10-K 1 adm-20151231x10k.htm 10-K 10-K


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C.  20549
FORM 10-K

x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

Commission file number 1-44
ARCHER-DANIELS-MIDLAND COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
41-0129150
(State or other jurisdiction of
(I. R. S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
Identification No.)
 
 
77 West Wacker Drive, Suite 4600
Chicago, Illinois
60601
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
 
 
312-634-8100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, no par value
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:                 None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes x
No ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ¨  No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes x  No ¨


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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes x  No ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer  x                                                      Accelerated Filer  o
Non-accelerated Filer     o                                                      Smaller Reporting Company  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o  No x

State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

Common Stock, no par value--$28.9 billion
(Based on the closing sale price of Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange
as of June 30, 2015)

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

Common Stock, no par value—593,898,294 shares
(January 29, 2016)

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the proxy statement for the annual meeting of stockholders to be held May 5, 2016, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

SAFE HARBOR STATEMENT

This Form 10-K contains forward-looking information that is subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, expressed, or implied by such forward-looking information.  In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by our use of words such as “may”, “will”, “should”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “expects”, “plans”, “future”, “intends”, “could”, “estimate”, “predict”, “potential” or “contingent”, the negative of these terms or other similar expressions.  The Company’s actual results could differ materially from those discussed or implied herein.  Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.  Among these risks are legislative acts; changes in the prices of food, feed, and other commodities, including gasoline; and macroeconomic conditions in various parts of the world.  To the extent permitted under applicable law, the Company assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements as a result of new information or future events.

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Table of Contents

Item No.
Description
Page No.
 
 
 
 
Part I
 
1.
1A.
1B.
2.
3.
4.
 
 
 
 
Part II
 
5.
6.
7.
  27
7A.
8.
9.
9A.
9B.
 
 
 
 
Part III
 
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
 
 
 
 
Part IV
 
15.
 

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PART I

Item 1.
BUSINESS

Company Overview

Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (the Company) was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, successor to the Daniels Linseed Co. founded in 1902.  The Company is one of the world’s largest processors of oilseeds, corn, wheat, and other agricultural commodities and is a leading manufacturer of protein meal, vegetable oil, corn sweeteners, flour, biodiesel, ethanol, and other value-added food and feed ingredients.  The Company also has an extensive global grain elevator and transportation network to procure, store, clean, and transport agricultural commodities, such as oilseeds, corn, wheat, milo, oats, and barley, as well as processed agricultural commodities.  The Company has significant investments in joint ventures.  The Company expects to benefit from these investments, which typically aim to expand or enhance the Company’s market for its products or offer other benefits including, but not limited to, geographic or product line expansion.

The Company’s vision is to be the most admired global agribusiness while creating value and growing responsibly.  The Company’s strategy involves expanding the volume and diversity of crops that it merchandises and processes, expanding the global reach of its core model, and expanding its value-added product portfolio. The Company desires to execute this vision and these strategies by conducting its business in accordance with its core values of operating with integrity, treating others with respect, achieving excellence, being resourceful, displaying teamwork, and being responsible.

Segment Descriptions
 
The Company’s operations are organized, managed, and classified into four reportable business segments: Agricultural Services, Corn Processing, Oilseeds Processing, and Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients.  Each of these segments is organized based upon the nature of products and services offered.  The Company’s remaining operations are not reportable business segments, as defined by the applicable accounting standard, and are classified as Other.  Financial information with respect to the Company’s reportable business segments is set forth in Note 17 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Item 8 herein, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Effective January 1, 2015, the Company has formed a fourth reportable business segment, Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients. Results of the Wild Flavors businesses (Wild Flavors) and Specialty Commodities, Inc. (SCI), which were acquired during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014, are reported in this segment in addition to results of certain product lines previously reported in the Agricultural Services, Corn Processing, and Oilseeds Processing business segments. Prior period results of the product lines previously reported in the other reportable business segments have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.























4




Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

Agricultural Services

The Agricultural Services segment utilizes its extensive global grain elevator and transportation networks, and port operations to buy, store, clean, and transport agricultural commodities, such as oilseeds, corn, wheat, milo, oats, rice, and barley, and resells these commodities primarily as food and feed ingredients and as raw materials for the agricultural processing industry. The Agricultural Services segment includes international agricultural commodities merchandising and handling activities managed through a global trade desk based in Rolle, Switzerland. Agricultural Services’ grain sourcing, handling, and transportation network provides reliable and efficient services to the Company’s customers and agricultural processing operations. Agricultural Services’ transportation network capabilities include barge, ocean-going vessel, truck, and rail freight services. The Agricultural Services segment also includes the activities related to structured trade finance and the processing of wheat into wheat flour. In May 2015, the Company acquired the remaining interests in North Star Shipping and Minmetal which operate export facilities at the Romanian Port of Constanta on the Black Sea.

The Company has a 32.2% interest in Pacificor (formerly Kalama Export Company LLC). Pacificor owns and operates a grain export elevator in Kalama, WA and a grain export elevator in Portland, OR.

The Company has a 19.8% interest in GrainCorp Limited (GrainCorp), a publicly-listed company on the Australian Stock Exchange. GrainCorp is engaged in grain receival and handling, transportation, port operations, oilseed processing, malt processing, flour processing, and grain marketing activities.

Corn Processing

The Company’s Corn Processing segment is engaged in corn wet milling and dry milling activities, utilizing its asset base primarily located in the central part of the United States with additional facilities in China, Bulgaria, and Turkey. The Corn Processing segment converts corn into sweeteners, starches, and bioproducts. Its products include ingredients used in the food and beverage industry including sweeteners, starch, syrup, glucose, and dextrose. Dextrose and starch are used by the Corn Processing segment as feedstocks for its bioproducts operations. By fermentation of dextrose, the Corn Processing segment produces alcohol, amino acids, and other food and animal feed ingredients. Ethyl alcohol is produced by the Company for industrial use as ethanol or as beverage grade. Ethanol, in gasoline, increases octane and is used as an extender and oxygenate. Bioproducts also include essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine used in swine and poultry diets to optimize performance. Corn gluten feed and meal, as well as distillers’ grains, are produced for use as animal feed ingredients. Corn germ, a by-product of the wet milling process, is further processed into vegetable oil and protein meal. The Corn Processing segment also includes activities related to the processing and distribution of formula feeds and animal health and nutrition products. Other Corn Processing products include citric acids and glycols, all of which are used in various food and industrial products. The Corn Processing segment also includes the activities of the Company’s Brazilian sugarcane ethanol plant and related operations. In May 2015, the Company sold its lactic acid business. In November 2015, the Company completed the purchase of the remaining interest in Eaststarch C.V.

Almidones Mexicanos S.A., in which the Company has a 50% interest, operates a wet corn milling plant in Mexico.

Red Star Yeast Company, LLC produces and sells fresh and dry yeast in the United States and Canada.  The Company has a 40% ownership interest in this joint venture.
















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Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

Oilseeds Processing

The Oilseeds Processing segment includes global activities related to the origination, merchandising, crushing, and further processing of oilseeds such as soybeans and soft seeds (cottonseed, sunflower seed, canola, rapeseed, and flaxseed) into vegetable oils and protein meals. Oilseeds products produced and marketed by the Company include ingredients for the food, feed, energy, and industrial products industries. Crude vegetable oils produced by the segment’s crushing activities are sold “as is” or are further processed by refining, blending, bleaching, and deodorizing into salad oils. Salad oils are sold “as is” or are further processed by hydrogenating and/or interesterifying into margarine, shortening, and other food products. Partially refined oils are used to produce biodiesel or are sold to other manufacturers for use in chemicals, paints, and other industrial products. Oilseed protein meals are principally sold to third parties to be used as ingredients in commercial livestock and poultry feeds. In Europe and South America, the Oilseeds Processing segment includes origination and merchandising activities as adjuncts to its oilseeds processing assets. These activities include a network of grain elevators, port facilities, and transportation assets used to buy, store, clean, and transport grains and oilseeds. The Oilseeds Processing segment is a major supplier of peanuts, tree nuts, and peanut-derived ingredients to both the U.S. and export markets. In North America, cottonseed flour is produced and sold primarily to the pharmaceutical industry and cotton cellulose pulp is manufactured and sold to the chemical, paper, and filter markets. The Oilseeds Processing segment also included activities related to its global chocolate and cocoa businesses until the sale of these businesses in July 2015 and October 2015, respectively. In September 2015, the Company completed the purchase of Belgian oil bottler, AOR N.V.
 
The Company has an equity interest in Wilmar International Limited (Wilmar), a Singapore publicly listed company. During the year, the Company acquired additional shares, increasing its ownership interest from 17.3% to 19.0%. Wilmar, a leading agribusiness group in Asia, is engaged in the businesses of oil palm cultivation, oilseeds crushing, edible oils refining, sugar milling and refining, specialty fats, oleo chemicals, biodiesel and fertilizers manufacturing, and grains processing.

Stratas Foods LLC, a joint venture between the Company and ACH Jupiter, LLC, a subsidiary of Associated British Foods, procures, packages, and sells edible oils in North America.  The Company has a 50% ownership interest in this joint venture.

The Company has a 50% interest in Edible Oils Limited, a joint venture between the Company and Princes Limited to procure, package, and sell edible oils in the United Kingdom.  The Company also formed a joint venture with Princes Limited in Poland to procure, package, and sell edible oils in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Austria.

The Company is a major supplier of agricultural commodity raw materials to Wilmar, Stratas Foods LLC, and Edible Oils Limited.

Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients

The Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients segment engages in the manufacturing, sales, and distribution of specialty products including natural flavor ingredients, flavor systems, natural colors, proteins, emulsifiers, soluble fiber, polyols, hydrocolloids, natural health and nutrition products, and other specialty food and feed ingredients. The Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients segment also includes the activities related to the procurement, processing, and distribution of edible beans. The Company’s Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients segment includes the activities of Wild Flavors and SCI, which were acquired during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014 and Eatem Foods, a leading developer and producer of premium traditional, natural, and organic savory flavor systems, which was acquired in the fourth quarter of 2015.
 















6




Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

Other

Other includes the Company’s remaining operations, primarily its financial business units, related to futures commission and insurance activities.

ADM Investor Services, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, is a registered futures commission merchant and a clearing member of all principal commodities exchanges in the U.S.  ADM Investor Services International, Limited, a member of several commodity exchanges and clearing houses in Europe, ADMIS Hong Kong Limited, and ADMIS Singapore Pte. Limited, are wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company offering broker services in Europe and Asia.

Captive insurance includes Agrinational Insurance Company (Agrinational) and its subsidiaries. Agrinational, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, provides insurance coverage for certain property, casualty, marine, credit, and other miscellaneous risks of the Company. Agrinational also participates in certain third-party reinsurance arrangements and retains a portion of the crop insurance risk written by ADM Crop Risk Services, a wholly owned subsidiary. ADM Crop Risk Services is a managing general agent which sells and services crop insurance policies to farmers.  

Corporate

Compagnie Industrielle et Financiere des Produits Amylaces SA (Luxembourg) and affiliates (CIP), in which the Company has a 43.7% interest, is a joint venture which targets investments in food, feed ingredients, and bioproducts businesses.

Methods of Distribution

The Company’s products are distributed mainly in bulk from processing plants or storage facilities directly to customers’ facilities.  The Company has developed a comprehensive transportation capability to efficiently move both commodities and processed products virtually anywhere in the world.  The Company owns or leases large numbers of the trucks, trailers, railroad tank and hopper cars, river barges, towboats, and ocean-going vessels used to transport the Company’s products to its customers.

Concentration of Revenues by Product

The following products account for 10% or more of revenues for the following periods:

 
% of Revenues
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Soybeans
16%
 
16%
 
18%
Soybean Meal
13%
 
13%
 
11%
Corn
11%
 
10%
 
9%

Status of New Products

The Company continues to expand the size and global reach of its business through the development of new products.  Recent acquisitions especially in the Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients segment expand the Company’s ability to serve the customers’ evolving needs through its offering of natural flavor and ingredient products. The Company does not expect any of its new products to have a significant impact on the Company’s revenues in 2016.

Source and Availability of Raw Materials

Substantially all of the Company’s raw materials are agricultural commodities.  In any single year, the availability and price of these commodities are subject to factors such as changes in weather conditions, plantings, government programs and policies, competition, changes in global demand, changes in standards of living, and global production of similar and competitive crops.  The Company’s raw materials are procured from thousands of growers, grain elevators, and wholesale merchants in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa, pursuant primarily to short-term (less than one year) agreements or on a spot basis.  The Company is not dependent upon any particular grower, elevator, or merchant as a source for its raw materials.

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Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

Patents, Trademarks, and Licenses

The Company owns patents, trademarks, and licenses, including approximately $209 million of trademarks from the Wild Flavors acquisition in 2014, but does not consider any segment of its business dependent upon any single or group of patents, trademarks or licenses.

Seasonality, Working Capital Needs, and Significant Customers

Since the Company is widely diversified in global agribusiness markets, there are no material seasonal fluctuations in overall global processing volumes and the sale and distribution of its products and services.  There is a degree of seasonality in the growing cycles, procurement, and transportation of the Company’s principal raw materials: oilseeds, corn, wheat, sugarcane, and other grains.
 
The prices of agricultural commodities, which may fluctuate significantly and change quickly, directly affect the Company’s working capital requirements.  Because the Company has a higher portion of its operations in the northern hemisphere, principally North America and Europe, relative to the southern hemisphere, primarily South America, inventory levels typically peak after the northern hemisphere fall harvest and are generally lower during the northern hemisphere summer months.  Working capital requirements have historically trended with inventory levels.  No material part of the Company’s business is dependent upon a single customer or very few customers.  The Company has seasonal financing arrangements with farmers in certain countries around the world.  Typically, advances on these financing arrangements occur during the planting season and are repaid at harvest.

Competition

The Company has significant competition in the markets in which it operates based principally on price, foreign exchange rates, quality, global supply, and alternative products, some of which are made from different raw materials than those utilized by the Company.  Given the commodity-based nature of many of its businesses, the Company, on an ongoing basis, focuses on managing unit costs and improving efficiency through technology improvements, productivity enhancements, and regular evaluation of the Company’s asset portfolio.

Research and Development Expenditures

The Company’s research and development expenditures are focused on responding to demand from customers’ product development or formulation needs, improving processing efficiency, and developing food, feed, fuel, and industrial products from renewable agricultural crops.  Research and development expense during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, net of reimbursements of government grants, was approximately $122 million, $79 million, and $59 million, respectively.  The increase in 2014 and 2015 is due principally to research and development activities of the recently acquired Wild Flavors.

Recent acquisitions have significantly increased the Company’s laboratories and technical centers around the world that greatly enhance the Company’s ability to interact with customers in Europe, Asia, and South America, not only to provide flavors, but also to support the sales of other food ingredients. In addition, the acquisition of Wild Flavors approximately doubled the number of scientists and technicians in research and development. A number of these laboratories are being expanded with new capabilities to enhance the Company’s ability to develop custom solutions for our customers.

The Company is working with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and other key academic and corporate partners on projects to demonstrate carbon capture and sequestration as a viable option for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from manufacturing operations. The first project, Illinois Basin Decatur Project, started operations in the first quarter of fiscal year ended June 30, 2012 and successfully completed injecting 1 million tons of CO2 in the fourth quarter of fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. The second project, the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture & Sequestration, commenced construction in the fourth quarter of fiscal year ended June 30, 2012 and was completed in the fourth quarter of fiscal year ended December 31, 2015. This second facility obtained the underground injection control permit in November 2014 and is expected to receive authorization to start injection in the first quarter of fiscal year 2016.





8




Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

The Company is continuing to invest in research to develop a broad range of industrial chemicals with an objective to produce key chemical building blocks that serve as a platform for producing a variety of commodity chemicals.  The key chemical building blocks are derived from the Company’s starch and oilseed-based feedstocks.  Conversion technologies include utilizing expertise in both fermentation and catalysis.  The chemicals pipeline includes the development of chemicals and intermediates that are currently produced from petrochemical resources as well as new-to-the-market bio-based products. The Company’s current portfolio includes products that are in the early development phase and those that are close to pilot plant demonstration. In an effort to further advance the development of bio-based chemical technologies, the Company has partnered with the Center for Environmentally Beneficial Catalysis and has added research capabilities at the University of Kansas.

Environmental Compliance

During the year ended December 31, 2015, $61 million was spent specifically to improve equipment, facilities, and programs for pollution control and compliance with the requirements of various environmental agencies.

There have been no material effects upon the earnings and competitive position of the Company resulting from compliance with applicable laws or regulations enacted or adopted relating to the protection of the environment.

The Company’s business could be affected in the future by national and global regulation or taxation of greenhouse gas emissions. In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted regulations requiring the owners and operators of certain facilities to measure and report their greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. EPA has also begun to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from certain stationary and mobile sources under the Clean Air Act. For example, the U.S. EPA has promulgated rules regarding the construction and operation of boilers, which could indirectly affect the Company by limiting the construction of new coal-fired boilers and significantly increasing the complexity and cost of modifying any existing coal-fired boilers. California is also moving forward with various programs to reduce greenhouse gases. Globally, a number of countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol have instituted or are considering climate change legislation, regulations, and agreements. Most notable is the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading System. The Company has several facilities in Europe that participate in this system. It is difficult at this time to estimate the likelihood of passage, or predict the potential impact, of any additional legislation, regulations or agreements. Potential consequences could include increased energy, transportation, raw material, and administrative costs and may require the Company to make additional investments in its facilities and equipment.

Number of Employees

The number of full-time employees of the Company was approximately 32,300 at December 31, 2015 and 33,900 at December 31, 2014.  The net decrease in the number of full-time employees is primarily related to the sale of the Company’s cocoa and chocolate businesses partially offset by acquisitions.

Financial Information About Foreign and U.S. Operations

Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and Item 2, “Properties,” includes information relating to the Company’s foreign and U.S. operations.  Geographic financial information is set forth in Note 17 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Item 8 herein, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”.

Available Information

The Company’s website is http://www.adm.com.  The Company makes available, free of charge, through its website, the Company’s annual reports on Form 10-K; quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; current reports on Form 8-K; Directors and Officers Forms 3, 4, and 5; and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such materials with, or furnishing them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

In addition, the Company makes available, through its website, the Company’s Code of Conduct, Corporate Governance Guidelines, and the written charters of the Audit, Compensation/Succession, Nominating/Corporate Governance, and Executive Committees.

References to our website address in this report are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, or should not be viewed as, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website.  Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report.

9




Item 1.
BUSINESS (Continued)

The public may read and copy any materials filed by the Company with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549.  The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.  The SEC maintains a website which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file information electronically with the SEC.  The SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS

The Company faces risks in the normal course of business and through global, regional, and local events that could have an adverse impact on its reputation, operations, and financial performance.

Management directs a Company-wide Integrated Risk Management (IRM) program, with oversight from the Company’s Board of Directors. The Company’s Audit Committee has the delegated risk management oversight responsibility and receives updates on the risk management processes and key risk factors on a quarterly basis.

The risk factors that follow are the main risks that the IRM program focuses on to protect and enhance shareholder value through intentional risk mitigation plans based on management-defined risk limits.

The Company, through its business unit, functional, and corporate teams, are continually updating, assessing, monitoring, and mitigating these and other business and compliance risks through the IRM program. 

The availability and prices of the agricultural commodities and agricultural commodity products the Company procures, transports, stores, processes, and merchandises can be affected by weather conditions, disease, government programs, competition, and various other factors beyond the Company’s control and could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The availability and prices of agricultural commodities are subject to wide fluctuations due to changes in weather conditions, crop disease, plantings, government programs and policies, competition, changes in global demand, changes in standards of living, and global production of similar and competitive crops.  Additionally, the Company depends globally on agricultural producers to ensure an adequate supply of the agricultural commodities used by the Company in its operations is maintained. These factors have historically caused volatility in the availability and prices of agricultural commodities and, consequently, in the Company’s operating results and working capital requirements.  Reduced supply of agricultural commodities due to weather-related factors or other reasons could adversely affect the Company’s profitability by increasing the cost of raw materials and/or limiting the Company’s ability to procure, transport, store, process, and merchandise agricultural commodities in an efficient manner.  For example, a drought in North America in 2012 reduced the availability of corn and soybean inventories while prices increased.  High and volatile commodity prices can adversely affect the Company’s ability to meet its liquidity needs. Conversely, if supplies are abundant and crop production globally outpaces demand for more than one or two crop cyles, price volatility is somewhat diminished. This could result in reduced operating results due to the lack of supply chain dislocations and reduced market spread and basis opportunities.


















10




Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS (Continued)

The Company has significant competition in the markets in which it operates.

The Company faces significant competition in each of its businesses and has numerous competitors.  The company competes for the acquisition of inputs such as agricultural commodities, workforce, and other materials and supplies.  Additionally, competitors offer similar products and services, as well as alternative products and services, to the Company’s customers.  The Company is dependent on being able to generate revenues in excess of cost of products sold in order to obtain margins, profits, and cash flows to meet or exceed its targeted financial performance measures and provide cash for operating, working capital, dividend, or capital expenditure needs. Competition impacts the Company’s ability to generate and increase its gross profit as a result of the following factors.  Pricing of the Company’s products is partly dependent upon industry processing capacity, which is impacted by competitor actions to bring on-line idled capacity or to build new production capacity.  Many of the products bought and sold by the Company are global commodities or are derived from global commodities.  The markets for global commodities are highly price competitive and in many cases the commodities are subject to substitution.  Significant changes in exchange rates of foreign currencies versus the U.S. dollar, particularly the currencies of major crop growing countries, could also make goods and products of these countries more competitive than U.S. products, thereby negatively impacting the competitiveness of the Company’s significant origination, processing, and export footprint, and the Company’s operating results. In addition, continued merger and acquisition activities resulting in further consolidations result in greater cost competitiveness and global scale of certain players in the industry that could impact the relative competitiveness of the Company. To compete effectively, the Company focuses on improving efficiency in its production and distribution operations, developing and maintaining appropriate market share, maintaining a high level of product safety and quality, and working with customers to develop new products and tailored solutions.  

Fluctuations in energy prices could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company’s operating costs and the selling prices of certain finished products are sensitive to changes in energy prices.  The Company’s processing plants are powered principally by electricity, natural gas, and coal.  The Company’s transportation operations are dependent upon diesel fuel and other petroleum-based products.  Significant increases in the cost of these items, including any consequences of regulation or taxation of greenhouse gases, could adversely affect the Company’s production costs and operating results.

The Company has certain finished products, such as ethanol and biodiesel, which are closely related to, or may be substituted for, petroleum products, or in the case of ethanol, blended into gasoline to increase octane content. Therefore, the selling prices of ethanol and biodiesel can be impacted by the selling prices of gasoline, diesel fuel, and other octane enhancers.  A significant decrease in the price of gasoline, diesel fuel, or other octane enhancers could result in a significant decrease in the selling price of the Company’s ethanol and biodiesel and could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.

The Company is subject to economic downturns and regional economic volatilities, which could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company conducts its business and has substantial assets located in many countries and geographic areas. While 54 percent of the Company’s processing plants and 70 percent of its procurement facilities are located in the United States, the Company also has significant operations in both developed areas (such as Western Europe, Canada, Brazil) and emerging market areas (such as Eastern Europe, Asia, portions of South and Central America, the Middle East, and Africa). One of the Company’s strategies is to expand the global reach of its core model which may include expanding or developing its business in emerging market areas such as Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Both developed and emerging market areas are subject to impacts of economic downturns, including decreased demand for the Company’s products, and reduced availability of credit, or declining credit quality of the Company’s suppliers, customers, and other counterparties. In addition, emerging market areas could be subject to more volatile operating conditions including, but not limited to, logistics limitations or delays, labor-related challenges, limitations or regulations affecting trade flows (such as concerning genetically modified organisms), local currency concerns, and other economic and political instability.  Political fiscal instability could generate intrusive regulations in emerging markets potentially creating unanticipated assessments of taxes, fees, etc. Economic downturns and volatile market conditions could adversely affect the Company’s operating results and ability to execute its long-term business strategies, thus reducing the Company’s overall market value.





11




Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS (Continued)

Government policies, mandates, and regulations specifically affecting the agricultural sector and related industries; regulatory policies or matters that affect a variety of businesses; and political instability could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

Agricultural production and trade flows are subject to government policies, mandates, and regulations. Governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry, such as taxes, tariffs, duties, subsidies, incentives, foreign exchange rates, and import and export restrictions on agricultural commodities and commodity products, including policies related to genetically modified organisms, product safety and labeling, renewable fuels, and low carbon fuel mandates, can influence the planting of certain crops, the location and size of crop production, whether unprocessed or processed commodity products are traded, the volume and types of imports and exports, the availability and competitiveness of feedstocks as raw materials, the viability and volume of production of certain of the Company’s products, and industry profitability.  For example, changes in government policies or regulations of ethanol and biodiesel, including but not limited to changes in the Renewable Fuel Standard program under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 in the United States, can have an impact on the Company’s operating results.  International trade regulations can adversely affect agricultural commodity trade flows by limiting or disrupting trade between countries or regions. Regulations of financial markets and instruments, including the Dodd-Frank Act, Consumer Protection Act, and the European Market Infrastructure Regulation, create uncertainty and may lead to additional risks and costs, and could adversely affect the Company’s agricultural commodity risk management practices as well as the Company’s futures commission merchant business. Future government policies may adversely affect the supply of, demand for, and prices of the Company’s products; restrict the Company’s ability to do business in its existing and target markets; and adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.

The Company’s operating results could be affected by changes in other governmental policies, mandates, and regulations including monetary, fiscal and environmental policies, laws, regulations, acquisition approvals, and other activities of governments, agencies, and similar organizations.  These risks include but are not limited to changes in a country’s or region’s economic or political conditions, local labor conditions and regulations, reduced protection of intellectual property rights, changes in the regulatory or legal environment, restrictions on currency exchange activities, currency exchange fluctuations, burdensome taxes and tariffs, enforceability of legal agreements and judgments, adverse tax, administrative agency or judicial outcomes, and regulation or taxation of greenhouse gases.  International risks and uncertainties, including changing social and economic conditions as well as terrorism, political hostilities, and war, could limit the Company’s ability to transact business in these markets and could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.

The Company’s strategy involves expanding the volume and diversity of crops it merchandises and processes, expanding the global reach of its core model, and expanding its value-added product portfolio. Government policies, including anti-trust and competition law, trade restrictions, food safety regulations, and other government regulations and mandates, can impact the Company’s ability to execute this strategy successfully.

The Company is subject to industry-specific risks which could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company is subject to risks which include, but are not limited to, product safety or quality; shifting consumer preferences; federal, state, and local regulations on manufacturing or labeling; socially acceptable farming practices; environmental, health and safety regulations; and customer product liability claims.  The liability which could result from certain of these risks may not always be covered by, or could exceed liability insurance related to product liability and food safety matters maintained by the Company.  In addition, negative publicity caused by product liability and food safety matters may damage the Company’s reputation.  The occurrence of any of the matters described above could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.

Certain of the Company’s merchandised commodities and finished products are used as ingredients in livestock and poultry feed.  The Company is subject to risks associated with economic or other factors which may adversely affect the livestock and poultry businesses, including the outbreak of disease in livestock and poultry.  An outbreak of disease could adversely affect demand for the Company’s products used as ingredients in livestock and poultry feed.  A decrease in demand for ingredients in livestock and poultry feed could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.







12




Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS (Continued)

The Company is subject to numerous laws, regulations, and mandates globally which could adversely affect the Company’s operating results and forward strategy.

The Company does business globally, connecting crops and markets in 165 countries.  The Company is required to comply with the numerous and broad-reaching laws and regulations administered by United States federal, state and local, and foreign governmental authorities.  The Company must comply with other general business regulations such as accounting and income taxes, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, global trade, trade sanctions, environmental, and handling and production of regulated substances.  The Company frequently faces challenges from U.S. and foreign tax authorities regarding the amount of taxes due.  These challenges include questions regarding the timing and amount of deductions and the allocation of income among various tax jurisdictions.  In evaluating the exposure associated with various tax filing positions, the Company records reserves for estimates of potential additional tax owed by the Company.  As examples, the Company has received large tax assessments from tax authorities in Brazil and Argentina, challenging income tax positions taken by subsidiaries of the Company covering various prior periods.  Any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations or appropriately resolve these challenges could subject the Company to administrative, civil, and criminal remedies including fines, penalties, disgorgement, injunctions, and recalls of its products, and damage to its reputation.

The production of the Company’s products requires the use of materials which can create emissions of certain regulated substances, including greenhouse gas emissions.  Although the Company has programs in place throughout the organization globally to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, failure to comply with these laws and regulations can have serious consequences, including civil, administrative, and criminal penalties as well as a negative impact on the Company’s reputation, business, cash flows, and results of operations.

In addition, changes to regulations or implementation of additional regulations, for example the imposition of regulatory restrictions on greenhouse gases or regulatory modernization of food safety laws, may require the Company to modify existing processing facilities and/or processes which could significantly increase operating costs and adversely affect operating results.

The Company is exposed to potential business disruption, including but not limited to disruption of transportation services, supply of non-commodity raw materials used in its processing operations, and other impacts resulting from acts of terrorism or war, natural disasters, severe weather conditions, and accidents which could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company’s operations rely on dependable and efficient transportation services.  A disruption in transportation services could result in difficulties supplying materials to the Company’s facilities and impair the Company’s ability to deliver products to its customers in a timely manner.  The Company relies on access to navigable rivers and waterways in order to fulfill its transportation obligations more effectively.  If access to these navigable waters is interrupted, the Company’s operating results could be adversely affected.  In addition, if certain non-agricultural commodity raw materials, such as water or certain chemicals used in the Company’s processing operations, are not available, the Company’s business could be disrupted.  Any major lack of available water for use in certain of the Company’s processing operations could have a material adverse impact on operating results.  Certain factors which may impact the availability of non-agricultural commodity raw materials are out of the Company’s control including, but not limited to, disruptions resulting from weather, economic conditions, manufacturing delays or disruptions at suppliers, shortage of materials, interruption of energy supply, and unavailable or poor supplier credit conditions.

The assets and operations of the Company could be subject to extensive property damage and business disruption from various events which include, but are not limited to, acts of terrorism, for example, economic adulteration of the Company’s products, or war, natural disasters and severe weather conditions, accidents, explosions, and fires. The potential effects of these conditions could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and operating results.











13




Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS (Continued)

The Company’s business is capital-intensive in nature and the Company relies on cash generated from its operations and external financing to fund its growth and ongoing capital needs.  Limitations on access to external financing could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company requires significant capital, including access to credit markets from time to time, to operate its current business and fund its growth strategy.  The Company’s working capital requirements, including margin requirements on open positions on futures exchanges, are directly affected by the price of agricultural commodities, which may fluctuate significantly and change quickly.  The Company also requires substantial capital to maintain and upgrade its extensive network of storage facilities, processing plants, refineries, mills, ports, transportation assets and other facilities to keep pace with competitive developments, technological advances, regulations and changing safety standards in the industry.  Moreover, the expansion of the Company’s business and pursuit of acquisitions or other business opportunities may require significant amounts of capital.  Access to credit markets and pricing of the Company’s capital is dependent upon maintaining sufficient credit ratings from credit rating agencies.  Sufficient credit ratings allow the Company to access tier one commercial paper markets. If the Company is unable to maintain sufficiently high credit ratings, access to these commercial paper and other debt markets and costs of borrowings could be adversely affected.  If the Company is unable to generate sufficient cash flow or maintain access to adequate external financing, including as a result of significant disruptions in the global credit markets, it could restrict the Company’s current operations and its growth opportunities which could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.

The Company’s risk management strategies may not be effective.
 
The Company’s business is affected by fluctuations in agricultural commodity cash prices and derivative prices, transportation costs, energy prices, interest rates, and foreign currency exchange rates.  The Company monitors position limits and engages in other strategies and controls to manage these risks.  The Company’s monitoring efforts may not be successful at detecting a significant risk exposure.  If these controls and strategies are not successful in mitigating the Company’s exposure to these fluctuations, it could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.
 
The Company has limited control over and may not realize the expected benefits of its equity investments and joint ventures.
 
The Company has $3.9 billion invested in or advanced to joint ventures and investments over which the Company has limited control as to the governance and management activities of these investments.  Net sales to unconsolidated affiliates during the year ended December 31, 2015 was $5.0 billion.  The Company faces certain risks, including risks related to the financial strength of the investment partner; loss of revenues and cash flows to the investment partner and related gross profit; the inability to implement beneficial management strategies, including risk management and compliance monitoring, with respect to the investment’s activities; and the risk that the Company may not be able to resolve disputes with the investment partner.  The Company may encounter unanticipated operating issues or financial results related to these investments that may impact the Company’s revenues and operating results.

The Company’s information technology (IT) systems, processes, and sites may suffer interruptions, security breaches, or failures which may affect the Company’s ability to conduct its business.
 
The Company’s operations rely on certain key IT systems, some of which are dependent on services provided by third parties, to provide critical data connectivity, information and services for internal and external users.  These interactions include, but are not limited to, ordering and managing materials from suppliers, risk management activities, converting raw materials to finished products, inventory management, shipping products to customers, processing transactions, summarizing and reporting results of operations, human resources benefits and payroll management, complying with regulatory, legal or tax requirements, and other processes necessary to manage the business.  Increased IT security threats and more sophisticated computer crime, including advanced persistent threats, pose a potential risk to the security of the Company’s IT systems, networks, and services, as well as the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of the Company’s third party data. The Company has put in place security measures to protect itself against cyber-based attacks and disaster recovery plans for its critical systems.  However, if the Company’s IT systems are breached, damaged, or cease to function properly due to any number of causes, such as catastrophic events, power outages, security breaches, or cyber-based attacks, and the Company’s disaster recovery plans do not effectively mitigate the risks on a timely basis, the Company may suffer interruptions in its ability to manage its operations, loss of valuable data, and damage to its reputation, which may adversely impact the Company’s revenues, operating results, and financial condition.


14



Item 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

The Company has no unresolved staff comments.

Item 2.
PROPERTIES

The Company owns or leases, under operating leases, the following processing plants and procurement facilities:

 
Processing Plants
 
Procurement Facilities
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Total
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Total
U.S.
145

 
6

 
151

 
274

 
26

 
300

International
117

 
12

 
129

 
106

 
23

 
129

 
262

 
18

 
280

 
380

 
49

 
429


The Company’s operations are such that most products are efficiently processed near the source of raw materials.  Consequently, the Company has many plants strategically located in agricultural commodity producing areas.  The annual volume of commodities processed will vary depending upon availability of raw materials and demand for finished products. The Company also owns approximately 290 warehouses and terminals primarily used as bulk storage facilities and 39 innovation centers. Warehouses, terminals, corporate, and sales offices are not included in the tables above. Processing plants and procurement facilities owned or leased by unconsolidated joint ventures are also not included in the tables above.

To enhance the efficiency of transporting large quantities of raw materials and finished products between the Company’s procurement facilities and processing plants and also the final delivery of products to our customers around the world, the Company owns approximately 2,000 barges, 13,400 rail cars, 200 trucks, 1,300 trailers, and 10 oceangoing vessels; and leases, under operating leases, approximately 500 barges, 14,800 rail cars, 400 trucks, 110 trailers and 21 oceangoing vessels.








 

15




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Agricultural Services Processing Plants
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Merchandising
& Handling
 
Milling &
Other
 
Total
 
Milling &
Other
North America
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.*
2

 
32

 
34

 

Barbados

 
1

 
1

 

Belize

 
1

 
1

 

Canada

 
10

 
10

 

Grenada

 
2

 
2

 

Jamaica

 
3

 
3

 

Total
2

 
49

 
51

 

Daily capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
2

 
26

 
28

 

Europe
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

U.K.

 
3

 
3

 
4

Total

 
3

 
3

 
4

Daily capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 
1

 
1

 
1

Grand Total
2

 
52

 
54

 
4

Total daily capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
2

 
27

 
29

 
1


*The U.S. plants are located in California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.



16




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Agricultural Services Procurement Facilities
 
Merchandising & Handling
 
Owned
 
Leased
North America
 
 
 
U.S.*
170

 
22

Canada
1

 

Dominican Republic
1

 

Mexico
4

 

Total
176

 
22

Storage capacity
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
12,811

 
858

South America
 

 
 

Argentina
3

 

Total
3

 

Storage capacity
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
477

 

Europe
 

 
 

Hungary
2

 

Ireland
2

 

Romania
11

 
3

Ukraine
7

 

Total
22

 
3

Storage capacity
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
750

 
25

Grand Total
201

 
25

Total storage capacity
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
14,038

 
883

 
*The U.S. procurement facilities are located in Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin.

17




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Corn Processing
 
 
Processing Plants
 
Procurement
Facilities
 
Owned
 
Owned
Leased
 
Wet Milling
 
Dry Milling
 
Other
 
Total
 
Wet Milling,
Dry Milling,
& Other
North America
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.*
5

 
3

 
27

 
35

 
6

1

Canada

 

 
3

 
3

 


Puerto Rico

 

 
3

 
3

 


Trinidad & Tobago

 

 
1

 
1

 


Total
5

 
3

 
34

 
42

 
6

1

Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
43

 
22

 
8

 
73

 
352


South America
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Brazil

 

 
1

 
1

 


Total

 

 
1

 
1

 


Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 

 

 

 


Europe
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Bulgaria
1

 

 

 
1

 


Turkey
1

 

 

 
1

 


Total
2

 

 

 
2

 


Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
2

 

 

 
2

 


Asia
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
China

 

 
3

 
3

 


Total

 

 
3

 
3

 


Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 

 
1

 
1

 


Grand Total
7

 
3

 
38

 
48

 
6

1

Total daily/storage capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
45

 
22

 
9

 
76

 
352



*The U.S. processing plants are located in Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington.

* The U.S. procurement facilities are located in Idaho, Iowa, and Minnesota.


18




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Oilseeds Processing Plants
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Crushing &
Origination
 
Refining,
Packaging,
Biodiesel, &
Other
 
Cocoa &
Other
 
Asia
 
Total
 
Asia
North America
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.*
24

 
16

 
14

 

 
54

 

Canada
3

 
3

 
1

 

 
7

 

Mexico
1

 

 

 

 
1

 

Total
28

 
19

 
15

 

 
62

 

Daily capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
58

 
16

 
3

 

 
77

 

South America
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Argentina

 

 
1

 

 
1

 

Bolivia
1

 
2

 

 

 
3

 

Brazil
6

 
9

 

 

 
15

 

Paraguay
1

 

 

 

 
1

 

Peru

 
1

 

 

 
1

 

Total
8

 
12

 
1

 

 
21

 

Daily capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
18

 
5

 

 

 
23

 

Europe
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Belgium

 
2

 

 

 
2

 

Czech Republic
1

 
1

 

 

 
2

 

France

 
1

 

 

 
1

 

Germany
4

 
9

 

 

 
13

 

Netherlands
1

 
1

 

 

 
2

 

Poland
2

 
4

 

 

 
6

 

Switzerland

 
1

 

 

 
1

 

Ukraine
1

 

 

 

 
1

 

U.K.
1

 
3

 

 

 
4

 

Total
10

 
22

 

 

 
32

 

Daily capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
34

 
17

 

 

 
51

 

Asia
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

India

 

 

 
2

 
2

 
3

Total

 

 

 
2

 
2

 
3

Daily capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 

 

 
1

 
1

 
1

Africa
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

South Africa

 

 
4

 

 
4

 

Total

 

 
4

 

 
4

 

Daily capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 

 
2

 

 
2

 

Grand Total
46

 
53

 
20

 
2

 
121

 
3

Total daily capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
110

 
38

 
5

 
1

 
154

 
1


*The U.S. plants in the table above are located in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas.

19




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Oilseeds Processing Procurement Facilities
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Crushing &
Origination
 
Cocoa &
Other
 
Total
 
Crushing &
Origination
 
Cocoa &
Other
 
Total
North America
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.*
9

 
70

 
79

 
3

 

 
3

Canada
6

 

 
6

 
1

 

 
1

Total
15

 
70

 
85

 
4

 

 
4

Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
310

 
300

 
610

 

 

 

South America
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Argentina

 
1

 
1

 

 
1

 
1

Bolivia
5

 

 
5

 

 

 

Brazil
33

 

 
33

 
2

 

 
2

Colombia
2

 

 
2

 
3

 

 
3

Chile

 

 

 
2

 

 
2

Paraguay
14

 

 
14

 
4

 

 
4

Uruguay
1

 

 
1

 
6

 

 
6

Total
55

 
1

 
56

 
17

 
1

 
18

Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
1,957

 
6

 
1,963

 
364

 

 
364

Europe
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Netherlands
1

 

 
1

 

 

 

Germany
5

 

 
5

 

 

 

Poland
5

 

 
5

 
1

 

 
1

Slovakia
2

 

 
2

 

 

 

Total
13

 

 
13

 
1

 

 
1

Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
800

 

 
800

 
75

 

 
75

Grand Total
83

 
71

 
154

 
22

 
1

 
23

Total storage capacity
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
3,067

 
306

 
3,373

 
439

 

 
439

 
*The U.S. procurement facilities are located in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Idaho, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, and Virginia.

 


 


20




Item 2.
PROPERTIES (Continued)

 
Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients
 
Processing Plants
 
Procurement Facilities
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Owned
North America
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.*
22

 
6

 
19

Canada
3

 

 

Total
25

 
6

 
19

Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
2

 

 
270

South America
 
 
 
 
 
Brazil
1

 

 

Total
1

 

 

Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)

 

 

Europe
 
 
 
 
 
France
1

 

 

Germany
4

 
1

 

Netherlands
2

 
1

 

Poland
2

 

 

Spain
1

 

 

Switzerland
1

 

 

Turkey

 
1

 

Total
11

 
3

 

Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
2

 
1

 

Asia
 
 
 
 
 
China
1

 

 

India

 
1

 

Japan
1

 
1

 

Total
2

 
2

 

Daily/Storage capacity
 
 
 
 
 
Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
1

 
1

 

Grand Total
39

 
11

 
19

Total storage capacity
 

 
 

 
 

Metric tons (in 1,000’s)
5

 
2

 
270


*The U.S. processing plants are located in California, Illinois, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, and Washington.

*The U.S. procurement facilities are located in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wyoming.


21


Item 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The Company is routinely involved in a number of actual or threatened legal actions, including those involving alleged personal injuries, employment law, product liability, intellectual property, environmental issues, alleged tax liability (see Note 13 in Item 8 for information on income tax matters), and class actions. The Company also routinely receives inquiries from regulators and other government authorities relating to various aspects of our business, and at any given time, the Company has matters at various stages of resolution with the applicable government authorities. The outcomes of these matters are not within our complete control and may not be known for prolonged periods of time. In some actions, claimants seek damages, as well as other relief, including injunctive relief, that could require significant expenditures or result in lost revenues. In accordance with applicable accounting standards, the Company records a liability in its consolidated financial statements for material loss contingencies when a loss is known or considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. If the reasonable estimate of a known or probable loss is a range, and no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other, the minimum amount of the range is accrued. If a material loss contingency is reasonably possible but not known or probable, and can be reasonably estimated, the estimated loss or range of loss is disclosed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. When determining the estimated loss or range of loss, significant judgment is required to estimate the amount and timing of a loss to be recorded. Estimates of probable losses resulting from litigation and governmental proceedings involving the Company are inherently difficult to predict, particularly when the matters are in early procedural stages, with incomplete facts or legal discovery; involve unsubstantiated or indeterminate claims for damages; potentially involve penalties, fines, disgorgement, or punitive damages; or could result in a change in business practice. See Note 21 of Item 8 for information on the Company’s legal proceedings.
  
Item 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None.

22



PART II

Item 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Common Stock Market Prices and Dividends

The Company’s common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low market prices of the common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange and common stock cash dividends declared per share.

 
 
 
 
 
Cash
 
Market Price
 
Dividends
 
High
 
Low
 
Per Share
Fiscal Year 2015-Quarter Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 31
$
47.03

 
$
33.84

 
$
0.28

September 30
49.50

 
40.66

 
0.28

June 30
53.31

 
47.23

 
0.28

March 31
52.60

 
45.15

 
0.28

Fiscal Year 2014-Quarter Ended
 

 
 

 
 

December 31
$
53.91

 
$
41.63

 
$
0.24

September 30
52.36

 
44.15

 
0.24

June 30
45.40

 
41.72

 
0.24

March 31
43.60

 
37.92

 
0.24


The number of registered shareholders of the Company’s common stock at December 31, 2015, was 10,742.

The Company expects to continue its policy of paying regular cash dividends, although there is no assurance as to future dividends because they are dependent on future earnings, capital requirements, and financial condition.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Period
 
Total Number
of Shares Purchased (1)
 
Average
Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly Announced Program (2)
 
Number of Shares
Remaining to be
Purchased Under the Program (2)
October 1, 2015 to
October 31, 2015
 
4,425,887

 
$
43.981

 
4,424,031

 
58,110,350

November 1, 2015 to
November 30, 2015
 
1,440,991

 
39.764

 
1,440,991

 
56,669,359

December 1, 2015 to
December 31, 2015
 
436

 
38.518

 
436

 
56,668,923

Total
 
5,867,314

 
$
42.945

 
5,865,458

 
56,668,923


(1)  Total shares purchased represent those shares purchased in the open market as part of the Company’s publicly announced share repurchase program described below, shares received as payment for the exercise price of stock option exercises, and shares received as payment for the withholding taxes on vested restricted stock awards. During the three-month period ended December 31, 2015, there were 1,856 shares received as payment for the minimum withholding taxes on vested restricted stock awards. During the three-month period ended December 31, 2015, there were no shares received as payment for the exercise price of stock option exercises.  
 
(2) On November 5, 2014, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to 100,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock during the period commencing January 1, 2015 and ending December 31, 2019.

23



Item 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (Continued)

Performance Graph

The graph below compares the Company’s common stock with those of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Consumer Staples Index.  The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on June 30, 2010 and assumes all dividends have been reinvested through December 31, 2015.



COMPARISON OF 66 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Consumer Staples


Copyright© 2013 S&P, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All rights reserved.

24




Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Selected Financial Data
(In millions, except ratio and per share data)

 
Years Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
Fiscal Years Ended
 
December 31
 
December 31
 
June 30
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
67,702

 
$
81,201

 
$
89,804

 
$
46,729

 
$
45,208

 
$
89,038

 
$
80,676

Depreciation
799

 
850

 
827

 
396

 
391

 
793

 
827

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests
1,849

 
2,248

 
1,342

 
692

 
540

 
1,223

 
2,036

Basic earnings per common share
2.99

 
3.44

 
2.03

 
1.05

 
0.81

 
1.84

 
3.17

Diluted earnings per common share
2.98

 
3.43

 
2.02

 
1.05

 
0.81

 
1.84

 
3.13

Cash dividends
687

 
624

 
501

 
230

 
224

 
455

 
395

Per common share
1.12

 
0.96

 
0.76

 
0.35

 
0.335

 
0.685

 
0.62

Working capital
$
8,324

 
$
10,426

 
$
12,872

 
$
12,769

 
$
12,395

 
$
12,328

 
$
14,286

Current ratio
1.6

 
1.7

 
1.8

 
1.8

 
1.8

 
1.8

 
2.1

Inventories
8,243

 
9,374

 
11,441

 
13,836

 
12,415

 
12,192

 
12,055

Net property, plant, and equipment
9,853

 
9,851

 
10,069

 
10,097

 
9,601

 
9,787

 
9,500

Gross additions to property, plant, and equipment
1,350

 
1,357

 
947

 
641

 
1,058

 
1,719

 
1,512

Total assets
40,157

 
43,997

 
43,720

 
45,100

 
41,661

 
41,734

 
42,310

Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
5,779

 
5,528

 
5,315

 
6,420

 
6,722

 
6,498

 
8,224

Shareholders’ equity
17,915

 
19,630

 
20,194

 
19,131

 
18,165

 
18,169

 
18,838

Per common share
30.11

 
30.82

 
30.64

 
29.03

 
27.44

 
27.57

 
27.87

Weighted average shares outstanding-basic
618

 
653

 
661

 
660

 
669

 
665

 
642

Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted
621

 
656

 
663

 
661

 
670

 
666

 
654


Prior periods have been restated for the adoption of the amended guidance of Accounting Standards Codification Subtopic 835-30, Interest - Imputation of Interest, and the reclassification of capitalized software costs from net property, plant, and equipment to goodwill and other intangible assets (see Note 1 in Item 8 for more information).

Significant items affecting the comparability of the financial data shown above are as follows:

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2015 include gains totaling $530 million ($515 million after tax, equal to $0.83 per share) related primarily to the sale of the cocoa, chocolate, and lactic businesses, revaluation of the Company’s previously held investments in North Star Shipping, Minmetal, and Eaststarch C.V. in conjunction with the acquisition of the remaining interests, and the sale of a 50% interest in the Barcarena export terminal facility in Brazil to Glencore plc as discussed in Note 12 in Item 8; long-lived asset impairment charges of $129 million ($109 million after tax, equal to $0.18 per share) related primarily to certain international Oilseeds Processing facilities, sugar ethanol facilities in Brazil, and goodwill, intangible, and property, plant, and equipment asset impairments as discussed in Note 19 in Item 8; restructuring and exit charges of $71 million ($63 million after tax, equal to $0.10 per share) related to an international pension plan settlement, sugar ethanol facilities in Brazil, and other restructuring charges as discussed in Note 19 in Item 8; loss provisions, settlements, and inventory writedown of $67 million ($58 million after tax, equal to $0.09 per share); release of a valuation allowance on certain deferred tax assets of $66 million (equal to $0.11 per share); and loss on debt extinguishment of $189 million ($118 million after tax, equal to $0.19 per share) related to the cash tender offers and redemption of certain of the Company’s outstanding debentures as discussed in Note 12 in Item 8.



25




Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2014 include a gain on sale of assets related to the sale of the fertilizer business and other asset of $135 million ($89 million after tax, equal to $0.14 per share); gain of $156 million ($97 million after tax, equal to $0.15 per share) upon the Company’s effective dilution in the Pacificor (formerly Kalama Export Company) joint venture resulting from the contribution of additional assets by another member in exchange for new equity units; and loss of $102 million ($63 million after tax, equal to $0.10 per share) on Euro foreign currency derivative contracts entered into to economically hedge the Wild Flavors acquisition, as discussed in Note 12 in Item 8; asset impairment charges related to certain fixed assets of $41 million ($26 million after tax, equal to $0.04 per share) and $64 million ($41 million after tax, equal to $0.06 per share) of costs related to the relocation of the global headquarters to Chicago, Illinois, and restructuring charges related to the Wild Flavors acquisition and Toepfer integration following the acquisition of the minority interest and other restructuring charges, as discussed in Note 19 in Item 8; and a charge of $98 million ($61 million after tax, equal to $0.09 per share) related to pension settlements.

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2013 include other-than-temporary impairment charges of $155 million ($155 million after tax, equal to $0.23 per share) on the Company’s GrainCorp investment; asset impairment charges of $51 million ($51 million after tax, equal to $0.08 per share) related to the Company’s Brazilian sugar milling business; and other impairment charges principally for certain property, plant and equipment assets totaling $53 million ($34 million after tax, equal to $0.05 per share) as discussed in Note 19 in Item 8; realized losses on Australian dollar currency hedges of $40 million ($25 million after tax, equal to $0.04 per share) related to the proposed GrainCorp acquisition; valuation allowance on certain deferred tax assets of $82 million (equal to $0.12 per share); income tax benefit recognized in the current period of $55 million (equal to $0.08 per share) related to biodiesel blending credits earned in the prior periods; charges of $54 million ($37 million after tax, equal to $0.06 per share) related to the FCPA matter; and other charges of $18 million ($12 million after tax, equal to $0.02 per share).

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the six months ended December 31, 2012 include an asset impairment charge of $146 million ($107 million after tax, equal to $0.16 per share) related to the Company’s investments associated with Gruma; a gain of $62 million ($49 million after tax, equal to $0.07 per share) related to the Company’s interest in GrainCorp; a gain of $39 million ($24 million after tax, equal to $0.04 per share) related to the sale of certain of the Company’s exchange membership interests; and charges of $68 million ($44 million after tax, equal to $0.07 per share) related to pension settlements.

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the six months ended December 31, 2011 include exit costs and asset impairment charges of $352 million ($222 million after tax, equal to $0.33 per share) related primarily to the writedown of the Company’s Clinton, IA bioplastics facility.

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the year ended June 30, 2012 include exit costs and asset impairment charges of $437 million ($274 million after tax, equal to $0.41 per share) related primarily to the bioplastics facility and global workforce reduction program.
 
Net earnings attributable to controlling interests for the year ended June 30, 2011 include a gain of $71 million ($44 million after tax, equal to $0.07 per share) related to the acquisition of the remaining interest in Golden Peanut; start up costs for the Company’s significant new greenfield plants of $94 million ($59 million after tax, equal to $0.09 per share); charges on early extinguishment of debt of $15 million ($9 million after tax, equal to $0.01 per share); gains on interest rate swaps of $30 million ($19 million after tax, equal to $0.03 per share); and a gain of $78 million ($49 million after tax, equal to $0.07 per share) related to the sale of bank securities held by the Company’s equity investee, Gruma.  During the second quarter of fiscal year 2011, the Company updated its estimates for service lives of certain of its machinery and equipment assets.  The effect of this change in accounting estimate on pre-tax earnings for the year ended June 30, 2011 was an increase of $133 million ($83 million after tax, equal to $0.13 per share).  Basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding for 2011 include 44 million shares issued on June 1, 2011 related to the Equity Unit conversion.  Diluted weighted average shares outstanding for 2011 include 44 million shares assumed issued on January 1, 2011 as required using the “if-converted” method of calculating diluted earnings per share for the quarter ended March 31, 2011. 


26



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Company Overview

This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

The Company is principally engaged in procuring, transporting, storing, processing, and merchandising agricultural commodities and products.  The Company uses its significant global asset base to originate and transport agricultural commodities, connecting to markets in 165 countries.  The Company also processes corn, oilseeds, and wheat into products for food, animal feed, chemical and energy uses.  The Company uses its global asset network, business acumen, and its relationships with suppliers and customers to efficiently connect the harvest to the home thereby generating returns for our shareholders, principally from margins earned on these activities.

The Company’s operations are organized, managed, and classified into four reportable business segments: Agricultural Services, Corn Processing, Oilseeds Processing, and Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients.  Each of these segments is organized based upon the nature of products and services offered.  The Company’s remaining operations are not reportable business segments, as defined by the applicable accounting standard, and are classified as Other. See Note 17 of Item 8 for more information about the Company’s business segments.

Effective January 1, 2015, the Company has formed a fourth reportable business segment, Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients. Results of Wild Flavors and SCI, which were acquired during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014, are reported in this segment in addition to results of certain product lines previously reported in the Agricultural Services, Corn Processing, and Oilseeds Processing business segments. Prior period results of the product lines previously reported in the other reportable business segments have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.

The Company’s recent significant portfolio actions and announcements include:

the construction of a new feed pre-mix plant in the city of Zhangzhou, China and a new feed plant in Glencoe, Minnesota;
the expansion of export facilities in Puerto San Martin, in the Argentine State of Sante Fe;
the construction of a soy protein production complex in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil;
the purchase in May 2015 of the remaining ownership interest in North Star Shipping and Minmetal which operate export facilities at the Romanian Port of Constanta on the Black Sea;
the sale in June 2015 of a 50% stake in its export terminal in Barcarena, in the northern Brazilian state of Pará;
the sale on July 31, 2015 of its global chocolate business to Cargill, Inc.;
the purchase in September 2015 of AOR N.V.;
the purchase on October 16, 2015 of Eatem Foods Company;
the sale on October 16, 2015 of its global cocoa business to Olam International Limited;
the purchase on November 2, 2015 of the remaining interest in Eaststarch C.V.;
the opening in November 2015 of a new feed-premix plant in Nanjing, China and a soluble dietary fiber plant in Tianjin, China;
the pending expansion of Olenex, a joint venture with Wilmar for the sale and marketing of refined vegetable oils and fats in Europe;
the pending purchase of a 50% interest in Cairo-based Medsofts Group, a joint venture that will own and manage merchandising and supply chain operations;
the pending purchase of a controlling stake in Harvest Innovations, an industry leader in minimally processed, expeller-pressed soy proteins, oils, and gluten-free ingredients; and
the pending acquisition from Tate & Lyle of a Casablanca, Morocco-based corn wet mill that produces glucose and native starch.

The construction of the new feed plant facilities in China and Minnesota and the soy protein facility in Brazil, and the expansion of the export facilities in Argentina, are expected to be completed in 2016.

The pending transactions are expected to close in 2016, subject to regulatory approvals.




27



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

As part of the evolution of the Company’s strategic plan, the Company is currently undertaking a fresh look at the capital intensity of its operations and portfolio, seeking innovative ways to reduce and redeploy capital in its efforts to drive long-term returns, including a strategic review of its U.S. corn dry mills and options for its Brazilian sugarcane ethanol business. Based on the uncertain outlook of the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol business at year-end, the Company continues to evaluate all options but doesn’t expect to operate the plant after this year’s seasonal shutdown. The financial impacts arising from these portfolio actions are described on pages 31 and 33 and in the relevant notes in Item 8.

Operating Performance Indicators

The Company’s agricultural services and oilseeds processing operations are principally agricultural commodity-based businesses where changes in selling prices move in relationship to changes in prices of the commodity-based agricultural raw materials. Therefore, changes in agricultural commodity prices have relatively equal impacts on both revenues and cost of products sold. Thus, changes in revenues of these businesses do not necessarily correspond to the changes in margins or gross profit.

The Company’s corn processing operations and Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients businesses also utilize agricultural commodities (or products derived from agricultural commodities) as raw materials. However, in these operations, agricultural commodity market price changes do not necessarily equal changes in cost of products sold. Thus, changes in revenues of these businesses may correspond to changes in margins or gross profit.

The Company has consolidated subsidiaries in 82 countries.  For the majority of the Company’s subsidiaries located outside the United States, the local currency is the functional currency. Revenues and expenses denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at the weighted average exchange rates for the applicable periods. For the majority of the Company’s business activities in Brazil, the functional currency is the U.S. dollar; however, certain transactions, including taxes, occur in local currency and require conversion to the functional currency. Changes in revenues are expected to be correlated to changes in expenses reported by the Company caused by fluctuations in the exchange rates of foreign currencies, primarily the Euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, and Brazilian real, as compared to the U.S. dollar.

The Company measures its performance using key financial metrics including net earnings, segment operating profit, return on invested capital, EBITDA, economic value added, manufacturing expenses, and selling, general, and administrative expenses. The Company’s financial results can vary significantly due to changes in factors such as fluctuations in energy prices, weather conditions, crop plantings, government programs and policies, changes in global demand, general global economic conditions, changes in standards of living, and global production of similar and competitive crops. Due to these unpredictable factors, the Company undertakes no responsibility for updating any forward-looking information contained within “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”


28



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014

As an agricultural commodity-based business, the Company is subject to a variety of market factors which affect the Company’s operating results. Agricultural Services was negatively impacted by the ample global supply of agricultural commodities which limited merchandising opportunities, reduced demand for North American grain exports, and moderated commodity prices throughout the year. The increase in global supply was due to several large harvests which built up world grain stocks to historically high levels. In addition, the U.S. dollar continued to be firm against weakening global currencies, particularly those in major crop growing countries such as Brazil, Argentina, and Ukraine. This resulted in margin pressure and decreased North American export volumes most of the year, partially offset by higher domestic grain demand. Transportation was also impacted by the decreased North American export volumes as well as lower global freight rates. Demand and prices for sweeteners and starches remained solid while co-product prices weakened. Ethanol demand remained strong both in North America and export markets due to favorable gasoline blending economics and ethanol’s continuing status as a competitive octane enhancer. Despite strong demand, ethanol margins were weak due to record-high levels of U.S. industry production for most of the year, leading to excess inventory. Overall demand for global protein meal and vegetable oil remained strong, especially in North America. South American oilseeds saw significantly higher volumes and margins for grain origination and exports due to the significant depreciation of the Brazilian Real against the U.S. dollar. Lower softseed availability affected seed basis, resulting in lower softseed crushing volumes and weaker margins, particularly in Europe. Biodiesel demand resulting from international biofuel standards continued to support demand for crude and refined vegetable oil, although demand for biodiesel was softer throughout 2015 due to weaker economic conditions in certain countries. The Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients business continued to focus on cost synergies and new revenue opportunities amid economic uncertainty in many emerging economies and some softening in demand. Customers’ interest to develop innovative, healthy, and nutritious food products in response to macro trends in diet and demographics remained strong and continued to grow.

Net earnings attributable to controlling interests decreased $0.4 billion to $1.8 billion. Segment operating profit was down 16%, due primarily to weaker ethanol margins and lower volumes and margins of North American grain exports. Corporate results in the current year include a charge of $189 million related to the repurchase of outstanding debt, in addition to a credit of $2 million from the effect of decreasing agricultural commodity prices on LIFO inventory valuation reserves, compared to a LIFO credit of $245 million in the prior year.

Income taxes decreased from $877 million to $438 million due to lower earnings before income taxes and a decreased effective tax rate. The Company’s effective tax rate for 2015 decreased to 19% compared to 28% for 2014 due primarily to low tax rates on significant one-time gains related to portfolio actions, a $70 million favorable impact of discrete items, mainly the release of a $66 million valuation allowance, and changes in the geographic mix of pretax earnings (see Note 13 in Item 8 for more information).

Analysis of Statements of Earnings

Processed volumes by product for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 are as follows (in metric tons):

(In thousands)
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Oilseeds
33,817

 
32,208

 
1,609

Corn
23,126

 
23,668

 
(542
)
Milling and cocoa
7,150

 
7,318

 
(168
)
   Total
64,093

 
63,194

 
899


The Company generally operates its production facilities, on an overall basis, at or near capacity, adjusting facilities individually, as needed, to react to current and seasonal local supply and demand conditions. Record volumes of oilseeds were processed during the year, increased from the prior year as a result of the strong demand environment for soybean meal. Processed volumes of corn were decreased in response to high ethanol industry production which outpaced demand throughout the year. Processed volumes of cocoa beans decreased due to the sale of the global cocoa business in October 2015.


29



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Revenues by segment for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 are as follows:

(In millions)
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Agricultural Services
 

 
 

 
 

Merchandising and Handling
$
25,957

 
$
32,208

 
$
(6,251
)
Milling and Other
3,479

 
3,815

 
(336
)
Transportation
246

 
265

 
(19
)
Total Agricultural Services
29,682

 
36,288

 
(6,606
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corn Processing
 

 
 

 
 

Sweeteners and Starches
3,713

 
3,767

 
(54
)
Bioproducts
6,282

 
8,515

 
(2,233
)
Total Corn Processing
9,995

 
12,282

 
(2,287
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oilseeds Processing
 
 
 
 
 
Crushing and Origination
15,597

 
18,542

 
(2,945
)
Refining, Packaging, Biodiesel, and Other
6,801

 
8,498

 
(1,697
)
Cocoa and Other
2,563

 
3,439

 
(876
)
Asia
256

 
454

 
(198
)
Total Oilseeds Processing
25,217

 
30,933

 
(5,716
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients
2,407

 
1,368

 
1,039

Total Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients
2,407

 
1,368

 
1,039

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other - Financial
401

 
330

 
71

Total Other
401

 
330

 
71

Total
$
67,702

 
$
81,201

 
$
(13,499
)

Revenues and cost of products sold in a commodity merchandising and processing business are affected by the underlying commodity prices and volumes. In periods of significant changes in commodity prices, the underlying performance of the Company is better evaluated by looking at margins since both revenues and cost of products sold, particularly in Oilseeds Processing and Agricultural Services, generally have a relatively equal impact from commodity price changes which generally result in an insignificant impact to gross profit.

Revenues decreased 17% due principally to lower sales prices ($12.9 billion) and lower sales volumes ($0.6 billion). Sales prices decreased principally due to lower underlying agricultural commodity prices, in particular prices of soybeans, corn, and wheat, and $5.8 billion in foreign currency translation impacts due to the strength of the U.S. dollar. Agricultural Services revenues decreased 18% primarily due to lower sales prices ($5.3 billion) and lower sales volumes ($1.3 billion). Corn Processing revenues decreased 19% due principally to lower sales prices ($1.9 billion) and lower sales volumes ($0.4 billion). Oilseeds Processing revenues decreased 18% due principally to lower sales prices ($5.5 billion) and lower sales volumes ($0.2 billion). Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients revenues increased 76% due principally to higher sales volumes resulting from the inclusion of the full year results of Wild Flavors and SCI, which were acquired during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014 ($1.2 billion), partially offset by lower prices ($0.2 billion).







30



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Cost of products sold decreased $12.8 billion to $63.7 billion due principally to lower average commodity prices, including $5.6 billion from foreign currency translation impacts due to the strength of the U.S. dollar, and lower manufacturing costs. Included in cost of products sold is a credit of $2 million from the effect of decreasing agricultural commodity prices on LIFO inventory valuation reserves compared to a credit of $245 million in the prior year. Manufacturing expenses decreased $291 million to $5.5 billion primarily due to lower fuel prices, partially offset by increased employee benefit costs due to the inclusion of the full year costs for WILD Flavors and SCI.

Gross profit decreased $0.7 billion, or 16%, to $4.0 billion due principally to lower ethanol margins ($0.6 billion) and foreign currency translation impacts ($0.2 billion). The inclusion of the full year results of Wild Flavors and SCI was partially offset by lower credit from the effect of decreasing agricultural commodity prices on LIFO valuation reserves. These factors are explained in the segment operating profit discussion on page 33. The decrease in underlying commodity prices did not result in a significant decrease in margins or gross profit as lower underlying commodity prices had a relatively equal impact on revenues and cost of products sold.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $103 million to $2.0 billion due principally to increased expenses of $219 million related to the inclusion of the full year results of Wild Flavors and SCI in the current year compared to three-month results in the prior year partially offset by decreased pension expense primarily due to a $98 million one-time pension settlement in the prior year.

Asset impairment, exit, and restructuring costs recognized in the current year of $200 million consisted of long-lived asset impairments of $129 million related to certain Oilseeds Processing facilities, sugar ethanol facilities in Brazil, a facility in the Corn Processing segment, and capitalized software costs and restructuring and exit costs of $71 million related principally to an international pension plan settlement, sugar ethanol facilities in Brazil, and other restructuring and exit costs. Long-lived asset impairment for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 consisted of property, plant, and equipment asset impairments of $70 million in the Corn Processing segment, $49 million in the Oilseeds Processing segment, $1 million in the Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients segment, and $9 million in Corporate. Asset impairment, exit, and restructuring costs recognized in the prior year of $105 million consisted of costs associated with the relocation of the Company’s global headquarters to Chicago, Illinois of $16 million, restructuring charges related primarily to the Wild Flavors acquisition and to the integration of a subsidiary following the acquisition of the minority interest of $48 million, other-than-temporary investment writedown of $6 million, and fixed asset impairments of $35 million.

Interest expense declined $29 million to $308 million primarily due to lower interest rates resulting from the issuance of Euro-denominated debt and the repurchase of certain of the Company’s U.S. dollar-denominated outstanding debentures.

Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates increased $18 million to $390 million primarily due to higher earnings from the Company’s investment in CIP.

Other income increased $74 million from $247 million to $321 million. Other income in the year ended December 31, 2015 consisted primarily of gain on sales of $256 million related primarily to the sale of the cocoa, chocolate, and lactic businesses, a gain of $212 million on the revaluation of the Company’s previously held equity investments in North Start Shipping, Minmetal, and Eaststarch C.V. in conjunction with the acquisition of the remaining interests, and a gain of $62 million on the sale of a 50% interest in the Barcarena export terminal facility in Brazil to Glencore plc, partially offset by a $189 million loss on debt extinguishment related to the repurchase of outstanding debt in the current year and loss provisions of $45 million related to sugar ethanol facilities in Brazil. Other income in the year ended December 31, 2014 consisted primarily of gains of $156 million upon the Company’s effective dilution in the Pacificor joint venture and $126 million on the sale of the fertilizer business, partially offset by losses of $102 million on Euro foreign currency derivative contracts entered into to economically hedge the Wild Flavors acquisition.










31



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Operating profit by segment and earnings before income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 are as follows:
(In millions)
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Agricultural Services
 

 
 

 
 

Merchandising and Handling
$
334

 
$
653

 
$
(319
)
Milling and Other
244

 
203

 
41

Transportation
136

 
187

 
(51
)
Total Agricultural Services
714

 
1,043

 
(329
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corn Processing
 

 
 

 
 

Sweeteners and Starches
634

 
433

 
201

Bioproducts
14

 
715

 
(701
)
Total Corn Processing
648

 
1,148

 
(500
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oilseeds Processing
 
 
 
 
 
Crushing and Origination
842

 
868

 
(26
)
Refining, Packaging, Biodiesel, and Other
265

 
313

 
(48
)
Cocoa and Other
303

 
92

 
211

Asia
164

 
167

 
(3
)
Total Oilseeds Processing
1,574

 
1,440

 
134

 
 
 
 
 
 
Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients
280

 
205

 
75

Total Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients
280

 
205

 
75

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other - Financial
56

 
79

 
(23
)
Total Other
56

 
79

 
(23
)
Total Segment Operating Profit
3,272

 
3,915

 
(643
)
Corporate
(988
)
 
(785
)
 
(203
)
Earnings Before Income Taxes
$
2,284

 
$
3,130

 
$
(846
)

Corporate results are as follows:
(In millions)
2015
 
2014
 
Change
LIFO credit (charge)
$
2

 
$
245

 
$
(243
)
Interest expense - net
(297
)
 
(318
)
 
21

Unallocated corporate costs
(433
)
 
(414
)
 
(19
)
Other charges
(242
)
 
(228
)
 
(14
)
Minority interest and other
(18
)
 
(70
)
 
52

Total Corporate
$
(988
)
 
$
(785
)
 
$
(203
)









32



Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Agricultural Services operating profit decreased 32%. Merchandising and Handling results decreased on fewer merchandising opportunities and lower margins due to ample global supplies of grain, reduced U.S. export competitiveness during the second half of the year due to the strong U.S. dollar, and a large South American harvest. Also contributing to the decrease were the absence of a prior year gain of $17 million related to a partial recovery of a loss provision and a prior year gain of $156 million from the Company’s effective dilution in the Pacificor joint venture, partially offset by a $27 million current year gain on the revaluation of the Company’s previously held investments in North Star Shipping and Minmetal in conjunction with the acquisition of the remaining interests. Milling and Other results improved due to higher product margins and strong merchandising results. Transportation results declined due to lower freight rates and volumes driven by reduced U.S. export volumes in the second half of the year.

Corn Processing operating profit decreased 44%. Included in the current year operating profit is approximately $13 million of mark-to-market losses related to hedge timing effects compared to $25 million of gains in the prior year. Excluding these items, Sweeteners and Starches operating profit increased $213 million due principally to the $185 million gain from the revaluation of the Company’s previously held investment in Eaststarch C.V. in conjunction with the acquisition of the remaining interest in November 2015. Also contributing to the increase were lower raw material costs and good demand relative to supply of products. Excluding hedge timing effects, Bioproducts operating profit declined by $675 million primarily due to lower industry ethanol margins. Strong industry production levels resulted in high industry inventory levels which kept industry margins considerably lower than last year, despite increased domestic and export demand. Also contributing to the decrease were restructuring and fixed asset impairment charges of $75 million and loss provisions of $45 million related to the sugar ethanol business in Brazil.

Oilseeds Processing operating profit increased 9%. Included in the current year operating profit is $45 million of mark-to-market gains related to cocoa hedge timing effects compared to $17 million of losses in the prior year. Crushing and Origination operating profit includes a current year gain of $62 million related to the sale of assets to the new Barcarena export terminal joint venture in Brazil and a prior year gain of $126 million related to the sale of the fertilizer business. Excluding these gains, Crushing and Origination operating profit increased $38 million primarily due to strong North American & European soybean crushing volumes and margins through the first half of the year, driven by strong demand and an ample global bean supply. Starting in the third quarter and continuing in the fourth quarter, global soybean crush margins declined as the more competitive Argentine meal was anticipated to enter the already well-supplied global markets due to changes in Argentine policies. Softseed margins and volumes were lower, particularly in Europe, resulting from weaker global demand for vegetable oil. Large South American corn and soybean harvests also helped support a significant improvement in South America origination results. Refining, Packaging, Biodiesel, and Other operating profit declined primarily due to lower South American and European results partially offset by improved margins in North American oil refining operations. Excluding hedge timing effects, Cocoa and Other results increased $149 million. The current year gain of $244 million on the sale of the global cocoa and chocolate business was partially offset by lower earnings due to the sale of these businesses and lower cocoa press margins and peanut processing results. Asia results declined due principally to long-lived asset and goodwill impairments partially offset by an increase from the Company’s share of its results from its equity investee, Wilmar.

Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients operating profit increased due primarily to the acquisitions of Wild Flavors and SCI during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014. Incremental earnings from these acquisitions were partially offset by lower overall results in the other specialty ingredients businesses due to weakness in many emerging economies and a strong U.S. dollar, which reduced volumes and margins across a number of product lines.

Corporate results were a net charge of $988 million in the current period compared to $785 million in the prior period. The effects of changing commodity prices on LIFO inventory valuations resulted in a credit of $2 million in the current year compared to a credit of $245 million in the prior year. Interest expense - net declined due principally to lower interest rates. Unallocated corporate costs increased $19 million due primarily to increased pension expense resulting from the adoption of a new mortality assumption, increased spending on the Company’s ERP program and various strategic business improvement projects, partially offset by lower employee compensation expense. Other charges in the current year consisted of a $189 million loss on debt extinguishment related to the repurchase of outstanding debt, restructuring charges of $29 million related principally to an international pension plan settlement, and asset impairment and settlement charges of $24 million. Other charges in the prior year consisted of a $102 million loss on Euro foreign currency derivative contracts entered into to economically hedge the Wild Flavors acquisition, costs associated with the relocation of the Company’s global headquarters to Chicago, Illinois of $16 million, restructuring charges related to the Alfred C. Toepfer International integration and other restructuring charges of $15 million, and pension settlement of $98 million. Minority interest and other expense in the prior year consisted primarily of a $56 million loss related to the Company’s equity method investment in CIP.


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Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

The Company uses adjusted earnings per share (EPS) and adjusted earnings before taxes, interest, and depreciation and amortization (EBITDA), non-GAAP financial measures as defined by the Securities Exchange Commission, to evaluate the Company’s financial performance. These performance measures are not defined by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and should be considered in addition to, and not in lieu of, GAAP financial measures.

Adjusted EPS is defined as diluted EPS adjusted for the effects on reported diluted EPS of certain specified items. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings before taxes, interest, and depreciation and amortization, adjusted for specified items. The Company calculates adjusted EBITDA by removing the impact of specified items and adding back the amounts of interest expense and depreciation and amortization to earnings before income taxes.

Management believes that adjusted EPS and adjusted EBITDA are useful measures of the Company’s profitability and enhance the investor’s understanding of the Company’s financial performance. Adjusted EPS and adjusted EBITDA are not intended to replace or be an alternative to diluted EPS and earnings before income taxes, respectively, the most directly comparable amounts reported under GAAP.

The reconciliation of diluted EPS to adjusted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, are provided in the following table.
 
2015
 
2014
 
In millions
Per share
 
In millions
Per share
Average number of shares outstanding - diluted
621

 
 
656

 
Net earnings and reported EPS (fully diluted)
$
1,849

$
2.98

 
$
2,248

$
3.43

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
LIFO credit (net of tax of $1 million in 2015 and $93 million in 2014) (1)
(1
)

 
(152
)
(0.23
)
Gain on sale and revaluation of assets (net of tax of $15 million in 2015 and $105 million in 2014) (2)
(515
)
(0.83
)
 
(186
)
(0.29
)
Charges related to Wild Flavors (net of tax of $51 million) (1)


 
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