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Table of Contents


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission file number 000-06920
Applied Materials, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware94-1655526
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3050 Bowers Avenue
P.O. Box 58039
Santa Clara, California 95052-8039
(Address of principal executive offices)
(408727-5555
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareAMATThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☑        No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐        No  ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☑        No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit).    Yes  ☑        No  ☐
 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes          No  ☑
Aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of May 2, 2021, based upon the closing sale price reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date: $120,888,771,285
Number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, $.01 par value, as of December 10, 2021: 888,513,248
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of Part III will be provided in accordance with Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K no later than February 28, 2022.


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Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K of Applied Materials, Inc. and its subsidiaries, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7, contains forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties.
This report contains forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Examples of forward-looking statements include those regarding Applied’s future financial or operating results, customer demand and spending, end-user demand, Applied’s and market and industry trends and outlooks, the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and responses thereto on Applied’s operations and financial results, cash flows and cash deployment strategies, declaration of dividends, share repurchases, business strategies and priorities, costs and cost controls, products, competitive positions, management’s plans and objectives for future operations, research and development, acquisitions, investments and divestitures, growth opportunities, restructuring and severance activities, backlog, working capital, liquidity, investment portfolio and policies, taxes, supply chain, manufacturing, properties, legal proceedings and claims, and other statements that are not historical facts, as well as their underlying assumptions. Forward-looking statements may contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “potential” and “continue,” the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and other important factors, including those discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” below and elsewhere in this report. These and many other factors could affect Applied’s future financial condition and operating results and could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations based on forward-looking statements made in this document or elsewhere by Applied or on its behalf. Forward-looking statements are based on management’s estimates, projections and expectations as of the date hereof, and Applied undertakes no obligation to revise or update any such statements.
The following information should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.
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APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
PART I
Item 1:
Item 1A:
Item 1B:
Item 2:
Item 3:
Item 4:
PART II
Item 5:
Item 6:
Item 7:
Item 7A:
Item 8:
Item 9:
Item 9A:
Item 9B:
PART III
Item 10:
Item 11:
Item 12:
Item 13:
Item 14:
PART IV
Item 15:
Item 16:

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PART I
Item 1:     Business
Incorporated in 1967, Applied Materials, Inc. (Applied) is a Delaware corporation. A global company with a broad set of capabilities in materials engineering, Applied provides manufacturing equipment, services and software to the semiconductor, display and related industries. With its diverse technology capabilities, Applied delivers products and services that improve device performance, yield and cost. Applied’s customers include manufacturers of semiconductor chips, liquid crystal and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays, and other electronic devices. These customers may use what they manufacture in their own end products or sell the items to other companies for use in advanced electronic components. Applied’s fiscal year ends on the last Sunday in October.
Applied operates in three reportable segments: Semiconductor Systems, Applied Global Services, and Display and Adjacent Markets. A summary of financial information for each reportable segment is found in Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. A discussion of factors that could affect operations is set forth under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Semiconductor Systems
Applied’s Semiconductor Systems segment develops, manufactures and sells a wide range of manufacturing equipment used to fabricate semiconductor chips, also referred to as integrated circuits (ICs). The Semiconductor Systems segment includes semiconductor capital equipment used for many steps of the chip making process including the transfer of patterns into device structures, transistor and interconnect fabrication, metrology, inspection and review, and packaging technologies for connecting finished IC die. Applied’s patterning systems and technologies address challenges resulting from shrinking pattern dimensions and the growing complexity in vertical stacking found in today’s most advanced semiconductor devices. Applied’s transistor and interconnect products and technologies enable continued power and performance improvements of 3D transistors. Applied’s metrology, inspection and review systems’ imaging capabilities and algorithms employ optical and e-beam technologies to meet the most advanced technical demands in areas including self-aligned double and quad patterning, extreme ultraviolet layers, measurement-intensive optimal proximity correction mask qualification, and new 3D architectures. Applied’s packaging technologies address challenges resulting from the increasing heterogeneous integration of multiple IC dies in a single package. Applied delivers leading-edge capabilities that enable chipmakers to establish accurate statistical process control, ramp up production runs rapidly, and achieve consistently high production yields. Applied’s new equipment is sold to integrated device manufacturers and foundries worldwide.
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TechnologiesProduct(s)
Epitaxy
Epitaxy (or epi) is a technique for growing silicon (e.g. silicon with another element) as a uniform crystalline structure on a wafer to form high quality material for the device circuity. Epi technology is used in device transistors to enhance chip speed.
Centura RP Epi
Ion Implant
Ion implantation is a key technology for forming transistors and is used many times during chip fabrication. During ion implantation, wafers are bombarded by a beam of electrically-charged ions, called dopants, which can change the electrical properties of the exposed semiconductor material.
VIISta Systems
Oxidation/Nitridation
Applied’s systems provide critical oxidation steps - like memory gate oxide, shallow trench isolation and liner oxide - for advanced device scaling.
Vantage, Radiance and Centura Systems
Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP)
RTP is used primarily for annealing, which modifies the properties of deposited films. Applied’s single-wafer RTP systems are also used for growing high quality oxide and oxynitride films.
Vantage Systems
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
PVD is used to deposit high quality metal films. Applications include metal gate, silicides, contact liner/barrier, interconnect copper barrier seed and metal hard mask.
Endura, Charger and Axcela Systems
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
CVD is used to deposit dielectric and metal films on a wafer. During the CVD process, gases that contain atoms of the material to be deposited react on the wafer surface, forming a thin film of solid material.
Endura, Centura and Producer Systems
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)
CMP is used to planarize a wafer surface, a process that allows subsequent photolithography patterning and material deposition steps to occur with greater accuracy, resulting in more uniform film layers with minimal thickness variations.
Reflexion and Mirra Systems
Electrochemical Deposition (ECD)
ECD is a process by which metal atoms from a chemical fluid (an electrolyte) are deposited on the surface of an immersed object.
Raider and Nokota Platforms
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
ALD technology enables ultra thin film growth of either a conducting or insulating material with uniform coverage in nanometer-sized structures.
Olympia System
Etch
Etching is used many times throughout the IC manufacturing process to selectively remove material from the surface of a wafer. Applied offers systems for etching dielectric, metal, and silicon films to meet the requirements of advanced processing.
Centris and Producer Systems
Selective Processing (Deposition and Removal)
Selective processing uses specially co-designed chemical and materials interactions to enable delicate and precise deposition and removal of target materials.
Endura and Producer Systems
Metrology and Inspection
Metrology and inspection tools are used to locate, measure, and analyze defects and features on the wafer during various stages of the fabrication processes. Applied enables customers to characterize and control critical dimension (CD) and defect issues, especially at advanced generation technology nodes.
SEMVision eBeam Review
PROVision eBeam Metrology and Inspection
Enlight Optical Inspection
UVision Optical Inspection
VeritySEM CD-SEM Metrology
Aera Mask Inspection

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Applied Global Services
The Applied Global Services® (AGS) segment provides integrated solutions to optimize equipment and fab performance and productivity, including spares, upgrades, services, remanufactured earlier generation equipment and factory automation software for semiconductor, display and other products. Customer demand for products and services is fulfilled through a global distribution system in more than 170 locations and trained service engineers located in close proximity to customer sites to support over 45,900 installed Applied semiconductor, display and other manufacturing systems worldwide. Applied offers the following general types of services and products under the Applied Global Services segment.
AGS Solutions and Technology
Technology-Enabled Services®
A comprehensive service product portfolio that combines service technology and tool specific performance commitments in order to optimize customer factory productivity.
Fab Consulting
Experts using advanced analytical tools to solve production problems that have the greatest impact on customer fab productivity.
Supply Chain Assurance Programs
Spare parts product portfolio offers options to balance inventory, cost and risk to efficiently meet fab requirements. 
Subfab Equipment
Applied SubFab solutions lower costs, save energy, reduce environmental impact, and meet Environmental Protection Agency reporting regulations for greenhouse gas emissions.
Legacy Equipment
Comprehensive 200mm equipment and upgrades portfolio to address a full spectrum of production needs and extend tool lifetime. Applied 200mm equipment supports market inflections and new technology for a broad variety of devices including analog, power, and MEMS.
Automation Software
Applied SmartFactory® automation software portfolio coordinates and streamlines every aspect of a factory-the processes, equipment and people-to provide competitive advantage to customers.

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Display and Adjacent Markets
The Display and Adjacent Markets segment is comprised of products for manufacturing liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and other display technologies for TVs, monitors, laptops, personal computers (PCs), electronic tablets, smart phones, and other consumer-oriented devices. While similarities exist between the technologies utilized in semiconductor and display fabrication, the most significant differences are in the size and composition of the substrate. Substrates used to manufacture display panels and other devices are typically glass, although newer flexible materials are entering the market. Display and Adjacent Markets industry growth depends primarily on consumer demand for increasingly larger and more advanced TVs and high-resolution displays for mobile devices as well as new form factors, including thin, light, curved and flexible displays, and new applications such as augmented and virtual reality. The Display and Adjacent Markets segment offers a variety of technologies and products, including:
Display and Adjacent Markets TechnologiesProduct(s)
Array Test
LCD display substrates are inspected at many stages of production to maximize yield, minimize scrap, optimize equipment utilization, and monitor manufacturing processes. At the completion of the array stage, the performance of the millions of individual pixels on each display is tested.
Electron Beam Array Tester
Defect Review
Defects are identified during inspection steps and reviewed by a scanning electron microscope and other analyses to determine defect root cause and composition.
Electron Beam Review (EBR)
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
During CVD processing, gases containing atoms or molecules are introduced into the process chamber. The gases form reactive radicals or ions, which undergo chemical reactions to form thin films on the heated substrate.
AKT PECVD Systems
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
PVD is used to deposit high quality films of metals, alloys, transparent conductors and semiconductors. In Display, these films are used for contact, interconnect, transparent electrodes and transistor materials in TFT-LCD and OLED display backplanes, as well as for transparent electrodes in color filters and touch panels.
AKT Aristo and PiVot Systems
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Backlog
Applied manufactures systems to meet demand represented by order backlog and customer commitments. Backlog consisted of: (1) orders for which written authorizations have been accepted, or shipment has occurred but revenue has not been recognized; and (2) contractual service revenue and maintenance fees.
Backlog by reportable segment as of October 31, 2021 and October 25, 2020 was as follows:
 20212020
 (In millions, except percentages)
Semiconductor Systems$6,679 57 %$2,880 43 %
Applied Global Services4,335 37 %2,607 39 %
Display and Adjacent Markets735 %1,115 17 %
Corporate and Other— %54 %
Total$11,758 100 %$6,656 100 %
Of the total backlog as of October 31, 2021, approximately 21% is not reasonably expected to be filled within the next 12 months.
Applied’s backlog on any particular date is not necessarily indicative of actual sales for any future periods, due to the potential for customer changes in delivery schedules or order cancellations. Customers may delay delivery of products or cancel orders prior to shipment, subject to possible cancellation penalties. Delays in delivery schedules or a reduction of backlog during any particular period could have a material adverse effect on Applied’s business and results of operations.
Manufacturing, Raw Materials and Supplies
Applied’s worldwide manufacturing activities consist primarily of assembly, integration and test of various proprietary and commercial parts, components and subassemblies that are used to manufacture systems. Applied has implemented a distributed manufacturing model under which manufacturing and supply chain activities are conducted in various countries, including Germany, Israel, Singapore, Taiwan, the United States and other countries in Asia. Applied uses qualified vendors, including contract manufacturers, to supply parts, services and product support. Applied’s supply chain strategy adheres to ethical labor practices, responsible minerals sourcing, Responsible Business Alliance and SEMI guidelines, and the Applied Materials Standards of Business Conduct as defined in Applied’s Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) commitment.
Although Applied makes reasonable efforts to assure that parts are available from multiple qualified suppliers, this is not always possible. Accordingly, some key parts may be obtained from only a qualified single supplier or a limited group of qualified suppliers. Applied seeks to reduce costs and to lower the risks of manufacturing and service interruptions by selecting and qualifying alternate suppliers for parts; monitoring the financial condition of key suppliers; maintaining appropriate inventories of parts; qualifying new parts on a timely basis; and ensuring quality and performance of parts.
Research, Development and Engineering
Applied’s long-term growth strategy requires continued development of new materials engineering capabilities, including products and platforms that enable expansion into new and adjacent markets. Applied’s significant investments in research, development and engineering (RD&E) must generally enable it to deliver new products and technologies before the emergence of strong demand, thus allowing customers to incorporate these products into their manufacturing plans during early-stage technology selection. Applied works closely with its global customers and ecosystem partners to design systems and processes that meet planned technical and production requirements.
Applied’s product development and engineering organizations are located primarily in the United States, as well as in China, Europe, India, Israel, Singapore and Taiwan. In addition, certain outsourced RD&E activities, process support and customer demonstrations are performed in the United States, India, China, Singapore and Taiwan.
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Marketing and Sales
Because of the highly technical nature of its products, Applied markets and sells products worldwide almost entirely through a direct sales force.
Applied has operations in many countries, with some of its business activities concentrated in certain geographic areas, and global and regional economic conditions can impact the company’s business and financial results. Applied’s business is based on capital equipment investments by major semiconductor, display and other manufacturers, and is subject to significant variability in customer demand for Applied’s products. Customers’ expenditures depend on many factors, including: general economic conditions; anticipated market demand and pricing for semiconductors, display technologies and other electronic devices; the development of new technologies; customers’ factory utilization; capital resources and financing; and government policies and incentives. In addition, a significant driver in the semiconductor and display industries has been end-demand for mobile consumer products, which has been characterized by seasonality that impacts the timing of customer investments in manufacturing equipment and, in turn, Applied’s business.
Information on net sales to unaffiliated customers and long-lived assets attributable to Applied’s geographic regions is included in Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The following companies accounted for at least 10 percent of Applied’s net sales in each fiscal year, which were for products and services in multiple reportable segments.
 
202120202019
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.20%18%*
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited15%18%14%
Intel Corporation**12%
______________________________
* Less than 10%
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Competition
The industries in which Applied operates are highly competitive and characterized by rapid technological change. Applied’s ability to compete generally depends on its ability to commercialize its technology in a timely manner, continually improve its products, and develop new products that meet constantly evolving customer requirements. Significant competitive factors include technical capability and differentiation, productivity, cost-effectiveness and the ability to support a global customer base. The importance of these factors varies according to customers’ needs, including product mix and respective product requirements, applications, and the timing and circumstances of purchasing decisions. Substantial competition exists in all areas of Applied’s business. Competitors range from small companies that compete in a single region, which may benefit from policies and regulations that favor domestic companies, to global, diversified companies. Applied’s ability to compete requires a high level of investment in RD&E, marketing and sales, and global customer support activities. Management believes that many of Applied’s products have strong competitive positions.
The competitive environment for each segment is described below.
The semiconductor industry is driven by demand for advanced electronic products, including smartphones and other mobile devices, servers, personal computers, automotive electronics, storage, and other products. The growth of data and emerging end-market drivers such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, 5G networks, smart vehicles and augmented and virtual reality are also creating the next wave of growth for the industry. As a result, products within the Semiconductor Systems segment are subject to significant changes in customer requirements, including transitions to smaller dimensions, increasingly complex chip architectures, new materials and an increasing number of applications. While certain existing technologies may be adapted to new requirements, some applications create the need for an entirely different technological approach. The rapid pace of technological change can quickly diminish the value of current technologies and products and create opportunities for existing and new competitors. Applied offers a variety of differentiated products that must continuously evolve to satisfy customers’ requirements to compete effectively in the marketplace. Applied allocates resources among its numerous product offerings and therefore may decide not to invest in an individual product depending on market requirements. There are a number of competitors serving the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry, which has experienced increasing consolidation. Some of these competitors offer a single product line and others offer multiple product lines, and range from serving a single region to global, diversified companies.
Products and services within the Applied Global Services segment complement Semiconductor Systems and Display and Adjacent Markets segments’ products in markets that are characterized by demanding worldwide service requirements and a diverse group of numerous competitors. To compete effectively, Applied offers products and services to improve tool performance, lower overall cost of ownership, and increase yields and productivity of customers’ fab operations. Significant competitive factors include productivity, cost-effectiveness, and the level of technical service and support. The importance of these factors varies according to customers’ needs and the type of products or services offered.
Products in the Display and Adjacent Markets segment are generally subject to strong competition from a number of major competitors primarily in Asia. Applied holds established market positions with its technically-differentiated LCD and OLED manufacturing solutions for PECVD, color filter PVD, PVD array, PVD touch panel, and TFT array testing, although its market position could change quickly due to customers’ evolving requirements. Important factors affecting the competitive position of Applied’s Display and Adjacent Markets products include: industry trends, Applied’s ability to innovate and develop new products, and the extent to which Applied’s products are technically-differentiated, as well as which customers within a highly concentrated customer base are making capital equipment investments and Applied’s existing position at these customers.
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Patents and Licenses
Applied’s competitive position significantly depends upon its research, development, engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities, as well as its patent position. Protection of Applied’s technology assets through enforcement of its intellectual property rights, including patents, is important. Applied’s practice is to file patent applications in the United States and other countries for inventions that it considers significant. Applied has approximately 15,700 patents in the United States and other countries, and additional applications are pending for new inventions. Although Applied does not consider its business materially dependent upon any one patent, the rights of Applied and the products made and sold under its patents, taken as a whole, are a significant element of its business. In addition to its patents, Applied possesses other intellectual property, including trademarks, know-how, trade secrets, and copyrights.
Applied enters into patent and technology licensing agreements with other companies when it is determined to be in its best interest. Applied pays royalties under existing patent license agreements for the use, in several of its products, of certain patented technologies. Applied also receives royalties from licenses granted to third parties. Royalties received from or paid to third parties have not been material to Applied’s consolidated results of operations.
In the normal course of business, Applied periodically receives and makes inquiries regarding possible patent infringement. In responding to such inquiries, it may become necessary or useful for Applied to obtain or grant licenses or other rights. However, there can be no assurance that such licenses or rights will be available to Applied on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If Applied is not able to resolve or settle claims, obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, or successfully prosecute or defend its position, Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Governmental Regulation
As a public company with global operations, Applied is subject to the laws and regulations of the United States and multiple foreign jurisdictions. These regulations, which differ among jurisdictions, include those related to financial and other disclosures, accounting standards, corporate governance, intellectual property, tax, trade, including import, export and customs, antitrust, environment, employment, immigration and travel regulations, privacy, data protection and localization, and anti-corruption. See “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Legal and Compliance – Applied is exposed to various risks related to the global regulatory environment” for further details.
With respect to environmental, health and safety regulations, Applied maintains a number of programs that are primarily preventative in nature and regularly monitors ongoing compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, Applied has trained personnel to conduct investigations of any environmental, health, or safety incidents, including, but not limited to, spills, releases, or possible contamination. See also “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Legal and Compliance - Applied is subject to risks associated with environmental, health and safety regulations and sustainability requirements” for further details.
Applied is subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rate could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in applicable tax laws, interpretations of applicable tax laws, amount and composition of pre-tax income in jurisdictions with differing tax rates, and valuation of deferred tax assets. There have been a number of proposed changes in the tax laws that could increase Applied’s tax liability. See “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Applied’s Business, Finance and Operations – Applied is exposed to risks associated with operating in jurisdictions with complex and changing tax laws” for further details. For additional discussions regarding the impact of compliance with income tax laws and regulations on Applied’s business and operations, see also “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations– Results of Operations – Income Taxes” and “Note 16 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements”.
Additionally, Applied is regulated under various international laws regarding the purchase and sale of goods and related items, including but not limited to those related to imposition of tariffs and other taxes, requirements for import/export licenses and limitations on transfer of intellectual property. See “Risk Factors – Risks Associated with Operating a Global Business – International trade disputes could result in increase in tariffs and other trade restrictions and protectionist measures that could adversely impact our operations and reduce the competitiveness of our products relative to local and global competitors” for further details.

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Applied’s People
Applied’s commitment to innovation begins with the commitment to creating an environment in which Applied’s employees can do their best work. Applied’s ability to create differentiated value in the marketplace is driven by the capability of the Company’s people to anticipate technology inflections and integrate customer requirements. To achieve this level of value creation, Applied believes it must attract, hire, develop and retain a world-class global workforce. The Company invests in its employees by providing quality training and learning opportunities; promoting inclusion, equity and diversity; and upholding a high standard of ethics and respect for human rights.
As of October 31, 2021, Applied employed approximately 27,000 regular full-time employees, of whom approximately 46%, 42% and 12% resided in the Asia-Pacific region, North America, and Europe, Middle East and Africa, respectively. Applied’s team spans 19 countries, reflecting various cultures, backgrounds, race, color, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, ages, and disability, veteran and military status.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
Applied values great talent and different perspectives, knowing that diversity is one of its greatest strengths. The Company therefore strives to provide fair and equal opportunity for career development and advancement to all its employees and incorporates respect for diverse backgrounds and perspectives into the Company’s culture at every level – from strategy and policy down to everyday interactions.
Applied expects that its commitment to strengthening the Company’s culture of inclusion will broaden the diversity of its workplace and help Applied build a culture that benefits everyone. In recent years, Applied continued to make progress in its culture of inclusion journey, including, among other things, expanding gender diversity on the Company’s Board to 40% female membership, increasing female representation in the U.S. and global workforce, and increasing U.S. underrepresented minority representation. As of October 31, 2021, Applied’s global workforce was 81.9% male and 18.1% female, and 16.4% of Applied’s workforce in the United States was composed of underrepresented minorities.
Additionally, Applied is investing in inclusion learning experiences. For example, the Company is implementing programs to further develop its leaders to lead even more inclusively and further deepen engagement with employees.
Talent Acquisition and Retention
Applied believes that its future success is highly dependent upon the Company’s continued ability to attract, develop, retain and engage employees. As part of the Company’s effort to attract and retain employees, Applied offers competitive rewards, compensation and benefits, including an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, healthcare and retirement benefits, parental and family leave, adoption credits, holiday and paid time off, and tuition assistance.
Employee Learning & Development
Applied believes continuous learning by its people feeds the Company’s pipeline of innovation and pays off in employee retention. Applied’s business units maintain an independent strategy for skill-building, using content that is owned, supervised, developed, and managed by each unit’s learning team. At the same time, these skill-building programs are aligned around a common set of objectives and framework focused on compliance, technical, professional and management development. For example, the Company’s Environmental, Health & Safety (EHS) and Sustainability organization leads employee training and awareness on EHS management issues and the certification processes for safety and skills related to technical manufacturing and engineering work. In addition, all employees have opportunities for training on a wide range of general professional skills that are designed to help them to be more effective in their current and future roles. There is an expectation that every employee has a development goal as a part of individual performance objectives. Historically more than 85% of employees have had development objectives.
Employee Engagement, Organizational Health and Pandemic Response
Applied has historically managed and measured organizational health with a view to gaining insight into employees’ experiences, levels of workplace satisfaction, and feelings of engagement and inclusion. The Company has used McKinsey & Company’s Organizational Health Index (OHI) and employee engagement pulse surveys to measure its organizational health and employee experiences. Insights from the Company’s surveys are used to develop both company-wide and business unit level organizational and talent development plans.
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Applied’s top priority remains protecting the health and safety of its employees and their families, customers, suppliers and community. This includes an understanding of its employees’ engagement and experiences during the pandemic and developing a return to work and future of work strategy. In fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2021, Applied conducted surveys focused on employee engagement and productivity and on the future of work. Applied continues to support workplace flexibility such as remote working where possible, and follow enhanced safety and health protocols—including screenings, social distancing, and use of personal protective equipment.
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Additional information regarding Applied’s activities related to its people and sustainability, as well as its workforce diversity data, can be found in Applied’s latest Sustainability Report and Annex thereto, which are located on its website at https://www.appliedmaterials.com/company/corporate-responsibility. The Sustainability Report and the Annex thereto are updated annually. This website address is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. None of the information on, or accessible through, Applied’s website is part of this Form 10-K or is incorporated by reference herein.
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Information about our Executive Officers
The following table and notes set forth information about Applied’s executive officers:
Name of IndividualPosition
Gary E. Dickerson(1)President, Chief Executive Officer
Ginetto Addiego(2)Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Global Operations and Corporate Quality
Robert J. Halliday(3)Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Teri Little(4)Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary
Omkaram Nalamasu(5)Senior Vice President, Chief Technology Officer
Prabu Raja(6) Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Products Group
Ali Salehpour(7)Senior Vice President, Services, Display and Flexible Technology
Charles Read(8)Corporate Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
(1)Mr. Dickerson, age 64, was named President of Applied in June 2012 and appointed Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors in September 2013. Before joining Applied, he served as Chief Executive Officer and a director of Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc. (Varian) from 2004 until its acquisition by Applied in November 2011. Prior to Varian, Mr. Dickerson served 18 years with KLA-Tencor Corporation (KLA-Tencor), a supplier of process control and yield management solutions for the semiconductor and related industries, where he held a variety of operations and product development roles, including President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Dickerson started his semiconductor career in manufacturing and engineering management at General Motors’ Delco Electronics Division and then AT&T Technologies.
(2)Dr. Addiego, age 62, has been Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Global Operations and Corporate Quality since June 2015. He served as Senior Vice President, Engineering from March 2014 to June 2019. He previously worked at Applied from 1996 to 2005, leading various product groups as well as global organizations, including Global Operations, Facilities and Real Estate, Foundation Engineering, and Information Technology. From March 2011 to March 2014, Dr. Addiego was President and Chief Operating Officer of Ultra Clean Technology Corp., a public company listed on Nasdaq and a supplier of critical subsystems for the semiconductor capital equipment, medical device, energy, research, and flat panel industries. From February 2005 to March 2011, Dr. Addiego worked at Novellus Systems, Inc., a provider of advanced process equipment for the semiconductor industry, where he served as Executive Vice President of Corporate Global Operations responsible for Central Engineering, Facilities, Real Estate, Human Resources and Information Technology, and as Chief Administrative Officer.
(3)Mr. Halliday, age 67, has been Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since September 2021. Mr. Halliday previously served as Corporate Vice President and advisor to Applied in areas such as business development and government affairs since September 2017, and prior to that was Applied’s Chief Financial Officer from February 2013 to August 2017. Prior to that he served as Group Vice President and General Manager of the Silicon Systems segment following the completion of Applied’s acquisition of Varian in November 2011. Mr. Halliday had served as Chief Financial Officer of Varian since 2001 and as an Executive Vice President of Varian since 2004. He was Varian’s Treasurer from November 2002 to October 2006 and from February 2009 to February 2010.
(4)Ms. Little, age 57, joined Applied as Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary in June 2020. Prior to joining Applied, Ms. Little served as Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary at KLA Corporation from August 2017 to June 2020. Prior to that she was Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of KLA Corporation from October 2015 until August 2017, and prior to that she held various other positions at KLA Corporation since 2002. Prior to joining KLA Corporation, she was a Senior Corporate Associate at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, and a Litigation Associate at Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe.
(5)Dr. Nalamasu, age 63, has been Senior Vice President, Chief Technology Officer since June 2013, and President of Applied Ventures, LLC, Applied’s venture capital arm, since November 2013. He had served as Group Vice President, Chief Technology Officer from January 2012 to June 2013, and as Corporate Vice President, Chief Technology Officer from January 2011 to January 2012. Upon joining Applied in June 2006 until January 2011, Dr. Nalamasu was an Appointed Vice President of Research and served as Deputy Chief Technology Officer and General Manager for the Advanced Technologies Group. From 2002 to 2006, Dr. Nalamasu was a NYSTAR distinguished professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he also served as Vice President of Research from 2005 to 2006. Prior to Rensselaer, Dr. Nalamasu served in several leadership roles at Bell Laboratories.
(6)Dr. Raja, age 59, has been Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Products Group of Applied since November 2017. He previously served in various senior management, product development and operational roles since joining Applied in 1995, including Group Vice President and General Manager of the Patterning and Packaging Group.
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(7)Mr. Salehpour, age 60, has been Senior Vice President, Services, Display and Flexible Technology since September 2013. He previously served as Group Vice President, General Manager Energy and Environmental Solutions and Display Business Groups, since joining Applied in November 2012. Prior to Applied, Mr. Salehpour worked at KLA-Tencor for 16 years, where he served as a Senior Vice President and General Manager, and worked for 10 years in senior management positions at Schlumberger Test Systems.
(8)Mr. Read, age 55, has been Corporate Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of Applied since joining the Company in September 2013. Prior to Applied, Mr. Read worked at Brocade Communications Systems, Inc., a provider of semiconductor and software-based network solutions, since October 2002, where he most recently served as Vice President, Corporate Controller. Prior to Brocade, Mr. Read worked at KPMG LLP, an audit, tax and advisory firm, from 1996 to 2002.

Available Information
Applied’s website is http://www.appliedmaterials.com. Applied makes available free of charge, on or through its website, its annual, quarterly and current reports, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such reports with, or furnishing them to, the SEC. The SEC’s website, www.sec.gov, contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. These website addresses are intended to be an inactive textual references only. None of the information on, or accessible through, these websites is part of this Form 10-K or is incorporated by reference herein.

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Item 1A:      Risk Factors
The following risk factors could materially and adversely affect Applied’s business, financial condition or results of operations and cause reputational harm, and should be carefully considered in evaluating the Company and its business, in addition to other information presented elsewhere in this report.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and global measures taken in response thereto have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, Applied’s operations and financial results.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response by governments and businesses worldwide to contain its spread have adversely impacted and are expected to continue to adversely impact Applied’s supply chain, manufacturing, logistics, workforce and operations, as well as the operations of Applied’s customers, suppliers and partners globally. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic and the impacts on our business and the global economy from the effects of the ongoing pandemic and response measures. Travel and logistics restrictions, shelter-in-place orders and other measures, including working remotely, social distancing and other policies implemented in foreign and domestic sites, have resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, transportation disruptions (such as reduced availability of air transport, port closures, and increased border controls or closures), production delays and capacity limitations at Applied and some of its customers, suppliers and partners, as well as reduced workforce availability or productivity at Applied and customer sites, and additional data, information and cyber security risks associated with an extensive workforce now working remotely full-time.
While economic activity and business operations in certain regions continue to recover, there may be periods of significant or sudden increases in demand for Applied’s products, as well as worldwide demand for electronic products. Significant or sudden demand increases may result in a shortage of parts, materials or services needed to manufacture Applied’s products or may cause shipment delays due to transportation interruptions or capacity constraints. Such shortages or delays could adversely impact our suppliers’ ability to meet our demand requirements and our ability to meet our customer demand. There can be no assurance that Applied or its suppliers will be able to maintain manufacturing operations at current levels or at increased levels that may be necessary to address demand for Applied products. In addition, the pandemic and global measures taken in response thereto have had, and may continue to have a significant adverse impact on the global economic activity and could also result in a reduced demand for our products, delayed deliveries or installation, cancelled orders or increase in logistics and operating costs, and materially and adversely affect Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
The degree to which the ongoing pandemic ultimately impacts Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations and the global economy will depend on future developments beyond our control, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict, including the severity, duration and any resurgence of the pandemic, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, the availability, public adoption and efficacy of COVID vaccines, effectiveness of government stimulus programs, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activity can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic volatility that results from the ongoing pandemic. Additionally, Applied has a multi-phase plan to return to working on-site, which gradually allows additional workers to return onsite while practicing social distancing and other safety measures. However, there is no assurance that such plan and safety measures will be effective in preventing the inadvertent transmission of COVID-19 within the workplace. Further, implementation of such plan could adversely impact Applied’s operations.
Risks Associated with Operating a Global Business
Applied is exposed to the risks of operating a global business.
Applied has product development, engineering, manufacturing, sales and other operations distributed throughout many countries, and some of its business activities are concentrated in certain geographic areas. Moreover, in fiscal 2021, approximately 91% of Applied’s net sales were to customers in regions outside the United States. As a result of the global nature of its operations, Applied’s business performance and results of operations may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:
uncertain global economic and political business conditions and demands;
political and social attitudes, laws, rules, regulations and policies within countries that favor domestic companies over non-domestic companies, including customer- or government-supported efforts to promote the development and growth of local competitors;
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direct and indirect global trade issues and changes in and uncertainties with respect to trade policies, trade sanctions, tariffs, and international trade disputes, including the rules and interpretations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Commerce expanding export license requirements for certain products sold to certain entities in China;
customer- or government-supported efforts to influence Applied to conduct more of its operations and sourcing in a particular country, such as Korea and China;
variations among, and changes in, local, regional, national or international laws and regulations, including contract, intellectual property, cybersecurity, data privacy, labor, tax, and import/export laws, and the interpretation and application of such laws and regulations;
ineffective or inadequate legal protection of intellectual property rights in certain countries;
positions taken by governmental agencies regarding possible national commercial and/or security issues posed by international business operations;
fluctuating raw material, commodity, energy and shipping costs;
delays or restrictions in shipping materials or finished products between and within countries;
geographically diverse operations and projects, and our ability to maintain appropriate business processes, procedures and internal controls, and comply with environmental, health and safety, anti-corruption and other regulatory requirements;
supply chain interruptions, and service interruptions from utilities, transportation, data hosting or telecommunications providers, or other events beyond our control;
failure to effectively manage a diverse workforce with different experience levels, languages, cultures, customs, business practices and worker expectations, and differing employment practices and labor issues;
variations in the ability to develop relationships with local customers, suppliers and governments;
fluctuations in interest rates and currency exchange rates, including the relative strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar against the Japanese yen, Israeli shekel, euro, Taiwanese dollar, Singapore dollar, Chinese yuan or Korean won;
the need to provide sufficient levels of technical support in different locations around the world;
performance of third-party providers of outsourced functions, including certain engineering, software development, manufacturing, information technology and other activities;
political instability, natural disasters, regional or global health epidemics, social unrest, terrorism or acts of war in locations where Applied has operations, suppliers or sales, or that may influence the value chain of the industries that Applied serves;
impacts of climate change on the operations of Applied, its customers and suppliers;
challenges in hiring and integration of an increasing number of workers in new countries;
the increasing need for a mobile workforce to work in or travel to different regions; and
uncertainties with respect to economic growth rates in various countries, including for the manufacture and sale of semiconductors and displays in the developing economies of certain countries.
As more fully discussed in the risk factor “The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and global measures taken in response thereto have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, Applied’s operations and financial results” above, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response by governments and businesses worldwide to contain its spread have adversely impacted and are expected to continue to adversely impact Applied’s supply chain, manufacturing, logistics, workforce and operations, as well as the operations of Applied’s customers, suppliers and partners globally.
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International trade disputes could result in increases in tariffs and other trade restrictions and protectionist measures that could adversely impact our operations and reduce the competitiveness of our products relative to local and global competitors.
We sell a significant majority of our products into countries outside of the United States including China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea. We also purchase a significant portion of equipment and supplies from suppliers outside of the United States. There is inherent risk, based on the complex relationships among the United States and the countries in which we conduct our business, that political, diplomatic and national security influences might lead to trade disputes, impacts and/or disruptions, in particular, with respect to those affecting the semiconductor industry. The United States and other countries have imposed and may continue to impose trade restrictions, and have also levied tariffs and taxes on certain goods. Increases in tariffs, additional taxes or other trade restrictions and retaliatory measures may increasingly impact end-user demand and customer investment in manufacturing equipment, increase our manufacturing costs, decrease margins, reduce the competitiveness of our products, or inhibit our ability to sell products or purchase necessary equipment and supplies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
For example, certain international sales depend on our ability to obtain export licenses, and our inability to obtain such licenses has limited and could further limit our markets and impact our business. The U.S. Department of Commerce has promulgated several rules and interpretations expanding export license requirements for U.S. companies that sell certain products to entities in China whose actions or functions are intended to support military end uses, eliminated certain export license exceptions that applied to exports of certain items to China, and added certain Chinese companies, including one of the Company’s customers, to its “entity list”. These rules and interpretations require us to obtain additional export licenses to supply certain of our products to such customer in China. Obtaining export licenses may be difficult, costly and time-consuming, and our inability to obtain such licenses could limit our markets in China and adversely affect our results of operations. The implementation and interpretation of these rules are ongoing and their impact on our business is uncertain, and these rules and other regulatory changes that have occurred and may occur in the future could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. The U.S. and other governmental agencies may in the future promulgate new or additional export licensing or other requirements that have the effect of further limiting the Company’s ability to provide certain of its products to customers outside the U.S., including China.
In addition, government authorities may impose conditions that require the use of local suppliers or partnerships with local companies, require the license or other transfer of intellectual property, or engage in other efforts to promote local businesses and local competitors, which could have a significant adverse impact on Applied’s business. Many of these challenges are present in China and Korea, markets that represent a significant portion of Applied’s current business as well as long-term growth opportunities.
Applied is exposed to risks associated with an uncertain global economy.
Uncertain or adverse economic and business conditions, including uncertainties and volatility in the financial markets, national debt, fiscal or monetary concerns, inflation and rising interest rates in various regions, could materially adversely impact Applied’s operating results. Markets for semiconductors and displays depend largely on business and consumer spending and demand for electronic products. Uncertain or adverse economic and business conditions that result in decreases in consumer spending and demand or cause us to pass on increased costs to our customers may cause certain of our customers to push out, cancel or refrain from purchasing our equipment or services, which could materially adversely impact demand for our products and our operating results. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic, and transportation interruptions and other measures taken in response thereto, have had, and may continue to have, a significant adverse impact on the global and regional economic activity, as well as our ability to meet our customer demand.
Similarly, changes that result in sudden increases in consumer demand for electronic products (for example, as a result of the reopening of the economy with the easing of COVID-19 related restrictions) have resulted in, and may continue to result in, a shortage of parts and materials needed to manufacture our products. Such shortages, as well as shipment delays due to transportation interruptions, have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, our suppliers’ ability to meet our demand requirements. In addition, Lunar New Year and other holidays in the countries in which we or our suppliers operate may reduce the level of business activities during such times, and thus adversely impact our and our suppliers’ ability to manufacture and deliver products, supplies and services. Accelerated digital transformation may further increase consumer demand and exacerbate such shortages and also strain our manufacturing capacity, which may adversely impact our ability to meet customer demands and thus have an adverse impact on our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.
Uncertain market conditions, difficulties in obtaining capital, or reduced profitability may also cause some customers to scale back operations, exit businesses, merge with other manufacturers, or file for bankruptcy protection and potentially cease operations, which can also result in lower sales, additional inventory or bad debt expense for Applied. Economic and industry uncertainty may similarly affect suppliers, which could impair their ability to deliver parts and negatively affect Applied’s ability to manage operations and deliver its products. These conditions may also lead to consolidation or strategic alliances among other equipment manufacturers, which could adversely affect Applied’s ability to compete effectively.
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Uncertain economic and industry conditions also make it more challenging for Applied to forecast its operating results, make business decisions, and identify and prioritize the risks that may affect its businesses, sources and uses of cash, financial condition and results of operations. If Applied does not appropriately manage its business operations in response to changing economic and industry conditions, it could have a significant negative impact on its business performance and financial condition. Applied may be required to implement additional cost reduction efforts, including restructuring activities, which may adversely affect Applied’s ability to capitalize on opportunities. Even during periods of economic uncertainty or lower revenues, Applied must continue to invest in research and development and maintain a global business infrastructure to compete effectively and support its customers, which can have a negative impact on its operating margins and earnings.
Applied maintains an investment portfolio that is subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks. The risks to Applied’s investment portfolio may be exacerbated if financial market conditions deteriorate (including from impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic) and, as a result, the value and liquidity of the investment portfolio, as well as returns on pension assets, could be negatively impacted and lead to impairment charges. Applied also maintains cash balances in various bank accounts globally in order to fund normal operations. If any of these financial institutions becomes insolvent, it could limit Applied’s ability to access cash in the affected accounts, which could affect its ability to manage its operations.
Risks Associated with Applied’s Industry
The industries that Applied serves can be volatile and difficult to predict.
As a supplier to the global semiconductor and display and related industries, Applied is subject to variable industry conditions, since demand for manufacturing equipment and services can change depending on several factors, including the nature and timing of technology inflections and advances in fabrication processes, the timing and requirements of new and emerging technologies and market drivers, production capacity relative to demand for chips and display technologies, end-user demand, customers’ capacity utilization, production volumes, access to affordable capital, consumer buying patterns and general economic conditions. Applied’s industries historically have been cyclical, and are subject to volatility and sudden changes in customer requirements for new manufacturing capacity and advanced technology. These changes can affect the timing and amounts of customer investments in technology and manufacturing equipment and can have a significant impact on Applied’s net sales, operating expenses, gross margins and net income. The amount and mix of capital equipment spending between different products and technologies can have a significant impact on Applied’s results of operations.
To meet rapidly changing demand in the industries it serves, Applied must accurately forecast demand and effectively manage its resources and production capacity across its businesses, and may incur unexpected or additional costs to align its business operations. During periods of increasing demand for its products, Applied must have sufficient manufacturing capacity and inventory to meet customer demand; effectively manage its supply chain; attract, retain and motivate a sufficient number of qualified employees; and continue to control costs. During periods of decreasing demand, Applied must reduce costs and align its cost structure with prevailing market conditions; effectively manage its supply chain; and motivate and retain key employees. If Applied does not effectively manage these challenges during periods of changing demand, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its effects, its business performance and results of operations may be adversely impacted. Even with effective allocation of resources and management of costs, during periods of decreasing demand, Applied’s gross margins and earnings may be adversely impacted.
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Applied is exposed to risks associated with a highly concentrated customer base.
Applied’s customer base is highly concentrated and has become increasingly so as a result of continued consolidation. Applied’s customer base is also geographically concentrated, particularly in China, Taiwan and Korea. A relatively limited number of manufacturers account for a substantial portion of Applied’s business. As a result, the actions of even a single customer can expose Applied’s business and results of operations to greater volatility. The geographic concentration of Applied’s customer base could shift over time as a result of government policy and incentives to develop regional semiconductor industries. The mix and type of customers, and sales to any single customer, including as a result of changes in government policy, have varied and may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year, and have had, and may continue to have, a significant impact on Applied’s net sales, gross margins and net income. Applied’s products are configured to customer specifications, and changing, rescheduling or canceling orders may result in significant, non-recoverable costs. If customers do not place orders, or they substantially reduce, delay or cancel orders (including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic or our inability to fulfill orders due to a shortage of parts, transportation interruptions or any other reason), Applied may not be able to replace the business, which may have a significant adverse impact on its results of operations and financial condition. The concentration of Applied’s customer base increases its risks related to the financial condition of its customers, and the deterioration in financial condition of a single customer or the failure of a single customer to perform its obligations could have a material adverse effect on Applied’s results of operations and cash flow. To the extent its customers experience liquidity constraints, Applied may incur bad debt expense, which may have a significant impact on its results of operations. Major customers may also seek pricing, payment, intellectual property-related, or other commercial terms that are less favorable to Applied, which may have a negative impact on Applied’s business, cash flow, revenue and gross margins.
Applied is exposed to risks as a result of ongoing changes in the various industries in which it operates.
The global semiconductor, display and related industries in which Applied operates are characterized by ongoing changes affecting some or all of these industries that impact demand for and the profitability of Applied’s products and its consolidated results of operations, including:
the nature, timing and degree of visibility of changes in end demand for electronic products, including those related to fluctuations in consumer buying patterns tied to general economic conditions, seasonality or the introduction of new products, and the effects of these changes on customers’ businesses and on demand for Applied’s products;
increasing capital requirements for building and operating new fabrication plants and customers’ ability to raise the necessary capital;
trade, regulatory, tax or government incentive policies impacting the timing of customers’ investment in new or expanded fabrication plants;
differences in growth rates among the semiconductor, display and other industries in which Applied operates;
the increasing importance of establishing, improving and maintaining strong relationships with customers;
the increasing cost and complexity for customers to move from product design to volume manufacturing, which may slow the adoption rate of new manufacturing technology;
the need for customers to continually reduce the total cost of manufacturing system ownership;
the heightened importance to customers of system reliability and productivity and the effect on demand for fabrication systems as a result of their increasing productivity, device yield and reliability;
manufacturers’ ability to reconfigure and re-use fabrication systems which can reduce demand for new equipment;
the increasing importance of, and difficulties in, developing products with sufficient differentiation to influence customers’ purchasing decisions;
requirements for shorter cycle times for the development, manufacture and installation of manufacturing equipment;
price and performance trends for semiconductor devices and displays, and the corresponding effect on demand for such products;
the increasing importance of the availability of spare parts to maximize the time that customers’ systems are available for production;
increasing government incentives for local suppliers;
the increasing role for and complexity of software in Applied products; and
the increasing focus on reducing energy usage and improving the environmental impact and sustainability associated with manufacturing operations.
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Applied is exposed to risks as a result of ongoing changes specific to the semiconductor industry.
The largest proportion of Applied’s consolidated net sales and profitability is derived from sales of manufacturing equipment in the Semiconductor Systems segment to the global semiconductor industry. In addition, a majority of the revenues of Applied Global Services is from sales to semiconductor manufacturers. The semiconductor industry is characterized by ongoing changes particular to this industry that impact demand for and the profitability of Applied’s semiconductor manufacturing equipment and service products, including:
the increasing frequency and complexity of technology transitions and inflections, and Applied’s ability to timely and effectively anticipate and adapt to these changes;
the increasing cost of research and development due to many factors, including shrinking geometries, the use of new materials, new and more complex device structures, more applications and process steps, increasing chip design costs, and the increasing cost and complexity of integrated manufacturing processes;
the need to reduce product development time, despite the increasing difficulty of technical challenges;
the growing number of types and varieties of semiconductors and number of applications across multiple substrate sizes;
the increasing cost and complexity for semiconductor manufacturers to move more technically advanced capability and smaller geometries to volume manufacturing, and the resulting impact on the rates of technology transition and investment in capital equipment;
challenges in generating organic growth given semiconductor manufacturers’ levels of capital expenditures and the allocation of capital investment to market segments that Applied does not serve, such as lithography, or segments where Applied’s products have lower relative market presence;
the importance of increasing market positions in segments with growing demand;
semiconductor manufacturer’s ability to reconfigure and re-use equipment, resulting in diminished need to purchase new equipment and services from us, and challenges in providing parts for reused equipment;
shorter cycle times between order placements by customers and product shipment require greater reliance on forecasting of customer investment, which may lead to inventory write-offs and manufacturing inefficiencies that decrease gross margin;
competitive factors that make it difficult to enhance position, including challenges in securing development-tool-of-record (DTOR) and production-tool-of-record (PTOR) positions with customers;
consolidation in the semiconductor industry, including among semiconductor manufacturers and among manufacturing equipment suppliers;
shifts in sourcing strategies by computer and electronics companies, and manufacturing processes for advanced circuit technologies, that impact the equipment requirements of Applied’s foundry customers;
the concentration of new wafer starts in Korea and Taiwan, where Applied’s service penetration and service-revenue-per-wafer-start have been lower than in other regions;
investment in semiconductor manufacturing capabilities in China, which may be affected by changes in economic conditions and governmental regulations and policies in China and the United States;
the increasing fragmentation of semiconductor markets, leading certain markets to become too small to support the cost of a new fabrication plant, while others require less technologically advanced products; and
the growing importance of specialty markets (such as Internet of Things, communications, automotive, power and sensors) that use mature process technologies and have a low barrier to entry.
If Applied does not accurately forecast and allocate appropriate resources and investment towards addressing key technology changes and inflections, successfully develop and commercialize products to meet demand for new technologies, and effectively address industry trends, its business and results of operations may be adversely impacted.
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Applied is exposed to risks as a result of ongoing changes specific to the display industry.
The global display industry historically has experienced considerable volatility in capital equipment investment levels, due in part to the limited number of display manufacturers, the concentrated nature of end-use applications, production capacity relative to end-use demand, and panel manufacturer profitability. Industry growth depends primarily on consumer demand for increasingly larger and more advanced TVs, and on demand for advanced smartphones and mobile device displays, which demand is highly sensitive to cost and improvements in technologies and features. The display industry is characterized by ongoing changes particular to this industry that impact demand for and the profitability of Applied’s display products and services, including:
the importance of new types of display technologies, such as organic light-emitting diode (OLED), low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) and metal oxide transistor backplanes, flexible displays, and new touch panel films;
the increasing cost of research and development, and complexity of technology transitions and inflections, and Applied’s ability to timely and effectively anticipate and adapt to these changes;
the timing and extent of an expansion of manufacturing facilities in China, which may be affected by changes in local economic conditions and governmental policies in China, Korea, Japan and the United States;
the importance of increasing market positions in products and technologies with growing demand;
the rate of transition to larger substrate sizes for TVs and to new display technologies for TVs, IT products and mobile applications, and the resulting effect on capital intensity in the industry and on Applied’s product differentiation, gross margin and return on investment; and
fluctuations in customer spending quarter over quarter and year over year for display manufacturing equipment, concentration of display manufacturer customers and their ability to successfully commercialize new products and technologies, and uncertainty with respect to future display technology end-use applications and growth drivers.
If Applied does not successfully develop and commercialize products to meet demand for new and emerging display technologies, or if industry demand for display manufacturing equipment and technologies slows, Applied’s business and its results of operations may be adversely impacted.
The industries in which Applied operates are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological and market changes.
Applied operates in a highly competitive environment in which innovation is critical, and its future success depends on many factors, including the development of new technologies and effective commercialization and customer acceptance of its equipment, services and related products, and its ability to increase its position in its current markets, expand into adjacent and new markets, and optimize operational performance. The development, introduction and support of a broadening set of products in a geographically diverse and competitive environment, and that may require greater collaboration with customers and other industry participants, have grown more complex and expensive over time. Furthermore, new or improved products may entail higher costs, longer development cycles, lower profits and may have unforeseen product design or manufacturing defects. To compete successfully, Applied must:
identify and address technology inflections, market changes, competitor innovations, new applications, customer requirements and end-use demand in a timely and effective manner;
develop new products and disruptive technologies, improve and develop new applications for existing products, and adapt products for use by customers in different applications and markets with varying technical requirements;
differentiate its products from those of competitors, meet customers’ performance specifications (including those related to energy consumption and environmental impact more broadly), appropriately price products, and achieve market acceptance;
maintain operating flexibility to enable responses to changing markets, applications, customers and customer requirements;
enhance its worldwide operations across its businesses to reduce cycle time, enable continuous quality improvement, reduce costs, and enhance design for manufacturability and serviceability;
focus on product development and sales and marketing strategies that address customers’ high value problems and strengthen customer relationships;
effectively allocate resources between its existing products and markets, the development of new products, and expanding into new and adjacent markets;
improve the productivity of capital invested in R&D activities;
accurately forecast demand, work with suppliers and meet production schedules for its products;
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improve its manufacturing processes and achieve cost efficiencies across product offerings;
adapt to changes in value offered by companies in different parts of the supply chain;
qualify products for evaluation and volume manufacturing with its customers; and
implement changes in its design engineering methodology to reduce material costs and cycle time, increase commonality of platforms and types of parts used in different systems, and improve product life cycle management.
If Applied does not successfully anticipate technology inflections, develop and commercialize new products and technologies, and respond to changes in customer requirements and market trends, its business performance and results of operations may be adversely impacted.
Risks Related to Applied’s Business, Finance and Operations
Supply chain disruptions, manufacturing interruptions or delays, or the failure to accurately forecast customer demand, could affect Applied’s ability to meet customer demand, lead to higher costs, or result in excess or obsolete inventory.
Applied’s business depends on its timely supply of equipment, services and related products to meet the changing technical and volume requirements of its customers, which depends in part on the timely delivery of parts, materials and services, including components and subassemblies, from suppliers and contract manufacturers. Significant and sudden increases in demand for Applied’s products, as well as worldwide demand for electronic products, have resulted in, and may continue to result in, a shortage of parts, materials and services needed to manufacture Applied’s products. Such shortages, as well as delays in and unpredictability of shipments due to transportation interruptions, have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, our suppliers’ ability to meet our demand requirements. Difficulties in obtaining sufficient and timely supply of parts, materials or services, and delays in and unpredictability of shipments due to transportation interruptions, have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, Applied’s manufacturing operations and its ability to meet customer demand. Some key parts are subject to long lead-times or available only from a single supplier or limited group of suppliers, and some sourcing or subassembly is provided by suppliers located in countries other than the countries where Applied conducts its manufacturing. Volatility of demand for manufacturing equipment can increase capital, technical, operational and other risks for Applied and for companies throughout its supply chain, and may cause some suppliers to exit businesses, or scale back or cease operations, which could impact our ability to meet customer demand.
Applied may also experience significant interruptions of its manufacturing operations, delays in its ability to deliver or install products or services, increased costs or customer order cancellations as a result of:
the failure or inability to accurately forecast demand and obtain sufficient quantities of quality parts on a cost-effective basis;
volatility in the availability and cost of parts, materials or services, including rising prices due to inflation;
difficulties or delays in obtaining required import or export approvals;
shipment delays due to transportation interruptions or capacity constraints;
a worldwide shortage of semiconductor components as a result of sharp increases in demand for semiconductor products in general;
information technology or infrastructure failures, including those of a third party supplier or service provider; and
natural disasters, the impacts of climate change, or other events beyond Applied’s control (such as earthquakes, utility interruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, typhoons, floods, storms or extreme weather conditions, fires, regional economic downturns, regional or global health epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical turmoil, increased trade restrictions between the U.S. and China and other countries, social unrest, political instability, terrorism, or acts of war) in locations where it or its customers or suppliers have manufacturing, research, engineering or other operations.
As more fully discussed in the risk factor “The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and global measures taken in response thereto have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, Applied’s operations and financial results” above, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response by governments and businesses worldwide to contain its spread have adversely impacted and are expected to continue to adversely impact Applied’s supply chain, manufacturing, logistics, workforce and operations, as well as the operations of Applied’s customers, suppliers and partners globally.
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If a supplier fails to meet Applied’s requirements concerning quality, cost, intellectual property protection, socially-responsible business practices, or other performance factors, Applied may transfer its business to alternative sources. Transferring business to alternative suppliers could result in manufacturing delays, additional costs or other difficulties, and may impair Applied’s ability to protect, enforce and extract the full value of its intellectual property rights, as well as the intellectual property rights of its customers’ and other third parties. These outcomes could have an adverse impact on its business and competitive position and subject Applied to legal proceedings and claims. In addition, if Applied is unable to meet its customers’ demand for a prolonged period due to its inability to obtain certain parts or components from suppliers on a timely basis or at all, its business, results of operations and customer relationships could be adversely impacted.
In addition, if Applied needs to rapidly increase its business and manufacturing capacity to meet increases in demand or expedited shipment schedules, this may strain Applied’s manufacturing and supply chain operations, and negatively impact Applied’s working capital. Moreover, if actual demand for Applied’s products is different than expected, Applied may purchase more/fewer parts than necessary or incur costs for canceling, postponing or expediting delivery of parts. If Applied purchases or commits to purchase inventory in anticipation of customer demand that does not materialize, or such inventory is rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of technological change, or if customers reduce, delay or cancel orders, Applied may incur excess or obsolete inventory charges.
Applied is exposed to risks associated with business combinations, acquisitions, strategic investments and divestitures.
Applied engages in acquisitions of or investments in companies, technologies or products in existing, related or new markets for Applied. Business combinations, acquisitions and investments involve numerous risks to Applied’s business, financial condition and operating results, including but not limited to:
inability to complete proposed transactions timely or at all due to the failure to obtain regulatory or other approvals, litigation or other disputes, and any ensuing obligation to pay a termination fee;
diversion of management’s attention and disruption of ongoing businesses;
the failure to realize expected revenues, gross and operating margins, net income and other returns from acquired businesses;
requirements imposed by government regulators in connection with their review of a transaction, which may include, among other things, divestitures and restrictions on the conduct of Applied’s existing business or the acquired business;
following completion of acquisitions, ineffective integration of businesses, operations, systems, digital and physical security, technologies, products, employees, compliance programs, changes in laws or regulations, including tax laws, or other factors, may impact the ability to realize anticipated synergies or other benefits;
failure to commercialize technologies from acquired businesses or developed through strategic investments;
dependence on unfamiliar supply chains or relatively small supply partners;
inability to capitalize on characteristics of new markets that may be significantly different from Applied’s existing markets and where competitors may have stronger market positions and customer relationships;
failure to retain and motivate key employees of acquired businesses;
the potential impact of the announcement or consummation of a proposed transaction on relationships with third parties;
potential changes in Applied’s credit rating, which could adversely impact the Company’s access to and cost of capital;
reductions in cash balances or increases in debt obligations to finance activities associated with a transaction, which increase interest expense, and reductions in cash balances, which reduce the availability of cash flow for general corporate or other purposes, including share repurchases and dividends;
exposure to new operational risks, rules, regulations, worker expectations, customs and practices to the extent acquired businesses are located in regions where Applied has not historically conducted business;
challenges associated with managing new, more diverse and more widespread operations, projects and people;
inability to obtain and protect intellectual property rights in key technologies;
inadequacy or ineffectiveness of an acquired company’s internal financial controls, disclosure controls and procedures, cybersecurity, privacy policies and compliance programs, or environmental, health and safety, anti-corruption, human resource, or other policies or practices;
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impairment of acquired intangible assets and goodwill as a result of changing business conditions, technological advancements or worse-than-expected performance of the segment;
the risk of litigation or claims associated with a proposed or completed transaction;
unknown, underestimated, undisclosed or undetected commitments or liabilities or non-compliance with laws, regulations or policies; and
the inappropriate scale of acquired entities’ critical resources or facilities for business needs.
Applied also makes investments in other companies, including companies formed as joint ventures, which may decline in value or not meet desired objectives. The success of these investments depends on various factors over which Applied may have limited or no control and, particularly with respect to joint ventures, requires ongoing and effective cooperation with partners. In addition, new legislation, additional regulations or global economic or political conditions may affect or impair our ability to invest in certain countries or require us to obtain regulatory approvals to do so. Applied may not receive the necessary regulatory approvals or the approvals may come with significant conditions or obligations. The risks to Applied’s investment portfolio may be exacerbated by unfavorable financial market and macroeconomic conditions and, as a result, the value of the investment portfolio could be negatively impacted and lead to impairment charges.
Applied continually assesses the strategic fit of its businesses and may from time to time seek to divest portions of its business that are not deemed to fit with its strategic plan. Some divestitures may take the form of Applied contributing assets to a joint venture, and thus are subject to the joint venture risks discussed above. In addition, divestitures involve significant risks and uncertainties, such as ability to sell such businesses on satisfactory price and terms and in a timely manner (including long and costly sales processes and the possibility of lengthy and potentially unsuccessful attempts by a buyer to receive required regulatory approvals), or at all, disruption to other parts of the businesses and distraction of management, allocation of internal resources that would otherwise be devoted to completing strategic acquisitions, loss of key employees or customers, exposure to unanticipated liabilities (including, among other things, those arising from representations and warranties made to a buyer regarding the businesses) or ongoing obligations to support the businesses following such divestitures, and other adverse financial impacts.
Applied is exposed to risks associated with expanding into new and related markets and industries.
As part of its growth strategy, Applied seeks to expand into related or new markets and industries, either with its existing products or with new products developed internally, or those developed in collaboration with third parties, or obtained through acquisitions. Applied’s ability to successfully expand its business into new and related markets and industries may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:
the need to devote additional resources to develop new products for, and operate in, new markets;
the need to develop new sales and technical marketing strategies, cultivate relationships with new customers and meet different customer service requirements;
differing rates of profitability and growth among multiple businesses;
Applied’s ability to anticipate demand, capitalize on opportunities, and avoid or minimize risks;
the complexity of managing multiple businesses with variations in production planning, execution, supply chain management and logistics;
the adoption of new business models, business processes and systems;
the complexity of entering into and effectively managing strategic alliances or partnering opportunities;
new materials, processes and technologies;
the need to attract, motivate and retain employees with skills and expertise in these new areas;
new and more diverse customers and suppliers, including some with limited operating histories, uncertain or limited funding, evolving business models or locations in regions where Applied does not have, or has limited, operations;
new or different competitors with potentially more financial or other resources, industry experience and established customer relationships;
entry into new industries and countries, with differing levels of government involvement, laws and regulations, and business, employment and safety practices;
third parties’ intellectual property rights; and
the need to comply with, or work to establish, industry standards and practices.
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In addition, Applied from time to time receives funding from United States and other government agencies for certain strategic development programs to increase its research and development resources and address new market opportunities. As a condition to this government funding, Applied is often subject to certain record-keeping, audit, intellectual property rights-sharing, and/or other obligations.
The ability to attract, retain and motivate key employees is vital to Applied’s success.
Applied’s success, competitiveness and ability to execute on its global strategies and maintain a culture of innovation depend in large part on its ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees and leaders with expertise and capabilities, representing diverse backgrounds and experiences. Achieving this objective may be difficult due to many factors, including fluctuations in global economic and industry conditions, management changes, Applied’s organizational structure, increasing local and global competition for talent, the availability of qualified employees in the local and global markets, cost reduction activities (including workforce reductions and unpaid shutdowns), availability of career development opportunities, the ability to obtain necessary authorizations for workers to provide services outside their home countries, and the attractiveness of Applied’s compensation and benefit programs, including its share-based programs. If we are unable to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees and leaders, we may be unable to fully capitalize on current and new market opportunities, which could adversely impact Applied’s business and results of operations. The loss or retirement of employees presents particular challenges to the extent they involve the departure of knowledgeable and experienced employees and the resulting need to identify and train existing or new candidates to perform necessary functions, which may result in unexpected costs, reduced productivity, and/or difficulties with respect to internal processes and controls.
Applied is exposed to risks associated with operating in jurisdictions with complex and changing tax laws.
Applied is subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate worldwide tax liabilities. Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in applicable tax laws, interpretations of applicable tax laws, amount and composition of pre-tax income in jurisdictions with differing tax rates, and valuation of deferred tax assets. There have been a number of proposed changes in the tax laws that, if enacted, would increase our tax liability. While it is too early to predict the outcome of these proposals, if enacted, they could have a material impact on our provision for income taxes and effective tax rate. An increase in Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rate could, in turn, have a material adverse impact on Applied’s results of operations and financial condition.
Consistent with the international nature of its business, Applied conducts certain manufacturing, supply chain, and other operations in Asia, bringing these activities closer to customers and reducing operating costs. In certain foreign jurisdictions, conditional reduced income tax rates have been granted to Applied. To obtain the benefit of these tax incentives, Applied must meet requirements relating to various activities. Applied’s ability to realize benefits from these incentives could be materially affected if, among other things, applicable requirements are not met or Applied incurs net losses in these jurisdictions.
In addition, Applied is subject to examination by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities, and from time to time amends previously filed tax returns. Applied regularly assesses the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these examinations and amendments to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes, which requires estimates and judgments. Although Applied believes its tax estimates are reasonable, there can be no assurance that the tax authorities will agree with such estimates. Applied may have to engage in litigation to achieve the results reflected in the estimates, which may be time-consuming and expensive. There can be no assurance that Applied will be successful or that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in Applied’s historical income tax provisions and effective tax rates.
Applied’s indebtedness and debt covenants could adversely affect its financial condition and business.
Applied has $5.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes outstanding. Under the indenture governing the senior unsecured notes, it may be required to offer to repurchase the notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, upon a change of control of Applied and a contemporaneous downgrade of the notes below investment grade. Applied also has in place a $1.5 billion revolving credit facility. While no amounts were outstanding under this credit facility as of October 31, 2021, Applied may borrow amounts in the future under this credit facility. Applied may also enter into new financing arrangements. Applied’s ability to satisfy its debt obligations is dependent upon the results of its business operations and subject to other risks discussed in this section. Significant changes in Applied’s credit rating, disruptions in the global financial markets or changes in the interest rate environment could have a material adverse consequence on Applied’s access to and cost of capital for future financings, and financial condition. If Applied fails to satisfy its debt obligations, or comply with financial and other debt covenants, it may be in default and any borrowings may become immediately due and payable, and such default may also constitute a default under other of Applied’s obligations. There can be no assurance that Applied would have sufficient financial resources or be able to arrange financing to repay any borrowings at such time.
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The failure to successfully implement enterprise resource planning and other information systems changes could adversely impact Applied’s business and results of operations.
Applied periodically implements new or enhanced enterprise resource planning and related information systems in order to better manage its business operations, align its global organizations and enable future growth. Implementation of new business processes and information systems requires the commitment of significant personnel, training and financial resources, and entails risks to Applied’s business operations. If Applied does not successfully implement enterprise resource planning and related information systems improvements, or if there are delays or difficulties in implementing these systems, Applied may not realize anticipated productivity improvements or cost efficiencies, and may experience interruptions in service and operational difficulties, such as its ability to track orders, timely manufacture and ship products, project inventory requirements, effectively manage its supply chain and allocate human resources, aggregate financial data and report operating results, and otherwise effectively manage its business, all of which could result in quality issues, reputational harm, lost market and revenue opportunities, and otherwise adversely affect Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied may incur impairment charges related to goodwill or long-lived assets.
Applied has a significant amount of goodwill and other acquired intangible assets related to acquisitions. Goodwill and purchased intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, and more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. The review compares the fair value for each of Applied’s reporting units to its associated carrying value, including goodwill. Factors that could lead to impairment of goodwill and intangible assets include adverse industry or economic trends, reduced estimates of future cash flows, declines in the market price of Applied common stock, changes in Applied’s strategies or product portfolio, and restructuring activities. Applied’s valuation methodology for assessing impairment requires management to make judgments and assumptions based on historical experience and projections of future operating performance. Applied may be required to record future charges to earnings during the period in which an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets is determined to exist.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Cybersecurity
Applied is exposed to various risks related to protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.
Applied’s success depends in significant part on the protection of its technology using patents, trade secrets, copyrights and other intellectual property rights. Infringement of Applied’s rights by a third party, such as the unauthorized manufacture or sale of equipment or spare parts, could result in uncompensated lost market and revenue opportunities for Applied. Monitoring and detecting any unauthorized use of intellectual property is difficult and costly and Applied cannot be certain that the protective measures it has implemented will completely prevent misuse. Applied’s ability to enforce its intellectual property rights is subject to litigation risks, as well as uncertainty as to the protection and enforceability of those rights in some countries. If Applied seeks to enforce its intellectual property rights, it may be subject to claims that those rights are invalid or unenforceable, and others may seek counterclaims against Applied, which could have a negative impact on its business. If Applied is unable to enforce and protect intellectual property rights, or if they are circumvented, rendered obsolete or invalidated by the rapid pace of technological change, it could have an adverse impact on its competitive position and business. In addition, changes in intellectual property laws or their interpretation may impact Applied’s ability to protect and assert its intellectual property rights, increase costs and uncertainties in the prosecution of patent applications or related enforcement actions, and diminish the value and competitive advantage conferred by Applied’s intellectual property assets.
Third parties may also assert claims against Applied and its products. Claims that Applied’s products infringe the rights of others, whether or not meritorious, can be expensive and time-consuming to defend and resolve, and may divert the efforts and attention of management and personnel. The inability to obtain rights to use third party intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms could have an adverse impact on Applied’s business. In addition, Applied may face claims based on the theft or unauthorized use or disclosure of third-party trade secrets and other confidential business information. Any such incidents and claims could severely harm Applied’s business and reputation, result in significant expenses, harm its competitive position, and prevent Applied from selling certain products, all of which could have a significant adverse impact on Applied’s business and results of operations.
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Applied is exposed to risks related to cybersecurity threats and incidents.
In the conduct of its business, Applied collects, uses, transmits and stores data on information technology systems, including systems owned and maintained by Applied or its third-party providers. These data include confidential information and intellectual property belonging to Applied or its customers or other business partners, as well as personal information of individuals. All information technology systems are subject to disruption, breach or failure. Applied and its third-party providers have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, cybersecurity incidents, some of which may be successful. These cybersecurity incidents may range from employee error or misuse, to individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to these information systems, to sophisticated cybersecurity attacks, known as advanced persistent threats, any of which may target the Company directly or indirectly through its third party providers and global supply chain. Although no such cybersecurity incident has been material to the Company to date, Applied continues to devote significant resources to network security, data encryption, and other measures to protect its systems and data from unauthorized access or misuse, and it may be required to expend greater resources in the future, especially in the face of continuously evolving cybersecurity threats and privacy and data protection laws. Depending on their nature and scope, cybersecurity incidents may result in business disruption, such as delay in the development and delivery of Applied’s products or disruption of Applied’s manufacturing processes; the misappropriation of intellectual property; corruption, loss of, or inability to access (e.g., through ransomware or denial of service) confidential information and critical data (i.e., that of Applied and its third party providers and customers); reputational damage; litigation or regulatory enforcement action related to contractual or regulatory privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, or other confidentiality obligations; diminution in the value of Applied’s investment in research, development and engineering; and increased costs associated with the implementation of cybersecurity measures to detect, deter, protect against, and recover from such incidents. Compliance with, and changes to, laws and regulations concerning privacy, cybersecurity, data protection and data localization could result in significant expense, and any failure to comply could result in proceedings against Applied by regulatory authorities or other third parties. Further, customers and third-party providers increasingly demand rigorous contractual provisions regarding privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, confidentiality, and intellectual property, which may also increase our overall compliance burden.
Risks Related to Legal and Compliance
Applied is exposed to various risks related to legal proceedings.
Applied from time to time is, and in the future may be involved in legal proceedings or claims regarding patent infringement, trade secret misappropriation, and other intellectual property rights, trade, including import, export and customs, antitrust, environmental regulations, privacy, data protection, securities, contracts, product performance, product liability, unfair competition, employment, workplace safety, and other matters. Applied also on occasion receives notification from customers who believe that Applied owes them indemnification, product warranty or has other obligations related to claims made against such customers by third parties.
Legal proceedings and claims, whether with or without merit, and associated internal investigations, may be time-consuming and expensive to prosecute, defend or conduct; divert management’s attention and other Applied resources; inhibit Applied’s ability to sell its products; result in adverse judgments for damages, injunctive relief, penalties and fines; and negatively affect Applied’s business. There can be no assurance regarding the outcome of current or future legal proceedings, claims or investigations.
Applied is subject to risks associated with environmental, health and safety regulations and sustainability requirements.
Applied is subject to environmental, health and safety regulations in connection with its global business operations, including but not limited to: regulations related to the development, manufacture, shipping and use of its products; handling, discharge, recycling and disposal of hazardous materials used in its products or in producing its products; the operation of its facilities; and the use of its real property. The failure or inability to comply with existing or future environmental, health and safety regulations, including those relating to climate change, could result in: significant remediation or other legal liabilities; the imposition of penalties and fines; restrictions on the development, manufacture, sale, shipping or use of certain of its products; limitations on the operation of its facilities or ability to use its real property; and a decrease in the value of its real property.
In addition to regulatory compliance, growing customer sustainability requirements, as well as Applied’s sustainability targets, could cause Applied from time to time to alter its manufacturing, operations or equipment designs, and incur substantial expense to meet these regulatory and sustainability requirements. Any failure to comply with these regulations, or meet these customer requirements or sustainability targets, could adversely impact the demand for Applied’s products and subject Applied to significant costs and liabilities and reputational risks that could adversely affect Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Applied is exposed to various risks related to the global regulatory environment.
As a public company with global operations, Applied is subject to the laws of the United States and multiple foreign jurisdictions and the rules and regulations of various governing bodies, which may differ among jurisdictions, including those related to financial and other disclosures, accounting standards, corporate governance, intellectual property, tax, trade (including import, export and customs), antitrust, environment, health and safety (including those relating to climate change), employment, immigration and travel regulations, privacy, data protection and localization, and anti-corruption. Changing, inconsistent or conflicting laws, rules and regulations, and ambiguities in their interpretation and application create uncertainty and challenges, and compliance with laws, rules and regulations may be onerous and expensive, divert management time and attention from revenue-generating activities, and otherwise adversely impact Applied’s business operations. Violations of law, rules and regulations, including, among others, those related to financial and other disclosures, trade and import, antitrust, privacy, data protection, and anti-corruption, could result in fines, criminal penalties, restrictions on Applied’s business, and damage to its reputation, and could have an adverse impact on its business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

Item 1B:      Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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Item 2:      Properties
Information concerning Applied’s properties is set forth below:
 
(Square feet in thousands)United StatesOther CountriesTotal
Owned4,8552,4727,327
Leased1,9121,8003,712
Total6,7674,27211,039
Because of the interrelation of Applied’s operations, properties within a country may be shared by the segments operating within that country. The Company’s headquarters offices are in Santa Clara, California. Products in Semiconductor Systems are manufactured in Santa Clara, California; Austin, Texas; Gloucester, Massachusetts; Kalispell, Montana; Rehovot, Israel; and Singapore. Remanufactured equipment products in the Applied Global Services segment are produced primarily in Austin, Texas. Products in the Display and Adjacent Markets segment are manufactured in Alzenau, Germany and Tainan, Taiwan.
Applied also owns and leases offices, plants and warehouse locations in many locations throughout the world, including in Europe, Japan, North America (principally the United States), Israel, China, India, Korea, Southeast Asia and Taiwan. These facilities are principally used for manufacturing; research, development and engineering; and marketing, sales and customer support.
Applied also owns a total of approximately 269 acres of buildable land in Montana, Texas, California, Israel and Italy that could accommodate additional building space.
Applied considers the properties that it owns or leases as adequate to meet its current and future requirements. Applied regularly assesses the size, capability and location of its global infrastructure and periodically makes adjustments based on these assessments.
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Item 3:      Legal Proceedings
The information set forth under “Legal Matters” in Note 17 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements is incorporated herein by reference. See also “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Legal and Compliance.”
 
Item 4:      Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II

Item 5:      Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information 
Applied’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol AMAT. As of December 10, 2021, there were 2,833 registered holders of Applied common stock. Information regarding quarterly cash dividends declared on Applied Materials’s common stock during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 may be found under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources”.
Performance Graph
The performance graph below shows the five-year cumulative total stockholder return on Applied common stock during the period from October 30, 2016 through October 31, 2021. This is compared with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the PHLX Semiconductor Index over the same period. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on October 30, 2016 in Applied common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. Dollar amounts in the graph are rounded to the nearest whole dollar. The performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future performance.
amat-20211031_g1.jpg
*Assumes $100 invested on 10/30/16 in stock or 10/31/16 in index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Indexes calculated on month-end basis.
Copyright© 2021 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P global. All rights reserved.
 
10/30/201610/29/201710/28/201810/27/201910/25/202010/31/2021
Applied Materials100.00 199.87 115.48 202.95 225.12 508.89 
S&P 500 Index100.00 123.88 130.09 150.94 176.35 237.87 
PHLX Semiconductor Index100.00 156.93 145.72 212.64 309.77 458.88 

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In March 2021, Applied’s Board of Directors approved a common stock repurchase program authorizing $7.5 billion in repurchases, which supplemented the previously existing $6.0 billion authorization approved in February 2018.
The following table provides information as of October 31, 2021 with respect to the shares of common stock repurchased by Applied during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021 pursuant to the foregoing Board authorization.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage
Price Paid
per Share
Aggregate
Price Paid
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Programs
Maximum Dollar
Value of Shares
That May Yet be
Purchased Under
the Programs
 (In millions, except per share amounts)
Month #1
(August 2, 2021 to August 29, 2021)3.5 $134.64 $466 3.5 $6,059 
Month #2
(August 30, 2021 to September 26, 2021)3.2 $137.35 443 3.2 $5,616 
Month #3
(September 27, 2021 to October 31, 2021)4.5 $131.23 591 4.5 $5,025 
Total11.2 $134.05 $1,500 11.2 


Item 6:    [Reserved]
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Item 7:      Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Introduction
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to facilitate an understanding of Applied’s business and results of operations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with Applied’s Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements and should also be read in conjunction with the cautionary statement set forth at the beginning of this Form 10-K. MD&A consists of the following sections:
 
Applied's Pandemic Response
Overview: a summary of Applied’s business and measurements
Results of Operations: a discussion of operating results
Segment Information: a discussion of segment operating results
Recent Accounting Pronouncements: a discussion of new accounting pronouncements and its impact to Applied’s consolidated financial statements
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources: an analysis of cash flows, sources and uses of cash
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates: a discussion of critical accounting policies that require the exercise of judgments and estimates
Non-GAAP Adjusted Results: a presentation of results reconciling GAAP to non-GAAP adjusted measures
Applied’s Pandemic Response
As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in 2020, Applied Materials responded quickly to put in place precautionary measures to keep its workplaces healthy and safe, while ensuring compliance with orders and restrictions imposed by government authorities, everywhere Applied operates in the world.
Applied’s top priority during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains protecting the health and safety of its employees and their families, customers, suppliers and community. Applied continues to support workplace flexibility such as remote working where possible and follow enhanced safety and health protocols—including screenings, social distancing, and use of personal protective equipment. Applied is keeping its labs and operations active and continuing to support customers.
Applied has implemented a multi-phase plan to return to working on-site, which takes into consideration factors such as Applied’s business and employee needs, local government regulations, community case trends, and recommendations from public health officials. The plan involves multiple phases that gradually allow additional workers to return onsite while practicing social distancing and other safety measures.
Applied will continue to monitor and evaluate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and will work to respond appropriately to the impact of COVID-19 on its business, its customers’ and suppliers’ businesses and its communities.
Overview
Applied provides manufacturing equipment, services and software to the semiconductor, display, and related industries. Applied’s customers include manufacturers of semiconductor wafers and chips, liquid crystal and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays, and other electronic devices. These customers may use what they manufacture in their own end products or sell the items to other companies for use in advanced electronic components. Each of Applied’s businesses is subject to variable industry conditions, as demand for manufacturing equipment and services can change depending on supply and demand for chips, display technologies, and other electronic devices, as well as other factors, such as global economic and market conditions, and the nature and timing of technological advances in fabrication processes.
Applied operates in three reportable segments: Semiconductor Systems, Applied Global Services, and Display and Adjacent Markets. A summary of financial information for each reportable segment is found in Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. A discussion of factors that could affect Applied’s operations is set forth under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, which is incorporated herein by reference. Product development and manufacturing activities occur primarily in the United States, Europe, Israel, and Asia. Applied’s broad range of equipment and service products are highly technical and are sold primarily through a direct sales force.
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Applied’s results are driven primarily by customer spending on capital equipment and services to support key technology transitions or to increase production volume in response to worldwide demand for semiconductors and displays. Spending by semiconductor customers, which include companies that operate in the foundry, logic and memory markets, is driven by demand for advanced electronic products, including smartphones and other mobile devices, servers, personal computers, automotive devices, storage, and other products. The growth of data and emerging end-market drivers such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, 5G networks, smart vehicles and augmented and virtual reality are also creating the next wave of growth for the industry. As a result, products within the Semiconductor Systems segment are subject to significant changes in customer requirements, including transitions to smaller dimensions, increasingly complex chip architectures, new materials and an increasing number of applications. Demand for display manufacturing equipment spending depends primarily on consumer demand for increasingly larger and more advanced TVs as well as larger and higher resolution displays for next-generation mobile devices, and investments in new types of display technologies. While certain existing technologies may be adapted to new requirements, some applications create the need for an entirely different technological approach. The timing of customer investment in manufacturing equipment is also affected by the timing of next-generation process development and the timing of capacity expansion to meet end-market demand. In light of these conditions, Applied’s results can vary significantly year-over-year, as well as quarter-over-quarter.
Applied’s strategic priorities include developing products that help solve customers’ challenges at technology inflections; expanding its served market opportunities in the semiconductor and display industries; and growing its services business. Applied’s long-term growth strategy requires continued development of new materials engineering capabilities, including products and platforms that enable expansion into new and adjacent markets. Applied’s significant investments in research, development and engineering must generally enable it to deliver new products and technologies before the emergence of strong demand, thus allowing customers to incorporate these products into their manufacturing plans during early-stage technology selection. Applied works closely with its global customers to design systems and processes that meet their planned technical and production requirements.
The following table presents certain significant measurements for the past three fiscal years:
 
  Change
2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 
 (In millions, except per share amounts and percentages)
Net sales$23,063 $17,202 $14,608 $5,861 $2,594 
Gross margin47.3 %44.7 %43.7 %2.6 points1.0 points
Operating income$6,889 $4,365 $3,350 $2,524 $1,015 
Operating margin29.9 %25.4 %22.9 %4.5 points2.5 points
Net income$5,888 $3,619 $2,706 $2,269 $913 
Earnings per diluted share$6.40 $3.92 $2.86 $2.48 $1.06 

Fiscal 2021 contained 53 weeks, and fiscal 2020 and 2019 each contained 52 weeks.
COVID-19 was designated a pandemic during fiscal 2020 and the resulting restrictions put in place worldwide impacted Applied’s supply chains and manufacturing operations.
In fiscal 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the digital transformation of the economy, creating increased global demand for semiconductors. As a result, semiconductor equipment customers continued to make strategic investments in new technology transitions. Foundry and logic spending increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 driven by customer investment in both advanced and mature nodes. Spending by memory customers increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020, as the industry made investments to maintain balance between supply and demand and invested in new technology. While customers’ strategic investments continued, supply chain constraints impacted Applied’s ability to fulfill demand primarily in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021. Applied expects demand to remain strong and supply shortages to persist into fiscal 2022, and managing these near-term supply chain constraints is a top priority.
Applied saw continued growth in its services business in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 driven by an increase in the installed base of equipment and in long-term service agreements. Applied’s Display and Adjacent Markets revenue remained relatively flat in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 due to increased investment in display manufacturing equipment for TVs, offset by decreased investment in display manufacturing equipment for mobile products.

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In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and evolving conditions and worldwide response, Applied made adjustments to its global operations and is actively managing its responses in collaboration with its employees, customers and suppliers. However, the situation remains fluid and uncertain. For additional risks associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, see the risk factor entitled “The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and global measures taken in response thereto have adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, Applied’s operations and financial results” in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Results of Operations
Net Sales
Net sales for the periods indicated were as follows: 
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages)
Semiconductor Systems$16,286 71%$11,367 66%$9,027 62%43 %26 %
Applied Global Services5,013 22%4,155 24%3,854 26%21 %%
Display and Adjacent Markets1,634 7%1,607 9%1,651 11%%(3)%
Corporate and Other130 —%73 1%76 1%78 %(4)%
Total$23,063 100%$17,202 100%$14,608 100%34 %18 %
Net sales in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 increased primarily due to increased customer investments in semiconductor equipment and spending on services. The Semiconductor Systems segment continued to represent the largest contributor of net sales.
Net sales by geographic region, determined by the location of customers’ facilities to which products were shipped, were as follows:
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages)
China$7,535 33%$5,456 32%$4,277 29%38 %28 %
Korea5,012 22%3,031 18%1,929 13%65 %57 %
Taiwan4,742 20%3,953 23%2,965 20%20 %33 %
Japan1,962 8%1,996 11%2,198 15%(2)%(9)%
Southeast Asia677 3%411 2%548 4%65 %(25)%
Asia Pacific19,928 86%14,847 86%11,917 81%34 %25 %
United States2,038 9%1,619 10%1,871 13%26 %(13)%
Europe1,097 5%736 4%820 6%49 %(10)%
Total$23,063 100%$17,202 100%$14,608 100%34 %18 %
The changes in net sales in all regions in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily reflected changes in investments in semiconductor manufacturing equipment and customer spending on comprehensive service agreements. The decrease in net sales to customers in Japan for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily reflected a decrease in investments in semiconductor manufacturing equipment, partially offset by an increase in customer spending on comprehensive service agreements.
The changes in net sales in all regions in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily reflected changes in semiconductor equipment spending. The increase in net sales to customers in China, Taiwan and Korea for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 was primarily due to increased investments in semiconductor manufacturing equipment and customer spending on comprehensive service agreements. The increase in China was partially offset by a decrease in customer spending in display manufacturing equipment. The decrease in net sales to customers in Japan and United States for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily reflected a decrease in investments in semiconductor and display manufacturing equipment. The decrease in net sales to customers in Southeast Asia and Europe for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily reflected a decrease in investments in semiconductor manufacturing equipment and customer spending on legacy systems and spares.
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Gross Margin
Gross margins for the periods indicated were as follows: 
  Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages)
Gross margin47.3 %44.7 %43.7 %2.6 points1.0 points
Gross margin in fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to the increase in net sales and favorable changes in customer and product mix, partially offset by higher freight costs and higher personnel costs due to an increase in headcount to provide manufacturing capacity and flexibility.
Gross margin in fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to the increase in net sales and favorable changes in customer and product mix, partially offset by higher freight costs, and higher personnel costs due to increase in headcount to provide manufacturing capacity and flexibility, underutilization of headcount due to COVID-19 restrictions preventing travel to customer site and incremental employee compensation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Gross margin during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 included $118 million, $103 million and $89 million, respectively, of share-based compensation expense.
Research, Development and Engineering 
Research, Development and Engineering (RD&E) expenses for the periods indicated were as follows:
   Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
Research, development and engineering$2,485 $2,234 $2,054 $251 $180 
Applied’s future operating results depend to a considerable extent on its ability to maintain a competitive advantage in the equipment and service products it provides. Development cycles range from 12 to 36 months depending on whether the product is an enhancement of an existing product, which typically has a shorter development cycle, or a new product, which typically has a longer development cycle. Most of Applied’s existing products resulted from internal development activities and innovations involving new technologies, materials and processes. In certain instances, Applied acquires technologies, either in existing or new product areas, to complement its existing technology capabilities and to reduce time to market.
Management believes that it is critical to continue to make substantial investments in RD&E to assure the availability of innovative technology that meets the current and projected requirements of its customers’ most advanced designs. Applied has maintained and intends to continue its commitment to investing in RD&E in order to continue to offer new products and technologies.
Applied continued its RD&E investments across Semiconductor Systems and Display and Adjacent Markets on the development of new unit process systems and integrated materials solutions. Areas of investment include etch, deposition, inspection, patterning, packaging and other technologies to improve chip performance, power, area, cost and time-to-market. In Display and Adjacent Markets, RD&E investments were focused on expanding the Company’s market opportunity with new display technologies.
The increases in RD&E expenses during both fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 were primarily due to additional headcount and higher expense associated with share-based compensation and variable compensation. These increases reflect Applied’s ongoing investments in product development initiatives, consistent with the Company’s growth strategy. Applied continued to prioritize existing RD&E investments in technical capabilities and critical research and development programs in current and new markets, with a focus on semiconductor technologies.
RD&E expenses during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 included $129 million, $116 million and $99 million, respectively, of share-based compensation expense.
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Marketing and Selling
Marketing and selling expenses for the periods indicated were as follows:
  Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
Marketing and selling$609 $526 $521 $83 $
Marketing and selling expenses for fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to additional headcount and higher variable compensation. Marketing and selling expenses remained relatively flat in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019. Marketing and selling expenses for fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 included $43 million, $36 million and $31 million, respectively, of share-based compensation expense.
General and Administrative 
General and administrative (G&A) expenses for the periods indicated were as follows:
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
General and administrative$620 $567 $461 $53 $106 
G&A expenses in fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to additional headcount and higher variable compensation. G&A expenses in fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to higher expenses associated with acquisition integration and deal costs, variable compensation, and share-based compensation.
G&A expenses during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 included $56 million, $52 million and $44 million, respectively, of share-based compensation expense.
Severance and Related Charges
Severance and related charges for the periods indicated were as follows:
 Change
2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
Severance and related charges$157 $— $— $157 $— 
In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, Applied enacted a severance plan (Fiscal 2021 Severance Plan) to realign its workforce. Under this plan, Applied implemented a one-time voluntary retirement program and other workforce reduction actions. The voluntary retirement program was available to certain U.S. employees who met minimum age and length of service requirements, as well as other business-specific criteria. In addition, Applied implemented other workforce reduction actions globally across the Display and Adjacent Markets business.
Deal Termination Fee
Deal termination fee for the periods indicated were as follows:
 Change
2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
Deal termination fee$154 $— $— $154 $— 
On June 30, 2019, Applied entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (SPA) with Kokusai Electric Corporation (Kokusai Electric) and KKR HKE Investment L.P. (KKR) providing for Applied’s acquisition of all outstanding shares of Kokusai Electric. The SPA, as subsequently amended, terminated as of March 19, 2021. Applied paid KKR a termination fee of $154 million during the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
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Interest Expense and Interest and Other Income (loss), net
Interest expense and interest and other income (loss), net for the periods indicated were as follows:
 Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions)
Interest expense$236 $240 $237 $(4)$
Interest and other income, net$118 $41 $156 $77 $(115)
Interest expenses incurred were primarily associated with the senior unsecured notes. Interest expense in fiscal 2021 remained relatively flat compared fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2019 due to the average principal balance of the senior unsecured notes remained consistent at $5.5 billion in each of the last three years.
Interest and other income, net in fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020, primarily driven by a higher net gain from equity investments, partially offset by lower interest income during fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020. Interest and other income, net in fiscal 2020 decreased compared to fiscal 2019, primarily driven by lower interest income and a loss on early extinguishment of debt. In addition, unrealized gains on equity investment securities from investments during fiscal 2020 were lower compared to fiscal 2019.
Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes and effective tax rates for the periods indicated were as follows:
 Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$883 $547 $563 $336 $(16)
Effective income tax rate13.0 %13.1 %17.2 %(0.1) points(4.1) points
Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rate are affected by the geographical composition of pre-tax income which includes jurisdictions with differing tax rates, conditional reduced tax rates and other income tax incentives. It is also affected by events that are not consistent from period to period, such as changes in income tax laws and the resolution of prior years’ income tax filings.
Applied’s effective tax rate for fiscal 2021 was slightly lower than fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher proportion of pre-tax income in lower tax jurisdictions, partially offset by resolutions of prior years’ income tax filings. Applied’s effective tax rate for fiscal 2020 was lower than fiscal 2019 primarily due to a decline in the tax expense from changes to uncertain tax positions year-over-year, an increased tax benefit from tax credits, and increased excess stock compensation tax benefits. This benefit was partly offset by an unfavorable settlement of an uncertain tax position in fiscal 2020.
On June 14, 2019, the U.S. government released regulations that significantly affect how the global intangible low-taxed income (GILTI) provision of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act) is interpreted. As a result, Applied reversed a tax benefit of $96 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2019 that had been realized in the first half of fiscal 2019. An accounting policy may be selected to treat GILTI temporary differences in taxable income either as a current-period expense when incurred (period cost method) or factor such amounts into the measurement of deferred taxes (deferred method). Applied has chosen the period cost method.
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Segment Information
Applied reports financial results in three segments: Semiconductor Systems, Applied Global Services, and Display and Adjacent Markets. A description of the products and services, as well as financial data, for each reportable segment can be found in Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Corporate and Other category includes revenues from products, as well as costs of products sold, for fabricating solar photovoltaic cells and modules and certain operating expenses that are not allocated to its reportable segments and are managed separately at the corporate level. These operating expenses include costs for share-based compensation; certain management, finance, legal, human resource, and RD&E functions provided at the corporate level; and unabsorbed information technology and occupancy. In addition, Applied does not allocate to its reportable segments restructuring, severance and asset impairment charges and any associated adjustments related to restructuring actions, unless these actions pertain to a specific reportable segment.
The results for each reportable segment are discussed below.
Semiconductor Systems Segment
The Semiconductor Systems segment is comprised primarily of capital equipment used to fabricate semiconductor chips. Semiconductor industry spending on capital equipment is driven by demand for advanced electronic products, including smartphones and other mobile devices, servers, personal computers, automotive electronics, storage, and other products, and the nature and timing of technological advances in fabrication processes, and as a result is subject to variable industry conditions. Development efforts are focused on solving customers’ key technical challenges in transistor, interconnect, patterning and packaging performance.
Certain significant measures for the periods indicated were as follows: 
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages and ratios)
Net sales$16,286 $11,367 $9,027 $4,919 43 %$2,340 26 %
Operating income$6,311 $3,714 $2,464 $2,597 70 %$1,250 51 %
Operating margin38.8 %32.7 %27.3 %6.1 points5.4 points
 
Net sales for Semiconductor Systems by end use application for the periods indicated were as follows:
 202120202019
Foundry, logic and other60 %59 %52 %
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM)19 %20 %22 %
Flash memory21 %21 %26 %
100 %100 %100 %
Semiconductor equipment customers continued to make strategic investments in new technology transitions during fiscal 2021. Foundry and logic spending increased, in absolute dollars, in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 driven by customer investment in both advanced and mature nodes. Spending by memory customers also increased, in absolute dollars, in fiscal 2021 compared to the prior year. Operating margin for fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020, primarily reflecting higher net sales and favorable changes in customer and product mix, partially offset by higher personnel costs due to the hiring of additional headcount to provide manufacturing capacity and flexibility, and higher freight costs. In fiscal 2021, two customers each accounted for more than 10 percent of this segment’s total net sales, and together they accounted for approximately 43 percent of this segment’s total net sales.
Net sales for fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to higher spending, in absolute dollars, from foundry, logic and other customers. Operating margin for fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019, primarily reflecting higher net sales and favorable changes in customer and product mix and lower travel-related spending due to COVID-19 travel restrictions, partially offset by increased RD&E expenses, higher freight costs, higher personnel costs due to additional headcount to provide manufacturing capacity and flexibility, and incremental employee compensation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
There was no single region that accounted for at least 30 percent of total net sales for the Semiconductor Systems segment for any of the past three fiscal years.
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Applied Global Services Segment
The Applied Global Services segment provides integrated solutions to optimize equipment and fab performance and productivity, including spares, upgrades, services, certain remanufactured earlier generation equipment and factory automation software for semiconductor, display and solar products.
Demand for Applied Global Services’ solutions are driven by Applied’s large and growing installed base of manufacturing systems, and customers’ needs to shorten ramp times, improve device performance and yield, and optimize factory output and operating costs. Industry conditions that affect Applied Global Services’ sales of spares and services are primarily characterized by increases in semiconductor manufacturers’ wafer starts and continued strong utilization rates, growth of the installed base of equipment, growing service intensity of newer tools, and the Company’s ability to sell more comprehensive service agreements.
Certain significant measures for the periods indicated were as follows: 
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages and ratios)
Net sales$5,013 $4,155 $3,854 $858 21 %$301 %
Operating income$1,508 $1,127 $1,101 $381 34 %$26 %
Operating margin30.1 %27.1 %28.6 %3.0 points(1.5) points

Net sales for fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher customer spending on comprehensive service agreements and spares, and the impact of an additional one week during fiscal 2021. Operating margin for fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher net sales, partially offset by higher expense related to an increase in headcount to support business growth and higher freight costs. In fiscal 2021, two customers each accounted for more than 10 percent of this segment’s total net sales.
Net sales for fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to higher customer spending on comprehensive service agreements, semiconductor spares and legacy systems. Operating margin for fiscal 2020 decreased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to an increase in headcount to support business growth, underutilization of headcount due to COVID-19 restrictions preventing travel to customer sites, higher freight costs and incremental employee compensation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
There was no single region that accounted for at least 30 percent of total net sales for the Applied Global Services segment for any of the past three fiscal years.
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Display and Adjacent Markets Segment
The Display and Adjacent Markets segment encompasses products for manufacturing liquid crystal and OLED displays, and other display technologies for TVs, monitors, laptops, personal computers, electronic tablets, smart phones, and other consumer-oriented devices and equipment upgrades. The segment is focused on expanding its presence through technologically-differentiated equipment for manufacturing large-scale LCD TVs, OLEDs, low temperature polysilicon (LTPS), metal oxide, and touch panel sectors; and development of products that provide customers with improved performance and yields.
Display industry growth depends primarily on consumer demand for increasingly larger and more advanced TVs as well as larger and higher resolution displays for next-generation mobile devices. Uneven spending patterns by customers in the Display and Adjacent Markets segment can cause significant fluctuations quarter-over-quarter, as well as year-over-year.
Certain significant measures for the periods presented were as follows: 
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages and ratios)
Net sales$1,634 $1,607 $1,651 $27 %$(44)(3)%
Operating income$314 $291 $294 $23 %$(3)(1)%
Operating margin19.2 %18.1 %17.8 %1.1 points0.3 points

Net sales for fiscal 2021 remained relatively flat compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher customer investment in display manufacturing equipment for TVs, offset by a decrease in customer investments in display manufacturing equipment for mobile products. Operating margin for fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher net sales and favorable changes in customer and product mix. In fiscal 2021, three customers each accounted for at least 10 percent of this segment’s net sales, and together they accounted for approximately 65 percent of this segment’s total net sales.
Net sales for fiscal 2020 decreased compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to lower customer investments in display manufacturing equipment for TVs, partially offset by higher customer investments in display manufacturing equipment for mobile products. Operating margin for fiscal 2020 increased compared to fiscal 2019, reflecting favorable changes in customer and product mix and lower travel-related spending due to COVID-19 travel restrictions.
The following region accounted for at least 30 percent of total net sales for the Display and Adjacent Markets segment for one or more of the periods presented:
Change
 2021202020192021 over 20202020 over 2019
 (In millions, except percentages)
China$1,361 83 %$1,343 84 %$1,469 89 %$18 %$(126)(9)%


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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects, if any, on Applied’s consolidated financial statements, see Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
Applied’s cash, cash equivalents and investments consist of the following:
 
October 31,
2021
October 25,
2020
 (In millions)
Cash and cash equivalents$4,995 $5,351 
Short-term investments464 387 
Long-term investments2,055 1,538 
Total cash, cash-equivalents and investments$7,514 $7,276 
Sources and Uses of Cash
A summary of cash provided by (used in) operating, investing, and financing activities is as follows:
 
202120202019
 (In millions)
Cash provided by operating activities$5,442 $3,804 $3,247 
Cash used in investing activities$(1,216)$(130)$(443)
Cash used in financing activities$(4,591)$(1,337)$(3,115)
Kokusai Electric Corporation
On June 30, 2019, Applied entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (SPA) with Kokusai Electric Corporation (Kokusai Electric) and KKR HKE Investment L.P. (KKR) providing for Applied’s acquisition of all outstanding shares of Kokusai Electric. The SPA, as subsequently amended, terminated as of March 19, 2021. Applied paid KKR a termination fee of $154 million during the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
Operating Activities
Cash from operating activities for fiscal 2021 was $5.4 billion, which reflects net income adjusted for the effect of non-cash charges and changes in working capital components. Non-cash charges included depreciation, amortization, severance and related charges, share-based compensation and deferred income taxes. Cash provided by operating activities increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher net income, partially offset by an increase in the accounts receivable balance. Cash provided by operating activities increased in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to higher net income.
Applied has agreements with various financial institutions to sell accounts receivable and discount promissory notes from selected customers. Applied sells its accounts receivable generally without recourse. Applied, from time to time, also discounts letters of credit issued by customers through various financial institutions. The discounting of letters of credit depends on many factors, including the willingness of financial institutions to discount the letters of credit and the cost of such arrangements. Applied sold $1.3 billion, $1.2 billion and $1.5 billion of accounts receivable during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Applied did not discount letters of credit issued by customers in fiscal 2021. Applied discounted letters of credit issued by customers of $105 million and $48 million in fiscal, 2020 and 2019, respectively. There was no discounting of promissory notes in each of fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019.
Applied’s working capital was $9.8 billion at October 31, 2021 and $8.9 billion at October 25, 2020.
Days sales outstanding at the end of fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 was 74 days, 57 days, and 61 days, respectively. Days sales outstanding varies due to the timing of shipments and payment terms. The increase in days sales outstanding at the end of fiscal 2021 was primarily due to unfavorable revenue linearity and lower account receivable factoring compared to the end of fiscal 2020. The decrease in days sales outstanding at the end of fiscal 2020 was primarily due to higher accounts receivable factoring and favorable revenue linearity compared to the end of fiscal 2019.
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Investing Activities
Applied used $1.2 billion, $130 million and $443 million of cash in investing activities in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Capital expenditures in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 were $668 million, $422 million and $441 million, respectively. Capital expenditures in fiscal 2021 and 2020 were primarily for investments in demonstration and testing equipment, real property acquisitions and improvements, and network equipment. Capital expenditures in fiscal 2019 were primarily for real property acquisitions and improvements in North America and Taiwan, as well as investments in demonstration, testing and laboratory tools. Purchases of investments, net of proceeds from sales and maturities of investments, for 2021 was $536 million, Proceeds from sales and maturities of investments, net of purchase of investments were $399 million and $26 million for fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively. Investing activities also included investments in technology to allow Applied to access new market opportunities or emerging technologies.
Applied’s investment portfolio consists principally of investment grade money market mutual funds, U.S. Treasury and agency securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds and mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, as well as equity securities. Applied regularly monitors the credit risk in its investment portfolio and takes appropriate measures, which may include the sale of certain securities, to manage such risks prudently in accordance with its investment policies.
Financing Activities
Applied used $4.6 billion of cash in financing activities in fiscal 2021, consisting primarily of repurchases of common stock of $3.8 billion, cash dividends to stockholders of $838 million and tax withholding payments for vested equity awards of $178 million, offset by proceeds from common stock issuances of $175 million.
Applied used $1.3 billion of cash in financing activities in fiscal 2020, consisting primarily of the repayment of $1.4 billion senior notes, repurchases of common stock of $649 million, cash dividends to stockholders of $787 million and tax withholding payments for vested equity awards of $172 million, offset by net proceeds received from the issuance of senior unsecured notes of $1.5 billion and proceeds from common stock issuances of $174 million.
Applied used $3.1 billion of cash in financing activities in fiscal 2019, consisting primarily of repurchases of common stock of $2.4 billion, cash dividends to stockholders of $771 million and tax withholding payments for vested equity awards of $86 million, offset by proceeds from common stock issuances of $145 million.
In March 2021, Applied’s Board of Directors approved a common stock repurchase program authorizing $7.5 billion in repurchases, which supplemented the previously existing $6.0 billion authorization approved in February 2018. At October 31, 2021, approximately $5.0 billion remained available for future stock repurchases under the repurchase program.
During fiscal 2021, Applied's Board of Directors declared one quarterly cash dividend of $0.22 per share and three quarterly cash dividends of $0.24 per share. During fiscal 2020, Applied's Board of Directors declared one quarterly cash dividend of $0.21 per share and three quarterly cash dividends of $0.22 per share. During fiscal 2019, Applied’s Board of Directors declared one quarterly cash dividend of $0.20 per share and three quarterly cash dividends in the amount of $0.21 per share. Dividends paid during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019 amounted to $838 million, $787 million and $771 million, respectively. Applied currently anticipates that cash dividends will continue to be paid on a quarterly basis, although the declaration of any future cash dividend is at the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on Applied’s financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business conditions and other factors, as well as a determination by the Board of Directors that cash dividends are in the best interests of Applied’s stockholders.
Applied has credit facilities for unsecured borrowings in various currencies of up to $1.6 billion, of which $1.5 billion is comprised of a committed revolving credit agreement (Revolving Credit Agreement) with a group of banks. The Revolving Credit Agreement includes a provision under which Applied may request an increase in the amount of the facility of up to $500 million for a total commitment of no more than $2.0 billion, subject to the receipt of commitments from one or more lenders for any such increase and other customary conditions. The Revolving Credit Agreement is scheduled to expire in February 2025, unless extended as permitted under the Revolving Credit Agreement. The Revolving Credit Agreement provides for borrowings in United States dollars that bear interest for each advance at one of two rates selected by Applied, plus an applicable margin, which varies according to Applied’s public debt credit ratings. The Revolving Credit Agreement includes financial and other covenants with which Applied was in compliance as of October 31, 2021.
Remaining credit facilities in the amount of approximately $70 million are with Japanese banks. Applied’s ability to borrow under these facilities is subject to bank approval at the time of the borrowing request, and any advances will be at rates indexed to the banks’ prime reference rate denominated in Japanese yen.
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In August 2019, Applied entered into a term loan credit agreement (Term Loan Credit Agreement) with a group of lenders under which the lenders committed to make an unsecured term loan to Applied of up to $2.0 billion to finance in part Applied’s planned acquisition of all outstanding shares of Kokusai Electric, to pay related transaction fees and expenses and for general corporate purposes. In March 2021, the Term Loan Credit Agreement, as subsequently amended, terminated automatically in accordance with its terms upon the termination of the SPA. No amounts were borrowed under the Term Loan Credit Agreement.
Applied has a short-term commercial paper program under which Applied may issue unsecured commercial paper notes of up to a total amount of $1.5 billion. As of October 31, 2021, Applied did not have any commercial paper outstanding but may issue commercial paper notes under this program from time to time in the future. The commercial paper program is backstopped by the Revolving Credit Agreement and borrowings under the Revolving Credit Agreement reduce the amount of commercial paper notes Applied can issue.
In May 2020, Applied issued $750 million aggregate principal amount of 1.750% senior unsecured notes due 2030 and $750 million aggregate principal amount of 2.750% senior unsecured notes due 2050, in a registered public offering. In June 2020, Applied used a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to redeem the outstanding $600 million in aggregate principal amount of its 2.625% senior unsecured notes due October 1, 2020 and $750 million in aggregate principal amount of its 4.300% senior unsecured notes due June 15, 2021, at a total aggregate redemption price of $1.4 billion. As a result, Applied recognized a $33 million loss on early extinguishment of these senior unsecured notes during the third quarter of fiscal 2020.
Applied had senior unsecured notes in the aggregate principal amount of $5.5 billion outstanding as of October 31, 2021. See Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Condensed Financial Statements for additional discussion of existing debt. Applied may seek to refinance its existing debt and may incur additional indebtedness depending on Applied’s capital requirements and the availability of financing.
Others
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act). The Tax Act requires a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. The transition tax expense is payable in installments over eight years, with eight percent due in each of the first five years starting with fiscal 2018. As of October 31, 2021, Applied had $775 million of total payments remaining, payable in installments in the next five years. Before the Tax Act, U.S. income tax had not been provided for certain unrepatriated earnings that were considered indefinitely reinvested. Income tax is now provided for all unrepatriated earnings.
Although cash requirements will fluctuate based on the timing and extent of factors such as those discussed above, Applied’s management believes that cash generated from operations, together with the liquidity provided by existing cash balances and borrowing capability, will be sufficient to satisfy Applied’s liquidity requirements for the next 12 months. For further details regarding Applied’s operating, investing and financing activities, see the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in this report.
For details on standby letters of credit, guarantee instruments and other agreements with banks, see Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements below.
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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
In the ordinary course of business, Applied provides standby letters of credit or other guarantee instruments to third parties as required for certain transactions initiated by either Applied or its subsidiaries. These include agreements with various banks to facilitate subsidiary banking operations worldwide, including overdraft arrangements. As of October 31, 2021, the maximum potential amount of future payments that Applied could be required to make under these guarantee agreements was approximately $500 million. Applied has not recorded any liability in connection with these guarantee agreements beyond that required to appropriately account for the underlying transaction being guaranteed. Applied does not believe, based on historical experience and information currently available, that it is probable that any amounts will be required to be paid under these guarantee agreements.
Applied also has agreements with various banks to facilitate subsidiary banking operations worldwide, including overdraft arrangements, issuance of bank guarantees, and letters of credit. As of October 31, 2021, Applied has provided parent guarantees to banks for approximately $144 million to cover these arrangements.
Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes Applied’s contractual obligations as of October 31, 2021:
 
 Payments Due by Period
Contractual ObligationsTotalLess Than
1 Year
1-3
Years
3-5
Years
More Than
5 Years
 (In millions)
Debt obligations$5,500 $— $— $700 $4,800 
Interest expense associated with debt obligations3,212 205 410 382 2,215 
Operating lease obligations315 78 132 66 39 
Income tax from change in U.S. tax laws1
775 82 234 459 — 
Purchase obligations2
5,716 5,498 218 — — 
Other long-term liabilities3,4
21 — 18 
Total$15,539 $5,863 $996 $1,608 $7,072 
______________________ 
1Represents the transition tax liability associated with the deemed repatriation of accumulated foreign earnings as a result of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act into law on December 22, 2017.
2Represents Applied’s agreements to purchase goods and services consisting of Applied’s outstanding purchase orders for goods and services.
3Other long-term liabilities in the table do not include pension, postretirement and deferred compensation plans due to the uncertainty in the timing of future payments. Applied evaluates the need to make contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans after considering the funded status of the plans, movements in the discount rate, performance of the plan assets and related tax consequences. Payments to the plans would be dependent on these factors and could vary across a wide range of amounts and time periods. Payments for deferred compensation plans are dependent on activity by participants, making the timing of payments uncertain. Information on Applied’s pension, postretirement benefit and deferred compensation plans is presented in Note 15, Employee Benefit Plans, of the consolidated financial statements.
4Applied’s other long-term liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets include deferred income tax liabilities, gross unrecognized tax benefits and related gross interest and penalties. As of October 31, 2021, the gross liability for unrecognized tax benefits that was not expected to result in payment of cash within one year was $524 million. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions that were not expected to result in payment of cash within one year of October 31, 2021 was $88 million. At this time, Applied is unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of payments due to uncertainties in the timing of tax audit outcomes; therefore, such amounts are not included in the above contractual obligation table.
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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported. Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements describes the significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. Certain of these significant accounting policies are considered to be critical accounting policies.
A critical accounting policy is defined as one that is both material to the presentation of Applied’s consolidated financial statements and that requires management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments that could have a material effect on Applied’s financial condition or results of operations. Specifically, these policies have the following attributes: (1) Applied is required to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the estimate; and (2) different estimates Applied could reasonably have used, or changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, would have a material effect on Applied’s financial condition or results of operations.
Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty. Applied bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be applicable and reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates may change as new events occur, as additional information is obtained and as Applied’s operating environment changes. These changes have historically been minor and have been included in the consolidated financial statements as soon as they became known. In addition, management is periodically faced with uncertainties, the outcomes of which are not within its control and will not be known for prolonged periods of time. These uncertainties include those discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” Based on a critical assessment of its accounting policies and the underlying judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of those policies, management believes that Applied’s consolidated financial statements are fairly stated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and provide a meaningful presentation of Applied’s financial condition and results of operations.
Management believes that the following are critical accounting policies and estimates:
Revenue Recognition
Applied recognizes revenue when promised goods or services (performance obligations) are transferred to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which Applied expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Applied performs the following five steps to determine when to recognize revenue: (1) identification of the contract(s) with customers, (2) identification of the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determination of the transaction price, (4) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied. Management uses judgment to identify performance obligations within a contract and to determine whether multiple promised goods or services in a contract should be accounted for separately or as a group. Judgment is also used in interpreting commercial terms and determining when transfer of control occurs. Moreover, judgment is used to estimate the contract’s transaction price and allocate it to each performance obligation. Any material changes in the identification of performance obligations, determination and allocation of the transaction price to performance obligations, and determination of when transfer of control occurs to the customer, could impact the timing and amount of revenue recognition, which could have a material effect on Applied’s financial condition and results of operations.
Warranty Costs
Applied provides for the estimated cost of warranty when revenue is recognized. Estimated warranty costs are determined by analyzing specific product, current and historical configuration statistics and regional warranty support costs. Applied’s warranty obligation is affected by product and component failure rates, material usage and labor costs incurred in correcting product failures during the warranty period. As Applied’s customer engineers and process support engineers are highly trained and deployed globally, labor availability is a significant factor in determining labor costs. The quantity and availability of critical replacement parts is another significant factor in estimating warranty costs. Unforeseen component failures or exceptional component performance can also result in changes to warranty costs. If actual warranty costs differ substantially from Applied’s estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required, which could have a material adverse effect on Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Allowance for Credit Losses
Applied maintains an allowance for credit losses for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. This allowance is based on historical experience, credit evaluations, specific customer collection history and any customer-specific issues Applied has identified. Changes in circumstances, such as an unexpected material adverse change in a major customer’s ability to meet its financial obligation to Applied or its payment trends, may require Applied to further adjust its estimates of the recoverability of amounts due to Applied, which could have a material adverse effect on Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Inventory Valuation
Inventories are generally stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost determined on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis. The carrying value of inventory is reduced for estimated obsolescence by the difference between its cost and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand. Applied evaluates the inventory carrying value for potential excess and obsolete inventory exposures by analyzing historical and anticipated demand. In addition, inventories are evaluated for potential obsolescence due to the effect of known and anticipated engineering change orders and new products. If actual demand were to be substantially lower than estimated, additional adjustments for excess or obsolete inventory may be required, which could have a material adverse effect on Applied’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Applied reviews goodwill and intangible assets for impairment annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill and intangible assets requires significant judgment, especially in emerging markets. When reviewing goodwill for impairment, Applied first performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value.
In performing a qualitative assessment, Applied considers business conditions and other factors including, but not limited to (i) adverse industry or economic trends, (ii) restructuring actions and lower projections that may impact future operating results, (iii) sustained decline in share price, and (iv) overall financial performance and other events affecting the reporting units. If Applied concludes that is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then a quantitative impairment test is performed by estimating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing it to its carrying value. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, Applied would record an impairment charge equal to the excess of the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its fair value.
Applied determines the fair value of each reporting unit based on a weighting of an income and a market approach. Applied bases the fair value estimates on assumptions that it believes to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Under the income approach, Applied estimates the fair value based on discounted cash flow method.
The estimates used in the impairment testing are consistent with the discrete forecasts that Applied uses to manage its business, and considers any significant developments during the period. Under the discounted cash flow method, cash flows beyond the discrete forecasts are estimated using a terminal growth rate, which considers the long-term earnings growth rate specific to the reporting units. The estimated future cash flows are discounted to present value using each reporting unit’s weighted average cost of capital. The weighted average cost of capital measures a reporting unit’s cost of debt and equity financing weighted by the percentage of debt and equity in a reporting unit’s target capital structure. In addition, the weighted average cost of capital is derived using both known and estimated market metrics, and is adjusted to reflect both the timing and risks associated with the estimated cash flows. The tax rate used in the discounted cash flow method is the median tax rate of comparable companies and reflects Applied’s current international structure, which is consistent with the market participant perspective. Under the market approach, Applied uses the guideline company method which applies market multiples to forecasted revenues and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. Applied uses market multiples that are consistent with comparable publicly-traded companies and considers each reporting unit’s size, growth and profitability relative to its comparable companies.
Intangible assets, such as purchased technology, are generally recorded in connection with a business acquisition. The value assigned to intangible assets is usually based on estimates and judgments regarding expectations for the success and life cycle of products and technology acquired. If actual product acceptance differs significantly from the estimates, Applied may be required to record an impairment charge to reduce the carrying value of the reporting unit to its estimated fair value.

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Income Taxes
Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rate are affected by the geographical composition of pre-tax income which includes jurisdictions with differing tax rates, conditional reduced tax rates and other income tax incentives. It is also affected by events that are not consistent from period to period, such as changes to income tax laws and the resolution of prior years’ income tax filings.
Applied recognizes a current tax liability for the estimated amount of income tax payable on tax returns for the current fiscal year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are offset by a valuation allowance to the extent it is more likely than not that they are not expected to be realized.
Applied recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized from such positions are estimated based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Any changes in judgment related to uncertain tax positions are recognized in Applied’s provision for income taxes in the quarter in which such change occurs. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized in Applied’s provision for income taxes.
The calculation of Applied’s provision for income taxes and effective tax rate involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with Applied’s expectations could have an adverse material impact on Applied’s results of operations and financial condition.

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Non-GAAP Adjusted Financial Results
Management uses non-GAAP adjusted financial measures to evaluate the Company’s operating and financial performance and for planning purposes, and as performance measures in its executive compensation program. Applied believes these measures enhance an overall understanding of its performance and investors’ ability to review the Company’s business from the same perspective as the Company’s management and facilitate comparisons of this period’s results with prior periods on a consistent basis by excluding items that management does not believe are indicative of Applied’s ongoing operating performance.
The non-GAAP adjusted financial measures presented below are adjusted to exclude the impact of certain costs, expenses, gains and losses, including certain items related to mergers and acquisitions; restructuring and severance charges and any associated adjustments; certain incremental expenses related to COVID-19; impairments of assets; gain or loss on strategic investments; loss on early extinguishment of debt; certain income tax items and other discrete adjustments. Additionally, non-GAAP results exclude estimated discrete income tax expense items associated with U.S. tax legislation. Reconciliations of these non-GAAP measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are provided in the financial tables presented below. There are limitations in using non-GAAP financial measures because the non-GAAP financial measures are not prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, may be different from non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies, and may exclude certain items that may have a material impact upon our reported financial results. The presentation of this additional information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the directly comparable financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.
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The following tables present a reconciliation of the GAAP and non-GAAP adjusted consolidated results for the past three fiscal years:

APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
UNAUDITED RECONCILIATION OF GAAP TO NON-GAAP ADJUSTED RESULTS
(In millions, except percentages)202120202019