10-K 1 ncr-20151231x10k.htm FORM 10-K 10-K

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
Commission File Number 001-00395
 ________________________
NCR CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

________________________
 
Maryland
 
31-0387920
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3097 Satellite Boulevard
Duluth, GA 30096
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (937) 445-5000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  o    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ   No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
þ
 
 
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company
o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  o    No  þ
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2015, was approximately $5.1 billion. As of February 17, 2016, there were approximately 133.1 million shares of common stock issued and outstanding.
 




DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III:
Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2015 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item
Description
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
1.
1A.
1B.
2.
3.
4.
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
5.
6.
7.
7A.
8.
 
 
 
9.
9A.
9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
15.

This Report contains trademarks, service marks and registered marks of NCR Corporation and its subsidiaries, and of other companies, as indicated.





FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements use words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “outlook,” “intend,” “believe,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “could” and words of similar meaning. Statements that describe or relate to our plans, goals, intentions, strategies or financial outlook, and statements that do not relate to historical or current fact, are examples of forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on our current beliefs, expectations and assumptions, which may not prove to be accurate, and involve a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are out of our control. Forward-looking statement are not guarantees of future performance, and there are a number of important factors that could cause actual outcomes and results to differ materially from the results contemplated by such forward-looking statements, including those listed in Item 1A "Risk Factors," and Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.



i


PART I


Item 1.        BUSINESS
General
NCR Corporation and its subsidiaries (NCR or the Company, also referred to as “we”, “us” or “our”) provide technology solutions and services that help businesses connect, interact and transact with their customers.

Businesses
NCR Corporation is a leading global technology company that provides innovative products and services that enable businesses to connect, interact and transact with their customers and enhance their customer relationships by addressing consumer demand for convenience, value and individual service. Our portfolio of self-service and assisted-service solutions serve customers in the financial services, retail, hospitality, travel and telecommunications and technology industries. Our offerings include software and hardware solutions for automated teller machines (ATMs) and bank branches, retail and hospitality point of sale applications and devices, and self-service kiosks and software applications that can be used by consumers to enable them to interact with businesses from their computer or mobile device. We complement these product solutions by offering a complete portfolio of services to support both NCR and third party solutions. We also resell third-party networking products and provide related service offerings in the telecommunications and technology sectors.

Industries Served
NCR provides specific solutions for customers of varying sizes in a range of industries such as financial services, retail, hospitality, travel and telecommunications and technology. NCR’s solutions are built on a foundation of long-established industry knowledge and consulting expertise, value-added software and hardware technology, global customer support services, and a complete line of business consumables and specialty media products.

Company History
NCR was originally incorporated in 1884 and was a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange prior to its merger with a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T Corp. (AT&T) on September 19, 1991. Subsequently, on December 31, 1996, AT&T distributed all of its interest in NCR to its stockholders. NCR common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol “NCR”.

On September 30, 2007, NCR completed the spin-off of its Teradata Data Warehousing business through the distribution of a tax-free stock dividend to NCR stockholders. NCR distributed one share of common stock of Teradata Corporation for each share of NCR common stock to NCR stockholders of record as of the close of business on September 14, 2007.

Significant Transactions
In May 2015, the Company completed the transfer of its UK London pension plan to an insurer. The transaction materially reduced pension liability, participants, and enterprise risk as part of our overall pension de-risking strategy. As a result of the transaction, the Company recorded a $427 million settlement loss.

On December 4, 2015, NCR completed the sale of $820 million of its Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to certain entities affiliated with Blackstone Capital Partners VI L.P. and Blackstone Tactical Opportunities L.L.C. (collectively, Blackstone). Proceeds from the sale were used, along with cash on hand and borrowings from our revolving facilities, to complete the repurchase, through a modified “Dutch auction” tender offer, of $1 billion of our common stock.

Operating Segments
We categorize our operations into four reportable segments: Financial Services, Retail Solutions, Hospitality, and Emerging Industries.

The information required by Item 1 with respect to our reportable segments and financial information regarding our geographic areas and those reportable segments can be found in Item 7 of Part II of this Report under “Revenue and Operating Income by Segment” as well as in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 14, “Segment Information and Concentrations” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, and is incorporated herein by reference.


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As of January 1, 2016, NCR began management of its business on a solution basis, changing from the previous model of management on a line of business basis. This change to our segment reporting for fiscal year 2016 and future periods is further described in Note 1, “Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

Products and Services

We sell products and services that help businesses connect, interact and transact with their customers. Our product and service offerings fall into the following categories:

ATMs and Other Financial Products
We provide financial institutions, retailers and independent deployers with financial-oriented self-service technologies, such as ATMs, cash dispensers, software solutions, including the APTRA™ self-service ATM software application suite (providing ATM management systems), cash management and video banking software and customer-facing digital banking services, as well as professional services related to ATM security, software and bank branch optimization. ATM and other financial product solutions are designed to quickly and reliably process consumer transactions and incorporate advanced features such as automated check cashing and deposit, automated cash deposit, web-enablement and bill payment (including mobile bill payment). These solutions help enable businesses to reduce costs and generate new revenue streams while enhancing customer loyalty.

Point of Sale
We provide retail- and hospitality-oriented technologies such as point of sale terminals and point of sale software, bar-code scanners and other retail-oriented software and services to retailers, restaurants, food service companies and entertainment and sports venues worldwide. Combining our retail and hospitality industry expertise, software and hardware technologies, and professional services, our solutions are designed to enable cost reductions and improve operational efficiency while increasing customer satisfaction.

Self-Service Kiosks
We provide self-service kiosks and related operating software to the retail, hospitality and travel industries. Our versatile kiosk solutions can support numerous retail self-service functions, including self-checkout, wayfinding (locating products or navigating through large, complex buildings and campuses), digital signage, bill payment and gift registries. We provide self-check in/out kiosk solutions to airlines, hotels and casinos that allow guests to check in/out without assistance. These solutions create pleasant and convenient experiences for consumers and enable our customers to reduce costs. Our kiosks for the hospitality industry provide consumers the ability to order and pay at restaurants while enabling our customers to streamline order processing and reduce operating costs.

Check and Document Imaging
Our check and document imaging offerings provide end-to-end solutions for both traditional paper-based and image-based check and item processing. These solutions utilize advanced image recognition and workflow technologies to automate item processing, helping financial institutions increase efficiency and reduce operating costs. Consisting of hardware, software, professional and support services, our comprehensive check and document imaging solutions enable check- and item-based transactions to be digitally captured, processed and retained within a flexible, scalable environment.

Consumables
We develop, produce and market a complete line of printer consumables for various print technologies. These products include two-sided thermal paper (2ST®), paper rolls for receipts in ATMs and POS solutions, inkjet and laser printer supplies, thermal transfer and ink ribbons, labels, laser documents, business forms and specialty media items such as photo and presentation papers. Consumables are designed to optimize operations and improve transaction accuracy, while reducing overall costs.

Services
Services are an essential and integrated component of NCR’s complete solution offerings. We provide maintenance and support services for our product offerings and also provide other services including site assessment and preparation, staging, installation and implementation, systems management and complete managed services. We provide Predictive Services, a managed services offering, which is designed to predict and address information technology issues quickly before they happen.


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We also offer a range of software and services such as cloud (or software-as-a-service) solutions, hosted services, and online, mobile and transactional services and applications such as bill pay. In addition, we are also focused on expanding the resale of third party networking products and related service offerings to a broader base of customers in the telecommunications and technology sectors and servicing third party computer hardware from select manufacturers who value and leverage our global service capability.

Target Markets and Distribution Channels
Our ATMs and other financial product solutions primarily serve the financial services industry with particular focus on retail banking, which includes traditional providers of consumer banking and financial services. These solutions also serve the retail markets through convenience banking products for retailers designed to complement their core businesses. Customers are located throughout the world in both developed and emerging markets. We have historically sold most of our ATMs and financial products and services through a direct sales channel, although a portion of revenue is derived through distributors and value-added resellers.

We provide self-service kiosk and POS solutions to the retail, hospitality and travel industries. Retail customers include department stores, specialty retailers, mass merchandisers, catalog stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, grocery stores, drug stores, wholesalers, convenience stores, petroleum outlets and small businesses. Hospitality customers include retailers, restaurants and food service providers, and sports and entertainment venues (including stadiums, arenas and cinemas) and small businesses. Travel customers include airlines, airports, car rental companies, and hotel/lodging operators. Self-service kiosk and POS solutions are sold through a direct sales force and through relationships with value-added resellers, distributors, dealers and other indirect sales channels. We have focused our investments and resources on self-service technologies with expanded offerings to include self-ticketing and mobile check-in for the travel industry.

Our imaging solutions primarily serve the financial services industry globally, with the primary focus on banks. We have historically distributed most of our imaging products and services through a direct sales channel, although certain revenue is derived through sales by value-added resellers and distributors.

Our consumables products are sold to the financial services, retail and hospitality industries as well as to customers involved in transportation and manufacturing. These products are also sold through a direct sales force as well as through various channel partners including office product retailers, contract stationers, value-added resellers, original equipment manufacturers and, additionally, through telemarketing and the Internet.     

We provide service and support for our products and solutions through service contracts with our customers. We have also established managed service contracts with key customers and continue to pursue additional managed service relationships. Longer term managed service arrangements can help improve the efficiency and performance of the customer’s business, and also increase the strategic and financial importance of its relationship with NCR. We also service competing technologies—for example, ToshibaTec retail technologies and Diebold ATMs. The primary sales channel for our services is our direct sales teams, which exist across all geographies where we operate around the world. Our services professionals provide these services directly to end customers.

Competition
In the financial services industry, we face a variety of competitors, including Diebold, Wincor Nixdorf GmbH & Co. (Wincor) and Hyosung, as well as many other regional firms, across all geographies. The primary factors of competition can vary, but typically include: value and quality of the solutions or products; total cost of ownership; industry knowledge of the vendor; the vendor’s ability to provide and support a total end-to-end solution; the vendor’s ability to integrate new and existing systems; fit of the vendor’s strategic vision with the customer’s strategic direction; and quality of the vendor’s support and consulting services.

We face a variety of competitors in the retail and hospitality industries across all geographies. We believe that key competitive factors can vary by geographic area but typically include: value and quality of the solutions or products; total cost of ownership; industry knowledge of the vendor; and knowledge, experience and quality of the vendor’s consulting, deployment and support services. Our competitors vary by market segment, product, service offering and geographic area, and include ToshibaTec, Wincor, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Honeywell, Oracle, Verifone and Datalogic, among others.

We face a diverse group of competitors in the travel industry. Competitors in the travel industry include IBM, SITA and IER, among others.

We face competition for services from other technology and service providers, as well as from independent service operators, in all geographies where we operate around the world. The primary services competitors are the companies identified in the descriptions of our other solutions as global technology providers are becoming more focused on services as a core business strategy. We also compete with a range of regional and local independent service operators across our various geographies.

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Competition for printer consumables is significant and varies by geographic area and product group. The primary areas of competitive differentiation typically include: quality; logistics and supply chain management; and total cost of ownership. While price is always a factor, we focus on the customer’s total cost of ownership for our consumables products. Total cost of ownership takes into account not only the per-unit cost, but also service, usage, reporting and support costs. Our competitors include, among others, RiteMade Paper and Schades.

We face competition in the financial services industry for imaging solutions across all geographies where we operate around the world. The primary areas of competition can vary, but typically include: quality of the solutions or products; total cost of ownership; industry knowledge; the vendor’s ability to provide and support a total end-to-end solution; the vendor’s ability to integrate new and existing systems; fit of the vendor’s strategic vision with the customer’s strategic direction; and quality of the vendor’s support and consulting services. Our competitors vary by product, service offering and geographic area, and include Fidelity National Information Services and Unisys Corporation, among others.

Research and Development
We remain focused on designing and developing solutions and services that anticipate our customers’ changing technological needs as well as consumer preferences. Our expenses for research and development were $230 million in 2015, $263 million in 2014, and $203 million in 2013. We anticipate that we will continue to have significant research and development expenditures in the future in order to provide a continuing flow of innovative, high-quality products and services and to help maintain and enhance our competitive position. Information regarding the accounting and costs included in research and development activities is included in Note 1, “Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report and is incorporated herein by reference.

Patents and Trademarks
NCR seeks patent protection for its innovations, including improvements, associated with its products, services, and developments, where such protection is likely to provide value to NCR. NCR owns approximately 1,450 patents in the U.S. and numerous other patents in foreign countries. The foreign patents are generally counterparts of NCR’s U.S. patents. Many of the patents owned by NCR are licensed to others, and NCR is licensed under certain patents owned by others. NCR has active patent licensing programs. NCR also has numerous patent applications pending in the U.S. and in foreign countries. NCR’s portfolio of patents and patent applications, in the aggregate, is of significant value to NCR.

NCR has registered certain trademarks and service marks in the U.S. and in a number of foreign countries. NCR considers the “NCR” and NCR logo marks and many of its other trademarks and service marks to be valuable assets.

Seasonality
Our sales are historically seasonal, with lower revenue in the first quarter and higher revenue in the fourth quarter of each year. Such seasonality also causes our working capital cash flow requirements to vary from quarter to quarter depending on variability in the volume, timing and mix of product sales. In addition, revenue in the third month of each quarter is typically higher than in the first and second months. Information regarding seasonality and its potential impact on our business is included in Item 1A of this Report under the caption, “Operating Results Fluctuations,” and is incorporated herein by reference.

Manufacturing and Raw Materials
In most cases, there are a number of vendors providing the services and producing the parts and components that we utilize. However, there are some services and components that are purchased from single sources due to price, quality, technology or other reasons. For example, we depend on computer chips and microprocessors from Intel and operating systems from Microsoft. Certain parts and components used in the manufacturing of our ATMs and the delivery of many of our retail solutions are also supplied by single sources. In addition, there are a number of key suppliers for our businesses who provide us with critical products for our solutions.
At December 31, 2015, we manufactured our ATMs in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA; Manaus, Brazil; Budapest, Hungary; Beijing, China; Puducherry, India and Chengalpattu, India. Our self-checkout solutions are manufactured in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA and Budapest, Hungary. Our financial kiosk solutions are manufactured in facilities located in Beijing, China; Budapest, Hungary; Manaus, Brazil; Puducherry, India and Chengalpattu, India. Our POS/Display terminals are manufactured in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA; Beijing, China; Budapest, Hungary; Salzburg, Austria; and Adelaide, Australia, and certain hand-held solutions are manufactured in Salzburg, Austria. NCR outsources the manufacturing in all geographic regions of its payment solutions, some POS/Display terminals, printers, bar code scanners and various other kiosks.


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Further information regarding the potential impact of these relationships on our business operations, and regarding sources and availability of raw materials, is also included in Item 1A of this Report under the caption “Reliance on Third Parties,” and is incorporated herein by reference.
Product Backlog

Our backlog was approximately $1.11 billion and $1.10 billion at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The backlog includes orders confirmed for products scheduled to be shipped as well as certain professional and transaction services to be provided. Although we believe that the orders included in the backlog are firm, some orders may be canceled by the customer without penalty. Even when penalties for cancellation are provided for in a customer contract, we may elect to permit cancellation of orders without penalty where management believes it is in our best interests to do so. Further, we have a significant portion of revenue derived from our growing service-based business (including our cloud and hosted businesses) as well as the acquired Digital Insight Corporation and Retalix Ltd. businesses and our consumables business, for which backlog information is not measured. Therefore, we do not believe that our backlog, as of any particular date, is necessarily indicative of revenue for any future period.

Employees

On December 31, 2015, NCR had approximately 32,600 employees and contractors worldwide.

Environmental Matters

Compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations relating to the protection of the environment could have a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. While NCR does not currently expect to incur material capital expenditures related to compliance with such laws and regulations, and while we believe the amounts provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements are adequate in light of the probable and estimable liabilities in this area, there can be no assurances that environmental matters will not lead to a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. A detailed discussion of the current estimated impacts of compliance issues relating to environmental regulations, particularly the Fox River and Kalamazoo River matters, is reported in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference. Further information regarding the potential impact of compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations is also included in Item 1A of this Report under the caption “Environmental,” and is incorporated herein by reference.

Executive Officers of the Registrant
The Executive Officers of NCR (as of February 26, 2016) are as follows:

Name
 
Age
 
Position and Offices Held
William R. Nuti
 
52
 
Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and President
Michael B. Bayer
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and President, Retail Solutions Division
Robert P. Fishman
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Edward R. Gallagher
 
62
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Andrew S. Heyman
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and President, Financial Services Division
Andrea L. Ledford
 
50
 
Senior Vice President, Corporate Services and Chief Human Resources Officer
Frederick ("Rick") Marquardt
 
57
 
Executive Vice President, Services, Enterprise Quality and T&T


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Set forth below is a description of the background of each of the Executive Officers.

William R. Nuti, is NCR's Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and President. Mr. Nuti became Chairman of the Board on October 1, 2007. Before joining NCR in August 2005, Mr. Nuti served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Symbol Technologies, Inc., an information technology company. Prior to that, he was Chief Operating Officer of Symbol Technologies. Mr. Nuti joined Symbol Technologies in 2002 following a 10 plus year career at Cisco Systems, Inc. where he advanced to the dual role of Senior Vice President of the company's Worldwide Service Provider Operations and U.S. Theater Operations. Prior to his Cisco experience, Mr. Nuti held sales and management positions at IBM, Netrix Corporation and Network Equipment Technologies. Mr. Nuti is also a director of Coach, Inc., where he is a member of its Audit, Human Resources, and Governance & Nominating Committees, and United Continental Holdings, Inc. where he is a member of its Audit Committee. Mr. Nuti previously served as a director of Sprint Nextel Corporation. He is also a member of the Georgia Institute of Technology advisory board and a trustee of Long Island University. Mr. Nuti became a director of NCR on August 7, 2005.

Michael B. Bayer joined NCR as Senior Vice President and President, Retail Solutions Division in July 2014. Prior to joining NCR, Mr. Bayer has held leadership roles at companies such as Motorola, Symbol Technologies and Cisco Systems, and most recently as President of Global Growth Markets for Avaya, a global provider of business communications, and collaboration systems. Prior to this, Mr. Bayer served as Avaya's EMEA President, where he led the region's sales and operations and worked with customers to deliver Unified Communications, IP Telephony and Contact Center solutions across EMEA. Mr. Bayer holds a master's degree in electronics and telecommunications from Fachhochschule Wiirzburg­Schweinfurt in Germany.

Robert P. Fishman became Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in March 2010. Prior to assuming this position, he was Interim Chief Financial Officer from October 2009 to March 2010. Prior to that position, he was Vice President and Corporate Controller from January 2007 to October 2009. From September 2005 to January 2007, Mr. Fishman was Assistant Controller and from January 2005 to September 2005, he was Director, Corporate Planning. Mr. Fishman joined NCR in 1993.

Edward R. Gallagher was named Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of NCR in October 2015, having served as Acting General Counsel since October 2014.  His prior position with NCR was Law Vice President, Litigation & Employment Law, commencing in 2003; he has also served in other positions within the NCR Law Department, including Chief Counsel of the former Systemedia Division.  Mr. Gallagher joined NCR in 1992.  Prior to that, Mr. Gallagher was an attorney in private practice with McCutchen Doyle Brown & Enersen in San Francisco and Palmer & Dodge in Boston. Mr. Gallagher holds a law degree from Yale Law School, as well as a master’s degree from Yale University in political science and international relations.  He has an undergraduate degree from the University of South Dakota.

Andrew S. Heyman joined NCR as part of the Radiant Systems, Inc. (Radiant) acquisition in August 2011, when he assumed the position of Senior Vice President and General Manager, Hospitality. Mr. Heyman served in that role until January 2013, when he became Senior Vice President and President, Financial Services. Mr. Heyman previously held a variety of key leadership positions at Radiant, including chief operating officer and president of the hospitality division across fifteen years with Radiant. Mr. Heyman served as a senior manager with Accenture (formerly Andersen Consulting) from 1987 to December 1995. Mr. Heyman holds an M.S. degree in computer information systems from Georgia State University and a B.B.A. in finance from the University of Georgia.

Andrea L. Ledford became Senior Vice President, Corporate Services and Chief Human Resources Officer in November 2013. Previously, Ms. Ledford was Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer, from June 2012 to November 2013, Senior Vice President, Human Resources, from June 2007 to June 2012, and Interim Senior Vice President, Human Resources from February 2007 to June 2007. Prior to assuming this position, she was Vice President, Human Resources, Asia/Pacific, and Europe, Middle East and Africa, from February 2006 to February 2007. Before joining NCR in February 2006, Ms. Ledford was EMEA Leader, Human Resources, at Symbol Technologies, Inc. from 2002 to February 2006 and held a variety of leadership roles at Cisco Systems, Inc. in EMEA, Asia/Pacific and Latin America.

Frederick ("Rick") Marquardt is NCR’s Executive Vice President, Services, Enterprise Quality and T&T, a role he assumed in January 2016. From April 2014 to January 2016, Mr. Marquardt served as Executive Vice President, Services, Hardware Solutions and Enterprise Quality. Mr. Marquardt joined NCR in 2006, and has held a variety of roles at the company including Senior Vice President of Integrated Supply Chain from September 2013 to April 2014, Senior Vice President of Global Operations, Vice President of Manufacturing for NCR, and Vice President of Global Operations for NCR's Financial Industry Business Unit (now the Financial Services division). Prior to joining NCR, Mr. Marquardt worked for Motorola Corporation, where he held several leadership positions in operations and manufacturing.



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Available Information
NCR makes available through its website at http://investor.ncr.com, free of charge, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, definitive proxy statements on Schedule 14A and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to such reports and schedules, as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are electronically filed or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). The SEC website (www.sec.gov) contains the reports, proxy statements and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file or furnish electronically with the SEC. Also, the public may read and copy any materials that NCR files or furnishes with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. NCR will furnish, without charge to a security holder upon written request, the Notice of Meeting and Proxy Statement for the 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the 2016 Proxy Statement), portions of which are incorporated herein by reference. NCR also will furnish its Code of Conduct at no cost and any other exhibit at cost. Document requests are available by calling or writing to:

NCR—Investor Relations
3097 Satellite Boulevard
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone: 800-255-5627
E-Mail: investor.relations@ncr.com
Website: http://investor.ncr.com

NCR's website, www.ncr.com, contains a significant amount of information about NCR, including financial and other information for investors. NCR encourages investors to visit its website regularly, as information may be updated and new information may be posted at any time. The contents of NCR's website are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and shall not be deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act.



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Item 1A.    RISK FACTORS

The risks and uncertainties described below could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations and projections, and could cause the market value of our stock to decline. You should consider these risk factors when reading the rest of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this document. These risk factors may not include all of the important factors that could affect our business or our industry or that could cause our future financial results to differ materially from historic or expected results or cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate or decline.
    
Economic Pressures. Our business may be negatively affected by domestic and global economic and credit conditions. Our business is sensitive to the strength of domestic and global economic and credit conditions, particularly as they affect the financial services, retail and hospitality sectors of the economy in various parts of the world. Economic and credit conditions are influenced by a number of factors, including consumer confidence, unemployment levels, interest rates, commodity prices, political conditions and the effects of government actions to address economic slow-downs and sovereign debt issues, improve global credit markets and generally stimulate economic growth. Slower growth in China, Russia and other emerging markets, fluctuations in oil and commodity prices, market conditions and spending trends in the financial services industry, sovereign debt crises in the Eurozone and elsewhere, and the uneven global economic recovery, among other things, have created a challenging and unpredictable environment in which to market the products and services of our various businesses across our different geographies and industries.

A negative economic climate could create financial pressures that impact the ability or willingness of our customers to make capital expenditures, thereby affecting their decision to purchase or roll out our products or services or, especially with respect to smaller customers, to pay accounts receivable owed to NCR. Additionally, if customers respond to a negative economic climate by consolidation, such as has occurred in the financial services sector in the past and, more recently, in the retail sector, it could reduce our base of potential customers. Negative global economic conditions also may have a material effect on our customers’ ability to obtain financing for the purchase of our products and services from third party financing companies, which could adversely affect our operating results.

Indebtedness and Repurchase Obligations. Our substantial level of indebtedness could limit our financial and operating activities and adversely affect our ability to incur additional debt to fund future needs. At December 31, 2015, we had approximately $3.25 billion of total indebtedness outstanding. Additionally, at December 31, 2015, we had approximately $722 million of secured debt available for borrowing under our senior secured credit facility, and approximately $200 million of secured debt available for borrowing under our trade receivables securitization facility. This level of indebtedness could:

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to the payment of principal and interest, thereby reducing the funds available for operations and future business opportunities;
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our outstanding senior unsecured notes, including our change in control repurchase obligations;
limit our ability to borrow additional money if needed for other purposes, including working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes, on satisfactory terms or at all;
limit our ability to adjust to changing economic, business and competitive conditions;
place us at a competitive disadvantage with competitors who may have less indebtedness or greater access to financing;
make us more vulnerable to an increase in interest rates, a downturn in our operating performance or a decline in general economic conditions; and
make us more susceptible to adverse changes in credit ratings, which could impact our ability to obtain financing in the future and increase the cost of such financing.

If compliance with our debt obligations materially limits our financial or operating activities, or hinders our ability to adapt to changing industry conditions, we may lose market share, our revenue may decline and our operating results may be negatively affected.


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The terms of the documents governing our indebtedness include financial and other covenants that could restrict or limit our financial and business operations. Our senior secured credit facility and the indentures for our senior unsecured notes include restrictive covenants that, subject to certain exceptions and qualifications, restrict or limit our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness;
create liens on, sell or otherwise dispose of, our assets;
engage in certain fundamental corporate changes or changes to our business activities;
make certain material acquisitions;
engage in sale-leaseback or hedging transactions;
repurchase our common stock, pay dividends or make similar distributions on our capital stock;
repay certain indebtedness;
engage in certain affiliate transactions; and
enter into agreements that restrict our ability to create liens, pay dividends or make loan repayments.

The senior secured credit facility and the indentures also contain certain affirmative covenants, and the senior secured credit facility requires us to comply with financial coverage ratios regarding both our interest expense and our debt relative to our Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the senior secured credit facility).

These covenants and restrictions could affect our ability to operate our business, and may limit our ability to react to market conditions or take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise. Additionally, our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, including general economic and credit conditions and industry downturns.

In addition, under our trade receivables securitization facility, we are required, among other things, to maintain certain financial tests relating to the three month rolling average ratio of defaults, delinquencies, dilution and days sales outstanding of the receivables pool (as such ratios and tests are described in the agreement governing our trade receivables securitization facility).

If we fail to comply with these covenants and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment from the applicable lenders, an event of default would result under these agreements and under other agreements containing related cross-default provisions.

Upon an event of default under the senior secured credit facility, the lenders could, among other things, declare outstanding amounts due and payable, refuse to lend additional amounts to us, or require us to deposit cash collateral in respect of outstanding letters of credit. If we were unable to repay or pay the amounts due, the lenders could, among other things, proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness, which includes certain of our domestic assets and the equity interests of certain of our domestic and foreign subsidiaries.
Upon an event of default under the indentures, the trustee or holders of our senior unsecured notes could declare all outstanding amounts immediately due and payable.
Upon an event of default under our trade receivables securitization facility, the lenders could, among other things, terminate the facility, declare all capital and other obligations to be immediately due and payable, replace us as servicer, take over receivables lock-box accounts and redirect the collections of domestic accounts receivable from those accounts, and exercise available rights against the domestic accounts receivable pledged by NCR Receivables, LLC.


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Our cash flows may not be sufficient to service our indebtedness, and if we are unable to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, we may be required to seek other financing alternatives, which may not be successful. Our ability to make timely payments of principal and interest on our debt obligations depends on our ability to generate positive cash flows from operations, which is subject to general economic conditions, competitive pressures and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to make these payments, we may be required to seek additional financing sources, reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations or refinance our indebtedness. These actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to take any of these actions, and, even if successful, these actions may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our ability to restructure or refinance our outstanding indebtedness will depend on, among other things, the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. There can be no assurance that we will be able to restructure or refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the outstanding principal and interest on our debt could be declared to be due and payable, in which case we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation or required to substantially restructure or alter our business operations or debt obligations.

Despite our current levels of debt, we may still incur substantially more debt, including secured debt, and similar liabilities, which would increase the risks described herein. The agreements relating to our debt limit but do not prohibit our ability to incur additional debt, and the amount of debt that we could incur could be substantial. In addition, certain types of liabilities are not considered “Indebtedness” under our senior secured credit facility or the indentures governing our senior unsecured notes, and the senior secured credit facility and indentures do not impose any limitation on the amount of liabilities incurred by the subsidiaries, if any, that might be designated as “unrestricted subsidiaries” (as defined in the indentures). Accordingly, we could incur significant additional debt or similar liabilities in the future, including additional debt under our senior secured credit facility, some of which could constitute secured debt. In addition, if we form or acquire any subsidiaries in the future, those subsidiaries also could incur debt or similar liabilities. If new debt or similar liabilities are added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could increase.

Borrowings under our senior secured credit facility and trade receivables securitization facility bear interest at a variable rate, which subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly. All of our borrowings under our senior secured credit facility and trade receivables securitization facility are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on this variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same. We are party to an interest rate swap agreement that fixes the interest rate, based on LIBOR, on a portion of our LIBOR-indexed floating rate borrowings under our senior secured credit facility through August 22, 2016, with a notional amount of $380 million as of December 31, 2015 that amortizes to $341 million over the term of the agreement. Although we may enter into additional interest rate swaps to reduce interest rate volatility, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to do so or that such swaps will be effective.

We may also enter into interest rate swaps in the future in connection with other of our variable rate borrowings. This would expose us to interest rate risk, which could increase our debt service obligations.

We may not be able to raise the funds necessary to finance a required repurchase of our senior unsecured notes or our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. Upon the occurrence of a change in control under the applicable indenture governing the applicable senior unsecured notes, holders of those notes may require us to repurchase their notes. On any date during the three months commencing on and immediately following March 16, 2024 and the three months commencing on and immediately following every third anniversary of such date, holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will have the right to require us to repurchase any or all of our outstanding Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. In addition, upon certain change of control events involving the Company, holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock can require us, subject to certain exceptions, to repurchase any or all of their Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

It is possible that we would not have sufficient funds at the time that we are required to make any such purchase of notes or Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (or both). We cannot assure the holders of the senior unsecured notes and Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that we will have sufficient financial resources, or will be able to arrange financing, to pay the repurchase price in cash with respect to any such notes or Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that holders have requested to be repurchased upon a change in control or scheduled redemption. Our failure to repurchase the senior unsecured notes of a series when required would result in an event of default with respect to such notes which could, in turn, constitute a default under the terms of our other indebtedness, if any. If we are unable to repurchase all shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that holders have requested to be purchased, then we are required to pay dividends on the shares not repurchased at a rate equal to 8.0% per annum, accruing daily from such date until the full purchase price, plus all accrued dividends, are paid in full in respect of such shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.


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In addition, a change in control may constitute an event of default under our senior secured credit facility and our trade receivables securitization facility that would permit the lenders to accelerate the maturity of the borrowings thereunder and would require us to make a similar change in control offer to holders of our existing senior unsecured notes.

Certain important corporate events, such as leveraged recapitalizations that would increase the level of our indebtedness, may not constitute a change in control under the indentures governing our secured notes or the terms of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating agencies may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital. Any rating assigned to our debt could be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes, so warrant. Any future lowering of our ratings likely would make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing.

Business Model. If we are unsuccessful in transforming our business model, our operating results could be negatively impacted. In recent years, we have shifted our business model to focus increasingly on sales of higher margin software and cloud solutions, and professional, managed and other services. Our ability to successfully grow our software and services businesses depends on a number of different factors including, among others, market acceptance of our software and cloud solutions; integrating, developing and supporting software gained through acquisitions; enabling our sales force to use a consultative selling model that better incorporates our comprehensive and new solutions; enhancing our services capabilities and coverage to align with and support our new solutions; and managing professional services and other costs associated with large solution roll-outs. In addition, development of these businesses may require increased capital and research and development expenses and resource allocation, and while we will seek to have the right level of investment and the right level of resources focused on these opportunities, these costs may reduce our gross margins and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. In addition, we continue to pursue initiatives to expand our customer base by increasing our use of indirect sales channels, and by developing, marketing and selling solutions aimed at the small- to medium-business market. It is not yet certain whether these initiatives will yield the anticipated benefits, or whether our solutions will be compelling and attractive to small- and medium-sized businesses. If we are not successful in growing our software and services businesses and expanding our customer base at the rate that we anticipate, we may not meet our growth and gross margin projections or expectations, and operating results could be negatively impacted.

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. The issuance of shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to Blackstone and certain of its permitted transferees reduces the relative voting power of holders of our common stock, would dilute the ownership of such holders and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. On December 4, 2015, we completed the sale of 820,000 shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to Blackstone and certain of its permitted transferees (the Blackstone Purchasers) pursuant to an Investment Agreement, dated November 11, 2015, between us and Blackstone (the Investment Agreement). As of December 31, 2015, these shares represented approximately 17% of our outstanding common stock, on an as-converted basis. Holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 5.5% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. The dividends are to be paid in-kind, through the issuance of additional shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, for the first sixteen dividend payment dates, and thereafter in cash or in-kind at our option. If we fail to timely declare and pay a dividend, the dividend rate will increase to 8.0% per annum until such time as all accrued but unpaid dividends have been paid in full.

As holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to vote, on an as-converted basis, together with holders of our common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of the holders of our common stock, the issuance of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to the Blackstone Purchasers, and the subsequent issuance of additional shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock through the payment of dividends, effectively reduces the relative voting power of the holders of our common stock.

In addition, the conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to common stock would dilute the ownership interest of existing holders of our common stock, and any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. We granted the Blackstone Purchasers customary registration rights in respect of their shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, and any shares of common stock issued upon conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. These registration rights would facilitate the resale of such securities into the public market, and any such resale would increase the number of shares of our common stock available for public trading. Sales by the Blackstone Purchasers of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales might occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.


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The Blackstone Purchasers may exercise significant influence over us, including through their ability to designate and the ability of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock holders to elect up to two members of our Board of Directors. As of December 31, 2015, the outstanding shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock represented approximately 17% of our outstanding common stock, on an as-converted basis. In addition, the terms of the Investment Agreement and of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock grant the Blackstone Purchasers consent rights, directly or through their ownership of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, with respect to certain actions by us, including:

amending our organizational documents in a manner that would have an adverse effect on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock;
issuing securities that are senior to, or equal in priority with, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock;
entering into material transactions with related parties, or repurchasing or redeeming shares of common stock from related parties, subject to certain exceptions; and
increasing or decreasing the maximum number of directors on our Board to more than eleven persons or to such number as would require the resignation of one of the directors nominated by Blackstone.

The Investment Agreement also imposes a number of affirmative and negative covenants on us. As a result, the Blackstone Purchasers have the ability to significantly influence the outcome of any matter submitted for the vote of the holders of our common stock. Blackstone and its affiliates are in the business of making or advising on investments in companies, including businesses that may directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business, and they may have interests that diverge from, or even conflict with, those of our other stockholders. They may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us.

In addition, the terms of the Investment Agreement and of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock grant the Blackstone Purchasers certain rights to designate directors to serve on our Board, which directors are elected by a separate class vote of the holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. For so long as the Blackstone Purchasers beneficially own shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (and/or shares of common stock issued upon conversion of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock) that represent, on an as-converted basis, at least 50% of the Blackstone Purchasers' initial shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis, the Blackstone Purchasers have the right to designate two directors for election to our Board. For so long as the Blackstone Purchasers beneficially own shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (and/or shares of common stock issued upon conversion of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock) that represent, on an as-converted basis, at least 25% but less than 50% of Blackstone’s initial shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis, the Blackstone Purchasers will have the right to designate one director for election to our Board.

The directors designated by the Blackstone Purchasers also are entitled to serve on committees of our Board, subject to applicable law and stock exchange rules. Notwithstanding the fact that all directors will be subject to fiduciary duties to us and to applicable law, the interests of the directors designated by the Blackstone Purchasers may differ from the interests of our security holders as a whole or of our other directors.

Our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to, the rights of our common stockholders, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and may result in the interests of the Blackstone Purchasers differing from those of our common stockholders. As holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, the Blackstone Purchasers have the right to receive a liquidation preference entitling them to be paid out of our assets available for distribution to stockholders before any payment may be made to holders of any other class or series of capital stock, an amount equal to the greater of (a) 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued dividends or (b) the amount that such holder would have been entitled to receive upon our liquidation, dissolution and winding up if all outstanding shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock had been converted into common stock immediately prior to such liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

In addition, dividends on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock accrue and are cumulative at the rate of 5.5% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. If we fail to timely declare and pay a dividend, the dividend rate will increase to 8.0% per annum until such time as all accrued but unpaid dividends have been paid in full. The dividends are to be paid in‑kind, through the issuance of additional shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, for the first sixteen dividend payment dates, and thereafter in cash or in-kind at our option.


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The holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock also have certain redemption rights or put rights, including the right to require us to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock on any date during the three months commencing on and immediately following March 16, 2024 and the three months commencing on and immediately following every third anniversary of such date, at 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends, and the right, subject to certain exceptions, to require us to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock upon certain change of control events at the greater of (a) 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends and (b) the consideration the holders would have received if they had converted their shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock into common stock immediately prior to the change of control event.

These dividend and share repurchase obligations could impact our liquidity and reduce the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, growth opportunities, acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes. Our obligations to the holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock could also limit our ability to obtain additional financing or increase our borrowing costs, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The preferential rights could also result in divergent interests between the Blackstone Purchasers and holders of our common stock.
    
Operating Results Fluctuations. Our revenue, operating results, and margins could fluctuate for a number of reasons, including those described below:

Foreign Currency. Our revenue and operating income are subject to variability due to the effects of foreign currency fluctuations against the U.S. Dollar. Overall, we have exposure to approximately 50 functional currencies. We pay the majority of expenses attributable to our foreign operations in the functional currency of the country in which such operations are conducted, and in 2015 a significant portion of our revenue was generated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. As a result, significant currency fluctuations could adversely affect our results of operations, including sales and gross margins. For example, a decrease in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. Dollar, such as occurred during 2015, could result in lower revenue and increased losses from currency exchange rates. We endeavor to mitigate the effects of currency fluctuations by our hedging strategy; however, the volatility of foreign currency exchange rates is dependent on many factors that cannot be forecasted with reliable accuracy and our forward contracts may not prove effective in reducing our exposures.

Manufacturing. At December 31, 2015, we manufactured advanced ATMs in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA; Manaus, Brazil; Budapest, Hungary; Beijing, China; Puducherry, India and Chengalpattu, India. Our self-checkout solutions are manufactured in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA and Budapest, Hungary. Our financial kiosk solutions are manufactured in facilities located in Beijing, China; Budapest, Hungary; Manaus, Brazil; Puducherry, India and Chengalpattu, India. Our POS/Display terminals are manufactured in facilities located in Columbus, Georgia, USA; Beijing, China; Budapest, Hungary; Salzburg, Austria and Adelaide, Australia, and certain hand-held solutions are manufactured in Salzburg, Austria. If we develop or experience problems relating to product quality or on-time delivery to customers that we are unable to quickly manage and resolve, whether due to the geographical diversity of our manufacturing base or otherwise, we could experience business interruption that could negatively impact our business and operating results.

Seasonality. Our sales are historically seasonal, with lower revenue in the first quarter and higher revenue in the fourth quarter of each year. Such seasonality also causes our working capital cash flow requirements to vary from quarter to quarter depending on the variability in the volume, timing and mix of product sales. In addition, revenue in the third month of each quarter is typically higher than in the first and second months, particularly as our business model shifts to include more software and cloud solutions. These factors, among other things, may adversely affect our ability to manage working capital, make our forecasting process more difficult and impact our ability to predict financial results accurately.

Cost/Expense Reductions. Our success in achieving targeted cost and expense reductions through our continuous improvement and other similar programs depends on a number of factors, including our ability to achieve infrastructure rationalizations, drive lower component and product development costs, improve supply chain efficiencies and optimize the efficiency of our customer services and professional services consulting resources. If we do not successfully execute on our cost and expense reduction initiatives or if we experience delays in completing the implementation of these initiatives, our results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected.

Contractual Obligations for Professional Services. Our contracts for professional services consulting work may contemplate that services will be performed over multiple periods, especially in connection with large solution roll-outs. Our profitability under those contracts is largely a function of performing our contractual obligations within the estimated costs and time periods specified. If we exceed these estimated costs or cannot otherwise complete the contracted services within the specified periods, our profitability related to these contracts could be negatively impacted. In addition, if we are unable to maintain appropriate utilization rates for our consultants, we may not be able to sustain profitability on these contracts.

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Acquisitions, Divestitures and Alliances. As we selectively acquire and divest technologies, products and businesses and we begin to include or exclude, as the case may be, the financial results related to these transactions, our operating results could fluctuate materially, depending on the size, nature, structure and timing of the transactions.

Underfunded Pension Obligation. At December 31, 2015, our obligation for benefits under our pension plans was $3,314 million and our pension plan assets totaled $2,735 million, which resulted in an underfunded pension obligation of $579 million. While we recently rebalanced our U.S. and international plan assets in order to reduce volatility and made several discretionary contributions to our pension plans, our remaining underfunded pension obligation continues to require ongoing cash contributions. Our underfunded pension obligation also may be affected by future transfers and settlements relating to our international pension plans. For example, in 2015 we completed the transfer of our U.K. London pension plan to an insurer. The pension plan was overfunded, and the transfer resulted in a settlement loss of $427 million in the second quarter of 2015, and an offsetting decrease to prepaid pension costs in our consolidated balance sheet.

In addition, certain of the plan assets remain subject to financial market risk, and our actuarial and other assumptions underlying our expected future benefit payments, long-term expected rate of return and future funding expectations for our plans depend on, among other things, interest rate levels and trends and capital market expectations. Further volatility in the performance of financial markets, changes in any of these actuarial assumptions (including those described in our “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of the “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of Part II of this Report) or changes in regulations regarding funding requirements could require material increases to our expected cash contributions to our pension plans in future years.

See the “Effects of Pension, Postemployment and Postretirement Benefit Plans” and “Financial Condition, Liquidity And Capital Resources” sections of the “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of Part II of this Report and Note 10, “Employee Benefit Plans” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for further information regarding the funded status of our pension plans and potential future cash contributions.

Stock-based Compensation. Similar to other companies, we use stock awards as a form of compensation for certain employees and non-employee directors. All stock-based awards are required to be recognized in our financial statements based on their fair values. The amount recognized for stock compensation expense could vary depending on a number of assumptions or changes that may occur. For example, assumptions such as the risk-free rate, expected holding period and expected volatility that drive our valuation model could change. Other examples that could have an impact include changes in the mix and type of awards, changes in our compensation plans or tax rate, changes in our forfeiture rate, differences in actual results compared to management’s estimates for performance-based awards or an unusually high amount of expirations of stock awards.

Income Taxes. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and a number of foreign jurisdictions. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Our deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances, totaled approximately $868 million and $969 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability and establish a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income, if there is a material change in the actual effective tax rates or if there is a change to the time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, then we could be required to increase our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, which could result in a material increase in our effective tax rate.

In addition, changes in tax laws or tax rulings could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. Certain changes to U.S. tax laws, including limitations on the ability to defer U.S. taxation on earnings outside of the United States until those earnings are repatriated to the United States, could affect the tax treatment of our foreign earnings. Additionally, in light of continuing global fiscal challenges, various levels of government and international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union (EU) are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative or regulatory action to increase tax revenue. These tax reform efforts are designed to ensure that corporate entities are taxed on a larger percentage of their earnings. Any such tax reform or other legislative or regulatory actions to increase tax revenue could increase our effective tax rate.

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We are also subject to ongoing tax audits in various jurisdictions both in the U.S. and internationally, the outcomes of which could result in the assessment of additional taxes. Our effective tax rate in the future could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, the changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws and regulations, and management’s assessment in regards to repatriation of earnings.

Competition. If we do not compete effectively within the technology industry, we will not be successful. We operate in the intensely competitive information technology industry. This industry is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, frequent new product introductions, price and cost reductions, and increasingly greater commoditization of products, making differentiation difficult. Our competitors include other large companies in the information technology industry, such as: IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Diebold, Wincor, Hyosung, ToshibaTec, Micros, Fujitsu and Unisys, some of which have more financial and technical resources, or more widespread distribution and market penetration for their platforms and service offerings, than we do. In addition, we compete with companies in specific industry segments, such as entry-level ATMs, point-of-sale devices and imaging solutions. Our future competitive performance and market position depend on a number of factors, including our ability to:

react to competitive product and pricing pressures;
penetrate and meet the changing competitive requirements and deliverables in developing and emerging markets, such as India, China, Brazil and Russia;
exploit opportunities in emerging vertical markets, such as travel and telecommunications and technology;
cross-sell additional products and services to our existing customer base;
rapidly and continually design, develop and market, or otherwise maintain and introduce innovative solutions and related products and services for our customers that are competitive in the marketplace;
react on a timely basis to shifts in market demands, including shifts toward the desire of banks and retailers to provide an omni-channel experience to their customers and the use of mobile devices in transactions and payments;
compete in reverse auctions for new and continuing business;
reduce costs without creating operating inefficiencies or impairing product or service quality;
maintain competitive operating margins;
improve product and service delivery quality; and
effectively market and sell all of our diverse solutions.

Our business and operating performance also could be impacted by external competitive pressures, such as consolidation, increasing price erosion and the entry of new competitors into our existing product and geographic markets. In addition, our customers sometimes finance our product sales through third party financing companies, and in the case of customer default, these financing companies may be forced to resell this equipment at discounted prices, competing with us and impacting our ability to sell incremental units. The impact of these product and pricing pressures could include lower customer satisfaction, decreased demand for our solutions, loss of market share and reduction of operating profits.

Introduction of New Solutions. If we do not swiftly and successfully develop and introduce new solutions in the competitive, rapidly changing environment in which we do business, our business results will be impacted. The development process for our solutions requires high levels of innovation from our product development teams and suppliers of the components embedded or incorporated in our solutions. In addition, certain of our solutions, including our cloud solutions, may require us to build or expand, and maintain, infrastructure (such as hosting centers) to support them. The development process also can be lengthy and costly, and requires us to commit a significant amount of resources to bring our business solutions to market. We may not be able to anticipate our customers’ needs and technological and industry trends accurately, or to complete development of new solutions efficiently. In addition, contract terms, market conditions or customer preferences may affect our ability to limit, sunset or end-of-life our older products in a timely or cost-effective fashion. If any of these risks materialize, we may be unable to introduce new solutions into the market on a timely basis, if at all, and our business and operating results could be impacted. Likewise, we sometimes make assurances to customers regarding the operability and specifications of new technologies, and our results could be impacted if we are unable to deliver such technologies, or if such technologies do not perform as planned. Once we have developed new solutions, if we cannot successfully market and sell those solutions, our business and operating results could be impacted.


15


Product Defects and Errors. Defects, errors, installation difficulties or development delays could expose us to potential liability, harm our reputation and negatively impact our business. Many of our products are sophisticated and complex, and despite testing and quality control, we cannot be certain that defects or errors will not be found in current versions or new versions of our products. If our products contain undetected defects or errors, or otherwise fail to meet our customers’ expectations, we could face the loss of customers, liability exposure and additional development costs. If defects or errors delay product installation or make it more difficult, we could experience delays in customer acceptance, or if our products require significant amounts of customer support, it could result in incremental costs to us. In addition, our customers may license and deploy our software in both standard and non-standard configurations in different environments with different computer platforms, system management software and equipment and networking configurations, which may increase the likelihood of technical difficulties. Our products may be integrated with other components or software, and, in the event that there are defects or errors, it may be difficult to determine the origin of such defects or errors. Additionally, damage to, or failure or unavailability of, any significant aspect of our cloud hosting facilities could interrupt the availability of our cloud offerings, which could cause disruption for our customers, and, in turn, their customers, and expose us to liability. If any of these risks materialize, they could result in additional costs and expenses, exposure to liability claims, diversion of technical and other resources to engage in remediation efforts, loss of customers or negative publicity, each of which could impact our business and operating results.

Data Privacy and Security. Cybersecurity and data privacy issues could negatively impact our business. We collect, use and store personal information of, or that is held by, our customers in connection with certain of our service offerings, including our various cloud and other hosted solutions. We also may have access to personal information of our customers’ customers in the course of servicing our products or third party products. Additionally, we collect, use and store personal information of our employees and the personnel of our business partners, such as resellers, suppliers and contractors, in the ordinary course of business. While we use commercially available security technologies to safeguard this personal data and implement access controls to limit the risk of unauthorized use or disclosure by employees and contractors, a breach of these security measures could result in unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, personal data, resulting in claims, costs and reputational harm that could materially and adversely affect our operating results. Further, a security breach could also affect the availability of certain of our hosted solutions, negatively impacting our customers and their customers, which could result in financial penalties and reputational harm that could materially and adversely affect our business. We may also detect, or may receive notice from third parties (including governmental agencies) regarding potential vulnerabilities in our information technology systems, our products, or third party products used in conjunction with our products. Even if these potential vulnerabilities do not result in a data breach, their existence can adversely affect customer confidence and our reputation in the marketplace. To the extent such vulnerabilities require remediation, such remedial measures could require significant resources and may not be implemented before such vulnerabilities are exploited. Additionally, we may be subject to the data security and data privacy laws of many jurisdictions, some of which may conflict with one another, and many of which are subject to frequent modification.

Multinational Operations. Our multinational operations, including our expansion into new and emerging markets, expose us to business and legal risks. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, the percentage of our revenue from outside of the United States was 54% and 59%, respectively, and we expect our percentage of revenue generated outside the United States to continue to be significant. In addition, we continue to seek to further penetrate existing international markets, and to identify opportunities to enter into or expand our presence in developing and emerging markets, including Brazil, Russia, China, India, Africa, and the Middle East, among others. While we believe that our geographic diversity may help to mitigate some risks associated with geographic concentrations of operations , our ability to manufacture and sell our solutions internationally, including in new and emerging markets, is subject to risks, which include, among others:

the impact of ongoing and future economic, credit and sovereign debt conditions on the stability of national and regional economies and industries within those economies;
political conditions and local regulations that could adversely affect demand for our solutions, our ability to access funds and resources, or our ability to sell products in these markets;
the impact of a downturn in the global economy, or in regional economies, on demand for our products;
currency exchange rate fluctuations that could result in lower demand for our products as well as generate currency translation losses;
changes to and compliance with a variety of laws and regulations that may increase our cost of doing business or otherwise prevent us from effectively competing internationally;
government uncertainty, including as a result of new, or changes to, laws and regulations;
the institution of, or changes to, trade protection measures, currency restrictions, or import or export licensing requirements;
the successful implementation and use of systems, procedures and controls to monitor our operations in foreign markets;

16


changing competitive requirements and deliverables in developing and emerging markets;
the financial viability and reliability of contracting partners and customers;
work stoppages and other labor conditions or issues;
disruptions in transportation and shipping infrastructure; and
the impact of civil unrest relating to war and terrorist activity on the economy or markets in general, or on our ability, or that of our suppliers, to meet commitments.

In addition, as a result of our revenue generated outside of the United States, the amount of cash and cash equivalents that is held by our foreign subsidiaries continues to be significant. If these cash and cash equivalents are distributed to the United States, whether in the form of dividends or otherwise, we may be subject to additional U.S. income taxes and foreign withholding taxes. Any such taxes would reduce the amount of such cash and cash equivalents that are available for our use.

Environmental. Our historical and ongoing manufacturing activities subject us to environmental exposures. Our facilities and operations are subject to a wide range of environmental protection laws, and we have investigatory and remedial activities underway at a number of facilities that we currently own or operate, or formerly owned or operated, to comply, or to determine compliance, with such laws. In addition, our products are subject to environmental laws in a number of jurisdictions. Given the uncertainties inherent in such activities, there can be no assurances that the costs required to comply with applicable environmental laws will not impact future operating results. We have also been identified as a potentially responsible party in connection with certain environmental matters, including the Fox River and Kalamazoo River matters, as further described in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report; in “Environmental Matters” within Item 1 of Part I of this Report; and in “Environmental and Legal Contingencies” within the “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of Part II of this Report, and we incorporate such disclosures by reference and make them a part of this discussion of risk factors.

Acquisitions, Divestitures and Alliances. If we do not successfully integrate acquisitions or effectively manage alliance activities, we may not drive future growth. As part of our overall solutions strategy, we have made, and intend to continue to make, investments in companies, products, services and technologies, either through acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic alliances. Acquisitions and alliance activities inherently involve risks. The risks we may encounter include those associated with:

assimilating and integrating different business operations, corporate cultures, personnel, infrastructures (such as data centers) and technologies or products acquired or licensed;
the potential for unknown liabilities within the acquired or combined business; and
the possibility of conflict with joint venture or alliance partners regarding strategic direction, prioritization of objectives and goals, governance matters or operations.

Further, we may make acquisitions and investments in order to acquire or obtain access to new technology or products that expand our offerings. There is risk that the new technology or products may not perform as anticipated and may not meet estimated growth projections or expectations, or investment recipients may not successfully execute their business plans. There is also risk that key employees of an acquired business may not remain with the acquired business as long as expected. In the event that these risks materialize, we may not be able to fully realize the benefit of our investments, and our operating results could be adversely affected. An acquisition or alliance, and the integration of an acquired business, may also disrupt our ongoing business or we may not be able to successfully incorporate acquired products, services or technologies into our solutions and maintain quality. Further, we may not achieve the projected synergies once we have integrated the business into our operations, which may lead to additional costs not anticipated at the time of acquisition.


17


Circumstances associated with divestitures could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. On January 6, 2016, we entered into an agreement with affiliates of Atlas Holdings LLC to sell the assets of our Interactive Printer Solutions (IPS) business, and in June 2012 we completed the divestiture of our entertainment business to Redbox Automated Retail, LLC. We continue to evaluate the strategic fit of our other businesses and products and may decide to sell a business or product based on such an evaluation. Despite a decision to divest a business or product, we may encounter difficulty in finding buyers or executing alternative exit strategies at acceptable prices and terms and in a timely manner. In addition, prospective buyers may have difficulty obtaining financing. Divestitures, including the divestiture of the IPS business, could involve additional risks, including:

difficulties in the separation of operations, services, products and personnel;
the need to provide significant ongoing post-closing transition support to a buyer;
the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
the retention of certain current or future liabilities in order to induce a buyer to complete a divestiture;
the obligation to indemnify or reimburse a buyer for certain past liabilities of a divested business;
the disruption of our business; and
the potential loss of key employees.

We may not be successful in managing these or any other significant risks that we may encounter in divesting a business or product, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Intellectual Property. Our continuing ability to be a leading technology and services solutions provider could be negatively affected if we do not protect intellectual property that drives innovation. It is critical to our continued development of leading technologies that we are able to protect and enhance our proprietary rights in our intellectual property through patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws. These efforts include protection of the products and the application, diagnostic and other software we develop. To the extent we are not successful in protecting our proprietary rights, our business could be adversely impacted. Also, many of our offerings rely on technologies developed by others, and if we are unable to continue to obtain licenses for such technologies, our business could be adversely impacted. From time to time, we receive notices from third parties regarding patent and other intellectual property claims. Whether such claims have merit, they may require significant resources to defend. If an infringement claim is successful and we are required to pay damages, or we are unable to license the infringed technology or to substitute similar non-infringing technology, our business could be adversely affected.

Work Environment. Our restructuring plan and our continuous improvement, customer experience and cost reduction initiatives could negatively impact productivity and business results. In July 2014 we commenced a multi-year restructuring plan, and, in addition, as part of our ongoing efforts to optimize our cost structure, from time to time, we shift and realign our internal organizational structure and resources. These activities could temporarily result in reduced productivity levels. If we are not able to timely execute on these initiatives, or if the costs to complete these initiatives is higher than anticipated, our results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition to these initiatives, we have initiatives to grow revenue, drive innovation and improve the experience of our customers. We typically have many such initiatives underway. If we are not successful in implementing and managing these various initiatives and minimizing any resulting loss in productivity, we may not be able to achieve targeted cost savings or productivity gains, and our business and operating results could be negatively impacted.

In addition, we recently announced a plan to build a new world headquarters, and from time to time we may undertake similar projects with respect to our office, manufacturing or other facilities. Implementation of relocation plans such as these could result in business disruption due to a lack of business continuity, which, among other things, could have a negative impact on our productivity and business and operating results.

If we do not attract and retain quality employees, we may not be able to meet our business objectives. Our employees are vital to our success, including the successful reinvention of the Company into a software and solutions driven business. Our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical, sales, consulting and other key personnel, including key personnel of acquired businesses, is critical, as these key employees are difficult to replace. If we are unable to attract or retain highly qualified employees by offering competitive compensation, secure work environments and leadership opportunities now and in the future, our business and operating results could be negatively impacted.


18


Our ability to effectively manage our business could be negatively impacted if we do not invest in and maintain reliable technology infrastructure and information systems. It is periodically necessary to add to, replace, upgrade or modify our technology infrastructure and internal information systems. If we are unable to expand, replace, upgrade or modify such systems in a timely and cost-effective manner, especially in light of demands on our information technology resources, our ability to capture and process financial transactions and therefore, our financial condition, results of operations, or ability to comply with legal and regulatory reporting obligations, may be impacted.

Reliance on Third Parties. If third party suppliers upon which we rely are not able to fulfill our needs, our ability to bring our products to market in a timely fashion could be affected. In most cases, there are a number of vendors providing the services and producing the parts and components that we utilize in or in connection with our products. However, there are some services and components that are licensed or purchased from single sources due to price, quality, technology, functionality or other reasons. For example, we depend on transaction processing services from Accenture, computer chips and microprocessors from Intel and operating systems from Microsoft. Certain parts and components used in the manufacturing of our ATMs and the delivery of many of our retail solutions are also supplied by single sources. In addition, there are a number of key suppliers for our businesses that provide us with critical products for our solutions. If we were unable to secure the necessary services, including contract manufacturing, parts, software, components or products from a particular vendor, and we had to find an alternative supplier, our new and existing product shipments and solution deliveries, or the provision of contracted services, could be delayed, impacting our business and operating results.

We have, from time to time, formed alliances with third parties that have complementary products, software, services and skills. These alliances represent many different types of relationships, such as outsourcing arrangements to manufacture hardware and subcontract agreements with third parties to perform services and provide products and software to our customers in connection with our solutions. For example, we rely on third parties for cash replenishment services for our ATM products. These alliances introduce risks that we cannot control, such as nonperformance by third parties and difficulties with or delays in integrating elements provided by third parties into our solutions. Lack of information technology infrastructure, shortages in business capitalization, and manual processes and data integrity issues of smaller suppliers can also create product time delays, inventory and invoicing problems, staging delays, as well as other operating issues. The failure of third parties to provide high-quality products or services that conform to required specifications or contractual arrangements could impair the delivery of our solutions on a timely basis, create exposure for non-compliance with our contractual commitments to our customers and impact our business and operating results. Also, some of these third parties have access to confidential NCR and customer data, the integrity and security of which are of significant importance to the Company.

Internal Controls. If we do not maintain effective internal controls, accounting policies, practices, and information systems necessary to ensure reliable reporting of our results, our ability to comply with our legal obligations could be negatively affected. Our internal controls, accounting policies and practices, and internal information systems enable us to capture and process transactions in a timely and accurate manner in compliance with applicable accounting standards, laws and regulations, taxation requirements and federal securities laws and regulations. Our internal controls and policies are being closely monitored by management as we continue to implement a worldwide Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. While we believe these controls, policies, practices and systems are adequate to ensure data integrity, unanticipated and unauthorized actions of employees or contractors (both domestic and international), temporary lapses in internal controls due to shortfalls in transition planning and oversight, or resource constraints, could lead to improprieties and undetected errors that could impact our financial condition, results of operations, or compliance with legal obligations. Moreover, while management has concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2015 (as set forth in “Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting” included in Item 9A of Part II of this Report), due to their inherent limitations, such controls may not prevent or detect misstatements in our reported financial statements. Such limitations include, among other things, the potential for human error or circumvention of controls. Further, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of a failure to remediate control deficiencies, changes in conditions or a deterioration of the degree of compliance with established policies and procedures.


19


Contingencies. We face uncertainties with regard to regulations, lawsuits and other related matters. In the normal course of business, we are subject to proceedings, lawsuits, claims and other matters, including, for example, those that relate to the environment, health and safety, labor and employment, employee benefits, import/export compliance, intellectual property, data privacy and security, product liability, commercial disputes and regulatory compliance, among others. Because such matters are subject to many uncertainties, their outcomes are not predictable and we must make certain estimates and assumptions in our financial statements. While we believe that amounts provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements with respect to such matters are currently adequate in light of the probable and estimable liabilities, there can be no assurances that the amounts required to satisfy alleged liabilities from such matters will not impact future operating results. Additionally, we are subject to diverse and complex laws and regulations, including those relating to corporate governance, public disclosure and reporting, environmental safety and the discharge of materials into the environment, product safety, import and export compliance, data privacy and security, antitrust and competition, government contracting, anti-corruption, and labor and human resources, which are rapidly changing and subject to many possible changes in the future. Compliance with these laws and regulations, including changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements, and federal securities laws among others, may create a substantial burden on us, and substantially increase costs to our organization or could have an impact on our future operating results.

Additionally, doing business on a worldwide basis requires us and our subsidiaries to comply with the laws and regulations of the U.S. government and various international jurisdictions. For example, our international operations are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which generally prohibits U.S. companies or agents acting on behalf of such companies from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business. Our international operations are also subject to economic sanction programs administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). If we are not in compliance with such laws and regulations, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, which may cause harm to our reputation and to our brand and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for information regarding our FCPA and OFAC investigations, which disclosures are incorporated by reference and made a part of this discussion of risk factors.

Item 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2.         PROPERTIES

As of December 31, 2015, NCR operated 258 facilities consisting of approximately 6.5 million square feet in 61 countries throughout the world. On a square footage basis, 23% of these facilities are owned and 77% are leased. Within the total facility portfolio, NCR operates 27 research and development and manufacturing facilities totaling 1.9 million square feet, 58% of which is leased. The remaining 4.6 million square feet of space includes office, repair, and warehousing space and other miscellaneous sites, and is 85% leased. NCR also owns 7 land parcels totaling 3.8 million square feet in 2 countries.

NCR is headquartered in Duluth, Georgia, USA. Our address at our corporate headquarters is 3097 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, Georgia, 30096, USA.

Item 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information regarding legal proceedings is included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

20


PART II

Item 5.
MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

NCR common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and trades under the symbol “NCR”. There were approximately 99,070 holders of NCR common stock as of February 17, 2016. The following table presents the high and low per share prices for NCR common stock for each quarter of 2015 and 2014 as reported on the NYSE.

 
 
2015
 
 
 
2014
 
 
High
 
Low
 
 
 
High
 
Low
1st quarter
 
$
30.86

 
$
24.83

 
1st quarter
 
$
37.73

 
$
31.71

2nd quarter
 
$
36.50

 
$
27.27

 
2nd quarter
 
$
37.18

 
$
28.64

3rd quarter
 
$
32.09

 
$
21.79

 
3rd quarter
 
$
35.76

 
$
30.14

4th quarter
 
$
27.80

 
$
22.52

 
4th quarter
 
$
33.80

 
$
22.83


Dividends

Historically NCR has not paid cash dividends and does not anticipate the payment of cash dividends on NCR common stock in the immediate future. The declaration of dividends is restricted under our senior secured credit facility and the terms of the indentures for our senior unsecured notes, and would be further subject to the discretion of NCR’s Board of Directors.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the relative investment performance of NCR stock, the Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Stock Index, Standard & Poor’s 500 Information Technology Sector and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index. This graph covers the five-year period from December 31, 2010 through December 31, 2015.


 

21


Company / Index
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
NCR Corporation
 
$
107

 
$
166

 
$
222

 
$
190

 
$
159

S&P 500 Stock Index
 
$
102

 
$
118

 
$
157

 
$
178

 
$
181

S&P 500 Information Technology Sector
 
$
102

 
$
118

 
$
151

 
$
181

 
$
192

S&P MidCap 400 Stock Index
 
$
98

 
$
116

 
$
155

 
$
170

 
$
166

(1) 
In each case, assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2010, and reinvestment of all dividends, if any.

Purchase of Company Common Stock

In April 1999, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program that provided for the repurchase of up to $250 million of its common stock, with no expiration from the date of authorization. In October 2007 and July 2010, the Board authorized the repurchase of an additional $250 million and $210 million, respectively, under this share repurchase program. In November 2000, the Board approved a systematic share repurchase program, with no expiration from the date of authorization, to be funded by the proceeds from the purchase of shares under the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan and the exercise of stock options, for the purpose of offsetting the dilutive effects of the employee stock purchase plan and outstanding options. As of December 31, 2015, approximately $179 million and $147 million remained available for further repurchases of the Company’s common stock under the 1999 and 2000 Board of Directors share repurchase programs, respectively.

In November 2015, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of $1 billion of our common stock pursuant to a modified "Dutch auction" tender offer. In December 2015, we repurchased 37.4 million shares of our common stock pursuant to the tender offer for a total cash investment of $1 billion ($26.75 price per share).

The following table provides information relating to the Company’s repurchase of common stock for the three months ended December 31, 2015, as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Exchange Act: 

Time Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased

 
Average Price Paid
Per Share

 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Current
Programs (1)

 
Maximum Dollar
Value of
Shares that May
Yet be Purchased
Under Programs (1)

October 1 through October 31, 2015
 

 

 

 
$
323,546,020

November 1 through November 30, 2015
 

 

 

 
$
324,721,794

December 1 through December 31, 2015
 
37,383,126

 
$
26.75

 
37,383,126

 
$
325,816,903

Fourth quarter total
 
37,383,126

 
$
26.75

 
37,383,126

 

(1) The Company occasionally purchases vested restricted stock shares at the current market price to cover withholding taxes. For the three months ended December 31, 2015, 219,557 shares of vested restricted stock were purchased at an average price of $26.15 per share.

The Company's ability to repurchase its common stock is restricted under the Company's senior secured credit facility and terms of the indentures for the Company's senior unsecured notes. These agreements include certain prohibitions on share repurchases, including during the occurrence of an event of default. These agreements also establish limits on the amount that the Company is permitted to allocate to share repurchases and other restricted payments. The limitations are calculated using formulas based generally on 50% of the Company’s consolidated net income for the period beginning in the third quarter of 2012 through the end of the most recently ended fiscal quarter, subject to certain other adjustments and deductions, with certain prescribed minimums. These formulas are described in greater detail in the Company’s senior secured credit facility and the indentures for the Company’s senior unsecured notes, each of which is filed with the SEC.



22


Item 6.        SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
In millions, except per share and employee and contractor amounts
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the years ended December 31
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Continuing Operations (a,c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
6,373

 
$
6,591

 
$
6,123

 
$
5,730

 
$
5,291

Income (loss) from operations
 
$
135

 
$
353

 
$
666

 
$
748

 
$
(148
)
Interest expense
 
$
(173
)
 
$
(181
)
 
$
(103
)
 
$
(42
)
 
$
(13
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
 
$
55

 
$
(48
)
 
$
98

 
$
223

 
$
(66
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations attributable to NCR common stockholders
 
$
(154
)
 
$
181

 
$
452

 
$
475

 
$
(97
)
(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
$
(24
)
 
$
10

 
$
(9
)
 
$
6

 
$
(93
)
Basic (loss) earnings per common share attributable to NCR common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From continuing operations (a,c)
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
1.08

 
$
2.73

 
$
2.98

 
$
(0.61
)
From discontinued operations
 
$
(0.15
)
 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.04

 
$
(0.59
)
Total basic (loss) earnings per common share
 
$
(1.09
)
 
$
1.14

 
$
2.68

 
$
3.02

 
$
(1.20
)
Diluted (loss) earnings per common share attributable to NCR common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From continuing operations (a,c)
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
1.06

 
$
2.67

 
$
2.90

 
$
(0.61
)
From discontinued operations
 
$
(0.15
)
 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.04

 
$
(0.59
)
Total diluted (loss) earnings per common share
 
$
(1.09
)
 
$
1.12

 
$
2.62

 
$
2.94

 
$
(1.20
)
Cash dividends per share
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

As of December 31
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
7,635

 
$
8,566

 
$
8,061

 
$
6,341

 
$
5,591

Total debt (b)
 
$
3,252

 
$
3,618

 
$
3,307

 
$
1,935

 
$
840

Series A convertible preferred stock
 
$
798

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Total NCR stockholders' equity
 
$
720

 
$
1,871

 
$
1,769

 
$
1,252

 
$
718

Number of employees and contractors
 
32,600

 
30,200

 
29,300

 
25,700

 
23,500


(a) 
Continuing operations excludes the costs and insurance recoveries relating to certain environmental obligations associated with discontinued operations, including the Fox River, Japan and Kalamazoo River matters, the closure of NCR's EFT payment processing business in Canada, and the results from our disposed healthcare solutions and Entertainment businesses.
(b) 
In 2015, we adopted ASU 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest: Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, which requires debt issuance costs previously reported as a deferred charge within other assets to be presented as a direct reduction from the carrying amount of debt, consistent with debt discounts, applied retrospectively for all periods presented. Assets and long-term debt as of December 31, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was adjusted by approximately $41 million, $47 million, $28 million and $13 million, respectively, as a result of the adoption of this ASU.
(c) 
The following income (expense) amounts, net of tax are included in income from continuing operations attributable to NCR for the years ended December 31:


23


In millions
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Pension (expense) benefit
 
$
(448
)
 
$
(66
)
 
$
58

 
$
117

 
$
(398
)
Restructuring plan
 
(50
)
 
(116
)
 

 

 

Acquisition related amortization of intangibles
 
(85
)
 
(80
)
 
(48
)
 
(25
)
 
(8
)
Acquisition related costs
 
(8
)
 
(20
)
 
(36
)
 
(16
)
 
(28
)
Loss on pending sale of IPS business
 
(29
)
 

 

 

 

Reserve related to subcontract in MEA
 
(13
)
 

 

 

 

OFAC and FCPA investigations
 

 
(2
)
 
(2
)
 
(2
)
 

Japan valuation reserve release
 

 

 
15

 

 

Impairment charges
 

 

 

 
(7
)
 

Legal settlements and charges
 

 

 

 

 
2

Total
 
$
(633
)
 
$
(284
)
 
$
(13
)
 
$
67

 
$
(432
)




24




Index to Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A)



25


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (MD&A)

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

NCR Corporation is a leading global technology company that provides innovative products and services that enable businesses to connect, interact and transact with their customers and enhance their customer relationships by addressing consumer demand for convenience, value and individual service. Our portfolio of self-service and assisted-service solutions serve a wide range of customers in the financial services, retail, hospitality, travel, and telecommunications and technology industries. Our offerings include software and hardware solutions for automated teller machines (ATMs) and bank branches, retail and hospitality point of sale applications and devices, and self-service kiosks and software applications that can be used by consumers to enable them to interact with businesses from their computer or mobile device. We also complement these product solutions by offering a complete portfolio of services that support both NCR and third party solutions. We also resell third-party networking products and provide related service offerings in the telecommunications and technology sectors.

We have four operating segments: Financial Services, Retail Solutions, Hospitality and Emerging Industries. Each of our operating segments derives its revenue by selling products and services in each of the sales theaters in which NCR operates. As of January 1, 2016, NCR began management of its business on a solution basis, changing from the previous model of management on a line of business basis. This change to our segment reporting for fiscal year 2016 and future periods is further described in Note 1, “Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

Our solutions are based on a foundation of long-established industry knowledge and consulting expertise, value-added software, hardware technology, global customer support services, and a complete line of business consumables and specialty media products.

NCR’s reputation is founded upon over 131 years of providing quality products, services and solutions to our customers. At the heart of our customer and other business relationships is a commitment to acting responsibly, ethically and with the highest level of integrity. This commitment is reflected in NCR’s Code of Conduct, which is available on the Corporate Governance page of our website.

2015 OVERVIEW

As more fully discussed in later sections of this MD&A, the following were significant themes and events for 2015:

Revenue decreased approximately 3% from the prior year period, including unfavorable foreign currency impacts of approximately 6%

Software-related revenue, which we measure by combining software license and maintenance revenue, cloud revenue and professional services revenue associated with software delivery, was $1,747 million and $1,748 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively, including year-over-year unfavorable foreign currency impacts of approximately 4% in 2015

Strategic investment of $820 million in Series A Convertible Preferred Stock by entities affiliated with Blackstone Capital Partners VI L.P. and Blackstone Tactical Opportunities L.L.C. (collectively, Blackstone); $1 billion share repurchase completed

UK London pension transaction materially reduced pension liability, participants, and enterprise risk as part of our overall pension de-risking strategy


OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIC INITIATIVES AND TRENDS

The rise of digital commerce, mobile engagement and other forces of change have dramatically altered how businesses and consumers interact and transact. In response, our customers are increasingly focused on providing a rich, integrated and personalized experience to consumers across commerce channels, including in-store, online and mobile. NCR understands the importance of this shift to an omnichannel experience. Our long-term strategy is built on being a global technology solutions company that uses software and value-added endpoints, coupled with higher-margin services and a focus on cloud and mobile, to help our customers deliver on the promise of an omnichannel experience.

To deliver on our strategy, we are focused on evolving our software business model, sales enablement, services transformation, investing in innovation and cultivating our culture and team.


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Evolving our Business Model - Shifting our business model to focus on growth of higher margin software and services revenue to grow our recurring revenue streams, and strengthen our long-term foundation.
Sales Enablement - Developing a sales force enabled with a consultative selling model, supported by service teams and focused on delivery and customer interactions to leverage the innovative solutions we are bringing to market and gain share.
Services Transformation - Enhancing our global service capability by improving our service positioning, increasing customer service attach rates for our products, improving profitability in our services business and aligning our services capability to support our solutions.
Investing in Innovation - Optimizing our investments in areas with the greatest potential for profitable growth, such as cloud solutions and professional, managed and other services.
Cultivating our Culture and Team - Organizing and recruiting with an eye toward the future, and investing in, training and developing our employees to accelerate the delivery of our innovative solutions and to focus on the needs of our customers and changes in consumer behavior.

We plan, in pursuing our strategy, to continue to manage our costs effectively, including through our restructuring program, to selectively pursue strategic acquisitions that promote growth and improve gross margin, and to selectively penetrate market adjacencies in single and emerging growth industry segments.

Potentially significant risks to the execution of our initiatives include domestic and global economic and credit conditions including, in particular, market conditions and spending trends in the financial services industry, fluctuations in oil and commodity prices and their effects on local, regional and global market conditions, and economic and market conditions in Russia and China; continued strengthening of the U.S. Dollar resulting in unfavorable foreign currency impacts; collectability difficulties in subcontracting relationships in Emerging Industries; competition that can drive further price erosion and the potential loss of market share; difficulties associated with the introduction of products in new self-service markets; market adoption of our products by customers; and management and servicing of our existing indebtedness. For further information on potential risks and uncertainties see Item 1A "Risk Factors."

RESULTS FROM OPERATIONS

The following table shows our results for the years ended December 31:
In millions
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
 
$6,373
 
$6,591
 
$6,123
Gross margin
 
1,469
 
1,732
 
1,740
Gross margin as a percentage of revenue
 
23.1%
 
26.3%
 
28.4%
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
$1,042
 
$1,012
 
$871
      Research and development expenses
 
230
 
263
 
203
      Restructuring-related charges
 
62
 
104
 
Income from operations
 
$135
 
$353
 
$666

The following table shows our revenue and gross margins from products and services, respectively, for the years ended December 31:
In millions
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Product revenue
 
$2,711
 
$2,892
 
$2,912
Cost of products
 
2,072
 
2,153
 
2,152
Product gross margin
 
$639
 
$739
 
$760
Product gross margin as a percentage of revenue
 
23.6%
 
25.6%
 
26.1%
Services revenue
 
$3,662
 
$3,699
 
$3,211
Cost of services
 
2,832
 
2,706
 
2,231
Services gross margin
 
$830
 
$993
 
$980
Services gross margin as a percentage of revenue
 
22.7%
 
26.8%
 
30.5%


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The following tables show our revenue by geographic theater for the years ended December 31:
In millions
2015
% of Total
 
2014
% of Total
 
% Increase (Decrease)
% Increase (Decrease) Constant Currency (1)
Americas
$3,499
55%
 
$3,357
51%
 
4%
7%
Europe, Middle East Africa (EMEA)
1,964
31%
 
2,184
33%
 
(10)%
1%
Asia Pacific (APJ)
910
14%
 
1,050
16%
 
(13)%
(5)%
Consolidated revenue
$6,373
100%
 
$6,591
100%
 
(3)%
3%

In millions
2014
% of Total
 
2013
% of Total
 
% Increase (Decrease)
% Increase (Decrease) Constant Currency (1)
Americas
$3,357
51%
 
$3,030
50%
 
11%
12%
Europe, Middle East Africa (EMEA)
2,184
33%
 
2,060
33%
 
6%
8%
Asia Pacific (APJ)
1,050
16%
 
1,033
17%
 
2%
7%
Consolidated revenue
$6,591
100%
 
$6,123
100%
 
8%
10%

(1) The tables above each include a presentation of period-over-period revenue growth or decline on a constant currency basis, which is a non-GAAP measure that excludes the effects of foreign currency fluctuations. We calculate this information by translating prior period revenue growth at current period monthly average exchange rates. We believe that examining period-over-period revenue growth or decline excluding foreign currency fluctuations is useful for assessing the underlying performance of our business, and our management uses revenue growth on a constant currency basis to evaluate period-over-period operating performance. This non-GAAP measure should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, period-over-period revenue growth under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (or GAAP).

2015 compared to 2014 results discussion

Revenue

Revenue decreased 3% in 2015 from 2014 due to declines in our Financial Services and Retail Solutions operating segments partially offset by improvement in our Hospitality and Emerging Industries operating segments. Foreign currency fluctuations unfavorably impacted the revenue comparison by 6%. For the year ended December 31, 2015 our product revenue decreased 6% and our services revenue decreased 1% compared to the year ended December 31, 2014. The decrease in our product revenue was due to declines in the Financial Services and the Retail Solutions operating segments in the EMEA and APJ theaters and declines in the Hospitality operating segment in the Americas theater, partially offset by growth in the Retail Solutions operating segment in the Americas theater and growth in the Emerging Industries operating segment in the APJ theater. The decrease in our services revenue was attributable to decreases in transaction and annuity services, partially offset by an increase in our software maintenance and cloud services. Services revenue decreased in the Financial Services and Retail Solutions operating segments in the EMEA and APJ theaters and decreased in the Emerging Industries operating segment in the EMEA theater, partially offset by an increase in all operating segments in the Americas theater and an increase in the Emerging Industries operating segment in the APJ theater.

Gross Margin

Gross margin as a percentage of revenue was 23.1% in 2015 compared to 26.3% in 2014. Product gross margin in 2015 decreased to 23.6% compared to 25.6% in 2014. Product gross margin in 2015 was negatively impacted by a $10 million increase in pension expense, offset by $4 million of lower charges for the write-down of inventory related to the restructuring plan. Excluding these items, product gross margin decreased due to a less favorable mix of revenue.

Services gross margin decreased to 22.7% in 2015 compared to 26.8% in 2014. Services gross margin in 2015 was negatively impacted by a $226 million increase in pension expense offset by a reduction of $40 million for the write-down of inventory related to the restructuring plan. Excluding these items, services gross margin increased due to a favorable mix of revenue, including an increase in cloud revenue.



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2014 compared to 2013 results discussion

Revenue

Revenue increased 8% in 2014 from 2013 due to improvement in our Financial Services, Hospitality, and Emerging Industries operating segments offset by declines in our Retail Solutions operating segment. Digital Insight generated $349 million of revenue from the date of acquisition, January 10, 2014, through December 31, 2014. Foreign currency fluctuations had a 2% unfavorable impact on revenue for the year. For the year ended December 31, 2014, our product revenue decreased 1% and services revenue increased 15% compared to the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease in our product revenue was due to declines in the Retail Solutions and Hospitality operating segments in the Americas theater, a decline in the Emerging Industries operating segment in the EMEA theater, and a decline in the Financial Services and Retail Solutions operating segments in the APJ theater. These declines were partially offset by growth in the Financial Services, Retail Solutions, and Hospitality operating segments in the EMEA theater and growth in the Financial Services operating segment in the Americas theater. The increase in our services revenue was attributable to increases in all our services offerings, which include professional and installation services, maintenance services and cloud services. Services revenue increased in all operating segments in the EMEA and APJ theaters and increased in the Financial Services, Hospitality and Emerging Industries operating segments in the Americas theater. The increases were partially offset by a decrease in the Retail Solutions operating segment in the Americas theater.

Gross Margin

Gross margin as a percentage of revenue was 26.3% in 2014 compared to 28.4% in 2013. Product gross margin in 2014 decreased slightly to 25.6% compared to 26.1% in 2013. Product gross margin in 2014 was negatively impacted by a $5 million increase in pension expense, $3 million in higher acquisition-related amortization of intangibles and a $9 million charge for the write-down of inventory related to the restructuring plan. Excluding these items, product gross margin as a percentage of revenue remained relatively consistent.

Services gross margin decreased to 26.8% in 2014 compared to 30.5% in 2013. Services gross margin in 2014 was negatively impacted by a $126 million increase in pension expense, $24 million in higher acquisition-related amortization of intangibles and a $47 million charge for the write-down of inventory related to the restructuring plan. Excluding these items, services gross margin increased due to a favorable mix of revenue, including an increase in cloud revenue.

Effects of Pension, Postemployment, and Postretirement Benefit Plans

NCR's income from continuing operations for the years ended December 31 was impacted by certain employee benefit plans as shown below:
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Pension expense (benefit)
$464
 
$152
 
$(78)
Postemployment expense
17
 
89
 
18
Postretirement benefit
(15)
 
(15)
 
(15)
Total expense (benefit)
$466
 
$226
 
$(75)

In 2015, pension expense was $464 million compared to pension expense of $152 million in 2014 and a pension benefit of $78 million in 2013. In 2015, pension expense included a settlement loss of $427 million related to the completion of the transfer of NCR's UK London pension plan to an insurer in addition to actuarial losses of $29 million primarily attributable to lower than expected return on U.S. pension assets, partially offset by an increase in the discount rate. In 2015, approximately 31% of the pension expense was included in selling, general and administrative and research and development expenses, with the remaining 69% included in cost of products and services. In 2014, pension expense included actuarial losses of $150 million primarily attributable to the change in the U.S. mortality table. In 2013, the pension benefit included actuarial gains of $104 million driven by increases in discount rates used to value the U.S. and certain international plans and $15 million associated with the termination of NCR's U.S. non-qualified pension plans. Additionally, the 2013 pension benefit included special termination benefit costs of $26 million related to U.S. employees who irrevocably accepted a voluntary early retirement offer during 2013.

Postemployment expense (severance and disability medical) was $17 million in 2015 compared to $89 million in 2014 and $18 million in 2013. In July 2014, the Company announced a restructuring plan to strategically reallocate resources and position the Company to focus on higher growth, higher margin opportunities and recorded a related charge of $1 million and $73 million in the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. During the first quarter of 2013, NCR amended its U.S. separation plan to eliminate the accumulation of postemployment benefits. This amendment resulted in a curtailment benefit of approximately $13 million.

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Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $30 million to $1,042 million in 2015 from $1,012 million in 2014. As a percentage of revenue, these expenses were 16.4% in 2015 and 15.4% in 2014. In 2015, selling, general and administrative expenses included $125 million of pension expense, $62 million of acquisition-related amortization of intangibles, a $20 million reserve on a subcontracting arrangement in emerging industries in Middle East Africa, $11 million of acquisition-related costs, and $1 million of OFAC and FCPA related legal costs. In 2014, selling, general and administrative expenses included $48 million of pension expense, $27 million of acquisition-related costs, $56 million of acquisition-related amortization of intangibles, and $3 million of OFAC and FCPA related legal costs. Excluding these items, selling, general and administrative expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue from 13.3% in 2014 to 12.9% in 2015 due to the continued cost reduction actions focused on limiting discretionary spending and the benefit of cost savings from the restructuring program initiated in the prior year.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $141 million to $1,012 million in 2014 from $871 million in 2013. As a percentage of revenue, these expenses were 15.4% in 2014 and 14.2% in 2013. In 2014, selling, general, and administrative expenses included $48 million of pension expense, $27 million of acquisition-related costs, $56 million of acquisition-related amortization of intangibles, and $3 million of OFAC and FCPA related legal costs. In 2013, selling, general, and administrative expenses included $22 million of pension benefit, $46 million of acquisition-related costs, $29 million of amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets and $3 million of OFAC and FCPA related legal costs. Excluding these items, selling, general and administrative expenses remained consistent as a percentage of revenue at 13.3%.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses decreased $33 million to $230 million in 2015 from $263 million in 2014. As a percentage of revenue, these costs were 3.6% in 2015 and 4.0% in 2014. Research and development expenses included pension expense of $18 million in 2015 as compared to pension expense of $19 million in 2014. After considering this item, research and development expenses decreased to 3.3% in 2015 from 3.7% in 2014 as a percentage of revenue due to the focus on cost reduction actions, including limits on discretionary spending, as we continue to focus on higher value offerings.

Research and development expenses increased $60 million to $263 million in 2014 from $203 million in 2013. As a percentage of revenue, these costs were 4.0% in 2014 and 3.3% in 2013. Research and development expenses included pension expense of $19 million in 2014 as compared to pension benefit of $10 million in 2013. After considering this item, research and development expenses increased to 3.7% in 2014 from 3.5% in 2013 as a percentage of revenue and were in line with management expectations as we continue to invest in broadening our self-service solutions.

Restructuring-Related Charges

In 2015, the Company recorded restructuring-related charges of $62 million related to the restructuring program announced in July 2014. The charges consisted of severance and other employee related costs of $20 million, other exit costs of $13 million and asset-related charges of $29 million.

In 2014, the Company recorded restructuring-related charges of $104 million related to the restructuring program announced in July 2014. The charges consist of severance and other employee related costs of $86 million, other exit costs of $5 million and asset-related charges of $13 million.

Interest Expense

Interest expense was $173 million in 2015 compared to $181 million in 2014 and $103 million in 2013. Interest expense in 2015 and 2014 was primarily related to the Company's senior unsecured notes and borrowings under the Company's senior secured credit facility. The increase in 2014 compared to 2013 is primarily related to a full year of interest expense related to the Company's 5.875% and 6.375% senior unsecured notes in 2014 compared to a partial year of interest expense in 2013.



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Other Expense

Other (expense), net was $57 million in 2015 compared to $35 million in 2014 and $9 million in 2013. Interest income was $5 million in 2015, and $6 million in 2014 and 2013. In 2015, other (expense), net included $21 million related to losses from foreign currency fluctuations and foreign exchange contracts, $9 million in bank-related fees, and $34 million related to the loss on the pending sale of the IPS business. In 2014, other (expense), net included $32 million related to losses from foreign currency fluctuations and foreign exchange contracts, $7 million in bank-related fees, and $3 million related to the impairment of an investment partially offset by a $4 million gain on the sale of available for sale securities. In 2013, other (expense), net included $13 million related to losses from foreign currency contracts not designated as hedging instruments as well as from foreign currency fluctuations and $7 million in bank-related fees partially offset by income from the sale of certain patents and a $3 million gain on the sale of an investment.

Income Taxes

The effective tax rate was (58)% in 2015, (35)% in 2014, and 18% in 2013. During 2015, there was no tax benefit recorded on the $427 million charge related to the settlement of the UK London pension plan due to a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets in the United Kingdom. Refer to Note 10, “Employee Benefit Plans,” for additional discussion on the settlement of the UK London pension plan. Additionally, we favorably settled examinations with Canada for tax years 2002 through 2006 that resulted in a tax benefit of $10 million in 2015. During 2014, we favorably settled examinations with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for the 2009 and 2010 tax years that resulted in a tax benefit of $13 million. In addition, the 2014 tax rate was favorably impacted by a $9 million reduction in the U.S. valuation allowance and a favorable mix of earnings by country, primarily driven by actuarial pension losses due to a change in the U.S. mortality table. During 2013, we recorded a one-time benefit of approximately $16 million in connection with the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 that was signed into law in January 2013 and the related retroactive tax relief for certain law provisions that expired in 2012. The 2013 tax rate was also favorably impacted by the release of a $10 million valuation allowance due to the implementation of a tax planning strategy to access certain deferred tax assets, a $15 million reduction in a valuation allowance related to a subsidiary in Japan, and a favorable mix of earnings by country, primarily related to lower pension benefit.

During 2014, the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) finalized an examination of our 2009 and 2010 income tax returns and commenced an examination of our 2011, 2012 and 2013 income tax returns, which is ongoing. While we are subject to numerous federal, state and foreign tax audits, we believe that appropriate reserves exist for issues that might arise from these audits. Should these audits be settled, the resulting tax effect could impact the tax provision and cash flows in future periods. During 2016, the Company expects to resolve certain tax matters related to U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. These resolutions could have a material impact on the effective tax rate in 2016.

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations

In 2015, loss from discontinued operations was $24 million, net of tax, primarily related to updates in estimates and accruals for litigation expenses related to the Fox River reserve in addition to accruals for litigation expenses related to the Kalamazoo River environmental matter.

In 2014, income from discontinued operations was $10 million, net of tax, primarily related to updates in estimates related to the Fox River reserve partially offset by accruals for litigation expenses related to the Kalamazoo River environmental matter.

In 2013, loss from discontinued operations was $9 million, net of tax, solely related to environmental matters, which was due to changes in estimates related to the Fox River reserve in addition to accruals for litigation expenses related to the Kalamazoo River environmental matter, partially offset by recoveries from insurance carriers.



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Revenue and Operating Income by Segment

As described in Note 14, “Segment Information and Concentrations” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company manages and reports its businesses in the following segments:

Financial Services - We offer solutions to enable customers in the financial services industry to reduce costs, generate new revenue streams and enhance customer loyalty. These solutions include a comprehensive line of ATM and payment processing hardware and software; cash management and video banking software and customer-facing digital banking services; and related installation, maintenance, and managed and professional services. We also offer a complete line of printer consumables.
Retail Solutions - We offer solutions to customers in the retail industry designed to improve selling productivity and checkout processes as well as increase service levels. These solutions primarily include retail-oriented technologies, such as point of sale terminals and point of sale software; an omni-channel retail software platform with a comprehensive suite of retail software applications; innovative self-service kiosks, such as self-checkout; as well as bar-code scanners. We also offer installation, maintenance, managed and professional services and a complete line of printer consumables.
Hospitality - We offer technology solutions to customers in the hospitality industry, serving businesses that range from a single store or restaurant to global chains and sports and entertainment venues. Our solutions include point of sale hardware and software solutions, installation, maintenance, managed and professional services and a complete line of printer consumables.
Emerging Industries - We offer maintenance as well as managed and professional services for third-party computer hardware provided to select manufacturers, primarily in the telecommunications industry, who value and leverage our global service capability. Also included in the Emerging Industries segment are solutions designed to enhance the customer experience for the travel industry, such as self-service kiosks, and the small business market, such as an all-in-one point of sale solution. Additionally, we offer installation, maintenance, and managed and professional services.

Each of these segments derives its revenue by selling products and services in the sales theaters in which NCR operates. Segments are measured for profitability by the Company’s chief operating decision maker based on revenue and segment operating income. For purposes of discussing our operating results by segment, we exclude the impact of certain items (described below) from segment operating income, consistent with the manner by which management reviews each segment, evaluates performance, and reports our segment results under GAAP. This format is useful to investors because it allows analysis and comparability of operating trends. It also includes the same information that is used by NCR management to make decisions regarding the segments and to assess our financial performance.

The effect of pension expense (benefit) and other significant, non-recurring items on segment operating income have been excluded from the operating income for each reporting segment presented below. Our segment results are reconciled to total Company results reported under GAAP in Note 14, “Segment Information and Concentrations” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

In the segment discussions below, we have disclosed the impact of foreign currency fluctuations as it relates to our segment revenue due to its significance.

Financial Services Segment

The following table presents the Financial Services revenue and segment operating income for the years ended December 31:
 
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
$3,319
 
$3,561
 
$3,115
Operating income
$518
 
$543
 
$356
Operating income as a percentage of revenue
15.6%
 
15.2%
 
11.4%

We completed the acquisition of Digital Insight Corporation (Digital Insight) on January 10, 2014. As a result, the revenue and operating income results for the Financial Services segment in 2014 include the impact of Digital Insight from January 10, 2014 through December 31, 2014. Digital Insight generated $349 million of revenue and $104 million of operating income in the year ended December 31, 2014.


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Financial Services revenue decreased 7% in 2015 compared to 2014 and increased 14% in 2014 compared to 2013. Revenue decreased in 2015 compared to 2014 primarily driven by a decline in product sales and services revenue in the EMEA and APJ theaters, partially offset by growth in services revenue in the Americas theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 8%. Revenue increased in 2014 compared to 2013 primarily driven by growth in product sales and services revenue in the Americas and EMEA theaters and services revenue growth in the APJ theater, and the contribution of the Digital Insight business noted above. The growth was slightly offset by declines in product sales in the APJ theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 3%.

Operating income was $518 million in 2015, $543 million in 2014 and $356 million in 2013. The decrease in operating income in 2015 compared to 2014 was driven by lower revenue in Russia and China. The increase in operating income in 2014 compared to 2013 was driven by a higher mix of software revenue and the contribution of the Digital Insight business noted above.

Retail Solutions Segment

The following table presents the Retail Solutions revenue and segment operating income for the years ended December 31:
 
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
$2,001
 
$2,008
 
$2,034
Operating income
$156
 
$155
 
$205
Operating income as a percentage of revenue
7.8%
 
7.7%
 
10.1%

The Company completed the acquisition of Retalix Ltd. (Retalix) on February 6, 2013. As a result, the revenue and operating income results for the Retail Solutions segment in 2013 include the impact of Retalix from February 6, 2013 through December 31, 2013. Retalix generated revenue of $298 million and $53 million of operating income in the year ended December 31, 2013.

Retail Solutions revenue was essentially flat in 2015 compared to 2014 and decreased 1% in 2014 compared to 2013. Revenue was essentially flat in 2015 compared to 2014 primarily driven by growth in product sales and services revenue in the Americas theater offset by declines in product and services revenue in the EMEA and APJ theaters. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 5%. The decrease in revenue in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily driven by declines in product sales and services revenue in the Americas theater and a decline in product sales in the APJ theater, partially offset by growth in product sales and service revenue in the EMEA theater and growth in services revenue in the APJ theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 1%.

Operating income was $156 million in 2015, $155 million in 2014 and $205 million in 2013.  The slight increase in operating income in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily driven by a more favorable revenue mix and better expense management. The decrease in the Retail Solutions operating income in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily driven by redirected information technology spending and delayed customer rollouts.

Hospitality Segment

The following table presents the Hospitality revenue and segment operating income for the years ended December 31:
 
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
$686
 
$659
 
$626
Operating income
$115
 
$91
 
$100
Operating income as a percentage of revenue
16.8%
 
13.8%
 
16.0%

Hospitality revenue increased 4% in 2015 compared to 2014 and increased 5% in 2014 compared to 2013. The increase in revenue in 2015 compared to 2014 was largely due to growth in services revenue in the Americas theater partially offset by a decline in product sales in the Americas theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 3%. The increase in revenue in 2014 compared to 2013 was due to growth in services revenue in all theaters and growth in product sales in the EMEA theater partially offset by a decline in product sales in the Americas theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 1%.

Operating income for Hospitality was $115 million in 2015, $91 million in 2014, and $100 million in 2013. The increase in operating income in 2015 compared to 2014 was driven by a higher mix of software-related revenue, including cloud and professional services revenue. The decrease in the Hospitality operating income in 2014 compared to 2013 was driven by an unfavorable mix of revenue, with a large software transaction in 2013.

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Emerging Industries Segment

The following table presents the Emerging Industries revenue and segment operating income for the years ended December 31:
 
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
$367
 
$363
 
$348
Operating income
$41
 
$31
 
$56
Operating income as a percentage of revenue
11.2%
 
8.5%
 
16.1%

Emerging Industries revenue increased 1% in 2015 compared to 2014 and increased 4% in 2014 compared to 2013. The increase in revenue in 2015 compared to 2014 was driven by higher services revenue in the Americas and APJ theaters and higher product sales in the APJ theater, offset by a decline in services revenue in the EMEA theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 8%. The increase in revenue in 2014 compared to 2013 was driven by higher services revenue in all theaters partially offset by a decline in product sales in the EMEA theater. Foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted the year-over-year revenue comparison by 1%.

Operating income was $41 million in 2015, $31 million in 2014, and $56 million in 2013. The increase in the Emerging Industries operating income in 2015 compared to 2014 was due to higher services margins. The decrease in the Emerging Industries operating income in 2014 compared to 2013 was due to costs associated with managed services contracts and continued investment in the small business market.

FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

In the year ended December 31, 2015, cash provided by operating activities was $681 million and in the year ended December 31, 2014, cash provided by operating activities was $524 million.

NCR’s management uses a non-GAAP measure called “free cash flow” to assess the financial performance of the Company. We define free cash flow as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities and cash provided by (used in) discontinued operations, less capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment, less additions to capitalized software plus discretionary pension contributions and settlements. Free cash flow does not have a definition under GAAP, and therefore NCR’s definition may differ from other companies’ definitions of this measure. We believe free cash flow information is useful for investors because it relates the operating cash flows from the Company’s continuing and discontinued operations to the capital that is spent to continue and improve business operations. In particular, free cash flow indicates the amount of cash available after capital expenditures for, among other things, investments in the Company’s existing businesses, strategic acquisitions and investments, repurchase of NCR stock and repayment of debt obligations. Free cash flow does not represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures, since there may be other non-discretionary expenditures that are not deducted from the measure. This non-GAAP measure should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, cash flows from operating activities under GAAP. The table below reconciles net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, to NCR’s non-GAAP measure of free cash flow for the year ended December 31:
 
In millions
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net cash provided by operating activities
$681
 
$524
 
$281
Expenditures for property, plant and equipment
(79)
 
(118)
 
(116)
Additions to capitalized software
(150)
 
(140)
 
(110)
Net cash used in discontinued operations
(43)
 
(1)
 
(52)
Pension discretionary contributions and settlements
 
48
 
204
Free cash flow (non-GAAP)
$409
 
$313
 
$207

In 2015, net cash provided by operating activities increased $157 million, net cash used in discontinued operations increased $42 million, and there were no pension discretionary contributions and settlements in 2015 compared to $48 million in 2014, all of which contributed to a net increase in free cash flow of $96 million in comparison to 2014. Additionally, capital expenditures decreased $39 million and capitalized software additions increased $10 million due to continued investment in software solution enhancements. The cash used in discontinued operations in 2015 was higher than 2014 primarily due to a reduction in recoveries related to the Fox River environmental matter.


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In 2014, net cash provided by operating activities increased $243 million, net cash used in discontinued operations decreased $51 million, and pension discretionary contributions and settlements were $48 million in 2014, down from $204 million in 2013, all of which contributed to a net increase in free cash flow of $106 million in comparison to 2013. Additionally, capital expenditures increased $2 million and capitalized software additions increased $30 million due to continued investment in the business and software solution enhancements. The cash used in discontinued operations in 2014 was lower than 2013 primarily due to recoveries related to the Fox River environmental matter.

Financing activities and certain other investing activities are not included in our calculation of free cash flow. Our other investing activities primarily include business acquisitions, divestitures and investments as well as proceeds from the sales of property, plant and equipment. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we completed the acquisition of Digital Insight for $1,647 million, net of cash received. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we completed the acquisition of Retalix for $664 million, net of cash received, and multiple other acquisitions that totaled $116 million, net of cash received.

Our financing activities primarily include proceeds from the issuance of preferred stock, employee stock plans, borrowings on term credit facilities and the issuance of unsecured notes, as well as payments made for share repurchases, repayments of term credit facilities and tax withholding on behalf of employees. During the year ended December 31, 2015, we issued and sold shares of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock for $820 million less $26 million of issuance costs and completed a share repurchase by modified "Dutch auction" tender offer for $1 billion plus $5 million of issuance costs. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, proceeds from employee stock plans were $15 million, $13 million and $57 million, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, payments made for tax withholding on behalf of employees totaled $16 million, $28 million and $30 million, respectively.

Long Term Borrowings Our senior secured credit facility consisted of a term loan facility and a revolving credit facility. As of December 31, 2015, the term loan facility had an aggregate principal amount outstanding of $956 million. The revolving credit facility had an aggregate principal amount of  $850 million, of which $100 million was outstanding as of December 31, 2015. The revolving credit facility also allows a portion of the availability to be used for outstanding letters of credit, and as of December 31, 2015, there were $28 million in outstanding letters of credit. As of December 31, 2014, the outstanding principal balances of the term loan facility and revolving facility was $1.33 billion and zero, respectively.

As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, we had outstanding $700 million in aggregate principal balance of 6.375% senior unsecured notes due 2023, $600 million in aggregate principal balance of 5.00% senior unsecured notes due 2022, $500 million in aggregate principal balance of 4.625% senior unsecured notes due 2021 and $400 million in aggregate principal balance of 5.875% senior unsecured notes due 2021.

In November 2014, we entered into a revolving trade receivables securitization facility, which provides the Company with up to $200 million in funding based on the availability of eligible receivables and other customary factors and conditions. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had no outstanding balance under the facility.

See Note 7, "Debt Obligations," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for further information on the senior secured credit facility, the senior unsecured notes and the trade receivables securitization facility.

Employee Benefit Plans We expect to make pension, postemployment and postretirement plan contributions of approximately $71 million in 2016. See Note 10, “Employee Benefit Plans,” of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional discussion on our pension, postemployment and postretirement plans.

Restructuring Program In July 2014, we announced a restructuring plan to strategically reallocate resources so that we can focus on higher-growth, higher-margin opportunities in the software-driven omni-channel industry. Refer to Note 3, "Restructuring Plan," of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional discussion on our restructuring plan. As a result of the restructuring plan, the Company recorded a total charge of $74 million and $161 million in the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The Company expects to achieve annualized run-rate savings of approximately $105 million beginning in 2016. Our estimate of restructuring-related opportunities in connection with this restructuring plan for 2016 is approximately $20 million to $25 million.

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock On December 4, 2015, NCR issued 820,000 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to certain entities affiliated with Blackstone Capital Partners VI L.P. and Blackstone Tactical Opportunities L.L.C. (collectively, Blackstone) for an aggregate purchase price of $820 million, or $1,000 per share, pursuant to an Investment Agreement between the Company and Blackstone, dated November 11, 2015. In connection with the issuance of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, the Company incurred direct and incremental expenses of $26 million.

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The Series A Convertible Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of the Company’s common stock, with respect to dividend rights and rights on the distribution of assets on any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Company. Holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 5.5% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears and payable in-kind for the first sixteen dividend payments, after which, dividends will be payable in cash or in-kind at the option of the Company. If we fail to timely declare and pay a dividend, the dividend rate will increase to 8.0% per annum until such time as all accrued but unpaid dividends have been paid in full. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had accrued dividends of $4 million. There were no cash dividends declared in the year ended December 31, 2015.

The Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holders at any time into shares of common stock at a conversion price of $30.00 per share and a conversion rate of 33.33 shares of common stock per share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. The conversion rate is subject to customary anti-dilution and other adjustments. As of December 31, 2015, the maximum number of common shares that could be required to be issued if converted is 27.4 million shares, which represents approximately 17% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2015 on an as-converted basis.

On any date during the three months commencing on and immediately following March 16, 2024 and the three months commencing on and immediately following every third anniversary of March 16, 2024, holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have the right to require the Company to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock at 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends. Additionally, upon certain change of control events involving the Company, holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock can require the Company to repurchase, subject to certain exceptions, all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and the Company has the right to redeem the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

Cash and Cash Equivalents Held by Foreign Subsidiaries Cash and cash equivalents held by the Company's foreign subsidiaries were $317 million and $458 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Under current tax laws and regulations, if cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments held outside the U.S. are distributed to the U.S. in the form of dividends or otherwise, we may be subject to additional U.S. income taxes and foreign withholding taxes, which could be significant.

Summary As of December 31, 2015, our cash and cash equivalents totaled $328 million and our total debt was $3.25 billion. Our borrowing capacity under our senior secured credit facility was $722 million and under our trade receivables securitization facility was $200 million at December 31, 2015. Our ability to generate positive cash flows from operations is dependent on general economic conditions, and the competitive environment in our industry, and is subject to the business and other risk factors described in Item 1A of Part I of this 2015 Annual Report on Form 10-K. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or otherwise comply with the terms of our credit facilities, we may be required to seek additional financing alternatives.

We believe that we have sufficient liquidity based on our current cash position, cash flows from operations and existing financing to meet our expected pension, postemployment, and postretirement plan contributions, remediation payments related to the Fox River environmental matter, debt servicing obligations, payments under the restructuring plan, and our operating requirements for the next twelve months.

Contractual Obligations In the normal course of business, we enter into various contractual obligations that impact, or could impact, the liquidity of our operations. The following table and discussion outlines our material obligations as of December 31, 2015 on an undiscounted basis, with projected cash payments in the years shown:

In millions
Total Amounts
2016
2017 - 2018
2019 - 2020
2021 & Thereafter
All Other
Debt obligations
$
3,286

$
13

$
1,065

$
906

$
1,302

$

Interest on debt obligations
925

156

287

247

235


Estimated environmental liability payments
60

41



19


Lease obligations
558

97

133

78

250


Purchase obligations
1,104

1,010

94




Uncertain tax positions
167





167

Total obligations
$
6,100

$
1,317

$
1,579

$
1,231

$
1,806

$
167


As of December 31, 2015, we had short and long-term debt totaling $3.25 billion, which includes debt issuance costs as a direct reduction from the carrying amount of debt.


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For purposes of this table, we used interest rates as of December 31, 2015 to estimate the future interest on debt obligations outstanding as of December 31, 2015 and have assumed no voluntary prepayments of existing debt. See Note 7, "Debt Obligations," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional disclosure related to our debt obligations and the related interest rate terms. We have also incorporated the expected fixed payments based on our interest rate swap related to our term loan. See Note 12, "Derivatives and Hedging Instruments," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional disclosure related to our interest rate swap. 

The estimated environmental liability payments included in the table of contractual obligations shown above are related to the Fox River environmental matter. The amounts shown are our expected payments, net of the payment obligations of its co-obligors; the amounts do not include an estimate for payments to be received from insurers or indemnification parties. For additional information, refer to Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

Our lease obligations are primarily for certain sales and manufacturing facilities in various domestic and international locations as well as leases related to equipment and vehicles. Our lease obligations also include amounts owed for our future world headquarters in Atlanta. Due to the early stages of construction, we have included assumptions regarding the total project cost and lease commencement. Purchase obligations represent committed purchase orders and other contractual commitments for goods or services. The purchase obligation amounts were determined through information in our procurement systems and payment schedules for significant contracts. Included in the amounts are committed payments in relation to the long-term service agreement with Accenture under which NCR’s transaction processing activities and functions are performed.

We have a $167 million liability related to our uncertain tax positions. Due to the nature of the underlying liabilities and the extended time often needed to resolve income tax uncertainties, we cannot make reliable estimates of the amount or timing of cash payments that may be required to settle these liabilities. For additional information, refer to Note 8, "Income Taxes," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

Our U.S. and international employee benefit plans, which are described in Note 10, “Employee Benefit Plans,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report, could require significant future cash payments. The funded status of NCR’s U.S. pension plan is an underfunded position of $429 million as of December 31, 2015 compared to an underfunded position of $387 million as of December 31, 2014. The decline in our funded status is primarily attributable to lower than expected return on U.S. pension assets, partially offset by an increase in the discount rate. Our international retirement plans were in an underfunded status of $150 million as of December 31, 2015, as compared to an overfunded status of $219 million as of December 31, 2014. The change in funded status was primarily related to the completion of the transfer of our UK London pension plan to an insurer, which resulted in a settlement loss of $427 million. Contributions to international pension plans are expected to be approximately $35 million in 2016.

We also have product warranties that may affect future cash flows. These items are not included in the table of obligations shown above, but are described in detail in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.

Our senior secured credit facility and the indentures for our senior unsecured notes includes affirmative and negative covenants that restrict or limit our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness; create liens on assets; engage in certain fundamental corporate changes or changes to our business activities; make investments; sell or otherwise dispose of assets; engage in sale-leaseback or hedging transactions; pay dividends or make similar distributions; repay other indebtedness; engage in certain affiliate transactions; or enter into agreements that restrict our ability to create liens, pay dividends or make loan repayments. Our senior secured credit facility also includes financial covenants that require us to maintain:
a consolidated leverage ratio on the last day of any fiscal quarter, not to exceed (i) in the case of any fiscal quarter ending after December 31, 2014 and on or prior to December 31, 2016, (a) the sum of (x) 4.25 and (y) an amount (not to exceed 0.50) to reflect new debt used to reduce NCR's underfunded pension liabilities, to (b) 1.00, (ii) in the case of any fiscal quarter ending after December 31, 2016 and on or prior to December 31, 2017, 4.00 to 1.00, and (iii) in the case of any fiscal quarter ending after December 31, 2017, 3.75 to 1.00; and
an interest coverage ratio on the last day of any fiscal quarter greater than or equal to 3.50 to 1.00.

At December 31, 2015, the maximum consolidated leverage ratio under the senior secured credit facility was 4.35 to 1.00.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements We have no significant contractual obligations not fully recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets or fully disclosed in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. We have no material off-balance sheet arrangements as defined by SEC Regulation S-K Item 303 (a) (4) (ii).

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See Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional information on guarantees associated with our business activities.

Disclosure Pursuant to Section 13(r)(1)(D)(iii) of the Securities Exchange Act. Pursuant to Section 13(r)(1)(D)(iii) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), we note that, during the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015, the Company's branch in Syria maintained a bank account and guarantees at the Commercial Bank of Syria (CBS), which was designated as a Specially Designated National pursuant to Executive Order 13382 (EO 13382) on August 10, 2011.  This bank account and the guarantees at CBS were maintained in the normal course of business prior to the listing of CBS pursuant to EO 13382.  We note that the last known account balance as of December 31, 2015 was approximately $3,455.  The bank account did not generate interest from January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015, and the guarantees did not generate any revenue or profits for the Company.  Pursuant to a license granted to the Company by OFAC on January 3, 2013 and subsequent licenses granted on April 29, 2013, July 12, 2013, February 28, 2014, November 12, 2014, and October 24, 2015, the Company has been winding down its operations in Syria.  The Company’s current license expires on April 30, 2016. The Company has also received licenses from OFAC to close the CBS account and terminate any guarantees. The Company's application to renew these licenses, which was submitted to OFAC on May 18, 2015, remains pending. Following the termination of guarantees and the closure of the account, the Company does not intend to engage in any further business activities with CBS.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. In connection with the preparation of these financial statements, we are required to make assumptions, estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and the related disclosure of contingent liabilities. These assumptions, estimates and judgments are based on historical experience and are believed to be reasonable at the time. However, because future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty, the determination of estimates requires the exercise of judgment. Our critical accounting policies are those that require assumptions to be made about matters that are highly uncertain. Different estimates could have a material impact on our financial results. Judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of these policies and estimates may result in materially different amounts being reported under different conditions or circumstances. Our management continually reviews these assumptions, estimates and judgments to ensure that our financial statements are presented fairly and are materially correct.

In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP and does not require significant management judgment in its application. There are also areas in which management’s judgment in selecting among available alternatives would not produce a materially different result. The significant accounting policies and estimates that we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results are discussed in the paragraphs below. Our senior management has reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with our independent registered public accounting firm and the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors. See Note 1, "Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report, which contains additional information regarding our accounting policies and other disclosures required by GAAP.

Revenue Recognition NCR frequently enters into multiple-element arrangements with its customers including hardware, software, professional consulting services and maintenance support services. For arrangements involving multiple deliverables, when deliverables include software and non-software products and services, NCR evaluates and separates each deliverable to determine whether it represents a separate unit of accounting based on the following criteria: (a) the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis; and (b) if the contract includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered items is considered probable and substantially in the control of NCR.


38


Consideration is allocated to each unit of accounting based on the unit's relative selling prices. In such circumstances, the Company uses a hierarchy to determine the selling price to be used for allocating revenue to each deliverable: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of selling price (VSOE), (ii) third-party evidence of selling price (TPE), and (iii) best estimate of selling price (BESP). VSOE generally exists only when the Company sells the deliverable separately and is the price actually charged by the Company for that deliverable. VSOE is established for our software maintenance and software-related professional services. We use TPE to establish selling prices for our installation and transaction services. The Company uses BESP to allocate revenue when we are unable to establish VSOE or TPE of selling price. BESP is used for hardware maintenance and elements such as products that are not consistently priced within a narrow range. . The Company determines BESP for a deliverable by considering multiple factors including product class, geography, average discount, and management's historical pricing practices. Amounts allocated to the delivered hardware and software elements are recognized at the time of sale provided the other conditions for revenue recognition have been met. Amounts allocated to the undelivered maintenance and other services elements are recognized as the services are provided or on a straight-line basis over the service period. In certain instances, customer acceptance is required prior to the passage of title and risk of loss of the delivered products. In such cases, revenue is not recognized until the customer acceptance is obtained. Delivery and acceptance generally occur in the same reporting period.

In situations where NCR's solutions contain software that is more than incidental, revenue related to the software and software-related elements is recognized in accordance with authoritative guidance on software revenue recognition. For the software and software-related elements of such transactions, revenue is allocated based on the relative fair value of each element, and fair value is determined by VSOE. If the Company cannot objectively determine the fair value of any undelivered element included in such multiple-element arrangements, the Company defers revenue until all elements are delivered and services have been performed, or until fair value can objectively be determined for any remaining undelivered elements. When the fair value of a delivered element has not been established, but fair value exists for the undelivered elements, the Company uses the residual method to recognize revenue. Under the residual method, the fair value of the undelivered elements is deferred and the remaining portion of the arrangement fee is allocated to the delivered elements and is recognized as revenue.

For certain of NCR’s long-term contracts, the Company utilizes a percentage-of-completion accounting method, which requires estimates of future revenue and costs over the full term of product and/or service delivery. Estimated losses, if any, on long-term projects are recognized as soon as such losses become known.

Revenue recognition for complex contractual arrangements, especially those with multiple elements, requires a significant level of judgment and is based upon a review of specific contracts, past experience, the selling price of undelivered elements when sold separately, creditworthiness of customers, international laws and other factors. Changes in judgments about these factors could impact the timing and amount of revenue recognized between periods.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts We evaluate the collectability of our accounts receivable based on a number of factors. We establish provisions for doubtful accounts using percentages of our accounts receivable balance as an overall proxy to reflect historical average credit losses and also use management judgment that may include elements that are uncertain, including specific provisions for known issues. The percentages are applied to aged accounts receivable balances. Aged accounts are determined based on the number of days the receivable is outstanding, measured from the date of the invoice, or from the date of revenue recognition. As the age of the receivable increases, the provision percentage also increases. This policy is applied consistently among all of our operating segments.

Based on the factors below, we periodically review customer account activity in order to assess the adequacy of the allowances provided for potential losses. Factors include economic conditions and judgments regarding collectability of account balances, each customer’s payment history and creditworthiness.

The allowance for doubtful accounts was $47 million as of December 31, 2015, $19 million as of December 31, 2014, and $18 million as of December 31, 2013. These allowances represent, as a percentage of gross receivables, 3.6% in 2015, 1.3% in 2014, and 1.3% in 2013.

Given our experience, the reserves for potential losses are considered adequate, but if one or more of our larger customers were to default on its obligations, we could be exposed to potentially significant losses in excess of the provisions established. We continually evaluate our reserves for doubtful accounts and economic deterioration could lead to the need to increase our allowances.


39


Inventory Valuation Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, using the average cost method. Each quarter, we reassess raw materials, work-in-process, parts and finished equipment inventory costs to identify purchase or usage variances from standards, and valuation adjustments are made. Additionally, to properly provide for potential exposure due to slow-moving, excess, obsolete or unusable inventory, inventory values are reduced based on forecasted usage, orders, technological obsolescence and inventory aging. These factors are impacted by market conditions, technology changes and changes in strategic direction, and require estimates and management judgment that may include elements that are uncertain. On a quarterly basis, we review the current net realizable value of inventory and adjust for any inventory exposure due to age or excess of cost over net realizable value.

We have inventory in more than 40 countries around the world. We purchase inventory from third party suppliers and manufacture inventory at our plants. This inventory is transferred to our distribution and sales organizations at cost plus a mark-up. This mark-up is referred to as inter-company profit. Each quarter, we review our inventory levels and analyze our inter-company profit to determine the correct amount of inter-company profit to eliminate. Key assumptions are made to estimate product gross margins, the product mix of existing inventory balances and current period shipments. Over time, we refine these estimates as facts and circumstances change. If our estimates require refinement, our results could be impacted. The policies described are consistently applied across all of our operating segments.

Warranty Reserves One of our key objectives is to provide superior quality products and services. To that end, we provide a standard manufacturer’s warranty typically extending up to 12 months, allowing our customers to seek repair of products under warranty at no additional cost. A corresponding estimated liability for potential warranty costs is also recorded at the time of the sale. We sometimes offer extended warranties in the form of product maintenance services to our customers for purchase. We defer the fair value of this revenue and recognize revenue over the life of the extended warranty period. Refer to Note 1, "Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies" in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for further information regarding our accounting for extended warranties.

Future warranty obligation costs are based upon historical factors such as labor rates, average repair time, travel time, number of service calls per machine and cost of replacement parts. When a sale is consummated, the total customer revenue is recognized and the associated warranty liability is recorded based upon the estimated cost to provide the service over the warranty period.

Total warranty costs were $41 million in 2015, $37 million in 2014, and $39 million in 2013. Warranty costs as a percentage of total product revenue was 1.5% in 2015, 1.3% in 2014, and 1.3% in 2013. Historically, the principal factor used to estimate our warranty costs has been service calls per machine. Significant changes in this factor could result in actual warranty costs differing from accrued estimates. Although no near-term changes in our estimated warranty reserves are currently anticipated, in the unlikely event of a significant increase in warranty claims by one or more of our larger customers, costs to fulfill warranty obligations would be higher than provisioned, thereby impacting results.

Goodwill Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth quarter or more frequently if certain events occur indicating that the carrying value of goodwill may be impaired. A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indicator of impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include a decline in expected cash flows, a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate, a decision to sell a business, unanticipated competition, or slower growth rates, among others.

In the evaluation of goodwill for impairment, we have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary or to perform a quantitative assessment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. Under the qualitative assessment, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. If under the quantitative assessment the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the amount of the impairment loss, if any, must be measured under step two of the impairment analysis. In step two of the analysis, we will record an impairment loss equal to the excess of the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its implied fair value. Fair value of the reporting unit is estimated primarily using the income approach, which incorporates the use of discounted cash flow (DCF) analyses. A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the DCF model to forecast operating cash flows, including markets and market shares, sales volumes and prices, costs to produce, tax rates, capital spending, discount rate and working capital changes. Most of these assumptions vary among reporting units. The cash flow forecasts are generally based on approved strategic operating plans.


40


Valuation of Long-lived Assets and Amortizable Other Intangible Assets We perform impairment tests for our long-lived assets if an event or circumstance indicates that the carrying amount of our long-lived assets may not be recoverable. In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we may also strategically realign our resources and consider restructuring, disposing of, or otherwise exiting businesses. Such activities could result in impairment of our long-lived assets or other intangible assets. We also are subject to the possibility of impairment of long-lived assets arising in the ordinary course of business. We consider the likelihood of impairment if certain events occur indicating that the carrying value of the long-lived assets may be impaired and we may recognize impairment if the carrying amount of a long-lived asset or intangible asset is not recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows. Impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying amount and the fair value of the asset. We use both the income approach and market approach to estimate fair value. Our estimates of fair value are subject to a high degree of judgment since they include a long-term forecast of future operations. Accordingly, any value ultimately derived from our long-lived assets may differ from our estimate of fair value.

Pension, Postretirement and Postemployment Benefits We sponsor domestic and foreign defined benefit pension and postemployment plans as well as domestic postretirement plans. As a result, we have significant pension, postretirement and postemployment benefit costs, which are developed from actuarial valuations. Actuarial assumptions attempt to anticipate future events and are used in calculating the expense and liability relating to these plans. These factors include assumptions we make about interest rates, expected investment return on plan assets, rate of increase in healthcare costs, total and involuntary turnover rates, and rates of future compensation increases. In addition, our actuarial consultants advise us about subjective factors such as withdrawal rates and mortality rates to use in our valuations. We generally review and update these assumptions on an annual basis at the beginning of each fiscal year. We are required to consider current market conditions, including changes in interest rates, in making these assumptions. The actuarial assumptions that we use may differ materially from actual results due to changing market and economic conditions, higher or lower withdrawal rates, or longer or shorter life spans of participants. These differences may result in a significant impact to the amount of pension, postretirement or postemployment benefits expense we have recorded or may record. Postemployment and postretirement expense impacts all of our segments. Pension expense is excluded from our segment results as it is not included in the evaluation of segment performance. See Note 14, "Segment Information and Concentrations," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for a reconciliation of our segment results to income from operations.

The key assumptions used in developing our 2015 expense were discount rates of 4.0% for our U.S. pension plan and 3.1% for our postretirement plan, and an expected return on assets assumption of 4.0% for our U.S. pension plan in 2015. The U.S. plan represented 65% of the pension obligation and 100% of the postretirement medical plan obligation as of December 31, 2015. Holding all other assumptions constant, a 0.25% change in the discount rate used for the U.S. plan would have increased or decreased 2015 ongoing pension expense by approximately $3 million and would have had an immaterial impact on 2015 postretirement expense. A 0.25% change in the expected rate of return on plan assets assumption for the U.S. pension plan would have increased or decreased 2015 ongoing pension expense by approximately $5 million. Our expected return on plan assets has historically been and will likely continue to be material to net income. We intend to use discount rates of 4.3% and 3.3% in determining the 2016 U.S. pension and postretirement expense, respectively, and an expected rate of return on assets assumption of 4.3% for the U.S. pension plan.

We recognize additional changes in the fair value of plan assets and net actuarial gains or losses of our pension plans upon remeasurement, which occurs at least annually in the fourth quarter of each year. The remaining components of pension expense, primarily net service cost, interest cost, and the expected return on plan assets, are recorded on a quarterly basis as ongoing pension expense. While it is required that we review our actuarial assumptions each year at the measurement date, we generally do not change them between measurement dates. We use a measurement date of December 31 for all of our plans. Changes in assumptions or asset values may have a significant effect on the annual measurement of expense or income in the fourth quarter.

The most significant assumption used in developing our 2016 postemployment plan expense is the assumed rate of involuntary turnover of 4.8%. The involuntary turnover rate is based on historical trends and projections of involuntary turnover in the future. A 0.25% change in the rate of involuntary turnover would have increased or decreased 2015 expense by approximately $1 million. The sensitivity of the assumptions described above is specific to each individual plan and not to our pension, postretirement and postemployment plans in the aggregate.


41


Environmental and Legal Contingencies Each quarter, we review the status of each claim and legal proceeding and assess our potential financial exposure. If the potential loss from any claim or legal proceeding would be material and is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we accrue a liability for the estimated loss. To the extent that the amount of such a probable loss is estimable only by reference to a range of equally likely outcomes, and no amount within the range appears to be a better estimate than any other amount, we accrue the amount at the low end of the range. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments, and external factors beyond our control, accruals are based on the best information available at the time. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to our pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates. Such revisions in the estimates of the potential liabilities could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position. Except for the sharing agreement with Appleton Papers Inc. (API) with respect to a particular insurance settlement described in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report with respect to the Fox River matter, when insurance carriers or third parties have agreed to pay any amounts related to costs, and we believe that it is probable that we can collect such amounts, those amounts are reflected as receivables in our Consolidated Balance Sheet.

The most significant legal contingency impacting our Company relates to the Fox River matter, which is further described in detail in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report. NCR has been identified as a potentially responsible party (PRP) at the Fox River site in Wisconsin.

As described below and in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies," while substantial progress has been made in the Fox River clean-up, the extent of our potential liability continues to be subject to significant uncertainties. These uncertainties include the total clean-up costs for each of the segments of the river; the extent to which clean-up and other costs will be allocated among NCR and other PRPs in the allocation litigation; and the solvency and willingness to pay of other PRPs, co-obligors or indemnitors.

Our net reserve for the Fox River matter as of December 31, 2015 was approximately $26 million as further discussed in Note 11, "Commitments and Contingencies." The Company regularly re-evaluates the assumptions used in determining the appropriate reserve for the Fox River matter as additional information becomes available and, when warranted, makes appropriate adjustments.

Income Taxes We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. The deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the enacted tax rates expected to apply in the periods in which the deferred tax assets or liabilities are anticipated to be settled or realized.

We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability and establish a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. The determination as to whether a deferred tax asset will be realized is made on a jurisdictional basis and is based on the evaluation of positive and negative evidence. This evidence includes historical taxable income, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversal of existing temporary differences and the implementation of tax planning strategies. Projected future taxable income is based on our expected results and assumptions as to the jurisdiction in which the income will be earned. The expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences is based on current tax law and our tax methods of accounting.
If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income, or if there is a material change in the actual effective tax rates or the time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, or if the tax laws change unfavorably, then we could be required to increase our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, resulting in an increase in our effective tax rate.
We had valuation allowances of $346 million as of December 31, 2015 and $294 million as of December 31, 2014, related to certain deferred income tax assets, primarily tax loss carryforwards, in jurisdictions where there is uncertainty as to the ultimate realization of a benefit from those tax assets. At December 31, 2015, our net deferred tax assets in the U.S. totaled approximately $456 million. For the three year period ended December 31, 2015, we had a cumulative net loss from continuing operations before income taxes, which is generally considered a negative indicator of our ability to realize the benefits of those assets. We evaluated the realizability of the U.S. deferred tax assets by weighing positive and negative evidence, including our history of taxable income in the U.S., and the substantial length of time over which our deferred tax assets relating to net operating losses and employee pensions may be realized. Through this assessment, realization of the related benefits was determined to be more likely than not.


42


The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon settlement. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes and are accrued beginning in the period that such interest and penalties would be applicable under relevant tax law until such time that the related tax benefits are recognized.
The provision for income taxes may change period-to-period based on non-recurring events, such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax laws, as well as recurring factors including the geographic mix of income before taxes, state and local taxes and the effects of various global income tax strategies. We maintain certain strategic management and operational activities in overseas subsidiaries and our foreign earnings are taxed at rates that are generally lower than in the United States. As of December 31, 2015, we did not provide for U.S. federal income taxes or foreign withholding taxes on approximately $2.4 billion of undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries as such earnings are expected to be reinvested indefinitely unless it is determined that future repatriation would give rise to little or no net tax costs.
Refer to Note 8, "Income Taxes," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for disclosures related to foreign and domestic pretax income, foreign and domestic income tax (benefit) expense and the effect foreign taxes have on our overall effective tax rate.

Stock-based Compensation We measure compensation cost for stock awards at fair value and recognize compensation expense over the service period for which awards are expected to vest. We utilize the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of options at the date of grant, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including expected volatility and expected holding period. We estimate forfeitures for awards granted which are not expected to vest. The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent that actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period in which estimates are revised. We consider many factors when estimating expected forfeitures, including types of awards and historical experience. Actual results and future changes in estimates may differ from our current estimates.

In addition, we have performance-based awards that vest only if specific performance conditions are satisfied, typically at the end of a multi-year performance period, and the service requirement is fulfilled. The number of shares that will be earned can vary based on actual performance. No shares will vest if the objectives are not met, and in the event the objectives are exceeded, additional shares will vest up to a maximum amount. The cost of these awards is expensed over the service period based upon management’s estimates of achievement against the performance criteria. Because the actual number of shares to be awarded is not known until the end of the performance period, the actual compensation expense related to these awards could differ from our current expectations.


RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

A discussion of recently issued accounting pronouncements is described in Note 1, “Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report, and we incorporate by reference such discussion in this MD&A.


Item 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks primarily from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. It is our policy to manage our foreign exchange exposure and debt structure in order to manage capital costs, control financial risks and maintain financial flexibility over the long term. In managing market risks, we employ derivatives according to documented policies and procedures, including foreign currency contracts and interest rate swaps. We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.


43


Foreign Exchange Risk

Since a substantial portion of our operations and revenue occur outside the U.S., and in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar, our results can be significantly impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We have exposure to approximately 50 functional currencies and are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk with respect to our sales, profits and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. Although we use financial instruments to hedge certain foreign currency risks, we are not fully protected against foreign currency fluctuations and our reported results of operations could be affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. To manage our exposures and mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations on the operations of our foreign subsidiaries, we hedge our main transactional exposures through the use of foreign exchange forward and option contracts. These foreign exchange contracts are designated as highly effective cash flow hedges. This is primarily done through the hedging of foreign currency denominated inter-company inventory purchases by the marketing units. All of these transactions are forecasted. We also use derivatives not designated as hedging instruments consisting primarily of forward contracts to hedge foreign currency denominated balance sheet exposures. For these derivatives we recognize gains and losses in the same period as the remeasurement losses and gains of the related foreign currency-denominated exposures.

We utilize non-exchange traded financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts, that we purchase exclusively from highly rated financial institutions. We record these contracts on our balance sheet at fair market value based upon market price quotations from the financial institutions. We do not enter into non-exchange traded contracts that require the use of fair value estimation techniques, but if we did, they could have a material impact on our financial results.

For purposes of analyzing potential risk, we use sensitivity analysis to quantify potential impacts that market rate changes may have on the fair values of our hedge portfolio related to firmly committed or forecasted transactions. The sensitivity analysis represents the hypothetical changes in value of the hedge position and does not reflect the related gain or loss on the forecasted underlying transaction. A 10% appreciation or depreciation in the value of the U.S. Dollar against foreign currencies from the prevailing market rates would have resulted in a corresponding increase or decrease of $6 million as of December 31, 2015 in the fair value of the hedge portfolio. The Company expects that any increase or decrease in the fair value of the portfolio would be substantially offset by increases or decreases in the underlying exposures being hedged.

The U.S. Dollar was significantly stronger in 2015 compared to 2014 based on comparable weighted averages for our functional currencies. This had an unfavorable impact of 6% on 2015 revenue versus 2014 revenue. This excludes the effects of our hedging activities and, therefore, does not reflect the actual impact of fluctuations in exchange rates on our operating income.

Interest Rate Risk

We are subject to interest rate risk principally in relation to variable-rate debt. We use derivative financial instruments to manage exposure to fluctuations in interest rates in connection with our risk management policies. We have entered into an interest rate swap for a portion of the term loans under our senior secured credit facility. The interest rate swap effectively converts the designated portion of the term loans from a variable interest rate to a fixed interest rate instrument. As of December 31, 2015, approximately 79% of our borrowings were effectively on a fixed rate basis, and the net fair value of the interest rate swap was a liability of $3 million.

The potential gain in fair value of the swap from a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates would be approximately $2 million as of December 31, 2015. The increase in pre-tax interest expense from a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in variable interest rates (including the impact of the interest rate swap) would be approximately $9 million in 2015.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

We are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk on accounts receivable and financial instruments, such as hedging instruments and cash and cash equivalents. Credit risk includes the risk of nonperformance by counterparties. The maximum potential loss may exceed the amount recognized on the balance sheet. Exposure to credit risk is managed through credit approvals, credit limits, selecting major international financial institutions as counterparties to hedging transactions and monitoring procedures. Our business often involves large transactions with customers for which we do not require collateral. If one or more of those customers were to default in its obligations under applicable contractual arrangements, we could be exposed to potentially significant losses. Moreover, a prolonged downturn in the global economy could have an adverse impact on the ability of our customers to pay their obligations on a timely basis. We believe that the reserves for potential losses are adequate. As of December 31, 2015, we did not have any significant concentration of credit risk related to financial instruments.



44




Index to Financial Statements and Supplemental Data
 
Page




45


Item 8.        FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTAL DATA

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of NCR Corporation:

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(1) present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of NCR Corporation and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2015 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

As disclosed in Notes 1 and 8 to the consolidated financial statements, NCR Corporation changed the classification and presentation of deferred income taxes in 2015.

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Atlanta, Georgia
February 26, 2016


46


NCR Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Operations
 
For the years ended December 31, (in millions, except per share amounts)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Product revenue
 
$
2,711

 
$
2,892

 
$
2,912

Service revenue
 
3,662

 
3,699

 
3,211

Total revenue
 
6,373

 
6,591

 
6,123

Cost of products
 
2,072

 
2,153

 
2,152

Cost of services
 
2,832

 
2,706

 
2,231

Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
1,042

 
1,012

 
871

Research and development expenses
 
230

 
263

 
203

Restructuring-related charges
 
62

 
104

 

Total operating expenses
 
6,238

 
6,238

 
5,457

Income from operations
 
135

 
353

 
666

Interest expense
 
(173
)
 
(181
)
 
(103
)
Other (expense), net
 
(57
)
 
(35
)
 
(9
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations before income taxes
 
(95
)
 
137

 
554

Income tax expense (benefit)
 
55

 
(48
)
 
98

(Loss) income from continuing operations
 
(150
)
 
185

 
456

(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
(24
)
 
10

 
(9
)
Net (loss) income
 
(174
)
 
195

 
447

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
4

 
4

 
4

Net (loss) income attributable to NCR
 
$
(178
)
 
$
191

 
$
443

Amounts attributable to NCR common stockholders:
 

 

 
 
(Loss) income from continuing operations
 
$
(154
)
 
$
181

 
$
452

Series A convertible preferred stock dividends
 
(4
)
 

 

(Loss) income from continuing operations attributable to NCR common stockholders
 
(158
)
 
181

 
452

(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
(24
)
 
10

 
(9
)
Net (loss) income attributable to NCR common stockholders
 
$
(182
)
 
$
191

 
$
443

(Loss) income per share attributable to NCR common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Loss) income per common share from continuing operations
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
1.08

 
$
2.73

Diluted
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
1.06

 
$
2.67

Net (loss) income per common share
 

 

 
 
Basic
 
$
(1.09
)
 
$
1.14

 
$
2.68

Diluted
 
$
(1.09
)
 
$
1.12

 
$
2.62

Weighted average common shares outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
167.6

 
167.9

 
165.4

Diluted
 
167.6

 
171.2

 
169.3

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

47


NCR Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
 

For the years ended December 31 (in millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net (loss) income
$
(174
)
 
$
195

 
$
447

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Currency translation adjustments
 
 
 
 
 
Currency translation adjustments
(50
)
 
(76
)
 
(53
)
Derivatives
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivatives
10

 
(1
)
 
2

   (Gains) losses on derivatives arising during the period
(7
)
 
4

 
6

        Less income tax expense
(1
)
 
(1
)
 
(3
)
Securities
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain on securities

 

 
3

   Gains on securities arising during the period

 
(4
)
 

        Less income tax benefit (expense)

 
1

 
(1
)
Employee benefit plans
 
 
 
 
 
   Prior service benefit (cost)
9

 
(16
)
 
(5
)
   Amortization of prior service benefit
(21
)
 
(20
)
 
(30
)
   Net gain arising during the period
43

 
8

 
82

   Amortization of actuarial loss
2

 

 
8

        Less income tax (expense) benefit
(2
)
 
4

 
(17
)
Other comprehensive loss
(17
)
 
(101
)
 
(8
)
Total comprehensive (loss) income
(191
)
 
94

 
439

Less comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests:
 
 
 
 
 
   Net income
4

 
4

 
4

   Currency translation adjustments
(3
)
 
(3
)
 
(7
)
Amounts attributable to noncontrolling interests
1

 
1

 
(3
)
Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to NCR common stockholders
$
(192
)
 
$
93

 
$
442


The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

48


NCR Corporation
Consolidated Balance Sheets
As of December 31 (in millions except per share amounts)
2015
 
2014
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
328

 
511

Accounts receivable, net
1,251

 
1,404

Inventories
643

 
669

Other current assets
327

 
504

Total current assets
2,549

 
3,088

Property, plant and equipment, net
322

 
396

Goodwill
2,733

 
2,760

Intangibles, net
798

 
926

Prepaid pension cost
130

 
551

Deferred income taxes
582

 
349

Other assets
521

 
496

Total assets
$
7,635

 
8,566

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Short-term borrowings
$
13

 
187

Accounts payable
657

 
712

Payroll and benefits liabilities
189

 
196

Deferred service revenue and customer deposits
476

 
494

Other current liabilities
446

 
481

Total current liabilities
1,781

 
2,070

Long-term debt
3,239

 
3,431

Pension and indemnity plan liabilities
696

 
705

Postretirement and postemployment benefits liabilities
133

 
170

Income tax accruals
167

 
181

Other liabilities
79

 
111

Total liabilities
6,095

 
6,668

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 11)