10-K 1 a18q4_10kx063018xform10-k.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission File Number: 1-11373

Cardinal Health, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ohio
31-0958666
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
7000 Cardinal Place, Dublin, Ohio
43017
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
 
 
(614) 757-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common shares (without par value)
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Form 10-K or any amendment to the Form 10-K.  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
Accelerated filer  o
Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company  o
Emerging growth company  o
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  o    No  þ
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates or registrant on December 31, 2017, was the following: $19,248,647,885.
The number of the registrant’s common shares, without par value, outstanding as of July 31, 2018, was the following: 308,828,810.


Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement to be filed for its 2018 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into the sections of this Form 10-K addressing the requirements of Part III of Form 10-K.



Cardinal Health  
Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K

Table of Contents
 



 1
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Introduction
 
 


Introduction

References to Cardinal Health and Fiscal Years
As used in this report, "we," "our," "us," "Cardinal Health" and similar pronouns refer to Cardinal Health, Inc. and its majority-owned subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. Our fiscal year ends on June 30.  References to fiscal 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and to the fiscal years ended June 30, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Except as otherwise specified, information in this report is provided as of June 30, 2018.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In this report, including in the "Fiscal 2018 Overview" section of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A"), we use financial measures that are derived from consolidated financial data but are not presented in our financial statements that are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). These measures are considered “non-GAAP financial measures” under the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) rules. The reasons we use these non-GAAP financial measures and the reconciliations to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures are included in the “Explanation and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section following MD&A in this report.
Important Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report (including information incorporated by reference) includes forward-looking statements addressing expectations, prospects, estimates and other matters that are dependent upon future events or developments. Many forward-looking statements appear in MD&A, but there are others throughout this report, which may be identified by words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “continue,” “likely,” and similar expressions, and include statements reflecting future results or guidance, statements of outlook and expense accruals. These matters are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, anticipated or implied. The most significant of these risks and uncertainties are described in “Risk Factors” in this report and in Exhibit 99.1 to the Form 10-K included in this report. Forward-looking statements in this report speak only as of the date of this document. Except to the extent required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website (www.cardinalhealth.com), under the “Investors — Financial Reporting — SEC Filings” caption, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. You may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website (www.sec.gov) where you can search for annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding us and other public companies.



 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
2



MD&A
Results of Operations
 


Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A)
About Cardinal Health
 
Cardinal Health, Inc. is an Ohio corporation formed in 1979 and is a global, integrated healthcare services and products company providing customized solutions for hospitals, healthcare systems, pharmacies, ambulatory surgery centers, clinical laboratories and physician offices. We provide medical products and pharmaceuticals and cost-effective solutions that enhance supply chain efficiency. We manage our business and report our financial results in two segments: Pharmaceutical and Medical.
Pharmaceutical Segment
 
Our Pharmaceutical segment distributes branded and generic pharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical, and over-the-counter healthcare and consumer products in the United States. This segment also provides services to pharmaceutical manufacturers and healthcare providers to support the development, marketing, and distribution of specialty pharmaceutical products; operates nuclear pharmacies and radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities; provides pharmacy management services to hospitals, as well as medication therapy management and patient outcomes services to hospitals, other healthcare providers and payers; and repackages generic pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter healthcare products.
 
Medical Segment
 
Our Medical segment manufactures, sources and distributes Cardinal Health branded medical, surgical and laboratory products, which are sold in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and other markets. In addition to distributing Cardinal Health branded products, this segment also distributes a broad range of national brand products and provides supply chain services and solutions to hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, clinical laboratories and other healthcare providers in the United States and Canada. This segment also distributes medical products to patients' homes in the United States through our Cardinal Health at Home division.


 3
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Consolidated Results
chart-0f508bcdf3325e57a02.jpgchart-b5d48d286b675616b4d.jpgchart-229eb85968385e0e8e7.jpg
Fiscal 2018 Overview
 
Revenue
Revenue for fiscal 2018 was $136.8 billion, a 5 percent increase from the prior year, due primarily to sales growth from pharmaceutical distribution and specialty pharmaceutical customers. The Patient Recovery Business acquisition also contributed to the increase in revenue in fiscal 2018.
GAAP and Non-GAAP Operating Earnings
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
Change
GAAP
$
126

 
$
2,120

 
(94
)%
Restructuring and employee severance
176

 
56

 
 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
707

 
527

 
 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
1,417

 
18

 
 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
159

 
48

 
 
Non-GAAP
$
2,585

 
$
2,769

 
(7
)%
The sum of the components may not equal the total due to rounding.
During fiscal 2018, GAAP operating earnings decreased 94 percent to $126 million and non-GAAP operating earnings decreased 7 percent to $2.6 billion.
The decrease in GAAP operating earnings was primarily due to a non-cash goodwill impairment charge related to our Medical segment; increased amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets as a result of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition; contract termination restructuring costs to transition the distribution of our Medical segment's surgeon gloves in certain international markets from a third-party distribution arrangement to a direct distribution model; performance from Cardinal Health Brand products, primarily Cordis; performance from our Pharmaceutical segment generics program;  litigation charges associated with inferior vena cava (IVC) filter product liability claims; and the adverse impact of pharmaceutical customer contract renewals. These factors were partially offset by contributions from the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.
The decrease in non-GAAP operating earnings was primarily due to performance from Cardinal Health Brand products, primarily Cordis; performance from our Pharmaceutical segment generics program; and the adverse impact of pharmaceutical customer contract renewals. These factors were partially offset by contributions from the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.





 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
4



MD&A
Results of Operations
 

GAAP and Non-GAAP Diluted EPS
($ per share)
2018
 
2017
 
Change
GAAP
$
0.81

 
$
4.03

 
(80
)%
Restructuring and employee severance
0.48

 
0.11

 
 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
1.69

 
1.13

 
 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
4.64

 
0.04

 
 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
0.35

 
0.09

 
 
Transitional tax benefit, net
(2.97
)
 
$

 
 
Non-GAAP
$
5.00

 
$
5.40

 
(7
)%
The sum of the components may not equal the total due to rounding.
During fiscal 2018, GAAP diluted earnings per share attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc. ("diluted EPS") decreased 80 percent to $0.81 and non-GAAP diluted EPS decreased 7 percent to $5.00.
Fiscal 2018 GAAP diluted EPS decreased primarily due to the factors impacting GAAP operating earnings and increased interest expense. These were partially offset by the net benefit from the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Act"), which includes a provisional transitional tax benefit of $936 million as well as the benefit from applying a lower federal tax rate to our U.S. pre-tax earnings.
Fiscal 2018 non-GAAP diluted EPS decreased primarily due to the factors impacting non-GAAP operating earnings and an increase in interest expense, partially offset by the benefit of applying a lower U.S. federal statutory tax rate under the Tax Act to U.S. pre-tax non-GAAP earnings.
Cash and Equivalents
Our cash and equivalents balance was $1.8 billion at June 30, 2018 compared to $6.9 billion at June 30, 2017. The decrease in cash and equivalents during fiscal 2018 was due to $6.1 billion paid for acquisitions, $954 million paid for debt repayments, $581 million paid in dividends, $550 million paid for share repurchases and $384 million paid for capital expenditures. These cash decreases were offset in part by $2.8 billion of net cash provided by operating activities and $861 million of cash proceeds from the sale of our China distribution business.



 5
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Significant Developments in Fiscal 2018 and Trends

Acquisitions and Divestitures
 
Patient Recovery Business Acquisition
On July 29, 2017, we acquired the Patient Care, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Nutritional Insufficiency businesses (the "Patient Recovery Business") from Medtronic plc for $6.1 billion in cash. The acquisition further expanded the Medical segment's portfolio of Cardinal Health Brand products.
China Distribution Business Divestiture
During fiscal 2018 we completed the divestiture of our pharmaceutical and medical products distribution business in China (the "China distribution business") to Shanghai Pharmaceuticals Holding Co., Ltd. for proceeds of $861 million (after adjusting for third party indebtedness and preliminary transaction adjustments). The proceeds are not reflective of tax obligations due in connection with the sale, for which we have recorded a liability of $59 million. We recognized a pre-tax loss of $41 million related to this divestiture.
naviHealth Divestiture
In June 2018, we signed a securities purchase agreement and a contribution and rollover agreement with investor entities controlled by Clayton, Dubilier & Rice ("CD&R") to sell our ownership interest in naviHealth for proceeds of $736 million (after adjusting for certain fees and expenses) and a 44% equity interest in a partnership that owns naviHealth. We also have certain call rights to reacquire naviHealth. We do not expect a cash tax impact from this transaction because the capital gain will be offset by capital loss carry-forwards. The transaction closed on August 1, 2018. We expect to record a pre-tax gain of more than $500 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019.
Trends
 
Within our Pharmaceutical segment, we expect fiscal 2019 segment profit to be less than our fiscal 2018 segment profit due to the adverse impact of customer contract renewals, generics program performance, and the previously announced loss of a large pharmaceutical distribution customer. Our generics program performance includes the negative impact of generic pharmaceutical customer pricing changes partially offset by the benefits of Red Oak Sourcing. As is generally the case, the frequency, timing, magnitude and profit impact of pharmaceutical customer pricing changes and branded and generic pharmaceutical manufacturer pricing changes remain uncertain and their impact on Pharmaceutical segment profit and consolidated operating earnings in fiscal 2019 could be more or less than we expect.
The acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business increased Medical segment revenue and profit during fiscal 2018. We expect the acquisition to increase Medical segment profit further during fiscal 2019 due to the one additional month of results and the fiscal 2018 negative impact of the inventory fair value step up.  We also expect the acquisition will increase amortization and acquisition-related costs in fiscal 2019 due to the size and complexity of the acquisition.
The performance of our Cordis business within our Medical segment declined significantly due to inventory challenges and increased operating costs in fiscal 2018. We expect Cordis performance to stabilize in fiscal 2019.
In early fiscal 2019, we implemented certain enterprise-wide cost-saving measures, which we expect to reduce our future operating expenses.
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
The Tax Act was enacted in December 2017. The Tax Act, among other things, reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent and required companies to pay a one-time tax to repatriate, for U.S. purposes, earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously deferred for tax purposes. The rate change was effective at the beginning of calendar year 2018 and the application of the lower federal tax rate to our U.S. pre-tax earnings resulted in a significant favorable impact to our tax provision in fiscal 2018. Additionally, we recognized a $936 million provisional net transitional tax benefit during fiscal 2018, consisting of the remeasurement of our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities at the lower tax rate partially offset by the expense for the repatriation tax. We expect the lower federal statutory rate to be more beneficial in fiscal 2019 than in 2018; however, beginning in fiscal 2019, the Tax Act limits certain deductions and creates new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings, which will offset some of the additional benefit.
We are still completing our accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act because all of the necessary information is not currently available, prepared, or analyzed.  As such, the amounts we have recorded are provisional estimates and, as permitted by the SEC, we will continue to assess the impact of enactment of the Tax Act and we may record additional provisional amounts or adjustments to provisional amounts during the first half of fiscal 2019.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
6



MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Results of Operations
Revenue
 
chart-ca7b89332899526eb5e.jpgchart-e093f69f148a5cb698c.jpg
 
Revenue
 
Change
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
Pharmaceutical
$
121,241

 
$
116,463

 
$
109,131

 
4
%
 
7
%
Medical
15,581

 
13,524

 
12,430

 
15
%
 
9
%
Total segment revenue
136,822

 
129,987

 
121,561

 
5
%
 
7
%
Corporate
(13
)
 
(11
)
 
(15
)
 
N.M.

 
N.M.

Total revenue
$
136,809

 
$
129,976

 
$
121,546

 
5
%
 
7
%

Fiscal 2018 Compared to Fiscal 2017
 
Pharmaceutical Segment
Fiscal 2018 Pharmaceutical segment revenue grew primarily due to sales growth from pharmaceutical distribution and specialty pharmaceutical customers, which together increased revenue by $9.4 billion. The increases were partially offset by the previously announced May 2017 expiration of a large pharmaceutical distribution mail order customer contract and the February 2018 divestiture of our China distribution business.
Medical Segment
Fiscal 2018 Medical segment revenue grew mainly due to $1.9 billion of contributions from acquisitions, which primarily consists of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.
 

Fiscal 2017 Compared to Fiscal 2016
 
Pharmaceutical Segment
Fiscal 2017 Pharmaceutical segment revenue grew primarily due to sales growth from the addition of OptumRx and from other pharmaceutical distribution customers, including branded pharmaceutical price appreciation, all of which increased revenue by $7.0 billion.
Medical Segment
Fiscal 2017 Medical segment revenue grew primarily due to sales growth from new and existing customers and $212 million in contributions from acquisitions.
Cost of Products Sold
 
Cost of products sold for fiscal 2018 and 2017 increased $6.2 billion (5 percent) and $8.4 billion (7 percent) compared to the prior-year periods, respectively, as a result of the same factors affecting the changes in revenue and gross margin.



 



 7
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Gross Margin
 
chart-755929cf2bdc504aace.jpgchart-d5a8c70986ab5fea978.jpg
 
Consolidated Gross Margin
 
Change
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
Gross margin
$
7,181

 
$
6,544

 
$
6,543

 
10
%
 
%
Fiscal 2018 Compared to Fiscal 2017
 
Fiscal 2018 consolidated gross margin increased $637 million (10 percent) and was favorably impacted by acquisitions ($809 million), which primarily consists of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.
Gross margin rate grew during fiscal 2018, mainly due to acquisitions, which primarily consists of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition. Gross margin rate growth was partially offset by the negative impact of changes in pharmaceutical distribution product mix and performance in our Cordis business due to inventory challenges and increased manufacturing costs.
 
Fiscal 2017 Compared to Fiscal 2016
 
Fiscal 2017 consolidated gross margin was essentially flat versus the prior-year period.
Consolidated gross margin for fiscal 2017 was positively impacted by sales growth from pharmaceutical distribution customers ($260 million) and acquisitions in both segments ($132 million) and was negatively impacted by the previously disclosed loss of a large pharmaceutical distribution customer.
Gross margin rate contracted during fiscal 2017, primarily due to generic pharmaceutical customer pricing changes, partially offset by the benefits from Red Oak Sourcing within our Pharmaceutical segment generics program.
Distribution, Selling, General and Administrative ("SG&A") Expenses
 
 
SG&A Expenses
 
Change
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
SG&A expenses
$
4,596

 
$
3,775

 
$
3,648

 
22
%
 
3
%
 
Fiscal 2018 Compared to Fiscal 2017
 
Fiscal 2018 SG&A expenses increased mainly due to acquisitions ($524 million), which primarily consists of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition, and enterprise-wide compensation related items.
 
Fiscal 2017 Compared to Fiscal 2016
 
Fiscal 2017 SG&A expenses increased primarily due to acquisitions ($112 million) and costs related to a multi-year project to replace certain Pharmaceutical segment finance and operating information systems, partially offset by reduced enterprise-wide incentive compensation.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
8



MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Segment Profit
 
We evaluate segment performance based on segment profit, among other measures. See Note 16 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information on segment profit.
chart-7b8c15da4b5054f98fe.jpgchart-5fabebf2fe115d4182e.jpgchart-f0f44395328d5f468e8.jpg
 
Segment Profit and Operating Earnings
 
Change
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
Pharmaceutical
$
1,992

 
$
2,187

 
$
2,488

 
(9
)%
 
(12
)%
Medical
662

 
572

 
457

 
16
 %
 
25
 %
Total segment profit
2,654

 
2,759

 
2,945

 
(4
)%
 
(6
)%
Corporate
(2,528
)
 
(639
)
 
(486
)
 
296
 %
 
31
 %
Total consolidated operating earnings
$
126

 
$
2,120

 
$
2,459

 
(94
)%
 
(14
)%
Fiscal 2018 Compared to Fiscal 2017
 
Pharmaceutical Segment Profit
Fiscal 2018 Pharmaceutical segment profit decreased largely due to our generics program performance and the adverse impact of customer contract renewals. Our generics program performance includes the negative impact of generic pharmaceutical customer pricing changes partially offset by the benefits of Red Oak Sourcing. Performance from our specialty pharmaceutical products distribution and services business positively impacted Pharmaceutical segment profit.
Medical Segment Profit
Fiscal 2018 Medical segment profit increased largely due to acquisitions, inclusive of the unfavorable cost of products sold impact from the fair value step up of inventory acquired with the Patient Recovery Business acquisition. The increase was partially offset by performance from the Cordis business, and to a lesser extent, performance from other Cardinal Health Brand products. The performance from the Cordis business primarily reflects inventory challenges and increased operating costs.
Corporate
The changes in Corporate during fiscal 2018 are due to the factors discussed in the Other Components of Consolidated Operating Earnings section that follows.
 
Fiscal 2017 Compared to Fiscal 2016
 
Pharmaceutical Segment Profit
Fiscal 2017 Pharmaceutical segment profit decreased largely due to our generic program performance. The previously disclosed loss of a large pharmaceutical distribution customer, the adverse impact of customer contract renewals and reduced levels of branded pharmaceutical price appreciation also contributed to the decrease in Pharmaceutical segment profit.
Medical Segment Profit
Fiscal 2017 Medical segment profit increased due to strong performance from naviHealth, contributions from Cardinal Health branded products, reduced enterprise-wide incentive compensation, and contributions from distribution services. Cardinal Health branded products growth includes the prior year unfavorable impact on cost of products sold from the Cordis inventory fair value step up.
Corporate
The changes in Corporate during fiscal 2017 are due to the factors discussed in the Other Components of Consolidated Operating Earnings section that follows.

 9
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Other Components of Consolidated Operating Earnings
 
In addition to revenue, gross margin, and SG&A expenses discussed previously, consolidated operating earnings were impacted by the following:
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Restructuring and employee severance
$
176

 
$
56

 
$
25

Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
707

 
527

 
459

Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, net
1,417

 
18

 
21

Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
159

 
48

 
(69
)
Restructuring and Employee Severance
The increase in restructuring and employee severance during fiscal 2018 was primarily due to $125 million in contract termination costs to transition the distribution of our Medical segment's surgeon gloves in certain international markets from a third-party distribution arrangement to a direct distribution model.
Amortization and Other Acquisition-Related Costs
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets was $574 million, $395 million and $355 million for fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase in amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets during fiscal 2018 was largely due to the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.
Transaction and integration costs associated with the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business were $109 million and $54 million during fiscal 2018 and 2017, respectively.
 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, net
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018, we recognized a $1.4 billion non-cash goodwill impairment charge related to our Medical segment, as discussed further in Note 5 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements." There was no tax benefit related to this goodwill impairment charge.
Litigation (Recoveries)/Charges, Net
The increases in litigation charges during fiscal 2018 and 2017 were due to an increase in estimated losses and legal defense costs associated with inferior vena cava (IVC) filter product liability claims.
During fiscal 2016, we received and recognized income of $80 million from settlements of class action antitrust lawsuits in which we were a class member.

Earnings/(loss) Before Income Taxes

In addition to the items discussed above, earnings/(loss) before income taxes was impacted by the following:
 
Earnings/(loss) Before Income Taxes
 
Change
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
Other (income)/expense, net
$
23

 
$
(5
)
 
$
5

 
N.M.

 
N.M.

Interest expense, net
329

 
201

 
178

 
64
%
 
13
%
Loss on extinguishment of debt
2

 

 

 
N.M.

 
N.M.


Interest Expense, Net
Fiscal 2018 interest expense increased primarily due to new debt issued in June 2017 to fund a portion of the purchase price of the Patient Recovery Business acquisition.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
10



MD&A
Results of Operations
 

Provision for Income Taxes
 
Generally, fluctuations in the effective tax rate are due to changes in the distribution of income among taxing jurisdictions with differing income tax rates and other reconciling items. 
The fluctuations in the effective tax rate from fiscal 2017 to fiscal 2018 are primarily due to net benefits from the enactment of the Tax Act, the impact of nondeductible goodwill impairment charges, an increase in valuation allowances and a benefit from a capital loss due to international legal entity reorganization. The significant increase in valuation allowances were related to capital losses, credit carryforwards and net operating loss carryforwards in U.S. federal, U.S. state and international jurisdictions that will not likely be realized. A reconciliation of the provision based on the federal statutory income tax rate to our effective income tax rate from continuing operations is as follows (see Note 8 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information):
 
2018 (1)
 
2017 (2)
 
2016 (2)
Provision at Federal statutory rate
28.1
 %
 
35.0
 %
 
35.0
 %
State and local income taxes, net of federal benefit
(16.0
)
 
1.0

 
1.5

Foreign tax rate differential
(48.4
)
 
(7.3
)
 
(0.6
)
Nondeductible/nontaxable items
(10.2
)
 
0.2

 
1.0

Goodwill impairment
(124.7
)
 

 

Tax Act
410.9

 

 

Capital loss
71.4

 

 

Change in valuation allowances
(76.9
)
 
7.7

 
0.1

Foreign tax credits
27.3

 
(1.6
)
 
(0.1
)
China tax
(25.8
)
 

 

Other
(21.9
)
 
(2.3
)
 
0.2

Effective income tax rate
213.8
 %
 
32.7
 %
 
37.1
 %
(1)
The effective income tax rate for fiscal 2018 represents an income tax benefit tax rate.
(2)
The effective income tax rates for fiscal 2017 and 2016 represents income tax expense tax rates.
Fiscal 2018
 
The fiscal 2018 effective income tax rate was impacted by various items including benefits from the enactment of the Tax Act, the impact of nondeductible goodwill impairment charges, changes in valuation allowances and a benefit from a capital loss due to an international legal entity reorganization.
The net benefit from the Tax Act for fiscal 2018 includes a provisional net tax benefit of $977 million related to the remeasurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities to the new federal statutory rate, the benefit from the impact of applying a lower federal tax rate to our year-to-date U.S. pre-tax earnings and a provisional tax expense of $41 million for the one-time repatriation tax applied to our undistributed foreign earnings.
Our effective tax rate for fiscal 2018 also includes $59 million of tax expense recognized in connection with the sale of our China distribution business.
Ongoing Audits
The IRS is currently conducting audits of fiscal years 2008 through 2014.
 
Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016
 
The fiscal 2017 effective income tax rate was favorably impacted by the realignment of foreign subsidiaries in anticipation of closing the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business and also from deductions related to U.S. production activities. The state and local income tax rate decreased primarily due to resolutions with state taxing authorities.
The fiscal 2016 effective income tax rate was favorably impacted by the state and local income tax rate, which decreased due to resolutions with state taxing authorities and a shift in the distribution of income among jurisdictions. The foreign tax rate differential decreased primarily due to the deferred tax benefits recognized in fiscal 2015.

 11
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 

Liquidity and Capital Resources
We currently believe that, based on available capital resources (cash on hand and committed credit facilities) and projected operating cash flow, we have adequate capital resources to fund working capital needs; currently anticipated capital expenditures; currently anticipated business growth and expansion; contractual obligations; tax payments; and current and projected debt service requirements, dividends, and share repurchases. If we decide to engage in one or more additional acquisitions, depending on the size and timing of such transactions, we may need to access capital markets for additional financing.
Cash and Equivalents
 
Our cash and equivalents balance was $1.8 billion at June 30, 2018 compared to $6.9 billion at June 30, 2017. The decrease in cash and equivalents during fiscal 2018 was due to $6.1 billion deployed for acquisitions during the year, $954 million used for debt repayments, $581 million paid in dividends, $550 million paid for share repurchases and $384 million paid for capital expenditures, offset in part by $2.8 billion net cash provided by operating activities and $861 million of proceeds from the divestiture of the China distribution business. Net cash provided by operating activities increased by $1.6 billion from fiscal 2017 primarily due to working capital changes in part as a result of timing of customer and vendor payments related to the new Pharmaceutical segment finance and operating information systems. At June 30, 2018, our cash and equivalents were held in cash depository accounts with major banks or invested in high quality, short-term liquid investments.
In August 2018, we completed the sale of our interest in naviHealth to CD&R and received proceeds of $736 million (after adjusting for certain fees and expenses) and a 44% equity interest in a partnership that owns naviHealth.
The increase in cash and equivalents during fiscal 2017 of $4.5 billion was due to proceeds from a $5.2 billion debt issuance and $1.2 billion provided by operating activities, partially offset by $600 million paid for share repurchases, $577 million paid in dividends, $387 million paid in capital expenditures and $310 million in debt repayments. The $1.8 billion decrease in net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase in working capital as a result of changes in timing of customer and vendor payments, some of which related to implementation of the new Pharmaceutical segment finance and operating information systems. 
 
The decrease in cash and equivalents during fiscal 2016 of $2.2 billion was due to $3.6 billion deployed for acquisitions, $651 million paid for share repurchases, $512 million paid in dividends and $465 million paid in capital expenditures, partially offset by net cash provided by operating activities of $3.0 billion, which was positively impacted by increased net earnings and working capital improvements.
The cash and equivalents balance at June 30, 2018 included $557 million of cash held by subsidiaries outside of the United States. Though our foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017 have been deemed to be repatriated from a U.S. federal tax perspective, we have not yet completed our assessment of the Tax Act on our plans to reinvest foreign earnings and as such have not changed our prior conclusion that the earnings are indefinitely reinvested. As such, no non-U.S. taxes related to repatriation were recorded at June 30, 2018. If we decide to repatriate these earnings in the future, we may be subject to certain non-U.S. taxes at that time. See Note 8 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information on the Tax Act.
Changes in working capital, which impact operating cash flow, can vary significantly depending on factors such as the timing of customer payments, inventory purchases and payments to vendors in the regular course of business, as well as fluctuating working capital needs driven by customer and product mix.
Other Financing Arrangements and Financial Instruments
 
Credit Facilities and Commercial Paper
In addition to cash and equivalents and operating cash flow, other sources of liquidity at June 30, 2018 include a $2.0 billion commercial paper program, backed by a $2.0 billion revolving credit facility. We also have a $1.0 billion committed receivables sales facility program. At June 30, 2018, we had no amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility or our committed receivables sales facility program. Under our commercial paper and committed receivables
 

programs, we had maximum amounts outstanding of $1.7 billion and an average daily amount outstanding of $277 million during fiscal 2018. Our revolving credit facility and committed receivables sales facility programs require us to maintain, as of the end of any calendar quarter, a consolidated leverage ratio of no more than 4.25-to-1, which will reduce to 3.25-to-1 in March 2019. As of June 30, 2018, we were in compliance with this financial covenant.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
12



MD&A
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 

Long-Term Obligations
In June 2018, we repaid our $550 million 1.95% Notes due 2018 in full at maturity. At June 30, 2018, we had total long-term obligations of $8.0 billion. In fiscal 2018 we sold our China distribution business, including its debt which was $378 million as of June 30, 2017. See Note 4 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further discussion of this divestiture.
In June 2017, we sold $1 billion aggregate principal amount of 1.948% notes due 2019, $1.15 billion aggregate principal amount of 2.616% notes due 2022, $350 million aggregate principal amount of floating rate notes due 2022, $750 million aggregate principal amount of 3.079% notes due 2024, $1.35 billion aggregate principal amount of 3.410% notes due 2027 and $600 million aggregate principal amount of 4.368% notes due 2047. In addition to funding a portion of the purchase price of the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business described below, in July 2017 we used a portion of the debt proceeds to redeem our $400 million 1.7% notes due 2018.
 
Funding for Acquisition of Medtronic's Patient Recovery Business
On July 29, 2017, we acquired the Patient Recovery Business from Medtronic for $6.1 billion in cash. We funded the acquisition through$4.5 billion in new long-term debt issued in June 2017, the use of existing cash and borrowings under existing credit arrangements.
Risk Management
We use interest rate swaps, foreign currency contracts and commodity contracts to manage our exposure to cash flow variability. We also use interest rate swaps to protect the value of our debt and use foreign currency forward contracts to protect the value of our existing and forecasted foreign currency assets and liabilities. See the "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" section as well as Note 1 and Note 12 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for information regarding the use of financial instruments and derivatives as well as foreign currency, interest rate and commodity exposures.
Capital Deployment
 
Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures during fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $384 million, $387 million and $465 million, respectively.
We expect capital expenditures in fiscal 2019 to be between $360 million and $390 million primarily for information technology projects, growth projects in our core business and for integration of the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business.
Dividends
During fiscal 2018, we paid quarterly dividends totaling $1.85 per share, an increase of 3 percent from fiscal 2017.
On May 9, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a quarterly dividend of $0.4763 per share, or $1.91 per share on an annualized basis, which was paid on July 15, 2018 to shareholders of record on July 2, 2018.
On August 8, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a quarterly dividend of $0.4763 per share, or $1.91 per share on an annualized basis, which will be paid on October 15, 2018 to shareholders of record on October 1, 2018.
 
Share Repurchases
During fiscal 2018, we repurchased $550 million of our common shares. We funded the repurchases with available cash and short-term borrowing. At June 30, 2018, we had $893 million remaining under our existing $1.0 billion share repurchase program.
On August 16, 2018 we entered into an accelerated share repurchase program ("ASR") to purchase shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $600 million and received an initial delivery of 9.5 million shares of common stock using a reference price of $50.45. The program is expected to conclude in the second quarter of fiscal 2019.
During fiscal 2017, we repurchased $600 million of our common shares. We funded the repurchases with available cash.
Acquisition of Medtronic's Patient Recovery Business
Described above under "Funding for Acquisition of Medtronic's Patient Recovery Business."


 13
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 

MD&A
Other
 


Contractual Obligations
At June 30, 2018, our contractual obligations, including estimated payments due by period, are as follows:
(in millions)
2019
 
2020 to 2021
 
2022 to 2023
 
There-after
 
Total
Long-term debt and short-term borrowings (1)
$
999

 
$
964

 
$
2,259

 
$
4,783

 
$
9,005

Interest on long-term debt
303

 
531

 
420

 
2,068

 
3,322

Capital lease obligations (2)
2

 
4

 
2

 

 
8

Operating leases (3)
113

 
174

 
99

 
103

 
489

Purchase obligations and other payments (4)
534

 
501

 
382

 
196

 
1,613

Total contractual obligations (5)
$
1,951

 
$
2,174

 
$
3,162

 
$
7,150

 
$
14,437

(1)
Represents maturities of our long-term debt obligations and other short-term borrowings excluding capital lease obligations described below. See Note 7 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further information.
(2)
Represents maturities of our capital lease obligations included within long-term obligations in our consolidated balance sheets.
 
(3)
Represents minimum rental payments for operating leases having initial or remaining non-cancelable lease terms as described in Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”
(4)
A purchase obligation is defined as an agreement to purchase goods or services that is legally enforceable and specifies all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and approximate timing of the transaction. The purchase obligation amounts disclosed above represent estimates of the minimum for which we are obligated and the time period in which cash outflows will occur. Purchase orders and authorizations to purchase that involve no firm commitment from either party are excluded from the above table. In addition, contracts that can be unilaterally canceled with no termination fee or with proper notice are excluded from our total purchase obligations except for the amount of the termination fee or the minimum amount of goods that must be purchased during the requisite notice period. Purchase obligations and other payments also includes quarterly payments of $45.6 million that we are required to pay CVS Health Corporation ("CVS") in connection with Red Oak Sourcing and will be in place for the remaining six years of the agreement. See Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information.
(5)
Long-term liabilities, such as unrecognized tax benefits, deferred taxes and other tax liabilities, have been excluded from the above table due to the inherent uncertainty of the underlying tax positions or because of the inability to reasonably estimate the timing of any cash outflows. See Note 8 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for further discussion of income taxes.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We had no significant "off-balance sheet arrangements" at June 30, 2018, as that term is defined in the SEC rules.
Recent Financial Accounting Standards
See Note 1 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for a discussion of recent financial accounting standards.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
14



MD&A
Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates
 

Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates
Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that (i) can have a significant impact on our financial condition and results of operations and (ii) require the use of complex and subjective estimates based upon past experience and management’s judgment. Other people applying reasonable judgment to the same facts and circumstances could develop different estimates. Because estimates are inherently uncertain, actual results may differ. In this section, we describe the significant policies applied in preparing our consolidated financial statements that management believes are the most dependent on estimates and assumptions. For further discussion of accounting policies for items within this section and of additional accounting policies, see Note 1 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
The allowance for doubtful accounts includes general and specific reserves. We determine our allowance for doubtful accounts by reviewing accounts receivable aging, industry trends, customer financial strength and credit standing, historical write-off trends and payment history. We regularly evaluate how changes in economic conditions may affect credit risks. See Note 1 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further information on our policy for Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts.
A hypothetical 0.1 percent increase or decrease in the reserve as a percentage of trade receivables at June 30, 2018, would result in an increase or decrease in bad debt expense of $8 million. We believe the reserve maintained and expenses recorded in fiscal 2018 are appropriate.
 
At this time, we are not aware of any analytical findings or customer issues that are likely to lead to a significant future increase in the allowance for doubtful accounts as a percentage of revenue. The following table presents information regarding the allowance for doubtful accounts over the past three fiscal years:
(in millions, except percentages)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Allowance for doubtful accounts at beginning of period
$
137

 
$
135

 
$
135

Charged to costs and expenses
114

 
60

 
74

Reduction to allowance for customer deductions and write-offs
(111
)
 
(58
)
 
(74
)
Allowance for doubtful accounts at end of period
$
139

 
$
137

 
$
135

Allowance as a percentage of customer receivables
1.8
%
 
1.7
%
 
1.8
%
Allowance as a percentage of revenue
0.10
%
 
0.11
%
 
0.11
%
The sum of the components may not equal the total due to rounding.
Inventories
 
A substantial portion of our inventories (56 percent at both June 30, 2018 and 2017) are valued at the lower of cost, using the last-in, first-out ("LIFO") method, or market. These are primarily merchandise inventories at the core pharmaceutical distribution facilities within our Pharmaceutical segment (“distribution facilities”). The LIFO impact on the consolidated statements of earnings depends on pharmaceutical manufacturer price appreciation or deflation and our fiscal year-end inventory levels, which can be meaningfully influenced by customer buying behavior immediately preceding our fiscal year-end. Historically, prices for branded pharmaceuticals have generally tended to rise, resulting in an increase in cost of products sold, whereas prices for generic pharmaceuticals generally tend to decline, resulting in a decrease in cost of products sold. See Note 1 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further information on our policy for Inventories.
Using LIFO, if there is a decrease in inventory levels that have experienced pharmaceutical price appreciation, the result generally will be a decrease in future cost of products sold as our older inventory is held at a lower cost. Conversely, if there is a decrease in inventory levels that have experienced a pharmaceutical price decline, the result generally will be an increase in future cost of products sold as our older inventory is held at a higher cost.
 
We believe that the average cost method of inventory valuation provides a reasonable approximation of the current cost of replacing inventory within these distribution facilities. As such, the LIFO reserve is the difference between (a) inventory at the lower of LIFO cost or market and (b) inventory at replacement cost determined using the average cost method of inventory valuation. If we had used the average cost method of inventory valuation for all inventory within the distribution facilities, the value of our inventories would not have changed in fiscal 2018 or 2017 because inventories valued at LIFO were $92 million and $46 million higher than the average cost value at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We do not record inventories in excess of replacement cost. As such, we did not record a LIFO reserve in fiscal 2018 and 2017.
Our remaining inventory that is not valued at the lower of LIFO or market is stated at the lower of cost, using the first-in, first-out method, or market. Inventories presented in the consolidated balance sheets are net of reserves for excess and obsolete inventory which were $147 million and $76 million at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in the reserves for excess and obsolete inventory during fiscal 2018 was driven by increased inventory reserves within our Medical segment Cordis business and the Patient Recovery acquisition.


 15
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates
 

We reserve for inventory obsolescence using estimates based on historical experience, historical and projected sales trends, specific categories of inventory, age and expiration dates of on-hand
 
inventory and manufacturer return policies. If actual conditions are less favorable than our assumptions, additional inventory reserves may be required.
Business Combinations
 
The assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination, including identifiable intangible assets, are recorded at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. For further discussion of the Business Combinations accounting policy, see Note 1 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”
Critical estimates and assumptions include: expected future cash flows for customer relationships, trademarks, trade names, patents,
 
developed technology, in-process research and development ("IPR&D") and other identifiable intangible assets; discount rates that reflect the risk factors associated with future cash flows; and estimates of useful lives. See Note 2 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information regarding our acquisitions.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
 
Purchased goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment annually or when indicators of impairment exist. Goodwill impairment testing involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of reporting units to the respective carrying amount, which may be performed utilizing either a qualitative or quantitative assessment. Qualitative factors are first assessed to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value does not exceed the carrying amount, then a quantitative test is performed. The quantitative goodwill impairment test involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to the respective carrying amount. A reporting unit is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment (also known as a component).
We have two operating segments, which are the same as our reportable segments: Pharmaceutical and Medical. These operating segments are comprised of divisions (which are components), for which discrete financial information is available. Components are aggregated into reporting units for purposes of goodwill impairment testing to the extent that they share similar economic characteristics. Our reporting units are: Pharmaceutical operating segment (excluding our Nuclear Pharmacy Services division); Nuclear Pharmacy Services division; Medical operating segment (excluding our Cardinal Health at Home division and naviHealth division) (“Medical Unit”); Cardinal Health at Home division; and naviHealth division.
Goodwill impairment testing involves judgment, including the identification of reporting units, qualitative evaluation of events and circumstances to determine if it is more likely than not that an impairment exists, and, if necessary, the estimation of the fair value of the applicable reporting unit. Our qualitative evaluation considers the weight of evidence and significance of all identified events and circumstances and most relevant drivers of fair value, both positive and negative, in determining whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount.
Our determination of estimated fair value of our reporting units is based on a combination of the income-based and market-based
 
approaches (using discount rates ranging from 8.5 percent to 13.5 percent). We use discount rates that are commensurate with the risks and uncertainty inherent in the respective reporting units and in our internally-developed forecasts. Under the market-based approach, we determine fair value by comparing our reporting units to similar businesses or guideline companies whose securities are actively traded in public markets. We also use the guideline transaction method to determine fair value based on pricing multiples derived from the sale of companies that are similar to our reporting units.
Estimating the fair value of reporting units requires the use of estimates and significant judgments that are based on a number of factors including actual operating results. The use of alternate estimates and assumptions or changes in the industry or peer groups could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit and potentially result in goodwill impairment. If a reporting unit fails to achieve expected earnings or otherwise fails to meet current financial plans, or if there were changes to any other key assumptions used in the tests, the reporting unit could incur a goodwill impairment in a future period.
We performed annual impairment testing in fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016 and, with the exception of our Medical Unit in fiscal 2018, concluded that there were no impairments of goodwill as the estimated fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value. As discussed further in Note 5 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements," during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018 we recognized a $1.4 billion goodwill impairment charge related to our Medical Unit, which is included in impairments and loss on disposal of assets in our consolidated statements of earnings. The impairment was primarily driven by inventory and cost challenges within our Cordis business which furthered in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018. There was no tax benefit related to the goodwill impairment charge. If the fair value of the Medical Unit were to decline below its carrying value in subsequent periods, additional impairment would be recognized in those periods. For any of our other reporting units, there would not have been an impairment for fiscal 2018 if we raised the discount rate by 1 percent.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
16



MD&A
Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates
 

The impairment test for indefinite-lived intangibles other than goodwill (primarily IPR&D) involves first assessing qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If so, then a quantitative test is performed to compare the estimated fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset to the respective asset's carrying amount. Our qualitative evaluation requires the use of estimates and significant judgments and considers the weight of evidence and
 
significance of all identified events and circumstances and most relevant drivers of fair value, both positive and negative, in determining whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount.
See Note 1 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information regarding goodwill and other intangible assets.
Vendor Reserves
 
In the ordinary course of business, our vendors may dispute deductions taken against payments otherwise due to them or assert other disputes. These disputed transactions are researched and resolved based upon findings of the research performed. At any given time, there are outstanding items in various stages of research and resolution. In determining appropriate reserves for areas of exposure with our vendors, we assess historical experience and current outstanding claims. We have established various levels of reserves based on the type of claim and status of review. For further discussion on the Vendor Reserves, see Note 1 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”
 
Vendor reserves were $45 million and $50 million at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Approximately 69 percent of the vendor reserve at the end of fiscal 2018 pertained to the Pharmaceutical segment compared to 77 percent at the end of fiscal 2017. The reserve balance will fluctuate due to variations in outstanding claims from period-to-period, timing of resolutions and specific vendor issues.
The ultimate outcome of specific claims may be different than our original estimate and may require adjustment. We believe, however, that reserves recorded for such disputes are reasonable based upon current facts and circumstances.
Loss Contingencies and Self-Insurance
 
We accrue for contingencies related to disputes, litigation and regulatory matters if it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Because these matters are inherently unpredictable and unfavorable developments or outcomes can occur, assessing contingencies is highly subjective and requires judgments about future events.
We also self-insure for employee healthcare, certain product liability matters, auto liability, property and workers' compensation and maintain insurance for individual losses exceeding certain limits when available.
Self-insurance accruals include an estimate for expected settlements on pending claims, defense costs, administrative fees, claims adjustment costs and an estimate for claims incurred but not reported. For certain types of exposures, we develop the estimate of expected ultimate costs to settle each claim based on specific information
 
related to each claim if available. Other estimates are based on an assessment of outstanding claims, historical analysis and current payment trends. For claims incurred but not reported, the liabilities are calculated and derived in accordance with generally accepted actuarial practices or using an estimated lag period.
We regularly review contingencies and self-insurance accruals to determine whether our accruals and related disclosures are adequate. Examples of such contingencies include the New York Opioid Stewardship Act, various lawsuits related to the distribution of prescription opioid pain medications and the Cordis IVC filter lawsuits. The amount of loss may differ from these estimates. See Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information regarding loss contingencies and product liability lawsuits.

 17
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


MD&A
Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates
 

Provision for Income Taxes
 
We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in the respective jurisdictions in which we operate. Our income tax expense, deferred income tax assets and liabilities, and unrecognized tax benefits reflect management’s assessment of estimated future taxes to be paid on items in the consolidated financial statements.
The following table presents information about our tax position at June 30:
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
Total deferred income tax assets (1)
$
848

 
$
692

Valuation allowance for deferred income tax assets (2)
(412
)
 
(237
)
   Net deferred income tax assets
436

 
455

Total deferred income tax liabilities
(2,213
)
 
(2,331
)
   Net deferred income tax liability
$
(1,777
)
 
$
(1,876
)
(1)
Total deferred income tax assets included $526 million and $378 million of loss and tax credit carryforwards at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
(2)
The valuation allowance primarily relates to federal, state and international loss and credit carryforwards for which the ultimate realization of future benefits is uncertain.
Expiring or unusable loss and credit carryforwards and the required valuation allowances are adjusted quarterly when it is more likely than not that at least a portion of the respective deferred tax assets will not be realized. After applying the valuation allowances, we do not anticipate any limitations on our use of any of the other net deferred income tax assets described above. Tax benefits from uncertain tax positions are recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination of the technical
 
merits of the position, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement.
Our assumptions and estimates around uncertain tax positions require significant judgment; the actual amount of tax benefit related to uncertain tax positions may differ from these estimates. See Note 8 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information regarding unrecognized tax benefits.
We believe that our estimates for the valuation allowances against deferred tax assets and unrecognized tax benefits are appropriate based on current facts and circumstances. The amount we ultimately pay when matters are resolved may differ from the amounts accrued. Changes in our current estimates due to unanticipated market conditions, tax law changes or other factors could have a material effect on our ability to utilize deferred tax assets. For a further discussion on Provision for Income Taxes, see Note 8 of the “Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.”
The calculation of our tax liabilities includes estimates for uncertainties in the application of broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code as per the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("the Tax Act") as enacted by the United States government on December 22, 2017. Although we are still completing our accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act, we have made reasonable estimates and recorded provisional amounts based on management judgment and our current understanding of the Tax Act which is subject to further interpretation by the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS"). See Note 8 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information regarding the Tax Act.
Share-Based Compensation
 
Employee share-based compensation is recognized in the consolidated statements of earnings based on the grant date fair value of the awards. The grant date market price of our common shares determines the fair value of restricted share units and performance share units. The fair value of stock options is determined using a lattice valuation model. We believe the lattice model provides reasonable estimates because it takes into account employee exercise patterns based on changes in our stock price and other variables and it provides for a range of input assumptions.
We analyze historical data to estimate option exercise behaviors and post-vesting forfeitures. The expected life of the options granted, which represents the length of time in years that the options granted are expected to be outstanding, is calculated from the option valuation model. Expected volatilities are based on implied volatility
 
from traded options on our common shares and historical volatility over a period of time commensurate with the contractual term of the option grant (up to ten years).
Forfeiture estimates for all types of awards are adjusted as circumstances change and ultimately reflect actual forfeitures when an award vests. Actual forfeitures in future reporting periods could be higher or lower than our current estimates.
Compensation expense for nonvested performance share units depends on our periodic assessment of the probability of the targets being achieved and our estimate, which may vary over time, of the number of shares that ultimately will be issued. See Note 17 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information regarding share-based compensation.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
18



Explanation and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
 
 

Explanation and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This report, including the "Fiscal 2018 Overview" section within MD&A, contains financial measures that are not calculated in accordance with GAAP. In addition to analyzing our business based on financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP, we use these non-GAAP financial measures internally to evaluate our performance, evaluate the balance sheet, engage in financial and operational planning, and determine incentive compensation because we believe that these measures provide additional perspective on and, in some circumstances are more closely correlated to, the performance of our underlying, ongoing business. We provide these non-GAAP financial measures to investors as supplemental metrics to assist readers in assessing the effects of items and events on our financial and operating results on a year-over-year basis and in comparing our performance to that of our competitors. However, the non-GAAP financial measures that we use may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies. The non-GAAP financial measures disclosed by us should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and the financial results calculated in accordance with GAAP and reconciliations to those financial statements set forth below should be carefully evaluated.
Exclusions from Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Management believes it is useful to exclude the following items from the non-GAAP measures presented in this report for its own and for investors’ assessment of the business for the reasons identified below:
LIFO charges and credits are excluded because the factors that drive last-in first-out ("LIFO") inventory charges or credits, such as pharmaceutical manufacturer price appreciation or deflation and year-end inventory levels (which can be meaningfully influenced by customer buying behavior immediately preceding our fiscal year-end), are largely out of our control and cannot be accurately predicted. The exclusion of LIFO charges and credits from non-GAAP metrics facilitates comparison of our current financial results to our historical financial results and to our peer group companies’ financial results.
Restructuring and employee severance costs are excluded because they are not part of the ongoing operations of our underlying business.
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs, which include transaction costs, integration costs, and changes in the fair value of contingent consideration obligations, are excluded primarily for consistency with the presentation of the financial results of our peer group companies. Additionally, costs for amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets are non-cash amounts, which are variable in amount and frequency and are significantly impacted by the timing and size of acquisitions, so their exclusion facilitates comparison of historical, current and forecasted financial results. We also exclude other acquisition-related costs, which are directly related to an acquisition but do not meet the criteria to be recognized on the acquired entity’s initial balance sheet as part of the purchase price allocation. These costs are also significantly impacted by the timing, complexity and size of acquisitions.
Impairments and gain or loss on disposal of assets are excluded because they do not occur in or reflect the ordinary course of our ongoing business operations and are inherently unpredictable in timing and amount, and in the case of impairments, are non-cash amounts, so their exclusion facilitates comparison of historical, current and forecasted financial results.
Litigation recoveries or charges, net are excluded because they often relate to events that may have occurred in prior or multiple periods, do not occur in or reflect the ordinary course of our business and are inherently unpredictable in timing and amount.
Loss on extinguishment of debt is excluded because it does not typically occur in the normal course of business and may obscure analysis of trends and financial performance. Additionally, the amount and frequency of this type of charge is not consistent and is significantly impacted by the timing and size of debt extinguishment transactions.
Transitional tax benefit, net related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is excluded because it results from the one-time impact during the one-year measurement period of a very significant change in the U.S. federal corporate tax rate and, due to the significant size of the benefit, obscures analysis of trends and financial performance. The transitional tax benefit includes the initial estimate and measurement period adjustments for the re-measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities due to the reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate and the repatriation tax on undistributed foreign earnings, both of which are subject to adjustment during an up to 12 month measurement period.

The tax effect for each of the items listed above, other than the transitional tax benefit item, is determined using the tax rate and other tax attributes applicable to the item and the jurisdiction(s) in which the item is recorded. The gross, tax and net impact of each item are presented with our GAAP to non-GAAP reconciliations.



 19
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Explanation and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
 
 

Definitions
Growth rate calculation: growth rates in this report are determined by dividing the difference between current period results and prior period results by prior period results.
Non-GAAP operating earnings: operating earnings excluding (1) LIFO charges/(credits), (2) restructuring and employee severance, (3) amortization and other acquisition-related costs, (4) impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets and (5) litigation (recoveries)/charges, net.
Non-GAAP earnings before income taxes: earnings before income taxes excluding (1) LIFO charges/(credits), (2) restructuring and employee severance, (3) amortization and other acquisition-related costs, (4) impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, (5) litigation (recoveries)/charges, net and (6) loss on extinguishment of debt.
Non-GAAP Net Earnings attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.: net earnings attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc. excluding (1) LIFO charges/(credits), (2) restructuring and employee severance, (3) amortization and other acquisition-related costs, (4) impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, (5) litigation (recoveries)/charges, net, (6) loss on extinguishment of debt, each net of tax, and (7) transitional tax benefit related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
Non-GAAP effective tax rate: (provision for income taxes adjusted for (1) LIFO charges/(credits), (2) restructuring and employee severance, (3) amortization and other acquisition-related costs, (4) impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets, (5) litigation (recoveries)/charges, net, (6) loss on extinguishment of debt, and (7) transitional tax benefit, (net) divided by (earnings before income taxes adjusted for the first six items).
Non-GAAP diluted EPS attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.: non-GAAP net earnings attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc. divided by diluted weighted-average shares outstanding.







 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
20



Explanation and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
 
 

GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliations
(in millions, except per common share amounts)
Operating Earnings
Operating Earnings Growth Rate
Earnings/(Loss) Before Income Taxes
Provision for Income Taxes
Net Earnings1,2
Net Earnings/(Loss)1,2 Growth Rate
Diluted EPS1,2
Diluted EPS1,2 Growth Rate
 
Fiscal Year 2018
GAAP
$
126

(94
)%
$
(228
)
$
(487
)
$
259

(80
)%
$
0.81

(80
)%
Restructuring and employee severance
176

 
176

25

151

 
0.48

 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
707

 
707

176

531

 
1.69

 
Impairments and loss on disposal of assets4
1,417

 
1,417

(44
)
1,461

 
4.64

 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
159

 
159

48

111

 
0.35

 
Loss on extinguishment of debt

 
2

1

1

 

 
Transitional tax benefit, net3

 

936

(936
)
 
(2.97
)
 
Non-GAAP
$
2,585

(7
)%
$
2,233

$
655

$
1,578

(9
)%
$
5.00

(7
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year 2017
GAAP
$
2,120

(14
)%
$
1,924

$
630

$
1,288

(10
)%
$
4.03

(7
)%
Restructuring and employee severance
56

 
56

20

36

 
0.11

 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
527

 
527

165

362

 
1.13

 
Impairments and loss on disposal of assets
18

 
18

6

12

 
0.04

 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
48

 
48

19

29

 
0.09

 
Non-GAAP
$
2,769

(4
)%
$
2,572

$
839

$
1,727

 %
$
5.40

3
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year 2016
GAAP
$
2,459

14
 %
$
2,276

$
845

$
1,427

18
 %
$
4.32

20
 %
Restructuring and employee severance
25

 
25

9

16

 
0.05

 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
459

 
459

143

316

 
0.96

 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
21

 
21

6

15

 
0.04

 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
(69
)
 
(69
)
(27
)
(42
)
 
(0.13
)
 
Non-GAAP
$
2,895

17
 %
$
2,711

$
976

$
1,732

18
 %
$
5.24

20
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year 2015
GAAP
$
2,161

15
 %
$
1,967

$
755

$
1,212

4
 %
$
3.61

7
 %
Restructuring and employee severance
44

 
44

15

29

 
0.09

 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
281

 
281

100

181

 
0.54

 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
(19
)
 
(19
)
(10
)
(9
)
 
(0.03
)
 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
5

 
5

(14
)
19

 
0.06

 
Loss on extinguishment of debt

 
60

23

37

 
0.11

 
Non-GAAP
$
2,472

16
 %
$
2,339

$
870

$
1,469

11
 %
$
4.38

14
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year 2014
GAAP
$
1,885

89
 %
$
1,798

$
635

$
1,163

247
 %
$
3.37

247
 %
Restructuring and employee severance
31

 
31

11

20

 
0.06

 
Amortization and other acquisition-related costs
223

 
223

79

144

 
0.42

 
Impairments and (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
15

 
15

5

10

 
0.03

 
Litigation (recoveries)/charges, net
(21
)
 
(21
)
(8
)
(13
)
 
(0.04
)
 
Non-GAAP
$
2,133

4
 %
$
2,047

$
722

$
1,324

3
 %
$
3.84

3
 %
1 
from continuing operations
2 
attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.
3 
Reflects the estimated net transitional benefit from the re-measurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities partially offset by the repatriation tax on cash and earnings of foreign subsidiaries.  We have not yet completed our analysis of the impact of the Tax Act and, as such, these amounts are provisional estimates and we may record additional provisional amounts or adjustments to the provisional amounts in future periods.
4 
Fiscal year 2018 includes a goodwill impairment charge of $1.4 billion related to our Medical segment. There was no tax benefit related to this goodwill impairment charge.

The sum of the components may not equal the total due to rounding.
We apply varying tax rates depending on the item's nature and tax jurisdiction where it is incurred.

 21
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Selected Financial Data
 
 


Selected Financial Data
The consolidated financial data below includes all business combinations as of the date of acquisition that occurred during these periods. The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and MD&A.
(in millions, except per common share amounts)
20181,2
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Earnings Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
136,809

 
$
129,976

 
$
121,546

 
$
102,531

 
$
91,084

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating earnings
126

 
2,120

 
2,459

 
2,161

 
1,885

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
259

 
1,294

 
1,431

 
1,212

 
1,163

Earnings/(loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

 

 

 
3

 
3

Net earnings
259

 
1,294

 
1,431

 
1,215

 
1,166

Less: Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
(3
)
 
(6
)
 
(4
)
 

 

Net earnings attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.
$
256

 
$
1,288

 
$
1,427

 
$
1,215

 
$
1,166

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per common share attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.82

 
$
4.06

 
$
4.36

 
$
3.65

 
$
3.41

Discontinued operations

 

 

 
0.01

 
0.01

Net basic earnings per common share attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.
$
0.82

 
$
4.06

 
$
4.36

 
$
3.66

 
$
3.42

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings per common share attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.81

 
$
4.03

 
$
4.32

 
$
3.61

 
$
3.37

Discontinued operations

 

 

 
0.01

 
0.01

Net diluted earnings per common share attributable to Cardinal Health, Inc.
$
0.81

 
$
4.03

 
$
4.32

 
$
3.62

 
$
3.38

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends declared per common share
$
1.8635

 
$
1.8091

 
$
1.6099

 
$
1.4145

 
$
1.2500

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
39,951

 
$
40,112

 
$
34,122

 
$
30,142

 
$
26,033

Long-term obligations, less current portion
8,012

 
9,068

 
4,952

 
5,211

 
3,171

Total Cardinal Health, Inc. shareholders' equity
6,059

 
6,808

 
6,554

 
6,256

 
6,401

1During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018, we recognized a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $1.4 billion related to our Medical segment. There was no tax benefit related to this goodwill impairment charge.
2During fiscal 2018, the United States enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. See Note 8 for more information.



 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
22


Disclosures about Market Risk
 


Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to cash flow and earnings fluctuations as a result of certain market risks. These market risks primarily relate to foreign exchange, interest rate, and commodity price-related changes. We maintain a hedging program to manage volatility related to some of these market exposures which employs operational, economic, and derivative financial instruments in order to mitigate risk. See Note 1 and Note 12 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further discussion regarding our use of derivative instruments.
Foreign Exchange Rate Sensitivity
 
By the nature of our global operations, we are exposed to cash flow and earnings fluctuations resulting from foreign exchange rate variation. These exposures are transactional and translational in nature. The following foreign currencies represent the principal drivers of our foreign exchange exposure: Canadian dollar, Euro, Thai baht, Mexican peso and Chinese renminbi.
We apply a Value-At-Risk ("VAR") methodology to our transactional and translational exposures. The VAR model is a risk estimation tool and is not intended to represent actual losses in fair value that could be incurred.
Transactional Exposure
Transactional exposure arises from the purchase and sale of goods and services in currencies other than our functional currency or the functional currency of our subsidiaries. At the end of each fiscal year we perform sensitivity analyses on our forecasted transactional exposure for the upcoming fiscal year. These analyses include the estimated impact of our hedging program, which is designed to
 
mitigate transactional exposure. Applying a VAR methodology to our transactional exposure and including the impact of our hedging program, the potential maximum loss in earnings for the upcoming fiscal year is estimated to be $26 million, which is based on a one-year horizon and a 95 percent confidence level. Under the same methodology, at June 30, 2017, our potential maximum loss in earnings for the upcoming fiscal year was estimated to be $19 million.
Translational Exposure
We have exposure related to the translation of financial statements of our foreign operations into U.S. dollars, our functional currency. Applying a VAR methodology to our translational exposure, the potential maximum loss in earnings for the upcoming fiscal year is estimated to be $9 million, which is based on a one-year horizon and a 95 percent confidence level. Under the same methodology, at June 30, 2017, our potential maximum loss in earnings for the upcoming fiscal year was estimated to be $14 million.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
 
We are exposed to changes in interest rates primarily as a result of our borrowing and investing activities to maintain liquidity and fund operations. The nature and amount of our long-term and short-term debt can be expected to fluctuate as a result of business requirements, market conditions and other factors. Our policy is to manage exposures to interest rates using a mix of fixed and floating rate debt as deemed appropriate by management. We utilize interest rate swap instruments to mitigate our exposure to interest rate movements.
As part of our risk management program, we perform an annual sensitivity analysis on our forecasted exposure to interest rates for the upcoming fiscal year. This analysis assumes a hypothetical 50 basis point change in interest rates. At June 30, 2018 and 2017, the potential increase or decrease in annual interest expense under this
 
analysis as a result of this hypothetical change was $15 million and $16 million, respectively.
We are also exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates related to our cash and cash equivalents, which includes marketable securities that are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of our cash and cash equivalents is subject to change primarily as a result of changes in market interest rates and investment risk related to the issuers' credit worthiness. At June 30, 2018, a hypothetical increase or decrease of 50 basis points in interest rates would result in no change in the estimated fair value. At June 30, 2017, a hypothetical increase or decrease of 50 basis points in interest rates would result in a potential increase or decrease of $1 million in the estimated fair value.


 23
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 

Disclosures about Market Risk
 


Commodity Price Sensitivity
 
We are directly exposed to market price changes for certain commodities, including oil-based resins, nitrile, cotton, diesel fuel and latex. We typically purchase raw materials at either market prices or prices tied to a commodity index and some finished goods at prices based in part on a commodity price index.
As part of our risk management program, we perform sensitivity analysis on our forecasted direct commodity exposure for the upcoming fiscal year. Our forecasted direct commodity exposure at June 30, 2018 increased approximately $190 million from June 30, 2017 primarily due to the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business. At June 30, 2018 and 2017, we had hedged a portion of these direct commodity exposures (see Note 12 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for further discussion).
 
Our forecasted direct commodity exposures for the upcoming fiscal years were $424 million and $234 million at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The potential gain/loss given a hypothetical 10 percent fluctuation in commodity prices, assuming pricing collectively shifts in the same direction and we are unable to change customer pricing in response to those shifts, for the upcoming fiscal year were $42 million and $23 million at June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The hypothetical offsetting impact of hedges in both periods was minimal. In prior years, we forecasted both direct and indirect exposure to commodity pricing changes. Beginning in fiscal 2018, we began only estimating direct exposure because it is the primary way that we view and manage commodity risk. Under the prior methodology, our exposure in fiscal 2017 for the next fiscal year was estimated to be $411 million and the potential gain/loss was $41 million.




 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
24



Business
 
 


Business
General
 
Cardinal Health, Inc. is a global integrated healthcare services and products company providing customized solutions for hospitals, healthcare systems, pharmacies, ambulatory surgery centers, clinical laboratories and physician offices. We provide medical products and pharmaceuticals and cost-effective solutions that enhance supply chain efficiency from hospital to home.
Pharmaceutical Segment
 
In the United States, our Pharmaceutical segment:
distributes branded and generic pharmaceutical and over-the-counter healthcare and consumer products through its Pharmaceutical Distribution division to retailers (including chain and independent drug stores and pharmacy departments of supermarkets and mass merchandisers), hospitals and other healthcare providers. This division:
maintains prime vendor relationships that streamline the purchasing process resulting in greater efficiency and lower costs for our retail, hospital and other healthcare provider customers;
provides services to pharmaceutical manufacturers, including distribution, inventory management, data reporting, new product launch support and chargeback administration;
provides pharmacy management services to hospitals as well as medication therapy management and patient outcomes services to hospitals, other healthcare providers and payers, and operates pharmacies in community health centers; and
repackages generic pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter healthcare products;
through its Specialty Solutions division, distributes specialty pharmaceutical products to hospitals and other healthcare providers and provides consulting, patient support and other services for specialty pharmaceutical products to pharmaceutical manufacturers and healthcare providers; and
operates nuclear pharmacies and manufacturing facilities through its Nuclear Pharmacy Services division, which manufactures, prepares and delivers radiopharmaceuticals for use in nuclear imaging and other procedures in hospitals and physician offices. This division also contract manufactures a radiopharmaceutical treatment (Xofigo) and holds the North American rights to manufacture and distribute Lymphoseek, a radiopharmaceutical diagnostic imaging agent.
See Note 16 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for Pharmaceutical segment revenue, profit and assets for fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016.
 
Pharmaceutical Distribution
Our Pharmaceutical Distribution division’s gross margin includes margin from our generic pharmaceutical program, from distribution services agreements with branded pharmaceutical manufacturers and from over-the-counter healthcare and consumer products. It also includes manufacturer cash discounts.
Margin from our generic pharmaceutical program includes price discounts and rebates from manufacturers and may in some instances include price appreciation. Our earnings on generic pharmaceuticals are generally highest during the period immediately following the initial launch of a product, because generic pharmaceutical selling prices are generally highest during that period and tend to decline over time.
Margin from distribution services agreements with branded pharmaceutical manufacturers is derived primarily from compensation we receive for providing a range of distribution and related services to manufacturers. Our compensation typically is a percentage of the wholesale acquisition cost that is set by manufacturers. In addition, under a limited number of agreements, branded pharmaceutical price appreciation, which is determined by the manufacturers, also serves as part of our compensation.
Sourcing Venture With CVS Health Corporation
In July 2014, we established Red Oak Sourcing, a U.S.-based generic pharmaceutical sourcing venture with CVS with an initial term of 10 years. Red Oak Sourcing negotiates generic pharmaceutical supply contracts on behalf of both companies.
Specialty Pharmaceutical Products and Services
We refer to products and services offered by our Specialty Solutions division as “specialty pharmaceutical products and services.” The Specialty Solutions division distributes oncology, rheumatology, urology, nephrology and other pharmaceutical products ("specialty pharmaceutical products") and human-derived plasma products to hospitals, dialysis clinics, physician offices and other healthcare providers; provides consulting, patient support, logistics, group purchasing and other services to pharmaceutical manufacturers and healthcare providers primarily supporting the development, marketing and distribution of specialty pharmaceutical products; and provides specialty pharmacy services. Our use of the terminology "specialty pharmaceutical products and services" may not be comparable to the terminology used by other industry participants.


 25
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Business
 
 


Medical Segment
 
Our Medical segment manufactures and sources Cardinal Health branded medical, surgical and laboratory products, including cardiovascular and endovascular products; wound care products; single-use surgical drapes, gowns and apparel; exam and surgical gloves; and fluid suction and collection systems. We further expanded this segment's portfolio of Cardinal Health Brand products through the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business from Medtronic in July 2017, which includes incontinence, wound care, enteral feeding, urology, operating room supply, electrode and needle, syringe and sharps disposal product lines. Our Cardinal Health Brand products are sold directly or through third-party distributors in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and other markets.
The Medical segment also distributes a broad range of national brand products and provides supply chain services and solutions to hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, clinical laboratories and other healthcare providers in the United States and Canada.
 
This segment also distributes medical products to patients' homes in the United States through our Cardinal Health at Home division.
This segment also assembles and sells sterile and non-sterile procedure kits. It also provides supply chain services, including spend management, distribution management and inventory management services, to healthcare providers.
naviHealth Partnership
In August 2018, we entered into a partnership with CD&R through which we own 44% of the ownership interests in the naviHealth business. naviHealth partners with health plans, hospital systems, physician groups and other healthcare providers to manage post-acute care through value-based programs.
See Note 16 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for Medical segment revenue, profit and assets for fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016.

Acquisitions and Divestitures
 
Acquisitions
We have acquired a number of businesses over the years that have enhanced our core strategic areas of Cardinal Health Brand medical products, generic pharmaceutical distribution and services, specialty pharmaceutical products and services, international and post-acute care. We expect to continue to pursue additional acquisitions in the future.
During the last five fiscal years, we completed the following three large acquisitions:
Date
Company
Location
Lines
of Business
Acquisition
Price
(in billions)
07/17
Patient Recovery Business of Medtronic, plc
Mansfield, MA
Patient Care, Deep Vein Thrombosis and Nutritional Insufficiency
$6.1
10/15
Cordis business of Johnson & Johnson
Fremont, CA
Cardiovascular and endovascular products
$1.9
07/15
The Harvard Drug Group
Livonia, MI
Pharmaceutical product distribution
$1.1
We have also completed several smaller acquisitions during the last five fiscal years, including: in fiscal 2017, the acquisition of the North
 
American rights to Lymphoseek, a radiopharmaceutical diagnostic imaging agent, from Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.; in fiscal 2015, the acquisitions of Tradex International, Inc., a supplier of disposable gloves, and Metro Medical Supply, Inc., a distributor of specialty pharmaceuticals and medical and surgical products; and in fiscal 2014, the acquisition of Access Closure, Inc., a manufacturer and distributor of extravascular closure devices.
Divestitures
Over the past year, we have also completed several divestitures, including, in February 2018, selling our pharmaceutical and medical products distribution business in China to Shanghai Pharmaceuticals Holding Co., Ltd. for proceeds of $861 million (after adjusting for third party indebtedness and preliminary transaction adjustments).
Additionally, in August 2018, we completed the sale of our ownership interest in naviHealth, Inc. to investor entities controlled by CD&R for proceeds of $736 million (after adjusting for certain fees and expenses) and a 44% equity interest in a partnership that owns the naviHealth business.
We had acquired our ownership interest in naviHealth through a series of transactions, beginning in fiscal 2016, when we acquired a 71% ownership interest. As of the end of fiscal 2018, we owned 98% of the interests in naviHealth.



 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
26



Business
 
 


Customers
 
Our largest customers, CVS and OptumRx accounted for 25 percent and 11 percent of our fiscal 2018 revenue, respectively. In the aggregate, our five largest customers, including CVS and OptumRx, accounted for 47 percent of our fiscal 2018 revenue. Our pharmaceutical distribution agreements with CVS extend through June 2019.
We have agreements with group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”) that act as agents to negotiate vendor contracts on behalf of their
 
members. Our two largest GPO relationships in terms of member revenue are with Vizient, Inc. and Premier, Inc. Sales to members of these two GPOs, under numerous contracts across all of our businesses, collectively accounted for 22 percent of our revenue in fiscal 2018.
Suppliers
 
We rely on many different suppliers. Products obtained from our five largest suppliers accounted for an aggregate of 29 percent of our revenue during fiscal 2018, but no single supplier’s products accounted for more than 8 percent of revenue.
Competition
 
We operate in a highly competitive environment in the distribution of pharmaceuticals and consumer healthcare products. We also operate in a highly competitive environment in the development, manufacturing and distribution of medical devices and surgical products. We compete on many levels, including price, service offerings, support services, breadth of product lines and product quality and efficacy.
In the Pharmaceutical segment, we compete with wholesale distributors with national reach, including McKesson Corporation and AmerisourceBergen Corporation, regional wholesale distributors, self-warehousing chains, specialty distributors, third-party logistics companies, companies that provide specialty pharmaceutical
 
services and nuclear pharmacies, among others. In addition, the Pharmaceutical segment has experienced competition from a number of organizations offering generic pharmaceuticals, including telemarketers. We also compete with manufacturers that sell their products directly.
In the Medical segment, we compete with many diversified healthcare companies and national medical product distributors, such as Medline Industries, Inc., Owens & Minor, Inc. and Becton, Dickinson and Company, as well as regional medical product distributors and companies that are focused on specific product categories. We also compete with companies that distribute medical products to patients' homes and third-party logistics companies.
Employees
 
At June 30, 2018, we had approximately 32,300 employees in the United States and approximately 17,900 employees outside of the United States.
Intellectual Property
 
We rely on a combination of trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, nondisclosure and other contractual provisions, and technical measures to protect our products, services and intangible assets. We hold patents, and continue to pursue patent protection throughout the world, relating to the manufacture, operation and use of various medical and surgical products, to certain distribution and logistics systems, to the production and distribution of our nuclear pharmacy products and to other service offerings. We also operate under licenses for certain proprietary technologies, and in certain instances we license our technologies to third parties. 
 
We believe that we have taken all necessary steps to protect our proprietary rights, but no assurance can be given that we will be able to successfully enforce or protect our rights in the event that they are infringed upon by a third party. While all of these proprietary rights are important to our operations, we do not consider any particular patent, trademark, license, franchise or concession to be material to our overall business.

 27
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Business
 
 


Regulatory Matters
 
Our business is highly regulated in the United States, at both the federal and state level, and in foreign countries. Depending upon the specific business, we may be subject to regulation by government entities including:
the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (the “DEA”);
certain agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Office of Inspector General and the Office for Civil Rights;
state health departments, insurance departments, Medicaid departments or other comparable state agencies;
state boards of pharmacy and other controlled substance authorities;
the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (the “NRC”);
the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the "FTC");
U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and
agencies comparable to those listed above in markets outside the United States.
These regulatory agencies have a variety of civil, administrative and criminal sanctions at their disposal for failure to comply with applicable legal or regulatory requirements. They can suspend our ability to manufacture and distribute products, initiate product recalls, seize products or impose criminal, civil and administrative sanctions.
Distribution
State Boards of Pharmacy, FDA, DEA and various other state authorities regulate the marketing, purchase, storage and distribution of pharmaceutical and medical products under various federal and state statutes including the federal Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987, Drug Quality and Security Act of 2013 (the “DQSA”), and Controlled Substances Act (the "CSA"). The CSA governs the sale, packaging, storage and distribution of controlled substances. Wholesale distributors of controlled substances must hold valid DEA registrations and state-level licenses, meet various security and operating standards, and comply with the CSA. They must also comply with state requirements relating to controlled substances that differ from state to state.
Manufacturing and Marketing
We sell our manufactured products in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and other markets. The FDA and other governmental agencies in the United States, as well as foreign governmental agencies, administer requirements that cover the design, testing, safety, effectiveness, manufacturing (including good manufacturing practices), quality systems, labeling, promotion and advertising (including restrictions on promoting or advertising a product other than for the product's cleared or approved uses), distribution, importation and post-market surveillance for most of our manufactured products. In addition, we need specific approval or clearance from, and registrations with, regulatory authorities before
 
we can market and sell some products in the United States and certain other countries, including countries in the European Union ("EU").
In the United States, authorization to commercially market a medical device is generally received in one of two ways. The first, known as pre-market notification or the 510(k) process, requires us to demonstrate that a medical device is substantially equivalent to a legally marketed medical device. The second more rigorous process, known as pre-market approval (“PMA”), requires us to independently demonstrate that a medical device is safe and effective. Many of our Medical segment products are cleared through the 510(k) process and certain Cordis products must be approved through the PMA process.
In the EU, we are required to comply with applicable Medical Device Directives ("MDDs") and obtain CE Mark Certification in order to market medical devices. The EU regulatory bodies finalized a new Medical Device Regulation ("MDR") in 2017, which replaces the existing MDDs after a three-year transition period.  Among other things, the MDR clarifies that private label distributors are deemed to be the manufacturer, which will increase our regulatory obligations in the EU with respect to private label products.
It can be costly and time-consuming to obtain regulatory approvals, clearances and registrations of medical devices, and they might not be granted on a timely basis, if at all. Even after we obtain approval or clearance to market a product or obtain product registrations, the product and our manufacturing processes are subject to continued regulatory oversight, including periodic inspection of manufacturing facilities by FDA and other regulatory authorities both in the United States and internationally.
From time to time, we may determine that products we manufacture or market do not meet our specifications, regulatory requirements or published standards. When we or a regulatory agency identify a quality or regulatory issue, we investigate and take appropriate corrective action, which may include recalling the product, correcting the product at the customer location, revising product labeling and notifying customers.
Health and Personal Information Practices
We collect, handle and maintain patient-identifiable health information. The U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA"), as augmented by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and state laws regulate the use and disclosure of patient-identifiable health information, including requiring specified privacy and security measures. We also collect, handle and maintain other sensitive personal and financial information that is subject to U.S. federal and state laws protecting such information.
The processing and disclosure of personal information is also highly regulated in many other countries in which we operate. In Europe, for example, we are subject to the EU data protection regulations, including the current EU Directive on Data Protection, which requires member states to impose minimum restrictions on the collection, use

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
28



Business
 
 


and transfer of personal data. The EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") includes, among other things, a requirement for prompt notice of data breaches to data subjects and supervisory authorities in certain circumstances and significant fines for non-compliance. The GDPR also requires companies processing personal data of individuals residing in the EU to comply with EU privacy and data protection rules.
Nuclear Pharmacies and Related Businesses
Our nuclear pharmacies and radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities (including for Xofigo) require licenses or permits and must abide by regulations issued by the NRC, applicable state boards of pharmacy and the radiologic health agency or department of health of each state in which we operate, including pharmacy sterile compounding standards and practices. In addition, our radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities also must comply with FDA regulations, including good manufacturing practices.
Product Tracing and Supply Chain Integrity
Title II of the DQSA, known as the Drug Supply Chain Security Act or "Track and Trace," establishes a phased-in national system for tracing pharmaceutical products through the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain to prevent the introduction of counterfeit, adulterated or mislabeled drugs. The first phase of implementation began in 2015, and upon full implementation in 2023, we and other supply chain stakeholders will participate in an electronic, interoperable, prescription drug tracing system. In addition, the FDA also has issued regulations requiring most medical device labeling to bear a unique device identifier. These regulations are being phased in through 2020. The MDR finalized in the EU in 2017 also introduces a new unique device identifier requirement with a three-year transition period. 
Government Healthcare Programs
We are subject to U.S. federal healthcare fraud and abuse laws. These laws generally prohibit persons from soliciting, offering, receiving or paying any compensation in order to induce someone to order, recommend or purchase products or services that are in any way paid for by Medicare, Medicaid or other federally-funded healthcare programs. They also prohibit submitting any fraudulent claim for payment by the federal government. There are similar state healthcare fraud and abuse laws that apply to Medicaid and other state-funded healthcare programs. Violations of these laws may result in criminal or civil penalties, as well as breach of contract claims and qui tam actions (false claims cases initiated by private parties purporting to act on behalf of federal or state governments).
Some businesses within each of our segments are Medicare-certified suppliers or participate in other federal and state healthcare
 
programs, such as state Medicaid programs and the federal 340B drug pricing program. These businesses are subject to accreditation and quality standards and other rules and regulations, including applicable reporting, billing, payment and record-keeping requirements. Other businesses within each segment manufacture pharmaceutical or medical products or repackage pharmaceuticals that are purchased or reimbursed through, or are otherwise governed by, federal or state healthcare programs. Failure to comply with applicable eligibility requirements, standards and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the loss of our ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs.
Our U.S. federal and state government contracts are subject to specific procurement requirements. Failure to comply with applicable rules or regulations or with contractual or other requirements may result in monetary damages and criminal or civil penalties as well as termination of our government contracts or our suspension or debarment from government contract work.
Antitrust Laws
The U.S. federal government, most U.S. states and many foreign countries have laws that prohibit certain types of conduct deemed to be anti-competitive. Violations of these laws can result in various sanctions, including criminal and civil penalties. Private plaintiffs also could bring civil lawsuits against us in the United States for alleged antitrust law violations, including claims for treble damages.
Environmental, Health and Safety Laws
In the United States and other countries, we are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws, as well as laws relating to safe working conditions and laboratory practices.
Laws Relating to Foreign Trade and Operations
U.S. and foreign laws require us to abide by standards relating to the import and export of finished goods, raw materials and supplies and the handling of information. We also must comply with various export control and trade embargo laws, which may require licenses or other authorizations for transactions within some countries or with some counterparties.
Similarly, we are subject to U.S. and foreign laws concerning the conduct of our foreign operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other foreign anti-bribery laws. Among other things, these laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from offering, promising or making payments to officials of foreign governments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business.

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Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Business
 
 


Other Information
 
Although our agreements with manufacturers sometimes require us to maintain inventory levels within specified ranges, our distribution businesses are generally not required by our customers to maintain particular inventory levels other than as needed to meet service level requirements. Certain supply contracts with U.S. government entities require us to maintain sufficient inventory to meet emergency demands, but we do not believe those requirements materially affect inventory levels.
 
Our customer return policies generally require that the product be physically returned, subject to restocking fees. We only allow customers to return products that can be added back to inventory and resold at full value, or that can be returned to vendors for credit.
We offer market payment terms to our customers.
Revenue and Long-Lived Assets by Geographic Area
 
See Note 16 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area.

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
30



Risk Factors
 
 


Risk Factors
The risks described below could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows. These are not the only risks we face. Our businesses also could be affected by risks that we are not presently aware of or that we currently consider immaterial to our operations.
We could continue to suffer the adverse effects of competitive pressures.
As described in greater detail in the "Business" section, we operate in markets that are highly competitive and dynamic. In addition, competitive pressures in our pharmaceutical and medical distribution may be increased by new business models, new entrants, new regulations, or changes in consumer demand.  Our businesses face continued pricing pressure from these factors, which adversely affects our margins. If we are unable to offset margin reductions caused by these pricing pressures through steps such as sourcing or cost control measures, additional service offerings and sales of higher margin products, our results of operations could continue to be adversely affected.
Our Pharmaceutical segment’s generic pharmaceutical program may continue to be adversely affected by pricing changes and fewer product launches.
The performance of our Pharmaceutical segment’s generic pharmaceutical program declined in fiscal 2018 and 2017 and is expected to decline in fiscal 2019.  The decline has been due to generic pharmaceutical customer pricing deflation and less benefit from new generic pharmaceutical launches, which have more than offset the benefits from sourcing generic pharmaceuticals through our Red Oak Sourcing venture with CVS.  If we continue to be unable to offset this decline, our Pharmaceutical segment profit and consolidated operating earnings will continue to be adversely affected.
The extent and magnitude of generic pharmaceutical pricing changes is uncertain in future fiscal years and may vary from what we anticipate. Similarly, the number of new generic pharmaceutical launches also varies from year to year, and the margin impact of these launches varies from product to product. Finally, the benefit from Red Oak Sourcing could be less than we anticipate.
CVS is a large customer that generates a significant amount of our revenue.
Our sales and credit concentration is significant. CVS accounted for 25 percent of our fiscal 2018 revenue and 22 percent of our gross trade receivable balance at June 30, 2018. Our pharmaceutical distribution agreements with CVS expire in June 2019. If CVS does not renew our agreements, renews our agreements at a reduced price or significantly reduces its purchases from us, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Changes in manufacturer approaches to pricing branded pharmaceutical products could have an adverse effect on our Pharmaceutical segment’s margins.
Our compensation under contractual arrangements with manufacturers for the purchase of branded pharmaceutical products is set as a percentage of the wholesale acquisition cost set by the manufacturer. Sales prices of branded pharmaceutical products to
 
our customers generally are a percentage discount from wholesale acquisition cost.
In recent years, pharmaceutical manufacturers have generally increased the wholesale acquisition cost of their branded pharmaceuticals each year. In May 2018, the U.S. government announced plans to, among other things, adopt policies to encourage manufacturers to limit increases in (or reduce) wholesale acquisition cost. If manufacturers change their historical approach to setting and increasing wholesale acquisition cost and we are unable to negotiate alternative ways to be compensated by manufacturers or customers for the value of our services, our Pharmaceutical segment profit and consolidated operating earnings could be adversely affected.
Our Pharmaceutical segment’s margins under a limited number of our distribution services agreements with branded pharmaceutical manufacturers are affected by prices established by the manufacturers.
Our distribution services agreements with branded pharmaceutical manufacturers generally provide that we receive fees from the manufacturers to compensate us for services we provide them.  Under a limited number of agreements, branded pharmaceutical price appreciation, which is determined by the manufacturers currently also serves as a part of our compensation. If manufacturers decide not to increase prices or to implement only small increases and we are unable to negotiate alternative ways to be compensated by manufacturers or customers for the value of our services, our margins could be adversely affected.
Our business is subject to rigorous regulatory and licensing requirements.
As described in greater detail in the "Business" section, our business is highly regulated in the United States, at both the federal and state level, and in foreign countries. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements, or if allegations are made that we fail to comply, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
To lawfully operate our businesses, we are required to obtain and hold permits, product registrations, licenses and other regulatory approvals from, and to comply with operating and security standards of, numerous governmental bodies. For example, as a wholesale distributor of controlled substances, we must hold valid DEA registrations and state-level licenses, meet various security and operating standards, and comply with the CSA. Failure to maintain or renew necessary permits, product registrations, licenses or approvals, or to comply with required standards, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Products that we manufacture, source, distribute or market must comply with regulatory requirements. Noncompliance or concerns over noncompliance may result in suspension of our ability to distribute, import or manufacture products, product bans, recalls or seizures, or criminal or civil sanctions, which, in turn, could result in product liability claims and lawsuits, including class actions. In addition, it can be costly and time-consuming to obtain regulatory approvals or product registrations to market a medical device, and

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Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Risk Factors
 
 


such approvals or registrations might not be granted on a timely basis, if at all.
We collect, handle and maintain patient-identifiable health information and other sensitive personal and financial information, which are subject to federal, state and foreign laws that regulate the use and disclosure of such information. Regulations currently in place continue to evolve, and new laws in this area could further restrict our ability to collect, handle and maintain personal or patient information, or could require us to incur additional compliance costs, either of which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Violations of federal, state or foreign laws concerning privacy and data protection could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, breach of contract claims, costs for remediation and harm to our reputation.
We are required to comply with laws relating to healthcare fraud and abuse. The requirements of these laws are complex and subject to varying interpretations, and it is possible that regulatory authorities could challenge our policies and practices. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to federal or state government investigations or qui tam actions (false claims cases initiated by private parties purporting to act on behalf of federal or state governments), which could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the loss of licenses or the ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs. Such sanctions and damages could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Some businesses within each of our segments are Medicare-certified suppliers or participate in other federal and state healthcare programs, such as state Medicaid program and the federal 340B drug pricing program. In addition, other businesses within each segment manufacture pharmaceutical or medical products or repackage pharmaceuticals that are purchased or reimbursed through, or are otherwise governed by, federal or state healthcare programs. Failure to comply with applicable eligibility requirements, standards and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the loss of our ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs.
Our government contracts are subject to specific procurement requirements. Failure to comply with applicable rules or regulations or with contractual or other requirements may result in monetary damages and criminal or civil penalties as well as termination of our government contracts or our suspension or debarment from government contract work.
Our global operations are required to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions and U.S. and foreign export control, trade embargo and customs laws. If we fail to comply with any of these laws, we could suffer civil or criminal sanctions.
We could be subject to adverse changes in the tax laws or challenges to our tax positions.
We are a large multinational corporation with operations in the United States and many foreign countries. As a result, we are subject to the tax laws of many jurisdictions.
 
The Tax Act was enacted in December 2017. The Tax Act, among other things, reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent and required companies to pay a one-time tax to repatriate, for U.S. purposes, earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously deferred for tax purposes. In addition, beginning in our fiscal year 2019, the Tax Act limits certain deductions and creates new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings. While we generally expect the impact of the Tax Act to be positive, it is possible that the limitation of certain deductions and the creation of new taxes could be more detrimental to us than anticipated.
From time to time, initiatives are proposed in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we operate that could adversely affect our tax positions, effective tax rate or tax payments. Specific initiatives that may impact us include the repeal of the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method of inventory accounting for income tax purposes, the establishment or increase in taxation at the U.S. state level on the basis of gross revenues, recommendations of the base erosion and profit shifting project undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Commission’s investigation into illegal state aid.
Tax laws are complex and subject to varying interpretations. Tax authorities have challenged some of our tax positions and it is possible that they will challenge others. These challenges may adversely affect our effective tax rate or tax payments.
Changes to the U.S. healthcare environment may not be favorable to us.
In recent years, the U.S. healthcare industry has undergone significant changes designed to increase access to medical care, improve safety and patient outcomes, contain costs and increase efficiencies. These changes include adoption of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a general decline in Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement levels, efforts by healthcare insurance companies to limit or reduce payments to pharmacies and providers, the basis for payments beginning to transition from a fee-for-service model to value-based payments and risk-sharing models, and the industry shifting away from traditional healthcare venues like hospitals and into clinics, physician offices and patients’ homes.
We expect the U.S. healthcare industry to continue to change significantly in the future. Possible changes include repeal and replacement of major parts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, further reduction or limitations on governmental funding at the state or federal level, efforts by healthcare insurance companies to further limit payments for products and services or changes in legislation or regulations governing prescription pharmaceutical pricing, healthcare services or mandated benefits. These possible changes, and the uncertainty surrounding these possible changes, may cause healthcare industry participants to reduce the amount of products and services they purchase from us or the price they are willing to pay for our products and services, which could adversely affect us.



 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
32



Risk Factors
 
 


Our business and operations depend on the proper functioning of information systems, critical facilities and distribution networks. Our business could be adversely affected if we experience a cyber-attack or other systems breach.
We rely on our and third-party service providers' information systems for a wide variety of critical operations, including to obtain, rapidly process, analyze and manage data to:
facilitate the purchase and distribution of inventory items from numerous distribution centers;
receive, process and ship orders on a timely basis;
manage accurate billing and collections for thousands of customers;
process payments to suppliers;
facilitate manufacturing and assembly of medical products; and
generate financial information.
Our business also depends on the proper functioning of our critical facilities, including our national logistics center, and our distribution networks. Our results of operations could be adversely affected if our or a service provider's information systems, critical facilities or distribution networks are disrupted (including disruption of access), are damaged or fail, whether due to physical disruptions, such as fire, natural disaster, pandemic or power outage, or due to cyber-security incidents, ransomware or other actions of third parties, including labor strikes, political unrest and terrorist attacks. Manufacturing disruptions also can occur due to regulatory action, production quality deviations, safety issues or raw material shortages or defects, or because a key product is manufactured at a single manufacturing facility with limited alternate facilities.
From time to time, our businesses perform business process improvements or infrastructure modernizations or use service providers for key systems and processes, such as receiving and processing customer orders, customer service and accounts payable. If any of these initiatives are not successfully or efficiently implemented or maintained, they could adversely affect our business and our internal control over financial reporting.
Our business relies on the secure transmission, storage and hosting of patient-identifiable health information, financial information and other sensitive information relating to our customers, company and workforce. We have programs in place to detect, contain and respond to information security incidents. However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, hardware, software or applications developed internally or procured from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties also may attempt to gain access to our or a service provider's systems or facilities through fraud, trickery or other forms of deception. Any compromise of our or a service provider's information systems, including unauthorized access to or use or disclosure of sensitive information, could adversely impact our operations, results of operations or our ability
 
to satisfy legal requirements, including those related to patient-identifiable health information and the new EU general data protection regulation (GDPR).
Consolidation in the U.S. healthcare industry may negatively impact our results of operations.
In recent years, U.S. healthcare industry participants, including distributors, manufacturers, healthcare providers, insurers and pharmacy chains, have consolidated or formed strategic alliances. Consolidations create larger enterprises with greater negotiating power, and also could result in the possible loss of a customer where the combined enterprise selects one distributor from two incumbents. If this consolidation trend continues, it could adversely affect our results of operations.
We may become involved in legal proceedings that could adversely impact our cash flows or results of operations.
Due to the nature of our business, which includes the distribution of controlled substances and the manufacture of medical products, we may from time to time become involved in disputes, litigation and regulatory matters. Litigation is inherently unpredictable and the unfavorable outcome of one or more of these legal proceedings could adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
For example, we are subject to a number of lawsuits and investigations related to the national health crisis involving the abuse of opioid pain medication as described below in the Risk Factor titled "The public health crisis involving the abuse of prescription opioid pain medication could negatively affect our business" and in Note 9 to the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Additionally, some of the products that we distribute or manufacture have been and may in the future be alleged to cause personal injury, subjecting us to product liability claims. For example, we are a defendant in product liability lawsuits that allege personal injuries associated with the use of Cordis OptEase and TrapEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter products. We have accrued an amount for losses and legal defense costs related to these lawsuits, which are discussed in Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements." Any settlement of or judgment for a product liability claim that is not covered by insurance and is in excess of any prior accruals could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We also operate in an industry characterized by extensive intellectual property litigation. Patent litigation can result in significant damage awards and injunctions that could prevent the manufacture and sale of affected products or force us to make royalty payments in order to continue selling the affected products.
The public health crisis involving the abuse of prescription opioid pain medication could negatively affect our business.
Our Pharmaceutical segment distributes prescription opioid pain medications. In recent years, the abuse of prescription opioid pain medication has received heightened public attention. These developments heighten a number of risks that we face and may present new risks that could adversely affect our operations or financial condition.

 33
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Risk Factors
 
 


A significant number of counties, municipalities and other plaintiffs, including a number of state attorneys general, have filed lawsuits against pharmaceutical manufacturers, pharmaceutical wholesale distributors (including us), retail chains and others relating to the manufacturing, marketing or distribution of prescription opioid pain medications. In addition, we are currently being investigated by about 40 other states for the same activities and may be named as a defendant in additional lawsuits in the future. We are vigorously defending ourselves in these lawsuits. The defense and resolution of current and future lawsuits could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition or have adverse reputational or operational effects on our business. See Note 9 of the "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" for more information regarding these matters.
Other legislative, regulatory or industry measures related to the public health crisis could affect our business in ways that we may not be able to predict. For example, in April 2018, the State of New York created an aggregate $100 million annual assessment on all manufacturers and distributors licensed to sell or distribute opioids in New York. In addition, legislation has been proposed in some states that, if enacted, could require distributors to pay taxes on the distribution of opioid medications in those states. These proposed bills vary in the tax amounts and the means of calculation. Liabilities for taxes or assessments under any such laws could have an adverse impact on our results of operations unless we are able to mitigate them through operational changes or commercial arrangements where permitted.
Unfavorable publicity regarding the abuse or misuse of prescription opioid pain medications and the role of wholesale distributors in the supply chain of such prescription medications, as well as the continued proliferation of the opioid lawsuits, investigations, regulations and legislative actions discussed above could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.
Our ability to manage and complete acquisitions and divestitures could impact our strategic objectives and financial condition.
An important element of our growth strategy has been to acquire other businesses that expand or complement our existing businesses. In fiscal 2018, we spent $6.1 billion to acquire other businesses including, in July 2017, the acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business from Medtronic for $6.1 billion and divested our China distribution business as well as our majority interest in naviHealth.
The acquisition of the Patient Recovery Business as well as other acquisitions involve the following risks: we may overpay for a business or fail to realize the synergies and other benefits we expect from the acquisition; our management’s attention may be diverted to integration efforts; we may fail to retain key personnel of the acquired business; future developments may impair the value of our purchased goodwill or intangible assets; we may face difficulties or delays establishing, integrating or combining operations and systems; we may assume liabilities related to legal proceedings involving the acquired business; we may face challenges retaining the customers
 
of the acquired business; or we may encounter unforeseen internal control, regulatory or compliance issues.
When we decide to sell assets or a business, we may encounter difficulty finding buyers or alternative exit strategies, which could delay the achievement of our strategic objectives. We could also experience greater dis-synergies than expected and the impact of the divestiture on our results of operations could be greater than anticipated.
We depend on certain suppliers to make their raw materials and products available to us and are subject to fluctuations in costs of raw materials and products.
We depend on the availability of various components, compounds, raw materials and energy supplied by others for our operations. In some instances, for reasons of quality assurance, cost effectiveness, or availability, we procure certain components and raw materials from a sole supplier. Any of our supplier relationships could be interrupted due to events beyond our control, including natural disasters, or could be terminated. In addition, due to the stringent regulations and requirements of the FDA regarding the manufacture of our products, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources for certain components or materials. A sustained supply reduction or interruption, and an inability to develop alternative sources for such supply, could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our manufacturing businesses use oil-based resins, pulp, cotton, latex and other commodities as raw materials in many products. Prices of oil and gas also affect our distribution and transportation costs. Prices of these commodities are volatile and can fluctuate significantly, causing our costs to produce and distribute our products to fluctuate. Due to competitive dynamics and contractual limitations, we may be unable to pass along cost increases through higher prices. If we cannot fully offset cost increases through other cost reductions, or recover these costs through price increases or surcharges, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our results of operations may suffer upon the bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of a customer that has a substantial amount owed to us.
Most of our customers buy products and services from us on credit, which is made available to customers based on our assessment of creditworthiness. The bankruptcy, insolvency or other credit failure of any customer that has a substantial amount owed to us could adversely affect our results of operations.
As a result of our international operations, we have exposure to economic, political and currency risks, including changes in tariffs.
We conduct our operations in various regions of the world outside of the United States, including Europe, Asia and Latin America. Global developments can affect our business in many ways. Our global operations are affected by local economic environments, including inflation, recession and competition. Additionally, divergent or unfamiliar regulatory systems and labor markets also can increase the risks and burdens of operating in numerous countries.
Changes or uncertainty in U.S. or foreign policy, including any changes or uncertainty with respect to U.S. or international trade

 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
34



Risk Factors
 
 


policies or tariffs, also can disrupt our global operations, as well as our customers and suppliers, in a particular location and may require us to spend more money to source certain products or materials that we purchase.
In addition, we conduct our business in U.S. dollars and various functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect our financial results, which are reported in U.S. dollars. We may not be able to hedge to protect us against these exposures, and any hedges may not successfully mitigate these exposures.
Our goodwill may be further impaired, which would require us to record a significant charge to earnings in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
U.S. GAAP requires us to test our goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if indicators for potential impairment exist. This year, as a result of the required annual test, we have
 
recorded a $1.4 billion impairment to goodwill within our Medical segment. The testing required by GAAP involves estimates and judgments by management. Although we believe our assumptions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate, any changes in key assumptions, including a failure to meet business plans or other unanticipated events and circumstances such as a rise in interest rates, may affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates. In addition to the impairment to goodwill in our Medical segment, it is possible that we may record significant charges related to other business units or we may record additional charges in our Medical segment, which charge or charges could adversely affect our results of operations. See "Critical Accounting Policies and Sensitive Accounting Estimates" in MD&A above for more information regarding goodwill impairment testing.

 35
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Properties and Legal Proceedings
 
 

Properties
In the United States and Puerto Rico, at June 30, 2018, the Pharmaceutical segment operated 24 primary pharmaceutical distribution facilities and one national logistics center; seven specialty distribution facilities; and more than 140 nuclear pharmacy and radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The Medical segment operated more than 70 medical-surgical distribution, assembly, manufacturing and other operating facilities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Our U.S. operating facilities are located in 45 states.
Outside the United States and Puerto Rico, at June 30, 2018, our Medical segment operated 25 facilities in Canada, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico and Thailand that engage in manufacturing, distribution or research.
 
At June 30, 2018, we owned more than 75 operating facilities and leased more than 200 operating facilities around the world. Our principal executive offices are headquartered in an owned building located at 7000 Cardinal Place in Dublin, Ohio.
We consider our operating properties to be in satisfactory condition and adequate to meet our present needs. However, we regularly evaluate operating properties and may make further additions and improvements or consolidate locations as we seek opportunities to expand or enhance the efficiency of our business.

Legal Proceedings
The legal proceedings described in Note 9 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" are incorporated in this "Legal Proceedings" section by reference.




 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
36



Market for Registrant's Common Equity
 
 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CAH.” The following table reflects the range of the reported high and low closing prices of our common shares as reported on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape and the per share dividends declared for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 and paid quarterly. It also reflects the range of the reported high and low closing prices of our common shares from July 1, 2018 through the period ended on July 31, 2018 and the per share dividends declared from July 1, 2018 through the period ended on July 31, 2018:
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends Declared
Fiscal 2017
 
 
 
 
 
Quarter Ended:
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2016
$
84.92

 
$
75.26

 
$
0.4489

December 31, 2016
76.71

 
65.17

 
0.4489

March 31, 2017
83.80

 
72.47

 
0.4489

June 30, 2017
82.71

 
71.18

 
0.4624

 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal 2018
 
 
 
 
 
Quarter Ended:
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
$
78.69

 
$
64.36

 
$
0.4624

December 31, 2017
68.24

 
55.00

 
0.4624

March 31, 2018
75.23

 
61.22

 
0.4624

June 30, 2018
65.82

 
48.83

 
0.4763

 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal 2019
$
50.80

 
$
48.80

 
$

At July 31, 2018 there were approximately 7,817 shareholders of record of our common shares.
We anticipate that we will continue to pay quarterly cash dividends in the future. The payment and amount of future dividends remain, however, within the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our future earnings, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased
as Part of Publicly Announced Programs (2)
 
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares That May
Yet be Purchased
Under the Programs (2)
(in millions)
April 2018
292

 
$
63.07

 

 
$
993

May 2018
449,113

 
52.22

 
448,675

 
970

June 2018
1,433,537

 
53.41

 
1,433,244

 
893

Total
1,882,942

 
$
53.13

 
1,881,919

 
$
893

(1)
Reflects 292, 438 and 293 common shares purchased in April, May and June 2018, respectively, through a rabbi trust as investments of participants in our Deferred Compensation Plan.
(2)
On February 7, 2018 our Board of Directors approved a $1.0 billion share repurchase program that expires on December 31, 2020. During the three months ended June 30, 2018, we repurchased two million common shares under this program at June 30, 2018. We have $893 million available under this program. On August 16, 2018 we entered into an ASR program to purchase shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $600 million and received an initial delivery of 9.5 million shares of common stock using a reference price of $50.45. The program is expected to conclude in the second quarter of fiscal 2019.

 37
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Market for Registrant's Common Equity
 
 

Five Year Performance Graph
The following line graph compares the cumulative total return of our common shares with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s Composite—500 Stock Index (the "S&P 500 Index") and the Standard & Poor's Composite—500 Healthcare Index (the "S&P 500 Healthcare Index"). The line graph assumes, in each case, an initial investment of $100 on June 30, 2013, based on the market prices at the end of each fiscal year through and including June 30, 2018, and reinvestment of dividends. The S&P 500 Index and S&P 500 Healthcare Index investments are weighted on the basis of market capitalization at the beginning of each period.
fiveyearperformancegraphv2.jpg
 
June 30
 
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Cardinal Health, Inc.
$
100.00

$
148.12

$
183.83

$
174.87

$
178.80

$
115.63

S&P 500 Index
100.00

124.60

133.84

139.17

164.06

187.62

S&P 500 Healthcare Index
100.00

130.09

161.53

158.26

177.99

190.64


 
Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
38


Reports
 
 


Management Reports
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We evaluated, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act")) as of June 30, 2018. Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of June 30, 2018 to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our reports under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control system is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, controls deemed effective now may become inadequate in the future because of changes in conditions, or because compliance with policies or procedures has deteriorated or been circumvented.
Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2018. In making this assessment, management used the criteria established in the Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the “COSO criteria”). Based on management’s assessment and the COSO criteria, management believes that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of June 30, 2018.
Our independent registered public accounting firm, Ernst & Young LLP, has issued a report on our internal control over financial reporting. Ernst & Young LLP’s report appears following this "Management Reports" section and expresses an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
On July 29, 2017, we completed the acquisition of the Patient Recovery business. As permitted by guidelines established by the SEC, management excluded the Patient Recovery business from the scope of its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2018. The Patient Recovery business constituted 17% and 11% of our total and net assets, respectively, as of June 30, 2018 and approximately 2% of our revenue for the fiscal year then ended.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended June 30, 2018 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


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Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 

Reports
 
 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cardinal Health, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited Cardinal Health, Inc. and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Cardinal Health, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2018, based on the COSO criteria.
As indicated in the accompanying “Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting,” management’s assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of the Patient Recovery Business, which is included in the 2018 consolidated financial statements of the Company and constituted 17% and 11% of total and net assets, respectively; as of June 30, 2018 and 2% of revenues for the year then ended. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of the Company also did not include an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of the Patient Recovery Business.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of Cardinal Health, Inc. and subsidiaries as of June 30, 2018 and 2017 and the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 30, 2018, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) and our report dated August 22, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying “Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.” Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
 
Grandview Heights, Ohio
August 22, 2018


 
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40


Reports
 
 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cardinal Health, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cardinal Health, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of June 30, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, shareholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 30, 2018, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at June 30, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 30, 2018, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated August 22, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2002.
Grandview Heights, Ohio
August 22, 2018


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Cardinal Health | Fiscal 2018 Form 10-K
 


Financial Statements
 
 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


 
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42



Financial Statements
 
 

Consolidated Statements of Earnings
(in millions, except per common share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
$
136,809

 
$
129,976

 
$