by governmental regulation or influenced by supply and demand imbalances. If these changes reduce the cost of electricity from traditional sources of supply, the demand for our waste energy recycling projects could be reduced, and therefore, could materially harm our ability to grow our business.

 

Our insurance may not cover all liabilities and damages.

 

Our industry can be dangerous and hazardous. The insurance we carry might not be enough to cover all the liabilities and damages that may be caused by potential accidents.

 

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A downturn in the Chinese economy may slow down our growth and profitability.

 

The growth of the Chinese economy has been uneven across geographic regions and economic sectors. There is no assurance that growth of the Chinese economy will be steady or that any downturn will not have a negative effect on our business. Our profitability will decrease if less energy is consumed due to a downturn in the Chinese economy.

 

Our heavy reliance on the experience and expertise of our management may cause adverse impacts on us if a management member departs.

 

We depend on key personnel for the success of our business. Our business may be severely disrupted if we lose the services of our key executives and employees or fail to add new senior and middle managers to our management.

 

Our future success is heavily dependent upon the continued service of our key executives. We also rely on a number of key technology staff for the operation of our company. Our future success is also dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified senior and middle managers to our management team. If one or more of our current or future key executives or employees are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to easily replace them, and our business may be severely disrupted. In addition, if any of these key executives or employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we could lose customers and suppliers and incur additional expenses to recruit and train personnel. We do not maintain key-man life insurance for any of our key executives.

  

We may need more capital for the operation and failure to raise capital we need may delay the development plan and reduce the profits.

 

If we don’t have adequate income or our capital can’t meet the requirement for expansion of operations, we will need to seek financing to continue our business development. If we fail to acquire adequate financial resources at acceptable terms, we might have to postpone our proposed business development plans and reduce projections of our future incomes.

 

Our use of a “Build-Operate-Transfer” model requires us to invest substantial financial and technical resources in a project before we deliver a waste energy recycling project.

 

We use a “Build-Operate-Transfer” model to provide our waste energy recycling projects to our customers. This process requires us to provide significant capital at the beginning of each project. The design, construction and completion of a waste energy recycling project is highly technical and the time necessary to complete a project can take three to 12 months without any delays, including delays outside our control such as from the result of customer’s operations, and we incur significant expenses as part of this process. Our initial cash outlay and the length of the delivery time makes us particularly vulnerable to the loss of a significant customer or contract because we may be unable to quickly replace the lost cash flow.

 

Our BOT model and the accounting for our projects as sales-type leases could result in a difference between our revenue recognition and our cash flows.

 

While we recognize a large portion of the revenue from each project when it goes on-line, all of the cash flow from the project is received in even monthly payments across the term of the lease. Although our revenues may be high, the initial cash outlay required for each project is substantial and even with the recovery of this cost in the early years of each lease, we may need to raise additional capital resulting in a dilution in your holdings. This discrepancy between revenue recognition and cash flow could also contribute to volatility in our stock price.

 

There is collection risk associated with payments to be received over the terms of agreements with customers of our waste energy recycling projects.

 

We are dependent in part on the viability of our customers for collections under our BOT model. Customers may experience financial difficulties that could cause them to be unable to fulfill their contractual payment obligations to us. Although our customers usually provide collateral or other guarantees to secure their obligations to provide the minimum electricity income from the waste energy recycling projects, there is no guarantee that such collateral will be sufficient to meet all obligations under the respective contract. As a result, our future revenues and cash flows could be adversely affected.

 

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We may not be able to assemble and deliver our waste energy recycling projects as quickly as customers may require which could cause us to lose sales and could harm our reputation.

 

We may not be able to assemble our waste energy recycling projects and deliver them to our customers at the times they require.

 

Manufacturing delays and interruptions can occur for many reasons, including, but not limited to:

 

the failure of a supplier to deliver needed components on a timely basis or of acceptable quality;

 

equipment failures;

 

personnel shortage;

 

labor disputes; or

 

transportation disruptions.

 

Assembly of our waste energy recycling projects is complex. If we fail to assemble and deliver our waste energy recycling projects in a timely fashion, our reputation may be harmed, we may jeopardize existing orders and lose potential future sales, and we may be forced to pay penalties to our customers.

 

We operate in an emerging competitive industry and if we are unable to compete successfully our revenue and profitability will be adversely affected.

 

Currently, the PRC waste energy recycling market is fragmented but competitive. As the industry evolves, we anticipate that competition will increase. We currently face competition primarily from companies that focus on one type of waste energy recycling project or one industry in the waste energy recycling market, some of which may have more expertise in their area of focus than we do. We also compete against companies that have substantial competitive advantage because of longer operating histories and larger marketing budgets, as well as substantially greater financial and other resources than us. Our largest potential clients may choose to build their own systems. National or global competitors could enter the market with more substantial financial and workforce resources, stronger existing customer relationships, and greater name recognition or could choose to target medium to small companies in our traditional markets. Competitors could focus their substantial resources on developing a more attractive solution set than ours or products with technologies that reduce demand for energy beyond what our solutions can provide and at cheaper prices. Competition also places downward pressure on our contract prices and profit margins, which presents us with significant challenges in our ability to maintain strong growth rates and acceptable profit margins. If we are unable to meet these competitive challenges, we could lose market share to our competitors and experience an overall reduction in our profits.

 

If we infringe the rights of third parties, we could be prevented from selling products, forced to pay damages and compelled to defend against litigation.

 

If our waste energy recycling projects, methods, processes and other technologies infringe proprietary rights of other parties, we may have to obtain licenses (which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all), redesign our waste energy recycling projects or processes, stop using the subject matter claimed in the asserted patents, pay damages, or defend litigation or administrative proceedings, which may be costly whether we win or lose. All of the above could result in a substantial diversion of valuable management resources and we could incur substantial costs.

 

We believe we have taken reasonable steps, including prior patent searches, to ensure we have the freedom to operate under our intellectual property rights, and that our development and commercialization efforts can be carried out as planned without infringing others’ proprietary rights. However, a third-party patent may have been filed or will be filed that may contain subject matter of relevance to our development, causing a third-party patent holder to claim infringement. Resolution of such issues sometimes results in lengthy and costly legal proceedings, the outcome of which we cannot predict accurately.

 

We may not be able to adequately respond to changes in technology affecting the waste energy recycling industry.

 

Our industry could experience rapid technological changes and new product introductions. Current competitors or new market entrants could introduce new or enhanced products with features which render the systems used in our projects obsolete or less marketable. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to changing technology and industry standards in a timely and cost-effective manner. We may not be successful in effectively using new technologies, developing new systems or enhancing our existing systems and technology on a timely basis. Our new technologies or enhancements may not achieve market acceptance. Our pursuit of new technologies may require substantial time and expense. We may need to license new technologies to respond to technological change. These licenses may not be available to us on terms that we can accept. Finally, we may not succeed in adapting our projects to new technologies as they emerge.

 

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We are dependent on third parties for manufacturing key components and delays by third parties may cause delays in assembly and increased costs to us.

 

We rely upon third parties for the manufacture of key components. Delays and difficulties in the manufacturing of our waste energy recycling projects could substantially harm our revenues. There are limited sources of supply for some key waste energy recycling project components. Business disruptions, financial difficulties of the manufacturers or suppliers of these components, or raw material shortages could increase our costs, reduce the availability of these components or delay our delivery of projects to customers. To date, we have been able to obtain adequate supplies of these key components. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of required components, we could experience significant delays in construction, which could result in the loss of orders and customers, and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If the cost of components increases, we may not be able to pass on price increases to our customers if we are to remain competitively priced. This would reduce profit, which in turn would reduce the value of your investment.

 

Increases in income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or disagreements with tax authorities could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. Increases in income tax rates or other changes in income tax laws that apply to our business could reduce our after-tax income from such jurisdiction and could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our operations outside the United States generate a significant portion of our income. In addition, the United States and many of the other countries in which our products are distributed or sold, including countries in which we have significant operations, have recently made or are actively considering changes to existing tax laws. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJ Act”) was recently signed into law in the United States. The changes in the TCJ Act are broad and complex and we are continuing to examine the impact the TCJ Act may have on our business and financial results. This provisional expense is subject to change, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in estimates, interpretations and assumptions we have made, changes in Internal Revenue Service (IRS) interpretations, the issuance of new guidance, legislative actions, changes in accounting standards or related interpretations in response to the TCJ Act and future actions by states within the United States that have not yet adopted state-level laws similar to the TCJ Act.

 

Additional changes in the U.S. tax regime or in how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings, including changes in how existing tax laws are interpreted or enforced, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the IRS and other taxing authorities with respect to income and non-income based taxes both within and outside the United States. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenues in jurisdictions in which we operate, or the adoption of new or reformed tax legislation or regulation, may make resolving tax disputes more difficult and the final resolution of tax audits and any related litigation could differ from our historical provisions and accruals, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, in connection with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project, companies are required to disclose more information to tax authorities on operations around the world, which may lead to greater audit scrutiny of profits earned in various countries.

 

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Risks Related to the People’s Republic of China

 

Impact of Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on the Company

 

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to constitute a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” This contagious disease outbreak, which continues to spread to additional countries, and is disrupting supply chains and affecting production and sales across a range of industries as a result of quarantines, facility closures, and travel and logistics restrictions in connection with the outbreak. Therefore, the Company expects this matter to negatively impact its operating results and cash flows. However, the related financial impact and duration cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

 

Adverse changes in political and economic policies of the PRC government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could materially and adversely affect the demand for our projects and our business.

 

Currently, all of our operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including:

 

the amount of government involvement;

 

the level of development;

 

the growth rate;

 

the control of foreign exchange; and

 

the allocation of resources.

 

While the PRC economy has grown significantly since the late 1970s, the growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us.

 

The PRC economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy. Although the PRC government has in recent years implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of sound corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of the productive assets in China is still owned by the PRC government. The continued control of these assets and other aspects of the national economy by the PRC government could materially and adversely affect our business. The PRC government also exercises significant control over economic growth in China through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency- denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Efforts by the PRC government to slow the pace of growth of the PRC economy could result in decreased capital expenditure by energy users, which in turn could reduce demand for our products. In addition, the PRC government, which regulates the power industry in China, has adopted laws related to renewable energy, and has adopted policies for the accelerated development of renewable energy as part of a Development Plan promulgated on August 31, 2007.

 

Any adverse change in the economic conditions or government policies in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth and the level of energy investments and expenditures in China, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our products and consequently have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

 

Restrictions under PRC law on our subsidiaries’ ability to make dividends and other distributions could materially and adversely affect our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could benefit our business, pay dividends to you, and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

We conduct all of our business through our consolidated subsidiaries and affiliated companies operating in the PRC. We rely on dividends paid by these consolidated subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay any dividends and other cash distributions to our stockholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities established in the PRC is subject to limitations imposed by government regulations. Regulations in the PRC currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in the PRC, subject to certain statutory procedural requirements and these may not be calculated in the same manner as US GAAP. In addition, each of our subsidiaries in China is required to set aside a certain amount of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our subsidiaries in China incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. Any limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

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Fluctuation in the value of the Renminbi may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

 

The value of the Renminbi (“RMB”) against the US Dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions. The conversion of RMB into foreign currencies, including US Dollars, has historically been set by the People’s Bank of China. On March 17, 2014, the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of the RMB to the US Dollar. Under the new policy, the RMB is permitted to fluctuate within a band against a basket of certain foreign currencies, determined by the Bank of China, against which it can rise or fall by as much as 2% each day. Since the adoption of this new policy, the value of the RMB against the US Dollar has fluctuated on a daily basis within narrow ranges, but overall has strengthened against the US Dollar. There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to further liberalize its currency policy, which could result in a further and more significant appreciation in the value of the RMB against the US Dollar. Appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB relative to the US Dollar would affect our financial results reported in US Dollar terms even if there is no underlying change in our business or results of operations. In addition, if we decide to convert our RMB into US Dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common stock or for other business purposes, appreciation of the US Dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the US Dollar amount available to us.

 

The PRC currency is not a freely convertible currency, which could limit our ability to obtain sufficient foreign currency to support our business operations in the future. In addition, changes in foreign exchange regulations in the PRC may affect our ability to pay dividends in foreign currency or conduct other foreign exchange business.

 

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of the PRC. We receive substantially all of our revenues in RMB, which is currently not a freely convertible currency. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict our ability to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends, or otherwise satisfy foreign currency-denominated obligations. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and expenditures from the transaction, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from appropriate governmental authorities is required where RMB are to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of bank loans denominated in foreign currencies.

 

The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currency to satisfy our currency demands, we may not be able to pay certain of our expenses as they come due.

 

There are significant uncertainties under the Enterprise Income Tax Law regarding our PRC enterprise income tax liabilities, such as tax on dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries and tax on any dividends we pay to our non-PRC stockholders.

 

The Enterprise Income Tax Law, also known as the EIT Law, provides that enterprises established outside of the PRC whose “de facto management bodies” are located in the PRC are considered as a “tax-resident enterprise” and are generally subject to the uniform 25.0% enterprise income tax rate on global income. Under the implementation regulations to EIT Law, “de facto management body” refers to a managing body that in practice exercises overall management control over the production and business, personnel, accounting and assets of an enterprise. In addition, on April 22, 2009, the State Administration of Taxation of the PRC issued the Notice on the Issues Regarding Recognition of Overseas Incorporated Enterprises that are Domestically Controlled as PRC Resident Enterprises Based on the De Facto Management Body Criteria, which was retroactively effective as of January 1, 2008. This notice provides that an overseas incorporated enterprise that is controlled domestically will be recognized as a “tax-resident enterprise” if it satisfies all of the following conditions: (i) the senior management responsible for daily production/business operations are primarily located in the PRC, and the location(s) where such senior management execute their responsibilities are primarily in the PRC; (ii) strategic financial and personnel decisions are made or approved by organizations or personnel located in the PRC; (iii) major properties, accounting ledgers, company seals and minutes of board meetings and stockholder meetings, etc., are maintained in the PRC; and (iv) 50.0% or more of the board members with voting rights or senior management habitually reside in the PRC.

 

In addition, dividends paid by us to our non-PRC stockholders as well as gains realized by such stockholders from the sale or transfer of our stock may be subject to a PRC tax under the EIT Law, and we may be required to withhold PRC tax on dividends paid to our non-PRC stockholders.

 

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PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment by offshore holding companies in PRC entities may delay or prevent us from making loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC operating companies, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and ability to fund and expand our business.

 

As an offshore holding company of PRC operating companies, we may make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC operating companies. Any loans to our PRC operating companies are subject to PRC regulations. For example, loans to our operating companies in China to finance their activities may not exceed statutory limits and must be registered with SAFE. If we decide to make capital contributions to our operating entities in the PRC, the PRC Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, (or MOFCOM’s local counterpart, depending on the amount involved) may need to approve these capital contributions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to any such capital contributions. If we fail to receive such approvals, our ability to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

We may face PRC regulatory risks relating to our equity incentive plan.

 

On March 28, 2007, the SAFE promulgated a notice requiring PRC individuals who are granted stock options and other types of stock-based awards by an overseas publicly-listed company to obtain approval from the local SAFE branch through an agent of the overseas publicly-listed company (generally its PRC subsidiary or a financial institution).

 

We urged our PRC management personnel, directors, employees and consultants who were granted stock options under our Incentive Plan to register them with the local SAFE pursuant to the said regulation. However, we cannot ensure that each of these individuals have carried out all of the required registration procedures.

 

If we, or any of these persons, fail to comply with the relevant rules or requirements, we may be subject to penalties, and may become subject to more stringent review and approval processes with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as our PRC subsidiaries’ dividend payment to us or borrowing foreign currency loans, all of which may adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities.

 

The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. Our ability to operate in China may be harmed by changes in its laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to divest ourselves of any interest we then hold in Chinese properties.

 

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and we may have limited legal recourse under PRC law if disputes arise under our contracts with third parties.

 

Since 1979, PRC legislation and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China in particular, because these laws and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited volume of published decisions and their non-binding nature, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all) that may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until some time after violation.

 

The Chinese government has enacted some laws and regulations dealing with matters such as corporate organization and governance, foreign investment, commerce, taxation and trade. However, their experience in implementing, interpreting and enforcing these laws and regulations is limited, and our ability to enforce commercial claims or to resolve commercial disputes is unpredictable. The resolution of these matters may be subject to the exercise of considerable discretion by agencies of the Chinese government, and forces unrelated to the legal merits of a particular matter or dispute may influence their determination. Any rights we may have to specific performance, or to seek an injunction under PRC law, in either of these cases, are severely limited, and without a means of recourse by virtue of the Chinese legal system, we may be unable to prevent others from violating our rights. The occurrence of any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We must comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption laws.

 

We are required to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, which prohibits US companies from engaging in bribery or other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Foreign companies, including some of our competitors, are not subject to these prohibitions. The PRC also strictly prohibits bribery of government officials. Certain of our suppliers are owned by the PRC government and our dealings with them are likely to be considered to be with government officials for these purposes. Corruption, extortion, bribery, pay-offs, theft and other fraudulent practices occur from time-to-time in China. It is our policy to prohibit our employees and to discourage our agents, representatives and consultants from engaging in such practices. If our competitors engage in these practices, they may receive preferential treatment from personnel of some companies, giving our competitors an advantage in securing business or from government officials who might give them priority in obtaining new licenses, which would put us at a disadvantage. Our employees, agents, representatives and consultants may not always be subject to our control. If any of them violates FCPA or other anti-corruption law, we might be held responsible. We could suffer severe penalties in that event. In addition, the US government may seek to hold us liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies in which we invest or which we acquire.

 

We may have difficulty maintaining adequate management, legal and financial controls in the PRC.

 

The PRC historically has been deficient in western style management and financial reporting concepts and practices, as well as in modern banking, and other control systems. We may have difficulty in hiring and retaining a sufficient number of qualified employees to work in the PRC. As a result of these factors, and especially since we are a publicly listed company in the US and subject to regulation as such, we may experience difficulty in maintaining management, legal and financial controls, collecting financial data and preparing financial statements, books of account and corporate records and instituting business practices that meet western standards. We may have difficulty establishing adequate management, legal and financial controls in the PRC. Therefore, we may, in turn, experience difficulties in implementing and maintaining adequate internal controls as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or SOX 404, and other applicable laws, rules and regulations. This may result in significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal controls which could impact the reliability of our financial statements and prevent us from complying with SEC rules and regulations and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Any such deficiencies, weaknesses or lack of compliance could have a materially adverse effect on our business and the market price of our stock.

 

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results or prevent fraud may be adversely affected and investor confidence and the market price of our ordinary shares may be adversely impacted.

 

As directed by SOX 404, the SEC adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on the company’s internal controls over financial reporting in their annual reports. Our management may conclude that our internal controls over our financial reporting are not effective, which could result in an adverse reaction in the financial marketplace due to a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our reporting processes, which could adversely impact the market price of our common stock.

 

Your ability to bring an action against us or against our directors and officers, or to enforce a judgment against us or them, will be limited because we conduct substantially all of our operations in the PRC and because the majority of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States.

 

We are a Nevada corporation but nearly all of our assets are located outside of the US. Most of our current operations are conducted in the PRC. In addition, most of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of the PRC. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons is located outside the US. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in US courts judgments on the civil liability provisions of the US federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of US courts. The recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. Courts in the PRC may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based on treaties between the PRC and the country where the judgment is made or on reciprocity between jurisdictions. The PRC does not have any treaties or other arrangements that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments with the United States. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or the public interest. So it is uncertain whether a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the US.

 

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A failure by our stockholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents to comply with certain PRC foreign exchange regulations could restrict our ability to distribute profits, restrict our overseas and cross-border investment activities or subject us to liability under PRC laws, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

On October 21, 2005, SAFE issued the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents Engaging in Financing and Roundtrip Investments via Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or State Administration of Foreign Exchange of China (“SAFE”) Circular 75. SAFE Circular 75 states that PRC residents (including both legal persons and natural persons) must register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas equity financing involving a roundtrip investment whereby the offshore entity acquires or controls onshore assets or equity interests held by the PRC residents. In addition, such PRC residents must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore SPV undergoes material events relating to increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, mergers or divisions, long-term equity or debt investments, external guarantees, or other material events that do not involve roundtrip investments. To further clarify the implementation of SAFE Circular 75, the General Affairs Department of SAFE issued SAFE Circular 106 on May 29, 2007. Under SAFE Circular 106, PRC subsidiaries of an offshore company governed by SAFE Circular 75 are required to coordinate and supervise the filing of SAFE registrations in a timely manner by the offshore holding company’s shareholders who are PRC residents. If these shareholders fail to comply, the PRC subsidiaries are required to report to the local SAFE authorities. If our shareholders who are PRC residents do not complete their registration with the local SAFE authorities, our PRC subsidiaries will be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries.

 

On July 14, 2014, SAFE promulgated the Circular Relating to Foreign Exchange Administration of Offshore Investment, Financing and Return Investment by Domestic Residents Utilizing Special Purpose Vehicles (Circular 37). Replacing an earlier circular published by SAFE in 2005 (Circular 75), Circular 37 further simplifies the registration process for Chinese residents seeking the round- trip investment transactions where Chinese companies (Domestic Entities) are re-organized to create an offshore holding company (the SPV) that will control the Domestic Entities and seek offshore financing. Also, for the first time overseas investments by Chinese individuals are formally legalized under Circular 37.

 

We are committed to complying, and to ensuring that our shareholders, who are PRC residents, comply with the SAFE Circular 37 requirements. We believe that all of our PRC resident shareholders and beneficial owners have completed their required registrations with SAFE, or are otherwise in the process of registering. However, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the identities of all our beneficial owners who are PRC residents, and we may not always be able to compel our beneficial owners to comply with the SAFE Circular 37 requirements. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents will at all times comply with, or in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE Circular 37 or other related regulations. Failure by any such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE Circular 37 could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

  

PRC regulations involve complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make our restructuring or an offering subject to government approval.

 

Pursuant to the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors (“M&A Rule”), effective as of September 8, 2006 and revised as of June 22, 2009, additional procedures and requirements were established that are expected to make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, or that the approval from MOFCOM be obtained in circumstances where overseas companies established or controlled by PRC enterprises or residents acquire affiliated domestic companies and special anti-monopoly submissions for parties meeting certain reporting thresholds.

 

The M&A Rules require offshore companies formed for overseas listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of MOFCOM prior to a cross-border share swap and the CSRC prior to the public listing of their securities on an overseas stock exchange through share swap. On September 21, 2006, pursuant to the M&A Rule and other PRC Laws, the CSRC published on its official website relevant guidance with respect to the listing and trading of PRC domestic enterprises’ securities on overseas stock exchanges (“Related Clarifications”), including a list of application materials regarding the listing on overseas stock exchange by special purpose vehicles, however, the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule concerning whether an offering, is subject to the M&A Rule and Related Clarifications.

 

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of the above rules, and MOFCOM and CSRC have yet to promulgate any written provisions or formally to declare or state whether the overseas listing of a PRC related company similar to us will be subject to approvals from MOFCOM and CSRC with respect to any offering or a failure to maintain an offering. If MOFCOM and CSRC approvals are required in connection with our previous restructuring, our failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval could result in penalties imposed by MOFCOM, CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies. These penalties could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, restriction or limitation on remitting dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may cause a material and adverse effect on our business, operations and financial conditions.

 

Notwithstanding those provisions, we are advised by our PRC counsel, Shaanxi Yan Tan Law Firm, MOFCOM and CSRC approvals are not required in the context of our previous restructuring, because our previous restructuring does not constitute a cross- border share swap contemplated by the M&A Rule. However, we cannot assure you that the relevant PRC government agencies, including MOFCOM and CSRC, would reach the same conclusion, and we still cannot rule out the possibility that MOFCOM and CSRC may deem our listing structure as circumventing the M&A Rule and Related Clarifications, in particular in consideration of the fact that our restructuring was completed through several steps. Please refer to the Company History section about our restructuring.

 

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PRC regulations also involve complex procedures for acquisitions conducted by foreign investors that could make it more difficult for us to grow through acquisitions.

 

We may grow our business in part by acquiring other companies in the PRC. Complying with the requirements of the M&A Rule to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

 

Our labor costs may increase due to the implementation of the new PRC Labor Contract Law.

 

The PRC Labor Contract Law was adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of PRC in June 2007 and became effective on January 1, 2008. The Implementation Rules of the PRC Labor Contract Law were passed by the PRC State Council in September 2008 and became effective that same month. The implementation of the new law and its Implementation Rules, particularly the following provisions, may increase our labor costs: (a) an employer shall make monetary compensation, which shall be based on the number of an employee’s working years with the employer at the rate of one month’s wage for each year, to the employee upon termination of an employment contract with certain exceptions (for example, in circumstances where the term of a fixed-term employment contract expires and the employee does not agree to renew the contract even though the conditions offered by the employer are the same as or better than those stipulated in the current contract); (b) the wages of an employee who is on probation may not be less than the lowest wage level for the same job with the employer or less than 80% of the wage agreed upon in the employment contract, and may not be less than the local minimum wage rate; (c) if an employee has been working for the employer for a consecutive period of not less than 10 years, or if a fixed-term employment contract with an employee was entered into on two consecutive occasions, generally the employer should enter into an open-ended employment contract with such employee, unless the employee requests a fixed-term employment contract; (d) if an employer fails, in violation of the related provisions, to enter into an open-ended employment contract with an employee, it shall in each month pay to the employee twice his/her wage, starting from the date on which an open-ended employment contract should have been entered into; (e) if an employer fails to enter into a written employment contract with an employee more than one month but less than one year after the date on which it started employing him/her, it shall in each month pay to the employee twice his/her wage; and (f) if an employer hires an employee whose employment contract with another employer has not yet been terminated or ended, causing the other employer to suffer a loss, the later hiring employer shall be jointly and severally liable with the employee for the compensation for such loss. Our labor costs may increase due to the implementation of the new PRC Labor Contract Law and the Implementation Rules of the PRC Labor Contract Law and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

We currently lease one office space in Xi’an, which is located at 4/F, Block C, Rong Cheng Yun Gu Building, Keji 3rd Road, Xi’an, PRC. We also leased one office space in Beijing from August 2018 to July 2019, which is located at Suite 3103, Floor 31, Kun Tai Jia Rui Building, Chaoyang District, Beijing, PRC. The average monthly rent for our office locations was $8,391 in 2019 and $7,100 in 2018.

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

From time to time, we may be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings, and to our knowledge none is threatened. There can be no assurance that future legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business or otherwise will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

 

Our common stock is currently traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “CREG.” On May 13, 2020, the last reported sales price for our common stock was $2.69 per share. As of May 14, 2020, there were 2,232,642 shares of our Common Stock outstanding, held by approximately 2,720 shareholders of record.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We did not pay any cash dividends on our common stock in 2019 or 2018. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance operations and the expansion of our business.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

During the fourth fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2019, the Company did the following issuances of unregistered securities. Certain information previously disclosed in prior quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or in current reports on Form 8-K we filed has not been furnished in this annual report.

 

Shares Issued for Stock Compensation

 

On October 10, 2019, the Company entered an investment banking engagement agreement with an investment banker firm, engaging that firm as the exclusive lead underwriter for a registered securities offering. Pursuant to the terms of this engagement agreement, the Company issued 10,000 shares of its unregistered and restricted Common Stock to an investment banker firm within 10 days from the date of the execution of the engagement agreement, and the remaining 5,000 shares will be paid upon completion of the offering.

 

On October 11, 2019, the Company entered a consulting agreement with a consulting company to advise the Company on an acquisition project. Pursuant to the terms of this consulting agreement, the Company issued 31,250 shares of the Company’s unregistered and restricted Common Stock to this consulting company.

 

The issuances of the shares of common stock for stock compensation described above were exempt from registration under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act as transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

There were no common stock purchases by the Company during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2019.

 

Equity Compensation Plan Information

 

During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, there were no equity compensation plans that were either approved or not approved by our shareholders.

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

 

Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

This annual report on Form 10-K and other reports filed by the Company from time to time with the SEC (collectively the “Filings”) contain or may contain forward-looking statements and information that are based upon beliefs of, and information currently available to, Company’s management as well as estimates and assumptions made by Company’s management. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are only predictions and speak only as of the date hereof. When used in the filings, the words “may”, “will”, “should”, “would”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, “future”, “intend”, “plan”, or the negative of these terms and similar expressions as they relate to Company or Company’s management identify forward-looking statements. Such statements reflect the current view of Company with respect to future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors (including the statements in the section “results of operations” below), and any businesses that Company may acquire. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may differ significantly from those anticipated, believed, estimated, expected, intended, or planned.

 

Although the Company believes the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, the Company cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, the Company does not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements to conform these statements to actual results. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made throughout the entirety of annual report, which attempts to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

 

Our financial statements are prepared in US Dollars and in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. See “Foreign Currency Translation and Comprehensive Income (Loss)” below for information concerning the exchange rates at which Renminbi (“RMB”) were translated into US Dollars (“USD”) at various pertinent dates and for pertinent periods.

 

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OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS BACKGROUND

 

China Recycling Energy Corporation (the “Company” or “CREG”) was incorporated on May 8, 1980 as Boulder Brewing Company under the laws of the State of Colorado. On September 6, 2001, the Company changed its state of incorporation to Nevada. In 2004, the Company changed its name from Boulder Brewing Company to China Digital Wireless, Inc. and on March 8, 2007, the Company again changed its name from China Digital Wireless, Inc. to its current name, China Recycling Energy Corporation. The Company, through its subsidiaries, sells and leases energy saving systems and equipment to its customers in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”). Typically, the Company transfers ownership of the waste energy recycling power generating projects to its customers at the end of each sales-type lease and provides financing to its customers for the cost of the projects as described below. 

 

The Company is in the process of transforming and expanding into an energy storage integrated solution provider. We plan to pursue disciplined and targeted expansion strategies for market areas we currently do not serve. We actively seek and explore opportunities to apply energy storage technologies to new industries or segments with high growth potential, including industrial and commercial complexes, large scale photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, remote islands without electricity, and smart energy cities with multi-energy supplies. By supporting and motivating all kinds of the electric power market to participate in resource development and utilization of demand response, we plan to provide services including peak shaving with compensation and frequency modulation. We intend to gradually form motor load performance for peak and low-hours, which will account for about 3% of the annual maximum power load on the demand side and to ensure the electricity supply and demand balance for situations of non-severe power shortages.

 

 In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to constitute a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” This pandemic, which continues to spread to additional countries, and is disrupting supply chains and affecting production and sales across a range of industries as a result of quarantines, facility closures, and travel and logistics restrictions in connection with the outbreak. Therefore, the Company expects this matter to negatively impact its operating results even though China is opening up most of the cities and industries as of this report date. However, the related financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had a net loss of $8.77 million and $66.00 million, respectively. The Company has an accumulated deficit of $46.45 million as of December 31, 2019. The Company is in the process of transforming and expanding into an energy storage integrated solution provider as described above.

 

The historical operating results indicate substantial doubt exists related to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. However, the Company had $16.22 million cash on hand at December 31, 2019 and has collected RMB 327.60 million ($46.96 million) in 2020 up to this report date, this also satisfies the Company’s estimated liquidity needs 12 months from the issuance of the financial statements. The Company believes that the actions discussed above are probable of occurring and the occurrence, as well as the cash flow discussed, mitigate the substantial doubt raised by its historical operating results.

 

Management also intends to raise additional funds by way of a private or public offering, or by obtaining loans from banks or others. While the Company believes in the viability of its strategy to generate sufficient revenue and in its ability to raise additional funds on reasonable terms and conditions, there can be no assurances to that effect. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to further implement its business plan and generate sufficient revenue and its ability to raise additional funds by way of a public or private offering, or debt financing including bank loans.

 

Our Subsidiaries

 

Our business is primarily conducted through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Sifang Holdings Co., Ltd. (“Sifang”) and Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd (“Yinghua”); Sifang’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Huahong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Huahong”) and Shanghai TCH Energy Tech Co., Ltd. (“Shanghai TCH”); Shanghai TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Company, Ltd (“Xi’an TCH”); Xi’an TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd (“Erdos TCH”) and Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co., Ltd (“Zhongxun”); and Xi’an TCH’s 90% and Shanghai TCH’s 10% owned subsidiary, Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zhonghong”). Zhonghong provides energy saving solutions and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers, project investment. 

  

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The Company’s organizational chart as of December 31, 2019 is as follows:

 

CREG Legal Structure

 

 

 

Shanghai TCH and its Subsidiaries

 

Shanghai TCH was established as a foreign investment enterprise in Shanghai under the laws of the PRC on May 25, 2004 and has registered capital of $29.80 million. Xi’an TCH was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province under the laws of the PRC on November 8, 2007. In February 2009, Huahong was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi province. Erdos TCH was incorporated in April 2009 in Erdos, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd (“Zhonghong”). Xi’an TCH owns 90% and Shanghai TCH owns 10% of Zhonghong.

 

As of December 31, 2019, Shanghai TCH, through its subsidiaries, had sales or sales-type leases with Pucheng for two biomass power generation (“BMPG”) systems.     

 

The Fund Management Company and the HYREF Fund

 

On June 25, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd (“Hongyuan Huifu”) established Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Company Ltd. (the “Fund Management Company”) with registered capital of RMB 10 million ($1.45 million). Xi’an TCH made an initial capital contribution of RMB 4 million ($650,000) and has 40% ownership interest in the Fund Management Company. With respect to the Fund Management Company, voting rights and dividend rights are allocated 80% and 20% between Hongyuan Huifu and Xi’an TCH, respectively.

 

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The Fund Management Company is the general partner of Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF Fund”), a limited liability partnership established July 18, 2013 in Beijing. The Fund Management Company made an initial capital contribution of RMB 5 million ($830,000) to the HYREF Fund. RMB 460 million ($77 million) was fully subscribed by all partners for the HYREF Fund. The HYREF Fund has three limited partners: (1) China Orient Asset Management Co., Ltd., which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 280 million ($46.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a preferred limited partner; (2) Hongyuan Huifu, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 100 million ($16.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is an ordinary limited partner; and (3) the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 75 million ($12.5 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a secondary limited partner. In addition, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu formed Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Company Ltd. to manage this Fund and also subscribed in the amount of RMB 5 million ($830,000) from the Fund. The term of the HYREF Fund’s partnership is six years from the date of its establishment, expiring on July 18, 2019. However, the HYREF Fund’s partnership will not terminate until the HYREF loan is fully repaid and the buy-back period is over pursuant to that certain Buy-Back Agreement entered on December 29, 2018 by and among HYREF, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku, Chonggong Bai and Xi’an Hanneng (the “Buy-Back Agreement”) (see Note 10). The term is four years from the date of contribution for the preferred limited partner, and four years from the date of contribution for the ordinary limited partner. The size of the HYREF Fund is RMB 460 million ($77 million). The HYREF Fund was formed for the purpose of investing in Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., a then 90% owned subsidiary of Xi’an TCH, for the construction of two coke dry quenching (“CDQ”) waste heat power generation (“WHPG”) stations with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”) and one CDQ WHPG station with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”).

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with Hongyuan Huifu, pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred its 40% ownership in the Fund Management Company to Hongyuan Huifu for RMB 3,453,867 ($0.53 million). The transfer was completed January 22, 2019. The Company recorded approximately $46,500 loss from the sale of a 40% equity interest in Fund Management Company. The Company has no ownership in the Fund Management Company after this transaction.

 

Erdos TCH – Joint Venture

 

On April 14, 2009, the Company formed Erdos TCH as a joint venture (the “JV” or “Erdos TCH”) with Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd. (“Erdos”) to recycle waste heat from Erdos’ metal refining plants to generate power and steam to be sold back to Erdos. The JV has a term of 20 years with a total investment for the project estimated at $79 million (RMB 500 million) and an initial investment of $17.55 million (RMB 120 million). Erdos contributed 7% of the total investment for the project, and Xi’an TCH contributed 93%. According to Xi’an TCH and Erdos’ agreement on profit distribution, Xi’an TCH and Erdos will receive 80% and 20%, respectively, of the profit from the JV until Xi’an TCH receives the complete return of its investment. Xi’an TCH and Erdos will then receive 60% and 40%, respectively, of the profit from the JV. On June 15, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Erdos entered into a share transfer agreement, pursuant to which Erdos transferred and sold its 7% ownership interest in the JV to Xi’an TCH for $1.29 million (RMB 8 million), plus certain accumulated profits as described below. Xi’an TCH paid the $1.29 million in July 2013 and, as a result, became the sole stockholder of Erdos TCH. In addition, Xi’an TCH is required to pay Erdos accumulated profits from inception up to June 30, 2013 in accordance with the supplementary agreement entered on August 6, 2013. In August 2013, Xi’an TCH paid 20% of the accumulated profit (calculated under PRC GAAP) of $226,000 to Erdos. Erdos TCH currently has two power generation systems in Phase I with a total of 18 MW power capacity, and three power generation systems in Phase II with a total of 27 MW power capacity.  

 

With the current economic conditions in China, the government limited over-capacity and production in the iron and steel industry, which resulted in a decrease of Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd’s production of ferrosilicon and its revenue and cash flows, and made it difficult for Erdos to make the monthly minimum lease payment.

 

After considering the challenging economic conditions facing Erdos, and to maintain the long-term cooperative relationship between the parties, which we believe will continue to produce long-term benefits, on April 28, 2016, Erdos TCH and Erdos entered into a supplemental agreement, effective May 1, 2016. Under the supplemental agreement, Erdos TCH cancelled monthly minimum lease payments from Erdos, and agreed to charge Erdos based on actual electricity sold at RMB 0.30 / KWH, which price will be adjusted annually based on prevailing market conditions.   Since May 2019, Erdos TCH has ceased its operations due to renovations and furnace safety upgrades of Erdos, and the Company expects the resumption of operations in July 2020. During this period, Erdos will compensate Erdos TCH RMB 1 million ($145,460) per month, until operations resume.

 

The Company evaluated the modified terms for payments based on actual electricity sold as minimum lease payments as defined in ASC 840-10-25-4, since lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. The Company wrote off the net investment receivables of these leases at the lease modification date.

 

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In addition, Erdos TCH has 30% ownership in DaTangShiDai (BinZhou) Energy Savings Technology Co., Ltd. (“BinZhou Energy Savings”), 30% ownership in DaTangShiDai DaTong Recycling Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“DaTong Recycling Energy”), and 40% ownership in DaTang ShiDai TianYu XuZhou Recycling Energy Technology Co, Ltd. (“TianYu XuZhou Recycling Energy”). These companies were incorporated in 2012 but had no operations since then nor any registered capital contribution was made.

 

Shenqiu Yuneng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On May 25, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Letter of Intent (“LOI”) with Shenqiu YuNeng Thermal Power Co., Ltd. (“Shenqiu”) to reconstruct and transform a Thermal Power Generation System owned by Shenqiu into a 75T/H BMPG System for $3.57 million (RMB 22.5 million). The project commenced in June 2011 and was completed in the third quarter of 2011. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation Asset Transfer Agreement with Shenqiu (the “Shenqiu Transfer Agreement”). Pursuant to the Shenqiu Transfer Agreement, Shenqiu sold Xi’an TCH a set of 12 MW BMPG systems (after Xi’an TCH converted the system for BMPG purposes). As consideration for the BMPG systems, Xi’an TCH paid Shenqiu $10.94 million (RMB 70 million) in cash in three installments within six months upon the transfer of ownership of the systems. By the end of 2012, all the consideration was paid. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu also entered into a Biomass Power Generation Project Lease Agreement (the “2011 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease a set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu at a monthly rental of $286,000 (RMB 1.8 million) for 11 years. Upon expiration of the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost. In connection with the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Shenqiu paid one month’s rent as a security deposit to Xi’an TCH, in addition to providing personal guarantees.

 

On October 8, 2012, Xi’an TCH entered into a LOI for technical reformation of Shenqiu Project Phase II with Shenqiu for technical reformation to enlarge the capacity of the Shenqiu Project Phase I (the “Shenqiu Phase II Project”). The technical reformation involved the construction of another 12 MW BMPG system. After the reformation, the generation capacity of the power plant increased to 24 MW. The project commenced on October 25, 2012 and was completed during the first quarter of 2013. The total cost of the project was $11.1 million (RMB 68 million). On March 30, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement (the “2013 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2013 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease the second set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu for $239,000 (RMB 1.5 million) per month for 9.5 years. When the 2013 Shenqiu Lease expires, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost. 

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an TCH will transfer two Biomass Power Generation Projects in Shenqiu (“Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”) to Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF”) as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF as consideration for the transfer of the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects (See Note 10). The transfer of projects was completed February 15, 2019. The Company recorded $208,359 loss from the transfer. Mr. Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng to the HYREF Fund as repayment for the loan on January 10, 2019. Xi’an Hanneng will own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd for the repayment of Shenqiu system and Huayu system. However, Xi’an Hanneng was not able to obtain all the Huaxin shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report.  On December 19, 2019, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai jointly and severally agreed to buy back all outstanding capital equity of Xi’an Hanneng which was transferred to HYREF by Chonggong Bai earlier. The total buy back price was RMB 261,727,506 ($37.52 million) including accrued interest of RMB 14,661,506 ($2.10 million), and was paid in full by Xi’an TCH. On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai, Xi’an TCH and Xi’an Zhonghong, agreed to have Mr. Bai repay the Company in cash for the transfer price of Xuzhou Huayu and Shenqiu in five installment payments. The 1st payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is due on January 5, 2020, the 2nd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on February 5, 2020, the 3rd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on April 5, 2020, the 4th payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million)was due on June 30, 2020, and the final payment of RMB 47,066,000 ($6.75 million) was due on September 30, 2020. As of this report date, the Company already received RMB 150 million ($21.51 million).

  

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Pucheng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On June 29, 2010, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation (“BMPG”) Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng XinHengYuan Biomass Power Generation Co., Ltd. (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. Under this lease agreement, Xi’an TCH leased a set of 12MW BMPG systems to Pucheng at a minimum of $279,400 (RMB 1,900,000) per month for 15 years (“Pucheng Phase I”).

 

On September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a BMPG Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Pucheng Transfer Agreement”) with Pucheng Xin Heng Yuan Biomass Power Generation Corporation (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. The Pucheng Transfer Agreement provided for the sale by Pucheng to Xi’an TCH of a set of 12 MW BMPG systems with the completion of system transformation for a purchase price of RMB 100 million ($16.48 million) in the form of 87,666 shares (post-reverse stock split) of common stock of the Company at $187.0 (post-reverse stock price) per share. Also on September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH also entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng (the “Pucheng Lease”). Under the Pucheng Lease, Xi’an TCH leases this same set of 12 MW BMPG system to Pucheng, and combines this lease with the lease for the 12 MW BMPG station of Pucheng Phase I project, under a single lease to Pucheng for RMB 3.8 million ($0.63 million) per month (the “Pucheng Phase II Project”). The term for the consolidated lease is from September 2013 to June 2025. The lease agreement for the 12 MW station from Pucheng Phase I project terminated upon the effective date of the Pucheng Lease. The ownership of two 12 MW BMPG systems will transfer to Pucheng at no additional charge when the Pucheng Lease expires.

 

On September 29, 2019, Xi’an TCH entered into a Termination Agreement of the Lease Agreement of Biomass Power Generation Project (the “Termination Agreement”) with Pucheng.

 

Pucheng failed to pay fees it owed to Xi’an TCH for leasing two biomass power generation systems from Xi’an TCH with total capacity of 24MW due to its long suspension of production resulting from the significant reduction of raw material supplies for its biomass power generation operation in Pucheng County, which caused the biomass power generation project to no longer be suitable. Pursuant to the Termination Agreement, the parties agreed: (i) Pucheng shall pay off outstanding lease fees of RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) owed as of December 31, 2018 to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020; (ii) Xi’an TCH will waive the lease fees owed after January 1, 2019; (iii) Xi’an TCH will not return RMB 3.8 million ($542,857) in cash deposits paid by Pucheng; (iv) Xi’an TCH will transfer the Project to Pucheng at no additional cost after receiving RMB 97.6 million from Pucheng, and the original lease agreement between the parties will be formally terminated; and (v) if Pucheng fails to pay off RMB 97.6 million to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020, Xi’an TCH will still hold ownership of the Project and the original lease agreement shall still be valid. Xi’an TCH received RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) in full in January 14, 2020 and the ownership of the system was transferred. 

 

Chengli Waste Heat Power Generation Projects

 

On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed a new company, “Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.” (“Zhonghong”), with registered capital of RMB 30 million ($4.85 million). Xi’an TCH paid RMB 27 million ($4.37 million) and owns 90% of Zhonghong. Zhonghong is engaged to provide energy saving solution and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF agreed to transfer its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH for RMB 3 million ($0.44 million). The transfer was completed January 22, 2019.

 

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On July 24, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”). The parties entered into a supplement agreement on July 26, 2013. Pursuant to these agreements, Zhonghong agreed to design, build and maintain a 25 MW CDQ system and a CDQ WHPG system to supply power to Chengli, and Chengli agreed to pay energy saving fees (the “Chengli Project”). Chengli will contract the operation of the system to a third party contractor that is mutually agreed to by Zhonghong. In addition, Chengli will provide the land for the CDQ system and CDQ WHPG system at no cost to Zhonghong. The term of these Agreements is 20 years. The watt hours generated by the Chengli Project will be charged at RMB 0.42 ($0.068) per KWH (excluding tax). The operating time shall be based upon an average 8,000 hours annually. If the operating time is less than 8,000 hours per year due to a reason attributable to Chengli, then time charged shall be 8,000 hours a year, and if it is less than 8,000 hours due to a reason attributable to Zhonghong, then it shall be charged at actual operating hours. The construction of the Chengli Project was completed in the second quarter of 2015 and the project successfully completed commissioning tests in the first quarter of 2017. The Chengli Project is now operational, however, due to intensifying environmental protection, the local environmental authorities required the project owner constructing CDQ sewage treatment to complete supporting works, which were completed and passed through acceptance inspection during the quarter ended September 30, 2018. However, the owner of Chengli Project changed from Chengli to Shandong Boxing Shengli Technology Company Ltd. (“Shengli”). This change resulted from transfer of the equity ownership of Chengli to Shengli (a private company) in March 2014. Chengli, a 100% state-owned enterprise that is 100% owned by the local Power Supply Bureau,  is no longer allowed to carry out business activities, and Shengli, the new owner, is not entitled to the high on-grid prices, and thus demanded a renegotiation of the settlement terms for the project. The Company negotiated with the new project owner on the lease term, settlement method and settlement price, but no agreement has been reached.   

 

On July 22, 2013, Zhonghong entered into an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) General Contractor Agreement for the Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. CDQ Power Generation Project (the “Chengli Project”) with Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”). Zhonghong, as the owner of the Chengli Project, contracted EPC services for a CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system for Chengli to Huaxin. Huaxin shall provide construction, equipment procurement, transportation, installation and adjustment, test run, construction engineering management and other necessary services to complete the Chengli Project and ensure the CDQ system and CDQ WHPG system for Chengli meet the inspection and acceptance requirements and work normally. The Chengli Project is a turn-key project in which Huaxin is responsible for monitoring the quality, safety, duration and cost of the Chengli Project. The total contract price is RMB 200 million ($33.34 million), which includes all materials, equipment, labor, transportation, electricity, water, waste disposal, machinery and safety costs.

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, the “HYREF”, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment for the loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the CDQ WHPG Station when conditions under the Buy Back Agreement are met (see Note 10). The transfer was completed January 22, 2019, and the Company recorded $624,133 loss from this transfer. Since the original terms of Buy Back Agreement are still valid, the Buy Back possibility is uncertain; therefore, the assets of Chengli CDQ WHPG station, and the corresponding loan principal and interest, cannot be terminated due to the existence of Buy Back clauses.

 

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Tianyu Waste Heat Power Generation Project

 

On July 19, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement (the “Tianyu Agreement”) for Energy Management of CDQ and CDQ WHPG with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd (“Tianyu”). Pursuant to the Tianyu Agreement, Zhonghong will design, build, operate and maintain two sets of 25 MW CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for two subsidiaries of Tianyu – Xuzhou Tian’an Chemical Co., Ltd (“Xuzhou Tian’an”) and Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu”) – to be located at Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu’s respective locations (the “Tianyu Project”). Upon completion of the Tianyu Project, Zhonghong will charge Tianyu an energy saving fee of RMB 0.534 ($0.087) per KWH (excluding tax). The operating time will be based upon an average 8,000 hours annually for each of Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu. If the operating time is less than 8,000 hours per year due to a reason attributable to Tianyu, then time charged will be 8,000 hours a year. Because of the overcapacity and pollution of the iron and steel and related industries, the government has imposed production limitations for the energy-intensive enterprises with heavy pollution, including Xuzhou Tian’an. Xuzhou Tian’an has slowed the construction process for its dry quenching production line which caused the delay of our project. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project is anticipated to be completed by the second quarter of 2020. Xuzhou Tian’an will provide the land for the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for free. Xuzhou Tian’an has also guaranteed that it will purchase all of the power generated by the CDQ WHPG systems. The Xuzhou Huayu Project is currently on hold due to a conflict between Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. and local residents on certain pollution-related issues. The local government acted in its capacity to coordinate the resolution of this issue. The local residents were requested to move from the hygienic buffer zone of the project location in exchange for compensatory payments from the government. Xuzhou Huayu was required to stop production and implement technical innovations to mitigate pollution discharge including sewage treatment, dust collection, noise control, and recycling of coal gas. Currently, some local residents have moved. Xuzhou Huayu completed the implementation of the technical innovations of sewage treatment, dust collection, and noise control, and the Company is waiting for local governmental agencies to approve these technical innovations so that we can resume construction. Due to the stricter administration of environmental protection policies and recent increase in environmental protections for the coking industry in Xuzhou, all local coking, as well as steel iron enterprises, are facing a similar situation of suspended production while rectifying technologies and procedures.  

 

On July 22, 2013, Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. entered into an EPC General Contractor Agreement for the Xuzhou Tianyu Group CDQ Power Generation Project (the “Project”) with Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”). Zhonghong as the owner of the Project contracted EPC for the two sets of CDQ and 25 MW CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu to Huaxin—one for Xuzhou Tian’an and one for Xuzhou Huayu. Huaxin shall provide construction, equipment procurement, transportation, installation and adjustment, test run, construction engineering management and other necessary works to complete the Project and ensure the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu meet the inspection and acceptance requirements and work normally. The Project is a turn-key project and Huaxin is responsible for the quality, safety, duration and cost of the Project. The total contract price is RMB 400 million ($66.67 million), of which RMB 200 million ($33.34 million) is for the Xuzhou Tian’an system and RMB 200 million is for the Xuzhou Huayu system. The price is a cover-all price, which includes but not limited to all the materials, equipment, labor, transportation, electricity, water, waste disposal, machinery and safety matters. 

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred a CDQ WHPG station (under construction) located in Xuzhou City for Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu Project”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to the HYREF Fund as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project (see Note 10). The transfer of the projects was completed February 15, 2019. The Company recorded $397,033 loss from this transfer. On January 10, 2019, Mr. Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the loan. Xi’an Hanneng will own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd for the repayment of Huayu system and Shenqiu system. As of September 30, 2019, Xi’an Hanneng already owned 29,948,000 shares of Huaxin, but was not able to obtain the remaining 17,202,000 shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report.   On December 19, 2019, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai jointly and severally agreed to buy back all outstanding capital equity of Xi’an Hanneng which was transferred to HYREF by Chonggong Bai earlier. The total buy back price was RMB 261,727,506 ($37.52 million) including accrued interest of RMB 14,661,506 ($2.10 million), and was paid in full by Xi’an TCH. On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai, Xi’an TCH and Xi’an Zhonghong, agreed to have Mr. Bai repay the Company in cash for the transfer price of Xuzhou Huayu and Shenqiu in five installment payments. The 1st payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is due on January 5, 2020, the 2nd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on February 5, 2020, the 3rd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on April 5, 2020, the 4th payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million)is due on June 30, 2020, and the final payment of RMB 47,066,000 ($6.75 million) is due on September 30, 2020. As of the date of this report, the Company has already received RMB 150 million ($21.51 million).

 

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On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million ($24.37 million) by three installment payments. The 1st installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) to be paid within 20 working days after the contract is signed. The 2nd installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is to be paid within 20 working days after completion of the project construction but no later than July 31, 2020. The final installment payment of RMB 70 million ($10.03 million) is to be paid before December 31, 2020. On March 11, 2020, the Company received 1st installment payment.

 

Zhongtai WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement

 

On December 6, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a CDQ and WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement (the “Zhongtai Agreement”) with Xuzhou Zhongtai Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zhongtai”), a limited liability company incorporated in Jiangsu Province, China.

 

Pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement, Xi’an TCH will design, build and maintain a 150 ton per hour CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system (the “Project”) and sell the power to Zhongtai, and Xi’an TCH will also build a furnace to generate steam from the waste heat of the smoke pipeline and sell the steam to Zhongtai.

 

The construction period of the Project is expected to be 18 months from the date when conditions are ready for construction to begin. Zhongtai will start to pay an energy saving fee from the date when the WHPG station passes the required 72-hour test run. The term of payment is 20 years. For the first 10 years of the term, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.534 ($0.089) per KWH (including value added tax) for the power generated from the system. For the second 10 years of the term, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.402 ($0.067) per KWH (including value added tax). During the term of the contract the energy saving fee shall be adjusted at the same percentage as the change of local grid electricity price. Zhongtai shall also pay an energy saving service fee for the steam supplied by Xi’an TCH at RMB 100 ($16.67) per ton (including value added tax). Zhongtai and its parent company will provide guarantees to ensure Zhongtai will fulfill its obligations under the Agreement. Upon the completion of the term, Xi’an TCH will transfer the systems to Zhongtai at RMB 1 ($0.16). Zhongtai shall provide waste heat to the systems for no less than 8,000 hours per year and waste gas volume no less than 150,000 Nm3 per hour with a temperature no less than 950°C. If these requirements are not met, the term of the Zhongtai Agreement will be extended accordingly. If Zhongtai wants to terminate the Zhongtai Agreement early, it shall provide Xi’an TCH a 60 day notice and pay the termination fee and compensation for the damages to Xi’an TCH according to the following formula: (i) if it is less than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount plus Xi’an TCH’s annual investment return times five years minus the years in which the system has already operated; or (ii) if it is more than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests the termination, Zhongtai shall pay Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount minus total amortization cost (the amortization period is 10 years).  

 

On March 14, 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Xuzhou Zhongtai CDQ and Waste Heat Power Generation System Transfer Agreement (the “Transfer Agreement”) with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated in China (the “Contractor”). The Transfer Agreement provides for the sale to Zhongtai of all the assets of the Project under construction from Xi’an TCH. Additionally, Xi’an TCH will transfer to Zhongtai the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) Contract for the Project, which Xi’an TCH had entered into with the Contractor in connection with the Project. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Zhongtai is to pay to Xi’an TCH RMB 167,360,000 ($25.77 million and the “Transfer Price”), on the following schedule: (i) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) of the Transfer Price was paid within 20 business days from the execution of the Transfer Agreement; (ii) RMB 30,000,000 ($4.32 million) of the Transfer Price was paid within 20 business days upon the completion of the construction of the Project but not later than July 30, 2016; and (iii) RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) of the Transfer Price was to be paid before July 30, 2017. The temporary ownership of the Project was transferred from Xi’an TCH to Zhongtai after the Xi’an TCH received the first payment of RMB 50,000,000, and the full ownership of the Project is to be officially transferred to Zhongtai upon full payment of the Transfer Price. The Zhongtai Agreement is to be terminated and Xi’an TCH will agree not to pursue any breach of contract liability against Zhongtai under the Zhongtai Agreement once Zhongtai fully pays the Transfer Price according to the terms of the Transfer Agreement. If the Transfer Price is not fully paid on time pursuant to the Transfer Agreement, the Transfer Agreement automatically terminates and Xi’an TCH retains ownership of the Project, and both parties would continue to possess their respective rights and obligations according to the Zhongtai Agreement and assume the liabilities for breach of the Zhongtai Agreement. Xuzhou Taifa Special Steel Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Taifa”) has guaranteed the payments by Zhongtai. The Company recorded a $2.82 million loss from this transaction in 2016. In 2016, Xi’an TCH had received the first payment of $7.70 million and the second payment of $4.32 million. However, the Company received a repayment commitment letter from Zhongtai on February 23, 2018, in which Zhongtai committed to pay the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) no later than the end of July 2018; in July 2018, Zhongtai and the Company reached a further oral agreement to extend the repayment term of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) by another two to three months. In August 2018, the Company received $1,070,000 from Zhongtai; as of December 31, 2019,  the Company had receivables from Zhongtai for $10.03 million (with bad debt allowance of $5.73 million). In January 2020, Zhongtai paid RBM 10 million (1.43 million); in March 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 20 million ($2.87 million). Zhongtai is committed to pay in full the remaining balance of RMB 40 million ($5.73 million) in 2020.

 

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On September 9, 2019, we entered into a letter of intent to acquire a controlling interest in Xi’an Yineng Zhihui Technology Co., Ltd. (“YNZH”), a next generation energy storage solution provider in China.  YNZH is a leading comprehensive high-tech intelligent energy service company integrated with energy efficiency improvement and storage management in China. The energy efficiency management is to fully use big data cloud computing technology, effectively adopt the combination of the mature international and domestic clean energy technologies to make the customers’ energy management more efficient, more economical, more secure and more scientific. The terms of this proposed transaction are currently being negotiated.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements (“CFS”), which were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported net sales and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

 

While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our CFS, we believe the following accounting policies are the most critical to assist you in fully understanding and evaluating this management discussion and analysis.

 

Basis of Presentation

 

These accompanying CFS were prepared in accordance with US GAAP and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC for financial statements.

 

Basis of Consolidation

 

The CFS include the accounts of CREG and, its subsidiary, Sifang Holdings and Yinghua; Sifang Holdings’ wholly-owned subsidiaries, Huahong and Shanghai TCH; Shanghai TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiary Xi’an TCH; and Xi’an TCH’s subsidiaries, Erdos TCH, Zhonghong, and Zhongxun. Substantially all of the Company’s revenues are derived from the operations of Shanghai TCH and its subsidiaries, which represent substantially all of the Company’s consolidated assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2019. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions were eliminated in consolidation.  

 

Use of Estimates

 

In preparing the CFS, management makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in the balance sheets as well as revenues and expenses during the year reported. Actual results may differ from these estimates. 

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Cash includes cash on hand and demand deposits in accounts maintained within China. Balances at financial institutions within China are not covered by insurance. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. 

 

Certain other financial instruments, which subject the Company to concentration of credit risk, consist of accounts and other receivables. The Company does not require collateral or other security to support these receivables. The Company conducts periodic reviews of its customers’ financial condition and customer payment practices to minimize collection risk on accounts receivable.

 

The operations of the Company are located in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environments in the PRC.

 

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Accounts Receivable

 

As of December 31, 2019, the Company had gross accounts receivable of $48.06 million; of which, $35.42 million was for transferring the ownership of Huayu and Shenqiu Phase I and II systems to Mr. Bai; $10.03 million was from the sales of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system to Zhongtai, and $2.61 million accounts receivable of Erdos TCH for the electricity sold. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had bad debt allowance of $5,733,781 for Zhongtai and $261,430 for Erdos TCH due to not making the payments as scheduled.

 

Interest Receivable on Sales Type Leases

 

As of December 31, 2019, the interest receivable on sales type leases was $5,245,244, mainly representing recognized but not yet collected interest income for the Pucheng systems.

 

Investment in sales-type leases, net 

 

The Company maintains reserves for potential credit losses on receivables. Management reviews the composition of receivables and analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit worthiness, current economic trends and changes in customer payment patterns to evaluate the adequacy of these reserves.  Based on an evaluation of the collectability of such receivables, as of December 31, 2019, the Company had bad debt allowance for net investment receivable on sales-type leases of $24,416,441 for the Pucheng systems.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Sales-type Leasing and Related Revenue Recognition 

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842 using the modified retrospective transition approach by applying the new standard to all leases existing at the date of initial application. Results and disclosure requirements for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under ASC Topic 842, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historical accounting under Topic 840. (See Operating lease below as relates to the Company as a lessee). The Company’s sales type lease contracts for revenue recognition fall under ASC 842. During 2019 and 2018, the Company did not sell any new power generating projects.

 

The Company constructs and leases waste energy recycling power generating projects to its customers. The Company typically transfers ownership of the waste energy recycling power generating projects to its customers at the end of the lease. Prior to January 1, 2019, the investment in these projects was recorded as investment in sales-type leases in accordance with ASC Topic 840, “Leases,” and its various amendments and interpretations.

 

The Company finances construction of waste energy recycling power generating projects. The sales and cost of sales are recognized at the inception of the lease, which is when the control is transferred to the lessee. The Company accounts for the transfer of control as a sales type lease in accordance with ASC 842-10-25-2. The underlying asset is derecognized, and revenue is recorded when collection of payments is probable. This is in accordance with the revenue recognition principle in ASC 606 -Revenue from contracts with customers. The investment in sales-type leases consists of the sum of the minimum lease payments receivable less unearned interest income and estimated executory cost. Minimum lease payments are part of the lease agreement between the Company (as the lessor) and the customer (as the lessee). The discount rate implicit in the lease is used to calculate the present value of minimum lease payments. The minimum lease payments consist of the gross lease payments net of executory costs and contingent rentals, if any. Unearned interest is amortized to income over the lease term to produce a constant periodic rate of return on net investment in the lease. While revenue is recognized at the inception of the lease, the cash flow from the sales-type lease occurs over the course of the lease, which results in interest income and reduction of receivables. Revenue is recognized net of sales tax.

 

Contingent Rental Income

 

The Company records the income from actual electricity usage in addition to minimum lease payment of each project as contingent rental income in the period earned. Contingent rent is not part of minimum lease payments.

 

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Foreign Currency Translation and Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

The Company’s functional currency is RMB. For financial reporting purposes, RMB figures were translated into USD as the reporting currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate in effect on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the reporting period. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a component of stockholders’ equity as “Accumulated other comprehensive income.” Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions are included in income. There has been no significant fluctuation in exchange rate for the conversion of RMB to USD after the balance sheet date.

 

The Company uses “Reporting Comprehensive Income” (codified in FASB ASC Topic 220). Comprehensive income is comprised of net income and all changes to the statements of stockholders’ equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders. 

 

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), which requires entities to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Early application will be permitted for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on its CFS.    

 

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The guidance removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its FV, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. The guidance should be adopted on a prospective basis for the annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its CFS.

 

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” which expands the scope of ASC 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. An entity should apply the requirements of ASC 718 to non-employee awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost. The amendments specify that ASC 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The new guidance is effective for SEC filers for fiscal years, and interim reporting periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 (i.e., January 1, 2020, for calendar year entities). Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the effects of the adoption of this guidance and currently believes that it will impact the accounting of the share-based awards granted to non-employees.

 

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements for Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 instruments in the fair value hierarchy. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted for any eliminated or modified disclosures. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.

 

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistent application among reporting entities. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the Company must apply certain aspects of this standard retrospectively for all periods presented while other aspects are applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company is evaluating the impact this update will have on its financial statements.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Comparison of years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

 

The following table sets forth the results of our operations for the periods indicated as a percentage of net sales. Certain columns may not add due to rounding.

 

   2019   % of  Sales   2018   % of Sales 
Sales  $697,028    100%  $4,888,016    100%
Sales of systems   -    -%   -    -%
Contingent rental income   -    -%   4,888,016    100%
Cost of sales   -    -%   -    -%
Cost of systems and contingent rental income   -    -%   -    -%
Gross profit   697,028    100%   4,888,016    100%
Interest income on sales-type leases   170,403    24%   3,312,465    68%
Total operating income   867,431    124%   8,200,481    168%
Total operating expenses   (9,974,519)   (1,431)%   (66,188,920)   (1,354)%
Loss from operations   (9,107,088)   (1,307)%   (57,988,439)   (1,186)%
Total non-operating expenses, net   (2,690,476)   (386)%   (8,584,658)   (176)%
Loss before income tax   (11,797,564)   (1,693)%   (66,573,097)   (1,362)%
Income tax expense (benefit)   (3,024,807)   (434)%   2,627,458    54%
Less: loss attributable to noncontrolling interest   -    -%   (3,203,657)   (66)%
Net loss attributable to China Recycling Energy Corp  $(8,772,757)   (1,259)%  $(65,996,898)   (1,350)%

 

SALES. Total sales for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $697,028 and $4,888,016, respectively. The sales were from the electricity sold by Erdos TCH. However, since May 2019, Erdos TCH has ceased its operations due to renovations and furnace safety upgrades of Erdos. During this period, Erdos will compensate Erdos TCH RMB 1 million ($145,460) per month, until operations resume. The Company expects the resumption of operations of Erdos TCH in July 2020.

 

COST OF SALES. Cost of sales (“COS”) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $0.

 

GROSS PROFIT. Gross income for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $697,028 and $4,888,016, a gross margin of 100%.

 

INTEREST INCOME ON SALES-TYPE LEASES. Interest income on sales-type leases for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $0.17 million, a $3.14 million decrease from $3.14 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. In February 2019, the Shenqiu Phase I and II systems were transferred to Mr. Bai, and the Company only had Pucheng Phase I and II systems since then, which the Company has ceased to accrue interest income since April 2018 because Pucheng power generation systems were suspended due to strict environmental protection policies and lack of supply of biomass waste raw materials.

 

On September 29, 2019, Xi’an TCH entered into a Termination Agreement of the Lease Agreement of Biomass Power Generation Project with Pucheng. Pursuant to the Termination Agreement, the parties agreed: (i) Pucheng shall pay off outstanding lease fees of RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) owed as of December 31, 2018 to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020; (ii) Xi’an TCH will waive the lease fees owed after January 1, 2019; (iii) Xi’an TCH will not return RMB 3.8 million ($542,857) in cash deposits paid by Pucheng; (iv) Xi’an TCH will transfer the Project to Pucheng at no additional cost after receiving RMB 97.6 million from Pucheng, and the original lease agreement between the parties will be formally terminated; and (v) if Pucheng fails to pay off RMB 97.6 million to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020, Xi’an TCH will still hold ownership of the Project and the original lease agreement shall still be valid. Xi’an TCH received RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) in full in January 14, 2020 and the ownership of the system was transferred. 

 

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The decreased interest income was due to the transfer of the Shenqiu Phase I and II systems to Mr. Bai in February 2019. 

 

During the year ended December 31, 2018, interest income was derived from the following four sales-type leases:

 

  i. Two BMPG systems to Pucheng Phase I and II (15 and 11.9 years, respectively);
     
  ii. One BMPG system to Shenqiu Phase I (11 years);
     
  iii. One BMPG system to Shenqiu Phase II (9.5 years);

 

OPERATING EXPENSES. Operating expenses consisted of general and administrative expenses, bad debts expense, loss on disposal of systems, and assets impairment loss on fixed assets and construction in progress totaling $9,974,519 for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $66,188,920 for the year ended December 31, 2018, a decrease of $56,214,401 or 85%. The decrease was mainly due to decreased bad debts expense by $26,824,653, decreased assets impairment loss on fixed assets and construction in progress by $27,553,129, and decreased operating expense by $2,858,155 of Erdos TCH due to cease of the operation .

 

NET NON-OPERATING EXPENSES. Net non-operating expenses consisted of non-sales-type lease interest income, interest expenses and miscellaneous expenses. For the year ended December 31, 2019, net non-operating expense was $2.69 million compared to $8.58 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we had $159,183 interest income but the amount was offset by $2.99 million interest expense on entrusted loan and convertible note. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had $153,532 interest income but the amounts were offset by a $8.74 million interest expense on entrusted loan.

 

INCOME TAX (BENEFIT) EXPENSE. Income tax benefit was $3,024,807 for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared with $2,627,458 income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2018. The consolidated effective income tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were (26.9%) and 4.0%, respectively. The increase in income tax benefit for year ended December 31, 2019 was due to less non-tax deductible loss in 2019 while in 2018, we had $60.64 million non-tax deductible loss.

 

NET LOSS. Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $8,772,757 compared to $65,996,898 for the year ended December 31, 2018, a decrease of loss of $57,224,141. This decrease in net loss was mainly due to the decrease operating expenses as described above.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Comparison of years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

 

As of December 31, 2019, the Company had cash and equivalents of $16.22 million, other current assets of $48.40 million, current liabilities of $36.25 million, working capital of $28.37 million, a current ratio of 1.78:1 and a liability-to-equity ratio of 0.57:1.

 

The following is a summary of cash provided by or used in each of the indicated types of activities during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

   2019   2018 
Cash provided by (used in):        
Operating Activities  $(14,649,028)  $2,168,285 
Investing Activities   5,074    - 
Financing Activities   (21,816,293)   3,689,190 

  

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Net cash used in operating activities was $14.65 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $2.17 million cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase in net cash outflow for the year ended December 31, 2019 was mainly due to increased cash outflow of interest payable on entrusted loan by $19,185,209 which was partly offset by decrease cash inflow of accounts receivable by $2,542,534.

 

Net cash provided by investing activities was $5,074 and $nil, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2019, $5,074 was the proceeds from disposal of the fixed assets.

 

Net cash used in financing activities was $21.82 million compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $3.69 million during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The cash outflow for the year ended December 31, 2019 came from repayment of entrusted loan of $27,125,768, but offset with the proceeds of issuance of notes of $2.00 million and proceeds from issuance of common stock of $3.31 million. The cash inflow for the year ended December 31, 2018 came from the issuance of a convertible note of $1,000,000 and proceeds from issuance of common stock of $2,689,190.

 

We do not believe inflation has had or will have a significant negative impact on our results of operations in 2020.

 

Transfers of Cash to and from Our Subsidiaries

 

The PRC has currency and capital transfer regulations that require us to comply with certain requirements for the movement of capital. The Company is able to transfer cash (US Dollars) to its PRC subsidiaries through: (i) an investment (by increasing the Company’s registered capital in a PRC subsidiary), or (ii) a stockholder loan. The Company’s subsidiaries in the PRC have not transferred any earnings or cash to the Company to date. The Company’s business is primarily conducted through its subsidiaries. The Company is a holding company and its material assets consist solely of the ownership interests held in its PRC subsidiaries. The Company relies on dividends paid by its subsidiaries for its working capital and cash needs, including the funds necessary: (i) to pay dividends or cash distributions to its stockholders, (ii) to service any debt obligations and (iii) to pay operating expenses. As a result of PRC laws and regulations (noted below) that require annual appropriations of 10% of after-tax income to be set aside in a general reserve fund prior to payment of dividends, the Company’s PRC subsidiaries are restricted in that respect, as well as in others respects noted below, in their ability to transfer a portion of their net assets to the Company as a dividend.

 

With respect to transferring cash from the Company to its subsidiaries, increasing the Company’s registered capital in a PRC subsidiary requires the filing of the local commerce department, while a stockholder loan requires a filing with the state administration of foreign exchange or its local bureau.

 

With respect to the payment of dividends, we note the following:

 

  1. PRC regulations currently permit the payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits, as determined in accordance with accounting standards and PRC regulations (an in-depth description of the PRC regulations is set forth below);
     
  2. Our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside, at a minimum, 10% of their net income after taxes, based on PRC accounting standards, each year as statutory surplus reserves until the cumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of their registered capital;
     
  3. Such reserves may not be distributed as cash dividends;
     
  4. Our PRC subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of their after-tax profits to fund their staff welfare and bonus funds; except in the event of a liquidation, these funds may also not be distributed to stockholders; the Company does not participate in a Common Welfare Fund;
     
  5. The incurrence of debt, specifically the instruments governing such debt, may restrict a subsidiary’s ability to pay stockholder dividends or make other cash distributions; and
     
  6. The Company is subject to covenants and consent requirements.

 

46

 

 

If, for the reasons noted above, our subsidiaries are unable to pay stockholder dividends and/or make other cash payments to the Company when needed, the Company’s ability to conduct operations, make investments, engage in acquisitions, or undertake other activities requiring working capital may be materially and adversely affected. However, our operations and business, including investment and/or acquisitions by our subsidiaries within China, will not be affected as long as the capital is not transferred in or out of the PRC.

 

PRC Regulations

 

In accordance with PRC regulations on Enterprises with Foreign Investment and their articles of association, a foreign-invested enterprise (“FIE”) established in the PRC is required to provide statutory reserves, which are appropriated from net profit, as reported in the FIE’s PRC statutory accounts. A FIE is required to allocate at least 10% of its annual after-tax profit to the surplus reserve until such reserve has reached 50% of its respective registered capital (based on the FIE’s PRC statutory accounts). The aforementioned reserves may only be used for specific purposes and may not be distributed as cash dividends. Until such contribution of capital is satisfied, the FIE is not allowed to repatriate profits to its stockholders, unless approved by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange. After satisfaction of this requirement, the remaining funds may be appropriated at the discretion of the FIE’s board of directors. Our subsidiary, Shanghai TCH, qualifies as a FIE and is therefore subject to the above-mandated regulations on distributable profits. 

 

Additionally, in accordance with PRC corporate law, a domestic enterprise is required to maintain a surplus reserve of at least 10% of its annual after-tax profit until such reserve has reached 50% of its respective registered capital based on the enterprise’s PRC statutory accounts. The aforementioned reserves can only be used for specific purposes and may not be distributed as cash dividends. Xi’an TCH, Huahong, Zhonghong and Erdos TCH were established as domestic enterprises; therefore, each is subject to the above-mentioned restrictions on distributable profits.

 

As a result of PRC laws and regulations that require annual appropriations of 10% of after-tax income to be set aside, prior to payment of dividends, in a general reserve fund, the Company’s PRC subsidiaries are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their net assets to the Company as a dividend or otherwise.

 

Chart of the Company’s Statutory Reserve

 

Pursuant to PRC corporate law, effective January 1, 2006, the Company is required to maintain a statutory reserve by appropriating from its after-tax profit before declaration or payment of dividends. The statutory reserve represents restricted retained earnings. Our restricted and unrestricted retained earnings under US GAAP are set forth below:

 

   As of 
   December 31,
2019
   December 31,
2018
 
Unrestricted retained earnings (accumulated deficit)  $(46,447,959)  $(37,675,202)
Restricted retained earnings (surplus reserve fund)   14,525,712    14,525,712 
Total retained earnings (accumulated deficit)  $(31,922,247)  $(23,149,490)

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We have not entered into any other financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our shares and classified as stockholders’ equity or that are not reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. We do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us. 

 

47

 

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The Company’s contractual obligations as of December 31, 2019 are as follows:

 

Contractual Obligation  1 year or
less
   More than
1 year
   See Note
(for details)
 
Notes payable including accrued interest of $368,362  $-   $1,920,738    13 
Entrusted loan including interest payable of $8,200,044  $28,680,258   $286,689    10 
Total  $28,680,258   $2,207,427      

 

The Company believes it has a stable cash inflow each month and a sufficient channel to commercial institutions to obtain any loans that may be necessary to meet its working capital needs. Historically, we have been able to obtain loans or otherwise achieve our financing objectives due to the Chinese government’s support for energy-saving businesses with stable cash inflows, good credit ratings and history. The Company does not believe it will have difficulties related to the repayment of its outstanding short-term loans since pursuant to that certain Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, dated as of December 29, 2018, by and among Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, HYREF, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai, Xi’an Zhonghong transferred Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment for this Entrusted loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to the lender, HYREF. The transfer was effectuated on January 22, 2019. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the Chengli CDQ WHPG Station when the conditions under the Buy-Back Agreement are met. However, since the possibility of the repurchases under the terms of the Buy-Back Agreement is uncertain, until the existing repurchase clauses in the Buy Back Agreement are terminated, the assets of Chengli CDQ WHPG station, and the corresponding loan principal and interest of the Entrusted Loan will continue to show on the Company’s books as outstanding contractual obligations (See Note 10 for details).

 

Commitments

 

Xuzhou Tian’an CDQ Power Generation Projects 

 

On July 19, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement for Energy Management of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”).

 

Pursuant to the Tianyu Agreement, Zhonghong will design, build, operate and maintain two sets of 25 MW CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for two subsidiaries of Tianyu: one is for and will be located at Xuzhou Tian’an Chemical Co., Ltd and one set is for and will be located at Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (the “Tianyu Project”). Upon the completion of the Tianyu Project, Zhonghong will charge Tianyu an energy saving service fee of RMB 0.534 ($0.088) per KWH (excluding tax). The operating time shall be based upon an average 8,000 hours annually for each of Tian’an and Huayu. If the operating time for each of Tian’an and Huayu is less than 8,000 hours a year due to reasons attributable to Tianyu, then time charged shall be 8,000 hours a year for each of Tian’an and Huayu. Xuzhou Tian’an and Huayu will provide the land for the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for free. Xuzhou Tian’an and Huayu also guarantee that they will purchase all of the power generated by the CDQ WHPG systems.   

 

On July 22, 2013, Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. entered into an EPC General Contractor Agreement for the Xuzhou Tianyu Group CDQ Power Generation Project (the “Project”) with Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”). Zhonghong as the owner of the Project contracted EPC for the two sets of CDQ and 25 MW CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu to Huaxin—one for Xuzhou Tian’an and one for Xuzhou Huayu. Huaxin shall provide construction, equipment procurement, transportation, installation and adjustment, test run, construction engineering management and other necessary works to complete the Project and ensure the CDQ and CDQ WHPG systems for Tianyu meet the inspection and acceptance requirements and work normally. The project is a turn-key project and Huaxin is responsible for the quality, safety, duration and cost of the Project. The total contract price is RMB 400 million ($66.67 million), of which RMB 200 million ($28.83 million) is for the Xuzhou Tian’an system and RMB 200 million is for the Xuzhou Huayu system. The price is a cover-all price which includes but is not limited to all the materials, equipment, labor, transportation, electricity, water, waste disposal, machinery and safety matters. As of December 31, 2019, Zhonghong had $24.37 million (or $37.76 million if including capitalized interest) for the Tian’an project and is committed to pay an additional $3.98 million for the Tian’an project. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project is anticipated to be completed by the second quarter of 2020.

 

On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million including VAT ($24.37 million) by three installment payments. The 1st installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) to be paid within 20 working days after the contract is signed. The 2nd installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is to be paid within 20 working days after completion of the project construction but no later than July 31, 2020. The final installment payment of RMB 70 million ($10.03 million) is to be paid before December 31, 2020. On March 11, 2020, the Company received 1st installment payment.

  

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Not applicable.

 

48

 

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.

  

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

Audit Committee, Board of Directors and Management

China Recycling Energy Corp.

Opinion on the financial statements

 

We audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of China Recycling Energy Corp.

(“the Company”) as of December 31, 2019 and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for year then ended and the related notes (collectively referred to as “financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2019, and the results of its operations and cash flows for the year then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis of Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audit we are required to obtain understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2019.

  

/s/ Prager Metis, CPA’s LLC

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

May 14, 2020

  

F-1

 

  

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

  

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

China Recycling Energy Corporation

 

Opinion on the financial statements

 

We audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of China Recycling Energy Corporation (“the Company”) as of December 31, 2018, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for the year then ended and the related notes (collectively referred to as “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018, and the consolidated results of its operations and cash flows for the year then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Basis of Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audit we are required to obtain understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2014. The financial statements from 2008 to 2013 were audited by a related firm.

 

/s/ MJF & Associates, APC

 

Los Angeles, California

April 15, 2019

  

F-2

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

   DECEMBER 31,
2019
   DECEMBER 31,
2018
 
         
ASSETS        
         
CURRENT ASSETS          
Cash and equivalents  $16,221,297   $53,223,142 
Accounts receivable, net   42,068,760    11,755,251 
Interest receivable on sales type leases   5,245,244    9,336,140 
Prepaid taxes   52,760    32,395 
Other receivables   1,031,143    1,559,116 
           
Total current assets   64,619,204    75,906,044 
           
NON-CURRENT ASSETS          
Investment in sales-type leases, net   8,287,560    24,962,056 
Long term investment   -    475,635 
Long term deposit   15,712    15,971 
Operating lease right-of-use asset, net   54,078    - 
Property and equipment, net   27,044,385    27,495,049 
Construction in progress   23,824,202    42,582,177 
           
Total non-current assets   59,225,937    95,530,888 
           
TOTAL ASSETS   123,845,141   $171,436,932 
           
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY          
           
CURRENT LIABILITIES          
Accounts payable  $2,200,220   $5,591,876 
Taxes payable   4,087,642    3,636,559 
Accrued liabilities and other payables   1,184,751    1,617,997 
Operating lease liability   56,755    - 
Due to related parties   41,174    41,168 
Interest payable on entrusted loans   8,200,044    17,473,492 
Entrusted loan payable   20,480,214    48,373,936 
           
Total current liabilities   36,250,800    76,735,028 
           
NONCURRENT LIABILITIES          
Convertible note payable, net of unamortized debt discount   -    1,016,589 
Accrued interest on notes   368,362    40,572 
Income tax payable   5,782,625    6,390,625 
Deferred tax liability, net   -    3,040,346 
Notes payable, net of unamortized OID   1,552,376    - 
Long term payable   430,034    - 
Entrusted loan payable   286,689    - 
Refundable deposit from customers for systems leasing   544,709    1,034,503 
           
Total noncurrent liabilities   8,964,795    11,522,635 
           
Total liabilities   45,215,595    88,257,663 
           
CONTINGENCIES AND COMMITMENTS (NOTE 19 & 20)          
           
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY          
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized, 2,032,721 shares and 1,029,528 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively   2,033    1,030 
Additional paid in capital   116,682,374    114,493,283 
Statutory reserve   14,525,712    14,525,712 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss   (6,132,614)   (4,620,930)
Accumulated deficit   (46,447,959)   (37,675,202)
           
Total Company stockholders’ equity   78,629,546    86,723,893 
           
Noncontrolling interest   -    (3,544,624)
           
Total equity   78,629,546    83,179,269 
           
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY  $123,845,141   $171,436,932 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

F-3

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

 

   YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 
   2019   2018 
         
Revenue        
Contingent rental income  $697,028   $4,888,016 
           
Interest income on sales-type leases   170,403    3,312,465 
           
Total operating income   867,431    8,200,481 
           
Operating expenses          
Bad debts   5,386,003    32,210,656 
Impairment loss on fixed assets and construction in progress   876,660    28,429,789 
Loss on disposal of systems   1,242,694    - 
General and administrative   2,469,162    5,548,475 
           
Total operating expenses   9,974,519    66,188,920 
           
Loss from operations   (9,107,088)   (57,988,439)
           
Non-operating income (expenses)          
Loss on long-term notes redemption   (173,886)   - 
Interest income   159,183    153,532 
Interest expense   (2,101,440)   (8,738,148)
Interest expense – inducement on note conversion   (893,958)   - 
Other income (expenses), net   319,625    (42)
           
Total non-operating expenses, net   (2,690,476)   (8,584,658)
           
Loss before income tax   (11,797,564)   (66,573,097)
Income tax (benefit) expense   (3,024,807)   2,627,458 
           
Loss before noncontrolling interest   (8,772,757)   (69,200,555)
           
Less: loss attributable to noncontrolling interest   -    (3,203,657)
           
Net loss attributable to China Recycling Energy Corporation   (8,772,757)   (65,996,898)
           
Other comprehensive items          
Foreign currency translation loss attributable to China Recycling Energy Corporation   (1,511,684)   (5,481,483)
Foreign currency translation gain attributable to noncontrolling interest   -    137,670 
           
Comprehensive loss attributable to China Recycling Energy Corporation  $(10,284,441)  $(71,478,381)
           
Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest  $-   $(3,065,987)
           
Basic weighted average shares outstanding   1,564,940    865,827 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding   1,564,940    865,827 
           
Basic loss per share  $(5.61)  $(76.22)
Diluted loss per share  $(5.61)  $(76.22)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

F-4

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

   YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 
   2019   2018 
         
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:        
Loss including noncontrolling interest  $(8,772,757)  $(69,200,555)
Adjustments to reconcile loss including noncontrolling interest to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:          
Depreciation   -    2,041 
Amortization of OID and debt issuing costs of convertible note   97,161    16,589 
Stock compensation expense   148,625    - 
Operating lease expenses   66,262    - 
Bad debts expense   5,386,003    32,210,656 
Assets impairment loss   876,660    28,429,789 
Investment loss   -    (469)
Loss on disposal of 40% ownership of Fund Management Co   46,461    - 
Loss on transfer of Chengli Boxing system   624,133    - 
Loss on transfer of Xuzhou Huayu system   397,033    - 
Loss on transfer of Shenqiu Phase I & II systems   208,359    - 
Loss on disposal of fixed assets   289    - 
Loss on long-term notes redemption   173,886    - 
Interest expense - inducement on note conversion   893,958      
Changes in deferred tax   (3,024,807)   1,022,985 
Changes in assets and liabilities:          
Interest receivable on sales type leases   (170,403)   (184,591)
Collection of principal on sales type leases   -    2,444,151 
Accounts receivable   2,383,251    (159,283)
Prepaid expenses   (21,126)   696,525 
Other receivables   (135,938)   (461,789)
Notes receivable   -    967,144 
Construction in progress   -    (7,130,851)
Accounts payable   (2,837,609)   2,611,011 
Taxes payable   (1,317,882)   717,487 
Payment of operating lease liability   (63,555)   - 
Interest payable on entrusted loan   (9,091,732)   10,093,477 
Accrued liabilities and other payables   (36,932)   93,968 
Refundable deposit for systems leasing   (478,368)   - 
           
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities   (14,649,028)   2,168,285 
           
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:          
Proceeds from disposal of property & equipment   5,074    - 
           
Net cash provided by investing activities   5,074    - 
           
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:          
Issuance of notes payable   2,000,000    1,000,000 
Issuance of common stock   3,309,475    2,689,190 
Repayment of entrusted loan   (27,125,768)   - 
           
Net cash used in (provided by) financing activities   (21,816,293)   3,689,190 
           
EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGE ON CASH AND EQUIVALENTS   (541,598)   (2,464,576)
           
NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH AND EQUIVALENTS   (37,001,845)   3,392,899 
CASH AND EQUIVALENTS, BEGINNING OF YEAR   53,223,142    49,830,243 
           
CASH AND EQUIVALENTS, END OF YEAR  $16,221,297   $53,223,142 
           
Supplemental cash flow data:          
Income tax paid  $221,934   $1,160,017 
Interest paid  $-   $- 
           
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash operating activities          
Transfer of Xuzhou Huayu Project and Shenqiu Phase I & II project to Mr. Bai  $35,415,556      
           
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities          
Conversion of notes into common shares  $1,612,392   $- 
Adoption of ASC 842 - right-of-use asset  $(118,234)  $- 
Adoption of ASC 842 - operating lease liability  $118,234   $- 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

F-5

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019 AND 2018

 

   Common Stock   Paid in   Statutory   Other Comprehensive   Retained Earnings (Accumulated       Noncontrolling 
   Shares   Amount   Capital   Reserves   Income (Loss)   Deficit)   Total   Interest 
                                 
Balance at January 1, 2018   831,020   $831   $111,804,291   $14,525,712   $860,553   $28,321,696   $155,513,084   $(478,637)
                                         
Net loss for year   -    -    -    -    -    (65,996,898)   (65,996,898)   (3,203,657)
                                         
Issuance of common stock for equity financing   198,508    199    2,688,992    -    -    -    2,689,191    - 
                                         
Foreign currency translation loss   -    -    -    -    (5,481,483)   -    (5,481,483)   137,670 
                                         
Balance at December 31, 2018   1,029,528    1,030    114,493,283    14,525,712    (4,620,930)   (37,675,202)   86,723,893    (3,544,624)
                                         
Net loss for year   -    -    -    -    -    (8,772,757)   (8,772,757)   - 
                                         
Purchase of noncontrolling interest   -    -    (3,948,242)   -    -    -    (3,948,242)   3,544,624 
                                         
Issuance of common stock for equity financing   395,927    396    3,309,079    -    -    -    3,309,475    - 
                                         
Issuance of common stock for stock compensation   41,250    41    148,584    -    -    -    148,626    - 
                                         
Conversion of convertible notes including accrued interest into common shares   185,195    185    2,014,791    -    -    -    2,014,976    - 
                                         
Conversion of long-term notes into common shares   175,400    175    665,084    -    -    -    665,260    - 
                                         
Warrants exchanged into shares   205,421    205    (205)   -    -    -    -    - 
                                         
Foreign currency translation loss   -    -    -    -    (1,511,684)   -    (1,511,684)   - 
                                         
Balance at December 31, 2019   2,032,721   $2,033   $116,682,374   $14,525,712   $(6,132,614)  $(46,447,959)  $78,629,546   $- 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

F-6

 

 

CHINA RECYCLING ENERGY CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DECEMBER 31, 2019 AND 2018

 

1. ORGANIZATION AND DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS

 

China Recycling Energy Corporation (the “Company” or “CREG”) is incorporated in Nevada state. The Company, through its subsidiaries, provides energy saving solutions and services, including selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers, and project investment in the Peoples Republic of China (“PRC”).

 

The Company’s organizational chart as of December 31, 2019 is as follows:

 

 

 

F-7

 

 

Erdos TCH – Joint Venture

 

On April 14, 2009, the Company formed a joint venture (the “JV”) with Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd. (“Erdos”) to recycle waste heat from Erdos’ metal refining plants to generate power and steam to be sold back to Erdos. The name of the JV was Inner Mongolia Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd. (“Erdos TCH”) with a term of 20 years. Total investment for the project was estimated at $79 million (RMB 500 million) with an initial investment of $17.55 million (RMB 120 million). Erdos contributed 7% of the total investment of the project, and Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xi’an TCH”) contributed 93%. On June 15, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Erdos entered into a share transfer agreement, pursuant to which Erdos sold its 7% ownership interest in the JV to Xi’an TCH for $1.29 million (RMB 8 million), plus certain accumulated profits as described below. Xi’an TCH paid the $1.29 million in July 2013 and, as a result, became the sole stockholder of the JV. Erdos TCH currently has two power generation systems in Phase I with a total of 18 MW power capacity, and three power generation systems in Phase II with a total of 27 MW power capacity. On April 28, 2016, Erdos TCH and Erdos entered into a supplemental agreement, effective May 1, 2016, whereby Erdos TCH cancelled monthly minimum lease payments from Erdos, and started to charge Erdos based on actual electricity sold at RMB 0.30 / KWH. The selling price of each KWH is determined annually based on prevailing market conditions. The Company evaluated the modified terms for payments based on actual electricity sold as minimum lease payments as defined in ASC 840-10-25-4, since lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. The Company wrote off the net investment receivables of these leases at the lease modification date. Since May 2019, Erdos TCH has ceased its operations due to renovations and furnace safety upgrades of Erdos, and the Company expects the resumption of operations in July 2020. During this period, Erdos will compensate Erdos TCH RMB 1 million ($145,460) per month, until operations resume.

 

In addition, Erdos TCH has 30% ownership in DaTangShiDai (BinZhou) Energy Savings Technology Co., Ltd. (“BinZhou Energy Savings”), 30% ownership in DaTangShiDai DaTong Recycling Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“DaTong Recycling Energy”), and 40% ownership in DaTang ShiDai TianYu XuZhou Recycling Energy Technology Co, Ltd. (“TianYu XuZhou Recycling Energy”). These companies were incorporated in 2012 but there have not been any operations since then nor has any registered capital contribution been made.

 

Pucheng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On June 29, 2010, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation (“BMPG”) Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng XinHengYuan Biomass Power Generation Co., Ltd. (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. Under this lease agreement, Xi’an TCH leased a set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Pucheng at a minimum of $279,400 (RMB 1,900,000) per month for 15 years (“Pucheng Phase I”).

 

On September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a BMPG Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Pucheng Transfer Agreement”) with Pucheng. The Pucheng Transfer Agreement provided for the sale by Pucheng to Xi’an TCH of a set of 12 MW BMPG systems with completion of system transformation for RMB 100 million ($16.48 million) in the form of 87,666 shares (post-reverse stock split) of common stock of the Company at $187.0 per share (post-reverse stock price). Also on September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng (the “Pucheng Lease”). Under the Pucheng Lease, Xi’an TCH leases this same set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Pucheng, and combined this lease with the lease for the 12 MW BMPG station of Pucheng Phase I project, under a single lease to Pucheng for RMB 3.8 million ($0.63 million) per month (the “Pucheng Phase II Project”). The term for the combined lease is from September 2013 to June 2025. The lease agreement for the 12 MW station from the Pucheng Phase I project terminated upon the effective date of the Pucheng Lease. The ownership of the two 12 MW BMPG systems will transfer to Pucheng at no additional charge when the Pucheng Lease expires.

 

On September 29, 2019, Xi’an TCH entered into a Termination Agreement of the Lease Agreement of the Biomass Power Generation Project (the “Termination Agreement”) with Pucheng.

 

Pucheng failed to pay fees it owed to Xi’an TCH for leasing two biomass power generation systems from Xi’an TCH, due to its long suspension of production resulting from the significant reduction of raw material supplies for its biomass power generation operation in Pucheng County, which caused the biomass power generation project to no longer be suitable. Pursuant to the Termination Agreement, the parties agreed that: (i) Pucheng shall pay outstanding lease fees of RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) owed as of December 31, 2018 to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020; (ii) Xi’an TCH will waive the lease fees owed after January 1, 2019; (iii) Xi’an TCH will not return RMB 3.8 million ($542,857) in cash deposits paid by Pucheng; (iv) Xi’an TCH will transfer the Project to Pucheng at no additional cost after receiving RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) from Pucheng, and the original lease agreement between the parties will be formally terminated; and (v) if Pucheng fails to pay off RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) to Xi’an TCH before January 15, 2020, Xi’an TCH will still hold ownership of the Project and the original lease agreement shall still be valid. The Company recorded an additional $2.67 million bad debt expense for Pucheng during the year ended December 31, 2019. Xi’an TCH received RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) in full on January 14, 2020 and the ownership of the system was transferred. 

 

F-8

 

 

Shenqiu Yuneng Biomass Power Generation Projects

 

On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement (the “2011 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease a set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu at a monthly rental of $286,000 (RMB 1,800,000) for 11 years.

 

On March 30, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement (the “2013 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2013 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease the second set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu for $239,000 (RMB 1.5 million) per month for 9.5 years.

 

As repayment for a loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF”) on January 10, 2019 (see further discussion in Note 10); on January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai (or “Mr. Bai”), a resident of China, entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred two BMGP in Shenqiu (“Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). As consideration for the transfer of the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects to Mr. Bai (Note 10), Mr. Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”) to Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF”) as repayment for a loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF on January 10, 2019. The transfer of the projects was completed on February 15, 2019. The Company recorded $208,359 loss from the transfer during the year ended December 31, 2019. Xi’an Hanneng was expected to own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd for the repayment of Shenqiu system and Huayu system. However, Xi’an Hanneng was not able to obtain all the Huaxin shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report. On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai and all the related parties therefore agreed to have Mr. Bai instead paying in cash for the transfer price of Shenqiu (see Note 10 for detail).

 

The Fund Management Company

 

On June 25, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd. (“Hongyuan Huifu”) established Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Company Ltd. (the “Fund Management Company”) with registered capital of RMB 10 million ($1.45 million). Xi’an TCH made an initial capital contribution of RMB 4 million ($650,000) and held a 40% ownership interest in the Fund Management Company. With respect to the Fund Management Company, voting rights and dividend rights are allocated 80% and 20% between HongyuanHuifu and Xi’an TCH, respectively.

 

The Fund Management Company is the general partner of Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF Fund”), a limited liability partnership established on July 18, 2013 in Beijing. The Fund Management Company made an initial capital contribution of RMB 5 million ($830,000) to the HYREF Fund. RMB 460 million ($77 million) was fully subscribed by all partners for the HYREF Fund. The HYREF Fund has three limited partners: (1) China Orient Asset Management Co., Ltd., which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 280 million ($46.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a preferred limited partner; (2) Hongyuan Huifu, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 100 million ($16.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is an ordinary limited partner; and (3) the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 75 million ($12.5 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a secondary limited partner. In addition, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu formed Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Company Ltd. to manage this Fund, which also subscribed in the amount of RMB 5 million ($830,000) from the Fund. The term of the HYREF Fund’s partnership is six years from the date of its establishment, expiring July 18, 2019. However, the HYREF Fund’s partnership will not terminate until the HYREF loan is fully repaid and the buy-back period is over pursuant to the Buy-back Agreement entered on December 29, 2018 (see Note 10). The term is four years from the date of contribution for the preferred limited partner, and four years from the date of contribution for the ordinary limited partner. The total size of the HYREF Fund is RMB 460 million ($77 million). The HYREF Fund was formed to invest in Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., a then 90% owned subsidiary of Xi’an TCH, for the construction of two coke dry quenching (“CDQ”) Waste Heat Power Generation (“WHPG”) stations with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”) and one CDQ WHPG station with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”).

 

F-9

 

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with Hongyuan Huifu, pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred its 40% ownership in the Fund Management Company to Hongyuan Huifu for RMB 3,453,867 ($0.53 million). The transfer was completed January 22, 2019. The Company recorded approximately $46,500 loss from the sale of a 40% equity interest in Fund Management Company. The Company does not have any ownership in the Fund Management Company after this transaction.

 

Chengli Waste Heat Power Generation Projects

 

On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed a new company, “Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.” (“Zhonghong”), with registered capital of RMB 30 million ($4.85 million). Xi’an TCH paid RMB 27 million ($4.37 million) and owns 90% of Zhonghong. Zhonghong is engaged to provide energy saving solution and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF transferred its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH for RMB 3 million ($0.44 million). The transfer was completed on January 22, 2019. The Company owns 100% of Xi’an Zhonghong after the transaction. 

 

On July 24, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project (Coke Dry Quenching Waste Heat Power Generation Project) with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”). The parties entered into a supplement agreement on July 26, 2013. Pursuant to these agreements, Zhonghong will design, build and maintain a 25 MW CDQ system and a CDQ WHPG system to supply power to Chengli, and Chengli will pay energy saving fees (the “Chengli Project”).

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, HYREF, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment for the loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the CDQ WHPG Station when conditions under the Buy Back Agreement are met (see Note 10). The transfer of the Station was completed January 22, 2019, the Company recorded $624,133 loss from this transfer. Since the original terms of Buy Back Agreement are still valid, the Buy Back possibility is uncertain; therefore, the assets of Chengli CDQ WHPG station, and the corresponding loan principal and interest, cannot be derecognized due to the existence of Buy Back clauses (see Note 6 for detail).

 

Tianyu Waste Heat Power Generation Project

 

On July 19, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement (the “Tianyu Agreement”) for Energy Management of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Projects with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”). Pursuant to the Tianyu Agreement, Zhonghong will design, build, operate and maintain two sets of 25 MW CDQ systems and CDQ WHPG systems for two subsidiaries of Tianyu – Xuzhou Tian’an Chemical Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Tian’an”) and Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu”) – to be located at Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu’s respective locations (the “Tianyu Project”). Upon completion of the Tianyu Project, Zhonghong will charge Tianyu an energy saving fee of RMB 0.534 ($0.087) per kilowatt hour (excluding tax). The term of the Tianyu Agreement is 20 years. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project is anticipated to be completed by the second quarter of 2020. The Xuzhou Huayu Project has been on hold due to a conflict between Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. and local residents on certain pollution-related issues.

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred a CDQ WHPG station (under construction) located in Xuzhou City for Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu Project”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million). Mr. Bai agreed that as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project to him (Note 10), he would transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF. The transfer of the project was completed on February 15, 2019. The Company recorded $397,033 loss from this transfer during the year ended December 31, 2019. On January 10, 2019, Mr. Chonggong Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the loan. Xi’an Hanneng was expected to own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd for the repayment of Huayu system and Shenqiu system. As of September 30, 2019, Xi’an Hanneng already owned 29,948,000 shares of Huaxin, but was not able to obtain the remaining 17,202,000 shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report. On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai and all the related parties agreed to have Mr. Bai instead pay in cash for the transfer price of Huayu (see Note 10 for detail).

 

F-10

 

 

On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million including VAT ($24.37 million) in three installment payments. The 1st installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) to be paid within 20 working days after the contract is signed. The 2nd installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is to be paid within 20 working days after completion of the project construction but no later than July 31, 2020. The final installment payment of RMB 70 million ($10.03 million) is to be paid before December 31, 2020. On March 11, 2020, the Company received the 1st installment payment.

 

Zhongtai Waste Heat Power Generation Energy Management Cooperative Agreement

 

On December 6, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a CDQ and WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement (the “Zhongtai Agreement”) with Xuzhou Zhongtai Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zhongtai”), a limited liability company incorporated in Jiangsu Province, China.

 

Pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement, Xi’an TCH was to design, build and maintain a 150 ton per hour CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system and sell the power to Zhongtai, and Xi’an TCH is also to build a furnace to generate steam from the smoke pipeline’s waste heat and sell the steam to Zhongtai.

 

The construction period of the Project was expected to be 18 months from the date when conditions are ready for construction to begin. Zhongtai is to start to pay an energy saving service fee from the date when the WHPG station passes the required 72-hour test run. The payment term is 20 years. For the first 10 years, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.534 ($0.089) per kilowatt hour (KWH) (including value added tax) for the power generated from the system. For the second 10 years, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.402 ($0.067) per KWH (including value added tax). During the term of the contract the energy saving fee shall be adjusted at the same percentage as the change of local grid electricity price. Zhongtai shall also pay an energy saving fee for the steam supplied by Xi’an TCH at RMB 100 ($16.67) per ton (including value added tax). Zhongtai and its parent company will provide guarantees to ensure Zhongtai will fulfill its obligations under the Agreement. Upon the completion of the term, Xi’an TCH will transfer the systems to Zhongtai for RMB 1 ($0.16). Zhongtai shall provide waste heat to the systems for no less than 8,000 hours per year and waste gas volume no less than 150,000 Normal Meter Cubed (Nm3) per hour, with a temperature no less than 950°C. If these requirements are not met, the term of the Agreement will be extended accordingly. If Zhongtai wants to terminate the Zhongtai Agreement early, it shall provide Xi’an TCH with a 60 day notice and pay the termination fee and compensation for the damages to Xi’an TCH according to the following formula: (1) if it is less than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount plus Xi’an TCH’s annual investment return times five years minus the years in which the system has already operated; or 2) if it is more than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests the termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount minus total amortization cost (the amortization period is 10 years).

 

In March 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Transfer Agreement of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin (the “Transfer Agreement”). Under the Transfer Agreement, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Zhongtai all of the assets associated with the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project (the “Project”), which is under construction pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement. Additionally, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Zhongtai the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) Contract for the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project which Xi’an TCH had entered into with Xi’an Huaxin in connection with the Project. Xi’an Huaxin will continue to construct and complete the Project and Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer all its rights and obligations under the EPC Contract to Zhongtai. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Zhongtai agreed to pay to Xi’an TCH RMB 167,360,000 ($25.77 million) including (i) RMB 152,360,000 ($23.46 million) for the construction of the Project; and (ii) RMB 15,000,000 ($2.31 million) as payment for partial loan interest accrued during the construction period. Those amounts have been, or will be, paid by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH according to the following schedule: (a) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) was to be paid within 20 business days after the Transfer Agreement was signed; (b) RMB 30,000,000 ($4.32 million) was to be paid within 20 business days after the Project was completed, but no later than July 30, 2016; and (c) RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) was to be paid no later than July 30, 2017. Xuzhou Taifa Special Steel Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Taifa”) guaranteed the payments from Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH. The ownership of the Project was conditionally transferred to Zhongtai following the initial payment of RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH and the full ownership of the Project will be officially transferred to Zhongtai after it completes all payments pursuant to the Transfer Agreement. The Company recorded a $2.82 million loss from this transaction in 2016. In 2016, Xi’an TCH had received the first payment of $7.70 million and the second payment of $4.32 million. However, the Company received a repayment commitment letter from Zhongtai on February 23, 2018, in which Zhongtai committed to pay the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) no later than the end of July 2018; in July 2018, Zhongtai and the Company reached a further oral agreement to extend the repayment term of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) by another two to three months. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had gross receivable from Zhongtai for $10.03 million (with bad debt allowance of $5.73 million). In January 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 10 million ($1.43 million); in March 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 20 million ($2.87 million). Zhongtai is committed to pay in full the remaining balance of RMB 40 million ($5.73 million) no later than the end of 2020.

 

F-11

 

 

Formation of Zhongxun

 

On March 24, 2014, Xi’an TCH incorporated a subsidiary, Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (“Zhongxun”) with registered capital of $5,695,502 (RMB 35,000,000), which must be contributed before October 1, 2028. Zhongxun is 100% owned by Xi’an TCH and will be mainly engaged in project investment, investment management, economic information consulting, and technical services. Zhongxun has not yet commenced operations nor has any capital contribution been made as of the date of this report.

 

Formation of Yinghua

 

On February 11, 2015, the Company incorporated a subsidiary, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd. (“Yinghua”) with registered capital of $30,000,000, to be paid within 10 years from the date the business license is issued. Yinghua is 100% owned by the Company and will be mainly engaged in financial leasing, purchase of financial leasing assets, disposal and repair of financial leasing assets, consulting and ensuring of financial leasing transactions, and related factoring business. Yinghua has not yet commenced operations nor has any capital contribution been made as of the date of this report.

 

Other Events

 

On September 9, 2019, the Company entered into a letter of intent to acquire a controlling interest in Xi’an Yineng Zhihui Technology Co., Ltd. (“YNZH”), a next generation energy storage solution provider in China. YNZH is a leading comprehensive high-tech intelligent energy service company integrated with energy efficiency improvement and storage management in China. The energy efficiency management is to fully use big data cloud computing technology, effectively adopt the combination of the mature international and domestic clean energy technologies to make the customers’ energy management more efficient, more economical, more secure and more scientific. The terms of this proposed transaction are currently being negotiated.

 

On April 13, 2020, the Company filed a certificate of change (“Certificate of Change”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada, pursuant to which, on April 13, 2020, the Company effected a reverse stock split of its common stock, $0.001 per share at a rate of 1-for-10, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the Company’s issued and outstanding shares of common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were retroactively restated to reflect this reverse stock split.

 

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to constitute a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” This pandemic, which continues to spread to additional countries, and is disrupting supply chains and affecting production and sales across a range of industries as a result of quarantines, facility closures, and travel and logistics restrictions in connection with the outbreak. Therefore, the Company expects this matter to negatively impact its operating results even though China is opening up most of the cities and industries as of this report date. However, the related financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

 

F-12

 

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The consolidated financial statements (“CFS”) were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”).

 

The CFS include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances were eliminated in consolidation. 

 

Basis of Consolidation

 

The CFS include the accounts of CREG and its subsidiaries, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd. (“Yinghua”) and Sifang Holdings; Sifang Holdings’ wholly owned subsidiaries, Huahong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (“Huahong”) and Shanghai TCH Energy Tech Co., Ltd. (“Shanghai TCH”); Shanghai TCH’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH Energy Tech Co., Ltd. (“Xi’an TCH”); and Xi’an TCH’s subsidiaries, 1) Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd (“Erdos TCH”), 100% owned by Xi’an TCH (See note 1), 2) Zhonghong, 90% owned by Xi’an TCH and 10% owned by Shanghai TCH, and 3) Zhongxun, 100% owned by Xi’an TCH. Substantially all the Company’s revenues are derived from the operations of Shanghai TCH and its subsidiaries, which represent substantially all the Company’s consolidated assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2019. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions were eliminated in consolidation.

 

Uses and Sources of Liquidity

 

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had a net loss of $8.77 million and $66.00 million, respectively. The Company has an accumulated deficit of $46.45 million as of December 31, 2019. The Company is in the process of transforming and expanding into an energy storage integrated solution provider. The Company plans to pursue disciplined and targeted expansion strategies for market areas the Company currently does not serve. The Company actively seeks and explores opportunities to apply energy storage technologies to new industries or segments with high growth potential, including industrial and commercial complexes, large scale photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, remote islands without electricity, and smart energy cities with multi-energy supplies. 

 

The historical operating results indicate substantial doubt exists related to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. However, the Company had $16.22 million cash on hand at December 31, 2019 and has collected RMB 327.60 million ($46.96 million) in 2020 up to this report date, this also satisfies the Company’s estimated liquidity needs 12 months from the issuance of the financial statements. The Company believes that the actions discussed above are probable of occurring and the occurrence, as well as the cash flow discussed, mitigate the substantial doubt raised by its historical operating results.

 

Management also intends to raise additional funds by way of a private or public offering, or by obtaining loans from banks or others. While the Company believes in the viability of its strategy to generate sufficient revenue and in its ability to raise additional funds on reasonable terms and conditions, there can be no assurances to that effect. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to further implement its business plan and generate sufficient revenue and its ability to raise additional funds by way of a public or private offering, or debt financing including bank loans.

 

Use of Estimates

 

In preparing these CFS in accordance with US GAAP, management makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in the balance sheets as well as revenues and expenses during the period reported. Actual results may differ from these estimates. On an on-going basis, management evaluates their estimates, including those related to allowances for bad debt and inventory obsolescence, impairment loss on fixed assets and construction in progress, income taxes, and contingencies and litigation. Management bases their estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other resources.

 

F-13

 

 

Revenue Recognition

 

A)Sales-type Leasing and Related Revenue Recognition

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842 using the modified retrospective transition approach by applying the new standard to all leases existing at the date of initial application. Results and disclosure requirements for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under ASC Topic 842, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historical accounting under Topic 840. (See Operating lease below as relates to the Company as a lessee). The Company’s sales type lease contracts for revenue recognition fall under ASC 842. During 2019 and 2018, the Company did not sell any new power generating projects.

 

The Company constructs and leases waste energy recycling power generating projects to its customers. The Company typically transfers legal ownership of the waste energy recycling power generating projects to its customers at the end of the lease. Prior to January 1, 2019, the investment in these projects was recorded as investment in sales-type leases in accordance with ASC Topic 840, “Leases,” and its various amendments and interpretations.

 

The Company finances construction of waste energy recycling power generating projects. The sales and cost of sales are recognized at the inception of the lease, which is when the control is transferred to the lessee. The Company accounts for the transfer of control as a sales type lease in accordance with ASC 842-10-25-2. The underlying asset is derecognized, and revenue is recorded when collection of payments is probable. This is in accordance with the revenue recognition principle in ASC 606 - Revenue from contracts with customers. The investment in sales-type leases consists of the sum of the minimum lease payments receivable less unearned interest income and estimated executory cost. Minimum lease payments are part of the lease agreement between the Company (as the lessor) and the customer (as the lessee). The discount rate implicit in the lease is used to calculate the present value of minimum lease payments. The minimum lease payments consist of the gross lease payments net of executory costs and contingent rentals, if any. Unearned interest is amortized to income over the lease term to produce a constant periodic rate of return on net investment in the lease. While revenue is recognized at the inception of the lease, the cash flow from the sales-type lease occurs over the course of the lease, which results in interest income and reduction of receivables. Revenue is recognized net of sales tax.

 

B)Contingent Rental Income

 

The Company records income from actual electricity generated of each project in the period the income is earned, which is when the electricity is generated. Contingent rent is not part of minimum lease payments.

 

Operating Leases

 

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Topic 842 using the modified retrospective transition approach by applying the new standard to all leases existing at the date of initial application. Results and disclosure requirements for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under Topic 842, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with its historical accounting under Topic 840. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available.

 

The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed it to carry forward its historical lease classification, its assessment on whether a contract was or contains a lease, and its initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to January 1, 2019. The Company also elected to combine its lease and non-lease components and to keep leases with an initial term of 12 months or less off the balance sheet and recognize the associated lease payments in the consolidated statements of income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

 

F-14

 

 

The company leased an office in Xi’an, China as the Company’s headquarter; upon adoption, the Company recognized total Right of Use Asset (“ROU”) of $116,917, with corresponding liabilities of $116,917 on the consolidated balance sheets. The ROU assets include adjustments for prepayments and accrued lease payments. The adoption did not impact its beginning retained earnings, or its prior year consolidated statements of income and statements of cash flows. At December 31, 2019, the ROU was $54,078.

 

Under Topic 842, the Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. For this purpose, the Company considers only payments that are fixed and determinable at the time of commencement. As most of its leases do not provide an implicit rate, it uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate is a hypothetical rate based on its understanding of what its credit rating would be. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to commencement and is recorded net of any lease incentives received. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that it will exercise such options.

 

Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities (current and non-current), on the consolidated balance sheets. 

 

Cash

 

Cash include cash on hand, demand deposits placed with banks or other financial institutions and all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less as of the purchase date of such investments.

 

Accounts Receivable

 

The Company’s accounts receivable arise from sale of systems and sale of electricity of Erdos. The Company does not expect to collect receivables more than one year from the time of sale.

 

The Company’s policy is to maintain an allowance for potential credit losses on accounts receivable. Management reviews the composition of accounts receivable and analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit worthiness, current economic trends and changes in customer payment patterns to evaluate the adequacy of these reserves. 

 

As of December 31, 2019, the Company had gross accounts receivable of $48.06 million; of which, $35.42 million was for transferring the ownership of Huayu and Shenqiu Phase I and II systems to Mr. Bai; $10.03 million was from the sales of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system to Zhongtai, and $2.61 million accounts receivable of Erdos TCH for electricity sold. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had accounts receivable of $15,252,162 (from the sales of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system to Zhongtai, and accounts receivable of Erdos TCH for electricity sold). As of December 31, 2019, the Company had bad debt allowance of $5,733,781 for Zhongtai and $261,430 for Erdos TCH due to not making the payments as scheduled. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had bad debt allowance of $3,496,911 for Zhongtai due to not making the payments as scheduled.

 

   2019   2018 
 Xuzhou Zhongtai Project   10,034,116    11,656,371 
 Bai Chonggong (for Shenqiu and Huayu projects)   35,415,556     
 Receivable of electricity sales of Erdos   2,614,299    3,595,791 
 Total accounts receivable   48,063,971    15,252,162 
 Bad debt allowance   (5,995,210)   (3,496,911)
 Accounts receivable, net   42,068,761    11,755,251 

 

F-15

 

 

Interest Receivable on Sales Type Leases

 

As of December 31, 2019, the interest receivable on sales type leases was $5,245,244, mainly from recognized but not yet collected interest income for the Pucheng systems. As of December 31, 2018, the interest receivable on sales type leases was $9,336,140, mainly from recognized but not yet collected interest income for the Pucheng and Shenqiu systems. From April 1, 2018, the Company stopped accruing interest receivable on the Pucheng lease as the Pucheng lease was at least one year overdue in its payments because collectability is not probable.

 

Investment in sales-type leases, net 

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had net investment in sales-type leases of $8,287,560 and $24,962,056, respectively. The Company maintains reserves for potential credit losses on receivables. Management reviews the composition of receivables and analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit worthiness, current economic trends and changes in customer payment patterns to evaluate the adequacy of these reserves. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had bad debt allowance for net investment receivable on sales-type leases of $24,416,441 for the Pucheng system. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had bad debt allowance for net investment receivable of $29,276,658 ($7,274,872 for the Shenqiu systems and $22,071,360 for the Pucheng systems) due to lessees’ tight working capital and continuous delay in making the payment. Xi’an TCH received RMB 97.6 million ($14 million) in full for Pucheng system on January 14, 2020 and the ownership of the system was transferred.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Cash includes cash on hand and demand deposits in accounts maintained within China. Balances at financial institutions within China are not covered by insurance. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.

 

Certain other financial instruments, which subject the Company to concentration of credit risk, consist of accounts and other receivables. The Company does not require collateral or other security to support these receivables. The Company conducts periodic reviews of its customers’ financial condition and customer payment practices to minimize collection risk on accounts receivable.

 

The operations of the Company are in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environments in the PRC.

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred; additions, renewals and betterments are capitalized. When property and equipment are retired or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts, and any gain or loss is included in operations. Depreciation of property and equipment is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated lives as follows:

 

Building   20 years 
Vehicles   2 - 5 years 
Office and Other Equipment   2 - 5 years 
Software   2 - 3 years 

 

F-16

 

 

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

 

In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment,” the Company reviews its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be fully recoverable. If the total expected undiscounted future net cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss is recognized for the difference between the fair value and carrying amount of the asset. The Company recorded asset impairment of construction in progress of Xuzhou Tian’an of $876,660 for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is the difference between the book value and disposal price of the asset. The Company recorded asset impairment of $28,429,789 for three projects (see below) for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement for Xi’an Zhonghong to transfer the Xuzhou Huayu Project to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million), which transfer price was considered the fair value (“FV”) of the project. The Company compared the carrying value and FV of the Huayu project, and recorded asset impairment of $6,528,120 for the project for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, HYREF, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement for Xi’an Zhonghong to transfer Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment of a loan for RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. The transfer price was considered the FV of the system. The Company compared the carrying value and FV of the Chengli system, and recorded asset impairment of $8,124,968 for the system for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the progress of the Xuzhou Tian’an project is slow due to strict environmental protection policies. The Company estimated the FV of the Xuzhou Tian’an project to be around RMB 172,250,000 ($25.58 million) at December 31, 2018. The Company compared the carrying value and FV of the Tian’an Project, and recorded asset impairment of $13,776,701 for the project for the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company further recorded asset impairment of construction in progress of Xuzhou Tian’an of $876,660 for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Notes Payable – Banker’s Acceptances

 

The Company endorses banker’s acceptances that are issued from a bank to vendors as payment for its obligations. Most of the banker’s acceptances have maturity dates of less than six months following their issuance.

 

Cost of Sales

 

Cost of sales consists primarily of the direct material of the power generating system and expenses incurred directly for project construction for sales-type leasing and sales tax and additions for contingent rental income. 

 

Income Taxes

 

Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences in future years of differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their financial reporting amounts at each period end based on enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates, applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.

 

The Company follows FASB ASC Topic 740, which prescribes a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC Topic 740 also provides guidance on recognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods, and income tax disclosures.

 

F-17

 

 

Under the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 740, when tax returns are filed, it is likely that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others are subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions. Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefits associated with tax positions taken that exceeds the amount measured as described above is reflected as a liability for unrecognized tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheets along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination.

 

CREG is subject to U.S. corporate income taxes on its taxable income at a rate of 21%.

 

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Act”) created new taxes on certain foreign-sourced earnings such as global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) under IRC Section 951A, which is effective for the Company for tax years beginning after January 1, 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company calculated its best estimate of the impact of the GILTI in its income tax provision in accordance with the Act and guidance available as of the date of this filing.

 

To the extent that portions of our U.S. taxable income, such as Subpart F income or GILTI, are determined to be from sources outside of the U.S., subject to certain limitations, we may be able to claim foreign tax credits to offset our U.S. income tax liabilities. Any remaining liabilities are accrued in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income and estimated tax payments are made when required by U.S. law.

 

Noncontrolling Interests

 

The Company follows FASB ASC Topic 810, “Consolidation,” which established new standards governing the accounting for and reporting of noncontrolling interests (“NCIs”) in partially owned consolidated subsidiaries and the loss of control of subsidiaries. Certain provisions of this standard indicate, among other things, that NCIs (previously referred to as minority interests) be treated as a separate component of equity, not as a liability (as was previously the case), that increases and decreases in the parent’s ownership interest that leave control intact be treated as equity transactions rather than as step acquisitions or dilution gains or losses, and that losses of a partially-owned consolidated subsidiary be allocated to NCIs even when such allocation might result in a deficit balance.

 

The net income (loss) attributed to NCIs was separately designated in the accompanying statements of income and comprehensive income (loss). Losses attributable to NCIs in a subsidiary may exceed an NCI’s interests in the subsidiary’s equity. The excess attributable to NCIs is attributed to those interests. NCIs shall continue to be attributed their share of losses even if that attribution results in a deficit NCI balance. There is no NCI for the year ended December 31, 2019 (see Note 15 for detail of purchase of the NCI in 2019).

 

Statement of Cash Flows

 

In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 230, “Statement of Cash Flows,” cash flows from the Company’s operations are calculated based upon the local currencies. As a result, amounts related to assets and liabilities reported on the statement of cash flows may not necessarily agree with changes in the corresponding balances on the balance sheet.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

For certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, other receivables, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and short-term debts, the carrying amounts approximate their fair values due to their short maturities. Receivables on sales-type leases are based on interest rates implicit in the lease.

 

F-18

 

 

FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” requires disclosure of the FV of financial instruments held by the Company. FASB ASC Topic 825, “Financial Instruments,” defines FV, and establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of FV measurement that enhances disclosure requirements for FV measures. The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their FV because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:

 

  Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

 

  Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.

 

  Level 3 inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to FV measurement.

 

The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under FASB ASC 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity,” and ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging.”

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company did not have any long-term debt obligations; and the Company did not identify any assets or liabilities that are required to be presented on the balance sheet at FV.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718 “Compensation—Stock Compensation,” and FASB ASC Topic 505, “Equity.” The Company recognizes in its statement of operations FV at the grant date for stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees and non-employees.

 

Basic and Diluted Earnings per Share

 

The Company presents net income (loss) per share (“EPS”) in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 260, “Earning Per Share.” Accordingly, basic income (loss) per share is computed by dividing income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding as well as common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method for stock options and warrants and the if-converted method for convertible notes. The Company made an accounting policy election to use the if-converted method for convertible securities that are eligible to receive common stock dividends, if declared. Diluted EPS reflect the potential dilution that could occur based on the exercise of stock options or warrants or conversion of convertible securities using the if-converted method.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the basic and diluted loss per share were the same due to outstanding options and warrants being anti-dilutive as a result of the Company’s net loss. For the year ended December 31, 2019, 406,764 shares (post-reverse stock split) purchasable under warrants and options were excluded from the EPS calculation, as their effects were anti-dilutive. For the year ended December 31, 2018, 213,304 shares (post-reverse stock split) purchasable under warrants and options were excluded from the EPS calculation, as their effects were anti-dilutive.

 

Foreign Currency Translation and Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

The Company’s functional currency is the Renminbi (“RMB”). For financial reporting purposes, RMB were translated into United States Dollars (“USD” or “$”) as the reporting currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average rate of exchange prevailing during the reporting period. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a component of stockholders’ equity as “Accumulated other comprehensive income.” Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are included in income. There was no significant fluctuation in the exchange rate for the conversion of RMB to USD after the balance sheet date.

 

F-19

 

 

The Company follows FASB ASC Topic 220, “Comprehensive Income.” Comprehensive income is comprised of net income and all changes to the statements of stockholders’ equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders.

 

Segment Reporting

 

FASB ASC Topic 280, “Segment Reporting,” requires use of the “management approach” model for segment reporting. The management approach model is based on the way a company’s management organizes segments within the company for making operating decisions and assessing performance. Reportable segments are based on products and services, geography, legal structure, management structure, or any other manner in which management disaggregates a company. FASB ASC Topic 280 has no effect on the Company’s CFS as substantially all of the Company’s operations are conducted in one industry segment. All of the Company’s assets are located in the PRC.

 

Reclassification

  

Certain prior period balance sheet accounts were reclassified for the purpose of consistency with the current year’s presentation.

 

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), which requires entities to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Early application will be permitted for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on its CFS.

 

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The guidance removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its FV, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. The guidance should be adopted on a prospective basis for the annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its CFS.

 

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” which expands the scope of ASC 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. An entity should apply the requirements of ASC 718 to non-employee awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost. The amendments specify that ASC 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The new guidance is effective for SEC filers for fiscal years, and interim reporting periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 (i.e., January 1, 2020, for calendar year entities). Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the effects of the adoption of this guidance and currently believes that it will impact the accounting of the share-based awards granted to non-employees.

 

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements for Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 instruments in the fair value hierarchy. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted for any eliminated or modified disclosures. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.

 

F-20

 

 

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistent application among reporting entities. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the Company must apply certain aspects of this standard retrospectively for all periods presented while other aspects are applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company is evaluating the impact this update will have on its financial statements.

 

Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the SEC did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company’s present or future CFS.

 

3. INVESTMENT IN SALES-TYPE LEASES, NET

 

Under sales-type leases, in 2019 and 2018, Xi’an TCH leases the following systems: (i) BMPG systems to Pucheng Phase I and II (15 and 11 year terms, respectively); (ii) BMPG systems to Shenqiu Phase I (11-year term); and (iii) BMPG systems to Shenqiu Phase II (9.5-year term). On February 15, 2019, Xi’an TCH transferred the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). The components of the net investment in sales-type leases as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:

 

   2019   2018 
Total future minimum lease payments receivable  $56,477,739   $88,661,266 
Less: executory cost   (3,623,100)   (5,687,704)
Less: unearned interest   (14,905,393)   (19,398,707)
Less: realized interest income but not yet received   (5,245,244)   (9,336,141)
Less: allowance for net investment receivable   (24,416,442)   (29,276,658)
Investment in sales-type leases, net   8,287,560    24,962,056 
Current portion   -    - 
Noncurrent portion  $8,287,560   $24,962,056 

 

As of December 31, 2019, the gross future minimum rentals not including bad debt allowances to be received on non-cancelable sales-type leases by years were as follows:

 

2020  $27,063,444 
2021   6,536,510 
2022   6,536,510 
2023   6,536,510 
2024   6,536,510 
Thereafter   3,268,255 
Total  $56,477,739 

 

4. OTHER RECEIVABLES

 

As of December 31, 2019, other receivables mainly consisted of (i) advances to third parties of $7,167, bearing no interest, payable upon demand, and (i) tax and maintenance cost receivable of $1,001,527 for Xi’an TCH. As of December 31, 2018, other receivables mainly consisted of (i) advances to third parties of $7,285, bearing no interest, payable upon demand, and (ii) tax and maintenance cost receivable of $1,528,368 for Xi’an TCH. Tax receivable is VAT receivable from customers and payable to City government on collection.

 

F-21

 

 

5. LONG TERM INVESTMENT

 

On June 25, 2013, Xi’an TCH with Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd (“Hongyuan Huifu”) jointly established Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Company Ltd. (the “Fund Management Company”) with registered capital of RMB 10 million ($1.6 million), to manage a fund that will be used for financing CDQ WHPG projects. Xi’an TCH made an initial capital contribution of RMB 4 million ($0.65 million) and had a 40% ownership interest in the Fund Management Company. Voting rights and dividend rights are allocated between Hongyuan Huifu and Xi’an TCH at 80% and 20%, respectively. The Company accounted for this investment using the equity method. The Company recorded $0 and $469 equity-based investment income during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with Hongyuan Huifu, pursuant to which Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer its 40% ownership in the Fund Management Company to Hongyuan Huifu for RMB 3,453,867 ($0.53 million). The transfer was completed on January 22, 2019. The Company had $46,461 loss from the sale of a 40% equity interest in Fund Management Company during the year ended December 31, 2019. 

 

On July 18, 2013, the HYREF Fund was established as a limited liability partnership in Beijing. Pursuant to the Partnership Agreement, the HYREF Fund had a general partner, the Fund Management Company, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 5 million ($0.83 million) to the HYREF Fund. The HYREF Fund has three limited partners: (1) China Orient Asset Management Co., Ltd., which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 280 million ($46.67 million) and is a preferred limited partner, (2) Hongyuan Huifu, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 100 million ($16.67 million) and is an ordinary limited partner and (3) the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xian TCH, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 75 million ($10.81 million) and is a secondary limited partner. The term of the HYREF Fund’s partnership is six years from the date of its establishment, July 18, 2013. The term for (x) the preferred limited partner is four years from the date of its contribution and (y) the ordinary limited partner is four years from the date of its contribution. Unless otherwise approved by the general partner (the Fund Management Company), upon the expiration of their respective terms, each partner shall exit from the partnership automatically. However, the HYREF Fund’s partnership will not terminate until the HYREF loan is fully repaid and the buy-back period is over pursuant to the Buy-Back Agreement entered on December 29, 2018 (see Note 10). The total size of the HYREF Fund is RMB 460 million ($77 million), and the purpose of the HYREF Fund is to invest in Zhonghong for constructing 3 new CDQ WHPG projects. Xi’an TCH owns 16.3% of the HYREF Fund. The Company accounted for this investment using the cost method. The Company netted off the investment of RMB 75 million ($10.81 million) by Xi’an TCH with the entrusted loan payable of the HYREF Fund.

 

6. PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION IN PROGRESS

 

Property and Equipment

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had net property and equipment (after impairment loss of $8.12 million recorded in 2018) of approximately $27.04 million and $27.50 million, respectively, which was for the Chengli project.

 

The Chengli project finished construction, and was transferred to the Company’s fixed assets at a cost of $35.24 million (without impairment loss) and ready to be put into operation as of December 31, 2018. On January 22, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong completed the transfer of Chengli CDQ WHPG project as the partial repayment for the loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF (see Note 10). However, because the loan was not deemed repaid due to the buyback right (See Note 10 for detail), the Company kept the Chengli project in its books as fixed assets for accounting purposes as of December 31, 2019.

 

Construction in Progress

 

Construction in progress was for constructing power generation systems. The Xuzhou Huayu project was sold in February 2019 for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million). The Company recorded impairment allowance of RMB 43,199,340 ($6.29 million) for 2018 and as of December 31, 2018 on Xuzhou Huayu. In 2018, the progress of the Xuzhou Tian’an project was slow due to strict environmental protection policies. The Company estimated the FV of the Xuzhou Tian’an project to be RMB 172,250,000.00 ($25.58 million) at December 31, 2018. The Company compared the carrying value and FV of the Tian’an Project, and recorded asset impairment of $13,512,592 for the project for the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company recorded additional RMB 6,047,602 ($876,660) asset impairment for Tian’an Project in 2019, which is the difference between the sale price and the carrying value as of December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s construction in progress included:

 

   2019   2018 
Xuzhou Huayu  $-   $23,778,899 
Xuzhou Tian’an   37,759,277    38,380,969 
Less: assets impairment allowance   (13,935,075)   (19,577,691)
Total  $23,824,202   $42,582,177 

 

F-22

 

 

As of December 31, 2019, the Company was committed to pay an additional $3.98 million for the Xuzhou Tian’an project. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project is anticipated to be completed by the second quarter of 2020.

 

On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million including VAT ($24.37 million) three installment payments. The 1st installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) to be paid within 20 working days after the contract is signed. The 2nd installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is to be paid within 20 working days after completion of the project construction but no later than July 31, 2020. The final installment payment of RMB 70 million ($10.03 million) is to be paid before December 31, 2020. On March 11, 2020, the Company received the 1st installment payment.

 

7. TAXES PAYABLE

 

Taxes payable consisted of the following as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

   2019   2018 
Income tax – current  $2,118,432   $1,718,051 
Value-added tax   1,708,298    1,666,695 
Other taxes   260,912    251,813 
Total – current   4,087,642    3,636,559 
Income tax – noncurrent  $5,782,625   $6,390,625 

 

Income tax payable included $7.61 million ($1.83 million included in current above and $5.78 million noncurrent) from recording the estimated one-time transition tax on post-1986 foreign unremitted earnings under the Tax Cut and Jobs Act signed on December 22, 2017. An election is available for the U.S. shareholders of a foreign company to pay the tax liability in installments over a period of eight years with 8% of net tax liability in the first five years, 15% in the sixth year, 20% in the seventh year, and 25% in the eighth year. The Company made such an election.

 

8. ACCRUED LIABILITIES AND OTHER PAYABLES

 

Accrued liabilities and other payables consisted of the following as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

   2019   2018 
Employee training, labor union expenditure and social insurance payable  $843,807   $844,997 
Consulting, auditing, and legal expenses   40,602    488,052 
Accrued payroll and welfare   254,882    261,152 
Other   45,460    23,796 
Total  $1,184,751   $1,617,997 

 

F-23

 

 

9. DEFERRED TAX LIABILITY, NET

 

Deferred tax assets resulted from asset impairment loss which was temporarily non-tax deductible for tax purposes but expensed in accordance with US GAAP, interest income in sales-type leases which was recognized as income for tax purposes but not for book purpose as it did not meet revenue recognition in accordance with US GAAP, accrued employee social insurance that can be deducted for tax purposes in the future, and the difference between tax and accounting basis of cost of fixed assets which was capitalized for tax purposes and expensed as part of cost of systems in accordance with US GAAP. Deferred tax liability arose from the difference between tax and accounting basis of net investment in sales-type leases.

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, deferred tax liability consisted of the following:

 

   2019   2018 
Non-current deferred tax assets        
Accrued expenses  $189,050   $186,779 
Interest income in sales-type leases on cash basis   853,265    658,307 
Depreciation of fixed assets   2,938,605    6,176,064 
Assets impairment loss   7,537,556    15,003,497 
Capitalized interest on CIP   -    2,531,120 
US NOL   3,246,655    3,114,083 
PRC NOL   10,424,558    1,617,861 
           
Non-current deferred tax liabilities          
Net investment in sales-type leases   (6,685,021)   (10,974,998)
           
Net non-current deferred tax assets   18,504,668    18,312,713 
Less: valuation allowance for deferred tax assets   (18,504,668)   (21,353,059)
Non-current deferred tax liabilities, net  $-   $(3,040,346)

 

10. LOANS PAYABLE

 

Entrusted Loan Payable (HYREF Loan)

 

The HYREF Fund (Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP) was established in July 2013 with a total fund size of RMB 460 million ($77 million) invested in Xi’an Zhonghong for Zhonghong’s three new CDQ WHPG projects. The HYREF Fund invested RMB 3 million ($0.5 million) as an equity investment and RMB 457 million ($74.5 million) as a debt investment in Xi’an Zhonghong; in return for such investments, the HYREF Fund will receive interest from Zhonghong for the HYREF Fund’s debt investment. The RMB 457 million ($74.5 million) original loan balance was released to Zhonghong through an entrusted bank, which is also the supervising bank for the use of the loan. The loan was deposited in a bank account at the Supervising Bank (the Industrial Bank Xi’an Branch) and is jointly supervised by Zhonghong and the Fund Management Company. Project spending shall be verified by the Fund Management Company to confirm it is in accordance with the project schedule before the funds are released. All the operating accounts of Zhonghong have been opened with the branches of the Supervising Bank, and the Supervising Bank has the right to monitor all bank accounts opened by Zhonghong. The entrusted bank will charge 0.1% of the loan amount as a service fee and will not take any lending risk. The loan was collateralized by the accounts receivable and the fixed assets of Shenqiu Phase I and II power generation systems; the accounts receivable and fixed assets of Zhonghong’s three CDQ WHPG systems; and a 27 million RMB ($4.39 million) capital contribution made by Xi’an TCH in Zhonghong. Repayment of the loan (principal and interest) was also jointly and severally guaranteed by Xi’an TCH and the Chairman and CEO of the Company. In the fourth quarter of 2015, three power stations of Erdos TCH were pledged to Industrial Bank as an additional guarantee for the loan to Zhonghong’s three CDQ WHPG systems. In 2016, two additional power stations of Erdos TCH and Pucheng Phase I and II systems were pledged to Industrial Bank as an additional guarantee along with Xi’an TCH’s equity in Zhonghong.

 

F-24

 

 

The term of this loan was for 60 months from July 31, 2013 to July 30, 2018. On August 6, 2016, Zhonghong was required to repay principal of RMB 280 million ($42.22 million), of which the Company paid RMB 50 million ($7.54 million); on August 6, 2017, Zhonghong was initially supposed to repay principal of RMB 100 million ($16.27 million) and on July 30, 2018, Zhonghong was initially supposed to repay the remainder of RMB 77 million ($12.52 million). The interest rate is 12.5%. During the term, Zhonghong shall maintain a minimal funding level and capital level in its designated account with the Supervising Bank to make sure it has sufficient funds to make principal payments when they are due. Notwithstanding the requirements, the HYREF Fund and Supervising Bank verbally notified Zhonghong from the beginning that it was unlikely that they would enforce these requirements for the purpose of the efficient utilization of working capital. As of December 31, 2018, the entrusted loan payable had an outstanding balance of $59.29 million, of which, $10.92 million was from the investment of Xi’an TCH; accordingly, the Company netted the loan payable of $10.92 million with the long-term investment to the HYREF Fund made by Xi’an TCH. The Company had paid RMB 50 million ($7.54 million) of the RMB 280 million ($42.22 million), and on August 5, 2016, the Company entered into a supplemental agreement with the lender to extend the due date of the remaining RMB 230 million ($34.68 million) of the original RMB 280 million ($45.54 million) to August 6, 2017. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company negotiated with the lender again to further extend the remaining loan balance of RMB 230 million ($34.68 million), RMB 100 million ($16.27 million), and RMB 77 million ($12.52 million) (which included investment from Xi’an TCH of RMB 75 million and was netted off with the entrusted loan payable of the HYREF Fund in the balance sheet). The lender had tentatively agreed to extend the remaining loan balance until August 2019 with an adjusted annual interest rate of 9%, subject to the final approval from its headquarters. The headquarters did not approve the extension proposal with an adjusted annual interest rate of 9%; however, on December 29, 2018, the Company worked out with the lender an alternative repayment proposal as described below. As of December 31, 2019, the interest payable for this loan was $8.20 million and the outstanding balance for this loan was $20.77 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recorded interest expense of $5.19 million on this loan and $2.43 million penalty interest on past due loan, and capitalized $2.38 million interest to construction in progress. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded interest expense of $1.72 million on this loan.

 

Repayment of HYREF loan

 

  1. Transfer of Chengli project as partial repayment

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, HYREF, Guohua Ku, and Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment for the loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the Chengli CDQ WHPG Station when conditions under the Buy Back Agreement are met. Due to the Buy Back agreement, the loan was not deemed repaid, the Company kept the Chengli project in its books as fixed assets as of December 31, 2019.

 

On January 22, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, completed the transfer of Chengli CDQ WHPG station to HYREF as the repayment of a loan for RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) owed to HYREF. Xi’an TCH is a secondary limited partner of HYREF. The consideration of the CDQ WHPG station was determined by the parties based upon the appraisal report issued by Zhonglian Assets Appraisal Group (Shaanxi) Co., Ltd. as of August 15, 2018.

 

  2. Buy Back Agreement

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, HYREF, Guohua Ku, Chonggong Bai and Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”) entered into a Buy Back Agreement.

 

Pursuant to the Buy Back Agreement, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai (the “Buyers”) jointly and severally agreed to buy back all outstanding capital equity of Xi’an Hanneng which was transferred to HYREF by Chonggong Bai (see 5 below), and a CDQ WHPG station in Boxing County which was transferred to HYREF by Xi’an Zhonghong. The buy-back price for the Xi’an Hanneng’s equity will be the higher of (i) the market price of the equity shares at the time of buy-back; or (ii) the original transfer price of the equity shares plus bank interest. HYREF may request that the Buyers buy back the equity shares of Xi’an Hanneng and/or the CDQ WHPG station if one of the following conditions is met: (i) HYREF holds the equity shares of Xi’an Hanneng until December 31, 2021; (ii) Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd., is delisted from The National Equities Exchange And Quotations Co., Ltd., a Chinese over-the-counter trading system (the “NEEQ”); (iii) Xi’an Huaxin New Energy, or any of the Buyers or its affiliates has a credit problem, including not being able to issue an auditor report or standard auditor report or any control person or executive of the Buyers is involved in crimes and is under prosecution or has other material credit problems, to HYREF’s reasonable belief; (iv) if Xi’an Zhonghong fails to timely make repayment on principal or interest of the loan agreement, its supplemental agreement or extension agreement; (v) the Buyers or any party to the Debt Repayment Agreement materially breaches the Debt Repayment Agreement or its related transaction documents, including but not limited to the Share Transfer Agreement, the Pledged Assets Transfer Agreement, the Entrusted Loan Agreement and their guarantee agreements and supplemental agreements. 

 

F-25

 

 

Due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report, on December 19, 2019, Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai jointly and severally agreed to buy back all outstanding capital equity of Xi’an Hanneng which was transferred to HYREF by Chonggong Bai earlier. The total buy back price was RMB 261,727,506 ($37.52 million) including accrued interest of RMB 14,661,506 ($2.10 million), and was paid in full by Xi’an TCH.

 

  3. Xi’an TCH transferred 40% ownership in the Fund Management Company to Hongyuan Huifu for partial payment of financial advisory fee

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd (“Hongyuan Huifu”), pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred its 40% ownership in Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Beijing Co., Ltd. (the “Fund Management Company”) to Hongyuan Huifu for consideration of RMB 3,453,867 ($504,000) (the “Fund Management Company Transfer Price”). On January 22, 2019, Xi’an TCH completed the 40% ownership transfer transaction.

 

On December 29, 2018, Xi’an TCH, Hongyuan Huifu and Fund Management Company entered into a supplemental agreement to the Share Transfer Agreement. Xi’an TCH owes the Fund Management Company RMB 18,306,667 ($2,672,000) in financial advisory fees, and the parties agreed that the Fund Management Company Transfer Price could be used to off-set the outstanding financial advisory fees. Upon the completion of this transaction, the Fund Management Company owed RMB 3,453,867 ($502,400) to Hongyuan Huifu, and Xi’an TCH owed RMB 14,852,800 ($2,168,000) to the Fund Management Company. 

 

  4. HYREF Fund transferred 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH

 

On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF agreed to transfer its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH for RMB 3 million ($430,034), and was recorded as long term payable in the Company’s balance sheet. On January 22, 2019, Hongyuan Huifu completed the transfer of its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH, Xi’an Zhongong then became a 100% subsidiary of Shanghai TCH. The Company did not record any gain or loss for this purchase as the controlling interest did not change (see Note 15).

 

  5. Transfer of Xuzhou Huayu Project and Shenqiu Phase I & II project to Mr. Bai for partial repayment of HYREF loan

 

On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred a CDQ WHPG station (under construction) located in Xuzhou City for Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu Project”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million) and Xi’an TCH will transfer two Biomass Power Generation Projects in Shenqiu (“Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the RMB 247,066,000 ($36.07 million) loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project and Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects.

 

On February 15, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong completed the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project and Xi’an TCH completed the transfer of Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects to Mr. Bai, and on January 10, 2019, Mr. Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment of Xi’an Zhonghong’s loan to HYREF as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project and Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects. 

 

F-26

 

 

Xi’an Hanneng is a holding company and was supposed to own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd. (“Huaxin”), so that HYREF will indirectly receive and own such shares of Xi’an Huaxin as the repayment for the loan of Zhonghong. Xi’an Hanneng already owned 29,948,000 shares of Huaxin; however, Xi’an Hanneng was not able to obtain the remaining 17,202,000 shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report.

 

On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai, Xi’an TCH and Xi’an Zhonghong agreed to have Mr. Bai repay the Company in cash for the transfer price of Xuzhou Huayu and Shenqiu in five installment payments. The 1st payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) is due on January 5, 2020, the 2nd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on February 5, 2020, the 3rd payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on April 5, 2020, the 4th payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) was due on June 30, 2020, and the final payment of RMB 47,066,000 ($6.75 million) was due on September 30, 2020. As of this report date, the Company has already received RMB 150 million ($21.51 million).

 

  6.

The lender agreed to extend the repayment of RMB 77.00 million ($11.04 million) to July 8, 2023; of which, RMB 75.00 million ($10.81 million) was Xi’an TCH’s investment into the HYREF fund as a secondary limited partner (Note 5), and the Company netted off the investment of RMB 75 million ($10.81 million) by Xi’an TCH with the entrusted loan payable of the HYREF Fund.

 

A reconciliation of repayment of HYREF loan (entrusted loan) by three Projects at December 31, 2019 was as follows:

 

Transfer price for Chengli Project  $27,040,423   Entrusted loan payable at December 31, 2019, net with Xi’an TCH investment in entrusted loan  $20,766,903 
Transfer price for Xuzhou Huayu Project   17,201,342   Interest payable on entrusted loan at December 31, 2019   8,200,044 
Transfer price for Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects   18,214,214   Add back: Xi’an TCH investment in entrusted loan   10,750,839 
        Less: interest accrued from September 20, 2018 to December 31, 2019 (cut-off date for interest calculation for repayment was September 20, 2018)   (1,639,835)
        Less: portion of loan with repayment due date extended to year 2023   (11,037,528)
              
        Add back: interest & penalty repaid by Xi’an TCH   8,592,080 
        Add back: loan principle repaid by Xi’an TCH   26,823,476 
   $62,455,979      $62,455,979 

 

11. REFUNDABLE DEPOSITS FROM CUSTOMERS FOR SYSTEMS LEASING

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the balance of refundable deposits from customers for systems leasing was $544,709 (for Pucheng systems) and $1,034,503 (for Pucheng and Shenqiu systems), respectively.

 

12. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

On December 29, 2018, our Chairman of the Board and CEO, Guohua Ku, entered into a Buy-Back Agreement with the following parties: Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, HYREF, Chonggong Bai and Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”). Pursuant to the terms of the Buy Back Agreement, Mr. Ku, together with Xi’an TCH, Xi’an Zhonghong, and Chonggong Bai, as Buyers, jointly and severally agreed to buy back all outstanding capital equity of Xi’an Hanneng which was transferred to HYREF by Chonggong Bai, and a CDQ WHPG station in Boxing County which was transferred to HYREF by Xi’an Zhonghong. (See Notes 5 and 10). Pursuant to the terms of the Buy-Back agreement, HYREF may request that the Buyers buy back the equity shares of Xi’an Hanneng and/or the CDQ WHPG station if one of the following conditions is met: (i) HYREF holds the equity shares of Xi’an Hanneng until December 31, 2021; (ii) Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd., is delisted from The National Equities Exchange And Quotations Co., Ltd., a Chinese over-the-counter trading system (the “NEEQ”); (iii) Xi’an Huaxin New Energy, or any of the Buyers or its affiliates has a credit problem, including not being able to issue an auditor report or standard auditor report or any control person or executive of the Buyers is involved in crimes and is under prosecution or has other material credit problems, to HYREF’s reasonable belief; (iv) if Xi’an Zhonghong fails to timely make repayment on principal or interest of the loan agreement, its supplemental agreement or extension agreement; (v) the Buyers or any party to the Debt Repayment Agreement materially breaches the Debt Repayment Agreement or its related transaction documents, including but not limited to the Share Transfer Agreement, the Pledged Assets Transfer Agreement, the Entrusted Loan Agreement and their guarantee agreements and supplemental agreements. 

 

As of December 31,2019 and 2018, the Company had $41,174 and $41,168, respectively, in advances from the Company’s management, which bear no interest, are unsecured, and are payable upon demand.

 

F-27

 

 

13. NOTE PAYABLES, NET

 

Convertible Note in July 2018

 

On July 11, 2018, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with a Purchaser (Iliad Research and Trading, L.P), pursuant to which the Company sold and issued to the Purchaser a Convertible Promissory Note of $1,070,000. The Purchaser purchased the Note with an original issue discount (“OID”) of $50,000, and the Company paid to the Purchaser $20,000 for fees and costs incurred by Purchaser in connection with the consummation of the Purchase Agreement.

 

The Note bears interest at 8%. All outstanding principal and accrued interest on the Note will become due and payable on July 11, 2020, subject to a potential one-year extension during which interest would not accrue. The Company’s obligations under the Note may be prepaid at any time, provided that in such circumstance the Company would pay 125% of any amounts outstanding under the Note and being prepaid. Amounts outstanding under the Note may be converted at any time, at the Lender’s option, into shares of the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $3.00 per share, subject to certain adjustments (in the event the Market Capitalization falls below the Minimum Market Capitalization (MMC) at any time, then in such event the Lender Conversion Price for all Lender Conversions occurring after the first date of such occurrence shall equal the lower of the Lender Conversion Price and the Market Price as of any applicable date of Conversion. MMC is defined as $8 million). During the term of the Note, the Company shall not, without the prior written consent of the Purchaser, enter into or effect certain fundamental business transactions. The Purchaser has the option to redeem the Note at any time after the six month anniversary of the date when the purchase price is delivered to the Company (“Purchase Price Date”) in the amounts of up to 50% of the amount outstanding during the nine month period after Purchase Price Date or any percentage of the amount outstanding under the Note at any time after the nine month anniversary of Purchase Price Date, with such redemption amounts paid in cash or shares of the Company’s common stock, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election.

 

During the first quarter of 2019, the Company amortized OID of $38,151 and loan issuing cost of $15,260, and recorded $10,446 interest expense for this convertible note. From January 16, 2019 through March 6, 2019, the investors converted the convertible note with principal of $1,070,000 and accrued interest of $51,018 into 1,851,946 common shares (pre-reverse stock split) at conversion prices from $0.86 to $1.42, and the Company recorded $893,958 interest expense due to change in the conversion price, which was the difference between the market price and the conversion rate as of the conversion date, which was mutually agreed by the lender and borrower.

 

Convertible Notes / Promissory Notes in January and February 2019

 

On January 31, 2019, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P., a Utah limited partnership (the “Purchaser”), pursuant to which the Company sold and issued to the Purchaser a Convertible Promissory Note of $1,050,000. The Purchaser purchased the Note with an original issue discount of $50,000. The Note bears interest at 8%. All outstanding principal and accrued interest on the Note will become due and payable on January 30, 2021, subject to a potential one-year extension period during which interest would not accrue. The Company’s obligations under the Note may be prepaid at any time, provided that in such circumstance the Company would pay 125% of any amounts outstanding under the Note and being prepaid. Amounts outstanding under the Note may be converted at any time, at the Lender’s option, into shares of the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $3.00 per share, subject to certain adjustments as discussed in the July 2018 Note above. The conversion feature did not require bifurcation and derivative accounting as the conversion price was greater than the market price of the Company common shares, there was no beneficial conversion feature to recognize.

 

On February 27, 2019, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P., a Utah limited partnership (the “Purchaser”), pursuant to which the Company sold and issued to the Purchaser a Convertible Promissory Note of $1,050,000. The Purchaser purchased the Note with an original issue discount of $50,000. The Note bears interest at 8%. All outstanding principal and accrued interest on the Note will become due and payable on February 26, 2021, subject to a potential one-year extension period during which interest would not accrue. The Company’s obligations under the Note may be prepaid at any time, provided that in such circumstance the Company would pay 125% of any amounts outstanding under the Note and being prepaid. Amounts outstanding under the Note may be converted at any time, at the Lender’s option, into shares of the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $3.00 per share, subject to certain adjustments as discussed above in the July 2018 Note. The conversion feature did not require bifurcation and derivative accounting and as the conversion price was greater than the market value of the Company common shares, there was no beneficial conversion feature to recognize.

 

F-28

 

 

Pursuant to an Exchange Agreement dated April 14, 2019 (the “Exchange Agreement”), the Company and Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. agreed to exchange the above two notes (the “Original Notes”) with two new promissory notes (the “Exchange Notes”). Upon execution of the agreement, the notes holder surrendered the Convertible Notes to the Company and the Company issued to the holder the Exchange Notes. Upon surrender, the two Convertible Notes were cancelled and the remaining amount owed to Holder hereafter be evidenced solely by the Exchange Notes ($1,173,480 and $ 1,165,379 for the January and February 2019 notes, respectively). All outstanding principal and accrued interest on the Exchange Notes will become due and payable on January 31, 2021 and February 27, 2021, respectively. The Exchange Notes bore interest at 8% and did not grant conversion options to the Purchaser. The Company’s obligations under the Exchange Notes could be prepaid at any time, provided that in such circumstance the Company would have paid 125% of any amounts outstanding under the Exchange Notes. Beginning on the date that is six months from the issue date of the respective Original Notes (the “Issue Dates”) and at any time thereafter until the Exchange Notes are paid in full, Purchaser shall have the right to redeem up to $750,000 of the outstanding balance during months six to eight following the respective Issue Date and any amount thereafter. The exchange of the Convertible Notes with Promissory Notes did not cause substantially different terms, and did not meet the conditions described in ASC 405-20-40-1, and therefore was accounted for as a modification and not an extinguishment; accordingly, the Company did not recognize any gain or loss for the exchange of the notes under ASC 470-50-40-8.

 

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company amortized OID of $43,750 and recorded $368,362 interest expense (including $106,680 and $105,944 in exchange fees, respectively) for these two notes.

 

As a result of default in the redemption request by the lender made on August 1, 2019, the Company and the lender entered into a forbearance agreement in which the lender agreed not to enforce its rights under the agreement and agreed not to make any Redemptions pursuant to the Section 4 of the Note before October 1, 2019. Under the term of the forbearance agreement, in the event Lender delivers after October 1, 2019 a Redemption Notice to Borrower and the Redemption Amount set forth therein is not paid in cash to Lender within three Trading Days, then the applicable Redemption Amount shall be increased by 25% (the “First Adjustment,” and such increase to the Redemption Amount, the “First Adjusted Redemption Amount”). In the event the First Adjusted Redemption Amount is not paid within three Trading Days after the date of First Adjustment, then the First Adjusted Redemption Amount shall be increased in accordance with the following formula: $0.50 divided by the lowest Closing Trade Price of the Common Stock during the 20 Trading Days prior to the date of the Second Adjustment and the resulting quotient multiplied by the First Adjusted Redemption Amount (the “Second Adjustment,” and such increase to the First Adjusted Redemption Amount, the “Second Adjusted Redemption Amount”), provided, however, that such formula shall only be applied if the resulting quotient is greater than one and such formula shall in no event be used to reduce the First Adjusted Redemption Amount.

 

On September 19, 2019, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P (“Lender”). Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $202,000 (the “Partitioned Note”) from a Promissory Note (the “Note”) issued by the Company on April 14, 2019, which was exchanged from a Convertible Note originally issued by Company on January 31, 2019, whereupon the outstanding balance of the Note was reduced by an amount equal to the initial outstanding balance of the Partitioned Note. The Company and Lender further agreed to settle the Partitioned Note by the issuance of 40,400 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock. The Company recorded $24,240 gain on this partitioned note settlement, which was the difference between the market price and the conversion price.

 

On October 16, 2019, the Company entered into two Exchange Agreements with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreements, the Company and Lender agreed to partition two new Promissory Notes in the original principal amounts of $125,000 and $200,000 from a Promissory Note issued by the Company on April 14, 2019. The Company and Lender agreed to settle the Partitioned Notes by the issuance of 25,000 shares and 40,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock. The Company recorded gain on conversion of $22,500 and $36,000, respectively.

 

F-29

 

 

On November 11, 2019, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $150,000 from a Promissory Note issued by the Company on April 14, 2019. The Company and Lender agreed to settle the Partitioned Note by the issuance of 30,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock. The Company recorded $45,000 gain on conversion of this portion of note.

 

On December 16, 2019, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $120,000 from a Promissory Note issued by the Company on April 14, 2019. The Company and Lender agreed to exchange the Partitioned Note for the delivery of 40,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock. The Company recorded $4,000 gain on conversion of this portion of note. On the same date, the Company and the lender amended the September 11, 2019 forbearance agreement to increase the adjustment ratio described above from $0.50 to $0.30 (pre-reverse stock split price).

 

The outstanding balance of the Note shall be reduced by an amount equal to the total outstanding balance of the Partitioned Note. The investor made adjustments of $305,626 to increase the principle of the notes during the year ended December 31, 2019 under the term of the September 11th forbearance agreement and the amendment to forbearance agreement dated on December 16, 2019.

 

14. SHARES ISSUED FOR EQUITY FINANCING AND STOCK COMPENSATION

 

Registered Director Offering and Private Placement in October 2018

 

On October 29, 2018, CREG entered into Securities Purchase Agreements with certain purchasers (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company offered to the Purchasers, in a registered direct offering, 1,985,082 shares (pre-reverse stock split) of the Company’s common stock. The Shares were sold to the Purchasers at $1.375 per share, for gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $2.75 million, before deducting fees to the placement agent and other estimated offering expenses payable by the Company. 

 

In a concurrent private placement, the Company also issued to the each of the Purchasers a warrant (“Investor Warrants”) to purchase one (1) share of the Company’s Common Stock for each Share purchased under the Purchase Agreement, pursuant to that certain Common Stock Purchase Warrant, by and between the Company and each Purchaser, for a purchase price of $0.125 per Warrant and gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $250,000, before deducting fees to the placement agent and other estimated offering expenses payable by the Company. The Warrants are exercisable on the date of issuance at an exercise price of $1.3725 per share and will expire on the five and a half year anniversary of the date of issuance.

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC was the Company’s exclusive placement agent in connection with the offerings under the Purchase Agreement and received a fee of 7% of the gross proceeds ($208,433) received by the Company from the offerings and warrants to purchase the Company’s Common Stock in an amount of 7% of the Company’s Shares sold to the Purchasers in the offerings, or 138,956 shares (pre-reverse stock split) of Common Stock, on substantially the same terms as the Warrants, with an exercise price of $1.875 per share and expiration date of October 29, 2023 (the “Placement Agent Warrants”).

 

The warrants issued in this private placement are classified as equity instruments. The Company accounted for the warrants issued in the private placement based on the fair value method under ASC Topic 505, and the FV of the warrants was calculated using the Black-Scholes model under the following assumptions: estimated life of 5.5 years for Investor Warrants and 5 years for Placement Agent Warrants, volatility of 98%, risk-free interest rate of 2.91% and dividend yield of 0%. The FV of the warrants issued to investors at grant date was $2,499,238, and the FV of the warrants issued to the placement agent at grant date was $161,027.

 

Private Placement in February 2019

 

On February 13, 2019, CREG entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Great Essential Investment, Ltd. a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands (the “Purchaser”), pursuant to which the Company sold to the Purchaser in a private placement 1,600,000 shares (pre-reverse stock split) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at $10.13 per share, for $1,620,800. The Company was required to file a registration statement for the registration of the Shares for their resale by the Purchaser within 100 days from the effective date of this Agreement. The Private Placement was completed pursuant to the exemption from registration provided by Regulation S promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The Company filed the registration statement on May 24, 2019, and was declared effective on June 4, 2019. 

 

F-30

 

 

Registered Direct Offering and Private Placement in April 2019

 

On April 15, 2019, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with certain purchasers (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company offered to the Purchasers, in a registered direct offering, 2,359,272 shares (pre-reverse stock split) of common stock. The Shares were sold to the Purchasers at a negotiated purchase price of $0.80 per share, for gross proceeds to the Company of $1,887,417, before deducting $200,000 in placement agent fees and other estimated offering expenses payable by the Company.

 

In a concurrent private placement, the Company also issued to the each of the Purchasers a warrant to purchase 0.75 of a share of the Company’s Common Stock for each share purchased under the Purchase Agreement, or 1,769,454 warrants (pre-reverse stock split). The Warrants are exercisable beginning on the six month anniversary of the date of issuance at an exercise price of $0.9365 per share, and expire on the five and one-half year anniversary of the date of issuance. 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC acted as the Company’s exclusive placement agent in connection with the offerings under the Purchase Agreement and received cash fee of 7% of the gross proceeds received by the Company from the offerings (or $132,119), up to $75,000 for certain expenses, $10,000 for clearing expenses and warrants to purchase the Company’s Common Stock in an amount equal to 7% of our Shares sold to the Purchasers in the offerings, or 165,149 shares of Common Stock, on substantially the same terms as the Warrants, except that the Placement Agent Warrants have an initial exercise price of $1.00 per share, are exercisable commencing on the later of (i) six months of the issuance date or (ii) the date on which the Company increases the number of its authorized shares, and expire on April 15, 2024.

 

The warrants issued in this private placement were classified as equity instruments. The Company accounted for the warrants issued in the private placement based on the fair value method under ASC Topic 505, and the FV of the warrants was calculated using the Black-Scholes model under the following assumptions: estimated life of 5.5 years for Investor Warrants and 5 years for Placement Agent Warrants, volatility of 100%, risk-free interest rate of 2.41% and dividend yield of 0%. The FV of the warrants issued to investors at grant date was $855,246, and the FV of the warrants issued to the placement agent at grant date was $75,901.

 

On November 22, 2019, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement (the “First Exchange Agreement”) with certain investors who had been party to that certain Securities Purchase Agreement dated October 29, 2018. Pursuant to the First Exchange Agreement, the Company and the October Investors agreed to exchange the outstanding warrant issued by the Company to the October Investors pursuant to the October Securities Purchase Agreement into shares of common stock of the Company, with an exchange ratio of 1 share of October Warrant Stock for 0.5 shares of common stock, according to the terms and conditions of the First Exchange Agreement.

 

On November 22, 2019, the Company entered into a Second Exchange Agreement (the “Second Exchange Agreement”) with certain investors who had been party to that certain Securities Purchase Agreement dated April 15, 2019 by and among the Company and such investors. Pursuant to the Second Exchange Agreement, the Company and the April Investors agreed to exchange the outstanding warrant issued by the Company to the April Investors pursuant to the April Securities Purchase Agreement into shares of common stock of the Company, with an exchange ratio of 1 share of April Warrant Stock for 0.6 shares of common stock, according to the terms and conditions of the Second Exchange Agreement.

 

The Company let the warrant holders exercised the 375,454 warrants (post-reverse stock split) into 205,421 common shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company at a cashless exercise method. The fair value of these shares was the additional cost to the Company for the issuance of the shares under securities purchase agreements previously entered (described above). However, since the warrants were initially equity classified as they met the qualifications for equity classification under ASC 815-40, accordingly, the modification upon exercise of these warrants had no impact to the Company’s financial statements.

 

F-31

 

 

Following is a summary of the warrant activity (post-reverse stock split) for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

   Number of
Warrants
   Average
Exercise
Price (post-reverse stock split price)
   Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term in Years
 
Granted   212,404   $14.1    5.47 
Exercised   -    -    - 
Forfeited   -    -    - 
Expired   -    -    - 
Outstanding at December 31, 2018   212,404   $14.1    5.29 
Exercisable at December 31, 2018   212,404   $14.1    5.29 
Granted   193,460   $9.5    5.25 
Exchanged   (375,454)   -    - 
Forfeited   -    -    - 
Expired   -    -    - 
Outstanding at December 31, 2019   30,411   $14.0    4.21 
Exercisable at December 31, 2019   30,411   $14.0    4.21 

 

Shares Issued for Stock Compensation

 

On October 10, 2019, the Company entered an investment banking engagement agreement with an investment banker firm to engage them as the exclusive lead underwriter for a registered securities offering. The Company shall pay to the investment banker an equity retainer fee of 15,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the restricted common stock of the Company (10,000 shares will be paid within 10 business days of signing the agreement, and remaining 5,000 shares will be paid upon completion of the offering). At closing of the offering, the Company will pay a 7% of the gross offering proceeds and warrants to purchase that number of shares of common stock or units of securities as shall equal 7% of the securities issued and sold by the Company at each closing of the offering.

 

On October 11, 2019, the Company entered a consulting agreement with a consulting company (whose managing director is also the Company’s SEC counsel) to advise the Company on an acquisition project. The service term is six months or closing of the Company’s acquisition. Within three business days after signing of this agreement, the Company agreed to issue 31,250 (post-reverse stock split) shares of the Company’s unregistered and restricted common stock; with three business days after the investment made by institutional investors introduce by the consulting company, the Company agreed to issue 31,250 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s unregistered and restricted common stock.

 

In October 2019, the Company issued 31,250 shares (post-reverse stock split) of its restricted common stock and 10,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of its restricted common stock, respectively, for consulting services and investment banking services described above. The fair value of these shares was $148,625.

 

15. NONCONTROLLING INTEREST AND LONG TERM PAYABLE

 

On July 15, 2013, Xi’an TCH and HYREF Fund jointly established Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology (“Zhonghong”) with registered capital of RMB 30 million ($4.88 million), to manage new projects. Xi’an TCH paid RMB 27 million ($4.37 million) as its contribution of the registered capital to Zhonghong. Xi’an TCH owns 90% of Zhonghong while HYREF Fund owns 10% of Zhonghong as a non-controlling interest of Zhonghong.

 

F-32

 

 

In addition, the HYREF Fund was 16.3% owned by Xi’an TCH and 1.1% owned by the Fund Management Company, and the Fund Management Company was 40% owned by Xi’an TCH as described in Note 7, which resulted in an additional indirect ownership of Xi’an TCH in Zhonghong of 1.7%; accordingly, the ultimate non-controlling interest (HYREF Fund) in Zhonghong became 8.3%.

 

On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF transferred its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH (a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company) for RMB 3 million ($0.44 million), and Shanghai TCH record the purchase price as long term payable as of December 31, 2019. On January 22, 2019, HYREF completed the transfer of its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH, Xi’an Zhongong then became a 100% subsidiary of Shanghai TCH. The net asset of 10% NCI of Xi’an Zhonghong was $3.54 million. The Company did not record any gain or loss for this purchase as the controlling interest did not change.

 

16. INCOME TAX

 

The Company’s Chinese subsidiaries are governed by the Income Tax Law of the PRC concerning privately-run enterprises, which are generally subject to tax at 25% on income reported in the statutory financial statements after appropriate tax adjustments. Under Chinese tax law, the tax treatment of finance and sales-type leases is similar to US GAAP. However, the local tax bureau continues to treat CREG sales-type leases as operating leases. Accordingly, the Company recorded deferred income taxes. 

 

The Company’s subsidiaries generate all of their income from their PRC operations. All of the Company’s Chinese subsidiaries’ effective income tax rate for 2019 and 2018 was 25%. Yinghua, Shanghai TCH, Xi’an TCH, Huahong, Zhonghong and Erdos TCH file separate income tax returns.

 

There is no income tax for companies domiciled in the Cayman Islands. Accordingly, the Company’s CFS do not present any income tax provisions related to Cayman Islands tax jurisdiction, where Sifang Holding is domiciled.

 

The US parent company, CREG is taxed in the US and, as of December 31, 2019, had net operating loss (“NOL”) carry forwards for income taxes of $15.46 million; for federal income tax purposes, the NOL arising in tax years beginning after 2017 may only reduce 80% of a taxpayer’s taxable income, and may be carried forward indefinitely. The management believes the realization of benefits from these losses may be uncertain due to the US parent company’s continuing operating losses. Accordingly, a 100% deferred tax asset valuation allowance was provided.

 

As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s PRC subsidiaries had $41.70 million NOL that can be carried forward to offset future taxable income for five years from the year the loss is incurred. The NOL was mostly from Zhonghong, Zhonghong has not yet generated any sales yet; accordingly, the Company recorded a 100% deferred tax valuation allowance for PRC NOL.

 

The following table reconciles the U.S. statutory rates to the Company’s effective tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively:

 

   2019   2018 
U.S. statutory rates   (21.0)%   (21.0)%
Tax rate difference – current provision   (3.4)%   (4.0)%
Reversal of temporary difference due to disposal of Shenqiu   (18.8)%   -%
Permanent differences   2.0%   -%
Other   -%   (0.1)%
Valuation allowance on PRC NOL   14.3%   28.9%
Valuation allowance on US NOL   1.3%   0.2%
Tax (benefit) per financial statements   (25.6)%   4.0%

 

The provision for income tax expense for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 consisted of the following:

 

    2019     2018  
Income tax expense (benefit) – current   $ -     $ 1,604,473  
Income tax benefit – deferred     (3,024,807 )     1,022,985  
Total income tax expense (benefit)   $ (3,024,807 )   $ 2,627,428  

 

F-33

 

 

17. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION PLAN

 

Options to Employees and Directors

 

On June 19, 2015, the stockholders of the Company approved the China Recycling Energy Corporation Omnibus Equity Plan (the “Plan”) at its annual meeting. The total shares of common stock authorized for issuance during the term of the Plan is 124,626 (post-reverse stock split). The Plan was effective immediately upon its adoption by the Board of Directors on April 24, 2015, subject to stockholder approval, and will terminate on the earliest to occur of (i) the 10th anniversary of the Plan’s effective date, or (ii) the date on which all shares available for issuance under the Plan shall have been issued as fully-vested shares. The stockholders approved the Plan at their annual meeting on June 19, 2015.

 

The following table summarizes option activity with respect to employees and independent directors, and the number of options reflects the Reverse Stock Split effective April 13, 2020:

 

   Number of
Shares
   Average
Exercise Price
per Share (post-reverse stock split price)
   Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term in Years
 
             
Outstanding at December 31, 2018   900   $54.0    5.41 
Exercisable at December 31, 2018   900   $54.0    5.41 
Granted   -    -    - 
Exercised   -    -    - 
Forfeited   -    -    - 
Outstanding at December 31, 2019   900   $54.0    4.41 
Exercisable at December 31, 2019   900   $54.0    4.41 

 

18. STATUTORY RESERVES

 

Pursuant to the corporate law of the PRC effective January 1, 2006, the Company is only required to maintain one statutory reserve by appropriating from its after-tax profit before declaration or payment of dividends. The statutory reserve represents restricted retained earnings.

 

Surplus Reserve Fund

 

The Company’s Chinese subsidiaries are required to transfer 10% of their net income, as determined under PRC accounting rules and regulations, to a statutory surplus reserve fund until such reserve balance reaches 50% of the Company’s registered capital. 

 

The surplus reserve fund is non-distributable other than during liquidation and can be used to fund previous years’ losses, if any, and may be utilized for business expansion or converted into share capital by issuing new shares to existing shareholders in proportion to their shareholding or by increasing the par value of the shares currently held by them, provided that the remaining reserve balance after such issue is not less than 25% of the registered capital.

 

F-34

 

 

The maximum statutory reserve amount has not been reached for any subsidiary. The table below discloses the statutory reserve amount in the currency type registered for each Chinese subsidiary as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

Name of Chinese Subsidiaries  Registered
Capital
   Maximum
Statutory 
Reserve
Amount
   Statutory reserve at
December 31, 2019 and 2018
            
Shanghai TCH  $29,800,000   $14,900,000   ¥ 6,564,303 ($1,003,859)
              
Xi’an TCH  ¥202,000,000   ¥101,000,000   ¥ 69,359,820 ($10,606,984)
              
Erdos TCH  ¥120,000,000   ¥60,000,000   ¥ 19,035,814 ($2,914,869)
              
Xi’an Zhonghong  ¥30,000,000   ¥15,000,000   Did not accrue yet due to accumulated deficit
              
Shaanxi Huahong  $2,500,300   $1,250,150   Did not accrue yet due to accumulated deficit
              
Zhongxun  ¥35,000,000   ¥17,500,000   Did not accrue yet due to accumulated deficit

 

Common Welfare Fund

 

The common welfare fund is a voluntary fund to which the Company can transfer 5% to 10% of its net income. This fund can only be utilized on capital items for the collective benefit of the Company’s employees, such as construction of dormitories, cafeteria facilities, and other staff welfare facilities. This fund is non-distributable other than upon liquidation. The Company does not participate in this fund.

 

19. CONTINGENCIES

 

China maintains a “closed” capital account, meaning companies, banks, and individuals cannot move money in or out of the country except in accordance with strict rules. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) and State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) regulate the flow of foreign exchange in and out of the country. For inward or outward foreign currency transactions, the Company needs to make a timely declaration to the bank with sufficient supporting documents to declare the nature of the business transaction. The Company’s sales, purchases and expense transactions are denominated in RMB and all of the Company’s assets and liabilities are also denominated in RMB. The RMB is not freely convertible into foreign currencies under the current law. Remittances in currencies other than RMB may require certain supporting documentation in order to make the remittance.

 

The Company’s operations in the PRC are subject to specific considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America and Western Europe. These include risks associated with, among others, the political, economic and legal environments and foreign currency exchange. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion and remittance abroad, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.

 

The Company sells electricity to its customers and receives commercial notes (bank acceptance) from them in lieu of payments for accounts receivable. The Company discounts the commercial notes with the bank or endorses the commercial notes to vendors for payment of their own obligations or to get cash from third parties. Most of the commercial notes have a maturity of less than six months.

 

20. COMMITMENTS

 

Lease Commitment

 

On November 20, 2017, Xi’an TCH entered into a lease for its office with a term from December 1, 2017 through November 30, 2020. The monthly rent is RMB 36,536 ($5,600) with quarterly payment in advance.

 

On August 2, 2018, the Company entered into a lease for its office use in Beijing with a term from August 4, 2018 through August 3, 2020. The monthly rent is RMB 22,000 ($3,205) with quarterly payment in advance. This lease was terminated in 2019.

F-35

 

 

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the rental expense of the Company was $86,874 (including Beijing office rent of $19,674) and $83,394 (including Beijing office rent of $16,194), respectively. 

 

The Company adopted ASC 842 on CFS on January 1, 2019. The components of lease costs, lease term and discount rate with respect of the office lease with an initial term of more than 12 months are as follows:

 

   Year Ended 
   December 31, 2019 
Operating lease cost  $66,262 
Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term - Operating leases   0.92 years 
Weighted Average Discount Rate - Operating leases   3%

 

The following is a schedule, by years, of maturities of the office lease liabilities as of December 31, 2019:

 

   Operating Leases 
2020  $57,610 
Total undiscounted cash flows   57,610 
Less: imputed interest   (855)
Present value of lease liabilities  $56,755 

 

Construction Commitment

 

Refer to Note 1 for additional details related to lease commitments with Xuzhou Tian’an, Note 6 for commitments on construction in progress.

 

Employment Agreement

 

On May 8, 2020, the Company entered an employment agreement with the Company’s CFO for a term of 24 months. The monthly salary is RMB 16,000 ($2,300). The Company will grant the CFO no less than 5,000 shares of the Company’s common stock annually. 

 

21. SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

 

The Company follows the guidance in FASB ASC 855-10 for the disclosure of subsequent events. The Company evaluated subsequent events through the date the financial statements were issued and determined the Company has the following material subsequent events:

 

On January 3, 2020, Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P., as Lender. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $150,000 from a Promissory Note issued by the Company on April 14, 2019, which was exchanged from a Convertible Note originally issued by Company on January 31, 2019 and then the outstanding balance of the Note shall be reduced by an amount equal to the initial outstanding balance of the Partitioned Note. The Company and Lender further agreed to exchange the Partitioned Note for the delivery of 50,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock.

 

On January 13, 2020, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $135,000 from a Promissory Note issued by the Company on April 14, 2019, which was exchanged from a Convertible Note originally issued by Company on January 31, 2019 and then the outstanding balance of the Note shall be reduced by an amount equal to the initial outstanding balance of the Partitioned Note. The Company and Lender further agreed to exchange the Partitioned Note for the delivery of 45,000 shares (post-reverse stock split) of the Company’s Common Stock.

 

On March 6, 2020, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and the Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $145,000 from a Convertible Promissory Note dated January 31, 2019 which was exchanged for a new Promissory Note on April 14, 2019. The Company and the Lender agreed to exchange the Partitioned Note for 48,333 shares (post-reverse stock split) of common stock of the Company, and then the amount of the outstanding balance of the Promissory Note will be reduced by an amount equal to the Partitioned Note. The shares of common stock were issued without any restrictions.

 

On March 16, 2020, the Company’s Board of Director agreed to issue 3,333 shares of the Company’s common stock (post-reverse stock split) to the Company’s law firm. The shares are earned in full and non-refundable as of March 9, 2020. The FV of these shares are $11,000 on March 9, 2020.

 

On April 30, 2020, the Company entered into an Exchange Agreement with Iliad Research and Trading, L.P. Pursuant to the Agreement, the Company and the Lender agreed to partition a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $150,000 from a Convertible Promissory Note dated January 31, 2019 which was exchanged for a new Promissory Note in the original principal amount of $1,173,480 on April 14, 2019. The Company and the Lender agreed to exchange the Partitioned Note for 50,000 shares of common stock of the Company, and then the amount of the outstanding balance of the Promissory Note will be reduced by an amount equal to the Partitioned Note. The shares of common stock were issued without any restrictions.

 

F-36

 

 

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.

 

None.

 

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

 

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

As of the end of the period covered by this report, we conducted an evaluation under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and Rule 15d-15(f) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)). Based on this evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2019 our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our periodic reports filed or submitted under the Securities Exchange Act is (i) recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms, and (ii) accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding disclosure.

 

Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. Disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed, operated and managed, can provide only reasonable assurance that the objectives of the disclosure controls and procedures are met. Because of the inherent limitations of disclosure controls and procedures, no evaluation of such disclosure controls and procedures can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected.

 

Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining a system of internal control over financial reporting (“ICFR”) (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with US generally accepted accounting principles. All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations.

 

We conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of our system of ICFR as of December 31, 2019, the last day of our fiscal year. This assessment was based on criteria established in the framework Internal Control—Integrated Framework, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and included an evaluation of elements such as the design and operating effectiveness of key financial reporting controls, process documentation, accounting policies, and our overall control environment. Based on our assessment, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of the end of the fiscal year to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with US generally accepted accounting principles. We reviewed the results of management’s assessment with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

 

This annual report on Form 10-K does not include an attestation report of the Company’s registered public accounting firm regarding ICFR. Management’s report was not subject to attestation by the Company’s registered public accounting firm.

 

Changes in internal control over financial reporting

 

With the participation of the Company’s management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, the Company also conducted an evaluation of the Company’s ICFR to determine whether any changes occurred during the Company’s fiscal year ended as of December 31, 2019, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s ICFR. Based on such evaluation, management concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this report, there have not been any changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the fiscal quarter to which this report relates that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s ICFR.

 

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.

 

Not applicable.

 

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PART III

 

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.

 

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers and director nominees as of May 14, 2020:

 

Name   Age   Position
Guohua Ku   58   Chief Executive Officer, Director and Chairman of the Board
Yongjiang (Jackie) Shi   45   Chief Financial Officer and Vice President
Binfeng (Adeline) Gu   42   Secretary
Xiaoping Guo(1)   67   Director (Independent)
Geyun Wang   51   Director, Vice President
Zhongli Liu (1)   60   Director (Independent)
LuLu Sun(1)   41   Director (Independent)

 

1.Member or nominee, as applicable, of Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee.

 

Mr. Guohua Ku was appointed as a director and our Chief Executive Officer as of December 10, 2008. He was elected Chairman of the Board as of April 1, 2009. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Ku served as a Senior Engineer for Yingfeng Technology from 2003 to 2007. From 1979 to 2003, Mr. Ku served in multiple capacities for Shaanxi Blast Air Blower (Group) Co., Ltd., with his last position serving as a Senior Engineer. Mr. Ku’s experience as our Chief Executive Officer, as well as Chairman of the Board, and extensive scientific and operational knowledge and expertise qualifies him to serve as Chairman of the Board and led the Board to conclude that he should be nominated to serve another term as a director.

 

Mr. Yongjiang (Jackie) Shi was appointed as our Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”) and a Vice President, effective on December 20, 2019. Mr. Shi has served as the financial consultant to the Board since September 28, 2016 and was the CFO of the Company from May 16, 2015 to September 27, 2016. Mr. Shi was the Assistant CFO & Vice President in charge of finance for the Company from January 2015 to May 2015. Mr. Shi joined Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Company, Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company in 2014 as a VP of Finance and he previously worked as the Director of Investor Relations for Xilan Natural Gas Group from 2005 to 2014. Mr. Shi studied professional accounting at the University of New South Wales, Australia from 2001 to 2003, and was awarded his master’s degree of finance in 2003. He studied public administration at Northwest University of China from 1994 to 1998, and obtained his bachelor’s degree in law in 1998.

 

Ms. Adeline Gu was appointed as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer and Secretary on September 28, 2016. Ms. Gu resigned as our Chief Financial Officer as of December 13, 2019. Ms. Gu has been serving as the director of the office of Board of Directors of the Company from August, 2012 to September 27, 2016. She was the Investor Relations Director from December 2007 to August 13, 2012 and Investor Relations Director Assistant from March 2006 to December 2007 of China Natural Gas, Inc. From October 2005 to March 2006, Ms. Gu was the Interpreter of Xi’an Equity Exchange & Shaanxi Watson Biology Gene Technology Co., Ltd. Ms. Gu studied at Northwest University of China from September, 1995 to June, 1999 and received her bachelor degree, majoring in English. Ms. Gu has held a Chinese Accounting Certificate since 2000.

 

Mr. Xiaoping Guo was first appointed as a director on June 1, 2017 by the board to fill a pending vacancy. Mr. Guo has served as the assistant to the president of Datang New Energy Co., Ltd., since 2010. Mr. Guo received his bachelor degree from the Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1977, and his master’s degree in systems engineering from the same school in 2000. Mr. Guo’s extensive project engineering and development experience, as well as his management experience, qualifies him to serve on our Board and led the Board to conclude that he should be nominated as a director.

 

50

 

 

Mr. Geyun Wang was initially elected as a director at the 2014 Annual Meeting, and he also serves as a Vice President of the Company. Mr. Wang is responsible for the procurement of engineering equipment and tendering for project construction, as well as supervision of installation and commissioning for EPC projects. Mr. Wang was the Deputy General Manager of our subsidiary Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Co., Ltd. between 2007 and 2015 and hewas appointed as a Vice President of the Company in 2015. Prior to this position, from 2001 to 2007, Mr. Wang served as the Vice President of Sales of Shaanxi Baoji Hongguang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., where he was responsible for sales of steel products. Mr. Wang received his bachelor degree from Northwestern Polytechnical University in 1988. Mr. Wang’s extensive project construction and management experience, as well as his extensive industry and market expertise, qualifies him to serve on our Board and led the Board to conclude that he should be nominated as a director.

 

Mr Zhngli Liu was appointed as a director on March 6, 2020 to fill the vacancy resulted from the resignation of Xiaogang Zhu. Mr. Liu was also appointed as the Chairman of the Audit Committee and a member of the Compensation, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees. Mr. Liu served as the inspector to be in charge of securities inspection at Shaanxi Supervision Bureau of China Securities Regulatory Commission from 1999 to September 2019. He worked as the head of department of economics and management, professor, chief of scientific research at Xi’an Finance And Economics University from 1984 to 1998. Since July 2017, he served as the independent director of the Board at China Haiseng Fresh Fruit Juice Co., Ltd. (00359.HK). Mr. Liu studied industrial economy management at Xi’an Jiaotong University from September 1978 to July 1982 and was awarded his his bachelor’s degree of finance in 1982. He studied planning economics at Renmin University of China from 1982 to 1984 and was awarded his master’s degree of finance in 1984. Mr. Liu’s significant financial expertise qualifies him to serve on our Board and led the Board to conclude that he should be nominated as a director.

 

Ms. LuLu Sun was first appointed as a director on August 5, 2015 by the board to fill a pending vacancy. Ms. Sun serves as Marketing Director for Net Engine Power Tech. Ltd. Co. in China from June 2013 to present and she was the New Media Business Development Director for Rayli Magazine in China from June 2009 to May 2013. From July 2002 to May 2009, Ms. Sun was the Business Development Project Manager for Sina Mobile in China. Ms. Sun’s extensive experience in marketing and business development in China qualifies her to serve on our Board and led the Board to conclude that she should be nominated as a director.

 

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

Leadership Structure and Role in Risk Oversight

 

The Company’s current board leadership structure separates the board chair and principal executive officer roles into two positions. Mr. Ku has served as both Chairman of the Board and CEO of the Company since April 1, 2009. Our Board continues to believe there are important advantages to Mr. Ku serving in both roles at this time. Mr. Ku is the director most familiar with our business and industry and is best situated to propose Board agendas and lead Board discussions on important matters. Mr. Ku provides a strong link between management and the Board, which promotes clear communication and enhances strategic planning and implementation of corporate strategies. Another advantage is the clarity of leadership provided by one person representing us to employees, stockholders and other stakeholders. The Board has not named a lead independent director.

 

Our Board is responsible for oversight of the Company’s risk management practices while management is responsible for the day-to-day risk management processes. In the Board’s opinion, this division of responsibilities is the most effective approach for addressing the risks facing the Company. The Board receives periodic reports from management regarding the most significant risks facing the Company. In addition, the Audit Committee assists the Board in its oversight of our risk assessment and risk management policies. Our Audit Committee is empowered to appoint and oversee our independent registered public accounting firm, monitor the integrity of our financial reporting processes and systems of internal controls and provide an avenue of communication among our independent auditors, management, our internal auditing department and our Board.

 

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Diversity

 

The Board does not have a formal policy with respect to Board nominee diversity. In recommending proposed nominees to the full Board, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee is charged with building and maintaining a board that has an ideal mix of talent and experience to achieve our business objectives in the current environment. In particular, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee is focused on relevant subject matter expertise, depth of knowledge in key areas that are important to us, and diversity of thought, background, perspective and experience so as to facilitate robust debate and broad thinking on strategies and tactics pursued by us.

 

Director Independence

 

Xiaoping Guo, LuLu Sun and Zhongli Liu are our only non-employee directors, and our Board has determined that each of them is independent pursuant to the listing rules of NASDAQ. All of the members of each of the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee are independent as defined in NASDAQ Rule 5605(a)(2). As required under applicable NASDAQ listing standards, in the 2019 fiscal year, our independent directors met twice in regularly scheduled executive sessions at which only our independent directors were present.

 

Board Meetings and Committee Meeting; Annual Meeting Attendance

 

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Board held two (2) meetings and acted through unanimous consent on 21 different occasions. In addition, the Audit Committee held four (4) meetings; the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee held one (1) meeting; and the Compensation Committee held one (1) meeting. During the year ended December 31, 2019, each of the directors attended, in person or by telephone, more than 75% of the meetings of the Board and the committees on which he or she served. We encourage our Board members to attend our Annual Meetings, but we do not have a formal policy requiring attendance. Some of our then-sitting Board members attended the 2019 Annual Meeting.

 

Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee

 

The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee currently consists of Xiaoping Guo, Zhongli Liu and LuLu Sun. Ms. LuLu Sun is the chairman of our Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee oversees all aspects of the Company’s corporate governance functions on behalf of the Board, including identifying individuals qualified to become directors, recommending to the Board the selection of director nominees for each meeting of the stockholders at which directors are elected and overseeing the monitoring and evaluation of the Company’s corporate governance practices. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee reviewed the performance of all of the current members of the Board and determined and recommended to the Board that all of the current directors should be nominated for re-election. No other candidates were recommended or evaluated. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee operates under a written charter, which is available on our website at www.creg-cn.com under the links “Investor Relations – Corporate Governance.”

 

Selection of Board Nominees

 

Our Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee is responsible for identifying, selecting and evaluating Board candidates. From a general perspective, candidates are reviewed in the context of the existing Board members, our operating requirements and the long-term interests of our stockholders. In selecting candidates for appointment or re-election to the Board, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee of the Board considers the following criteria: (i) personal and professional ethics and integrity, including a reputation for integrity and honesty in the business community; (ii) experience as an executive officer of companies or as a senior leader of complex organizations, including scientific, government, financial or technological organizations; (iii) financial knowledge, including an understanding of finance, accounting, the financial reporting process, and company measures for operating and strategic performance; (iv) ability to critically and independently evaluate business issues, contributing diverse perspectives or viewpoints, and making practical and mature judgments; (v) a genuine interest in the Company, and the ability to spend the time required to make substantial contributions as a director; and (vi) no conflict of interest or legal impediment that would interfere with the duty of loyalty to the Company and its stockholders. In addition, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee reviews the qualifications of the directors to be appointed to serve as members of the Audit Committee to ensure that they meet the financial literacy and sophistication requirements under the NASDAQ rules and that at least one of them qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” under the rules of the SEC.

 

52

 

 

Audit Committee

 

The Audit Committee currently consists of Xiaoping Guo, Zhongli Liu and LuLu Sun, each of whom is independent under NASDAQ listing standards. Zhongli Liu serves as chairman of our Audit Committee.

 

The Board determined that Mr. Liu qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert,” as defined by NASDAQ Rule 5605(a)(2) and Item 407 of Regulation S-K. In reaching this determination, the Board made a qualitative assessment of Mr. Liu’s level of knowledge and experience based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including formal education, financial and accounting acumen, and business experience. The Audit Committee is responsible for assisting the Board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to: (i) the financial reports and other financial information provided by us to the public or any governmental body; (ii) our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements; (iii) our systems of internal controls regarding finance, accounting and legal compliance that have been established by management and the Board; (iv) the qualifications and independence of our independent registered public accounting firm; (v) the performance of our internal audit function and the independent registered public accounting firm; and (vi) our auditing, accounting and financial reporting processes generally. The Audit Committee has been established in accordance with Section 3(a)(58)(A) of the Exchange Act. In connection with its responsibilities, the Board has delegated to the Audit Committee the authority to select and hire our independent registered public accounting firm and determine their fees and retention terms. The Audit Committee’s policy is to pre-approve all audit and non-audit services by category, including audit-related services, tax services, and other permitted non-audit services. In accordance with the policy, the Audit Committee regularly reviews and receives updates on specific services provided by our independent registered public accounting firm. All services rendered by MJF and Associates, APC to the Company are permissible under applicable laws and regulations. During fiscal year 2019, all services requiring pre-approval and performed by the Company’s accounting firm, MJF and Associates, APC, were approved in advance by the Audit Committee in accordance with the pre-approval policy. The Audit Committee operates under a written charter, which is available on our website at www.creg-cn.com under the links “Investor Relations – Corporate Governance.”

 

Compensation Committee

 

The Compensation Committee currently consists of Xiaoping Guo, Zhongli Liu and LuLu Sun. Mr. Guo is the chairman of our Compensation Committee. The Compensation Committee’s purpose is (i) to oversee the Company’s efforts to attract, retain and motivate members of the Company’s senior management team, (ii) to carry out the Board’s overall responsibility relating to the determination of compensation for all executive officers, (iii) to oversee all other aspects of the Company’s compensation policies, and to oversee the Company’s management resources, succession planning and management development activities. The Compensation Committee has the authority to engage independent advisors to assist it in carrying out its duties. During fiscal year 2019, the Compensation Committee did not engage the services of any independent advisors, experts or other third parties. We believe that the functioning of our Compensation Committee complies with any applicable requirements of NASDAQ and SEC rules and regulations. The Compensation Committee operates under a written charter, which is available on our website at www.creg-cn.com under the links “Investor Relations – Corporate Governance.”

 

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation in Compensation Decisions

 

All members of the Compensation Committee are independent directors. No current member of our Compensation Committee is a current or former officer or employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, and no director or executive officer of the Company is a director or executive officer of any other corporation that has a director or executive officer who is also a director of the Company.

 

53

 

 

Stockholder Communication with the Board of Directors

 

Stockholders may communicate with the Board by writing to the attention of Ms. Adeline Gu, our Chief Financial Officer, at 4/F, Tower C, Rong Cheng Yun Gu Building, Keji 3rd Road, Yanta District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, 710075 China.

 

Code of Ethics

 

We have adopted a “code of ethics” as defined by regulations promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act that applies to all of our directors and employees worldwide, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. A current copy of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is available on our website at www.creg-cn.com under the links “Investor Relations – Corporate Governance.” We intend to disclose any amendments to the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, as well as any waivers for executive officers or directors, on our website.

 

Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports

 

Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act requires our executive officers, directors and holders of more than 10% of our common stock to file with the SEC initial reports of ownership and reports of changes in ownership of our common stock and other equity securities. Based solely on our review of the copies of these reports, we believe that all filing requirements of Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act were timely complied with during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, except that Mr. Yongjiang (Jackie) Shi did not file Form 3 upon his appointment as our Chief Financial Officer and a Vice President on December 20, 2019.

 

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.

 

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

Summary Compensation Table

 

The following table summarizes the compensation earned during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, by those individuals who served as our Chief Executive Officer, or Chief Financial Officer during any part of fiscal year 2019 and our other most highly compensated executive officer. The individuals listed in the table below are referred to as the “named executive officers.”

 

Name and Principal     Salary   Bonus   Stock Awards   Option Awards   Non-Equity Incentive Plan Compensation  

Nonqualified Deferred Compensation

Earnings

   All Other Compensation   Total 
Position Year     ($)   ($)    ($)     ($)(4)    ($)     ($)    ($)     ($) 
Guohua Ku (1)  2019   33,078