10-K 1 ffkt20161231_10k.htm FORM 10-K ffkt20161231_10k.htm

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2016

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission File Number 000-14412

 

 

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation

 
 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Kentucky

 

61-1017851

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

P.O. Box 309

202 West Main St.

   

Frankfort, Kentucky

 

40601

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (502) 227-1668

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock - $.125 per share Par Value

 

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

(Title of each class)

 

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

 

None

 
 

(Title of Class)

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Yes ☐            No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Yes ☐            No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Yes ☒            No

 

 
1

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). 

 

Yes ☒            No

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

 

Yes ☐            No

 

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding voting stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2016 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $194 million based on the closing price per share of the registrant’s common stock reported on the NASDAQ.

 

As of March 1, 2017, there were 7,509,937 shares of common stock outstanding.

 

Documents incorporated by reference:

 

Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement relating to the Registrant’s 2017 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III.

 

An index of exhibits filed with this Form 10-K can be found on page 127.

 

 
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FARMERS CAPITAL BANK CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

INDEX

 

   

Page

 

Part I

 
     

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

20

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

30

Item 2.

Properties

30

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

32

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

32

     
 

Part II

 
     

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

32

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

35

Item 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

36

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

68

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

69

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

121

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

121

Item 9B.

Other Information

122

     
 

Part III

 
     

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

122

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

122

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

122

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

122

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

122

     
 

Part IV

 
     

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

123

     

Signatures

126

Index of Exhibits

127

 

 
3

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business

 

The disclosures set forth in this item are qualified by Item 1A (“Risk Factors”) beginning on page 20 and the section captioned “Forward-Looking Statements” in Item 7 (“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”) beginning on page 36 of this report and other cautionary statements contained elsewhere in this report.

 

Organization

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation (the “Registrant,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “Parent Company”) is a financial holding company which had four wholly-owned bank subsidiaries at year-end 2016. The Registrant was originally formed as a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, on October 28, 1982 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Kentucky (“Commonwealth”). During 2016, the Company elected financial holding company status. The Company provides a wide range of banking and bank-related services to customers throughout Central and Northern Kentucky. The Company’s four bank subsidiaries include Farmers Bank & Capital Trust Company ("Farmers Bank"), Frankfort, Kentucky; United Bank & Trust Company ("United Bank"), Versailles, Kentucky; First Citizens Bank (“First Citizens”), Elizabethtown, Kentucky; and Citizens Bank of Northern Kentucky, Inc. (“Citizens Northern”), Newport, Kentucky. In February 2017, the Company merged United Bank, First Citizens, Citizens Northern, and FCB Services, Inc. (“FCB Services”) into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed under the merger to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

At year-end 2016 the Company had the following wholly-owned nonbank subsidiaries: FCB Services, a data processing subsidiary located in Frankfort, Kentucky; FFKT Insurance Services, Inc., (“FFKT Insurance”), a captive property and casualty insurance company in Frankfort, Kentucky; and Farmers Capital Bank Trust I (“Trust I”), and Farmers Capital Bank Trust III (“Trust III”), which are unconsolidated trusts established to complete the private offering of trust preferred securities. For Trust I and Farmers Capital Bank Trust II (“Trust II”), the proceeds of the offerings were used to finance the cash portion of the acquisition in 2005 of Citizens Bancorp Inc. (“Citizens Bancorp”), the former parent company of Citizens Northern. In January 2016, the Company terminated Trust II as a result of the early extinguishment of debt. For Trust III, the proceeds of the offering were used to finance the cost of acquiring Company shares under a share repurchase program during 2007.

 

The Company provides a broad range of financial services at its 34 locations in 21 communities throughout Central and Northern Kentucky to individual, business, agriculture, government, and educational customers. Its primary deposit products are checking, savings, and term certificate accounts. Its primary lending products are residential mortgage, commercial lending, and consumer installment loans. Substantially all loans and leases are secured by specific items of collateral including business assets, consumer assets, and commercial and residential real estate. Commercial loans and leases are expected to be repaid from cash flow from operations of businesses. Other services provided by the Company include, but are not limited to, cash management services, issuing letters of credit, safe deposit box rental, and providing funds transfer services. The Company has minor amounts of other financial instruments, including deposit accounts in other financial institutions and federal funds sold, neither of which represent a potential concentration of credit risk.

 

While the chief decision-makers monitor the revenue streams of the various products and services, operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a Company-wide basis. Operating segments are aggregated into one as operating results for all segments are similar. Accordingly, all of the financial service operations are considered by management to be aggregated in one reportable segment. As of December 31, 2016, the Company had $1.7 billion in consolidated total assets.

 

 
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Organization Chart

Subsidiaries of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation at December 31, 2016 are indicated in the table that follows. Percentages reflect the ownership interest held by the parent company of each of the subsidiaries. Tier 2 subsidiaries are direct subsidiaries of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation. Tier 3 subsidiaries are direct subsidiaries of the Tier 2 subsidiary listed immediately above them.

 

Tier

Entity

1

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation, Frankfort, KY (Parent Company)

     

2

 

United Bank & Trust Company, Versailles, KY 100%

3

   

EGT Properties, Inc., Georgetown, KY 100%

     

2

 

Farmers Bank & Capital Trust Company, Frankfort, KY 100%

3

   

Farmers Bank Realty Co., Frankfort, KY 100%

3

   

EG Properties, Inc., Frankfort, KY 100%

3

   

Farmers Capital Insurance Corporation, Frankfort, KY 100%

       

2

 

First Citizens Bank, Elizabethtown, KY 100%

3

   

HBJ Properties, LLC, Elizabethtown, KY 100%

       

2

 

Citizens Bank of Northern Kentucky, Inc., Newport, KY 100%

3

   

ENKY Properties, Inc., Newport, KY 100%

       

2

 

FCB Services, Inc., Frankfort, KY 100%

     

2

 

FFKT Insurance Services, Inc., Frankfort, KY 100%

       

2

 

Farmers Capital Bank Trust I, Frankfort, KY 100%

     

2

 

Farmers Capital Bank Trust III, Frankfort, KY 100%

 

 
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Farmers Bank

Farmers Bank, originally organized in 1850, is a state chartered bank engaged in a wide range of commercial and personal banking activities, which include accepting savings, time and demand deposits; making secured and unsecured loans to corporations, individuals and others; providing cash management services to corporate and individual customers; issuing letters of credit; renting safe deposit boxes; and providing funds transfer services. The bank's lending activities include making commercial, construction, mortgage, and personal loans and lines of credit. The bank serves as an agent in providing credit card loans. It acts as trustee of personal trusts, as executor of estates, as trustee for employee benefit trusts and as registrar, transfer agent and paying agent for bond issues.

 

Farmers Bank conducts business at its principal office and four branches in Frankfort, the capital of Kentucky, as well as two branches in Anderson County, and one branch in Mercer County. It is the largest bank operating in both Franklin and Anderson Counties based on total bank deposits. The market served by Farmers Bank is diverse, and includes government, commerce, finance, industry, medicine, education, and agriculture. The bank serves many individuals and corporations throughout Central Kentucky. On December 31, 2016, it had total consolidated assets of $643 million, including loans of $323 million. On the same date, total deposits were $555 million and shareholders' equity totaled $62.9 million.

 

Farmers Bank had three active direct subsidiaries at year-end 2016: Farmers Bank Realty Co. ("Farmers Realty"), Farmers Capital Insurance Corporation (“Farmers Insurance”), and EG Properties, Inc. (“EG Properties”).

 

Farmers Realty was incorporated in 1978 for the purpose of owning certain real estate used by the Company and Farmers Bank in the ordinary course of business. Farmers Realty had total assets of $3.4 million on December 31, 2016.

 

Farmers Insurance was organized in 1988 to engage in insurance activities permitted to the Company under federal and state law. Farmers Bank capitalized this corporation in December 1998. Farmers Insurance acts as an agent for an otherwise unrelated title insurance company and offers title insurance coverage on property financed by the Company. At year-end 2016, it had total assets of $539 thousand.

 

In November 2002, Farmers Bank incorporated EG Properties. EG Properties is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain properties repossessed by Farmers Bank. EG Properties held a 93.4% interest in WCO, LLC (“WCO”), which was formed during 2012 to hold certain real estate repossessed by Farmers Bank and United Bank. WCO was dissolved during September 2016. EG Properties had total assets of $16.4 million at year-end 2016.

 

Leasing One Corporation was incorporated in August 1993 to operate as a commercial equipment leasing company. Activity at Leasing One declined significantly as a result of its board deciding in 2010 to reduce staff and curtail new lending. The extent of its activity had been to service existing loans and terming out residuals until it was dissolved effective at year-end 2015.

 

Farmers Bank previously was a limited partner in Austin Park Apartments, LTD and Frankfort Apartments II, LTD, two low income housing tax credit partnerships located in Frankfort, Kentucky. These investments provided federal income tax credits to the Company over a 10 year period and have been fully exhausted; however, the Company maintained its investment in these partnerships over a 15 year compliance period in order to avoid possible recapture of the tax credits. The compliance period has since ended and Farmers Bank liquidated its investments in these partnerships during 2016. In December 2009, Farmers Bank became a limited partner in St. Clair Properties, LLC (“St. Clair Properties”). The objective of St. Clair Properties is to restore and preserve certain qualifying historic structures in Frankfort for which the Company received federal and state tax credits. Farmers Bank liquidated its interest in St. Clair Properties during December 2014.

 

In February 2017, United Bank, First Citizens, Citizens Northern, and FCB Services were merged into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

 
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United Bank

On February 15, 1985, the Company acquired United Bank, a state chartered bank originally organized in 1880. It is engaged in a general banking business providing full service banking to individuals, businesses and governmental customers. United Bank conducts business in its principal office and two branches in Woodford County, Kentucky, four branches in Scott County, two branches in Fayette County, and four branches in Jessamine County. Based on total bank deposits, United Bank is the largest bank operating in Scott County, the largest bank in Woodford County, and ranks as the third largest bank in Jessamine County. On December 31, 2016, United Bank had total consolidated assets of $473 million, including loans of $322 million. On the same date, total deposits were $390 million and shareholders’ equity was $57.6 million.

 

United Bank has one direct subsidiary, EGT Properties, Inc. (“EGT Properties”). EGT Properties was created in March 2008 and is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain repossessed properties of United Bank. EGT Properties held a 6.6% interest in WCO, which was dissolved during September 2016. EGT Properties held an 83% interest in NUBT Properties, LLC (“NUBT”), the parent company of Flowing Creek Realty, LLC (“Flowing Creek”). Flowing Creek held certain real estate repossessed by United Bank and Citizens Northern along with parties unrelated to the Company. NUBT held a 67% interest in Flowing Creek and an unrelated financial institutions held the remaining 33% interest. NUBT and Flowing Creek were dissolved during November 2015. EGT Properties had total assets of $11.0 million at year-end 2016.

 

In February 2017, United Bank was merged into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

First Citizens

On March 31, 1986, the Company acquired First Citizens, a state chartered bank originally organized in 1964. It is engaged in a general banking business providing full service banking to individuals, businesses and governmental customers. It conducts business at its main office and three branches in Hardin County, Kentucky along with two branch offices in Bullitt County. First Citizens incorporated HBJ Properties, LLC (“HBJ Properties”) during 2012 to hold, manage, and liquidate certain properties repossessed by First Citizens. HBJ Properties had total assets of $4.4 million at year-end 2016.

 

First Citizens also provides bill payment services under the name of FirstNet. This service specializes in federal benefit and military allotment processing. First Citizens processes payments to unaffiliated third parties, including those that are initiated under the U.S. military’s allotment system. It processes payments by active duty and retired service members and civilians made to third party lenders that are paid through the military allotment system. The Company does not provide credit to individuals under the program. Over the last several years it has diversified its customer base to include nonmilitary payment processing, such as for unrelated insurance companies and other service providers.

 

The military discretionary allotment system in place prior to 2015 allowed service members to automatically direct a portion of their paycheck to financial institutions or people of their choosing to pay for various items or services. As announced by the U.S. Department of Defense (“DOD”), active duty service members are no longer able to enter into new contracts to purchase, lease, or rent tangible consumer items such as vehicles, appliances, and electronics using the military allotment system for payment as of January 1, 2015. Contracts existing prior to January 1, 2015 were not affected. Payments for the purpose of savings, insurance premiums, mortgage and rent payments, support for dependents, or investments were also not affected. The new restrictions do not apply to military retirees or civilians.

 

As previously disclosed by the Company, military allotment processing volumes and related revenue began to decline in 2015 as a result of the new DOD policy. This decline has been partially offset by First Citizen’s efforts to expand its base of nonmilitary customers.

 

Based on total bank deposits, First Citizens is the third largest bank operating in Hardin County. On December 31, 2016, First Citizens had total consolidated assets of $296 million, including loans of $182 million. On the same date, total deposits were $248 million and shareholders’ equity was $27.8 million.

 

In February 2017, First Citizens was merged into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

 
7

 

 

Citizens Northern

On December 6, 2005, the Company acquired Citizens Bancorp in Newport, Kentucky. Citizens Bancorp was subsequently merged into Citizens Acquisition, a former bank holding company subsidiary of the Company. During January 2007, Citizens Acquisition was merged into the Company, leaving Citizens Northern as a direct subsidiary of the Parent Company. Citizens Northern is a state chartered bank organized in 1993 and is engaged in a general banking business providing full service banking to individuals, businesses, and governmental customers. It conducts business in its principal office in Newport and four branches in Campbell County, Kentucky, one branch in Boone County and one branch in Kenton County. Based on total bank deposits, Citizens Northern ranks as the fourth largest bank operating in Campbell County. At year-end 2016, Citizens Northern had total consolidated assets of $235 million, including loans of $144 million. On the same date, total deposits were $204 million and shareholders’ equity was $24.1 million.

 

In March 2008, Citizens Northern incorporated ENKY Properties, Inc. (“ENKY”). ENKY was established to manage and liquidate certain real estate properties repossessed by Citizens Northern. ENKY also held a 17% interest in NUBT, the parent company of Flowing Creek. Flowing Creek held real estate repossessed by Citizens Northern and United Bank along with parties unrelated to the Company. NUBT held a 67% interest in Flowing Creek and unrelated financial institutions held the remaining 33% interest. NUBT and Flowing Creek were dissolved during November 2015. ENKY had total assets of $5.3 million at year-end 2016.

 

In February 2017, Citizens Northern was merged into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

Nonbank Subsidiaries

FCB Services was organized in 1992 and provides data processing services and support for the Company and its subsidiaries. It is located in Frankfort, Kentucky. It also provides data processing services for nonaffiliated entities. FCB Services had total assets of $3.8 million at December 31, 2016. In February 2017, FCB Services was merged into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

FFKT Insurance was incorporated during 2005. It is a captive insurance company that provides property and casualty coverage to its subsidiaries for risk management purposes or where insurance may not be available or economically feasible. FFKT Insurance had total assets of $3.9 million at December 31, 2016.

 

Trust I, Trust II, and Trust III are each separate Delaware statutory business trusts sponsored by the Company. The Company completed two private offerings of trust preferred securities during 2005 through Trust I and Trust II totaling $25.0 million. During 2007, the Company completed a private offering of trust preferred securities through Trust III totaling $22.5 million. The Company owns all of the common securities of each of the Trust I and Trust III. The Company does not consolidate the Trusts into its financial statements consistent with applicable accounting standards. In January 2016, the Company terminated Trust II as a result of the early extinguishment of debt issued to Trust II.

 

Lending Summary

A significant part of the Company’s operating activities include originating loans, approximately 90% of which are secured by real estate at December 31, 2016. Real estate lending primarily includes loans secured by owner and non-owner occupied one-to-four family residential properties as well as commercial real estate mortgage loans to developers and owners of other commercial real estate. Real estate lending primarily includes both variable and adjustable rate products. Loan rates on variable rate loans generally adjust upward or downward immediately based on changes in the loan’s index, normally prime rate as published by the Wall Street Journal. Rates on adjustable rate loans move upward or downward after an initial fixed term of normally one, three, or five years. Rate adjustments on adjustable rate loans are made annually after the initial fixed term expires and are indexed mainly to shorter-term Treasury indexes. Generally, variable and adjustable rate loans contain provisions that cap the amount of interest rate increases of up to 600 basis points and rate decreases of up to 100 basis points over the life of the loan. In recent years, it has been increasingly common for the Company to set a floor equal to the initial rate without further downward adjustments. In addition to the lifetime caps and floors on rate adjustments, loans secured by residential real estate typically contain provisions that limit annual increases at a maximum of 100 basis points. There is typically no annual limit applied to loans secured by commercial real estate.

 

 
8

 

 

The Company also makes fixed rate commercial real estate loans to a lesser extent with repayment periods generally ranging from three to seven years. The Company’s subsidiary banks make first and second residential mortgage loans secured by real estate not to exceed 90% loan to value without seeking third party guarantees. Commercial real estate loans are made primarily to small and mid-sized businesses, secured by real estate not exceeding 80% loan to value. Other commercial loans are asset based loans secured by equipment and lines of credit secured by receivables and include lending across a diverse range of business types.

 

Commercial lending and real estate construction lending, including commercial leasing, generally includes a higher degree of credit risk than other loans, such as residential mortgage loans. Commercial loans, like other loans, are evaluated at the time of approval to determine the adequacy of repayment sources and collateral requirements. Collateral requirements vary to some degree among borrowers and depend on the borrower’s financial strength, the terms and amount of the loan, and collateral available to secure the loan. Credit risk results from the decreased ability or willingness to pay by a borrower. Credit risk also results when a liquidation of collateral occurs and there is a shortfall in collateral value as compared to a loan’s outstanding balance. For construction loans, inaccurate initial estimates of a project’s costs or the property’s completed value could weaken the Company’s position and lead to the property having a value that is insufficient to satisfy full payment of the amount of funds advanced for the property. Secured and unsecured direct consumer lending generally is made for automobiles, boats, and other motor vehicles. The Company does not presently engage in indirect consumer lending. Credit card lending is limited to one bank subsidiary and is considered nominal risk exposure due to extremely low volume. In most cases loans are restricted to the subsidiaries' general market area.

 

Loan Policy

The Company has a company-wide lending policy in place that is amended and approved from time to time as needed to reflect current economic conditions, law and regulatory changes, and product offerings in its markets. The policy has established minimum standards that each of its bank subsidiaries must adopt. Additionally, the policy is subject to amendment based on positive and negative trends observed within the lending portfolio as a whole. For example, the loan to value limits and amortization terms contained within the policy were reduced during the most recent economic and related real estate market decline. While new appraisals now reflect that decline, appraisal reviews and downward adjustments are a continuing area of focus when evaluating credit risk. The lending policy is evaluated for underwriting criteria by the Company’s internal audit department in its loan review capacity as well as by the Parent Company’s Chief Credit Officer and its regulatory authorities. Suggested revisions from these groups are taken into account, analyzed, and implemented by management where improvements are warranted.

 

The Company’s subsidiary banks may amend their lending policy so long as the amendment is no less stringent than the company-wide lending policy. These amendments are done within the control structure and oversight of the parent company. The Company’s control structure includes a Chief Credit Officer at the Parent Company and subsidiary bank levels. The Parent Company’s Chief Credit Officer oversees all lending at affiliate institutions where the size and risk of individual credits are deemed significant to the Company. This position also monitors trends in asset quality, portfolio composition, concentrations of credit, reports of examinations, internal audit reports, work-out strategies for large credits, and other responsibilities as matters evolve.

 

The Parent Company’s Chief Credit Officer analyzes all loans in excess of $2.5 million prior to it being presented to the board of directors of the originating affiliate bank. All new loans, regardless of the amount, to an existing credit relationship in excess of $2.5 million are also analyzed by the Chief Credit Officer prior to being presented to the board of directors of the affiliate for consideration. The Chief Credit Officer reviews all loans to insiders for adherence to underwriting standards and regulatory compliance as well as credits identified as substandard.

 

Procedures

The lending policy lists the products and credit services offered by each of the Company’s subsidiary banks. Each product and service has an established written procedure to adhere to when transacting business with a customer. The lending policy also establishes pre-determined lending authorities for loan officers commensurate with their abilities and experience. Further, the policy establishes committees to review and approve or deny credit requests at various lending amounts. This includes subcommittees of the bank boards of directors and, at certain lending levels, the entire bank board.

 

 
9

 

 

Generally, for loans in excess of $2.5 million, the subsidiaries bank’s full board of directors will be presented with the loan request. This only occurs when the potential credit has first been recommended by the loan officer and chief credit officer of the subsidiary bank, and then by the directors’ loan committee and the Chief Credit Officer. When loan requests are within policy guidelines and the amount requested is within their lending authority, lenders are permitted to approve and close the transaction. A review of the loan file and documentation takes place within 30 days to ensure policy and procedures are being followed. Approval authorities are under regular review for adjustment by affiliate management and the Parent Company. Loan requests outside of standard policy may be made on a case by case basis when justified, documented, and approved by either the board of directors of the subsidiary bank, committee, or other authorized person as determined by the size of the transaction. Procedures are in place which requires ongoing monitoring subsequent to loan approval. For example, updated financial statements are required periodically for certain types of credits and risk ratings are re-evaluated at least annually for credit relationships in excess of $500 thousand, which includes analyzing updated cash flows and loan to value ratios. Certain types of credit relationships of $1.0 million or above receive annual site visits.

 

Underwriting

Underwriting criteria for all types of loans are prescribed within the lending policy.

 

Residential Real Estate

Residential real estate mortgage lending made up 36% of the loan portfolio at year-end 2016. Underwriting criteria and procedures for residential real estate mortgage loans include:

 

 

Monthly debt payments of the borrower to gross monthly income should not exceed 45% with stable employment;

 

Interest rate shocks are applied for variable rate loans to determine repayment capabilities at elevated rates;

 

Loan to value limits of up to 90%. Loan to value ratios exceeding 90% require additional third party guarantees;

 

A thorough credit investigation using the three nationally available credit repositories;

 

Incomes and employment is verified;

 

Insurance is required in an amount to fully replace the improvements with the lending bank named as loss payee/mortgagee;

 

Flood certifications are procured to ensure the improvements are not in a flood plain or are insured if they are within the flood plain boundaries;

 

Collateral is investigated using current appraisals and is supplemented by the loan officer’s knowledge of the locale and salient factors of the local market. Only appraisers which are state certified or licensed and on the banks’ approved list are utilized to perform this service;

 

Title attorneys and closing agents are required to maintain malpractice liability insurance and be on the banks approved list;

 

Secondary market mortgages must meet the underwriting criteria of the purchasers, which is generally the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation;

 

Adjustable rate owner occupied home loans are tied to market based rates such as are published by the Federal Reserve Board (“Federal Reserve” or “FRB”), commonly the one year constant maturity Treasury bill is used; and

 

Residential real estate mortgage loans are made for terms not to exceed 30 years.

 

The Company strives to offer qualified mortgages as defined by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. However, the Company will also allow non-qualified mortgages with the review and approval of the Company’s Chief Credit Officer or Chief Executive Officer of the affiliate bank. The qualified mortgage rule applies to home loans and is designed to ensure that borrowers can afford to repay loans by prohibiting or limiting certain high risk products and features such as charging excessive upfront points and fees, prohibiting interest-only loans, negative amortizing loans, loans exceeding repayment terms of 30 years, and, in most cases, balloon loans. Qualified mortgages also limit the borrower’s debt to income ratio to 43%.

 

 
10

 

 

Commercial Real Estate

Commercial real estate lending made up 41% of the loan portfolio at year-end 2016. Commercial real estate lending underwriting criteria is documented in the lending policy and includes loans secured by office buildings, retail stores, warehouses, hotels, and other commercial properties. Underwriting criteria and procedures for commercial real estate loans include:

 

 

Procurement of Federal income tax returns and financial statements for the past three years and related supplemental information deemed relevant;

 

Detailed financial and credit analysis is performed and presented to various committees;

 

Cash investment from the applicant in an amount equal to 20% of cost (loan to value ratio not to exceed 80%). Additional collateral may be taken in lieu of a full 20% investment in limited circumstances;

 

Cash flows from the project financed and global cash flow of the principals and their entities must produce a minimum debt coverage ratio of 1.25:1;

 

For non-profits, including churches, a 1.0:1 debt coverage minimum ratio;

 

Past experience of the customer with the bank;

 

Experience of the investor in commercial real estate;

 

Tangible net worth analysis;

 

Interest rate shocks for variable rate loans;

 

General and local commercial real estate conditions;

 

Alternative uses of the security in the event of a default;

 

Thorough analysis of appraisals;

 

References and resumes are procured for background knowledge of the principals/guarantors;

 

Credit enhancements are utilized when necessary and/or desirable such as assignments of life insurance and the use of guarantors and firm take-out commitments;

 

Frequent financial reporting is required for income generating real estate such as: rent rolls, tenant listings, average daily rates and occupancy rates for hotels;

 

Commercial real estate loans are made with amortization terms generally not to exceed 20 years; and

 

For lending arrangements determined to be more complex, loan agreements with financial and collateral representations and warranties are employed to ensure the ongoing viability of the borrower.

 

Real Estate Construction

The Company’s real estate construction lending has declined over the last several years due to related economic conditions. Where the Company’s markets continue to demonstrate demand, construction lending continues with close monitoring of the borrower and the local economy. At year-end 2016, real estate construction lending comprised approximately 12% of the total loan portfolio.

 

Real estate construction lending underwriting criteria is documented in the lending policy and includes loans to individuals for home construction, loans to businesses primarily for the construction of owner-occupied commercial real estate, and for land development activities. Underwriting criteria and procedures for such lending include:

 

 

20% capital injection from the applicant (loan to value ratio not to exceed 80%);

 

25% capital injection for land acquisition for development (loan to value ratio not to exceed 75%);

 

Pre-sell, pre-lease, and take-out commitments are procured and evaluated/verified;

 

Draw requests require documentation of expenses;

 

On site progress inspections are completed to protect the lending bank affiliate;

 

Control procedures are in place to minimize risk on construction projects such as conducting lien searches and requiring affidavits;

 

Lender on site visits and periodic financial discussions with owners/operators; and

 

Real estate construction loans are made for terms not to exceed 12 months and 18 months for residential and commercial purposes, respectively.

 

 
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Commercial, Financial, and Agriculture

Commercial, financial, and agriculture lending underwriting criteria is documented in the lending policy and includes loans to small and medium sized businesses secured by business assets, loans to financial institutions, and loans to farmers and for the production of agriculture. At year-end 2016, these loans made up approximately 9% of the total loan portfolio. Underwriting criteria and procedures for such loans are detailed below.

 

For commercial loans secured by business assets, the following loan to value ratios and debt coverage are required by policy:

 

 

Inventory 50%;

 

Accounts receivable less than 90 days past due 75%;

 

Furniture, fixtures, and equipment 60%;

 

Borrowing-base certificates are required for monitoring asset based loans;

 

Stocks, bonds, and mutual funds are often pledged by business owners. Marketability and volatility is taken into account when valuing these types of collateral and lending is generally limited to 60% of their value;

 

Debt coverage ratios from cash flows must meet the policy minimum of 1.25:1. This coverage applies to global cash flow and guarantors, if any; and

 

Commercial loans secured by business assets are made for terms to match the economic useful lives of the asset securing the loan. Loans secured by furniture, fixtures, and equipment are made for terms not to exceed seven years. Lien searches are performed to ensure lien priority for credits exceeding certain thresholds.

 

Loans to financial institutions are generally secured by the capital stock of the financial institution with a loan to value ratio not to exceed 60% and repayment terms not exceeding 10 years. Capital stock values of non-public companies are determined by common metrics such as a multiple of tangible book value or by obtaining third party estimates. Financial covenants are also obtained that require the borrower to maintain certain levels of asset quality, capital adequacy, liquidity, profitability, and regulatory compliance. At year-end 2016, loans to financial institutions were zero.

 

Agricultural lending, such as for tobacco or corn, is limited to 75% of expected sales proceeds while lending for cattle and farm equipment is capped at 80% loan to value.

 

Interest Only Loans

Interest only loans are limited to construction lending and properties recently completed and undergoing an occupancy stabilization period. These loans are short-term in nature, usually with maturities of less than one year.

 

Installment Loans

Installment lending is a small component of the Company’s portfolio mix, reflecting approximately 1% of outstanding loans at year-end 2016. These loans predominantly are direct loans to established bank customers and primarily include the financing of automobiles, boats, and other consumer goods. The character, capacity, collateral, and conditions are evaluated using policy restraints. Installment loans are made for terms of up to five years.

 

Installment lending underwriting criteria and procedures for such financing include:

 

 

Required financial statement of the applicant for loans in excess of $20,000;

 

Past experience of the customer with the bank and other creditors of the applicant;

 

Monthly debt payments of the borrower to gross monthly income should not exceed 45% with stable employment;

 

Secured and unsecured loans are made with a definite repayment plan which coincides with the purpose of the loan;

 

Borrower’s unsecured debt must not exceed 25% of the borrower’s net worth; and

 

Verification of borrower’s credit and income.

 

Lease Financing

The Company has no lease receivables as of December 31, 2016. The Company’s leasing subsidiary, Leasing One, was dissolved effective year-end 2015.

 

 
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Hybrid Loans

The Company and its subsidiary banks have a policy of not underwriting, originating, selling or holding hybrid loans. The Company does not currently hold hybrid loans. Hybrid loans include payment option adjustable rate mortgages, negative amortization loans, and stated income/stated asset loans.

 

Appraisals

The Company uses appraisals to value the collateral securing loans and to help manage credit risk, particularly related to loans secured by real estate. The Company uses independent third party state certified or licensed appraisers. These appraisers take into account local market conditions when preparing their estimate of a property’s fair value. The Company evaluates appraisals it receives from independent third parties subsequent to the appraisal date by monitoring transactions in its markets and comparing them to its other projects that are similar in nature. The Company’s internal audit department reviews appraisals on a test basis to determine that assumptions used in appraisals remain valid and are not stale. New appraisals are obtained if market conditions significantly impact collateral values for those loans that are identified as impaired. Internal audit reviews appraisals related to all of the Company’s impaired loans and repossessed properties at least annually.

 

The Company considers appraisals it receives on one property as a means to extrapolate the estimated value for other collateral of similar characteristics if that property may not otherwise have a need for an appraisal. Should a borrower’s financial condition continue to deteriorate, an updated appraisal on that specific collateral will be obtained.

 

Appraisals obtained for construction and development lending purposes are performed by state licensed or state certified appraisers who are credentialed and on the Company’s approved list. Plans and specifications are provided to the appraiser by bank personnel not directly involved in the credit approval process. The appraisals conform to the standards of appraisal practices established by the Appraisal Standards Board in effect at the time of the appraisal. This includes net present value accounting for construction and development loans on an “as completed” and “as is” basis.

 

Appraisal reviews are conducted internally by bank personnel familiar with the local market and who are not directly involved in the credit approval process and externally by state licensed and certified appraisers. Bank personnel do not increase the valuation from the appraisal but may, in some instances, make a reduction. Upon completion, a follow up site visit by the appraiser is completed to verify the property was improved in accordance with the original plans and specifications and recertify, if appropriate, the original estimate of “as completed” market value. Circumstances where management may make adjustments to appraisals include the following:

 

As discussed above, construction and development appraisals are on an “as completed” basis. If work remains to be completed on a financed project, management will reduce the estimated value in the appraisal by the estimated cost to complete the work and, if required by the loan balance, establish reserves allocated to the loan or write down the loan based on the need to complete such work.

 

If an appraisal for given collateral is still valid (e.g. less than one year old, etc.), but due to market conditions and the bank’s familiarity with comparable property sales in the market the appraised value appears high, management may adjust downward from the last appraisal its estimate of the value of the collateral and, in turn, establish reserves allocated to the loan or write down the loan to reflect this downward adjustment.

 

Certain appraisals, such as for subdivision development and for other projects expected to take over one year to liquidate, are required to include estimated costs to sell. For others, management adjusts the appraised value by the estimated selling costs when they are either absent or not required. Additional reserves or direct write downs are made to the loan to reflect these adjustments.

 

Loan to value ratios are typically well under 100% at inception, which gives the Company a cushion if collateral values fall. However, when updated appraisals reveal collateral exposure (i.e. the value of the collateral for a nonperforming loan is less than originally estimated and no longer supports the outstanding loan amount), negotiations ensue with the borrower aimed at providing additional collateral support for the credit. This may be in many forms as determined by the financial holdings of the borrower. If not available, third party support for the credit is pursued (e.g., guarantors or equity investors). If negotiations fail to provide additional adequate collateral support, reserves are allocated to the loan or the loan is written down to the fair value of the collateral less the estimated costs to sell.

 

 
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When a construction loan or development loan is downgraded, a new appraisal is ordered contemporaneously with the downgrade. The appraisers are instructed to give a fair value based upon both an “as is” basis and an “as completed” basis. The twofold purpose is to facilitate management’s decision making process in determining the cost benefits of completing a project compared with marketing the project “as is.”

 

The carrying value of a downgraded loan or nonperforming asset wherein the underlying collateral is an incomplete project is based on an updated appraisal at the “as is” value. The current appraisal is a compilation of the most recent sales available and therefore includes the risk premium established by market conditions. When comparable sales are not deemed to be reliable or the adjustments are not satisfactory, management will make appropriate adjustments to the fair value which includes a risk premium (discount) deducted using the discounted cash flow framework. The reserve or write down is expended upon completion of the appraisal and other relevant information assessment.

 

Interest Reserves

Interest reserves represent funds loaned to a borrower for the payment of interest during the development phase on certain construction and development loans. Interest reserves were a common industry practice when banks were more actively lending and the predictability of a sale or stabilization of the project had a high probability. The interest reserve is a component of the loan proceeds which is determined at the loan’s inception after a full evaluation of the sources and uses of funds for the project, and is intended to match the project’s debt service requirements with its expected cash flows. In all construction lending projects, the Company monitors the project to determine if it is being completed as planned and if sales/stabilization projections are being met.

 

For present and future construction and development loan requests, borrowers must show sufficient cash reserves and significant excess cash flow from all sources in addition to other underwriting criteria measures. A project’s viability is a major consideration as well, along with the probability of its stabilization and/or sale. Interest reserves are primarily used for construction on large commercial, income producing property. Interest reserves on development loans are not commonplace due to the general lack of risk-appropriate opportunities currently in our markets combined with our low desire for this segment of the lending portfolio.

 

Supervision and Regulation

The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to comprehensive supervision and regulation that affect virtually all aspects of their operations. The laws and regulations are primarily intended for the protection of depositors, borrowers, and federal deposit insurance funds, and, to a lesser extent, for the protection of stockholders and creditors. Changes in applicable laws, regulations, or in the policies of banking and other government regulators may have a material adverse effect on our current or future business. The following discussion is a summary of certain of the more important aspects of the relevant statutory and regulatory provisions and does not purport to be complete nor does it address all applicable statutes and regulations.

 

Supervisory Authorities

The Company is a financial holding company, registered with and regulated by the Federal Reserve. All four of its subsidiary banks are Kentucky state-chartered banks. Two of the Company’s subsidiary banks are members of their regional Federal Reserve Bank. The Company and its subsidiary banks are subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Federal Reserve, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), and the Kentucky Department of Financial Institutions (“KDFI”). The Company and its subsidiary banks are required to file regular reports with the FRB, the FDIC, and the KDFI. The regulatory authorities routinely examine the Company and its subsidiary banks to monitor compliance with laws and regulations, financial condition, adequacy of capital and reserves, quality and documentation of loans, payment of dividends, adequacy of systems and controls, credit underwriting, asset liability management, and the establishment of branches. The Company’s subsidiary bank, which resulted from the merger of its four subsidiary banks during February 2017, will continue to be regulated by each of the supervisory authorities identified above.

 

The Company is also subject to disclosure and other regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (as amended), as administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Regulatory authorities may initiate enforcement proceeding against the Company for violations of laws or regulations, or for engaging in unsafe and unsound practices. Enforcement powers available to the regulatory agencies include the ability to assess civil monetary penalties, issuing cease and desist and similar orders, and initiating injunctive actions.

 

 
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Capital

The FRB, the FDIC, and the KDFI require the Company and its subsidiary banks to meet certain ratios of capital to assets in order to conduct their activities. Current risk-based capital standards are based on the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision final rules issued in December 2010 related to global regulatory standards on bank capital adequacy and liquidity (commonly referred to as “Basel III”) previously agreed on by the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision (the oversight body of the Basel Committee). U.S. federal banking agencies adopted final rules during 2013 to bring U.S. banking organizations into compliance with Basel III. Under the current rules, which were effective January 1, 2015, the Company is subject to capital requirements that include: (i) creation of a required ratio for common equity Tier 1 (“CET1”) capital, (ii) an increase to the minimum Tier 1 Risk-based Capital ratio, (iii) changes to risk-weightings of certain assets for purposes of the risk-based capital ratios, (iv) creation of an additional capital conservation buffer in excess of the required minimum capital ratios, and (v) changes to what qualifies as capital for purposes of meeting these capital requirements.

 

Under Basel III, the Company is required to maintain a minimum CET1 ratio of 4.5% of risk-weighted assets. CET1 consists of common stock, related surplus, and retained earnings less certain deductions that primarily include goodwill, other intangible assets, and deferred tax assets. The deductions to CET1 are being phased-in over a four-year period beginning at 40% on January 1, 2015 and an additional 20% per year thereafter.

 

The Company is required to maintain a minimum Tier 1 Risk-based Capital ratio of 6%, a Total Risk-based Capital ratio of 8%, and a Tier 1 Leverage ratio of 4%. Tier 1 Capital consists of common equity and related surplus, retained earnings, and a limited amount of qualifying preferred stock, less goodwill (net of certain deferred tax liabilities) and certain core deposit intangibles. Tier 2 Capital consists of non-qualifying preferred stock, certain types of debt and a limited amount of other items. Total Capital is the sum of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Capital. Under the capital rules effective January 1, 2015, the effects of certain accumulated other comprehensive income items (primarily unrealized gains and losses on available for sale investment securities) are not excluded from capital; however, non-advanced approaches banking organizations, including the Company, could make a one-time permanent election to continue excluding these items comparable to their previous treatment. The Company made this election in order to avoid potentially significant fluctuations in its capital levels which can occur from the impact of changing market interest rates on the fair value of the Company’s investment securities portfolio.

 

Capital rules prohibit including certain hybrid and preferred securities in Tier 1 capital. Non-qualifying capital instruments under the final rule include trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock. The rules grandfather these non-qualifying capital instruments that were issued before May 19, 2010 (subject to 25% of Tier 1 capital) for bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of less than $15 billion as of December 31, 2009, including the Company. As of January 1, 2015, the Company’s non-qualifying capital instruments are subject to a limit of 25% of Tier 1 capital elements, excluding the non-qualifying capital instruments and after all regulatory capital deductions and adjustments applied to Tier 1 capital. Non-qualifying capital instruments excluded from Tier 1 capital under the 25% limitation may be included as a component of Tier 2 capital.

 

In measuring the adequacy of capital, assets are generally weighted for risk. Certain assets, such as cash and U.S. government securities, have a risk weighting of zero. Others, such as commercial and consumer loans, are generally risk weighted at 100%. Changes to risk-weighted assets that went into effect January 1, 2015 include: i) 150% risk weighting for non-residential mortgage loans past due more than 90 days or classified as nonaccrual; ii) 150% risk weighting (from 100%) for certain high volatility commercial real estate acquisition, development, and construction loans; iii) a 20% (from 0%) credit conversion factor for the unused portion of commitments with an original maturity of one year or less (except those unconditionally cancellable by the Company); and, iv) a 250% (from 100%) risk weighting for mortgage servicing and deferred tax assets that are not deducted from CET1. Risk weightings are also assigned for off-balance sheet items such as loan commitments. The various items are multiplied by the appropriate risk-weighting to determine risk-adjusted assets for the capital calculations. For the leverage ratio mentioned above, average quarterly assets (as defined) are used and are not risk-weighted.

 

In order to avoid restrictions on distributions, including dividend payments and discretionary bonus payments to its executives, the Company is required to maintain a capital conservation buffer of an additional 2.5% of risk-weighted assets once fully phased in. The capital conservation buffer is designed to create incentives for banking organizations to conserve capital during periods of economic stress. The addition of the capital conservation buffer effectively results in minimum ratios of 7%, 8.5%, and 10.5% for CET1, Tier 1 capital, and total capital, respectively, in order to avoid the restrictions on distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executives. The capital conservation buffer is being phased in over a four year period that began in 2016 by increments of 0.625% annually until reaching 2.5%. At year-end 2016, the Company meets the minimum capital ratios and a fully phased-in capital conservation buffer.

 

 
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If an institution fails to remain well-capitalized, it will be subject to a series of restrictions that increase as the capital condition worsens. For instance, federal law generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution, including the payment of a dividend or paying any management fee to its holding company, if the depository institution would be undercapitalized as a result. Undercapitalized depository institutions may not accept brokered deposits absent a waiver from the FDIC, are subject to growth limitations, and are required to submit a capital restoration plan for approval, which must be guaranteed by the institution’s parent holding company. Significantly undercapitalized depository institutions may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator. The Company is well-capitalized under the new rules, which require a CET1 ratio of 6.5%, a Tier 1 Risk-based Capital ratio of 8%, a Total Capital ratio of 10%, and a Tier 1 Leverage ratio of 5%.

 

Expansion and Activity Limitations

With prior regulatory approval, the Company may acquire other banks or bank holding companies and its subsidiaries may merge with other banks. Acquisitions of banks located in other states may be subject to certain deposit-percentage, age, or other restrictions. In addition, as a financial holding company, the Company and its subsidiaries are permitted to acquire or engage in activities that were not previously permitted for bank holding companies such as insurance underwriting, securities underwriting and distribution, travel agency activities, broad insurance agency activities, merchant banking, and other activities that the FRB determines to be financial in nature or complementary to these activities. The FRB normally requires some form of notice or application to engage in or acquire companies engaged in such activities. Under the Bank Holding Company Act, the Company is generally prohibited from engaging in or acquiring direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company engaged in activities that are deemed not closely related to banking.

 

Limitations on Acquisitions of Bank Holding Companies

In general, other companies seeking to acquire control of a financial holding company such as the Company would require the approval of the FRB under the Bank Holding Company Act. In addition, individuals or groups of individuals seeking to acquire control of a financial holding company such as the Company would need to file a prior notice with the FRB (which the FRB may disapprove under certain circumstances) under the Change in Bank Control Act. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if an individual or company acquires 25% or more of any class of voting securities of the bank holding company. Control may exist under the Change in Bank Control Act if the individual or company acquires 10% or more of any class of voting securities of the bank holding company and no shareholder holds a larger percentage of the subject class of voting securities.

 

Deposit Insurance

Each of the Company’s subsidiary banks are members of the FDIC, and their deposits are insured by the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) up to prescribed limits of $250 thousand per depositor. The Company’s subsidiary banks are subject to quarterly FDIC deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. The FDIC utilizes a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums based upon a risk matrix that takes into account a bank’s capital level and supervisory rating.

 

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) required changes to a number of components of the FDIC insurance assessment that was effective April 1, 2011. The Dodd-Frank Act required the FDIC to adopt a new DIF restoration plan to increases its reserve ratio to 1.35% from 1.15% of insured deposits by 2020. Under the restoration plan, the FDIC adopted regulations that redefined the assessment base as average consolidated assets less average tangible equity (as defined) during the assessment period. Since the new assessment base resulted in a larger overall base when compared to the previous domestic deposits base methodology, overall assessment rates were lowered and the secured liability adjustment was eliminated from the rate calculation in an attempt to make the new assessments revenue neutral. At least semi-annually, the FDIC updates its loss and income projections for the DIF and, if needed, increase or decrease assessment rates. In establishing assessments, the FDIC is required to offset the effect of the higher reserve ratio against insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion.

 

 
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To determine the Company’s deposit insurance premiums, each of its subsidiary banks compute their respective assessment base, composed of average consolidated assets less average tangible equity (as defined), then applying the applicable assessment rate. Graduated assessment rate decreases are set to phase in when the DIF reserve ratio exceeds 1.15%, 2.0%, and 2.5%. On June 30, 2016, the DIF reserve ratio surpassed the goal of 1.15%. As a result, assessment rates were lowered and the risk categories used in determining assessment rates were eliminated and assessment rates were established based on supervisory ratings (“CAMELS ratings”). Effective July 1, 2016, assessment rates range from 1.5 to 16 basis points for banks designated in the lowest risk category and between 11 to 30 basis points for banks designated in the highest risk category. The range of assessment rates applicable to each category varies depending on the level of the banks unsecured debt and brokered deposits.

 

The FDIC may terminate insurance for depository institutions upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound financial condition, or has violated an applicable law, rule, regulation, order, or condition imposed by the FDIC.

 

In addition to deposit insurance assessments, all FDIC insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation (“FICO”), a mixed-ownership government corporation established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 possessing assessment powers in addition to the FDIC. The FDIC acts as a collection agent for FICO, whose sole purpose was to function as a financing vehicle for the now defunct Federal Savings & Loan Insurance Corporation. FICO assessment rates are determined quarterly and will continue until the FICO bonds mature in 2017 through 2019.

 

Other Statutes and Regulations

The Company and its subsidiary banks are subject to numerous other statutes and regulations affecting their activities. Some of the more important are summarized below.

 

Anti-Money Laundering. Financial institutions are required to establish anti-money laundering programs that must include the development of internal policies, procedures, and controls; the designation of a compliance officer; an ongoing employee training program; and an independent audit function to test the performance of the programs. The Company and its subsidiary banks are also subject to prohibitions against specified financial transactions and account relationships as well as enhanced due diligence and “know your customer” standards in their dealings with foreign financial institutions and foreign customers. Financial institutions must take reasonable steps to conduct enhanced scrutiny of account relationships in order to guard against money laundering and to report any suspicious transactions. Recent laws provide law enforcement authorities with increased access to financial information maintained by banks.

 

Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. The Company’s subsidiary banks are limited in their ability to lend funds or engage in transactions with the Company or other nonbank affiliates of the Company, and all transactions must be on an arm’s-length basis and on terms at least as favorable to the subsidiary bank as prevailing at the time for transactions with unaffiliated companies.

 

Dividends. The Parent Company’s principal source of cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends to its shareholders, is the dividends that it receives from its subsidiary banks. Statutory and regulatory limitations apply to the subsidiary banks’ payments of dividends to the Parent Company as well as to the Parent Company’s payment of dividends to its shareholders. A depository institution may not pay any dividend if payment would cause it to become undercapitalized or if it already is undercapitalized. The federal banking agencies may prevent the payment of a dividend if they determine that the payment would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Moreover, the federal agencies have issued policy statements that provide financial holding companies and insured banks should generally only pay dividends out of current operating earnings.

 

Community Reinvestment Act. The Company’s subsidiary banks are subject to the provisions of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”), as amended, and the federal banking agencies’ related regulations, stating that all banks have a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operations, to help meet the credit needs of the communities they serve. The CRA requires a depository institution’s primary federal regulator, in connection with its examination of the institution or its evaluation of certain regulatory applications, to evaluate the institution’s record in assessing and meeting the credit needs of the community served by that institution, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods. The regulatory agency’s assessment of the institution’s record is made available to the public. Failure of an institution to receive at least a “satisfactory” rating on a CRA examination could prevent a bank or its parent company from engaging in certain activities such as establishing de novo branches and branch relocations or acquiring other financial institutions.

 

 
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Insurance Regulation. The Company’s subsidiaries that may underwrite or sell insurance products are subject to regulation by the Kentucky Department of Insurance.

 

Consumer Regulation. The activities of the Company and its bank subsidiaries are subject to a variety of statutes and regulations designed to protect consumers. These laws and regulations:

 

 

limit the interest and other charges collected or contracted for by all of the Company’s subsidiary banks;

 

govern disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;

 

require financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the community it serves;

 

prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or other prohibited factors in extending credit;

 

require all of the Company’s subsidiary banks to safeguard the personal non-public information of its customers, provide annual notices to consumers regarding the usage and sharing of such information and limit disclosure of such information to third parties except under specific circumstances; and

 

govern the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies.

 

The deposit operations of the Company’s subsidiary banks are also subject to laws and regulations that:

 

 

require disclosure of the interest rate and other terms of consumer deposit accounts;

 

impose a duty to maintain the confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribe procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records; and

 

govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services.

 

Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (“EESA”). EESA was signed into law during 2008 as a measure to stabilize and provide liquidity to the U.S. financial markets. Under EESA, the Troubled Asset Relief Program (“TARP”) was created. TARP granted the U.S. Treasury (“Treasury”) authority to, among other things, invest in financial institutions and purchase troubled assets in an aggregate amount up to $700 billion.

 

In connection with TARP, the Capital Purchase Program (“CPP”) was launched on October 14, 2008. Under the CPP, the Treasury announced a plan to use up to $250 billion of TARP funds to purchase equity stakes in certain eligible financial institutions, including the Company. The Company received $30.0 million of equity capital under the CPP in January 2009. In the transaction, the Company issued 30,000 shares of fixed-rate cumulative perpetual preferred stock to the Treasury. The terms of the preferred shares required the Company to pay a 5% cumulative dividend during the first five years the shares were outstanding, resetting to 9% thereafter, and includes certain restrictions on dividend payments of lower ranking equity. The Company repurchased 20,000 of its outstanding preferred shares during 2014 for $20.0 million and repurchased the remaining 10,000 shared during 2015 for $10.0 million. No additional debt or equity was issued in connection with any of the shares redeemed.

 

During June 2012, the Treasury conducted an auction as part of ongoing efforts to wind down and recover its remaining CPP investments. The auction included preferred stock positions held by the Treasury of seven banks participating in the CPP, including the $30.0 million investment in the Company’s Series A preferred stock. The Treasury was successful in selling all of its investment in the Company’s Series A preferred stock to private investors through a registered public offering. The Company received no proceeds as part of the transaction.

 

 
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Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in July 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act implements far-reaching changes to the regulation of the financial services industry, including provisions that:

 

 

centralize responsibility for consumer financial protection by creating the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, a new agency responsible for implementing, examining, and enforcing compliance with federal consumer financial laws;

 

apply the same leverage and risk-based capital requirements that apply to insured depository institutions to bank holding companies;

 

require the federal banking regulators to seek to make their capital requirements countercyclical, so that capital requirements increase in times of economic expansion and decreases in times of economic contraction;

 

change the assessment base for federal deposit insurance from the amount of insured deposits to consolidated assets less tangible capital;

 

provide for new disclosure and other requirements relating to executive compensation and corporate governance;

 

make permanent the $250 thousand limit for federal deposit insurance;

 

repeal the federal prohibitions on the payment of interest on commercial demand deposits, thereby permitting depository institutions to pay interest on business transaction and other accounts;

 

increase the authority of the Federal Reserve to examine non-bank subsidiaries; and

 

codify and expand the “source of strength” doctrine as a statutory requirement. The source of strength doctrine represents the long held policy view by the Federal Reserve that a bank holding company should serve as a source of financial strength for its subsidiary banks. The Parent Company, under this requirement, is expected to commit resources to support a distressed subsidiary bank.

 

Volcker Rule. The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits insured depository institutions and their holding companies from engaging in proprietary trading except in limited circumstances, and prohibits certain ownership interests in and relationships with private equity and hedge funds (commonly referred to as the “Volcker Rule”). On December 10, 2013, U.S. financial regulators, including the Federal Reserve, adopted final rules to implement the Volcker Rule. The final rules were effective April 1, 2014, but the conformance period to bring activities and investments into compliance was extended to July 21, 2015. The Company currently does not have any impermissible holdings under the rule.

 

Competition

The Company and its subsidiaries face vigorous competition for banking services from various types of businesses other than commercial banks and savings and loan associations. These include, but are not limited to, credit unions, mortgage lenders, finance companies, insurance companies, stock and bond brokers, financial planning firms, and department stores, which compete for one or more lines of banking business. The Company also competes for commercial and retail business not only with banks in Central and Northern Kentucky, but with banking organizations from Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina which have banking subsidiaries located in Kentucky. These competing businesses may possess greater resources and offer a greater number of branch locations, higher lending limits, and may offer other services not provided by the Company. In addition, the Company’s competitors that are not depository institutions are generally not subject to the extensive regulations that apply to the Company and its subsidiary banks. As financial services become increasingly dependent on technology, permitting transactions to be conducted by telephone, mobile banking, and the internet, non-depository institutions are able to attract funds and provide lending and other financial services without offices located in our market area. The Company has attempted to offset some of the advantages of its competitors by arranging participations with other banks for loans above its legal lending limits, expanding into additional markets and product lines, and entering into third party arrangements to better compete for its targeted customer base. Competition from other providers of financial services may reduce or limit the Company’s profitability and market share.

 

The Company competes primarily on the basis of quality of services, interest rates and fees charged on loans, and the rates of interest paid on deposit funds. The business of the Company is not dependent upon any one customer or on a few customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers would not have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

No material portion of the business of the Company is seasonal. No material portion of the business of the Company is subject to renegotiation of profits or termination of contracts or subcontracts at the election of the government, though certain contracts are subject to such renegotiation or termination.

 

 
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The Company is not engaged in operations in foreign countries.

 

Employees

As of December 31, 2016, the Company had 472 full-time equivalent employees. Employees are offered a variety of benefits. A salary savings plan, group life insurance, hospitalization, dental, vision, and major medical insurance along with postretirement health insurance benefits are available to eligible personnel. The Company maintains two postretirement health insurance benefit plans. Employees hired on or after January 1, 2016 are not eligible for the benefits related to those plans. Employees are not represented by a union. Management and employee relations are considered good.

 

The Company previously maintained a Stock Option Plan (“Plan”), which granted certain eligible employees the option to purchase a limited number of the Company’s common stock. The Plan included the conditions and terms that the grantee must meet in order to exercise the options. All unexercised options granted under the Plan expired during 2014 and the Company no longer grants options under the Plan. There were no options exercised or granted in any year in the three-year periods ending December 31, 2016, nor were there any modifications or cash paid to settle stock option awards during those periods.

 

In 2004, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). The ESPP was subsequently approved by the Company’s shareholders and became effective July 1, 2004. Under the ESPP, at the discretion of the Board of Directors, employees of the Company and its subsidiaries can purchase Company common stock at a discounted price and without payment of brokerage costs or other fees and in the process benefit from the favorable tax treatment afforded such plans pursuant to Section 423 of the Internal Revenue Code.

 

Available Information

The Company makes available free of charge through its website (www.farmerscapital.com) its Code of Ethics and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such material with the SEC. Any amendments to the Code of Ethics and any waiver applicable to the Company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer are also posted on the website.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

Investing in the Company’s common stock is subject to risks inherent to the Company’s business. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect the Company are described below. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this report. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or focused on or that management currently deems immaterial may also impair the Company’s business operations. This report is qualified in its entirety by these risk factors.

 

If any of the following risks actually occur, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the market price of the Company’s common stock could decline significantly, and shareholders could lose all or part of their investment.

 

The Company operates in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in federal and state laws and regulations.

 

The Company is subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and examination by federal and state banking authorities. Any change in applicable regulations or laws could have a substantial adverse impact on the Company and its operations. Additional legislation and regulations that could significantly affect the Company’s powers, authority, and operations may be enacted or adopted in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. Further, in the performance of their supervisory duties and enforcement powers, the Company’s banking regulators have significant discretion and authority to prevent or remedy practices they deem as unsafe or unsound or violations of law. The exercise of regulatory authority may have a negative impact on the Company’s operations, which may be material to its results of operations and financial condition.

 

 
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The Company in the future may become subject to additional supervisory actions and/or enhanced regulation that could have a material negative effect on its business, operating flexibility, financial condition and the value of its common stock.

 

Under federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to the safety and soundness of insured depository institutions, the KDFI (for state-chartered banks), the Federal Reserve (for bank holding companies), and the FDIC as the insurer of bank deposits, have the authority to compel or restrict certain actions on the Company’s part if they determine that the Company has insufficient capital or is otherwise operating in a manner that may be deemed to be inconsistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under this authority, bank regulators can require the Company to enter into informal or formal enforcement orders, including board resolutions, memoranda of understanding, written agreements and consent or cease and desist orders, pursuant to which the Company would be required to take identified corrective actions to address cited concerns and to refrain from taking certain actions.

 

If the Company is unable to comply with the terms of future regulatory orders to which it may become subject, then it could become subject to additional, heightened supervisory actions and orders, possibly including cease and desist orders, prompt corrective actions, and/or other regulatory enforcement actions. If the Company’s regulators were to take such additional supervisory actions, then we could, among other things, become subject to significant restrictions on our ability to develop any new business, as well as restrictions on our existing business, and we could be required to raise additional capital, dispose of certain assets and liabilities within a prescribed period of time, or both. If the Company’s bank is unable to comply with regulatory requirements, it could ultimately face failure. The terms of any such supervisory action could have a material negative effect on our business, operating flexibility, financial condition and the value of our common stock.

 

Our nonperforming assets adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and take significant management time to resolve.

 

Nonperforming assets are made up of nonperforming loans, other real estate owned, and other foreclosed assets. Nonperforming loans include nonaccrual loans, performing restructured loans, and loans 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest. Nonperforming assets adversely affect the Company’s net income in several ways. The Company does not record interest income on nonaccrual loans or other real estate owned, thereby adversely affecting interest income. When the Company repossesses collateral in foreclosures and similar proceedings, it is required to record the property at its fair value less estimated selling costs, which typically decreases net income. The Company’s level of nonperforming assets have improved considerably in the last few years, but remain elevated at 2.4% of total assets at year-end 2016. However, 57% of nonperforming assets consist of performing restructured loans.

 

Nonperforming loans and other real estate owned also increase our risk profile and the amount of capital the Company’s regulators believe is appropriate in light of such risks. While the Company seeks to reduce its problem loans through workouts, restructurings, and otherwise, decreases in the value of these assets, the underlying collateral, or our borrowers’ performance or financial conditions have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. Moreover, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant time commitments from management of our bank, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities. There can be no assurance that the Company will not experience further increases in nonperforming loans in the future. If economic conditions do not improve or worsen in our markets, the Company could continue to incur additional losses relating to an increase in nonperforming assets.

 

Losses from loan defaults may exceed the allowance established for that purpose, which will have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.

 

Volatility and deterioration in the broader economy increase the Company’s risk of credit losses, which could have a material adverse effect on its operating results. If a significant number of loans in the Company’s portfolio are not repaid, it would have an adverse effect on its earnings and overall financial condition. The Company’s bank subsidiary maintains an allowance for loan losses to provide for losses inherent in the loan portfolio. The allowance for loan losses reflects management’s best estimate of probable incurred credit losses in their loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. This evaluation is primarily based upon a review of the bank’s historical loan loss experience, known risks contained in the bank’s loan portfolio, composition and growth of the bank’s loan portfolio, and other economic and qualitative factors. Additionally, the bank’s regulators may require additional provision for the loan portfolio in connection with their examinations, agreements, or orders. The determination of an appropriate level of loan loss allowance is an inherently difficult process and is based on numerous assumptions. As a result, the Company’s allowance for loan losses may be inadequate to cover actual losses in its loan portfolio. Consequently, the Company risks having additional future provision for loan losses that may materially affect its earnings.

 

 
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If the Company’s local markets experience a prolonged recession or economic downturn, it may be required to make further increases in its allowance for loan losses and to charge off additional loans, which would adversely affect its results of operations and capital.

 

Substantially all of the Company’s loans are to businesses and individuals located in Kentucky. A downturn or prolonged decline in the Central and Northern Kentucky economies could negatively impact demand for the Company’s products and services, the ability of customers to repay their loans, collateral values securing loans, and the stability of funding sources. This could result in a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Further, approximately 66% of the Company’s investments in municipal bonds are issued by political subdivisions or agencies located in Kentucky.

 

Generally, the Company’s nonperforming loans and assets reflect operating difficulties of individual borrowers. Deterioration in real estate and other financial markets could adversely impact the Company’s financial performance. If trends in the housing and real estate markets worsen, the Company could experience an increase in delinquencies and credit losses. As a result, the Company may be required to increase its provision for loan losses and charge off additional loans in the future, which could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations, perhaps materially. If additional provisions and charge-offs cause the Company to experience losses, it may be required to contribute additional capital to the bank to maintain capital ratios required by regulators.

 

The Company’s exposure to credit risk is increased by its real estate development lending.

 

Real estate development lending has historically been considered to be higher credit risk than that of other types of lending, such as for single-family residential properties. At year-end 2016, $6.4 million or 5% of the outstanding balance of our real estate development loans was classified as impaired. Real estate development loans typically involve larger loan balances to a single borrower or related borrowers. These loans can be affected by adverse conditions in real estate markets or the economy in general because commercial real estate borrowers’ ability to repay their loans depends on successful development and, in most cases, sale of the underlying property. These loans also involve greater risk because they generally are not fully amortized over the loan period, but have a balloon payment due at maturity of the loan. A borrower’s ability to make a balloon payment typically depends on being able to either refinance the loan or timely sell the underlying property. In the current economic environment, although improving, the ability of borrowers to refinance or sell newly developed property or vacant land remains challenging. If the real estate markets were to worsen or not improve, the Company likely will experience increased credit losses and require additional provisions to our allowance for loan losses, which would adversely impact the Company’s earnings and financial condition.

 

Changes in consumer use of banks and changes in consumer spending and saving habits could adversely affect our financial results.

 

Technology and other changes now allow many consumers to complete financial transactions without using banks. For example, consumers can pay bills and transfer funds directly without going through a bank. This “disintermediation” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and income generated from those deposits. In addition, changes in consumer spending and saving habits could adversely affect the Company’s operations, and it may be unable to timely develop competitive new products and services in response to these changes that are accepted by new and existing customers.

 

 
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Maintaining or increasing the Company’s market share may depend on lowering prices and market acceptance of new products and services.

 

The Company’s success depends, in part, on its ability to adapt products and services to evolving industry standards. There is increasing pressure to provide products and services at lower prices. Lower prices can reduce net interest margin and revenues from fee-based products and services. In addition, the widespread adoption of new technologies, including internet services, could require the Company to make substantial expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services. Also, these and other capital investments may not produce expected growth in earnings anticipated at the time of the expenditure. The Company might not be successful in introducing new products and services, achieving market acceptance of its products and services, or developing and maintaining loyal customers.

 

The Company’s investment securities portfolio is comparatively larger than other community banks and it is more dependent on its investment portfolio to generate net income.

 

The Company relies more heavily on its investment securities portfolio as a source of interest income than many other community banks because its loan portfolio makes up a smaller proportion of its earning assets. If the Company is not able to successfully manage the interest rate spread on the investment portfolio, its net interest income will decrease, which would adversely affect its results of operations and negatively impact net income. Investment securities tend to have a lower risk than loans, and as such, generally provide a lower yield. For 2016, average investment securities made up 32.3% of the Company’s average total assets. Interest income on investment securities accounted for 19.2% of total interest income for 2016.

 

The Company periodically sells investment securities at irregular intervals in the normal course of business to execute its current asset/liability management strategies. This will result in the realization of either a net gain or loss. Moreover, proceeds from sales may be reinvested in investment securities with lower yields, which could reduce future earnings from investment securities. The Company monitors its investment securities portfolio for deteriorating values and for other-than-temporary impairment. Uncertainty surrounding the credit risk associated with mortgage collateral or guarantors may cause material discrepancies in valuation estimates obtained from third parties. Volatile market conditions may reduce the valuations of investment securities due to the perception of heightened credit and liquidity risks in addition to interest rate risk. There can be no assurance that declines in market value associated with these disruptions will not result in material impairments of these assets, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and could lead to additional losses.

 

The Company is exposed to risk of environmental liability when it takes title to properties.

 

In the course of its business, the Company may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, it could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. The Company may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. Additionally, if the Company is the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, it may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination stemming from the property. If the Company becomes subject to significant environmental liabilities, it could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

The Company may not realize the anticipated benefits of merging its subsidiary banks and data processing company into one bank.

 

On February 20, 2017, the Company merged its four subsidiary banks and data processing subsidiary into one bank. While the Company anticipates lower operating costs as a result of the merger, the actual savings may differ materially from expectations. The merger could result in, among other things, disruptions to the Company’s business, diversion of management’s time and attention, or loss of customers, any of which could have an adverse impact on its financial condition and offset any savings resulting from the merger.

 

 
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The Company cannot accurately predict the effect of the current economy on its future results of operations or the market price of its stock.

 

The slow, uneven growth of the economy continues to present challenges and uncertainty for the national economy and the financial services sector in particular. The Company cannot accurately predict the timing, severity, or duration of an economic slowdown, which can adversely impact its performance and the markets it serves. Any deterioration in the economies of the nation as a whole or in the Company’s local markets would have an adverse effect, which could be material, on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, and prospects and could also cause the market price of the Company’s stock to decline. While it is impossible to predict how long these conditions may exist, the economic uncertainty could continue to present risks for some time for our industry and the Company.

 

Interest rate volatility could significantly harm the Company’s results of operations.

 

The Company’s results of operations are affected by the monetary and fiscal policies of the federal government, the policies of its regulators, and the prevailing interest rates in the United States and the Company’s markets. In addition, it is increasingly common for the Company’s competitors, who may be aggressively seeking to attract deposits as a result of liquidity concerns arising from changing economic or other conditions, to pay rates on deposits that are much higher than normal market rates. A significant component of the Company’s earnings is net interest income, which is the difference between the income from interest earning assets, such as loans, and the expense on interest bearing liabilities, such as deposits. A change in market interest rates could adversely affect the Company’s earnings if market interest rates change such that the interest it pays on deposits and borrowings increases faster than the interest it collects on loans and investments; or, alternatively, if interest rates earned on earning assets decline faster than those rates paid on interest paying liabilities. Consequently, as with most financial institutions, the Company is sensitive to interest rate fluctuations. Changes in market interest rates may also affect the level of voluntary prepayments on loans and mortgage-back investment securities resulting in the receipt of funds that may be reinvested at a lower rate.

 

The FDIC periodically amends its deposit insurance rate assessment structure, which can increase costs to the Company.

 

Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC must establish and implement a plan to restore the deposit insurance fund’s designated reserve ratio to 1.35% of insured deposits by 2020. The FDIC must continue to assess and consider the appropriate level of the reserve ratio annually by considering each of the following: risk of loss to the insurance fund; economic conditions affecting the banking industry; the prevention of sharp swings in the assessment rates; and any other factors the FDIC deems important. The FDIC’s current fund management strategy includes a targeted long-term reserve ratio of 2.0%.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act required changes to a number of components of the FDIC insurance assessment. While these changes have resulted in a lower amount of deposit insurance assessments for the Company, future changes in assessment rates or methodology could adversely impact the Company’s future earnings and liquidity in a material amount.

 

A decrease to the corporate federal income tax rate may impair the Company’s deferred tax assets (“DTAs”).

 

At December 31, 2016, the Company’s DTAs were approximately $15.2 million. While a decline in the corporate tax rate may lower the Company’s tax provision expense, it may also significantly reduce the value of the Company’s DTAs in the year the rate decrease is enacted. Such reduction could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

Transactions between the Company and its captive insurance subsidiary (the “Captive”) may be subject to certain IRS responsibilities and penalties.

 

The Company’s Captive is a Kentucky-based, wholly-owned insurance subsidiary of the Company that provides property and casualty insurance coverage to its subsidiaries for risk management purposes or where insurance may not be available or economically feasible. The Treasury Department of the United States and the IRS by way of Notice 2016-66 have stated that transactions believed similar in nature to transactions between the Captive and the Company’s other subsidiaries may have the potential for tax avoidance or evasion and may be deemed by the IRS as an abusive tax structure subject to significant penalties, interest and possible criminal prosecution.

 

 
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Any future losses may require the Company to raise additional capital; however, such capital may not be available to us on favorable terms or at all.

 

The Company is required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain certain levels of capital to support its operations. While the Company’s current capital levels materially exceed regulatory requirements, the Company’s ability to raise additional capital, if ever needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets at that time and on the Company’s future financial condition and performance. Accordingly, the Company cannot make assurances with respect to its ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms, or at all. If the Company cannot raise additional capital when needed, its ability to further expand its operations through internal growth and acquisitions could be materially impaired and its financial condition and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected. The Company is currently under no directive by its regulators to raise any additional capital.

 

The tightening of available liquidity could limit the Company’s ability to replace deposits and fund loan demand, which could adversely affect its earnings and capital levels.

 

Liquidity is crucial to the Company’s business. While the Company’s liquidity materially exceeds regulatory requirements, a tightening of the credit and liquidity markets and the Company’s inability to obtain adequate funding to replace deposits may negatively affect its earnings and capital levels. In addition to deposit growth, maturity of investment securities, and loan payments from borrowers, the Company relies from time to time on advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank and other wholesale funding sources to fund loans and replace deposits. In the event of a downturn in the economy, these additional funding sources could be negatively affected which could limit the funds available to the Company. The Company’s liquidity position could be significantly constrained if it were unable to access funds from the Federal Home Loan Bank or other wholesale funding sources.

 

The Company’s financial condition and outlook may be adversely affected by damage to its reputation.

 

The Company’s financial condition and outlook is highly dependent upon perceptions of its business practices and reputation. Its ability to attract and retain customers and employees could be adversely affected to the extent its reputation is damaged. Negative public opinion could result from its actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including regulatory actions taken against the Company, lending practices, corporate governance, regulatory compliance, mergers of its subsidiaries, or sharing or inadequate protection of customer information. Damage to the Company’s reputation could give rise to loss of customers and legal risks, which could have an adverse impact on its financial condition.

 

 

The Company faces strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking services.

 

The Company conducts most of its operations in Central and Northern Kentucky. The banking and financial services businesses in these areas are highly competitive and increased competition in its primary market areas may adversely impact the level of its loans and deposits. Ultimately, the Company may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors. These competitors include national banks, regional banks, and other community banks. The Company also faces competition from other types of financial institutions, including savings and loan associations, finance companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, credit unions, mortgage banks, and other financial intermediaries. The Company’s competitors include major financial companies whose greater resources may afford them a marketplace advantage by enabling them to maintain numerous locations and mount extensive promotional and advertising campaigns. Areas of competition include interest rates for loans and deposits, efforts to obtain loan and deposit customers, and the range of products and services provided, including new technology-driven products and services. If the Company is unable to attract and retain banking customers, it may be unable to increase its loans and level of deposits.

 

 
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The price of the Company’s common stock may fluctuate significantly, and this may make it difficult to resell the stock when you want or at prices you find attractive.

 

The Company cannot predict how its common stock will trade in the future. The market value of its common stock will likely continue to fluctuate in response to a number of factors including the following, most of which are beyond our control, as well as the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section:

 

 

general economic conditions and conditions in the financial markets;

 

changes in global financial markets, such as interest or foreign exchange rates, stock, commodity or real estate valuations or volatility, and other geopolitical events;

 

conditions in our local and national credit, mortgage, and housing markets;

 

developments with respect to financial institutions generally, including government regulation;

 

our dividend practice;

 

actual and anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and earnings;

 

recommendations by securities analysts;

 

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

 

news reporting relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry; and

 

perceptions in the marketplace regarding us and/or our competitors.

 

The market value of the Company’s common stock may also be impacted by conditions affecting the financial markets in general, including price and trading fluctuations. These conditions may result in: (1) volatility in the level of, and fluctuations in, the market prices of stocks generally and, in turn, the Company’s common stock and (2) sales of substantial amounts of the Company’s common stock in the market, in each case that could be unrelated or disproportionate to changes in the Company’s operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market value of the Company’s common stock.

 

There may be future sales of additional common stock or other dilution of the Company’s equity, which may adversely affect the market price of the Company’s common stock.

 

The Company is not restricted from issuing additional common or preferred stock, including any securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or preferred stock or any substantially similar securities. The market price of the Company’s common stock could decline as a result of sales by the Company of a large number of shares of common stock or preferred stock or similar securities in the market or from the perception that such sales could occur.

 

The Company’s board of directors is authorized generally to cause it to issue additional common and preferred stock without any action on the part of the Company’s shareholders, except as may be required under the listing requirements of the NASDAQ Stock Market. In addition, the board has the power, without shareholder approval, to set the terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights, preferences, and other terms. This could include preferences over the common stock with respect to dividends or upon liquidation. If the Company issues preferred stock in the future that has a preference over the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation, or if the Company issues preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of the common stock, the rights of holders of the common stock or the market price of the common stock could be adversely affected.

 

You may not receive dividends on the Company’s common stock.

 

Holders of the Company’s common stock are entitled to receive dividends only when, as, and if its board of directors declares them and as permitted by its regulators. Although we have recently declared cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so and may reduce or eliminate our common stock dividends in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Also, the Company’s ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve Board regarding capital adequacy and dividends.

 

 
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The Company’s ability to pay dividends depends upon the results of operations of its subsidiary bank and certain regulatory considerations.

 

The Parent Company is a financial holding company that conducts substantially all of its operations through its subsidiary bank. As a result, the Company’s ability to make dividend payments on its common stock depends primarily on certain federal and state regulatory considerations and the receipt of dividends and other distributions from its bank subsidiary.

 

The trading volume in the Company’s common stock is less than that of many other similar companies.

 

The Company’s common stock is listed for trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Stock Market. As of December 31, 2016, the 50-day average trading volume of the Company’s common stock on NASDAQ was 40,606 shares or .54% of the total common shares outstanding of 7,509,444. An efficient public trading market is dependent upon the existence in the marketplace of willing buyers and willing sellers of a stock at any given time. The Company has no control over such individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions. Given the lower trading volume of the Company’s common stock, larger sales volumes of its common stock could cause the value of its common stock to decrease. Moreover, due to its lower trading volume, it may take longer to liquidate your position in the Company’s common stock without detrimentally affecting the price.

 

The Company’s common stock constitutes equity and is subordinate to its existing and future indebtedness, and is effectively subordinated to all the indebtedness and other non-common equity claims against its subsidiaries.

 

Shares of the Company’s common stock represent equity interests in the Company and do not constitute indebtedness. Accordingly, the shares of the Company’s common stock rank junior to all of its indebtedness and to other non-equity claims on Farmers Capital Bank Corporation with respect to assets available to satisfy such claims.

 

The Company’s right to participate in any distribution of assets of any of its subsidiaries upon the subsidiary’s liquidation or otherwise, and thus the ability of the Company’s common stockholders to benefit indirectly from such distribution, will be subject to the prior claims of creditors of that subsidiary. As a result, holders of the Company’s common stock are effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of its subsidiaries, including claims of bank depositors.

 

Market volatility could adversely impact the Company’s results of operations, liquidity position, and access to additional capital.

 

The capital and credit markets experienced heavy volatility and disruptions during much of the most recent economic downturn, with unprecedented levels of volatility and other disruptions. In many cases, this led to downward pressure on stock prices and credit availability for certain issuers without regard to those issuers’ underlying financial strength. If similar market disruptions and volatility recur, the Company may experience a material adverse effect on its results of operations and liquidity position or on its ability to access additional capital.

 

Risks associated with unpredictable economic and political conditions may be amplified as a result of our limited market area.

 

Commercial banks and other financial institutions, including the Company, are affected by economic and political conditions, both domestic and international, and by governmental monetary policies. These conditions and other factors beyond the Company’s control may adversely affect profitability. In addition, almost all of the Company’s primary business area is located in Central and Northern Kentucky. Significant downturns in this economic region may result in a deterioration of the Company’s credit quality, reduce demand for credit, and may harm the financial stability of the Company’s customers. Due to the Company’s regional market area, these negative conditions may have a more noticeable effect on the Company than would be experienced by an institution with a larger, more diverse market area.

 

 
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The Company’s results of operations are significantly affected by the ability of its borrowers to repay their loans.

 

Lending money is an essential part of the banking business. However, borrowers do not always repay their loans. The risk of non-payment is affected by:

 

 

unanticipated declines in borrower income or cash flow;

 

changes in economic and industry conditions;

 

the duration of the loan; and

 

in the case of a collateralized loan, uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral.

 

Due to the fact that the outstanding principal balances can be larger for commercial loans than other types of loans, such loans present a greater risk to the Company than other types of loans when non-payment by a borrower occurs.

 

Consumer loans typically have shorter terms and lower balances with higher yields compared to real estate mortgage loans, but generally carry higher risks of default than real estate mortgage and commercial loans. Consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and thus are more likely to be affected by adverse personal circumstances. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on these loans.

 

Inability to hire or retain certain key professionals, management, and staff could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and net income.

 

The Company relies on key personnel to manage and operate its business, including major revenue-generating functions such as its loan and deposit portfolios. The loss of key staff may adversely affect the Company’s ability to maintain and manage these portfolios effectively, which could negatively affect our revenues. In addition, loss of key personnel could result in increased recruiting and hiring expenses, which could cause a decrease in our net income.

 

The Company’s controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

 

The Company’s management regularly reviews and updates its internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well-designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system of controls are met. Any failure or circumvention of the Company’s controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material and adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Because the nature of the financial services business involves a high volume of transactions, the Company faces significant operational risks.

 

Operational risk is the risk of loss resulting from operations, including, but not limited to, the risk of fraud by employees or persons outside of the Company, the execution of unauthorized transactions by employees, errors relating to transaction processing and technology, breaches of the internal control system and compliance requirements, and business continuation and disaster recovery. This risk of loss also includes the potential legal actions that could arise as a result of an operational deficiency or as a result of noncompliance with applicable regulatory standards, adverse business decisions or their implementation, and customer attrition due to potential negative publicity. In the event of a breakdown in the internal control system, improper operation of systems or improper employee actions, the Company could suffer financial loss, face regulatory action and suffer damage to its reputation.

 

A failure in or breach, including cyber attacks, of the Company’s operational or security systems, or those of its third party vendors and other service providers, could disrupt its businesses, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage its reputation, increase its costs and cause losses.

 

As a financial institution, the Company is susceptible to fraudulent activity that may be committed against it or its customers and that may result in financial losses to the Company or its customers, privacy breaches against its customers, or damage to the Company’s reputation. Such fraudulent activity may be in various forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, and other dishonest acts. In recent periods, there has been a rise in electronic fraudulent activity within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector, due to cyber criminals targeting commercial bank accounts. Consistent with industry trends, the Company has also experienced an increase in attempted electronic fraudulent activity.

 

 
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In addition, the Company’s operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on its computer systems and networks. Although the Company takes protective measures to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of its and its customers’ information, and modifies these protective measures as circumstances warrant, the nature of the threats continues to evolve. As a result, the Company’s computer systems, software and networks and those of its customers may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service, computer viruses or other malicious code, cyber attacks and other events that could have an adverse security impact and result in significant losses by the Company and its customers. Despite the defensive measures the Company takes to manage its internal technological and operational infrastructure, these threats may originate externally from third parties, such as foreign governments, organized crime and other hackers, and outsource or infrastructure-support providers and application developers, or the threats may originate from within the Company. Given the increasingly high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they can be discovered and remedied.

 

The Company also faces the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate its business activities, including exchanges, clearing agents, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties could also be the source of an attack on, or breach of, the Company’s operational systems, data or infrastructure. In addition, as interconnectivity with its customers grows, the Company increasingly faces the risk of operational failure with respect to its customers’ electronic systems.

 

Although to date the Company has not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches, there can be no assurance that it will not suffer such losses in the future. The Company’s risk and exposure to these matters remains heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, the outsourcing of some of the Company’s business operations, and the continued uncertain global economic environment. As cyber threats continue to evolve, the Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance its protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.

 

The Company maintains an insurance policy which it believes provides sufficient coverage at a manageable expense for an institution of its size and scope with similar technological systems. However, the Company cannot assure that this policy will afford coverage for all possible losses or would be sufficient to cover all financial losses, damages, or penalties, including lost revenues, should it experience any one or more of its or a third party’s systems failing or experiencing an attack.

 

The Company’s operations rely on certain external vendors.

 

The Company utilizes certain external vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain its day-to-day operations. The Company is exposed to the risk that such vendors fail to perform under these arrangements. This could result in disruption to the Company’s business and have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that the Company’s policies and procedures designed to monitor and mitigate vendor risks will be effective in preventing or limiting the effect of vendor non-performance.

 

Significant legal actions could subject the Company to substantial uninsured liabilities.

 

From time to time the Company is subject to claims related to its operations. These claims and legal actions, including supervisory actions by regulators, could involve large monetary claims and significant costs to defend. To protect the Company from the cost of these claims, it maintains insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that are believed to be appropriate for its operations. However, the insurance coverage may not cover all claims against the Company or continue to be available at a reasonable cost. As a result, the Company may be exposed to substantial uninsured liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

 
29

 

 

The Company is subject to claims and litigation pertaining to fiduciary responsibility.

 

Customers or others may make claims and take legal action against the Company related to fiduciary responsibilities. If claims and legal action against the Company are not resolved in a favorable manner to the Company, it could result in a material financial liability or damage to our reputation.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act has increased the Company’s costs of operations which could adversely impact the Company's results of operations, financial condition or liquidity

 

The goals of the Dodd-Frank Act include restoring public confidence in the financial system, preventing another financial crisis, and allowing regulators to identify failings in the system before another crisis can occur. As part of the reform, the Dodd-Frank Act created the Financial Stability Oversight Council, with oversight authority for monitoring and regulating systemic risk, and the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, which has broad regulatory and enforcement powers over consumer financial products and services. The Dodd-Frank Act also changes the responsibilities of the current federal banking regulators, imposes additional corporate governance and disclosure requirements in areas such as executive compensation and proxy access, and limits or prohibits proprietary trading, hedge fund, and private equity activities of banks. It also impacts areas such as deposit insurance, mortgage lending, capital requirements, securitizations, and insurance.

 

The scope of the Dodd-Frank Act impacts many aspects of the financial services industry and requires the development and adoption of numerous implementing regulations, some of which have yet to be finalized. Consequently, the effects of the Dodd-Frank Act on the financial services industry and the Company will depend, in large part, upon the extent to which regulators exercise the authority granted to them and the approaches taken to implement the regulations. The Company continually assesses the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on its business and operations and believes that compliance with these new laws and regulations has resulted in higher costs, but the probable impact cannot be measured with a high degree of certainty. Compliance with the new laws and regulations could adversely impact the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity, any of which may impact the market price of the Company’s common stock.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

The Company owns or leases buildings that are used in the normal course of its business. The corporate headquarters is located at 202 W. Main Street, Frankfort, Kentucky, in a building owned by the Company. The Company’s subsidiaries own or lease various other offices in the counties and cities in which they operate. See the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8, “Financial Statement and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for information with respect to the amounts at which bank premises and equipment are carried and commitments under long-term leases.

 

 
30

 

 

Unless otherwise indicated, the properties listed below are owned by the Company and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2016.

 

Corporate Headquarters

202 – 208 W. Main Street, Frankfort, KY

 

Banking Offices

Farmers Bank:

125 W. Main Street, Frankfort, KY

555 Versailles Road, Frankfort, KY

1401 Louisville Road, Frankfort, KY

154 Versailles Road, Frankfort, KY

1301 US 127 South, Frankfort, KY (leased)

128 S. Main Street, Lawrenceburg, KY

201 West Park Shopping Center, Lawrenceburg, KY

838 N. College Street, Harrodsburg, KY

United Bank:

100 United Drive, Versailles, KY

146 N. Locust Street, Versailles, KY

206 N. Gratz, Midway, KY

200 E. Main Street, Georgetown, KY

100 Farmers Bank Drive, Georgetown, KY (leased)

100 N. Bradford Lane, Georgetown, KY

3285 Main Street, Stamping Ground, KY

2509 Sir Barton Way, Lexington, KY

3098 Harrodsburg Road, Lexington, KY (leased)

201 N. Main Street, Nicholasville, KY

995 S. Main Street (Kroger Store), Nicholasville, KY (leased)

986 N. Main Street, Nicholasville, KY

106 S. Lexington Avenue, Wilmore, KY

First Citizens:

425 W. Dixie Avenue, Elizabethtown, KY

3030 Ring Road, Elizabethtown, KY

111 Towne Drive (Kroger Store), Elizabethtown, KY (leased)

645 S. Dixie Blvd., Radcliff, KY

4810 N. Preston Highway, Shepherdsville, KY

157 Eastbrooke Court, Mt. Washington, KY

Citizens Northern:

103 Churchill Drive, Newport, KY

7300 Alexandria Pike, Alexandria, KY

164 Fairfield Avenue, Bellevue, KY

8730 US Highway 42, Florence, KY

34 N. Ft. Thomas Avenue, Ft. Thomas, KY

2911 Alexandria Pike, Highland Heights, KY

2774 Town Center Blvd., Crestview Hills, KY (leased)

 

Data Processing Center

102 Bypass Plaza, Frankfort, KY

 

Other

201 W. Main Street, Frankfort, KY

 

The Company considers its properties to be suitable and adequate based on its present needs.

 

 
31

 

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

As of December 31, 2016, there were various pending legal actions and proceedings against the Company arising from the normal course of business and in which claims for damages are asserted. It is the opinion of management, after discussion with legal counsel, that the disposition or ultimate resolution of such claims and legal actions will not have a material effect upon the consolidated financial statements of the Company.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Beginning January 1, 2014, the Company changed the payment form of its board meeting fees and quarterly fees from 100% cash to 50% in cash and 50% in Company common stock. The shares are issued as part of a plan adopted by the board of directors. Each director has elected to participate by entering an agreement with the Company to accept common stock in lieu of cash for 50% of the director’s board meeting and quarterly fees. As the shares are only issued to directors as part of a plan approved by the board, the shares are exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), as a sale not involving any public offering under Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act. The value of the shares issued in payment is determined by the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on the business trading day immediately preceding the meeting day for board meeting fees and the business trading day immediately preceding the first meeting of the quarter for each quarterly fee. Attendance for committee meetings continue to be paid completely in cash. As employee directors are not paid director’s fees, only non-employee directors receive stock under this plan.

 

During 2016, the Company issued a total of 3,065 shares of common stock to its non-employee directors under this plan as compensation for $92 thousand of director fees. The cash retained by the Company by issuing common stock in lieu of paying cash is used for general corporate purposes. There are no brokers involved in the issuance of stock to directors and no commissions or other broker fees are paid.

 

At various times, the Company’s Board of Directors has authorized the purchase of shares of the Company’s outstanding common stock. No stated expiration dates have been established under any of the previous authorizations. There were no shares of common stock repurchased by the Company during the quarter ended December 31, 2016. There are 84,971 shares that may still be purchased under the various authorizations, though no shares have been purchased since 2008.

 

Performance Graph

The following graph sets forth a comparison of the five-year cumulative total returns among the shares of Company Common Stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index ("broad market index"), and Southeastern Banks Under $1 Billion Market-Capitalization ("peer group index"). Cumulative shareholder return is computed by dividing the sum of the cumulative amount of dividends for the measurement period and the difference between the share price at the end and the beginning of the measurement period by the share price at the beginning of the measurement period.

 

The broad market index includes over 3,000 domestic and international based common shares listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market. The peer group index consists of 27 banking companies in the Southeastern United States. The Company is included among those in the peer group index.

 

 
32

 

 

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Farmers Capital Bank Corp, the NASDAQ Composite Index,
and Southeastern Banks Under $1 Billion Market-Capitalization

 

 

   

2011

   

2012

   

2013

   

2014

   

2015

   

2016

 
                                                 

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation

  $ 100.00     $ 272.83     $ 484.41     $ 518.71     $ 603.79     $ 946.30  

NASDAQ Composite

    100.00       116.41       165.47       188.69       200.32       216.54  

Southeastern Banks Under $1 Billion Market-Capitalization

    100.00       109.81       124.09       132.57       157.84       196.44  

 

Corporate Address

The headquarters of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation is located at:

202 West Main Street

Frankfort, Kentucky 40601

 

Direct correspondence to:

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation

P.O. Box 309

Frankfort, Kentucky 40602-0309

Phone: (502) 227-1668

www.farmerscapital.com

 

Annual Meeting

The annual meeting of shareholders of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation will be held Tuesday, May 9, 2017 at 11:00 a.m. at the main office of United Bank & Capital Trust Company, 125 West Main Street, Frankfort, Kentucky.

 

 
33

 

 

Form 10-K

For a free copy of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation's Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, please write:

 

Mark A. Hampton, Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Secretary

Farmers Capital Bank Corporation

P.O. Box 309

Frankfort, Kentucky 40602-0309

Phone: (502) 227-1668

 

Web Site Access to Filings

All reports filed electronically by the Company with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, are available at no cost on the Company’s website at www.farmerscapital.com.

 

NASDAQ Market Participants

J.J.B. Hilliard, W.L. Lyons, LLC

(502) 588-8400

(800) 444-1854

 

Raymond James & Associates, Inc.

(800) 248-8863

 

UBS Securities, LLC

(859) 269-6900

(502) 420-7600

 

The Transfer Agent and Registrar for Farmers Capital Bank Corporation is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC

Shareholder Relations

6201 15th Avenue

Brooklyn, NY 11219

Phone: (800) 937-5449

Fax: (718) 236-2641

Email: Info@amstock.com

Website: www.amstock.com

 

Additional information is set forth under the captions “Shareholder Information” and “Common Stock Price” on page 66 under Part II, Item 7 and Note 18 “Regulatory Matters” in the notes to the Company's 2016 audited consolidated financial statements on pages 110 to 112 of this Form 10-K and is hereby incorporated by reference.

 

 
34

 

 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 

Selected Financial Highlights

                                       

December 31,

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

2016

   

2015

   

2014

   

2013

   

2012

 

Results of Operations

                                       

Interest income

  $ 59,371     $ 61,236     $ 64,352     $ 66,733     $ 71,222  

Interest expense

    6,755       8,641       10,153       11,995       18,258  

Net interest income

    52,616       52,595       54,199       54,738       52,964  

Provision for loan losses

    (644 )     (3,429 )     (4,364 )     (2,600 )     2,772  

Noninterest income

    31,186       22,211       23,273       22,116       24,654  

Noninterest expense

    61,400       57,950       59,278       61,573       59,787  

Income tax expense

    6,441       5,293       6,099       4,435       2,910  

Net income

    16,605       14,992       16,459       13,446       12,149  

Dividends and accretion on preferred shares

    -       395       1,927       1,951       1,922  

Net income available to common shareholders

    16,605       14,597       14,532       11,495       10,227  

Per Common Share Data

                                       

Basic and diluted net income

  $ 2.21     $ 1.95     $ 1.94     $ 1.54     $ 1.37  

Cash dividends declared

    .31       -       -       -       -  

Book value

    24.51       23.43       21.75       18.73       18.54  

Tangible book value1

    24.51       23.43       21.69       18.61       18.35  

Selected Ratios

                                       

Percentage of net income to:

                                       

Average shareholders’ equity (ROE)

    8.94 %     8.61 %     9.30 %     7.97 %     7.38 %

Average total assets (ROA)

    .96       .84       .92       .74       .65  

Percentage of common dividends declared to net income

    14.01       -       -       -       -  

Percentage of average shareholders’ equity to average total assets

    10.68       9.77       9.84       9.34       8.85  

Total shareholders’ equity

  $ 184,066     $ 175,698     $ 172,929     $ 170,055     $ 168,021  

Total assets

    1,671,030       1,775,950       1,782,606       1,809,555       1,807,232  

Long term borrowings

    53,437       169,250       168,694       176,850       178,267  

Senior perpetual preferred stock

    -       -       10,000       29,988       29,537  

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted

    7,504       7,494       7,483       7,474       7,457  

 

1Represents total common equity less intangible assets divided by the number of common shares outstanding at the end of the period.

 

 
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Glossary of Financial Terms

Allowance for loan losses

A valuation allowance to offset credit losses specifically identified in the loan portfolio, as well as management’s best estimate of probable incurred losses in the remainder of the portfolio at the balance sheet date. Management estimates the allowance balance required using past loan loss experience, an assessment of the financial condition of individual borrowers, a determination of the value and adequacy of underlying collateral, the condition of the local economy, an analysis of the levels and trends of the loan portfolio, and a review of delinquent and classified loans. Actual losses could differ significantly from the amounts estimated by management.

 

Dividend payout ratio

Cash dividends declared on common shares, divided by net income.

 

Basis points

Each basis point is equal to one hundredth of one percent. Basis points are calculated by multiplying percentage points times 100. For example: 3.7 percentage points equals 370 basis points.

 

Interest rate sensitivity

The relationship between interest sensitive earning assets and interest bearing liabilities.

 

Net charge-offs

The amount of total loans charged off net of recoveries of loans that have been previously charged off.

 

Net interest income

Total interest income less total interest expense.

 

Net interest margin

Taxable equivalent net interest income expressed as a percentage of average earning assets.

 

Net interest spread

The difference between the taxable equivalent yield on earning assets and the rate paid on interest bearing funds.

 

Other real estate owned

Real estate not used for banking purposes. For example, real estate acquired through foreclosure.

 

Provision for loan losses

The charge against current income needed to maintain an adequate allowance for loan losses.

 

Return on average assets (ROA)

Net income (loss) divided by average total assets. Measures the relative profitability of the resources utilized by the Company.

 

Return on average equity (ROE)

Net income (loss) divided by average shareholders’ equity. Measures the relative profitability of the shareholders' investment in the Company.

 

Tax equivalent basis (TE)

Income from tax-exempt loans and investment securities has been increased by an amount equivalent to the taxes that would have been paid if this income were taxable at statutory rates. In order to provide comparisons of yields and margins for all earning assets, the interest income earned on tax-exempt assets is increased to make them fully equivalent to other taxable interest income investments.

 

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding

The number of shares determined by relating (a) the portion of time within a reporting period that common shares have been outstanding to (b) the total time in that period.

 

 
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

The following pages present management’s discussion and analysis of the consolidated financial condition and results of operations of Farmers Capital Bank Corporation (the “Company” or “Parent Company”), a financial holding company, and its bank and nonbank subsidiaries. Bank subsidiaries include Farmers Bank & Capital Trust Company (“Farmers Bank”) in Frankfort, KY; United Bank & Trust Company (“United Bank”) in Versailles, KY; First Citizens Bank (“First Citizens”) in Elizabethtown, KY; and Citizens Bank of Northern Kentucky, Inc. (“Citizens Northern”) in Newport, KY. All significant intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation. In February 2017, the Company merged United Bank, First Citizens, Citizens Northern, and FCB Services, Inc. (“FCB Services”) into Farmers Bank, the name of which was immediately changed under the merger to United Bank & Capital Trust Company.

 

At year-end 2016, Farmers Bank had two primary subsidiaries, which include EG Properties, Inc., and Farmers Capital Insurance Corporation (“Farmers Insurance”). EG Properties, Inc. is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain repossessed properties of Farmers Bank. Farmers Insurance is an insurance agency in Frankfort, KY. Leasing One Corporation, a company formed to lease commercial property, was dissolved effective at year-end 2015. United Bank has one direct subsidiary, EGT Properties, Inc. EGT Properties, Inc. is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain repossessed properties of United Bank. First Citizens has one subsidiary, HBJ Properties, LLC. HBJ Properties, LLC is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain repossessed properties of First Citizens. Citizens Northern has one direct subsidiary, ENKY Properties, Inc., which is involved in real estate management and liquidation for certain repossessed properties of Citizens Northern.

 

The Company had two active nonbank subsidiaries at year-end 2016, FCB Services, and FFKT Insurance Services, Inc. (“FFKT Insurance”). FCB Services is a data processing subsidiary located in Frankfort, KY that provides services to the Company’s banks as well as unaffiliated entities. FFKT Insurance is a captive insurance company that provides property and casualty coverage to its subsidiaries for risk management purposes or where insurance may not be available or economically feasible. At year-end 2015, the Company had three subsidiaries organized as Delaware statutory trusts that were not consolidated into its financial statements. These trusts were formed for the purpose of issuing trust preferred securities. In January 2016, the Company terminated one of the three trusts as a result of the early extinguishment of debt issued to the trust.

 

For a complete list of the Company’s subsidiaries, please refer to the discussion under the heading “Organization” included in Part 1, Item 1 of this Form 10-K. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related footnotes that follow.

 

Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains forward-looking statements with the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that involve risks and uncertainties. Statements in this report that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. In general, forward-looking statements relate to a discussion of future financial results or projections, future economic performance, future operational plans and objectives, and statements regarding the underlying assumptions of such statements. Although management of the Company believes that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, any of the assumptions could be inaccurate, and therefore, there can be no assurance that the forward-looking statements included herein will prove to be accurate.

 

Various risks and uncertainties may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the Company’s forward-looking statements. In addition to the risks described under Part 1, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this report, factors that could cause actual results to differ from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: economic conditions (both generally and more specifically in the markets in which the Company and its subsidiaries operate) and lower interest margins; competition for the Company’s customers from other providers of financial services; deposit outflows or reduced demand for financial services and loan products; government legislation, regulation, and changes in monetary and fiscal policies (which changes from time to time and over which the Company has no control); changes in interest rates; changes in prepayment speeds of loans or investment securities; inflation; material unforeseen changes in the liquidity, results of operations, or financial condition of the Company’s customers; changes in the level of non-performing assets and charge-offs; changes in the number of common shares outstanding; the capability of the Company to successfully enter into a definitive agreement for, close, and realize the benefits of anticipated transactions; unexpected claims or litigation against the Company; expected insurance or other recoveries; technological or operational difficulties; technological changes; changes in the reliability of our vendors, internal control systems or information systems; the impact of new accounting pronouncements and changes in policies and practices that may be adopted by regulatory agencies; political instability; acts of war or terrorism; the ability of the Parent Company to receive dividends from its subsidiaries; the impact of larger or similar financial institutions encountering difficulties, which may adversely affect the banking industry or the Company; the Company or its subsidiary banks’ ability to maintain required capital levels and adequate funding sources and liquidity; and other risks or uncertainties detailed in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond the control of the Company.

 

 
37

 

 

The Company’s forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time such statements are made. The Company expressly disclaims any intent or obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, new information, future events, or other changes.

 

Application of Critical Accounting Policies

The Company’s audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and follow general practices applicable to the banking industry. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions, and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. These estimates, assumptions, and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements. Certain policies inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates, assumptions, and judgments and as such have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported. Estimates, assumptions, and judgments are necessary when assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value, when a decline in the value of an asset warrants an impairment write-down or valuation reserve to be established, or when an asset or liability needs to be recorded contingent upon a future event. Carrying assets and liabilities at fair value inherently results in more financial statement volatility between reporting periods. The fair values and the information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based either on quoted market prices or are provided by third-party sources, when available. When third-party information is not available, valuation adjustments are estimated in good faith by management primarily through the use of internal cash flow modeling techniques.

 

The most significant accounting policies followed by the Company are presented in Note 1 of the Company’s 2016 audited consolidated financial statements. These policies, along with the disclosures presented in other financial statement notes and in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, provide information on how significant assets and liabilities are valued in the financial statements and how those values are determined. Based on the valuation techniques used and the sensitivity of financial statement amounts to the methods, assumptions, and estimates underlying those amounts, management has identified the determination of the allowance for loan losses and fair value measurements to be the accounting areas that require the most subjective or complex judgments, and as such could be most subject to revision as new information becomes available.

 

Allowance for Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses represents credit losses specifically identified in the loan portfolio, as well as management's estimate of probable incurred credit losses in the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. Determining the amount of the allowance for loan losses and the related provision for loan losses is considered a critical accounting estimate because it requires significant judgment and the use of estimates related to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on impaired loans, estimated losses on pools of homogeneous loans based on historical loss experience, and consideration of current economic trends and conditions, all of which may be susceptible to significant changes. The loan portfolio also represents the largest asset group on the consolidated balance sheets. Additional information related to the allowance for loan losses that describes the methodology and risk factors can be found under the captions “Asset Quality” and “Nonperforming Assets” in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, as well as Notes 1 and 4 of the Company’s 2016 audited consolidated financial statements.

 

 
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Fair Value Measurements

The carrying value of certain financial assets and liabilities of the Company is impacted by the application of fair value measurements, either directly or indirectly. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In certain cases, an asset or liability is measured and reported at fair value on a recurring basis, such as investment securities classified as available for sale and money market mutual funds. In other cases, management must rely on estimates or judgments to determine if an asset or liability not measured at fair value warrants an impairment write-down or whether a valuation reserve should be established.

 

The Company estimates the fair value of a financial instrument using a variety of valuation methods. Where financial instruments are actively traded and have quoted market prices, quoted market prices are used for fair value. Active markets are those where transaction volumes are sufficient to provide objective pricing information with reasonably narrow bid/ask spreads and where quoted prices do not vary widely. When the financial instruments are not actively traded, other observable market inputs such as quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics may be used, if available, to determine fair value. Inactive markets are characterized by low transaction volumes, price quotations that vary substantially among market participants, or in which minimal information is released publicly.

 

When observable market prices do not exist, the Company estimates fair value primarily by using cash flow and other financial modeling methods. The valuation methods may also consider factors such as liquidity and concentration concerns. Other factors such as model assumptions, market dislocations, and unexpected correlations can affect estimates of fair value. Changes in these underlying factors, assumptions, or estimates in any of these areas could materially impact the amount of revenue or loss recorded.

 

Additional information regarding fair value measurements can be found in Notes 1 and 19 of the Company’s 2016 audited consolidated financial statements. The following is a summary of the Company’s more significant assets that may be affected by fair value measurements, as well as a brief description of the current accounting practices and valuation methodologies employed by the Company:

 

Available For Sale Investment Securities and Money Market Mutual Funds

Investment securities classified as available for sale and money market mutual funds are measured and reported at fair value on a recurring basis. These instruments are valued primarily by independent third party pricing services under the market valuation approach that include, but are not limited to, the following inputs:

 

 

Mutual funds and equity securities are priced utilizing real-time data feeds from active market exchanges for identical securities; and

 

Government-sponsored agency debt securities, obligations of states and political subdivisions, mortgage-backed securities, corporate bonds, and other similar investment securities are priced with available market information through processes using benchmark yields, matrix pricing, prepayment speeds, cash flows, live trading data, and market spreads sourced from new issues, dealer quotes, and trade prices, among others sources.

 

At December 31, 2016, all of the Company’s available for sale investment securities and money market mutual funds were measured using observable market data.

 

Other Real Estate Owned

Other real estate owned (“OREO”) includes properties acquired by the Company through, or in lieu of, actual loan foreclosures and initially carried at fair value less estimated costs to sell. Fair value is generally based on third party appraisals of the property that includes comparable sales data. The carrying value of each OREO property is updated at least annually and more frequently when market conditions significantly impact the value of the property. If the carrying amount exceeds fair value less estimated costs to sell, an impairment loss is recorded through expense. OREO is subsequently accounted for at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less estimated costs to sell. At December 31, 2016, OREO was $10.7 million compared to $21.8 million at year-end 2015.

 

 
39

 

 

Impaired Loans

Loans are considered impaired when it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due under the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Impaired loans are measured at the present value of expected future cash flows, discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, at the loan’s observable market price, or at the fair value of the collateral based on recent appraisals if the loan is collateral dependent. If the value of an impaired loan is less than the unpaid balance, the difference is credited to the allowance for loan losses with a corresponding charge to provision for loan losses. Loan losses are charged against the allowance for loan losses when management believes the uncollectibility of a loan is confirmed.

 

Appraisals used in connection with valuing collateral-dependent loans may utilize a single valuation approach or a combination of approaches including comparable sales and the income approach. Appraisers take absorption rates into consideration and adjustments are routinely made in the appraisal process to identify differences between the comparable sales and income data available. Such adjustments consist mainly of estimated costs to sell that are not included in certain appraisals or to update appraised collateral values as a result of market declines of similar properties for which a newer appraisal is available. These adjustments can be significant. Impaired loans were $41.9 million and $37.2 million at year-end 2016 and 2015, respectively.

 

EXECUTIVE LEVEL OVERVIEW

 

The Company offers a variety of financial products and services at its 34 banking locations in 21 communities throughout Central and Northern Kentucky. At year-end 2016, the Company had four separately chartered commercial banks operating under a community banking philosophy. This philosophy focuses primarily on understanding the banking needs of those in our local and surrounding communities and providing them with competitively priced products and a high level of personalized service. The most significant products and services the Company offers include consumer and business lending, checking, savings, and other deposit accounts, automated teller machines, electronic bill payments, and providing trust services and other traditional banking products and services. The primary goals of the Company are to continually improve profitability and shareholder value, increase and maintain a strong capital position, provide excellent service to our customers through our community banking structure, and to provide a challenging and rewarding work environment for our employees.

 

The Company generates a significant amount of its revenue, cash flows, and net income from interest income and net interest income. The ability to properly manage net interest income under changing market environments is crucial to the success of the Company. During the year, the Company took multiple initiatives to improve interest income and net interest income, including the early extinguishment of $15.5 million of debt at a gain of $4.1 million. The Company also completed a series of transactions to deleverage its balance sheet and reposition its investment securities portfolio which was the primary driver of the increase in net interest margin compared to the prior year.

 

Managing credit risk also has a significant influence on the operating results of the Company. The Company’s loan portfolio grew for the second year in a row. Although loan balances increased, the Company continues its commitment to strong credit underwriting standards which has resulted in steady improvement in the overall credit quality of the loan portfolio and a decrease to the allowance for loan losses. Nonperforming loans are at the lowest level since the first quarter of 2009 and are down $78.5 million or 72.8% since peaking at $108 million in the first quarter of 2010.

 

For 2017, the Company will continue to focus on increasing productivity and lowering operating costs to increase profitability and increase shareholder value. The Company completed the consolidation of its bank subsidiaries and data processing subsidiaries during the first quarter of 2017. While the Company incurred $1.1 million in expenses related to the consolidation during 2016, it expects the transaction to result in annualized pre-tax cost reductions in the range of $3.0 million to $3.5 million.

 

 
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The Company reported net income of $16.6 million for 2016, an increase of $1.6 million or 10.8% compared to $15.0 million for 2015. Net income available to common shareholders was $16.6 million or $2.21 per common share for 2016, up $2.0 million or 13.8% compared to $14.6 million or $1.95 per common share for 2015. The current year includes pre-tax expenses of $1.1 million ($697 thousand after tax) related to the Company’s progress towards consolidating its four bank subsidiaries and data processing subsidiary into one bank. Per common share net income was positively impacted by the Company’s redemption of its outstanding preferred shares in 2015, which decreased preferred dividends by $395 thousand in the comparison. Selected income statement amounts and related information is presented in the table below.

 

(In thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,

 

2016

   

2015

   

Increase
(Decrease)

 

Interest income

  $ 59,371     $ 61,236     $ (1,865 )

Interest expense

    6,755       8,641       (1,886 )

Net interest income

    52,616       52,595       21  

Provision for loan losses

    (644 )     (3,429 )     2,785  

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

    53,260       56,024       (2,764 )

Noninterest income

    31,186       22,211       8,975  

Noninterest expenses

    61,400       57,950       3,450  

Income before income taxes

    23,046       20,285       2,761  

Income tax expense

    6,441       5,293       1,148  

Net income

  $ 16,605     $ 14,992     $ 1,613  

Less preferred stock dividends and discount accretion

    -       395       (395 )

Net income available to common shareholders

  $ 16,605     $ 14,597     $ 2,008  
                         

Basic and diluted net income per common share

  $ 2.21     $ 1.95     $ .26  

Cash dividends declared per common share

    .31       -       .31  
                         

Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic and diluted

    7,504       7,494       10  

Return on average assets

    .96 %     .84 %  

12 bp

 

Return on average equity

    8.94 %     8.61 %  

33 bp

 

bp – basis points.

 

The more significant components related to the Company’s results of operations are included below.

 

Interest Income

Interest income results from interest earned on earning assets, which primarily includes loans and investment securities. Interest income is affected by volume (average balance), the composition of earning assets, and the related rates earned on those assets. Total interest income for 2016 was $59.4 million, a decrease of $1.9 million or 3.0% compared to $61.2 million for 2015. The decrease in interest income was driven by lower interest from investment securities of $1.7 million or 13.1%, which was negatively impacted primarily by a decline in the average balance and, to a lesser extent, a lower average rate earned. Interest income on loans decreased $373 thousand or 0.8%, driven by a lower average rate earned of 17 basis points to 5.00%, partially offset by a higher loan balance outstanding.

 

The overall interest rate environment at year-end 2016, as measured by the Treasury yield curve, remains at very low levels when compared with historical trends, but did have an overall increase in the year-over-year comparison. The most significant change was a 33 basis point increase in the yield on the three-month maturity period. The six-month and two-year maturities increased 13 and 14 basis points, respectively, while yields on the ten and thirty-year maturities increased 17 and 5 basis points, respectively. At year-end 2016, the short-term federal funds interest rate target range was between 0.50% and 0.75%, which increased during December 2016 from a target of 0.25% to 0.50%. Prior to December 2015, the short-term federal funds interest rate target had been zero to 0.25% since December 2008. The Federal Reserve Board (“Federal Reserve”) has indicated that it will continue to assess realized and expected economic conditions relative to its objective of maximum employment and two percent inflation when determining the timing and size of future adjustments to the target rate. At December 31, 2016, the national and Kentucky unemployment rates were 4.7% and 4.8%, respectively. While the national inflation rate was 2.1% at year-end 2016, the average inflation rate for 2016 was 1.3% based on the Consumer Price Index published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

 
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Interest Expense

Interest expense results from interest bearing liabilities, which are made up of interest bearing deposits, federal funds purchased, securities sold under agreements to repurchase, and other borrowed funds. Interest expense is affected by volume, composition of interest bearing liabilities, and the related rates paid on those liabilities. Total interest expense was $6.8 million for 2016, a decrease of $1.9 million or 21.8% compared to $8.6 million for 2015. The decrease in interest expense is attributed primarily to lower interest on long-term borrowings of $1.3 million or 23.6%, primarily due to the early repayment of $100 million of high fixed-rate borrowings during the third quarter of 2016 and, to a lesser extent, the early extinguishment of $15.5 million of debt during the first quarter of 2016. Interest expense on deposits declined $606 thousand or 20.5%. Both rate declines and lower volume contributed to the decrease, with a significant amount of the decrease related to time deposits. The Company has continued to aggressively reprice higher-rate maturing time deposits downward to lower market rates or to allow them to mature without renewal.

 

Net Interest Income

Net interest income is the most significant component of the Company’s operating earnings. Net interest income is the excess of the interest income earned on earning assets over the interest paid for funds to support those assets. The two most common metrics used to analyze net interest income are net interest spread and net interest margin. Net interest spread represents the difference between the taxable equivalent yields on earning assets and the rates paid on interest bearing liabilities. Net interest margin represents the percentage of taxable equivalent net interest income to average earning assets. Net interest margin will exceed net interest spread because of the existence of noninterest bearing sources of funds, principally demand deposits and shareholders’ equity, which are also available to fund earning assets.

 

Changes in net interest income and margin result from the interaction between the volume and composition of earning assets, their related yields, and the associated cost and composition of the interest bearing liabilities. Accordingly, portfolio size, composition, and the related yields earned and the average rates paid have a significant impact on net interest spread and margin. The table following this discussion represents the major components of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities on a tax equivalent basis. To compare the tax-exempt asset yields to taxable yields, amounts in the table are adjusted to pretax equivalents based on the marginal corporate Federal tax rate of 35%.

 

Tax equivalent net interest income was $54.1 million for 2016, a decrease of $127 thousand or 0.2% compared to $54.3 million for 2015. Net interest margin was 3.36% for 2016, an increase of seven basis points from 3.29% for the prior year. The increase in net interest margin was due to a seven basis point increase in net interest spread, which was 3.21% for 2016 compared to 3.14% for 2015.

 

As part of its strategy to improve net interest income and net interest margin, the Company completed a series of transactions during the last half of the year to deleverage its balance sheet and reposition its investment securities portfolio. The Company used a mixture of $10.4 million of excess cash and $93.4 million of proceeds from the sale of investment securities to prepay $100 million of high fixed-rate borrowings due to mature in November 2017. The Company incurred a prepayment fee of $3.8 million, which was offset by a gain in the same amount on the sale of investment securities. The average yield on the mix of cash and investment securities sold to fund the debt prepayment was 2.97%. The average cost of the fixed rate borrowings that were repaid was 3.95%. The Company also took action to reposition its investment securities portfolio by replacing approximately $78 million of certain lower yielding short-term investments with longer-term, higher-yielding investments consistent with a more normalized strategy and maturity periods. The lower yielding short-term investments were built up in anticipation of the debt repayment. The average yield on the investments identified for the repositioning strategy was 0.85% compared to a targeted reinvestment yield of 1.85%. As a result, the average life of the securities portfolio increased to 4.0 years from 3.5 years.

 

The Company actively monitors and proactively manages the rate sensitive components of both its assets and liabilities in a continuously changing and difficult market environment. Competition in the Company’s market areas continues to be intense, and market interest rates remain very low by historical measures. The Federal Reserve increased the short-term federal funds target rate by a quarter percent in December 2016, the second change to this rate since December 2008, and has indicated that it continues to expect only gradual adjustments in its stance on monetary policy relative to longer term expectations.

 

 
42

 

 

Similar to the short-term federal funds target rate, the prime interest rate rose 25 basis points in December 2015 and an additional 25 basis points in December 2016. The Company uses the prime interest rate as part of its pricing model primarily on variable rate commercial real estate loans. The prime interest rate can have a significant impact on the Company’s interest income from loans that reprice based on changes to this rate. The Company’s variable interest rate loans contain provisions that limit the amount of increase or decrease in the interest rate during the life of a loan. This will limit the increase or decrease in interest income on loans that have interest rates tied to the prime interest rate. For 2016, the average yield earned on loans was 5.00%, which exceeded the prime interest rate of 3.75% at year-end. Predicting the direction and timing of future interest rates is uncertain.

 

For 2016, the average rate of the Company’s two most significant components of net interest income, loans and time deposits, both declined. The average rate earned on the Company’s loan portfolio for 2016 declined 17 basis points to 5.00% and the average rate paid on time deposits decreased 10 basis points to 0.54% compared to 2015. The Company expects its net interest margin to increase in 2017 as compared to 2016 as a result of the deleveraging and investment portfolio normalization strategies initiated during the third quarter of 2016 along with internal modeling using expectations about future market interest rates, loan volume, the maturity structure of the Company’s earning assets and liabilities, and other factors. Future results, however, could be significantly different than expectations.

 

 
43

 

 

Distribution of Assets, Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity: Interest Rates and Interest Differential

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

2016

   

2015

   

2014

 
   

Average

           

Average

   

Average

           

Average

   

Average

           

Average

 

(In thousands)

 

Balance

   

Interest

   

Rate

   

Balance

   

Interest

   

Rate

   

Balance

   

Interest

   

Rate

 

Earning Assets

                                                                       

Investment securities1

                                                                       

Taxable

  $ 438,106     $ 8,969       2.05 %   $ 493,594     $ 10,468       2.12 %   $ 504,284     $ 11,737       2.33 %

Nontaxable2

    122,820       3,660       2.98       130,548       3,974       3.04       119,659       3,792       3.17  

Interest bearing deposits with banks, federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell, and money market mutual funds

    95,629       418       .44       90,135       192       .21       63,863       143       .22  

Loans 2,3,4

    956,463       47,831       5.00       933,260       48,257       5.17       968,489       50,318       5.20  

Total earning assets

    1,613,018     $ 60,878       3.77 %     1,647,537     $ 62,891       3.82 %     1,656,295     $ 65,990       3.98 %

Allowance for loan losses

    (9,593 )                     (12,255 )                     (17,547 )                

Total earning assets, net of allowance for loan losses

    1,603,425                       1,635,282                       1,638,748                  

Nonearning Assets

                                                                       

Cash and due from banks

    23,275                       23,639                       23,839                  

Premises and equipment, net

    32,491                       34,145                       35,745                  

Other assets

    78,616                       89,854                       99,993                  

Total assets

  $ 1,737,807                     $ 1,782,920                     $ 1,798,325                  

Interest Bearing Liabilities

                                                                       

Deposits

                                                                       

Interest bearing demand

  $ 334,818     $ 256       .08 %   $ 334,281     $ 200       .06 %   $ 320,947     $ 187       .06 %

Savings

    407,353       506       .12       385,932       496       .13       357,156       580       .16  

Time

    296,258       1,593       .54       356,419       2,265       .64       433,756       3,486       .80  

Federal funds purchased and short-term securities sold under agreements to repurchase

    36,919       99       .27       31,580       50       .16       30,428       54       .18  

Securities sold under agreements to repurchase and other long-term borrowings

    123,821       4,301       3.47       167,848       5,630       3.35       173,253       5,846       3.37  

Total interest bearing liabilities

    1,199,169     $ 6,755       .56 %     1,276,060     $ 8,641       .68 %     1,315,540     $ 10,153       .77 %

Noninterest Bearing Liabilities

                                                                       

Demand deposits

    324,596                       304,516                       281,025                  

Other liabilities

    28,374                       28,220                       24,872                  

Total liabilities

    1,552,139                       1,608,796                       1,621,437                  

Shareholders’ equity

    185,668                       174,124                       176,888                  

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

  $ 1,737,807                     $ 1,782,920                     $ 1,798,325                  

Net interest income

            54,123                       54,250                       55,837          

TE basis adjustment

            (1,507 )                     (1,655 )                     (1,638 )        

Net interest income

          $ 52,616                     $ 52,595                     $ 54,199          

Net interest spread

                    3.21 %                     3.14 %                     3.21 %

Impact of noninterest bearing sources of funds

                    .15                       .15                       .16  

Net interest margin

                    3.36 %                     3.29 %                     3.37 %

 

1Average yields on securities available for sale have been calculated based on amortized cost.

2Income and yield stated at a fully tax equivalent basis using the marginal corporate Federal tax rate of 35%.

3Loan balances include principal balances on nonaccrual loans.

4Loan fees included in interest income amounted to $1.4 million, $1.3 million, and $1.3 million for 2016, 2015, and 2014.

 

 
44

 

 

The following table is an analysis of the change in net interest income.

 

Analysis of Changes in Net Interest Income (tax equivalent basis)

 

   

Variance

   

Variance Attributed to

   

Variance

   

Variance Attributed to

 

(In thousands)

 

2016/20151

   

Volume

   

Rate

   

2015/20141

   

Volume

   

Rate

 

Interest Income

                                               

Taxable investment securities

  $ (1,499 )   $ (1,158 )   $ (341 )   $ (1,269 )   $ (242 )   $ (1,027 )

Nontaxable investment securities2

    (314 )     (236 )     (78 )     182       340       (158 )

Interest bearing deposits with banks, federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell, and money market mutual funds

    226       12       214       49       55       (6 )

Loans2

    (426 )     1,183       (1,609 )     (2,061 )     (1,778 )     (283 )

Total interest income

    (2,013 )     (199 )     (1,814 )     (3,099 )     (1,625 )     (1,474 )

Interest Expense

                                               

Interest bearing demand deposits

    56       -       56       13       13       -  

Savings deposits

    10       37       (27 )     (84 )     39       (123 )

Time deposits

    (672 )     (349 )     (323 )     (1,221 )     (576 )     (645 )

Federal funds purchased and short-term securities sold under agreements to repurchase

    49       10       39       (4 )     2       (6 )

Securities sold under agreements to repurchase and other long-term borrowings

    (1,329 )     (1,523 )     194       (216 )     (181 )     (35 )

Total interest expense

    (1,886 )     (1,825 )     (61 )     (1,512 )     (703 )     (809 )

Net interest income

  $ (127 )   $ 1,626     $ (1,753 )   $ (1,587 )   $ (922 )   $ (665 )

Percentage change

    100.0 %     (1,280.3 )%     1,380.3 %     100.0 %     58.1 %     41.9 %

 

1The changes which are not solely due to rate or volume are allocated on a percentage basis using the absolute values of rate and volume variances as a basis for allocation.

2Income stated at fully tax equivalent basis using the marginal corporate Federal tax rate of 35%.

 

Provision for Loan Losses

The Company recorded a credit to the provision for loan losses in the amount of $644 thousand and $3.4 million for 2016 and 2015, respectively. The credit to the provision for loan losses is attributed to continued improvement in the credit quality of the loan portfolio. The lower credit to the provision is mainly driven by a smaller rate of improvement in historical loss rates during 2016 compared to 2015. The allowance for loan losses as a percentage of outstanding loans was 0.96% at December 31, 2016 compared to 1.08% at year-end 2015. Further information about improvements in the Company’s overall credit quality is included under the captions “Allowance for Loan Losses” and “Nonperforming Loans” that follows.

 

Net loan charge-offs were $327 thousand and $224 thousand for 2016 and 2015, respectively, up $103 thousand in the comparison. Net charge-offs were 0.03% of average loans outstanding for 2016 compared to 0.02% for the prior year.

 

 
45

 

 

Noninterest Income

The components of noninterest income are as follows for the periods indicated:

 

(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,

 

2016

   

2015

   

Increase
(Decrease)

   

%

 

Service charges and fees on deposits

  $ 7,856     $ 7,590     $ 266       3.5 %

Allotment processing fees

    3,232       4,321       (1,089 )     (25.2 )

Other service charges, commissions, and fees

    5,558       5,545       13       .2  

Trust income

    2,664       2,373       291       12.3  

Investment securities gains, net

    3,998       171       3,827       NM  

Gain on sale of mortgage loans, net

    942       824       118       14.3  

Income from company-owned life insurance

    1,016       937       79       8.4  

Gain on debt extinguishment

    4,050       -       4,050       NM  

Legal settlement

    1,450       -       1,450       NM  

Other

    420