20-F 1 d194487d20f.htm ANNUAL REPORT ANNUAL REPORT
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016

OR

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from             to            

OR

¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report            

Commission file number 1-7628

 

HONDA GIKEN KOGYO KABUSHIKI KAISHA

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

JAPAN

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

No. 1-1, Minami-Aoyama 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8556, Japan

(Address of principal executive offices)

Narushi Yazaki, Honda North America, Inc.,

ir@hna.honda.com, (212)707-9920, 156 West 56th Street, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10019, U.S.A.

(Name, E-mail and/or Facsimile number, Telephone and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock*   New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

(Title of class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

Title of each class

 

Outstanding as of March 31, 2016

Common Stock   1,802,283,519**

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act,    Yes  x    No  ¨

If this report is an annual or transmission report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such file).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or, a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer “in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer    x            Accelerated filer  ¨      Non-accelerated filer  ¨            

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S.GAAP  ¨    International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  x    Other  ¨

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17  ¨    Item 18  ¨

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

* Not for trading purposes, but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares, each representing one share of Common Stock.
** Shares of Common Stock include 76,126,891 shares represented by American Depositary Shares.

 

 


Table of Contents

PART I

  

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

     1   

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

     1   

Item 3. Key Information

     1   

A. Selected Financial Data

     1   

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

     2   

C. Reason for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

     2   

D. Risk Factors

     2   

Item 4. Information on the Company

     7   

A. History and Development of the Company

     7   

B. Business Overview

     8   

C. Organizational Structure

     28   

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

     29   

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

     31   

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

     32   

A. Operating Results

     32   

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

     56   

C. Research and Development

     58   

D. Trend Information

     60   

E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

     60   

F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

     61   

G. Safe Harbor

     61   

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

     62   

A. Directors and Senior Management

     62   

B. Compensation

     75   

C. Board Practices

     76   

D. Employees

     76   

E. Share Ownership

     77   

Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

     77   

A. Major Shareholders

     77   

B. Related Party Transactions

     78   

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

     78   

Item 8. Financial Information

     78   

A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

     78   

B. Significant Changes

     80   

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

     80   

A. Offer and Listing Details

     80   

B. Plan of Distribution

     81   

C. Markets

     81   

D. Selling Shareholders

     81   

E. Dilution

     81   

F. Expenses of the Issue

     81   

Item 10. Additional Information

     81   

A. Share Capital

     81   

B. Memorandum and Articles of Association

     82   

C. Material Contracts

     90   

D. Exchange Controls

     90   

E. Taxation

     90   


Table of Contents

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

     94   

G. Statement by Experts

     94   

H. Documents on Display

     94   

I. Subsidiary Information

     95   

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk

     95   

Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

     96   

A. Debt Securities

     96   

B. Warrants and Rights

     96   

C. Other Securities

     96   

D. American Depositary Shares

     96   

PART II

  

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

     97   

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

     97   

Item 15. Controls and Procedures

     97   

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

     98   

Item 16B. Code of Ethics

     98   

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

     99   

Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

     100   

Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

     101   

Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

     101   

Item 16G. Corporate Governance

     101   

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure

     105   

PART III

  

Item 17. Financial Statements

     105   

Item 18. Financial Statements

     105   

Item 19. Exhibits

     106   


Table of Contents

PART I

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we”, “us”, “our”, “Registrant”, “Company” and “Honda” as used in this Annual Report each refer to Honda Motor Co., Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 3. Key Information

 

A. Selected Financial Data

 

The selected consolidated financial data set out below for each of the three fiscal years ended March 31, 2016 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements that were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”).

 

You should read the IFRS selected consolidated financial data set out below together with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report.

 

     Fiscal years ended March 31,  
     Yen (millions, except Per Share Data)  
     2014     2015     2016  

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

      

Sales revenue

   ¥ 12,506,091      ¥ 13,328,099      ¥ 14,601,151   

Operating profit

     823,864        670,603        503,376   

Share of profit of investments accounted for using the equity method

     130,916        96,097        126,001   

Profit before income taxes

     933,903        806,237        635,450   

Profit for the year

     665,911        561,098        406,358   

Profit for the year attributable to owners of the parent

     624,703        509,435        344,531   

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data:

      

Total assets

     16,048,438        18,425,837        18,229,294   

Financing liabilities, including current and non-current

     5,846,948        6,759,839        6,526,248   

Equity attributable to owners of the parent

     6,335,534        7,108,627        6,761,433   

Total equity

     6,558,928        7,382,821        7,031,788   

Common stock

     86,067        86,067        86,067   

Per Share Data:

      

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding

      

Basic and diluted (thousands of shares)

     1,802,294        1,802,289        1,802,285   

Earnings per share attributable to owners of the parent*1

      

Basic and diluted

   ¥ 346.62      ¥ 282.66      ¥ 191.16   

Dividends declared during the period per common share*2

     79.00        88.00        88.00   
     (US$0.77     (US$0.73     (US$0.78

 

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*1 

Earnings per share has been calculated by dividing profit for the year attributable to owners of the parent available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.

*2 

A year-end dividend of ¥22 ($0.20) per common share aggregating ¥39.6 billion ($352 million) relating to fiscal 2016 was determined by our Board of Directors in May 2016 and approved by our shareholders in June 2016. This dividend will be paid in June 2016. U.S. dollar amounts for dividends per share are translated from yen at the year-end exchange rate of each period.

 

The following table sets out information regarding the noon buying rates for yen in New York City as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York expressed in yen per $1.00 during the periods shown. On May 31, 2016, the noon buying rate was ¥110.75=$1.00. The average exchange rate for the period shown is the average of the month-end rates during the period.

 

     Noon Buying Rate  

Years ended or ending March 31,

   Average      Period end      High      Low  
     (Yen per $1.00)  

2012

     78.86         82.41         85.26         75.72   

2013

     83.26         94.16         96.16         77.41   

2014

     100.46         102.98         105.25         92.96   

2015

     110.78         119.96         121.50         101.26   

2016

     120.13         112.42         125.58         111.30   

2017 (through May 31, 2016)

     108.83         110.75         112.06         106.34   

Month,

                 High      Low  
                   (Yen per $1.00)  

December 2015

           123.52         120.27   

January 2016

           121.05         116.38   

February 2016

           121.06         111.36   

March 2016

           113.94         111.30   

April 2016

           112.06         106.90   

May 2016

           110.75         106.34   

 

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

 

C. Reason for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

D. Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. If any of the risks described below actually occurs, Honda’s business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In that event, the trading prices of Honda’s common shares and American Depositary Shares could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not currently known to Honda or that Honda now deems immaterial may also harm Honda and affect your investment.

 

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Risks Relating to Honda’s Industry

 

Honda may be adversely affected by market conditions

 

Honda conducts its operations in Japan and throughout the world, including North America, Europe and Asia. A sustained loss of consumer confidence in these markets, which may be caused by an extended economic slowdown, recession, changes in consumer preferences, rising fuel prices, financial crisis or other factors could trigger a decline in demand for motorcycles, automobiles and power products that may adversely affect Honda’s results.

 

Prices for products may fluctuate

 

Prices for motorcycles, automobiles and power products in certain markets may experience sharp changes over short periods of time. This volatility may be caused by various factors, including fierce competition, short-term fluctuations in demand caused by instability in underlying economic conditions, changes in tariffs, import regulations and other taxes, shortages of certain materials and parts, a steep rise in material prices and sales incentives. There is no guarantee that such price volatility will not continue for an extended period of time or that price volatility will not occur in markets that to date have not experienced such volatility.

 

Overcapacity within the industry has increased and will likely continue to increase if the economic downturn continues in Honda’s major markets, leading, potentially, to further increased price volatility. Price volatility in any of Honda’s markets could adversely affect Honda’s results.

 

Risks Relating to Honda’s Business in General

 

Currency and Interest Rate Risks

 

Honda’s operations are subject to currency fluctuations

 

Honda has manufacturing operations throughout the world, including Japan, and exports products and components to various countries.

 

Honda purchases materials and components and sells its products and components in foreign currencies. Therefore, currency fluctuations could affect Honda’s pricing of materials purchased and products sold. Accordingly, currency fluctuations have an effect on Honda’s results and financial condition, as well as Honda’s competitiveness, which will over time affect its results.

 

Legal and Regulatory Risks

 

Honda is subject to various governmental regulations

 

Honda conducts business operations in countries worldwide. As such, changes in regulations in these countries related to emissions, fuel economy, noise, vehicle safety, factory pollution levels, climate change or other factors could adversely affect Honda’s business, financial condition, or results.

 

Honda is reliant on the protection and preservation of its intellectual property

 

Honda owns or otherwise has rights in a number of patents and trademarks relating to the products it manufactures, which have been obtained over a period of years. These patents and trademarks have been of value in the growth of Honda’s business and will continue to be of value in the future. Honda does not regard any of its business operations as being dependent upon any single patent or related group of patents. However, an inability to protect this intellectual property generally, or the illegal infringement of some or a large group of Honda’s intellectual property rights, could have an adverse effect on Honda’s operations.

 

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Honda may be subject to legal proceedings

 

Honda could be subject to suits, various investigations and legal proceedings under relevant laws and regulations of various jurisdictions. A negative outcome in any such current or future legal proceedings brought against Honda could adversely affect Honda’s business, financial condition or results.

 

Risks Relating to Honda’s Operations

 

Honda’s Financial services business conducts business under highly competitive conditions in an industry with inherent risks

 

Honda’s Financial services business offers various financing plans to its customers designed to increase the opportunity for sales of its products. However, customers can also obtain financing for the lease or purchase of Honda’s products through a variety of other sources that compete with our financing services, including commercial banks and finance and leasing companies. The financial services offered by Honda involve credit risk as well as risks relating to lease residual values, cost of capital and access to funding. Competition for customers and/or these risks may affect Honda’s results.

 

Honda relies on external suppliers for the provision of certain raw materials and parts

 

Honda purchases raw materials and parts from numerous external suppliers, and relies on certain suppliers for some of the raw materials and parts which it uses in the manufacture of its products. Honda’s ability to continue to obtain these supplies in an efficient and cost-effective manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are outside of Honda’s control. These factors include the ability of its suppliers to provide a continued source of raw materials and parts and Honda’s ability to compete with other users in obtaining the supplies. In particular, the loss of a key supplier could affect our production and increase our costs.

 

Honda relies on business alliances and joint ventures with other companies

 

Honda engages in business operations through alliances and joint ventures with other companies in expectation of synergy effects and increased efficiency, or in accordance with requirements from the countries in which Honda conducts its businesses. However, if disagreements occur between the parties to an alliance or joint venture, or if an alliance or joint venture is changed or cancelled, it may have an adverse effect on Honda’s business, financial condition, or results.

 

Honda may be adversely affected by wars, terrorism, political uncertainty and labor strikes

 

Honda conducts business operations in countries worldwide and is exposed to risks including wars, terrorism, political uncertainty and labor strikes in those countries or neighboring regions. If such unforeseeable events occur, and operations are delayed or suspended, Honda’s business, financial condition, or results could be adversely affected.

 

Honda may be adversely affected by natural disasters

 

In order to minimize the impact on its business operations when events such as large-scale natural disasters, accidents, or the outbreak of infectious diseases occur, Honda conducts a risk evaluation of these events and constructs business continuity plans (BCPs) in each region. However, if operations are delayed or suspended due to the occurrence of disasters, accidents, or the outbreak of infectious diseases that exceed assumptions, Honda’s business, financial condition or results could be adversely affected.

 

Honda’s operations rely on information systems and networks

 

Honda uses a range of information systems and networks relating to information services and operational support in its business activities and its products, including in areas managed by subcontractors. To protect the

 

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confidentiality of information handled by these systems and networks, Honda implements a range of security measures both in hardware and software, such as building management systems including those of subcontractors, information-handling procedures and training of staff. However, there is a risk of leakage of confidential information, suspension of important operations and services, improper administrative processing, or destruction or alteration of important data or other adverse developments. These may be the result of external cyber-attacks, equipment malfunction, or management deficiencies and human error, as well as natural disasters, infrastructure failures, or other unforeseen events within Honda or at its subcontractors. In such cases, Honda’s business activities and performance could be adversely affected in terms of damage to its brand image or social reputation, liability to customers or parties affected, and a loss of Honda’s competitiveness.

 

Honda is subject to risks relating to its obligations to provide post-employment benefits

 

Honda has various pension plans and provides other post-employment benefits, in which the amount of benefits is basically determined based on the level of salary, service years, and other factors. Contributions are also regularly reviewed and adjusted as necessary to the extent permitted by laws and regulations. Defined benefit obligations and defined benefit costs are based on assumptions of many factors, including the discount rate and the rate of salary increase. Changes in assumptions could affect Honda’s defined benefit costs and obligations, including Honda’s cash requirements to fund such obligations in the future, which could materially affect Honda’s financial condition and results.

 

Honda’s success depends in part on the value of its brand image, which could be diminished by product defects

 

One of the important factors behind corporate sustainability is trust and support for the Honda brand from our customers, society and the communities in which Honda conducts business operations. With respect to the quality of our products, which serves as the pillar of our brand image, we recognize that our mainstay products provide personal mobility and touch human lives, so we place top priority on the safety and security of our customers and constantly strive to further enhance the quality of our development, production and service-related activities. However, if for some unforeseeable reason a product defect does occur, from the standpoint of assuring the safety and security of our customers, it is possible that Honda will issue a recall or take some other action considered to be appropriate. In such an event, the Honda brand image could be damaged and this could adversely impact Honda’s business operations as well as our results.

 

A holder of ADSs will have fewer rights than a shareholder has and such holder will have to act through the depositary to exercise those rights

 

The rights of shareholders under Japanese law to take various actions, including exercising voting rights inherent in their shares, receiving dividends and distributions, bringing derivative actions, examining a company’s accounting books and records, and exercising appraisal rights, are available only to holders of record. Because the depositary, through its custodian agents, is the record holder of the Shares underlying the ADSs, only the depositary can exercise those rights in connection with the deposited Shares. The depositary will make efforts to exercise votes regarding the Shares underlying the ADSs as instructed by the holders and will pay to the holders the dividends and distributions collected from the Company. However, in the capacity as an ADS holder, such holder will not be able to bring a derivative action, examine our accounting books or records or exercise appraisal rights through the depositary.

 

Rights of shareholders under Japanese law may be more limited than under the laws of other jurisdictions

 

The Company’s Articles of Incorporation, Regulations of the Board of Directors, Regulations of the Board of Corporate Auditors and the Company Law of Japan (the “Company Law”) govern corporate affairs of the Company. Legal principles relating to such matters as the validity of corporate procedures, directors’ and officers’ fiduciary duties, and shareholders’ rights may be different from those that would apply if the Company

 

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were a U.S. company. Shareholders’ rights under Japanese law may not be as extensive as shareholders’ rights under the laws of the United States. An ADS holder may have more difficulty in asserting his/her rights as a shareholder than such an ADS holder would as a shareholder of a U.S. corporation. In addition, Japanese courts may not be willing to enforce liabilities against the Company in actions brought in Japan that are based upon the securities laws of the United States or any U.S. state.

 

Because of daily price range limitations under Japanese stock exchange rules, a holder of ADSs may not be able to sell his/her shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a particular price on any particular trading day, or at all

 

Stock prices on Japanese stock exchanges are determined on a real-time basis by the equilibrium between bids and offers. These exchanges are order-driven markets without specialists or market makers to guide price formation. To prevent excessive volatility, these exchanges set daily upward and downward price fluctuation limits for each stock, based on the previous day’s closing price. Although transactions may continue at the upward or downward limit price if the limit price is reached on a particular trading day, no transactions may take place outside these limits. Consequently, an investor wishing to sell at a price above or below the relevant daily limit may not be able to sell his or her shares at such price on a particular trading day, or at all.

 

U.S. investors may have difficulty in serving process or enforcing a judgment against the Company or its directors, executive officers or corporate auditors

 

The Company is a limited liability, joint stock corporation incorporated under the laws of Japan. Most of its directors, executive officers and corporate auditors reside in Japan. All or substantially all of the Company’s assets and the assets of these persons are located in Japan and elsewhere outside the United States. It may not be possible, therefore, for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon the Company or these persons or to enforce against the Company or these persons judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the Federal securities laws of the United States. There is doubt as to the enforceability in Japan, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgment of U.S. courts, of liabilities predicated solely upon the Federal securities laws of the United States.

 

The Company’s shareholders of record on a record date may not receive the dividend they anticipate

 

The customary dividend payout practice and relevant regulatory regime of publicly listed companies in Japan may differ from that followed in foreign markets. The Company’s dividend payout practice is no exception. While the Company may announce forecasts of year-end and quarterly dividends prior to the record date, these forecasts are not legally binding. The actual payment of year-end dividends requires a resolution of the Company’s shareholders. If the shareholders adopt such a resolution, the year-end dividend payment is made to shareholders as of the applicable record date, which is currently specified as March 31 by the Company’s Articles of Incorporation. However, such a resolution of the shareholders is usually made at an ordinary general meeting of shareholders held in June. The payment of quarterly dividends requires a resolution of the Company’s Board of Directors. If the board adopts such a resolution, the dividend payment is made to shareholders as of the applicable record dates, which are currently specified as June 30, September 30 and December 31 by the Articles of Incorporation. However, the board usually does not adopt a resolution with respect to a quarterly dividend until after the respective record dates.

 

Shareholders of record as of an applicable record date may sell shares after the record date in anticipation of receiving a certain dividend payment based on the previously announced forecasts. However, since these forecasts are not legally binding and resolutions to pay dividends are usually not adopted until after the record date, our shareholders of record on record dates for year-end and quarterly dividends may not receive the dividend they anticipate.

 

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Cautionary statement with respect to forward looking statements in this Annual Report

 

This Annual Report includes “forward looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The forward looking statements included in this Annual Report are based on the current assumptions and beliefs of Honda in light of the information currently available to it, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause Honda’s actual results, performance, achievements or financial position to be materially different from any future results, performance, achievements or financial position expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors are generally set forth in Item 3.D “Risk Factors” and include, without limitation:

 

   

the political, economic and social conditions in Japan and throughout the world including North America, Europe and Asia, including economic slowdowns, recessions, changes in consumer preferences, rising fuel prices, financial crises and other factors, as well as the relevant governments’ specific policies with respect to economic growth, inflation, taxation, currency conversion, imports and sources of supplies and the availability of credit, particularly to the extent such current or future conditions and policies affect the automobile, motorcycle and power product industries and markets in Japan and other markets throughout the world in which Honda conducts its business, and the demand, sales volume and sales prices for Honda’s automobiles, motorcycles and power products;

 

   

the effects of competition in the automobile, motorcycle and power product markets on the demand, sales volume and sales prices for Honda’s automobiles, motorcycles and power products;

 

   

Honda’s ability to finance its working capital and capital expenditure requirements, including obtaining any required external debt or other financing;

 

   

the effects of economic stagnation or recession in Honda’s principal markets and of exchange rate and interest rate fluctuations on Honda’s results of operations; and

 

   

the effects of environmental and other governmental regulations and legal proceedings.

 

Honda undertakes no obligation and has no intention to publicly update any forward looking statement after the date of this Annual Report. Investors are advised to consult any further disclosures by Honda in its subsequent filings pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Item 4. Information on the Company

 

A. History and Development of the Company

 

Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is a limited liability, joint stock corporation incorporated on September 24, 1948 under the Commercial Code of Japan as Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha. It was formed as a successor to the unincorporated enterprise established in 1946 by the late Soichiro Honda to manufacture motors for motorized bicycles.

 

Since its establishment, Honda has remained on the leading edge by creating new value and providing products of the highest quality at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction. Honda develops, manufactures and markets motorcycles, automobiles and power products globally.

 

Honda’s principal executive office is located at 1-1, Minami-Aoyama 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-8556, Japan. Its telephone number is +81-3-3423-1111.

 

Principal Capital Investments

 

In the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016, Honda’s capital expenditures were ¥2,168.3 billion, ¥2,579.2 billion and ¥2,860.6 billion, respectively, on an accrual basis. Also, capital

 

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expenditures excluding those with respect to equipment on operating leases were ¥957.6 billion, ¥898.0 billion and ¥893.1 billion, respectively, on an accrual basis. For further details of Honda’s capital expenditures during fiscal 2016, see Item 4.D “Property, Plants and Equipment” of this Annual Report.

 

B. Business Overview

 

General

 

Honda’s business segments are the Motorcycle business operations, Automobile business operations, Financial services business operations, and Power product and other businesses operations.

 

The following tables show the breakdown of Honda’s revenue from external customers by category of business and by geographical markets based on the location of the customer for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

 

    Fiscal years ended March 31,  
        2014             2015             2016      
    Yen (billions)  

Motorcycle Business

  ¥ 1,689.2      ¥ 1,846.6      ¥ 1,805.4   

Automobile Business

    9,178.7        9,603.3        10,625.4   

Financial Services Business

    1,326.0        1,555.5        1,835.6   

Power Product and Other Businesses

    312.0        322.5        334.7   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

  ¥ 12,506.0      ¥ 13,328.0      ¥ 14,601.1   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
    Fiscal years ended March 31,  
        2014             2015             2016      
    Yen (billions)  

Japan

  ¥ 1,920.1      ¥ 1,800.4      ¥ 1,754.1   

North America

    6,160.3        6,837.6        8,114.1   

Europe

    674.2        655.3        693.5   

Asia

    2,584.0        2,899.0        3,124.0   

Other Regions

    1,167.3        1,135.6        915.2   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

  ¥ 12,506.0      ¥ 13,328.0      ¥ 14,601.1   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

Motorcycle Business

 

In 1949, Honda began mass production of motorcycles with the Dream D-Type, followed by other models such as the Benly and the Cub F-Type. By 1957, Honda became the top Japanese manufacturer in terms of motorcycle production volume. Honda expanded its business overseas by establishing American Honda Motor Co., Inc. in the United States in 1959. Honda first started overseas production in Belgium in 1963.

 

Honda produces a wide range of motorcycles, with engine displacement ranging from the 50cc class to the 1800cc class. Honda’s motorcycles use internal combustion engines developed by Honda that are air- or water-cooled, four-cycle, and are in single, two, four or six-cylinder configurations. Honda’s motorcycle line consists of sports (including trial and moto-cross racing), business and commuter models. Honda also produces a range of off-road vehicles, including all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and side-by-side (SxS).

 

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The following table sets out unit sales for Honda’s Motorcycle business, including motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and revenue from Motorcycle business, and the breakdown by geographical markets based on the location of the customer for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

 

    Fiscal years ended March 31,  
    2014     2015     2016  
    Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue  
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
 

Japan

    226        226      ¥ 79.5        199        199      ¥ 72.4        180        180      ¥ 66.8   

North America

    278        278        141.3        286        286        154.7        308        308        186.0   

Europe

    166        166        102.8        191        191        116.9        204        204        125.0   

Asia

    14,534        7,858        894.0        15,345        8,478        1,050.4        15,133        8,650        1,107.6   

Other Regions

    1,804        1,804        471.4        1,571        1,571        451.9        1,230        1,230        319.7   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    17,008        10,332      ¥ 1,689.2        17,592        10,725      ¥ 1,846.6        17,055        10,572      ¥ 1,805.4   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Motorcycle revenue as a percentage of total sales revenue

        14         14         12

 

* 

Honda Group Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed products of Honda, its consolidated subsidiaries and its affiliates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method. Consolidated Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed products corresponding to consolidated sales revenue to external customers, which consists of unit sales of completed products of Honda and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

See Item 4. D. “Property, Plants and Equipment” for information regarding principal manufacturing facilities.

 

For further information on recent operations and a financial review of the Motorcycle business, see “Operating Results” in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”.

 

Automobile Business

 

Honda started Automobile business operations in 1963 with the T360 mini truck and the S500 small sports car models. Honda subsequently launched a series of mass-production models including the Civic in 1972 and the Accord in 1976, which established a base for its Automobile business. In 1969, production of the mini vehicles N600 and TN600 began in Taiwan using component parts sets. In 1982, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to begin local automobile production in the United States (with the Accord model) and later conducted local development and expanded production activities to include light truck models. In 1986, the Acura Brand was established and an exclusive sales network was launched in the United States.

 

Honda’s vehicles use gasoline engines of three, four or six-cylinder configurations, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrid systems and gasoline-electric plug-in hybrid systems. Honda also offers other alternative fuel-powered vehicles such as ethanol, battery electric and fuel cell vehicles.

 

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Honda’s principal automobile products include the following vehicle models:

 

Passenger cars:

 

Accord, Accord Hybrid, Amaze, Brio, Brio Amaze, Brio Satya, City, Civic, Civic Tourer, Civic Type R, Crider, CR-Z, Fit/Jazz, Fit/Jazz Hybrid, Freed, Freed Hybrid, Freed Spike, Freed Spike Hybrid, Grace, Grace Hybrid, Greiz, Honda Mobilio, Insight, Jade, Jade Hybrid, Legend Hybrid, Mobilio, Shuttle, Shuttle Hybrid, Spirior, Acura ILX, Acura RLX, Acura TLX

 

Light trucks:

 

BR-V, Crosstour, CR-V, Elysion, Odyssey, Odyssey Hybrid, Pilot, Step WGN, Vezel/HR-V, Vezel Hybrid, XR-V, Acura MDX, Acura RDX

 

Mini vehicles:

 

Acty, N-BOX, N-BOX +, N-BOX Slash, N-ONE, N-WGN, S660, Vamos

 

The following table sets out Honda’s unit sales of automobiles and revenue from Automobile business and the breakdown by geographical markets based on the location of the customer for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

 

    Fiscal years ended March 31,  
    2014     2015     2016  
    Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales*
    Consolidated
Unit Sales*
    Revenue  
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
    Units
(thousands)
    Yen
(billions)
 

Japan

    818        788      ¥ 1,677.5        761        696      ¥ 1,526.0        668        614      ¥ 1,439.9   

North America

    1,754        1,754        4,723.3        1,750        1,750        5,199.0        1,929        1,929        6,186.7   

Europe

    171        171        493.0        161        161        456.5        172        172        491.2   

Asia

    1,311        531        1,641.5        1,426        637        1,795.7        1,723        670        1,962.5   

Other Regions

    286        286        643.2        269        269        625.9        251        251        544.9   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    4,340        3,530      ¥ 9,178.7        4,367        3,513      ¥ 9,603.3        4,743        3,636      ¥ 10,625.4   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Automobile revenue as a percentage of total sales revenue

        73         72         73

 

* 

Honda Group Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed products of Honda, its consolidated subsidiaries and its affiliates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method. Consolidated Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed products corresponding to consolidated sales revenue to external customers, which consists of unit sales of completed products of Honda and its consolidated subsidiaries. Certain sales of automobiles that are financed with residual value type auto loans by our Japanese finance subsidiaries and sold through our consolidated subsidiaries are accounted for as operating leases in conformity with IFRS and are not included in consolidated sales revenue to the external customers in our Automobile business. Accordingly, they are not included in Consolidated Unit Sales, but are included in Honda Group Unit Sales of our Automobile business.

 

See Item 4. D. “Property, Plants and Equipment” for information regarding principal manufacturing facilities.

 

For further information on recent operations and a financial review of the Automobile business, see “Operating Results” in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”.

 

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Financial Services Business

 

We offer a variety of financial services to our customers and dealers through finance subsidiaries in countries including Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil and Thailand, with the aim of providing sales support for our products. The services of these subsidiaries include retail lending, leasing to customers and other financial services, such as wholesale financing to dealers.

 

The following table sets out Honda’s revenue from Financial services business and the breakdown by geographical markets based on the location of the customer for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

 

     Fiscal years ended March 31,  
         2014             2015             2016      
     Yen (billions)  

Japan

   ¥ 77.1      ¥ 119.7      ¥ 162.0   

North America

     1,198.3        1,376.2        1,619.2   

Europe

     14.1        14.2        14.4   

Asia

     8.0        12.1        12.6   

Other Regions

     28.2        33.1        27.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   ¥ 1,326.0      ¥ 1,555.5      ¥ 1,835.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Financial Services revenue as a percentage of total sales revenue

     11     12     13

 

For further information on recent operations and a financial review of the Financial services business, see “Operating Results” in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”.

 

Power Product and Other Businesses

 

Honda’s Power product business began in 1953 with the introduction of the model H, its first general purpose engine. Since then, Honda has manufactured a variety of power products including general-purpose engines, generators, water pumps, lawn mowers, riding mowers, grass cutters, brush cutters, tillers, snow blowers, outboard marine engines, power carriers, sprayers, pressure washers, and cogeneration* units.

 

In Other Businesses, in December 2015, Honda began deliveries of the HondaJet aircraft.

 

* 

Cogeneration refers to the multiple applications of energy derived from a single source, such as using the heat supplied during the combustion process that drives an engine for other heating or cooling purposes.

 

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The following table sets out Honda’s revenue from Power product and other businesses and the breakdown by geographical markets based on the location of the customer for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

 

     Fiscal years ended March 31,  
     2014     2015     2016  
     Honda Group
Unit Sales /
Consolidated
Unit Sales*
     Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales /
Consolidated
Unit Sales*
     Revenue     Honda Group
Unit Sales /
Consolidated
Unit Sales*
     Revenue  
     Units
(thousands)
     Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
     Yen
(billions)
    Units
(thousands)
     Yen
(billions)
 

Japan

     314       ¥ 85.8        338       ¥ 82.1        363       ¥ 85.2   

North America

     2,719         97.3        2,705         107.6        2,811         122.0   

Europe

     1,031         64.1        1,091         67.5        1,008         62.8   

Asia

     1,485         40.3        1,382         40.6        1,349         41.2   

Other Regions

     469         24.4        467         24.5        434         23.1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     6,018       ¥ 312.0        5,983       ¥ 322.5        5,965       ¥ 334.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Power Product and Other businesses revenue as a percentage of total sales revenue

        2        2        2

 

* 

Honda Group Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed power products of Honda, its consolidated subsidiaries and its affiliates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method. Consolidated Unit Sales is the total unit sales of completed power products corresponding to consolidated sales revenue to external customers, which consists of unit sales of completed power products of Honda and its consolidated subsidiaries. In Power product business, there is no discrepancy between Honda Group Unit Sales and Consolidated Unit Sales since no affiliate and joint venture accounted for using the equity method was involved in the sale of Honda power products.

 

For further information on recent operations and a financial review of the Power product and other businesses, see “Operating Results” in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”.

 

Marketing and Distribution

 

Most of Honda’s products are distributed under the Honda trademarks in Japan and/or in overseas markets.

 

Sales and Service—Japan

 

Sales of Honda motorcycles, automobiles, and power products in Japan are made through different distribution networks comprised primarily of independent retail dealers.

 

Motorcycles are distributed through outlets, including “PRO’S” shops and Honda Dream authorized dealerships. Automobiles and power products are distributed in Japan through retail dealers. A number of small power product engines are also sold to other manufacturers for use in their products.

 

Sales of spare parts and after sales services are mainly provided through retail dealers.

 

Sales and Service—Overseas

 

In fiscal 2016, approximately 98% of Honda’s overseas sales were made through its principal foreign sales subsidiaries, which distribute Honda’s products to local wholesalers and retail dealers.

 

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Honda mainly markets its motorcycles, automobiles and power products through a sales network of independent local dealers. Most dealers sell one type of product, but some motorcycle and automobile dealers also sell power products. The largest regional markets for Honda motorcycles, automobiles (including the Acura brand) and power products by Honda group unit sales are Asia, North America and North America, respectively.

 

Honda provides its overseas operations, joint venture firms, independent distributors and licensees with spare parts and necessary technical information, which they in turn supply to wholesale or retail dealers, either directly or through one or more spare parts distributors.

 

Components and Parts, Raw Materials and Sources of Supply

 

Honda manufactures the major components and parts used in its products, including engines, frames and transmissions. Other components and parts, such as shock absorbers, electrical equipment and tires, are purchased from numerous suppliers. The principal raw materials used by Honda are steel plate, aluminum, special steels, steel tubes, paints, plastics and zinc, which are purchased from several suppliers. The most important raw material purchased is steel plate, accounting for approximately 42% of Honda’s total purchases of raw materials.

 

No single supplier accounted for more than 5% of the Company’s purchases of major components and parts and principal raw materials during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016.

 

Ordinarily, Honda does not have and does not anticipate having any difficulty in obtaining its required materials from suppliers and considers its contracts and business relations with the suppliers to be satisfactory. The Company does not believe any of its Japanese domestic suppliers are substantially more dependent on foreign suppliers than Japanese suppliers generally. However, it should be noted that Japanese industry in general is heavily dependent on foreign suppliers for substantially all of its raw materials.

 

Seasonality

 

Honda’s Motorcycle and Power product businesses have historically experienced some seasonality. However, this seasonality has not generally been material to our financial results.

 

Environmental and Safety Regulation

 

Honda is subject to various government regulations, including environmental and safety regulations for automobiles, motorcycles and power products. Such regulations relate to items such as emissions, fuel economy, recycling and safety and have had, and are expected to continue to have, material effects on Honda’s business. Honda has incurred significant compliance and other costs in connection with such regulations and will incur future compliance and other costs for new and upcoming regulations. Relevant environmental and safety regulations are described below.

 

Outline of Environmental and Safety Regulation for Automobiles

 

1. Emissions

 

Japan

 

In March 2008, to strengthen the enforcement of laws, the 2009 Exhaust Emission Standards were created after the passage of long-term regulation. Long-term targets for gasoline vehicles remained unchanged except those for direct injection gasoline vehicles, which were also required to meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. New long-term emissions targets for diesel vehicles were lowered by more than 60% from the 2005 level of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and PM standards.

 

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In 2010, the Central Environmental Council in the Ministry of Environment reviewed the current JC08 mode for emission testing and began to consider the introduction of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP). In 2015, the Central Environmental Council of Ministry of Environment decided to introduce WLTP.

 

The United States

 

Increasingly stringent emission regulations under the Clean Air Act have been enacted since the 1990s by the U.S. federal government.

 

Under the Clean Air Act, the State of California is permitted to establish its own emission control standards to the extent they are more stringent than federal standards. Pursuant to this authority, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the California Low Emission Vehicle Program in 1990, aiming to establish the strictest emission regulations in the world.

 

In March 2009, the CARB finalized the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulation to require 7,500 Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) in the entire industry instead of the previous requirement of 2,500 FCV. In addition, manufacturers were required to sell a significant number of Enhanced Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicles (Enhanced AT-PZEV) in the market after the 2012 model year.

 

In August 2012, the CARB issued the Advanced Clean Car package of regulations, which included amendments to the California Low Emission Vehicle Program III (LEV III) and ZEV regulations. The LEV III regulation, which applies to 2015 and subsequent model years, tightened limits on emissions and evaporative emissions. The ZEV regulation was revised so that requirements could be satisfied by TZEV (formerly, Enhanced AT-PZEV) and ZEV alone for 2018 and subsequent model years. Also, for 2018 and subsequent model years, the credit value eligible for each ZEV category was decreased drastically, which consequently increases the required sales volume dramatically. The BEVx category, which includes battery electric vehicles with auxiliary power units, was also added as a ZEV category. Currently, many states have adopted California LEV III and ZEV regulations.

 

In March 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized Tier 3 regulation, the federal emission and fuel standards. Tier 3 requires gasoline fuels at a pump to have an average sulfur content of 10 parts-per-million, which is already implemented in Europe and Japan. It also sets exhaust and evaporative emission standards equivalent to California LEV III. In other words, it enables auto manufacturers to sell some of the same vehicles they sell in California in states that have not adopted LEV III.

 

In October 2015, the CARB issued the Final Statement Of Reasons for rulemaking (FSOR), to amend the current LEV III regulation in order to align its standards further with the finalized federal Tier 3 regulation.

 

Europe

 

In 2005, the European Union created new emission standards (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and comprehensive requirements for gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles. Euro 5 was implemented in September 2009. Emission limits for gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were further lowered compared to the Euro 4 level for hydro-carbons (HC), NOx and PM. PM mass emission standards apply only to vehicles with direct injection engines.

 

Additionally, Euro 5 required limits on particle number emissions from diesel vehicles, and implemented new test measurements for PM mass emissions from gasoline vehicles with direct injection engines and diesel vehicles in and after September 2011.

 

The Euro 6 regulation was implemented in September 2014. Emission limits for diesel vehicles will be lowered even more than the Euro 5 levels for NOx and THC plus NOx. Additionally, Euro 6 required limits on

 

14


Table of Contents

particle numbers from gasoline vehicles with direct injection engines. The required ethanol density of test fuel will also be increased, starting from September 2016.

 

The European Commission proposed the transition from New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) to World Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC) beginning from September 2017.

 

The European Commission implemented regulations regarding the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) using Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The monitoring phase started from April 2016 and RDE testing with emission limits starts from September 2017.

 

Russia

 

The Euro 4 regulation has been in effect from January 2010. Additionally, the Euro 5 regulation was implemented in January 2014.

 

Russia, together with Kazakhstan and Belarus, formed a Customs Union. Euro 5 was introduced from January 2015 to the Customs Union. Implementation for the Kyrgyz Republic started from February 2016 and for Armenia will start from January 2020.

 

China

 

China adopted Step 3 and Step 4 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles in 2005. These regulations are similar to European regulations (such as Euro 3 and Euro 4). Step 3 was implemented in 2007 and Step 4 was implemented in July 2010. In addition, China has promulgated rules to implement Step 5 emission regulations in 2017, based on Euro 5.

 

In the city of Beijing, Step 4 was implemented in March 2008 and Step 5 was implemented in February 2013. In addition, the city of Beijing is considering the introduction of Step 6 emission regulations in December 2017.

 

From the standpoint of reducing dependence on foreign sources of crude oil and reducing air pollution, which have become serious problems, the Chinese government has implemented various infrastructure projects and subsidy policies and has been preparing the relevant National Standards and their Certification System in order to encourage broad use of new energy vehicles such as electric vehicle (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV).

 

Other Regions

 

Several other Asian countries have adopted regulations which are similar to the European regulations (such as Euro 2 and Euro 3). Some of these countries are considering the introduction of Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6.

 

Australia implemented Euro 5-equivalent regulations in November 2013. In addition, Australia plans to introduce Euro 6-equivalent regulations from July 2017.

 

Ukraine is scheduled to implement Euro 6 from January 2018.

 

Turkey implemented Euro 6 from January 2016.

 

Bolivia is scheduled to implement Euro 4 regulation in August 2016.

 

Peru is scheduled to implement Tier 2 and Euro 4 in January 2017.

 

Uruguay is considering the introduction of Euro 4 and Tier 2 in January 2018.

 

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Table of Contents

2. Fuel Economy / CO2

 

Japan

 

In 2005, discussions about the “POST-2010” standard took place among the applicable ministries and industries. In February 2007, the final “POST-2010” target, or the “2015 standard”, was announced. Fuel consumption will be reduced by 29.2% compared to the 2010 target for passenger cars.

 

In June 2010, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) jointly established a committee and commenced a study to formulate new fuel economy standards for passenger motor vehicles for 2020. The new standards were announced in March 2013. The next term fuel economy standards improve the 2015 standards by 19.6% and adopt the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) calculation method.

 

Fuel specifications for E10 fuel, which is gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, were revised and included in the April 2012 announcement setting forth the details of safety standards under the Road Transport Vehicle Law. Ethanol blended fuel is a “biomass fuel”. Biomass fuel is regarded as an effective countermeasure for CO2 reduction. CO2 emissions after burning ethanol fuel produced with biomass resources (such as plants or wood) are not counted as CO2 emissions under the Kyoto Protocol.

 

In 2015, MLIT and METI examined the new fuel economy standards for small commercial vehicles.

 

WLTC mode is going to be introduced into fuel economy standards from autumn, 2018.

 

The United States

 

The Federal Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires automobile manufacturers to comply with the CAFE standards. Under the CAFE standards, manufacturers are subject to substantial penalties if automobiles produced by them in any model year do not meet the average standards for each category.

 

In March 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the CAFE regulation standard for passenger cars and light trucks for the 2011 model year. The CAFE standard calculation of passenger cars and light trucks for the 2011 model year use a footprint prescribed in the CAFE regulation issued in 2006. The industry-wide combined average for the 2011 model year was estimated to be 27.3 mpg.

 

The EPA and the NHTSA jointly finalized the U.S. federal Green House Gas (GHG) regulation from the 2012 model year in accordance with President Obama’s announcement. The standard for the 2016 model year is 250 g-CO2/mile, or a 35.5 mpg industry average. In addition, a manufacturer is also deemed to comply with CARB GHG regulation if the manufacturer complies with EPA-GHG, based on an agreement among the White House, the CARB and the industry.

 

In March 2008, the EPA denied California’s GHG regulation waiver request. On January 26, 2009, President Obama announced that he had directed the EPA to review California’s waiver request. The EPA approved the waiver on July 8, 2009 because the CARB promised that a manufacturer was also deemed to comply with CARB GHG regulation if the manufacturer complied with EPA-GHG from the 2012 through 2016 model years.

 

On May 21, 2010, President Obama ordered the NHTSA and the EPA to extend the National Program for cars and light-duty trucks to the 2017 model year and beyond with the support of the CARB. On October 1, 2010, the NHTSA, the EPA, and the CARB gave the notice of their intent to conduct joint rulemaking to establish 2017 and later model year fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards. The NHTSA and EPA issued a regulation in August 2012 regarding GHG / CAFE regulations from the 2017 through 2025 model years. The standard for the 2025 model year is 163 g-CO2/mile or a 54.5 mpg industry average. The CARB also issued a regulation that is

 

16


Table of Contents

almost equivalent to the EPA’s GHG regulations in August 2012. In December 2012, the CARB amended its GHG regulation so that a manufacturer is also deemed to comply with CARB GHG regulations if it complies with EPA-GHG from the 2017 through 2025 model years.

 

Europe

 

In 2008, the European parliament adopted CO2 regulations in response to concerns related to possible global climate changes. The adopted CO2 regulations were published by the Official Journal in June 2009.

 

Pursuant to the CO2 regulations, the European Commission set a more stringent target of 130 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer for new passenger cars offered for sale in the EU from 2012. In addition, the CO2 regulations provided manufacturers with the necessary incentive to reduce the CO2 emissions of their vehicles by imposing an excess emissions premium if their average emission levels are above the limit value curve. This premium is based on the number of grams per kilometer (g/km) that an average vehicle sold by the manufacturer exceeding the limit imposed by the curve, multiplied by the number of vehicles sold by the manufacturer.

 

In 2014, a new regulation was issued, requiring more stringent regulation that targets 95 g/km of CO2 for 2020.

 

The European Commission is planning to replace the current European type-approval procedure for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of cars based on NEDC with new WLTC and WLTP in 2017.

 

China

 

China adopted a fuel consumption regulation for passenger vehicles in 2004. Step 1 of this regulation was implemented in 2005, Step 2 was implemented in 2008 and Step 3 was implemented in 2012. In addition, China

will implement Step 4 in 2016.

 

Other Regions

 

India has promulgated rules to introduce fuel economy / CO2 regulations in 2017 and 2022 in a phased manner.

 

Australia is considering introducing fuel economy / CO2 regulations.

 

Taiwan introduced corporate average fuel consumption regulations.

 

Mexico introduced a proposal for fuel economy / CO2 regulations for the 2017 through 2021 model years.

 

3. Recycling / End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) / REACH

 

Japan

 

Japan enacted the Automobile Recycling Law in July 2002, which required manufacturers to take back air bags, fluorocarbon and shredder residue derived from end-of-life vehicles (ELV), which became effective on January 1, 2005. ELV processing costs are collected from owners of cars currently in use and purchasers of new cars.

 

Europe

 

On December 30, 2006, the European Union adopted the Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), which became effective on June 1, 2007.

 

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From June 1, 2008, any manufacturer or importer of chemical substances is required to submit a registration to the European Chemicals Agency, based on annual production or import quantity levels. Submitting a pre-registration between June 1 and December 1, 2008 will allow the manufacturer or importer to extend the deadline for submitting the registration for existing chemical substances. The list of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) is amended periodically to include new substances. Upon a request by a consumer, a supplier of a product containing SVHC must provide the consumer with sufficient information, including at least the name of the substance, within 45 days.

 

On February 18, 2011, the first set of substances which require authorization for use after specified dates were announced. Manufacturers using these substances in Europe must either be authorized for use after submitting an application or use substitute substances. Substances which require authorization will be added periodically.

 

Other Regions

 

Taiwan and Korea implemented automobile recycling laws on January 1, 2008, following the regulations established by the European Union and Japan. Turkey also implemented automobile recycling laws on December 12, 2010, following the regulations established by the European Union. In addition, China, Vietnam, India and Russia each have a plan to implement automobile recycling laws in the near future.

 

4. Safety

 

United Nations

 

From 2014, under WP29 (World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations), the ITS / AD Informal Working Group has been discussing the issue of Intelligent Transport System and Automated Driving. Current main discussion issues are “definition of each technical level (partially—fully automated driving) of automated driving”, “cyber security”, “privacy protection principles” and “amendment of current road traffic law”.

 

Japan

 

In November 2007, the MLIT issued safety standards, which have been applicable from July 1, 2012, for vehicles which use high voltage electric power such as electric vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles, to avoid electric shocks during normal operations and post-crash. Furthermore, in 2011, they adopted Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) R100, which was amended to incorporate the Japanese electrical safety standard.

 

Japan Automobile Standards Internationalization Center (JASIC), which is organized by the MLIT and Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA), among others, has started to review a proposal for the unification of Safety/Environment Standards, vehicle categories and certification in order to promote further internationalization of standards and certifications. JASIC made the proposal to other contracting parties of the 58 / 98 Agreement in 2009 and aims at reaching an agreement among the contracting parties by 2017.

 

In January 2010, the MLIT started preparing a guideline for noise measurements regarding the danger of hybrid vehicles remaining silent and also started studying how to regulate this.

 

In March 2010, in a session of the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Japan proposed the establishment of “a mutual certification system of international vehicle type certifications”, which was agreed upon.

 

In March 2010, an accident in the Unites States caused by sudden unintended acceleration prompted the MLIT to consider introducing a “brake-override system”.

 

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In May 2011, the MLIT introduced a pedestrian leg protection standard, adopting, for the first time in the world, a flexible leg impactor that features an improved biomechanism. The impactor has been designed to better match with the human body structure and its characteristics.

 

In August 2013, the MLIT adopted UN R121, which regulates the location and identification of controls, tell-tales and indicators.

 

In November 2013, the MLIT adopted UN R125, which regulates front visibility of the motor vehicle driver.

 

In January 2015, the MLIT adopted UN R21, which regulates interior fittings.

 

In January 2015, the MLIT adopted UN R127, which regulates pedestrian safety performance.

 

In June 2015, the MLIT adopted UN R135, which regulates protection of passengers from a lateral pole crash.

 

In June 2015, the MLIT adopted UN R34, which regulates vehicle fire prevention.

 

In October 2015, the MLIT adopted UN R117, which regulates exterior noise of tires, the frictional force on wet road surfaces and rolling resistance.

 

To achieve the highest level of traffic safety in Japan, MLIT developed a strategy to introduce fully automated driving in the latter half of the 2020’s. To develop harmonized regulations for automated driving, MLIT is joining ITS / AD Informal Working Group under WP29 of United Nations. MLIT is co-chairman of Informal Working Group together with the United Kingdom.

 

The United States

 

In June 2008, the NHTSA issued a final rule to revise some performance requirements and phase-in compliance schedules for upgraded side impact occupant protection standards. For both the moving deformable barrier test and the oblique side pole impact test, manufacturers have had to comply with the revised requirements for 20% of all vehicles produced by 2010, 40% by 2011, 60% by 2012, 80% by 2013 and 100% by 2014.

 

In May 2009, the NHTSA issued a final rule to upgrade the vehicle roof crush standard. The rule newly introduces the “Two-sided Roof Test,” which imposes strength tests for both sides of the vehicle roof and increases the maximum applied load. For vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 2,722 kg or less, manufacturers have had to comply with the upgraded requirements for 25% of all vehicles produced by 2012, 50% by 2013, 75% by 2014, and 100% by 2015. For heavier vehicles, manufacturers must comply with the standards in or after September 2016.

 

In January 2011, the NHTSA issued a final rule to prevent the ejection of occupants in rollover accidents. The rule requires “ejection mitigation countermeasure” (e.g. advanced glazing or head protection side airbag) equipment which meet with performance requirements. Manufacturers have had to comply with the new requirements for 25% of all vehicles produced by 2013, 50% by 2014 and 75% by 2015. Further, 100% must comply (with carryover credit) by 2016, and all vehicles by 2017.

 

In April 2012, the NHTSA issued a proposed regulation that mandates installation of a brake-throttle override system. This rule was proposed to take proper measures against the following problem: a vehicle cannot be effectively decelerated/stopped in the event that the accelerator pedal cannot return to its stationary position even after the foot is taken off the accelerator pedal, because of the floor mat being caught in the accelerator pedal or any failure in the accelerator pedal. Manufacturers must comply with the new requirements within two years from September 1 of the date of publication of the final rule, which is still under consideration.

 

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In December 2012, the NHTSA issued a proposed regulation that mandates installation of an event data recorder (EDR) in vehicles. The purpose of this regulation is to allow for effective collision research as well as to share important data for the performance analysis of safety devices (e.g. advanced restraint devices) through the mandatory installation of EDRs. After September 2014, the NHTSA had planned to require manufacturers to install EDRs which comply with specified performance requirements, but the issue is still under discussion.

 

In January 2013, the NHTSA issued a proposed regulation that mandates installation of an approaching vehicle audible system. This regulation was established to reduce the number of collision accidents by enabling pedestrians and bicycle riders be aware of approaching hybrid vehicles on electric drive or electric vehicles by sound. Manufacturers were encouraged to comply with the new requirements for 30% of all vehicles produced by 2015. Further, the target is 60% by 2016, 90% by 2017, and all vehicles by 2018, respectively.

 

In April, 2013, the NHTSA issued the first phase of these guidelines. The Phase 1 Guidelines cover original equipment (OE) in-vehicle (i.e., integrated) electronic devices that are operated by the driver through visual-manual means (i.e., the driver looks at a device, manipulates a device-related control with his or her hand, and/or watches for visual feedback from the device). The Phase 2 Guidelines will apply to portable and aftermarket devices that are operated through visual-manual means and will be based on the same general principles as the Phase 1 Guidelines.

 

In March 2014, the NHTSA issued a final rule for FMVSS No. 111, which requires that rear visibility technology be installed in all new vehicles weighing under 10,000 pounds. The purpose is to reduce death and injury resulting from incidents when the driver is backing up. Manufacturers must comply with the new requirements for 10% of all vehicles produced from May 2016 to April 2017, 40% from May 2017 to April 2018, and all vehicles in or after May 2018.

 

In August 2014, the NHTSA issued a notice to start legislative work concerning the inter-vehicle communication function (V2V) of passenger cars and light trucks. FMVSS150 is supposed to be newly established as V2V laws and regulations for the communication function. The mandatory equipment requirements of the communication function and the performance requirements are expected to be included in FMVSS150.

 

Europe

 

Legislation regarding a new system called “eCall” is under consideration in the EU and is already implemented in the Customs Union, which is organized by Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. eCall is a system that can automatically transmit vehicle status (e.g., Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) deployment, location, direction and other information) to conventional infrastructures simultaneously with voice messages when accidents occur. Some relevant draft standards have been published in the EU. The effective date of the EU eCall for new vehicle types is scheduled for March 31, 2018. Final standards have already been published in the Customs Union. The effective date of eCall for the Customs Union (ERA-GLONASS) was on or after January 1, 2015 for new vehicle types and is on or after January 1, 2017 for all vehicles.

 

In January 2016, the EU commission issued the draft regulation to significantly revise the legal framework for the EU type-approval. This draft regulation introduces a market surveillance system effective for managing the conformity of motor vehicles available on the market and adds a requirement of an expiration date for vehicle type approval. This draft is scheduled to be adopted at the end of 2016.

 

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China

 

Vehicle safety regulations in China were drafted with reference to the UNECE standards and cover almost the same matters as the UNECE standards. However, these regulations also include unique provisions which take into account the distinctive characteristics of the Chinese market environment and the rules differ from the latest UNECE standards. Future safety regulations are described as follows:

 

Newly published GB standards (Chinese national standards issued by the Standardization Administration of China) in 2015:

 

+ Amendment to Passenger car tire

 

+ Amendment to Rear registration plate lamp of Motor Vehicles and Trailers

 

+ Amendment to Motor Vehicle Towing Devices

 

Newly established GB standards (not yet published);

 

+ Amendment to Prescription for installation of the external lighting and light-signaling devices for motor vehicles and their trailers

 

+ Amendment to Rear-marking plates for vehicles and their trailers

 

+ Amendment to Safety specifications for power-driven vehicles operating on roads

 

+ Amendment to Road Vehicle-Vehicle Identification Number

 

+ Amendment to Strength requirement and test method of automobile seats, their anchorages and any head restraints

 

+ Photometric characteristics of front fog lamps for motor vehicles

 

+ Photometric characteristics of headlamps emitting symmetric passing beam and/or driving beam for motor vehicles

 

+ Photometric characteristics of devices for the illumination of rear registration plates of motor vehicles and their trailers

 

+ Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales on motor vehicles

 

+ Light-duty vehicles-towing attachments

 

GB standards under development;

 

+ Test methods and requirements for the misuse of automotive airbag systems

 

+ Performance requirements and test methods of tire pressure monitoring systems for passenger cars

 

Other Regions

 

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) aims to adopt electrical safety standards for electric vehicles and their infrastructure through the agency “Emirates Authority for Standardization and Metrology” (ESMA). They are still under review.

 

India already has mandatory type approval standards for hybrid electrical vehicles and battery vehicles, and some of them are under proposal for amendment. Standard of type approval procedure for these vehicles for Pilot / Demo Projects (which have subsidies/ incentives) has also been implemented.

 

5. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

 

Programs that provide customers with assessments of car safety functions and promote the development of car safety by automobile manufacturers are conducted in countries such as the United States, Japan, Australia,

 

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the EU, Korea, China and Malaysia. The principal items assessed in these programs are passenger protection and braking power, which are typically assessed with stricter standards or criteria than those required by statute.

 

Outline of Environmental and Safety Regulation for Motorcycles

 

1. Emissions

 

Japan

 

Japan has emissions regulations for motorcycles applicable to all classes of engine displacement. Some aspects of these requirements, such as standards for hydro-carbon levels and durability, are stricter than the current European regulations, namely the Euro 3 regulations.

 

Japan is planning to implement Phase 3 emission requirements, which are similar to current standards because standards for hydro-carbon level are stricter than the next European regulations, namely the Euro 4 regulations. The Phase 3 emission requirement will be issued by October 2016, and introduce simultaneous application of the fuel evaporative gas regulation as well as mandatory installation of the On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) system.

 

The United States

 

Emissions regulations regarding off-road motorcycles and ATVs were introduced in 2006. In addition, the EPA adopted the current California emissions standards regarding on-road motorcycles on a national basis, two years behind the schedule of California. The EPA regulations include fuel permeation requirements rather than traditional evaporative emission standards. California issued new evaporative emission standards for off-road highway vehicle (ORHV) involving diurnal test and tip test. It will apply from the 2018 model year.

 

The EPA emission standard has strengthened the class III HC + NOx limit value to 0.8 g/km as of 2010 model year vehicles. As for greenhouse gases, reporting has been mandated for each emission gas (CO2 from 2011 model year, CH4 from 2012 model year and N2O from 2013 model year, respectively).

 

Europe

 

The EU has issued regulations to reform the Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) scheme in order to further enforce exhaust emissions following the Euro 4 and Euro 5 steps. Euro 4 requirements apply to new type approved vehicles from January 2016 and will apply to all vehicles registered from January 2017. Euro 5 requirements will apply to new type approved vehicles from January 2020 and will apply to all vehicles registered from January 2021. The new requirements introduce not only mode emission gas restrictions but also evaporative emission, durability and OBD requirements. As for L1e category vehicles (mopeds), the Euro 4 requirements will apply to new type approved vehicles from 2017 and will apply to all vehicles registered from 2018 based on the WVTA amendment.

 

Other Regions

 

Other countries, mainly in Asia, have implemented tighter emissions regulations based on European regulations.

 

Japan, China, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore are considering new exhaust emission standards based on the next European WVTA.

 

In Brazil, the Worldwide-harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) was introduced. The WMTC became effective from the beginning of 2014. Brazil introduced the WMTC durability requirement as of January 2014 and introduced stricter emission limit and evaporative gas restrictions as of January 2016.

 

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India has issued a new emission regulation called Bharat Stage IV (BS IV). It applied to new motorcycles from April 2016, and will apply to all motorcycles registered from April 2017. India is also considering a BS VI regulation, which will apply from 2020. In doing so, they will skip the introduction of a BS V regulation.

 

2. Recycling / REACH

 

Europe

 

The same REACH compliance required for motor vehicles is required for motorcycles.

 

Other Regions

 

Vietnam and India each have a plan to implement motorcycle recycling laws in the near future.

 

3. Safety

 

Japan

 

In November 2007, the MLIT issued safety standards which have been applicable from July 1, 2012, for vehicles which use high voltage electric power such as electric vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles, to avoid electric shocks during normal operations and accidents. Further, in 2011, it adopted ECE R100, which was amended to incorporate the Japanese electrical safety standard.

 

The Japan Automobile Standards Internationalization Center (JASIC), which is organized by the MLIT and JAMA, among others, has started to review a proposal for the unification of Safety/Environment Standards, vehicle categories and certification in order to promote further internationalization of standards and certifications. JASIC made the proposal to other contracting parties of the 58/98 Agreement in 2009 and aims to reach an agreement among the contracting parties by 2017.

 

In February 2013, the MLIT established a homologation system for ultra-compact mobility vehicles. These are vehicles which are easier to maneuver in small spaces compared to automobiles, have superior environmental performance and can be utilized as a means of simple mobility for 1 or 2 passengers in regional areas. The system permits ultra-compact mobility vehicles to be run on public roads by adding features specific to such vehicles and relaxing certain existing standards without degrading the safety or environmental performances of the vehicles.

 

Japan implemented the EMC requirement (UNECE R10) as of August 1, 2011. The amended version (R10.04) will become applicable to new type vehicles from August 1, 2016 and to all vehicles from October 28, 2016.

 

Japan adopted the requirements for lighting devices (UN ECE R50) and symmetry front beams (UNECE R113) in 2015 and issued new standards for control/tell-tales (UNECE R60) which will apply to all motorcycles from July 1, 2017. They also issued new standards for advanced brake system (ABS: Anti-lock Brake System/ CBS: Combined Brake System) which will apply to new type motorcycles from October 1, 2018, and to all motorcycles from October 1, 2021.

 

The United States

 

The NHTSA amended the federal standard for lighting devices (FMVSS 108) to change visibility and other requirements, which became effective as of December 2012.

 

The NHTSA issued an amendment regulation to FMVSS108 “Lamps, reflective devices and associated equipment” to harmonize the license plate holder angle requirement (this allows license plates to be mounted on a plane up to 30 degrees upward; previously, the maximum allowable upward mounting angle was 15 degrees) with the European Regulation on December 17, 2015.

 

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Europe

 

The EU has issued regulations to change the WVTA scheme in order to further enforce safety. The new safety regulations require advanced brake systems and functional safety and electrical safety requirements. The new EU WVTA (EU Regulation No. 168/2013) was published on March 2, 2013. This new system became applicable to new type motorcycles from January 2016 and will apply to new type mopeds from January 2017.

 

The EU Commission finalized Delegated Regulations concerning environmental and propulsion unit performance (EU Regulation No. 134/2014), vehicle functional safety (EU Regulation No. 3/2014), vehicle construction and general requirements (EU Regulation No. 44/2014). The Implementing Regulation (EU Regulation No. 901/2014) was published on July 18, 2014 and the regulations established the new EU WVTA system.

 

The new WVTA system requires motorcycle manufacturers to make vehicle repair and maintenance information available through their websites.

 

Other Regions

 

In India, the Auto Headlight On (AHO) function, which automatically turns on the head lamps when the engine is running, shall be installed on all two-wheelers manufactured on and after April 1, 2017 and also for new vehicle models manufactured on and after April 1, 2018. All vehicles manufactured on and after April 1, 2019 shall be fitted with an advanced brake system. Two-wheeled vehicles with engine capacity not more than 125cc; continuous rated or net power not more than 11kw; and power/weight ratio not more than 0.1 kw/kg shall be fitted with ABS or CBS. All other categories of two-wheeled vehicles shall be fitted with ABS in India.

 

The Brazilian safety authority (DENATRAN) issued a new regulation regarding anti-theft devices, which requires the installation of an immobilizer and a vehicle tracking system on vehicles and motorcycles sold or registered from August 1, 2009. However, this regulation has not been implemented yet because the court determined that the regulation was unconstitutional. An official declaration was later issued to suspend the validity of this regulation on October 20, 2015. The Brazil transport authority (CONTRAN) issued a new standard concerning motorcycle braking based on the UN ECE Brake regulation (R78.03) as well as a new regulation mandating ABS/CBS installation. The Brazilian standardization authority (INMETRO) currently mandates parts certification for tires and batteries, but they will add drive/driven sprocket, drive chain and muffler to the scope of application from September 24, 2017 at customs clearance.

 

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) started the operation of a motorcycle certification system in July 2014.

 

Many Asian countries, such as India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Korea and Vietnam, are introducing various regulations, regarding lighting, braking, and anti-theft, based on UN R (ECE) regulations.

 

Outline of Environmental and Safety Regulation for Power Products

 

1. Emissions

 

The United States

 

The EPA introduced more stringent exhaust standards and new evaporative emission standards for fuel tanks and fuel lines used in small non-road engines. The regulations applied starting in the 2011 model year for Class II engines (above 225 cc), in the 2012 model year for Class I engines (less than 225 cc and used in non-handheld applications) and generally in 2010 for handheld products. The EPA also adopted a more stringent level of emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines starting with the 2010 model year. This new regulation includes standards to control evaporative emissions for all vessels using marine spark-ignition engines.

 

In November 2015, CARB presented a policy to develop a regulation to replace 25% of spark-ignition engine products circulating in the market with zero-emission products by 2030.

 

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Canada

 

The Canadian federal government introduced emissions regulations generally equivalent to the U.S. EPA regulations for outboard and personal watercraft engines from the 2012 model year. New regulations plan to include controls for evaporative emissions aligned with the EPA Phase 3 regulations.

 

China

 

An exhaust emission standard was introduced in China on March 1, 2011. Its requirements are based on the European exhaust emission regulations and are applicable to small spark-ignition engines for non-road mobile machinery with 19 kW or less. The phase 2 regulation with durability requirement started from January 1, 2014. The phase 3 regulation is under discussion.

 

Europe

 

The European Committee started to consider the stage 3 regulation. Its requirement will follow the U.S. EPA phase 3 and the effective date will be 2018 or 2019.

 

Japan

 

The Japan Land Engine Manufacturers Association (LEMA) implemented the Phase 3 voluntary exhaust emission regulation from January 1, 2014. The requirements are consistent with the U.S. EPA Phase 3 regulation.

 

India

 

The Ministry of Environment issued a revised regulation for emission/noise standards applicable to gasoline/kerosene/LPG/CNG engine generators. The exhaust emission limits are very stringent. In particular, the CO level limit is less than half the limit allowed by the U.S. EPA Phase 3. It became effective as of June 2015.

 

Australia

 

The Australian Federal Government announced that they will introduce exhaust emission/evaporative emission regulations based on the U.S. EPA standards for all power products including outboard engines. New regulations are scheduled to be implemented in 2017.

 

2. Recycling /RoHS / WEEE / REACH

 

Europe

 

The same REACH compliance required for motor vehicles is required for power products. In June 2011, the European Union Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) was wholly revised and most power products will be within its scope after 2019.

 

Other Regions

 

Turkey and several Asian countries have adopted regulations which are similar to the European regulations (such as RoHS and WEEE). Ukraine and China plan to adopt regulations similar to European regulations which will apply to most power products.

 

3. Safety

 

Japan

 

The Institute of Agricultural Machinery amended the safety standard of backward speed requirements for walk-behind equipment from 3.6 km/h to 1.8 km/h, and the interpretation of splash protection guard requirements for brush cutters. New models have had to comply with the standard from April 2010 and all models have had to comply with it from April 2015.

 

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The METI amended the technical requirements of the Electrical Appliances and Materials Safety Act and added requirements regarding the retention force of receptacle outlets and the flame resistance of circuit boards. These amended and additional requirements are scheduled to be implemented from July 2016.

 

The voluntary safety scheme for snow blowers newly included a requirement on dozers, which was implemented in April 2015.

 

The United States

 

Based on the “Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008”, walk-behind lawn mowers have had to comply with certificate requirements from November 11, 2008. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has enhanced the recall system by this Act. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) 70 (NEC (National Electrical Code) 2014) has been amended and the installation of Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) has become mandatory for certain generators. In 2014, an American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Snow Blowers was amended. In 2015, a new ANSI Standard for Generators was published. In 2016, an ANSI Standard for Tillers was amended.

 

Europe

 

Low Voltage Directive (LVD) and Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMCD) have been amended and they became applicable from April 2016. Recreational Craft Directive (RCD) Stage 2 also became effective. The amendment to the Machinery Directive (the implementation timing is unknown) and the amendment to the Noise Directive (the implementation is expected to be started from 2021) are being planned. The Gas Appliance Regulation has been published and accordingly, the Gas Appliance Directive will expire in 2018.

 

China

 

The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) has issued final regulations for spark-ignition engines which include a wide variety of requirements such as machinery safety, thermal protection, electrical safety, and others. It became effective in 2015.

 

Other Regions

 

In 2015, Argentina amended the certification system for generators. Also in 2015, Vietnam published a compulsory certification system for engine-driven sprayers. In Mexico, a compulsory certification system for brush cutters was proposed in 2015.

 

Preparing for the Future

 

Honda aims to achieve global growth by further encouraging and strengthening innovation as well as creating quality products that please the customers and exceed their expectations.

 

Honda will focus all its energies on the tasks set out below as it pursues the vision toward 2020 of “providing good products to customers with speed, affordability and low CO2 emissions”.

 

1. Product Quality

 

Honda will strive to improve its product quality by verification within each development, purchasing, production, sales and service department, along with integrated verification through coordination among those departments.

 

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2. Research and Development

 

Honda will continue to be innovative in advanced technology and products, aiming to create and introduce new value-added products to quickly respond to specific needs in various markets around the world, in addition to its efforts to develop the most effective safety and environmental technologies, which includes the spread of electric-powered motor technology. Honda will also continue its efforts to conduct research on experimental technologies for the future.

 

3. Production Efficiency

 

Honda will strengthen its production systems at its global production bases and supply high-quality products flexibly and efficiently, with the aim of meeting the needs of its customers in each region. In addition, Honda will work to reduce the environmental burden of its production bases while establishing production technologies to promote the global spread of electric-powered motor technology. Honda will work at improving its global supply chain by devising more effective business continuity plans in order to respond to various risks including but not limited to natural disasters.

 

4. Sales Efficiency

 

Honda will remain proactive in its efforts to expand product lines and the innovative use of IT to demonstrate its continued commitment to meeting the needs of different customers throughout the world by upgrading its sales and service structure.

 

5. Safety Technologies

 

Honda is working to develop safety technologies that enhance accident prediction and prevention, technologies to help reduce the risk of injuries to passengers and pedestrians from car accidents as well as technologies that enhance compatibility between large and small vehicles. Honda will also expand its lineup of products incorporating such technologies. In addition, Honda will promote research and development to commercialize automated driving. Honda will reinforce and continue to advance its contribution to traffic safety in Japan and motorized societies abroad. Honda also intends to remain active in a variety of traffic safety programs, including advanced driving and motorcycling training programs provided by local dealerships.

 

6. The Environment

 

Honda will step up its efforts to create better, cleaner and more fuel-efficient engine technologies and to further improve recyclables throughout its product lines as well as further promote the development of fuel cells. With the long-term goal of reducing total CO2 emissions by 50% compared to year 2000 levels by 2050, Honda has set an interim target to reduce CO2 emissions from its global products by 30% by 2020. Honda will strengthen its efforts to realize reductions in CO2 emissions through its entire corporate activities including its supply chain. Furthermore, Honda will strengthen its efforts in advancing technologies in the area of total energy management, to reduce CO2 emissions related to mobility and people’s everyday lives.

 

7. Continuing to Enhance Honda’s Social Reputation and Communication with the Community

 

In addition to continuing to provide products incorporating Honda’s advanced safety and environmental technologies, Honda will continue striving to enhance its social reputation by, among other things, strengthening its corporate governance, compliance and risk management as well as participating in community activities and making philanthropic contributions.

 

Through these company-wide activities, Honda will strive to be a company that its shareholders, investors, customers and society want it to exist.

 

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C. Organizational Structure

 

As of March 31, 2016, the Company had 89 Japanese subsidiaries and 279 overseas subsidiaries. The following table sets out for each of the Company’s principal subsidiaries, the country of incorporation, function and percentage ownership and voting interest held by Honda.

 

Company

  Country of
Incorporation
 

Function

  Percentage
Ownership
and
Voting Interest
 

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.

  Japan   Research & Development     100.0   

Honda Engineering Co., Ltd.

  Japan   Manufacturing and Sales of machine tools, equipment and production techniques     100.0   

Honda Finance Co., Ltd.

  Japan   Finance     100.0   

American Honda Motor Co., Inc.

  U.S.A.   Sales     100.0   

Honda Aero., Inc.

  U.S.A.   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda North America, Inc.

  U.S.A.   Coordination of Subsidiaries Operation     100.0   

Honda of America Mfg., Inc.

  U.S.A.   Manufacturing     100.0   

American Honda Finance Corporation

  U.S.A.   Finance     100.0   

Honda Aircraft Company, LLC

  U.S.A.   Research & Development, Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, LLC

  U.S.A.   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda Manufacturing of Indiana, LLC

  U.S.A.   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda Transmission Mfg. of America, Inc.

  U.S.A.   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda R&D Americas, Inc.

  U.S.A.   Research & Development     100.0   

Honda Canada Inc.

  Canada   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda Canada Finance Inc.

  Canada   Finance     100.0   

Honda de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.

  Mexico   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda Motor Europe Limited

  U.K.   Coordination of Subsidiaries Operation and Sales     100.0   

Honda of the U.K. Manufacturing Ltd.

  U.K.   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda Finance Europe plc

  U.K.   Finance     100.0   

Honda Bank GmbH

  Germany   Finance     100.0   

Honda Turkiye A.S

  Turkey   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.

  China   Coordination of Subsidiaries Operation and Sales     100.0   

Honda Auto Parts Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

  China   Manufacturing     100.0   

Honda Automobile (China) Co., Ltd.

  China   Manufacturing     65.0   

Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India (Private) Ltd.

  India   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda Cars India Limited

  India   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

P.T. Honda Precision Parts Manufacturing

  Indonesia   Manufacturing     100.0   

P.T. Honda Prospect Motor

  Indonesia   Manufacturing and Sales     51.0   

Honda Malaysia Sdn Bhd

  Malaysia   Manufacturing and Sales     51.0   

Honda Taiwan Co., Ltd.

  Taiwan   Sales     100.0   

Asian Honda Motor Co., Ltd.

  Thailand   Coordination of Subsidiaries Operation and Sales     100.0   

Honda Leasing (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

  Thailand   Finance     100.0   

Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

  Thailand   Manufacturing and Sales     89.0   

Thai Honda Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

  Thailand   Manufacturing     83.0   

A.P. Honda Co., Ltd.

  Thailand   Sales     61.0   

Honda Vietnam Co., Ltd.

  Vietnam   Manufacturing and Sales     70.0   

 

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Company

  Country of
Incorporation
 

Function

  Percentage
Ownership
and
Voting Interest
 

Honda Motor de Argentina S.A.

  Argentina   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Honda South America Ltda.

  Brazil   Coordination of Subsidiaries Operation     100.0   

Banco Honda S.A.

  Brazil   Finance     100.0   

Honda Automoveis do Brasil Ltda.

  Brazil   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

Moto Honda da Amazonia Ltda.

  Brazil   Manufacturing and Sales     100.0   

 

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

 

The following table sets out information, as of March 31, 2016, with respect to Honda’s principal manufacturing facilities, all of which are owned by Honda:

 

Location

   Number of
Employees
    

Principal Products Manufactured

Sayama, Saitama, Japan

     4,816       Automobiles

Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

     2,171       Power products and transmissions

Suzuka, Mie, Japan

     6,088       Automobiles

Ozu-machi, Kikuchi-gun, Kumamoto, Japan

     2,399       Motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, power products and engines

Greensboro, North Carolina, U.S.A

     995       Aircrafts

Burlington, North Carolina, U.S.A.

     80       Aircraft engines

Marysville, Ohio, U.S.A.

     4,905       Automobiles

Anna, Ohio, U.S.A.

     2,429       Engines

East Liberty, Ohio, U.S.A.

     1,861       Automobiles

Lincoln, Alabama, U.S.A.

     4,767       Automobiles and engines

Greensburg, Indiana, U.S.A.

     2,151       Automobiles

Alliston, Canada

     4,175       Automobiles and engines

El Salto, Mexico

     1,555       Motorcycles and automobiles

Celaya, Mexico

     4,749       Automobiles

Swindon, U.K.

     2,597       Automobiles and engines

Gebze, Turkey

     729       Motorcycles and automobiles

Guangzhou, China

     888       Automobiles

Gurgaon, India

     3,160       Motorcycles

Greater Noida, India

     2,386       Automobiles

Alwar, India

     2,491       Motorcycles and automobiles

Narasapura, India

     1,553       Motorcycles

Ahemdabad, India

     686       Motorcycles

Karawang, Indonesia

     2,415       Automobiles and engines

Melaka, Malaysia

     2,646       Automobiles

Ayutthaya, Thailand

     2,976       Automobiles

Prachinburi, Thailand

     838       Automobiles

Bangkok, Thailand

     3,578       Motorcycles and power products

Phuc Yen, Vietnam

     4,228       Motorcycles and automobiles

Duy Tien, Vietnam

     266       Motorcycles

Buenos Aires, Argentina

     1,197       Motorcycles and automobiles

Sumare, Brazil

     3,374       Automobiles

Manaus, Brazil

     6,872       Motorcycles and power products

 

In addition to its manufacturing facilities, the Company’s properties in Japan include sales offices and other sales facilities in major cities, repair service facilities, and R&D facilities.

 

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As of March 31, 2016, the Company’s property, with a net book value of approximately ¥67.7 billion, was subject to specific mortgages securing indebtedness.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

Capital expenditures in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 were applied to the introduction of new models, as well as the improvement, streamlining and modernization of production facilities, and improvement of sales and R&D facilities.

 

Total capital expenditures for the year amounted to ¥2,615.0 billion, increased by ¥280.0 billion from the previous year. Also, total capital expenditures, excluding equipment on operating leases, for the year amounted to ¥647.4 billion, decreased by ¥6.3 billion from the previous year. Spending by business segment is shown below.

 

     Fiscal years ended March 31,  
     2015      2016      Increase
(Decrease)
 
     Yen (millions)  

Motorcycle Business

   ¥ 68,171       ¥ 59,229       ¥ (8,942

Automobile Business

     573,312         571,796         (1,516

Financial Services Business

     1,681,610         1,968,257         286,647   

Financial Services Business (Excluding Equipment on Operating Leases)

     432         719         287   

Power Product and Other Businesses

     11,896         15,754         3,858   

Total

   ¥ 2,334,989       ¥ 2,615,036       ¥ 280,047   

Total (Excluding Equipment on Operating Leases)

   ¥ 653,811       ¥ 647,498       ¥ (6,313

 

Intangible assets are not included in the table above.

 

In Motorcycle business, we made capital expenditures of ¥59,229 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Funds were allocated to the introduction of new models, as well as the improvement, streamlining and modernization of production facilities, and improvement of sales and R&D facilities.

 

In Automobile business, we made capital expenditures of ¥571,796 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Funds were allocated to the introduction of new models, as well as the improvement, streamlining and modernization of production facilities, and improvement of sales and R&D facilities.

 

In Financial services business, capital expenditures excluding equipment on operating leases amounted to ¥719 million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, while capital expenditures for equipment on operating leases were ¥1,967,538 million. Capital expenditures in Power products and other businesses in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, totaling ¥15,754 million, were deployed to upgrade, streamline, and modernize manufacturing facilities for power products, and to improve R&D facilities for power products.

 

Plans after fiscal year 2016

 

Our management mainly considers economic trends of each region, demand trends, situation of competitors and our business strategy such as introduction plans of new models in determining the future of projects.

 

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The estimated amounts of capital expenditures for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2017 are shown below.

 

     Fiscal year ending
March 31, 2017
 
     Yen (millions)  

Motorcycle Business

   ¥ 54,200   

Automobile Business

     492,800   

Financial Services Business

     500   

Power Product and Other Businesses

     12,500   
  

 

 

 

Total

   ¥ 560,000   
  

 

 

 

 

The estimated amount of capital expenditures for Financial services business in the above table does not include equipment on operating leases.

 

Intangible assets are not included in the table above.

 

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

We do not have any unresolved written comments provided by the staff of the SEC regarding our periodic reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

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Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

You should read the following discussion of our critical accounting policies and our financial positions and operating results together with our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report.

 

A. Operating Results

 

Overview

 

Business Environment

 

With respect to the economic environment, the United States’ economy continued to recover, mainly due to an improving jobs market, a gradual increase in housing starts, and growing personal consumption. Europe saw a gradual economic recovery, mainly due to improvement in employment conditions and personal consumption. In the Asian economies, India experienced a moderate recovery, China’s economy slowed gradually, Indonesia experienced a slight slowing, and Thailand’s economy slowed down. The Japanese economy continued on a gradual recovery track, mainly due to an improvement trend in employment conditions and an upturn in capital investment.

 

The trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments and events identified below may continue or recur, impacting the Company’s future financial results.

 

Overview of Fiscal Year 2016 Operating Performance

 

Honda’s consolidated sales revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 increased from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, due mainly to increased sales revenue in Automobile business and Financial Services Business operations. Operating profit decreased from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses as well as negative foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix as well as continuing cost reduction.

 

Motorcycle Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in fiscal year 2016 totaled 10,572 thousand units, a decrease of 1.4% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decline in Brazil which more than offset increases primarily in Vietnam and the Philippines.

 

Automobile Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of automobiles totaled 3,636 thousand units in fiscal year 2016, an increase of 3.5% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increases in sales in North America and Asia following the launch of new models and full-model-changes. On the other hand, sales primarily declined in Japan as a result of difficult market conditions.

 

Power Product and Other Businesses

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of power products in fiscal year 2016 totaled 5,965 thousand units, a decrease of 0.3% from the previous fiscal year primarily due to a decrease in sales in Europe which more than offset an increase in North America and other countries.

 

Fiscal Year 2016 Compared with Fiscal Year 2015

 

Sales Revenue

 

Honda’s consolidated sales revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, increased by ¥1,273.0 billion, or 9.6%, to ¥14,601.1 billion from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, due mainly to increased sales revenue in the Automobile business and Financial services business operations. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese

 

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yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥853.9 billion, or 6.4%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥1,273.0 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects.

 

Operating Costs and Expenses

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥1,440.2 billion, or 11.4%, to ¥14,097.7 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥1,001.6 billion, or 9.7%, to ¥11,332.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased consolidated unit sales in the Automobile business. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥388.3 billion, or 22.6%, to ¥2,108.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased product warranty expenses. Product warranty expenses include expenses related to airbag inflators. Research and development expenses increased by ¥50.3 billion, or 8.3%, to ¥656.5 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating Profit

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥167.2 billion, or 24.9%, to ¥503.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and negative foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix as well as continuing cost reduction. Honda estimates that by excluding negative foreign currency effects of approximately ¥60.1 billion, operating profit would have decreased by approximately ¥107.0 billion.

 

With respect to the discussion above of the changes, management identified factors and used what it believes to be a reasonable method to analyze the respective changes in such factors. Management analyzed changes in these factors at the levels of the Company and its material consolidated subsidiaries. “Foreign currency effects” consist of “translation adjustments”, which come from the translation of the currency of foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements into Japanese yen, and “foreign currency adjustments”, which result from foreign-currency-denominated sales. With respect to “foreign currency adjustments”, management analyzed foreign currency adjustments primarily related to the following currencies: U.S. dollar, Japanese yen and others at the level of the Company and its material consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Profit before Income Taxes

 

Profit before income taxes decreased by ¥170.7 billion, or 21.2%, to ¥635.4 billion. The main factors behind this decrease, except factors relating to operating profit, are as follows:

 

Share of profit of investments accounted for using the equity method had a positive impact of ¥29.9 billion, due mainly to an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue at affiliates and joint ventures in Asia, which was partially offset by a recognition of impairment loss on certain investments accounted for using the equity method.

 

Finance income and finance costs had a negative impact of ¥33.4 billion, due mainly to a decrease in gains on foreign exchange. For further details, see note “(22) Finance Income and Finance Costs” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

Income Tax Expense

 

Income tax expense decreased by ¥16.0 billion, or 6.5%, to ¥229.0 billion from the previous fiscal year. The average effective tax rate increased 5.7 percentage points to 36.1% from the previous fiscal year. For further details, see “(a) Income Tax Expense” of note “(23) Income Taxes” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

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Profit for the Year

 

Profit for the year decreased by ¥154.7 billion, or 27.6%, to ¥406.3 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Profit for the Year Attributable to Owners of the Parent

 

Profit for the year attributable to owners of the parent decreased by ¥164.9 billion, or 32.4%, to ¥344.5 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Profit for the Year Attributable to Non-controlling Interests

 

Profit for the year attributable to non-controlling interests increased by ¥10.1 billion, or 19.7%, to ¥61.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit for the year of the subsidiaries in Asia which have non-controlling interests.

 

Business Segments

 

Motorcycle Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) totaled 10,572 thousand units, decreased by 1.4% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in consolidated unit sales in Other Regions, which was partially offset by increase in Asia.

 

Sales revenue from external customers decreased by ¥41.2 billion, or 2.2%, to ¥1,805.4 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to negative foreign currency translation effects. The impact of price changes was immaterial on sales revenue. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥13.1 billion, or 0.7%, compared to the decrease as reported of ¥41.2 billion, which includes negative foreign currency translation effects.

 

Operating costs and expenses decreased by ¥30.8 billion, or 1.9%, to ¥1,623.6 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales decreased by ¥30.3 billion, or 2.3%, to ¥1,312.4 billion, due mainly to a decrease in costs attributable to decreased consolidated unit sales and positive foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by ¥9.3 billion, or 4.0%, to ¥224.5 billion, due mainly to positive foreign currency effects. Research and development expenses increased by ¥8.8 billion, or 11.4%, to ¥86.6 billion.

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥10.3 billion, or 5.4%, to ¥181.7 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to negative foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by continuing cost reduction.

 

Japan

 

Total industry demand for motorcycles in Japan* decreased by around 6% from the previous fiscal year to approximately 390 thousand units in fiscal year 2016.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Japan declined 9.5% from the previous fiscal year to 180 thousand units in fiscal year 2016, reflecting an overall decline in unit sales of scooter models, despite an increase in unit sales of the Tact 50cc scooter and certain other models.

 

*

Source: JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association)

 

North America

 

Total demand for motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the United States*, the principal market within North America, increased around 2% from the previous year to approximately 720 thousand units in calendar year 2015.

 

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Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America increased 7.7% from the previous fiscal year to 308 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mainly due to a sales increase of side-by-side (SxS) models, centered on the new Pioneer 1000, and motorcycles, primarily in the United States.

 

* 

Source: MIC (Motorcycle Industry Council)

   The total includes motorcycles and ATVs, but does not include side-by-side (SxS) models.

 

Europe

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Europe* increased around 9% from the previous year to approximately 810 thousand units in calendar year 2015.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe increased 6.8% from the previous fiscal year to 204 thousand units in fiscal year 2016, mostly as a result of robust sales of commuter models and the launch of the new CRF1000L Africa Twin model.

 

* 

Based on Honda research. Only includes the following 10 countries: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Portugal, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria.

 

Asia

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Asia* decreased around 6% from the previous year to approximately 39,140 thousand units in calendar year 2015.

 

Looking at market conditions by country, in calendar year 2015, demand in India increased about 1% from the previous year to approximately 16,120 thousand units. Demand in China decreased around 14% from the previous year to approximately 9,200 thousand units. Demand in Indonesia decreased around 18% from the previous year to approximately 6,480 thousand units. Vietnam saw demand increase around 5% from the previous year to approximately 2,840 thousand units. Demand in Thailand declined around 1% from the previous year to approximately 1,670 thousand units. Demand in Pakistan increased around 16% from the previous year to approximately 1,520 thousand units.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia increased 2.0% from the previous fiscal year to 8,650 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was due in part to brisk sales of scooter models such as the Vision scooter in Vietnam, increased sales of the TMX125 Alpha model in the Philippines, as well as other factors.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales do not include sales by P.T. Astra Honda Motor in Indonesia, which is a joint venture accounted for using the equity method. P.T. Astra Honda Motor’s unit sales for fiscal year 2016 decreased around 9% from the previous fiscal year to approximately 4,450 thousand units due mainly to lackluster overall market conditions, despite steady sales of the Vario series and other models.

 

* 

Based on Honda research. Only includes the following eight countries: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, India, Pakistan and China.

 

Other Regions

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Brazil*, the principal market within Other Regions, declined about 17% from the previous year to approximately 1,190 thousand units in calendar year 2015, mainly due to an increase in unemployment and stricter lending standards for retail loans amid a continued worsening of economic conditions.

 

In Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas), Honda’s consolidated unit sales decreased 21.7% from the previous fiscal year to 1,230 thousand units in fiscal year 2016, mainly reflecting an overall market slump in Brazil.

 

* 

Source: ABRACICLO (the Brazilian Association of Motorcycle, Moped, and Bicycle Manufacturers)

 

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Automobile Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of automobiles totaled 3,636 thousand units, increased by 3.5% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in consolidated unit sales in North America and Asia, which was partially offset by a decrease in Japan.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥1,022.0 billion, or 10.6%, to ¥10,625.4 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased consolidated unit sales. The impact of price changes was immaterial on sales revenue. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥682.7 billion, or 7.1%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥1,022.0 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥1,009.8 billion, or 10.3%, to ¥10,767.6 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥1,136.2 billion, or 12.0%, to ¥10,614.3 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥708.6 billion, or 9.3%, to ¥8,350.5 billion, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased consolidated unit sales and negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥385.9 billion, or 28.9%, to ¥1,723.7 billion, due mainly to increased product warranty expenses. Product warranty expenses include expenses related to airbag inflators. Research and development expenses increased by ¥41.5 billion, or 8.3%, to ¥539.9 billion.

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥126.3 billion, or 45.2%, to ¥153.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and negative foreign currency effect, which was partially offset by an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix as well as continuing cost reduction.

 

Proportion of retail unit sales by vehicle category:

 

    Fiscal year ended
March 31,
 
    2015     2016  

Passenger cars:

    58     52
Accord, Accord Hybrid, Amaze, Brio, Brio Amaze, Brio Satya, City, Civic, Civic Tourer, Civic Type R, Crider, CR-Z, Fit/Jazz, Fit/Jazz Hybrid, Freed, Freed Hybrid, Freed Spike, Freed Spike Hybrid, Grace, Grace Hybrid, Greiz, Honda Mobilio, Insight, Jade, Jade Hybrid, Legend Hybrid, Mobilio, Shuttle, Shuttle Hybrid, Spirior, Acura ILX, Acura RLX, Acura TLX    

Light trucks:

    33     41
BR-V, Crosstour, CR-V, Elysion, Odyssey, Odyssey Hybrid, Pilot, Step WGN, Vezel/HR-V, Vezel Hybrid, XR-V, Acura MDX, Acura RDX    

Mini vehicles:

    9     7

Acty, N-BOX, N-BOX +, N-BOX Slash, N-ONE, N-WGN, S660, Vamos

   

 

Although there are various factors that affect the profitability of each vehicle category, sales price is an important factor in determining profitability. In general, the weighted average sales price in the light trucks category is higher relative to the total average sales price, while the weighted average sales price in the mini vehicles category, which is unique to the Japanese market, is relatively lower, although sales price varies from model to model.

 

In general, the contribution margin of the light trucks category tends to be higher relative to the total weighted average contribution margin because the sales price is higher, while the contribution margin of the mini vehicles category tends to be relatively lower because the sales price is lower, although the level of contribution margin varies from model to model. For example, in Japan and the United States, which are the main sales

 

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markets for our automobiles, the contribution margin of our light trucks category was approximately 35% higher, our passenger cars category was approximately 15% lower and our mini vehicles category was approximately 60% lower than total weighted average contribution margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. It should be noted that we define contribution margin as an amount per unit of net sales minus material cost, which is thought to increase in almost direct proportion to net sales volume.

 

Japan

 

Total demand for automobiles in Japan*1 decreased around 7% from the previous fiscal year to approximately 4,930 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was greatly influenced by the impact of a tax increase on mini vehicles.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Japan decreased 11.8% from the previous fiscal year to 614 thousand units*2 in fiscal year 2016. The main reason for the decline was a tax increase on mini vehicles. This was despite the positive effect from the introduction of new automobile models such as the Shuttle, and a full-model-change of the Step WGN, and other factors.

 

Honda’s unit production of automobiles in fiscal year 2016 decreased 12.3% from the previous fiscal year to 761 thousand units. This was mainly due to the negative effect of a decline in unit sales in Japan, which more than offset an increase in export volume.

 

*1 

Source: JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association), as measured by the number of regular vehicle registrations (661cc or higher) and mini vehicles (660cc or lower)

 

*2 

Certain sales of automobiles that are financed with residual value type auto loans by our Japanese finance subsidiaries and sold through our consolidated subsidiaries are accounted for as operating leases in conformity with IFRS and are not included in consolidated sales revenue to external customers in the Automobile business. Accordingly, they are not included in consolidated unit sales.

 

North America

 

Total industry demand for automobiles in the United States*, the principal market within North America, rose around 6% from the previous year to approximately 17,470 thousand units in calendar year 2015. This was mainly attributable to a continued recovery in economic conditions, including the positive effects of an improvement in employment conditions, a gradual rise in housing starts, and a continued increase in personal consumption, as well as a surge in light truck sales as a result of lower gasoline prices.

 

Under these conditions, Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America increased 10.2% from the previous fiscal year to 1,929 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This increase was mainly attributable to the effect of launching the new HR-V model, and brisk sales of the CR-V and Civic models.

 

Honda manufactured 1,919 thousand units in fiscal year 2016, an increase of 6.0% from the previous fiscal year. This increase mainly reflected an increase in unit production at Honda’s plants in the United States and Canada, primarily to cope with brisk sales of CR-V and Civic models, and increased production of HR-V models at the plant in Mexico.

 

* 

Source: Autodata

 

Europe

 

Total demand for automobiles in Europe* increased about 9% from the previous year to approximately 14,200 thousand units in calendar year 2015, mainly driven by the gradual recovery in economic conditions.

 

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Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe increased 6.8% from the previous fiscal year to 172 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mainly due to the positive effect of launching the new HR-V model.

 

Unit production at Honda’s U.K. plant in fiscal year 2016 was roughly level with the previous fiscal year at 115 thousand units.

 

* 

Source: ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles (the European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association)) New passenger car registrations cover 28 EU countries and three EFTA countries.

 

Asia

 

Total demand for automobiles in Asia increased around 3% from the previous year to approximately 7,090 thousand units*1 in calendar year 2015. This was mainly due to a recovery in demand in India despite a moderate slowdown in Indonesia. Total demand for automobiles in China increased about 5% from the previous calendar year to approximately 24,590 thousand units*2.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia outside Japan increased 5.2% from the previous fiscal year to 670 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This increase was mainly attributable to brisk sales of the HR-V in Malaysia and Indonesia, the launch of the new Mobilio model in the Philippines, and the effect of launching the new BR-V model in Indonesia.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales do not include unit sales of Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. and Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd., both of which are joint ventures accounted for using the equity method in China. Unit sales in China increased 33.5% from the previous fiscal year to 1,053 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. The increase was mainly attributable to strong sales of the XR-V and Vezel models.

 

Honda’s unit production by consolidated subsidiaries in Asia increased 3.0% from the previous fiscal year to 718 thousand units*3 in fiscal year 2016.

 

Meanwhile, unit production by Chinese joint ventures Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. and Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. increased 29.5% from the previous fiscal year to 1,049 thousand units in fiscal year 2016.

 

*1 

The total is based on Honda research and includes the following eight countries: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, India and Pakistan.

*2 

Source: CAAM (China Association of Automobile Manufacturers)

*3 

The total includes the following nine countries: China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, India and Pakistan.

 

Other Regions

 

Total industry demand for automobiles in Brazil*, the principal market within Other Regions, decreased around 26% from the previous year to approximately 2,480 thousand units in calendar year 2015. The decrease resulted mainly from a deterioration in the unemployment rate and an increase in loan interest rates amid continued difficult economic conditions and a downturn due to the termination of the tax reduction program for manufactured products (IPI (Imposto Sobre Produtos Industrializados)).

 

In Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas), Honda’s consolidated unit sales decreased 6.7% from the previous fiscal year to 251 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This result was due to a decrease in sales mainly in the Middle East, which was more than offset brisk sales of the HR-V model in Brazil and other factors.

 

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Unit production at Honda’s plant in Brazil increased 7.5% from the previous fiscal year to 144 thousand units in fiscal year 2016.

 

* 

Source: ANFAVEA (Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veiculos Automotores (the Brazilian Automobile Association)) Includes passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.

 

Financial Services Business

 

To support the sale of its products, Honda provides retail lending and leasing to customers and wholesale financing to dealers through its finance subsidiaries in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Thailand.

 

Total amount of receivables from financial services and equipment on operating leases of finance subsidiaries on March 31, 2016 decreased by ¥332.7 billion, or 3.7%, to ¥8,686.1 billion from the March 31, 2015. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, total amount of receivables from financial services and equipment on operating leases of finance subsidiaries as of March 31, 2016 would have increased by approximately ¥236.0 billion, or 2.6%, compared to the decrease as reported of ¥332.7 billion, which includes negative foreign currency translation effects.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥280.0 billion, or 18.0%, to ¥1,835.6 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in operating lease revenues and revenues on disposition of lease vehicles. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥151.1 billion, or 9.7%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥280.0 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥281.7 billion, or 18.0%, to ¥1,849.7 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥285.0 billion, or 20.9%, to ¥1,650.3 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥275.2 billion, or 21.6%, to ¥1,547.1 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased operating lease revenues and revenues on disposition of lease vehicles. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥9.7 billion, or 10.4%, to ¥103.1 billion.

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥3.2 billion, or 1.6%, to ¥199.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses.

 

Power Product and Other Businesses

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of power products totaled 5,965 thousand units, decreased by 0.3% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an decrease in consolidated unit sales in Europe, which was partially offset by an increase in North America.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥12.1 billion, or 3.8%, to ¥334.7 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased sales revenue in Other businesses. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥6.8 billion, or 2.1%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥12.1 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥5.3 billion, or 1.5%, to ¥352.2 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥32.5 billion, or 9.3%, to ¥383.3 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥30.6 billion, or 11.5%, to ¥296.0 billion, due mainly to an increase in operating costs in Other businesses. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥1.9 billion, or 3.6%, to ¥57.4 billion. Research and development expenses totaled to ¥29.8 billion basically unchanged from the previous fiscal year.

 

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Operating loss was ¥31.1 billion, an increase of ¥27.2 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in operating costs in Other businesses.

 

* 

Aircrafts and aircraft engines which began deliveries in December 2015 are included in the Power product and other businesses segment.

 

Japan

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in power product business operations in Japan increased 7.4% from the previous fiscal year to 363 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mainly due to an increase in sales of OEM* engines, which more than offset a decline in sales of snow blowers and other models.

 

* 

OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer): refers to the manufacturers of products and components sold under a third-party brand.

 

North America

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America increased 3.9% from the previous fiscal year to 2,811 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mainly attributable to an increase in sales of generators, lawn mowers, and OEM engines.

 

Europe

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe decreased 7.6% from the previous fiscal year to 1,008 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mostly due to a decline in sales of OEM engines.

 

Asia

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia decreased 2.4% from the previous fiscal year to 1,349 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. The main reason was a decrease in sales of OEM engines, despite an increase in sales of water pumps and other factors.

 

Other Regions

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas) decreased 7.1% from the previous fiscal year to 434 thousand units in fiscal year 2016. This was mainly due to a decrease in sales of OEM engines.

 

Geographical Information

 

Japan

 

In Japan, sales revenue from domestic and export sales was ¥3,928.5 billion basically unchanged from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in sales revenue in the Financial services business, which was partially offset by a decrease in sales revenue in the Automobile business. Operating loss was ¥98.7 billion, a decrease in operating profit of ¥308.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and a decrease in profit attributable to decreased sales revenue and model mix, which was partially offset by positive foreign currency effects.

 

North America

 

In North America, which mainly consists of the United States, sales revenue increased by ¥1,336.2 billion, or 18.6%, to ¥8,537.0 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in sales revenue in the Automobile business and Financial services business. Operating profit increased by ¥29.3 billion, or 16.2%, to

 

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¥210.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and negative foreign currency effects.

 

Europe

 

In Europe, sales revenue increased by ¥52.1 billion, or 7.2%, to ¥776.0 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in sales revenue in the Automobile business. Operating profit was ¥18.7 billion, an increase of ¥41.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses and negative foreign currency effects.

 

Asia

 

In Asia, sales revenue increased by ¥206.8 billion, or 6.2%, to ¥3,535.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in sales revenue in the Automobile business and Motorcycle business. Operating profit increased by ¥56.6 billion, or 20.3%, to ¥335.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to continuing cost reduction, increased profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix and positive foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses.

 

Other Regions

 

In Other Regions, sales revenue decreased by ¥141.6 billion, or 14.9%, to ¥808.6 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in sales revenue in the Motorcycle business. Operating loss was ¥8.3 billion, a decrease of ¥48.4 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses and negative foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by continuing cost reduction.

 

Fiscal Year 2015 Compared with Fiscal Year 2014

 

Sales Revenue

 

Honda’s consolidated sales revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, increased by ¥822.0 billion, or 6.6%, to ¥13,328.0 billion from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, due mainly to increased sales revenue in the Motorcycle business operations as well as positive foreign currency translation effects. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥67.3 billion, or 0.5%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥822.0 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects.

 

Operating Costs and Expenses

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥975.2 billion, or 8.3%, to ¥12,657.4 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥740.2 billion, or 7.7%, to ¥10,330.7 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased consolidated unit sales in the Motorcycle business, and negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥227.2 billion, or 15.2%, to ¥1,720.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased product warranty expenses. Product warranty expenses include expenses related to airbag inflators. Research and development expenses increased by ¥7.7 billion, or 1.3%, to ¥606.1 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating Profit

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥153.2 billion, or 18.6%, to ¥670.6 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses, which

 

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was partially offset by continuing cost reduction as well as positive foreign currency translation effects. Honda estimates that by excluding positive foreign currency effects of approximately ¥80.5 billion, operating profit would have decreased by approximately ¥233.7 billion.

 

With respect to the discussion above of the changes, management identified factors and used what it believes to be a reasonable method to analyze the respective changes in such factors. Management analyzed changes in these factors at the levels of the Company and its material consolidated subsidiaries. “Foreign currency effects” consist of “translation adjustments”, which come from the translation of the currency of foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements into Japanese yen, and “foreign currency adjustments”, which result from foreign-currency-denominated sales. With respect to “foreign currency adjustments”, management analyzed foreign currency adjustments primarily related to the following currencies: U.S. dollar, Euro, Japanese yen and others at the level of the Company and its material consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Profit before Income Taxes

 

Profit before income taxes decreased by ¥127.6 billion, or 13.7%, to ¥806.2 billion. The main factors behind this decrease, except factors relating to operating profit, are as follows:

 

Share of profit of investments accounted for using the equity method had a negative impact of ¥34.8 billion, due mainly to a recognition of impairment loss on certain investments in affiliates and a decrease in profit attributable to decreased sales revenue at affiliates and joint ventures in Asia.

 

Finance income and finance costs had a positive impact of ¥60.4 billion, due mainly to an increase in gains on foreign exchange. For further details, see note “(22) Finance Income and Finance Costs” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

Income Tax Expense

 

Income tax expense decreased by ¥22.8 billion, or 8.5%, to ¥245.1 billion from the previous fiscal year. The average effective tax rate increased 1.7 percentage points to 30.4% from the previous fiscal year. For further details, see “(a) Income Tax Expense” of note “(23) Income Taxes” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

Profit for the Year

 

Profit for the year decreased by ¥104.8 billion, or 15.7%, to ¥561.0 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Profit for the Year Attributable to Owners of the Parent

 

Profit for the year attributable to owners of the parent decreased by ¥115.2 billion, or 18.5%, to ¥509.4 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Profit for the Year Attributable to Non-controlling Interests

 

Profit for the year attributable to non-controlling interests increased by ¥10.4 billion, or 25.4%, to ¥51.6 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit for the year of the subsidiaries in Asia which have non-controlling interests.

 

Business Segments

 

Motorcycle Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) totaled 10,725 thousand units, increased by 3.8% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in consolidated unit sales in Asia.

 

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Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥157.4 billion, or 9.3%, to ¥1,846.6 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased consolidated unit sales and positive foreign currency translation effects. The impact of price changes was immaterial. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥70.8 billion, or 4.2%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥157.4 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥142.1 billion, or 9.4%, to ¥1,654.5 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥114.4 billion, or 9.3%, to ¥1,342.8 billion, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased consolidated unit sales and negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥20.3 billion, or 9.5%, to ¥233.8 billion, due mainly to an increase in selling expenses attributable to increased consolidated unit sales and negative foreign currency effects. Research and development expenses increased by ¥7.3 billion, or 10.5%, to ¥77.7 billion.

 

Operating profit increased by ¥15.2 billion, or 8.6%, to ¥192.1 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and positive foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses.

 

Japan

 

Total industry demand for motorcycles in Japan* was approximately 420 thousand units in fiscal year 2015, a decrease of approximately 12% from the previous fiscal year.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Japan in fiscal year 2015 totaled 199 thousand units, down 11.9% from the previous fiscal year, despite the positive effects derived from the launch of the TACT 50cc scooter and other models, which was more than offset by a decline in unit sales of other scooter models.

 

* 

Source: JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association)

 

North America

 

Total demand for motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the United States*, the principal market within North America, increased around 3% from the previous year to approximately 710 thousand units in calendar year 2014.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America increased 2.9% from the previous fiscal year to 286 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was mainly due to steady sales of the GROM sports motorcycle, along with the introduction of the CBR650F, CB300 and CBR300, primarily in the United States.

 

* 

Source: MIC (Motorcycle Industry Council)

   The total includes motorcycles and ATVs, but does not include side-by-side (SxS) models.

 

Europe

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Europe* increased around 7% from the previous year to approximately 740 thousand units in calendar year 2014.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe increased 15.1% from the previous fiscal year to 191 thousand units in fiscal year 2015, mostly as a result of the introduction of the CB650F, CBR650F and full model changes of the NC series.

 

* 

Based on Honda research. Only includes the following 10 countries: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Portugal, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria.

 

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Asia

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Asia* increased around 1% from the previous year to approximately 41,600 thousand units in calendar year 2014.

 

Looking at market conditions by country, in calendar year 2014, demand in India increased about 12% from the previous year to approximately 16,020 thousand units, due mainly to an expansion of the scooter category. Demand in China decreased around 8% from the previous year to approximately 10,650 thousand units. Demand in Indonesia increased around 2% from the previous year to approximately 7,860 thousand units. Vietnam saw demand decline around 3% from the previous year to approximately 2,710 thousand units. Demand in Thailand declined around 15% from the previous year to approximately 1,700 thousand units.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia increased 7.9% from the previous fiscal year to 8,478 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was due in part to increased sales of scooter models centered on the ACTIVA scooter along with brisk sales of the CB Shine and DREAM Yuga small motorcycles in India. Another contributing factor was strong sales of the Wave series in Vietnam.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales do not include sales by P.T. Astra Honda Motor in Indonesia, which is a joint venture accounted for using the equity method. P.T. Astra Honda Motor’s unit sales for fiscal year 2015 increased around 3% from the previous fiscal year to approximately 4,890 thousand units. This was due mainly to strong sales of scooter models amid lackluster market conditions.

 

* 

Based on Honda research. Only includes the following 8 countries: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, India, Pakistan and China.

 

Other Regions

 

Total demand for motorcycles in Brazil*, the principal market within Other Regions, declined about 10% from the previous year to approximately 1,430 thousand units in calendar year 2014, mainly due to a continuation of stricter lending standards for retail loans and a decline in consumer sentiment in line with deteriorating economic conditions.

 

In Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas), Honda’s consolidated unit sales decreased 12.9% from the previous fiscal year to 1,571 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was largely attributable to lower unit sales in Brazil and Argentina, primarily due to a decline in consumer sentiment reflecting harsh economic conditions.

 

* 

Source: ABRACICLO (the Brazilian Association of Motorcycle, Moped, and Bicycle Manufacturers)

 

Automobile Business

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of automobiles totaled 3,513 thousand units, decreased by 0.5% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in consolidated unit sales in Japan, which was partially offset by increase in Asia.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥424.5 billion, or 4.6%, to ¥9,603.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to positive foreign currency translation effects. The impact of price changes was immaterial. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have decreased by approximately ¥107.9 billion, or 1.2%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥424.5 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥508.5 billion, or 5.5%, to ¥9,757.8 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

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Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥689.9 billion, or 7.9%, to ¥9,478.1 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥491.9 billion, or 6.9%, to ¥7,641.8 billion, due mainly to negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥197.4 billion, or 17.3%, to ¥1,337.7 billion, due mainly to increased product warranty expenses and negative foreign currency effects. Product warranty expenses include expenses related to airbag inflators. Research and development expenses totaled to ¥498.4 billion basically unchanged from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating profit decreased by ¥181.4 billion, or 39.3%, to ¥279.7 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses, which was partially offset by continuing cost reduction and positive foreign currency effect.

 

Proportion of retail unit sales by vehicle category:

 

    Fiscal year ended
March 31,
 
    2014     2015  

Passenger cars:

    58     58
Accord, Accord Hybrid, Amaze, Brio, Brio Amaze, Brio Satya, City, Civic, Civic Tourer, CRIDER, CR-Z, Fit/Jazz, Fit/Jazz Hybrid, Fit Shuttle, Fit Shuttle Hybrid, FREED, FREED Hybrid, FREED SPIKE, FREED SPIKE Hybrid, GRACE Hybrid, Honda MOBILIO, Insight, JADE, JADE Hybrid, LEGEND Hybrid, Spirior, Stream, Acura ILX, Acura RLX, Acura TLX    

Light trucks:

    32     33
Crosstour, CR-V, Elysion, Odyssey, Pilot, Ridgeline, Step WGN, VEZEL/HR-V, VEZEL Hybrid, XR-V, Acura MDX, Acura RDX    

Mini vehicles:

    10     9

Acty, Life, N-Box, N-Box +, N-Box SLASH, N-ONE, N-WGN, Vamos

   

 

Although there are various factors that affect the profitability of each vehicle category, sales price is an important factor in determining profitability. In general, the weighted average sales price in the light trucks category is higher relative to the total average sales price, while the weighted average sales price in the mini vehicles category, which is unique to the Japanese market, is relatively lower, although sales price varies from model to model.

 

In general, the contribution margin of the light trucks category tends to be higher relative to the total weighted average contribution margin because the sales price is higher, while the contribution margin of the mini vehicles category tends to be relatively lower because the sales price is lower, although the level of contribution margin varies from model to model. For example, in Japan and the United States, which are the main sales markets for our automobiles, the contribution margin of our light trucks category was approximately 40% higher, our passenger cars category was approximately 10% lower and our mini vehicles category was approximately 50% lower than total weighted average contribution margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. It should be noted that we define contribution margin as an amount per unit of net sales minus material cost, which is thought to increase in almost direct proportion to net sales volume.

 

Japan

 

Total demand for automobiles in Japan*1 decreased around 7% from the previous fiscal year to approximately 5,290 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was greatly influenced by the impact of an increase in Japan’s consumption tax rate in April 2014 and a fall-back from a spike in demand prior to the increase.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Japan decreased 11.7% from the previous fiscal year to 696 thousand units*2 in fiscal year 2015. The main reasons for the decline were weak demand due to Japan’s consumption tax

 

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rate increase and the fall-back from a spike in demand prior to the increase, along with intensified competition in the mini-vehicle segment. This was despite the introduction of new automobile models such as GRACE and solid sales of the VEZEL and N-WGN models.

 

Honda’s unit production of automobiles in fiscal year 2015 decreased 7.4% from the previous fiscal year to 868 thousand units. This was mainly due to the negative effects of a decline in unit sales.

 

*1 

Source: JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association), as measured by the number of regular vehicle registrations (661cc or higher) and mini vehicles (660cc or lower)

 

*2 

Certain sales of automobiles that are financed with residual value type auto loans by our Japanese finance subsidiaries and sold through our consolidated subsidiaries are accounted for as operating leases in conformity with IFRS and are not included in consolidated sales revenue to external customers in the Automobile business. Accordingly, they are not included in consolidated unit sales.

 

North America

 

Total industry demand for automobiles in the United States*, the principal market within North America, rose around 6% from the previous year to approximately 16,520 thousand units in calendar year 2014. This was mainly attributable to stable economic conditions including the positive effects of an improvement in employment conditions and a continued increase in personal consumption, as well as an increase in light truck sales as a result of lower gasoline prices.

 

Under these conditions, Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America decreased 0.2% from the previous fiscal year to 1,750 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This decline was mainly caused by the negative effects of intensified competition in the passenger car segment and the U.S. West Coast port strikes, which more than offset the positive impact of the Acura TLX launch and a full model change of the Fit model.

 

Honda manufactured 1,810 thousand units in fiscal year 2015, up 1.8% from the previous fiscal year. This increase mainly reflected an increase in unit production at Honda’s new Celaya plant in Mexico, despite the negative effect from the U.S. West Coast port strikes.

 

* 

Source: Autodata

 

Europe

 

Total demand for automobiles in Europe* increased about 5% from the previous year to approximately 13,000 thousand units in calendar year 2014. Expansion in the market as a whole was driven by an upturn in economic conditions.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe decreased 5.8% from the previous fiscal year to 161 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was mainly due to a decline in unit sales of the JAZZ.

 

Unit output at Honda’s U.K. plant in fiscal year 2015 declined 14.2% from the previous fiscal year to 115 thousand units.

 

* 

Source: ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles (the European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association)) New passenger car registrations cover 28 EU countries and three EFTA countries, excluding Russia.

 

Asia

 

Total demand for automobiles in Asia decreased around 4% from the previous year to approximately 6,860 thousand units*1 in calendar year 2014. This was mainly caused by a weak economy in Thailand, despite a

 

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recovery in demand in India due to improving economic conditions in the country. Total demand for automobiles in China increased about 7% from the previous year to approximately 23,490 thousand units*2 in calendar year 2014.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia outside Japan increased 20.0% from the previous fiscal year to 637 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This increase was mainly attributable to the launch of the Honda MOBILIO and HR-V in Indonesia, along with the full model change of the CITY model, the addition of a diesel engine model to the CITY and the introduction of the Honda MOBILIO in India.

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales do not include unit sales of Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. and Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd., both of which are joint ventures accounted for using the equity method in China. Unit sales in China increased 1.1% from the previous fiscal year to 789 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. The increase was mainly attributable to a full model change of the Fit and introduction of the VEZEL and XR-V models.

 

Honda’s unit production by consolidated subsidiaries in Asia increased 18.5% from the previous fiscal year to 697 thousand units*3 in fiscal year 2015.

 

Meanwhile, unit production by Chinese joint ventures Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. and Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd. increased 0.2% from the previous fiscal year to 810 thousand units in fiscal year 2015.

 

*1 

The total is based on Honda research and includes the following eight countries: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, India and Pakistan.

*2 

Source: CAAM (China Association of Automobile Manufacturers)

*3 

The total includes the following nine countries: China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, India and Pakistan.

 

Other Regions

 

Total industry demand for automobiles in Brazil*, the principal market within Other Regions, decreased around 7% from the previous year to approximately 3,330 thousand units in calendar year 2014.

 

In Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas), Honda’s consolidated unit sales decreased 5.9% from the previous fiscal year to 269 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This result was due to a decrease in sales mainly in Argentina, which was partly offset by increased sales in Brazil due to the introduction of the HR-V.

 

Unit production at Honda’s plant in Brazil increased 1.0% from the previous fiscal year to 134 thousand units in fiscal year 2015.

 

* 

Source: ANFAVEA (Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veiculos Automotores (the Brazilian Automobile Association)) Includes passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.

 

Financial Services Business

 

To support the sale of its products, Honda provides retail lending and leasing to customers and wholesale financing to dealers through its finance subsidiaries in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Thailand and other countries.

 

Total amount of receivables from financial services and equipment on operating leases of finance subsidiaries on March 31, 2015 increased by ¥1,240.3 billion, or 15.9%, to ¥9,018.9 billion from the March 31,

 

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2014. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, total amount of receivables from financial services and equipment on operating leases of finance subsidiaries as of March 31, 2015 would have increased by approximately ¥257.8 billion, or 3.3%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥1,240.3 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥229.5 billion, or 17.3%, to ¥1,555.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in operating lease revenues and positive foreign currency translation effects. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have increased by approximately ¥106.5 billion, or 8.0%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥229.5 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥230.1 billion, or 17.2%, to ¥1,567.9 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥210.3 billion, or 18.2%, to ¥1,365.3 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥203.0 billion, or 19.0%, to ¥1,271.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in costs attributable to increased operating lease revenues and negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥7.2 billion, or 8.4%, to ¥93.4 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating profit increased by ¥19.8 billion, or 10.9%, to ¥202.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased sales revenue and positive foreign currency effects.

 

Power Product and Other Businesses

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales of power products totaled 5,983 thousand units, decreased by 0.6% from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in consolidated unit sales in Asia, which was partially offset by an increase in Europe.

 

Sales revenue from external customers increased by ¥10.4 billion, or 3.4%, to ¥322.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to positive foreign currency translation effects, which was partially offset by a decreased consolidated unit sales in Power product business. Honda estimates that by applying Japanese yen exchange rates of the previous fiscal year to the current fiscal year, sales revenue for the year would have decreased by approximately ¥2.0 billion, or 0.7%, compared to the increase as reported of ¥10.4 billion, which includes positive foreign currency translation effects. Sales revenue including intersegment sales increased by ¥9.0 billion, or 2.7%, to ¥346.9 billion from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥16.0 billion, or 4.8%, to ¥350.7 billion from the previous fiscal year. Cost of sales increased by ¥13.9 billion, or 5.5%, to ¥265.4 billion, due mainly to negative foreign currency effects. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by ¥2.1 billion, or 4.1%, to ¥55.4 billion. Research and development expenses totaled to ¥29.9 billion basically unchanged from the previous fiscal year.

 

Operating loss was ¥3.8 billion, a decrease of ¥6.9 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in operating costs and expenses in Other businesses and negative foreign currency effects.

 

Japan

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Power product business in Japan increased 7.6% from the previous fiscal year to 338 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was mainly due to an increase in sales of OEM* engines which outweighed a decline in sales of portable power generators.

 

* 

OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer): refers to the manufacturers of products and components sold under a third-party brand.

 

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North America

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in North America in fiscal year 2015 decreased 0.5% from the previous fiscal year to 2,705 thousand units. This was mainly attributable to a decrease in sales of OEM engines and portable power generators, despite an increase in sales of snow throwers.

 

Europe

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Europe increased 5.8% from the previous fiscal year to 1,091 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was mostly due to an increase in sales of OEM engines and lawn mowers.

 

Asia

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Asia decreased 6.9% from the previous fiscal year to 1,382 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. The main reasons were a decrease in sales of OEM engines and water pumps.

 

Other Regions

 

Honda’s consolidated unit sales in Other Regions (including South America, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania and other areas) decreased 0.4% from the previous fiscal year to 467 thousand units in fiscal year 2015. This was mainly due to a decrease in sales of water pumps and OEM engines in South America.

 

Geographical Information

 

Japan

 

In Japan, sales revenue from domestic and export sales decreased by ¥282.7 billion, or 6.7%, to ¥3,930.9 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in sales revenue in the Automobile business. Operating profit decreased by ¥35.6 billion, or 14.5%, to ¥210.1 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and a decrease in profit attributable to decreased sales revenue and model mix, which was partially offset by positive foreign currency effects.

 

North America

 

In North America, which mainly consists of the United States, sales revenue increased by ¥638.4 billion, or 9.7%, to ¥7,200.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to positive foreign currency translation effects, which was partially offset by a decrease in sales revenue in the Automobile business. Operating profit decreased by ¥154.1 billion, or 45.9%, to ¥181.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to increased selling, general and administrative expenses including product warranty expenses and a decrease in profit attributable to decreased sales revenue and model mix, which was partially offset by continuing cost reduction and positive foreign currency effects.

 

Europe

 

In Europe, sales revenue decreased by ¥57.6 billion, or 7.4%, to ¥723.9 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in sales revenue in the Automobile business, which was partially offset by an increase in sales revenue in the Motorcycle business and positive foreign currency translation effects. Operating loss was ¥22.6 billion, an improvement of ¥11.2 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to effect of impairment loss recognized in the previous fiscal year, which was partially offset by negative foreign currency effects.

 

Asia

 

In Asia, sales revenue increased by ¥438.1 billion, or 15.2%, to ¥3,328.5 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in sales revenue in the Automobile business and Motorcycle business and

 

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positive foreign currency translation effects. Operating profit increased by ¥46.8 billion, or 20.2%, to ¥278.8 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in profit attributable to increased sales revenue and model mix, continuing cost reduction and positive foreign currency effects, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses.

 

Other Regions

 

In Other Regions, sales revenue decreased by ¥62.1 billion, or 6.1%, to ¥950.3 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in sales revenue in the Automobile business and Motorcycle business and negative foreign currency translation effects. Operating profit increased by ¥2.0 billion, or 5.5%, to ¥40.1 billion from the previous fiscal year, due mainly to continuing cost reduction, which was partially offset by increased selling, general and administrative expenses and negative foreign currency effects.

 

Significant Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

Loss related to airbag inflators

 

Honda has been conducting market-based measures in relation to airbag inflators mainly in North America and Japan. This is related to the problem where the internal pressure of the inflator rises abnormally at the time of airbag deployment on the driver’s side and passenger’s side, causing damage to the container and spraying metal fragments inside of the cars. We have been continuing to focus on the satisfaction and safety of our customers and make every effort to replace those airbag inflators affected by market-based measures as quickly as possible.

 

Provisions recorded for the above warranty programs accrued during the period for the years ended March 31, 2015 and 2016 are approximately ¥120.0 billion and approximately ¥436.0 billion, respectively. These include the financial impact from the amendment of the Consent Order issued by NHTSA in November 2015, which is based on an agreement with our supplier in May 2016.

 

The number of airbag inflators subject to provisions above, which were conducted in market-based measures for the year ended March 31, 2016 are approximately 11,880 thousand units for the driver’s side and approximately 6,000 thousand units for the passenger’s side.

 

Application of Critical Accounting Policies

 

Critical accounting policies are those which require us to apply the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often requiring us to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and which may change in subsequent periods, or for which the use of different estimates that could have reasonably been used in the current period would have had a material impact on the presentation of our financial position and results of operations. Further changes in the economic environment surrounding us, effects by market conditions, effects of currency fluctuations or other factors have combined to increase the uncertainty inherent in such estimates and assumptions.

 

The following is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all our accounting policies. Our significant accounting policies are described in note “(3) Significant Accounting Policies” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

We have identified the following critical accounting policies with respect to our financial presentation.

 

Product Warranty

 

We warrant our products for specific periods of time. We also provide specific warranty programs, including product recalls, as needed. Product warranties vary depending upon the nature of the product, the geographic location of their sales and other factors.

 

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We recognize costs for general warranties on products we sell and for specific warranty programs, including product recalls. We recognize general estimated warranty costs at the time products are sold to customers. We also recognize specific estimated warranty program costs when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Estimated warranty costs are provided based on historical warranty claim experience with consideration given to the expected level of future warranty costs, including current sales trends, the expected number of units to be affected and the estimated average repair cost per unit for warranty claims. Our products contain certain parts manufactured by third party suppliers that typically warrant these parts.

 

We believe our provision for product warranties is a “critical accounting estimate” because changes in the calculation can materially affect profit for the year attributable to owners of the parent, and require us to estimate the frequency and amounts of future claims, which are inherently uncertain.

 

Our policy is to continuously monitor warranty cost accruals to determine the adequacy of the accrual. Therefore, warranty expense accruals are maintained at an amount we deem adequate to cover estimated warranty expenses.

 

Actual claims incurred in the future may differ from the original estimates, which may result in material revisions to the warranty expense accruals.

 

The changes in the provision for those product warranties and sales revenue for the years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016 are as follows:

 

    Yen (millions)  
    2014     2015     2016  

Provisions for product warranties

     

Balance at beginning of year

  ¥ 212,824      ¥ 274,231      ¥ 421,523   

Provision*

    168,994        295,035        607,646   

Charge-offs

    (104,396     (156,787     (257,574

Reversal

    (13,210     (12,171     (12,907

Exchange differences on translating foreign operations

    10,019        21,215        (31,247
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

  ¥ 274,231      ¥ 421,523      ¥ 727,441   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Sales revenue

  ¥ 12,506,091      ¥ 13,328,099      ¥ 14,601,151   

 

* 

Provisions for product warranties accrued during the period for the years ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016 are ¥168.9 billion, ¥295.0 billion and ¥607.6 billion, respectively, due mainly to the future warranty costs for product recalls in the Automobile business.

 

Credit Losses

 

Our finance subsidiaries provide retail lending and leasing to customers and wholesale financing to dealers primarily to support sales of our products. Honda includes retail and finance lease receivables (“consumer finance receivables”) derived from those services in receivables from financial services, and operating leases are classified as equipment on operating leases. Honda also includes wholesale receivables in receivables from financial services.

 

Credit losses are an expected cost of extending credit. The majority of the credit risk is with consumer financing and to a lesser extent with dealer financing. Credit risk on consumer finance receivables can be affected by general economic conditions. Adverse changes such as a rise in unemployment rates can increase the likelihood of defaults. Declines in used vehicle prices can reduce the amount of recoveries on repossessed collateral. Exposure to credit risk on consumer finance receivables is managed by monitoring and adjusting

 

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underwriting standards, which affect the level of credit risk that is assumed, pricing contracts for expected losses, and focusing collection efforts to minimize losses.

 

Our finance subsidiaries are also exposed to credit risk on equipment on operating leases. A portion of our finance subsidiaries’ operating leases are expected to terminate prior to their scheduled maturities when lessees default on their contractual obligations. Losses are generally realized upon the disposition of the repossessed operating lease vehicles. The factors affecting credit risk on operating leases and management of the risk are similar to that of consumer finance receivables.

 

Credit risk on dealer finance receivables is affected primarily by the financial strength of the dealers within the portfolio, the value of collateral securing the financings, and economic factors that could affect the creditworthiness of dealers. Exposure to credit risk in dealer financing is managed by performing comprehensive reviews of dealers prior to establishing financing arrangements and monitoring the payment performance and creditworthiness of dealers with existing financing arrangements on an ongoing basis.

 

The allowance for credit losses is management’s estimate of probable losses incurred on receivables from financial services. Estimated losses on past due operating lease rental payments are also recognized with an allowance for credit losses. Our finance subsidiaries evaluate these estimates, at minimum, on a quarterly basis.

 

Consumer finance receivables are collectively evaluated for impairment. Delinquencies and losses are monitored on an ongoing basis and this historical experience provides the primary basis for estimating the allowance. Various methodologies are utilized when estimating the allowance for credit losses including models that incorporate vintage loss and delinquency migration analysis. The models take into consideration attributes of the portfolio including loan-to-value ratios, internal and external credit scores, and collateral types. Market and economic factors such as used vehicle prices, unemployment rates, and consumer debt service burdens are also incorporated into these models. Estimated losses on operating leases expected to terminate early due to lessee defaults are also determined collectively, consistent with the methodologies used for consumer finance receivables.

 

Dealer finance receivables are individually evaluated for impairment when specifically identified as impaired. Dealer finance receivables are considered to be impaired when it is probable that our finance subsidiaries will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of the loan. The determination of whether dealer finance receivables are impaired is based on evaluations of dealership payment history, financial condition and cash flows, and their ability to perform under the terms of the loans. Dealer finance receivables that have not been specifically identified as impaired are collectively evaluated for impairment.

 

We believe our allowance for credit losses and impairment losses on operating leases is a “critical accounting estimate” because it requires significant judgment about inherently uncertain items. Our finance subsidiaries regularly review the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses and impairment losses on operating leases. The estimates are based on information available at the end of each reporting period. However actual losses may differ from the original estimates as a result of actual results varying from those assumed in our estimates.

 

As an example of the sensitivity of the allowance calculation, the following scenario demonstrates the impact that a deviation in one of the primary factors estimated as a part of our allowance calculation would have on the provision and allowance for credit losses. If we had experienced a 10% increase in net charge-offs during fiscal year 2016, the provision for fiscal year 2016 and the allowance balance at the end of fiscal year 2016 would have increased by approximately ¥4.8 billion and ¥2.5 billion, respectively. Note that this sensitivity analysis may be asymmetric and is specific to the base conditions in fiscal year 2016.

 

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Additional Narrative of the Change in Credit Loss

 

The following tables summarize our allowance for credit losses on receivables from financial services:

 

                                                                                                   
     Yen (millions)  

For the year ended March 31, 2014

   Retail     Finance
lease
    Wholesale     Total  

Allowance for credit losses

        

Balance at beginning of year

   ¥ 18,528      ¥ 788      ¥ 1,278      ¥ 20,594   

Provision

     18,688        311        1,165        20,164   

Charge-offs

     (25,610     (574     (112     (26,296

Recoveries

     9,681        94        11        9,786   

Exchange differences on translating foreign operations

     683        17        252        952   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

   ¥ 21,970      ¥ 636      ¥ 2,594      ¥ 25,200   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,563,700      ¥ 330,087      ¥ 496,899      ¥ 5,390,686   

Average balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,180,635      ¥ 347,768      ¥ 465,456      ¥ 4,993,859   

Net charge-offs as a % of average balance of receivables from financial services

     0.38     0.14     0.02     0.33

Allowance as a % of ending balance of receivables from financial services

     0.48     0.19     0.52     0.47
     Yen (millions)  

For the year ended March 31, 2015

   Retail     Finance
lease
    Wholesale     Total  

Allowance for credit losses

        

Balance at beginning of year

   ¥ 21,970      ¥ 636      ¥ 2,594      ¥ 25,200   

Provision

     18,213        349        (202     18,360   

Charge-offs

     (26,673     (620     (385     (27,678

Recoveries

     9,101        131        27        9,259   

Exchange differences on translating foreign operations

     38        3        (144     (103
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

   ¥ 22,649      ¥ 499      ¥ 1,890      ¥ 25,038   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,901,918      ¥ 260,543      ¥ 556,735      ¥ 5,719,196   

Average balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,732,809      ¥ 295,315      ¥ 526,817      ¥ 5,554,941   

Net charge-offs as a % of average balance of receivables from financial services

     0.37     0.17     0.07     0.33

Allowance as a % of ending balance of receivables from financial services

     0.46     0.19     0.34     0.44

 

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     Yen (millions)  

For the year ended March 31, 2016

   Retail     Finance
lease
    Wholesale     Total  

Allowance for credit losses

        

Balance at beginning of year

   ¥ 22,649      ¥ 499      ¥ 1,890      ¥ 25,038   

Provision

     24,148        457        769        25,374   

Charge-offs

     (31,258     (268     (64     (31,590

Recoveries

     8,839        107        98        9,044   

Exchange differences on translating foreign operations

     (2,078     (33     (190     (2,301
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

   ¥ 22,300      ¥ 762      ¥ 2,503      ¥ 25,565   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,227,816      ¥ 227,502      ¥ 589,889      ¥ 5,045,207   

Average balance of receivables from financial services

   ¥ 4,564,867      ¥ 244,023      ¥ 573,312      ¥ 5,382,202   

Net charge-offs as a % of average balance of receivables from financial services

     0.49     0.07     (0.01 )%      0.42

Allowance as a % of ending balance of receivables from financial services

     0.53     0.33     0.42     0.51

 

The following table provides information related to losses on operating leases due to customer defaults:

 

     Yen (millions)  
         2014              2015              2016      

Provision for credit losses on past due lease payments under operating leases

   ¥ 1,704       ¥ 1,869       ¥ 2,141   

Impairment losses on operating leases due to early termination

   ¥ 3,304       ¥ 4,077       ¥ 5,486   

 

Fiscal Year 2016 Compared with Fiscal Year 2015

 

The provision for credit losses on receivables from financial services for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 increased by ¥7.0 billion, or 38.2%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Net charge-offs of receivables from financial services for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 increased by ¥4.1 billion, or 22.4%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The increase in the provision for credit losses and net charge-offs was attributable to higher loss severities on receivables in our North American finance subsidiaries. Impairment losses on operating leases due to early termination for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 increased by ¥1.4 billion, or 34.6%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 due to the growth in equipment on operating leases in our North American finance subsidiaries.

 

Fiscal Year 2015 Compared with Fiscal Year 2014

 

The provision for credit losses on receivables from financial services for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 decreased by ¥1.8 billion, or 8.9%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. This decline was primarily attributable to the decline in retail loan acquisition volumes during the fiscal year 2015 in our North American finance subsidiaries. The increase in net charge-offs of receivables from financial services for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 of ¥1.9 billion, or 11.6%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014 was primarily due to foreign currency translation effects. Impairment losses on operating leases due to early termination for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 increased by ¥0.7 billion, or 23.4%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014 due to the growth in equipment on operating leases in our North American finance subsidiaries and foreign currency translation effects.

 

Losses on Lease Residual Values

 

Our finance subsidiaries in North America determine contractual residual values of lease vehicles at lease inception based on expectations of end of term used vehicle values, taking into consideration external industry

 

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data and our own historical experience. Lease customers have the option at the end of the lease term to return the vehicle to the dealer or to buy the vehicle for the contractual residual value (or if purchased prior to lease maturity, for the outstanding contractual balance). Returned lease vehicles can be purchased by the grounding dealer for the contractual residual value (or if purchased prior to lease maturity, for the outstanding contractual balance) or a market based price. Returned lease vehicles that are not purchased by the grounding dealers are sold through online and physical auctions. We are exposed to risk of loss on the disposition of returned lease vehicles when the proceeds from the sale of the vehicles are less than the contractual residual values at the end of the lease term.

 

We assess our estimates for end of term market values of lease vehicles, at minimum, on a quarterly basis. The primary factors affecting the estimates are the percentage of leased vehicles that we expect to be returned by the lessee at the end of lease term and the expected loss severity. Factors considered in this evaluation include, among other factors, economic conditions, historical trends, and market information on new and used vehicles. For operating leases, adjustments to estimated residual values are made on a straight-line basis over the remaining term of the lease and are included as depreciation expense. For finance leases, if there is an objective evidence that recognition of losses on lease residual values is needed, downward adjustments for declines in estimated residual values are recognized as a loss on lease residual values in the period in which the estimate changed.

 

We also review our equipment on operating leases for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. If impairment conditions are met, impairment losses are measured by the amount carrying values exceed their recoverable amounts.

 

We believe that our estimated losses on lease residual values and impairment losses are a “critical accounting estimate” because it is highly susceptible to market volatility and requires us to make assumptions about future economic trends and lease residual values, which are inherently uncertain. We believe that the assumptions used are appropriate. However actual losses incurred may differ from original estimates as a result of actual results varying from those assumed in our estimates.

 

If future auction values for all Honda and Acura vehicles in our North American operating lease portfolio as of March 31, 2016 were to decrease by approximately ¥10,000 per unit from our present estimates, holding all other assumptions constant, the total impact would be an increase in depreciation expense by approximately ¥5.4 billion, which would be recognized over the remaining lease terms. Similarly, if future return rates for our existing portfolio of all Honda and Acura vehicles were to increase by one percentage point from our present estimates, the total impact would be an increase in depreciation expense by approximately ¥0.8 billion, which would be recognized over the remaining lease terms. Note that this sensitivity analysis may be asymmetric and is specific to the base conditions in fiscal year 2016. Also, declines in auction values are likely to have a negative effect on return rates which could affect the sensitivities.

 

Post-employment Benefits

 

We have various pension plans covering substantially all of our employees in Japan and certain employees in foreign countries. Defined benefit obligations and defined benefit costs are based on assumptions of many factors, including the discount rate and the rate of salary increase. The discount rate is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on high quality corporate bonds that is consistent with the currency and estimated term of the post-employment benefit obligations. The rate of salary increase reflects our actual experience as well as near-term outlook. Our assumed discount rate and rate of salary increase for Japanese plans as of March 31, 2016 were 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Our assumed discount rate and rate of salary increase for foreign plans as of March 31, 2016 were 3.6 - 4.2% and 2.5 - 3.6%, respectively.

 

We believe that the accounting estimates related to our pension plans are a “critical accounting estimate” because changes in these estimates can materially affect our financial position and results of operations.

 

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We believe that the assumptions currently used are appropriate. However, changes in assumptions could affect our defined benefit costs and obligations, including our cash requirements to fund such obligations in the future. Actual results may differ from our assumptions, and the difference is recognized in other comprehensive income when it is incurred and reclassified immediately to retained earnings.

 

For information on the effect of change in the assumed discount rate on our defined benefit obligations, see “4) Sensitivity analysis” of note “(18) Employee Benefits” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

Deferred Tax Assets

 

We consider the probability that a portion of or all of the deductible temporary differences, carryforward of unused tax losses and carryforward of unused tax credit can be utilized against future taxable profits in the recognition of deferred tax assets. In assessing recoverability of deferred tax assets, we consider the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable profit and tax planning strategies.

 

We believe that our accounting for the deferred tax assets is a “critical accounting estimate” because it requires us to evaluate and assess the probability of future taxable profit and our business plan, which are inherently uncertain.

 

Based upon the level of historical taxable profit and projections for future taxable profit over the periods for which the deferred tax assets are deductible, we believe it is probable that we will utilize the benefits of these deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2015 and 2016. Uncertainty of estimates of future taxable profit could increase due to changes in the economic environment surrounding us, effects by market conditions, effects of currency fluctuations or other factors.

 

New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

 

For a description of new accounting pronouncements not yet adopted, see “(e) New Accounting Standards and Interpretations Not Yet Adopted” of note “(2) Basis of Preparation” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Overview of Capital Requirements, Sources and Uses

 

The policy of Honda is to support its business activities by maintaining sufficient capital resources, a sufficient level of liquidity and a sound balance sheet.

 

Honda’s main business is the manufacturing and sale of motorcycles, automobiles and power products. To support this business, Honda also funds financial programs for customers and dealers.

 

Honda requires working capital mainly to purchase parts and raw materials required for production, as well as to maintain inventory of finished products and cover receivables from dealers and for providing financial services. Honda also requires funds for capital expenditures, mainly to introduce new models, upgrade, rationalize and renew production facilities, as well as to expand and reinforce sales and R&D facilities.

 

Honda meets its working capital requirements primarily through cash generated by operations and bank loans. Honda believes that its working capital is sufficient for the Company’s present requirements. The year-end balance of liabilities associated with the Company and its subsidiaries’ funding for non-Financial services businesses was ¥495.3 billion as of March 31, 2016. In addition, the Company’s finance subsidiaries fund financial programs for customers and dealers primarily from medium-term notes, bank loans, securitization of finance receivables, commercial paper and corporate bonds. The year-end balance of liabilities associated with these finance subsidiaries’ funding for Financial services business was ¥6,326.0 billion as of March 31, 2016.

 

There are no material seasonal variations in Honda’s borrowing requirements.

 

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Cash Flows

 

Fiscal Year 2016 Compared with Fiscal Year 2015

 

Consolidated cash and cash equivalents on March 31, 2016 increased by ¥285.7 billion from March 31, 2015, to ¥1,757.4 billion. The reasons for the increases or decreases for each cash flow activity, when compared with the previous fiscal year, are as follows:

 

Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to ¥1,390.9 billion of cash inflows. Cash inflows from operating activities increased by ¥370.5 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in cash received from customers, which was partially offset by increased payments for parts and raw materials.

 

Net cash used in investing activities amounted to ¥875.0 billion of cash outflows. Cash outflows from investing activities increased by ¥34.5 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in payments for acquisitions of other financial assets.

 

Net cash used in financing activities amounted to ¥95.2 billion of cash outflows. Cash outflows from financing activities increased by ¥107.7 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in proceeds from financing liabilities.

 

Fiscal Year 2015 Compared with Fiscal Year 2014

 

Consolidated cash and cash equivalents on March 31, 2015 increased by ¥278.1 billion from March 31, 2014, to ¥1,471.7 billion. The reasons for the increases or decreases for each cash flow activity, when compared with the previous fiscal year, are as follows:

 

Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to ¥1,020.4 billion of cash inflows. Cash inflows from operating activities increased by ¥571.2 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to an increase in cash received due to increased unit sales in Motorcycle business and increase in collections of receivables from financial services, which was partially offset by increased payments for parts, raw materials and equipment on operating leases.

 

Net cash used in investing activities amounted to ¥840.4 billion of cash outflows. Cash outflows from investing activities decreased by ¥80.5 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in payments for additions to property, plant and equipment.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to ¥12.4 billion of cash inflows. Cash inflows from financing activities decreased by ¥342.9 billion compared with the previous fiscal year, due mainly to a decrease in cash inflows from financing liabilities and an increase in dividends paid.

 

Liquidity

 

The ¥1,757.4 billion in cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2016 is mainly denominated in U.S. dollars and in Japanese yen, with the remainder denominated in other currencies.

 

Honda’s cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2016 corresponds to approximately 1.4 months of sales revenue, and Honda believes it has sufficient liquidity for its business operations.

 

At the same time, Honda is aware of the possibility that various factors, such as recession-induced market contraction and financial and foreign exchange market volatility, may adversely affect liquidity. For this reason, finance subsidiaries that carry total short-term borrowings of ¥1,128.1 billion have committed lines of credit equivalent to ¥1,100.8 billion that serve as alternative liquidity for the commercial paper issued regularly to replace debt. Honda believes it currently has sufficient credit limits, extended by prominent international banks, as of the date of the filing of Honda’s Form 20-F.

 

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Honda’s financing liabilities as of March 31, 2016 are mainly denominated in U.S. dollars, with the remainder denominated in Japanese yen and in other currencies. For further information regarding financing liabilities, see note “(15) Financing Liabilities” and “(25) Financial Risk Management” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

Honda’s short- and long-term debt securities are rated by credit rating agencies, such as Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., Standard & Poor’s Rating Services, and Rating and Investment Information, Inc. The following table shows the ratings of Honda’s unsecured debt securities by Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s and Rating and Investment Information as of March 31, 2016.

 

     Credit ratings for  
     Short-term
unsecured debt securities
     Long-term
unsecured debt securities
 

Moody’s Investors Service

     P-1         A1   

Standard & Poor’s Rating Services

     A-1         A+   

Rating and Investment Information

     a-1+         AA   

 

The above ratings are based on information provided by Honda and other information deemed credible by the rating agencies. They are also based on the agencies’ assessment of credit risk associated with designated securities issued by Honda. Each rating agency may use different standards for calculating Honda’s credit rating, and also makes its own assessment. Ratings can be revised or nullified by agencies at any time. These ratings are not meant to serve as a recommendation for trading in or holding Honda’s unsecured debt securities.

 

C. Research and Development

 

The Company and its consolidated subsidiaries use the most-advanced technologies and conduct R&D activities with the goal of creating distinctive products that are internationally competitive. To attain this goal, Honda’s main R&D divisions operate independently as subsidiaries, allowing engineers to pursue their tasks with significant freedom. Product-related R&D is conducted mainly by Honda R&D Co., Ltd. in Japan; Honda R&D Americas, Inc. in the United States; and Honda R&D Asia Pacific Co., Ltd. in Thailand. R&D on production technologies centers around Honda Engineering Co., Ltd. in Japan and Honda Engineering North America, Inc. in the United States. All of these entities work in close association with our other entities and businesses in their respective regions.

 

Total consolidated R&D expenditures incurred during the fiscal year 2014, 2015 and 2016 were ¥625.6 billion, ¥670.3 billion and ¥719.8 billion, respectively.

 

In addition, a portion of the R&D expenditures at the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries has been capitalized, and recorded as intangible assets. For details regarding R&D expenses recognized in the consolidated statements of income, see note “(21) Research and Development” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

R&D activities by segment are as follows.

 

Motorcycle Business

 

In the Motorcycle Business segment, Honda is aiming to deliver appealing products in a timely manner that offer outstanding environmental performance and that will enable customers to experience the joy of ownership.

 

Among major technological achievements, in the small motorcycle sector, Honda developed a single-cylinder 150cc water-cooled engine with one of the best acceleration in its class that also achieves both enhanced performance at low-to-medium speeds and superior fuel economy. This engine was installed on the Sonic 150R launched in Indonesia. In Brazil, we launched the XRE190, which features the first ABS system on a Honda motorcycle, a lightweight compact system with simple structure developed for small motorcycles.

 

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In the large motorcycle sector, we launched the CRF1000L Africa Twin in Europe, Japan and other countries, featuring a newly developed compact four-stroke OHC in-line two-cylinder 1000cc water-cooled engine. Adopting the latest semi-double cradle frame and high-performance suspension, this adventure model achieves both superior off-road performance and nimble on-road handling.

 

Furthermore, we launched the RC213V-S, a street legal version of the RC213V race machine that swept the MotoGP-class of the FIM Grand Prix World Championship in 2013 and 2014. The RC213V utilizes lightweight components, being processed with accuracy and precision craftsmanship to make it a standout among mass-produced motorcycles.

 

In the scooter sector, LED headlights were newly added to the core Air Blade model in Vietnam, and fuel economy and noise levels were upgraded through engine improvements and weight reductions to the frame.

 

In the electrical technologies, development is underway toward introduction of a commuter EV based on the EV-CUB Concept unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show.

 

R&D expenditures in this segment incurred during the fiscal year 2014, 2015 and 2016 were ¥72.3 billion, ¥73.7 billion and ¥76.7 billion, respectively.

 

Automobile Business

 

In the Automobile Business segment, Honda has been involved in R&D activities with the aim of customer satisfaction with advanced technologies and competitiveness under the themes of ‘Creating New Values’ and ‘Advanced R&D Activities Worldwide’.

 

Among major technological achievements in the automobile business segment, Honda launched the Clarity Fuel Cell in Japan, a product on the leading edge of the times. This fuel cell vehicle features a high-compression hydrogen storage tank, and through improved powertrain efficiency and running energy, achieves world-class driving range per one hydrogen filling as a zero emissions vehicle. The time required to top off the fuel tank is also about three minutes, achieving convenience on par with traditional gasoline-power vehicles. It is also the first sedan-type FCV in the world to carry five passengers.

 

Honda also launched the new Step WGN, featuring a newly-developed direct injection 1.5L VTEC Turbo engine, the new Odyssey Hybrid, featuring high torque and high output while reducing its size and weight, and the new Vezel, with improved equipment to enhance its competitiveness. The Vezel is sold in countries other than Japan under the trade name of HR-V, and in Europe, a type featuring a 1.6L i-DTEC diesel engine is available, in addition to a traditional gasoline engine model. All three of the above models feature Honda SENSING, an advanced driver-assistive system to prevent and avoid accidents.

 

In North America, Honda’s largest market, the 10th generation Civic sedan was launched, striving to achieve a new benchmark in the compact car segment. The new Civic sedan was jointly developed by development teams in Japan and the United States, and its driving performance, fuel economy, and safety were all updated. Available engine types include the in-line four-cylinder 1.5L DOHC direct injection turbo engine, and the in-line four-cylinder 2.0L DOHC i-VTEC engine. Also featured is Honda SENSING, providing new value in the compact car segment. This Civic sedan was awarded the North American Car of the Year at the North American International Auto Show for the first time in ten years.

 

In the electrical technologies, development has been underway for plug-in hybrids that Honda regards and expects as the future of EVs, and development is also underway for zero emission vehicles such as fuel cell vehicles and battery EVs ahead of an expected eventual rise in demand.

 

R&D expenditures in this segment incurred during the fiscal year 2014, 2015 and 2016 were ¥524.3 billion, ¥567.3 billion and ¥614.2 billion, respectively.

 

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Power Product and Other Businesses

 

Honda has involved research and development in the Power Products Business, based on the principle of ‘Expand the usefulness and joy towards worldwide customers, by having a full understanding of the market, looking into the future and adapting business fundamentals’.

 

Among major technological achievements, Honda launched the Comame (F220), Puchina (FG201) and Salad (FF500) compact tillers in Japan. These models feature improved styling, ease of transport, and operability, and also conform to new safety standards set by the Institute of Agricultural Machinery.

 

Utilizing inverter technologies harbored in the development process for generators, Honda introduced the Power Exporter 9000, a 9kVA portable external power generator that converts electrical power from fuel cell vehicles to power communities, homes, and facilities.

 

In other areas, corporate leasing began for Honda Walking Assist, a compact and lightweight assistive device for use in walking training. It features technologies for bipedal walking gained from the development process for the ASIMO humanoid robot. Based on the inverted pendulum model of bipedal walking theory, Honda Walking Assist serves to guide the customer into efficient walking. Moving forward, Honda will work to promote its use in walking training in hospitals and rehabilitation environments.

 

In electrical technologies, R&D activities have been underway, as Honda seeks to expand electrification efforts, for products such as lawn mowers and power units for OEM manufacturers.

 

In Other Businesses such as the aircraft engines, Honda seeks to establish a sustainable business structure and make a name for itself in the industry. Under this policy, Honda progressed product improvement and cost reductions of the HF120 jet engine. Through proprietary technologies such as Over-The-Wing Engine Mount, natural laminar flow wings, and an integrally molded carbon composite fuselage, the HondaJet achieves top speed, flight ceiling, climbing ability, fuel economy, and cabin size that are among the best in its class. The HondaJet made a world tour across 13 countries, and after initial demonstrations in Japan, Europe, and South America, it received a Type Certification (TC) from the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in December 2015. Its deliveries commenced afterwards.

 

R&D expenditures in this segment incurred during the fiscal year 2014, 2015 and 2016 were ¥28.9 billion, ¥29.2 billion and ¥28.8 billion, respectively.

 

Patents and Licenses

 

As of March 31, 2016, Honda owned more than 20,900 patents in Japan and more than 26,400 patents abroad. Honda also had applications pending for more than 7,400 patents in Japan and for more than 14,600 patents abroad. While Honda considers that, in the aggregate, Honda’s patents are important, it does not consider any one of such patents, or any related group of them, to be of such importance that the expiration or termination thereof would materially affect Honda’s business.

 

D. Trend Information

 

See Item 5.A “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” for information required by this item.

 

E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

Loan commitments

 

Honda maintains unused balances on committed lines to dealers based on loan commitment contracts. The undiscounted maximum amount of this obligation as of March 31, 2016 was ¥125.6 billion. Although committed lines have been extended, they will not necessarily be withdrawn, as certain contracts contain terms and conditions of withdrawal that require screening of the obligor’s credit standing.

 

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Guarantee of employee loans

 

As of March 31, 2016, we guaranteed ¥19.1 billion of employee bank loans for their housing costs. If an employee defaults on his/her loan payments, we are required to perform under the guarantee. The undiscounted maximum amount of our obligation to make future payments in the event of defaults is ¥19.1 billion. As of March 31, 2016, no amount has been accrued for any estimated losses under the obligations, as it was probable that the employees would be able to make all scheduled payments.

 

F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

 

The following table shows our contractual obligations as of March 31, 2016:

 

Contractual Obligations

 

     Yen (millions)  
     Total      Payments due by period  
        Within
1 year
     1-3
years
     3-5
years
     Thereafter  

Financing liabilities

   ¥ 6,756,164       ¥ 2,873,706       ¥ 2,545,316       ¥ 1,075,162       ¥ 261,980   

Other financial liabilities

     146,575         74,492         33,157         24,357         14,569   

Future minimum lease payments under non-cancelable operating leases

     74,463         18,263         20,880         10,835         24,485   

Purchase and other commitments*1

     98,584         60,547         24,336         13,701         —     

Contributions to defined benefit pension plans*2

     78,212         78,212         —           —           —     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   ¥ 7,153,998       ¥ 3,105,220       ¥ 2,623,689       ¥ 1,124,055       ¥ 301,034   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*1 

Honda had commitments for purchases of property, plant and equipment as of March 31, 2016.

*2 

Since contributions beyond the next fiscal year are not currently determinable, contributions to defined benefit pension plans reflect only contributions expected for the next fiscal year.

 

G. Safe Harbor

 

All information disclosed under Item 5. E and F contains “forward-looking statements” as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Such statements are based on management’s assumptions and beliefs taking into account information currently available to it. Therefore, please be advised that Honda’s actual results could differ materially from those described in these forward-looking statements as a result of numerous factors, including general economic conditions in Honda’s principal markets and foreign exchange rates between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar, and other major currencies, as well as other factors detailed from time to time.

 

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Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

A. Directors and Senior Management

 

Honda’s articles of incorporation provide for a Board of Directors of not more than 15 Directors and for a Board of Corporate Auditors of not more than seven Corporate Auditors. Directors and Corporate Auditors are elected by resolutions of the general meetings of shareholders. The Corporate Auditors are nominated by the Board of Directors as candidates for election with approval by the Board of Corporate Auditors. The normal term of office of a Director is one year and that of a Corporate Auditor is four years. Directors and Corporate Auditors may serve any number of consecutive terms.

 

The Board of Directors appoints one President and Director and may appoint one Chairman of the Board of Directors and several Executive Vice Presidents and Directors, Senior Managing Directors and Managing Directors from among its members. The President represents the Company. In addition, the Board of Directors may appoint, pursuant to its resolutions, Directors who shall each represent the Company. Under the Company Law, a representative director individually has authority to represent the Company generally in the conduct of its affairs. The Board of Directors has the ultimate responsibility for the administration of the affairs of the Company.

 

Under the Company Law, the Corporate Auditors of the Company have the duty to audit the Director’s execution of their duties. Corporate Auditors are not required to be certified public accountants, and may not at the same time be directors or employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries. They are required to attend at meetings of the Board of Directors but are not entitled to vote. Corporate Auditors of the Company form the Board of Corporate Auditors, which must consist of at least three Corporate Auditors. Not less than half of the members of the Board of Corporate Auditors must be outside Corporate Auditors, each of whom meets all of the following independence requirements: (1) a person who has not been a director, accounting councilor, executive officer, manager or any other employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries for ten years prior to the assumption of office; (2) if the relevant person assumed an office of corporate auditor of the Company or any of its subsidiaries during the ten years mentioned in (1) above, a person who had not been a director, accounting councilor, executive officer, manager or any other employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries for further ten years prior to the assumption of such office; (3) a person who is not a director, corporate auditor, executive officer, manager or any other employee of the parent company or who is not a natural person controlling the Company; (4) a person who is not an executive director, executive officer, manager or any other employee of a company which is controlled by the parent company or by the natural person controlling the Company; and (5) a person who is not a spouse or a certain relative of (a) a director, manager or any other important employee of the Company or (b) the natural person controlling the Company. Corporate Auditors are required to elect from among themselves at least one Full-time Corporate Auditor. Corporate Auditors also have a statutory duty to provide their report to the Board of Corporate Auditors, which must submit its audit report to the Representative Director each year. A Corporate Auditor may note his or her opinion in the audit report if his or her opinion is different from the opinion expressed in the audit report. The Board of Corporate Auditors is empowered to establish audit principles, methods of investigation by Corporate Auditors of the status of the corporate affairs and assets of the Company and other matters concerning the performance of the Corporate Auditors’ duties. In addition, the Company is required to appoint independent certified public accountants as accounting auditor. Such independent certified public accountants have as their primary statutory duties to audit the consolidated and non-consolidated financial statements of the Company prepared in accordance with the Company Law to be submitted by the Representative Director to general meetings of shareholders and to prepare an accounting audit report thereon and to notify the contents of such report to the specified Corporate Auditor and the specified Director in charge.

 

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The following table provides the names of all Directors and Corporate Auditors of the Company and the current positions held by such persons.

 

Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Representative Directors

     

Takahiro Hachigo

(May 19, 1959)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1982     *3        29,200   
 

 

General Manager of Automobile Purchasing Division II

for Purchasing Operations,

appointed in April 2008

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2008

   
 

General Manager of Purchasing Division II

for Purchasing Operations,

appointed in April 2010

   
 

General Manager of Suzuka Factory for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Vice President and Director of Honda Motor Europe, Ltd.,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Managing Officer of Honda R&D Co., Ltd.,

appointed in September 2012

   
 

President and Director of Honda R&D Europe (U.K.) Ltd.,

appointed in September 2012

   
 

Representative of Development, Purchasing and Production (China),

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Vice President of Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Vice President of Honda Motor Technology (China) Co., Ltd.,

appointed in November 2013

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Senior Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

President, Chief Executive Officer and

Representative Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Seiji Kuraishi

(July 10, 1958)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1982     *3        29,400   
 

 

President and Director of Honda Malaysia Sdn Bhd,

appointed in October 2002

   
 

General Manager of Product Planning and Marketing Office

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2005

   
 

Vice President of Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2007

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2007

   
 

President of Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd.,

appointed in January 2008

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (China),

appointed in April 2010

   
 

President of Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2010

   
 

Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2010

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company

(retired from the position as Director),

appointed in June 2011

   
 

President of Honda Motor Technology (China) Co., Ltd.,

appointed in November 2013

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Senior Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2016

   
 

Executive Vice President, Executive Officer and

Representative Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Risk Management Officer,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Corporate Brand Officer,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Directors

     

Yoshiyuki Matsumoto

(January 14, 1958)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1981     *3        33,000   
 

 

Responsible for Automobile Products for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2006

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2006

   
 

General Manager of Suzuka Factory for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2009

   
 

Executive in Charge of Business Unit No.3

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Representative of Development, Purchasing and Production

(Asia & Oceania),

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Executive Vice President of Asian Honda Motor Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

President and Chief Executive Officer of

Honda Motor India Private Ltd.,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Senior Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Executive in Charge of Quality Innovation

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Senior Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   
 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director of

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Supervising Director of F1 Project,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Yoshi Yamane

(September 28, 1958)

  Joined Honda Engineering Co., Ltd. in October 1985     *3        28,800   
 

 

Large Project Leader of Corporate Project,

Automobile Production Planning Office for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2008

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2008

   
 

Responsible for Production for Production Operations,

appointed in June 2008

   
 

Responsible for Production for Regional Operations (China),

appointed in April 2009

   
 

Vice President of Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.,

appointed in September 2010

   
 

General Manager of Suzuka Factory for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Representative of Automobile Development,

Purchasing and Production (Japan),

appointed in April 2013

   
 

General Manager of Suzuka Factory of Automobile Production

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Head of Automobile Production for Regional Operations (Japan),

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Head of Production Supervisory Unit of Automobile Production

for Regional Operations (Japan),

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Senior Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Chief Production Officer,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Representative of Automobile Development, Purchasing

and Production for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Head of Production for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Representative of Automobile Development, Purchasing

and Production (Europe Region),

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Senior Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Kohei Takeuchi

(February 10, 1960)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1982     *3        19,400   
 

 

General Manager of Accounting Division

for Business Management Operations,

appointed in April 2010

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Business Management Operations,

appointed in April 2013 (presently held)

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2013

   
 

Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Senior Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Chief Officer for Honda Driving Safety Promotion Center,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   

Takashi Sekiguchi

(January 27, 1959)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1982     *3        28,400   
 

 

President and Director of Honda Cars Philippines, Inc.,

appointed in April 2005

   
 

General Manager of Product Planning and Marketing Office

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2007

   
 

Executive Vice President and Director of

American Honda Motor Co., Inc.,

appointed in April 2008

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2008

   
 

President and Director of Honda Canada Inc.,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Executive in Charge of Business Unit No.2

for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Executive in Charge of Sales Strategy for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2015 (presently held)

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Hideko Kunii

(December 13, 1947)

 

Associate Director of Ricoh Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2009

    *3        600   
 

Chairperson of Ricoh IT Solutions Co., Ltd.,

appointed in July 2009

   
 

Outside Director of Innovation Network Corporation of Japan,

appointed in July 2009 (presently held)

   
 

Member of Gender Equality Bureau Cabinet Office,

appointed in August 2009

   
 

Vice Chairperson of Japan Information Technology Service

Industry Association,

appointed in June 2011 (presently held)

   
 

Professor, Graduate School of Engineering Management,

Shibaura Institute of Technology,

appointed in April 2012 (presently held)

   
 

End of tenure as Chairperson of Ricoh IT Solutions Co., Ltd.

in March 2013

   
 

End of tenure as Associate Director of Ricoh Co., Ltd.

in March 2013

   
 

Deputy President, Shibaura Institute of Technology,

appointed in April 2013 (presently held)

   
 

General Manager of Gender Equality Promotion Office,

Shibaura Institute of Technology,

appointed in October 2013 (presently held)

   
 

Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2014 (presently held)

   
 

Outside Director of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated

(presently, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc.),

appointed in June 2014 (presently held)

   
 

Outside Director of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Motoki Ozaki

(June 6, 1949)

 

Joined Kao Soap Co., Ltd. (presently, Kao Corporation)

in April 1972

    *3        0   
 

Brand Manager, Marketing Planning of Kao Soap Co., Ltd.,

appointed in September 1981

   
 

President, Sales-Consumer Products, Hokkaido Region of

Kao Corporation,

appointed in May 1990

   
 

Vice President, Personal Care of Kao Corporation,

appointed in February 1996

   
 

Vice President, Baby and Feminine Care of Kao Corporation,

appointed in February 1998

   
 

President, Prestige Cosmetics of Kao Corporation,

appointed in April 2000

   
 

President, Global Fabric and Home Care of Kao Corporation,

appointed in April 2002

   
 

Board of Director, Executive Officer of Kao Corporation,

appointed in June 2002

   
 

Representative Director, President and Chief Executive Officer

of Kao Corporation,

appointed in June 2004

   
 

Chairman of the Board of Kao Corporation,

appointed in June 2012

   
 

President and Representative Director of The Kao Foundation

for Arts and Sciences,

appointed in June 2012 (presently held)

   
 

President of Kigyo Mecenat Kyogikai,

Association for Corporate Support of the Arts,

appointed in March 2014 (presently held)

   
 

Retired from Chairman of the Board of Kao Corporation

in March 2014

   
 

President of New National Theatre Foundation,

appointed in June 2014 (presently held)

   
 

Outside Director of Nomura Securities Co., Ltd.,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   
 

Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Table of Contents

Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Takanobu Ito

(August 29, 1953)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1978     *3        36,500   
 

 

Executive Vice President of Honda R&D Americas, Inc.,

appointed in April 1998

   
 

Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2000

   
 

Senior Managing Director of Honda R&D Co., Ltd.,

appointed in June 2001

   
 

Managing Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2003

   
 

Responsible for Motor Sports,

appointed in June 2003

   
 

President and Director of Honda R&D Co., Ltd.,

appointed in June 2003

   
 

General Supervisor, Motor Sports,

appointed in April 2004

   
 

General Manager of Suzuka Factory for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2005

   
 

Managing Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2005

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2007

   
 

Senior Managing Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2007

   
 

President and Director of Honda R&D Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2009

   
 

President and Representative Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2009

   
 

President, Chief Executive Officer and

Representative Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Director and Advisor of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Shinji Aoyama

(December 25, 1963)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1986     *3        15,600   
 

 

General Manager of Motorcycle Business Planning Office

for Motorcycle Operations,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Motorcycle Operations,

appointed in April 2013 (presently held)

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2013 (presently held)

   

Noriya Kaihara

(August 4, 1961)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1984     *3        11,900   
 

 

General Manager of Automobile Quality Assurance Division,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Chief Quality Officer,

appointed in April 2013 (presently held)

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2013 (presently held)

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Customer Service Operations,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Head of Service Supervisory Unit for Automobile Operations,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Customer First Operations,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   

Kazuhiro Odaka

(April 12, 1962)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1985     *3        5,500   
 

 

Vice President of American Honda Motor Co., Inc.,

appointed in April 2006

   
 

General Manager of Associate Relations Division

for Business Support Operations,

appointed in April 2010

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

General Manager of Human Resources Division

also responsible for Human Resources and Associate Relations

for Business Support Operations,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Business Support Operations,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Compliance Officer,

appointed in April 2016 (presently held)

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Masayuki Igarashi

(July 6, 1963)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1988     *3        5,700   
 

 

Director of Asian Honda Motor Co., Ltd.,

appointed in April 2014

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in April 2015

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Power Product Operations,

appointed in April 2015 (presently held)

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

Corporate Auditors

     

Masahiro Yoshida

(March 5, 1957)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1979     *6        31,500   
 

 

General Manager of Human Resources Division,

also responsible for Human Resources

and Associate Relations for Business Support Operations,

appointed in April 2007

   
 

Operating Officer of the Company,

appointed in June 2007

   
 

General Manager of Hamamatsu Factory for Production Operations,

appointed in April 2008

   
 

Chief Operating Officer for Business Support Operations,

appointed in April 2010

   
 

Director of the Company,

appointed in June 2010

   
 

Operating Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2011

   
 

Compliance Officer,

appointed in April 2012

   
 

Managing Officer and Director of the Company,

appointed in April 2013

   
 

Corporate Auditor of the Company (full-time),

appointed in June 2016 (presently held)

   

Kunio Endo

(August 23, 1957)

  Joined Honda Motor Co., Ltd. in April 1981     *4        14,600   
 

 

President and Director of American Honda Finance Corporation,

appointed in November 2010

   
 

President and Director of Honda Canada Finance Inc.,

appointed in November 2010

   
 

Corporate Auditor of the Company (full-time),

appointed in June 2013 (presently held)

   

 

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Name
(Date of birth)

 

Current Positions and Biographies with Registrant

  Term     Number of
Shares Owned
 

Toshiaki Hiwatari

(August 4, 1945)

  Prosecutor General, appointed in July 2008     *6        1,400   
 

 

Retired from office in June 2010

   
 

Registered with the Daiichi Tokyo Bar Association

in September 2010

   
 

Advisor Attorney to TMI Associates,

appointed in September 2010 (presently held)

   
 

Corporate Auditor of the Company,

appointed in June 2012 (presently held)

   
 

Outside Director of Nomura Securities Co., Ltd.,

appointed in October 2012 (presently held)

   
 

Outside Director of TOYO KANETSU K.K.,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

Hideo Takaura

(June 19, 1949)

  Registered as Japanese CPA in May 1977     *5        0   
 

 

Chief Executive Officer of PricewaterhouseCoopers Aarata,

appointed in September 2006

   
 

Representative Partner of PricewaterhouseCoopers Aarata,

appointed in May 2009

   
  Retired from PricewaterhouseCoopers Aarata in June 2009    
 

Auditor of Innovation Network Corporation of Japan,

appointed in July 2009 (presently held)

   
 

Corporate Auditor of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

Mayumi Tamura

(May 22, 1960)

 

Executive Officer, SVP and Chief Financial Officer of

The Seiyu, Ltd. (presently, Seiyu GK),

appointed in June 2007

    *5        0   
 

Executive Officer, SVP and Chief Financial Officer of

Wal-Mart Japan Holdings GK

(presently, Wal-Mart Japan Holdings KK),

appointed in May 2010

   
 

End of tenure as Executive Officer, SVP and Chief Financial Officer

of Seiyu GK in July 2013

   
 

End of tenure as Executive Officer, SVP and Chief Financial Officer

of Wal-Mart Japan Holdings GK in July 2013

   
  Retired from Seiyu GK in January 2014    
  Retired from Wal-Mart Japan Holdings GK in January 2014    
 

Corporate Auditor of the Company,

appointed in June 2015 (presently held)

   

 

*1 Directors Ms. Hideko Kunii and Mr. Motoki Ozaki are outside directors.
*2 Corporate Auditors Mr. Toshiaki Hiwatari, Mr. Hideo Takaura and Ms. Mayumi Tamura are outside corporate auditors.

 

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*3 The term of office of a Director is until at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders of the fiscal year ending March 31, 2017 after his/her election to office at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders on June 16, 2016.
*4 The term of office of a Corporate Auditor is until at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders of the fiscal year ending March 31, 2017 after his/her election to office at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders on June 19, 2013.
*5 The term of office of a Corporate Auditor is until at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders of the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019 after his/her election to office at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders on June 17, 2015.
*6 The term of office of a Corporate Auditor is until at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders of the fiscal year ending March 31, 2020 after his/her election to office at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders on June 16, 2016.
*7 The Company has introduced an operating officer system to strengthen operations in regions and local workplaces, and implement quick and appropriate decisions. Executive Officers, Senior Managing Officers, Managing Officers and Operating Officers under the operating officer system are not statutory positions under the Company Law and do not conform to the definition of “Directors and Senior Management” as defined in Form 20-F. The Company’s Senior Managing Officers, Managing Officers and Operating Officers (excluding officers who also hold the position of Director) under the operating officer system, as voluntarily disclosed in Japan, are as follows:

 

Senior Managing Officer

Toshiaki Mikoshiba

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (North America)
   President and Director of Honda North America, Inc.
   President and Chief Executive Officer of American Honda Motor Co., Inc.

Managing Officers

  

Toshihiko Nonaka

   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director of Honda Engineering Co., Ltd.

Soichiro Takizawa

   Senior Executive Vice President and Director of Honda North America, Inc.

Michimasa Fujino

   President and Director of Honda Aircraft Company, LLC

Operating Officers

  

Naoto Matsui

   Chief Operating Officer for Purchasing Operations

Mitsugu Matsukawa

   Chief Operating Officer for IT Operations
   Head of Production Planning Supervisory Unit for Production Operations

Tetsuo Suzuki

   Representative of Motorcycle DEB for Motorcycle Operations

Issao Mizoguchi

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (Latin America)
   President and Director of Honda South America Ltda.
   President and Director of Honda Automoveis do Brazil Ltda.
   President and Director of Moto Honda da Amazonia Ltda.

Toshihiro Mibe

   Senior Managing Officer and Director of Honda R&D Co., Ltd.

Yusuke Hori

   Head of Regional Unit (Africa & the Middle East)

Tomomi Kosaka

   Executive Vice President and Director of Honda North America, Inc.
   President and Director of Honda of America Mfg., Inc.

 

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Noriaki Abe

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (Asia & Oceania)
   President and Director of Asian Honda Motor Co., Ltd.

Toshiyuki Shimabara

   Executive in Charge of Motorcycle Production for Motorcycle Operations
   General Manager of Kumamoto Factory for Motorcycle Operations
   Executive in Charge of Power Product Production for Power Product Operations

Yasuhide Mizuno

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (China)
   President of Honda Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.
   President of Honda Motor Technology (China) Co., Ltd.

Hiroyuki Kachi

   Head of Automobile Production for Regional Operations (Japan)

Soichi Yamamoto

   Executive Vice President and Director of Honda Motor Europe Ltd.
   Managing Director of Honda of the U.K. Manufacturing Ltd.

Katsushi Inoue

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (Europe Region)
   President and Director of Honda Motor Europe Ltd.

Kimiyoshi Teratani

   Chief Operating Officer for Regional Operations (Japan)

Asako Suzuki

   General Manager of Marketing and Product Planning Division for
Regional Operations (Japan)

 

There is no family relationship between any director or executive officer and any other director or executive officer.

 

None of Honda’s members of the board of directors is party to a service contract with Honda or any of its subsidiaries that provides for benefits upon termination of employment.

 

B. Compensation

 

Directors and Corporate Auditors receive remuneration, the aggregate maximum amount of which is approved at the annual general meeting of shareholders. The amounts of the remuneration approved to pay to Directors and Corporate Auditors are allocated among them at meeting of the Board of Directors and Corporate Auditors. Also, Directors receive bonuses, the aggregate amount of which is approved at the annual general meeting of shareholders. The amounts of the bonuses approved to pay to Directors are allocated among them at a meeting of the Board of Directors. It is based on the Company’s performance for each fiscal year, a Director’s bonuses in the past, and other factors. All the Directors and Corporate Auditors contribute a portion of their remuneration to the officer shareholders’ association, purchase shares of the Company’s Common Stock and keep holding those shares during their services.

 

The total amount of remuneration paid to the Company’s Directors and Corporate Auditors during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥907 million. This amount includes remuneration paid to four Directors and two Corporate Auditors who retired during the fiscal year. The amount of remuneration paid to the Directors includes amount of wages paid to those Directors who were also Directors of subsidiaries of the Company.

 

The total amount of bonuses paid to the Company’s Directors during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥252 million.

 

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The amounts of remuneration and bonuses that were paid during the year ended March 31, 2016 are as follows:

 

    Yen (millions)  
    Directors excluding
outside Directors
    Outside
Directors
    Corporate Auditors
excluding outside
Corporate Auditors
    Outside
Corporate Auditors
    Total  
    number     amount     number     amount     number     amount     number     amount     number     amount  

Remuneration

    16      ¥ 700        2      ¥ 23        2      ¥ 135        5      ¥ 47        25      ¥ 907   

Bonus

    11        244        2        7        —          —          —          —          13        252   
   

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

 

Total

    ¥ 944        ¥ 30        ¥ 135        ¥ 47        ¥ 1,159   
   

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

The amount of remuneration paid to Fumihiko Ike during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥73 million. The amount of bonus for Fumihiko Ike accrued for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥26 million.

 

The amount of remuneration paid to Takahiro Hachigo during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥76 million. The amount of bonus for Takahiro Hachigo accrued for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 was ¥38 million.

 

C. Board Practices

 

See Item 6.A “Directors and Senior Management” for information concerning the Company’s Directors and Corporate Auditors required by this item.

 

D. Employees

 

The following tables list the number of Honda full-time employees as of March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016.

 

As of March 31, 2014

 

Total

  

Motorcycle
Business

  

Automobile
Business

  

Financial Services
Business

  

Power Product and
Other Businesses

199,368

   42,582    145,609    2,160    9,017

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

As of March 31, 2014, Honda had 199,368 full-time employees, including 132,620 local nationals employed in its overseas operations.

 

As of March 31, 2015

 

Total

  

Motorcycle
Business

  

Automobile
Business

  

Financial Services
Business

  

Power Product and
Other Businesses

204,730

   42,163    150,850    2,241    9,476

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

As of March 31, 2015, Honda had 204,730 full-time employees, including 138,942 local nationals employed in its overseas operations.

 

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As of March 31, 2016

 

Total

  

Motorcycle
Business

  

Automobile
Business

  

Financial Services
Business

  

Power Product and
Other Businesses

208,399

   44,384    152,311    2,209    9,495

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

As of March 31, 2016, Honda had 208,399 full-time employees, including 143,424 local nationals employed in its overseas operations.

 

Most of the Company’s regular employees in Japan, except management personnel, are required by the terms of the Company’s collective bargaining agreement with its labor union to become members of the Federation of All Honda Workers’ Union (AHWU), which is affiliated with the Japan Council of the International Metalworkers’ Federation. Approximately 85% of the employees of the Company and its Japanese subsidiaries were members of AHWU as of March 31, 2016.

 

In Japan, basic wages are negotiated annually and the average increases in wages of the Company’s employees in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 2.6%, 2.9% and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, in accordance with Japanese custom, each employee is paid a semi-annual bonus. Bonuses are negotiated during wage negotiations and are based on the overall performance of the Company or the applicable subsidiary in the previous year, the outlook for the current year and other factors.

 

The Company has had labor contracts with its labor union in Japan since 1970. These contracts are renegotiated with respect to basic wages and other working conditions. The regular employees of the Company’s Japanese subsidiaries are covered by similar contracts. Since 1957, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has experienced any strikes or other labor disputes that materially affected its business activities. The Company considers labor relations with its employees to be very good.

 

E. Share Ownership