10-K 1 a15-1770_110k.htm 10-K

Table of Contents

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

x   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

 

Commission file number 1-3285

 

3M COMPANY

 

State of Incorporation: Delaware

 

I.R.S. Employer Identification No. 41-0417775

 

Principal executive offices: 3M Center, St. Paul, Minnesota 55144

 

Telephone number: (651) 733-1110

 

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange
on which registered

Common Stock, Par Value $.01 Per Share

 

New York Stock Exchange, Inc.
Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.

 

Note: The common stock of the Registrant is also traded on the SWX Swiss Exchange.

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  x    No  o

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  o    No  x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  x    No  o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  x    No  o

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer x

 

Accelerated filer o

 

 Non-accelerated filer o

 

Smaller reporting company o

 

 

 

 

(Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  o     No  x

 

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant, computed by reference to the closing price and shares outstanding, was approximately $103.0 billion as of January 31, 2015 (approximately $92.8 billion as of June 30, 2014, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second quarter).

 

Shares of common stock outstanding at January 31, 2015: 634,749,706

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Parts of the Company’s definitive proxy statement (to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after Registrant’s fiscal year-end of December 31, 2014) for its annual meeting to be held on May 12, 2015, are incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.

 

 

 



Table of Contents

 

3M COMPANY

FORM 10-K

For the Year Ended December 31, 2014

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning
Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1

 

Business

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1A

 

Risk Factors

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1B

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 2

 

Properties

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 3

 

Legal Proceedings

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 4

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 6

 

Selected Financial Data

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7A

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

43

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 8

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index to Financial Statements

 

45

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

118

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9A

 

Controls and Procedures

 

118

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9B

 

Other Information

 

118

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

119

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 11

 

Executive Compensation

 

119

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 12

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 13

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 14

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

121

 

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Table of Contents

 

3M COMPANY

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Year Ended December 31, 2014

PART I

 

Item 1. Business.

 

3M Company was incorporated in 1929 under the laws of the State of Delaware to continue operations begun in 1902. The Company’s ticker symbol is MMM. As used herein, the term “3M” or “Company” includes 3M Company and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise. In this document, for any references to Note 1 through Note 17, refer to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

 

Available Information

 

The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that the Company files with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. The Company files annual reports, quarterly reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). The public may read and copy any materials that the Company files with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

 

3M also makes available free of charge through its website (http://investor.3M.com) the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC.

 

General

 

3M is a diversified technology company with a global presence in the following businesses: Industrial; Safety and Graphics; Electronics and Energy; Health Care; and Consumer. 3M is among the leading manufacturers of products for many of the markets it serves. Most 3M products involve expertise in product development, manufacturing and marketing, and are subject to competition from products manufactured and sold by other technologically oriented companies.

 

At December 31, 2014, the Company employed 89,800 people (full-time equivalents), with 35,581 employed in the United States and 54,219 employed internationally.

 

Business Segments

 

As described in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2014, 3M transferred a product line between divisions within different business segments and made other changes within business segments in its continuing effort to improve the alignment of its businesses around markets and customers. In addition, effective in the second quarter of 2014, within the Electronics and Energy business segment, 3M combined three existing divisions into two new divisions. A large portion of both the Electronics Markets Materials Division and the Electronic Solutions Division were combined to form the Electronics Materials Solutions Division, which focuses on semiconductor and electronics materials and assembly solutions. The Optical Systems Division, the remaining portion of the Electronic Solutions Division and a portion of the Electronics Markets Materials Division were combined to form the Display Materials and Systems Division, which focuses on delivering light, color and user interface solutions. Also, effective in the fourth quarter of 2014, within the Industrial business segment, the Personal Care Division, which focuses on tapes and attachment systems for infant and adult hygiene, was combined with the Industrial Adhesives and Tapes Division.

 

3M manages its operations in five operating business segments: Industrial; Safety and Graphics; Electronics and Energy; Health Care; and Consumer. 3M’s five business segments bring together common or related 3M technologies, enhancing the development of innovative products and services and providing for efficient sharing of business resources. These segments have worldwide responsibility for virtually all 3M product lines. Certain small businesses and lab-sponsored products, as well as various corporate assets and expenses, are not attributed to the business segments. Financial information and other disclosures relating to 3M’s business segments and operations in major geographic areas are provided in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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Industrial Business: The Industrial segment serves a broad range of markets, such as automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and automotive aftermarket (auto body shops and retail), electronics, appliance, paper and printing, packaging, food and beverage, and construction. Industrial products include tapes, a wide variety of coated, non-woven and bonded abrasives, adhesives, advanced ceramics, sealants, specialty materials, 3M Purification Inc. (filtration products), closure systems for personal hygiene products, acoustic systems products, and components and products that are used in the manufacture, repair and maintenance of automotive, marine, aircraft and specialty vehicles. 3M is also a leading global supplier of precision grinding technology serving customers in the area of hard-to-grind precision applications in industrial, automotive, aircraft and cutting tools. In the fourth quarter of 2012, 3M acquired Ceradyne, Inc., which develops and produces advanced technical ceramics for demanding applications in the automotive, oil and gas, solar, industrial, electronics and defense industries.

 

Major industrial products include vinyl, polyester, foil and specialty industrial tapes and adhesives; Scotch® Masking Tape, Scotch® Filament Tape and Scotch® Packaging Tape; packaging equipment; 3M™ VHB™ Bonding Tapes; conductive, low surface energy, sealants, hot melt, spray and structural adhesives; reclosable fasteners; label materials for durable goods; and coated, nonwoven and microstructured surface finishing and grinding abrasives for the industrial market. 3M Purification Inc. provides a comprehensive line of filtration products for the separation, clarification and purification of fluids and gases. Other industrial products include fluoroelastomers for seals, tubes and gaskets in engines.

 

Major transportation products include insulation components, including Thinsulate™ Acoustic Insulation and components for cabin noise reduction and catalytic converters; functional and decorative graphics; abrasion-resistant films; adhesives; sealants; masking tapes; fasteners and tapes for attaching nameplates, trim, moldings, interior panels and carpeting; coated, nonwoven and microstructured finishing and grinding abrasives; structural adhesives; and other specialty materials. In addition, 3M provides paint finishing and detailing products, including a complete system of cleaners, dressings, polishes, waxes and other products.

 

Safety and Graphics Business: The Safety and Graphics segment serves a broad range of markets that increase the safety, security and productivity of people, facilities and systems. Major product offerings include personal protection products; traffic safety and security products, including border and civil security solutions; commercial solutions, including commercial graphics sheeting and systems, architectural surface and lighting solutions, and cleaning and protection products for commercial establishments; and roofing granules for asphalt shingles.

 

This segment’s products include personal protection products, such as certain maintenance-free and reusable respirators, personal protective equipment, head and face protection, body protection, hearing protection and protective eyewear. In traffic safety and security, 3M provides reflective sheeting used on highway signs, vehicle license plates, construction work-zone devices, trucks and other vehicles, and also provides pavement marking systems, in addition to electronic surveillance products, films that protect against counterfeiting, and reflective materials that are widely used on apparel, footwear and accessories, enhancing visibility in low-light situations. Traffic safety and security also provides finger, palm, face and iris biometric systems for governments, law enforcement agencies, and commercial enterprises, in addition to remote people-monitoring technologies used for offender-monitoring applications. Major commercial graphics products include films, inks, digital signage systems and related products used to produce graphics for vehicles, signs and interior surfaces. Other products include spill-control sorbents; nonwoven abrasive materials for floor maintenance and commercial cleaning; floor matting; and natural and color-coated mineral granules for asphalt shingles.

 

Electronics and Energy Business: The Electronics and Energy segment serves customers in electronics and energy markets, including solutions that improve the dependability, cost-effectiveness, and performance of electronic devices; electrical products, including infrastructure protection; telecommunications networks, and power generation and distribution.

 

This segment’s electronics solutions include the display materials and systems business, which provides films that serve numerous market segments of the electronic display industry. 3M provides distinct products for five market segments, including products for: 1) LCD computer monitors 2) LCD televisions 3) handheld devices such as cellular phones and tablets 4) notebook PCs and 5) automotive displays. This segment also provides desktop and notebook computer screen filters that address display light control, privacy, and glare reduction needs. Major electronics products also include packaging and interconnection devices; high performance fluids and abrasives used in the manufacture of computer chips, and for cooling electronics and lubricating computer hard disk drives; and high-temperature and display tapes. Flexible circuits use electronic packaging and interconnection technology, providing more connections in less space, and are used in ink-jet printer cartridges, cell phones and electronic devices. This segment also includes the touch systems products, including touch screens, touch monitors, and touch sensor components.

 

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This segment’s energy solutions include electrical products, including infrastructure protection, telecommunications, and renewable energy. This segment serves the worlds electrical and telecommunications markets, including electrical utilities, electrical construction, maintenance and repair, original equipment manufacturers (OEM), telecommunications central office, outside plant and enterprise, as well as aerospace, military, automotive and medical markets, with products that enable the efficient transmission of electrical power and speed the delivery of information. Products in this segment include pressure sensitive tapes and resins, electrical insulation, a wide array of fiber-optic and copper-based telecommunications systems for rapid deployment of fixed and wireless networks, as well as the 3M™ Aluminum Conductor Composite Reinforced (ACCR) electrical power cable that increases transmission capacity for existing power lines. This segment also includes renewable energy component solutions for the solar and wind power industries, as well as infrastructure products solutions that provide municipalities both protection and detection solutions for electrical, oil, natural gas, water, rebar and other infrastructure assets.

 

Health Care Business: The Health Care segment serves markets that include medical clinics and hospitals, pharmaceuticals, dental and orthodontic practitioners, health information systems, and food manufacturing and testing. Products and services provided to these and other markets include medical and surgical supplies, skin health and infection prevention products, inhalation and transdermal drug delivery systems, dental and orthodontic products (oral care), health information systems, and food safety products. In April 2014, 3M (Health Care Business) purchased all of the outstanding equity interests of Treo Solutions LLC, headquartered in Troy, New York. Treo Solutions LLC is a provider of data analytics and business intelligence to healthcare payers and providers.

 

In the medical and surgical areas, 3M is a supplier of medical tapes, dressings, wound closure products, orthopedic casting materials, electrodes and stethoscopes. In infection prevention, 3M markets a variety of surgical drapes, masks and preps, as well as sterilization assurance equipment and patient warming solutions designed to prevent hypothermia in surgical settings. Other products include drug delivery systems, such as metered-dose inhalers, transdermal skin patches and related components. Dental and orthodontic products include restoratives, adhesives, finishing and polishing products, crowns, impression materials, preventive sealants, professional tooth whiteners, prophylaxis and orthodontic appliances, as well as digital workflow solutions to transform traditional impression and analog processes. In health information systems, 3M develops and markets computer software for hospital coding and data classification, and provides related consulting services. 3M provides food safety products that make it faster and easier for food processors to test the microbiological quality of food.

 

Consumer Business: The Consumer segment serves markets that include consumer retail, office retail, office business to business, home improvement, drug and pharmacy retail, and other markets. Products in this segment include office supply products, stationery products, construction and home improvement products (do-it-yourself), home care products, protective material products, certain consumer retail personal safety products, and consumer health care products.

 

Major consumer products include Scotch® brand products, such as Scotch® Magic™ Tape, Scotch® Glue Stick and Scotch® Cushioned Mailer; Post-it® Products, such as Post-it® Flags, Post-it® Note Pads, Post-it® Labeling & Cover-up Tape, and Post-it® Pop-up Notes and Dispensers; construction and home improvement products, including surface-preparation and wood-finishing materials, Command™ Adhesive Products and Filtrete™ Filters for furnaces and air conditioners; home care products, including Scotch-Brite® Scour Pads, Scotch-Brite® Scrub Sponges, Scotch-Brite™ Microfiber Cloth products, O-Cel-O™ Sponges; protective material products, such as Scotchgard™ Fabric Protectors; certain maintenance-free respirators; certain consumer retail personal safety products, including safety glasses, hearing protectors, and 3M™ Thinsulate™ Insulation, which is used in jackets, pants, gloves, hats and boots to keep people warm; Nexcare™ Adhesive Bandages; and ACE® branded (and related brands) elastic bandage, supports and thermometer product lines.

 

Distribution

 

3M products are sold through numerous distribution channels, including directly to users and through numerous wholesalers, retailers, jobbers, distributors and dealers in a wide variety of trades in many countries around the world. Management believes the confidence of wholesalers, retailers, jobbers, distributors and dealers in 3M and its products — a confidence developed through long association with skilled marketing and sales representatives — has contributed significantly to 3M’s position in the marketplace and to its growth.

 

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Research and Patents

 

Research and product development constitutes an important part of 3M’s activities and has been a major driver of 3M’s sales and profit growth. Research, development and related expenses totaled $1.770 billion in 2014, $1.715 billion in 2013 and $1.634 billion in 2012. Research and development, covering basic scientific research and the application of scientific advances in the development of new and improved products and their uses, totaled $1.193 billion in 2014, $1.150 billion in 2013 and $1.079 billion in 2012. Related expenses primarily include technical support provided by 3M to customers who are using existing 3M products; internally developed patent costs, which include costs and fees incurred to prepare, file, secure and maintain patents; amortization of externally acquired patents and externally acquired in-process research and development; and gains/losses associated with certain corporate approved investments in R&D-related ventures, such as equity method effects and impairments.

 

The Company’s products are sold around the world under various trademarks. The Company also owns, or holds licenses to use, numerous U.S. and foreign patents. The Company’s research and development activities generate a steady stream of inventions that are covered by new patents. Patents applicable to specific products extend for varying periods according to the date of patent application filing or patent grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary from country to country, depends upon the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the country.

 

The Company believes that its patents provide an important competitive advantage in many of its businesses. In general, no single patent or group of related patents is in itself essential to the Company as a whole or to any of the Company’s business segments. The importance of patents in the Electronics and Energy segment is described in “Performance by Business Segment” — “Electronics and Energy Business” in Part II, Item 7, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Raw Materials

 

In 2014, the Company experienced stable to declining costs for most raw material categories and transportation fuel. This was driven by year-on-year cost decreases in many feedstock categories, including petroleum based materials, minerals, metals and wood pulp based products. To date, the Company is receiving sufficient quantities of all raw materials to meet its reasonably foreseeable production requirements. It is impossible to predict future shortages of raw materials or the impact any such shortages would have. 3M has avoided disruption to its manufacturing operations through careful management of existing raw material inventories and development and qualification of additional supply sources. 3M manages commodity price risks through negotiated supply contracts, price protection agreements and forward contracts.

 

Environmental Law Compliance

 

3M’s manufacturing operations are affected by national, state and local environmental laws around the world. 3M has made, and plans to continue making, necessary expenditures for compliance with applicable laws. 3M is also involved in remediation actions relating to environmental matters from past operations at certain sites (refer to “Environmental Matters and Litigation” in Note 13, Commitments and Contingencies).

 

Environmental expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations that do not contribute to current or future revenues are expensed. Reserves for liabilities for anticipated remediation costs are recorded on an undiscounted basis when they are probable and reasonably estimable, generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies, the Company’s commitment to a plan of action, or approval by regulatory agencies. Environmental expenditures for capital projects that contribute to current or future operations generally are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.

 

In 2014, 3M expended about $28 million for capital projects related to protecting the environment. This amount excludes expenditures for remediation actions relating to existing matters caused by past operations that do not contribute to current or future revenues, which are expensed. Capital expenditures for environmental purposes have included pollution control devices — such as wastewater treatment plant improvements, scrubbers, containment structures, solvent recovery units and thermal oxidizers — at new and existing facilities constructed or upgraded in the normal course of business. Consistent with the Company’s policies stressing environmental responsibility, capital expenditures (other than for remediation projects) for known projects are presently expected to be about $51 million over the next two years for new or expanded programs to build facilities or modify manufacturing processes to minimize waste and reduce emissions.

 

While the Company cannot predict with certainty the future costs of such cleanup activities, capital expenditures or operating costs for environmental compliance, the Company does not believe they will have a material effect on its capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position.

 

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Executive Officers

 

Following is a list of the executive officers of 3M, and their age, present position, the year elected to their present position and other positions they have held during the past five years. No family relationships exist among any of the executive officers named, nor is there any undisclosed arrangement or understanding pursuant to which any person was selected as an officer. This information is presented in the table below as of the date of the 10-K filing (February 12, 2015).

 

Name

 

Age

 

Present Position

 

Year 
Elected to
Present
Position

 

Other Positions Held During 2010-2014

Inge G. Thulin

 

61

 

Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer

 

2012

 

President and Chief Executive Officer, 2012

Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, 2011-2012

Executive Vice President, International Operations, 2004-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James L. Bauman

 

55

 

Senior Vice President, Business Transformation, Americas

 

2015

 

Senior Vice President, Asia Pacific, 2012-2014

Vice President and General Manager, Optical Systems Division, 2008-2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julie L. Bushman

 

53

 

Senior Vice President, Business Transformation and Information Technology

 

2013

 

Executive Vice President, Safety and Graphics, 2012-2013

Executive Vice President, Safety, Security and Protection Services Business, 2011-2012

Vice President and General Manager, Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, 2007-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joaquin Delgado

 

55

 

Executive Vice President, Health Care

 

2012

 

Executive Vice President, Electro and Communications Business, 2009-2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivan K. Fong

 

53

 

Senior Vice President, Legal Affairs and General Counsel

 

2012

 

General Counsel, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2009-2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicholas C. Gangestad

 

50

 

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

 

2014

 

Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer, 2011-2014

Director, Corporate Accounting, 2007-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ian F. Hardgrove

 

64

 

Senior Vice President, Corporate Communications and Enterprise Services

 

2014

 

Senior Vice President, Marketing, Sales and Communications, 2011-2013

Senior Vice President, Marketing and Sales, 2011

Vice President and General Manager, Automotive Aftermarket Division, 2007-2011

 

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Executive Officers (continued)

 

Name

 

Age

 

Present Position

 

Year 
Elected to
Present
Position

 

Other Positions Held During 2010-2014

Paul A. Keel

 

45

 

Senior Vice President, Supply Chain

 

2014

 

Managing Director, 3M United Kingdom-Ireland Region, 2013-2014

Vice President and General Manager, Skin and Wound Care Division, 2010-2013

Vice President and General Manager, 3M Unitek Corporation, 2007-2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael A. Kelly

 

58

 

Executive Vice President, Electronics and Energy

 

2012

 

Executive Vice President, Display and Graphics Business, 2006-2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ashish K. Khandpur

 

47

 

Senior Vice President, Research and Development and Chief Technology Officer

 

2014

 

Vice President and General Manager, Personal Safety Division, 2014

Vice President, Research and Development, Industrial Business Group, 2013

Vice President, Research and Development, Industrial and Transportation Business, 2012

Technical Director, Industrial and Transportation Business, Asia Pacific, 2011

Technical Director, 3M India and Sri Lanka, and Technical Director, Industrial and Transportation Business, Asia Pacific, 2010-2011

Technical Director, 3M India and Sri Lanka, India, 2008-2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jon T. Lindekugel

 

51

 

Senior Vice President, Business Development

 

2014

 

President, Health Information Systems Inc., 2008-2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank R. Little

 

54

 

Executive Vice President, Safety and Graphics Business Group

 

2013

 

Vice President and General Manager, Personal Safety Division, 2013

Vice President and General Manager, Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, 2011-2012

Managing Director, 3M Korea, 2008-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marlene M. McGrath

 

52

 

Senior Vice President, Human Resources

 

2012

 

Vice President, Human Resources, International Operations, 2010-2012

Director, Human Resources, International Operations, 2006-2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael F. Roman

 

55

 

Executive Vice President, Industrial Business Group

 

2014

 

Senior Vice President, Business Development, 2013-2014

Vice President and General Manager, Industrial Adhesives and Tapes Division, 2011-2013

Vice President and General Manager, Renewable Energy Division, 2009-2011

 

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Executive Officers (continued)

 

Name

 

Age

 

Present Position

 

Year 
Elected to
Present
Position

 

Other Positions Held During 2010-2014

Hak Cheol Shin

 

57

 

Executive Vice President, International Operations

 

2011

 

Executive Vice President, Industrial and Transportation Division Business, 2006-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesse G. Singh

 

49

 

Senior Vice President, Marketing and Sales

 

2014

 

Vice President and General Manager, Stationery and Office Supplies Division, 2012-2013

President, Sumitomo 3M Limited, 2007-2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael G. Vale

 

48

 

Executive Vice President, Consumer

 

2012

 

Executive Vice President, Consumer and Office Business, 2011-2012

Managing Director, 3M Brazil, 2009-2011

 

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Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The Company may also make forward-looking statements in other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, in materials delivered to shareholders and in press releases. In addition, the Company’s representatives may from time to time make oral forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements relate to future events and typically address the Company’s expected future business and financial performance. Words such as “plan,” “expect,” “aim,” “believe,” “project,” “target,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “will,” “should,” “could” and other words and terms of similar meaning, typically identify such forward-looking statements. In particular, these include, among others, statements relating to

 

·                  the Company’s strategy for growth, future revenues, earnings, cash flow, uses of cash and other measures of financial performance, and market position,

·                  worldwide economic and capital markets conditions, such as interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, financial conditions of our suppliers and customers, and natural and other disasters affecting the operations of the Company or our suppliers and customers,

·                  new business opportunities, product development, and future performance or results of current or anticipated products,

·                  the scope, nature or impact of acquisition, strategic alliance and divestiture activities,

·                  the outcome of contingencies, such as legal and regulatory proceedings,

·                  future levels of indebtedness, common stock repurchases and capital spending,

·                  future availability of and access to credit markets,

·                  pension and postretirement obligation assumptions and future contributions, asset impairments, tax liabilities, information technology security, and

·                  the effects of changes in tax, environmental and other laws and regulations in the United States and other countries in which we operate.

 

The Company assumes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and expectations of future events and trends that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual future results and trends may differ materially from historical results or those reflected in any such forward-looking statements depending on a variety of factors. Important information as to these factors can be found in this document, including, among others, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the headings of “Overview,” “Critical Accounting Estimates” and “Financial Condition and Liquidity.” Discussion of these factors is incorporated by reference from Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this document, and should be considered an integral part of Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” For additional information concerning factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those stated in the forward-looking statements, see our reports on Form 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K filed with the SEC from time to time.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 

Provided below is a cautionary discussion of what we believe to be the most important risk factors applicable to the Company. Discussion of these factors is incorporated by reference into and considered an integral part of Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations.”

 

* Results are impacted by the effects of, and changes in, worldwide economic and capital markets conditions. The Company operates in more than 70 countries and derives approximately two-thirds of its revenues from outside the United States. The Company’s business is subject to global competition and may be adversely affected by factors in the United States and other countries that are beyond its control, such as disruptions in financial markets, economic downturns in the form of either contained or widespread recessionary conditions, elevated unemployment levels, sluggish or uneven recovery, in specific countries or regions, or in the various industries in which the Company operates; social, political or labor conditions in specific countries or regions; natural and other disasters affecting the operations of the Company or its customers and suppliers; or adverse changes in the availability and cost of capital, interest rates, tax rates, or regulations in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates.

 

* The Company’s credit ratings are important to 3M’s cost of capital. The major rating agencies routinely evaluate the Company’s credit profile and assign debt ratings to 3M. As of February 2015, the Company has an AA- credit rating, with

 

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a stable outlook, from Standard & Poor’s and an Aa3 credit rating, with a negative outlook, from Moody’s Investors Service. This evaluation is based on a number of factors, which include financial strength, business and financial risk, as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. The Company’s credit ratings have facilitated lower borrowing costs and access to a variety of lenders. 3M’s ongoing transition to a more optimized capital structure, financed with additional low-cost debt, could impact 3M’s credit rating in the future. Failure to maintain strong investment grade ratings would adversely affect the Company’s cost of funds and could adversely affect liquidity and access to capital markets.

 

* The Company’s results are affected by competitive conditions and customer preferences. Demand for the Company’s products, which impacts revenue and profit margins, is affected by (i) the development and timing of the introduction of competitive products; (ii) the Company’s response to downward pricing to stay competitive; (iii) changes in customer order patterns, such as changes in the levels of inventory maintained by customers and the timing of customer purchases which may be affected by announced price changes, changes in the Company’s incentive programs, or the customer’s ability to achieve incentive goals; and (iv) changes in customers’ preferences for our products, including the success of products offered by our competitors, and changes in customer designs for their products that can affect the demand for some of the Company’s products.

 

* Foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates may affect the Company’s ability to realize projected growth rates in its sales and earnings. Because the Company’s financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars and approximately two-thirds of the Company’s revenues are derived from outside the United States, the Company’s results of operations and its ability to realize projected growth rates in sales and earnings could be adversely affected if the U.S. dollar strengthens significantly against foreign currencies.

 

* The Company’s growth objectives are largely dependent on the timing and market acceptance of its new product offerings, including its ability to continually renew its pipeline of new products and to bring those products to market. This ability may be adversely affected by difficulties or delays in product development, such as the inability to identify viable new products, obtain adequate intellectual property protection, or gain market acceptance of new products. There are no guarantees that new products will prove to be commercially successful.

 

* The Company’s future results are subject to fluctuations in the costs and availability of purchased components, compounds, raw materials and energy, including oil and natural gas and their derivatives, due to shortages, increased demand, supply interruptions, currency exchange risks, natural disasters and other factors. The Company depends on various components, compounds, raw materials, and energy (including oil and natural gas and their derivatives) supplied by others for the manufacturing of its products. It is possible that any of its supplier relationships could be interrupted due to natural and other disasters and other events, or be terminated in the future. Any sustained interruption in the Company’s receipt of adequate supplies could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, while the Company has a process to minimize volatility in component and material pricing, no assurance can be given that the Company will be able to successfully manage price fluctuations or that future price fluctuations or shortages will not have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

* Acquisitions, strategic alliances, divestitures, and other unusual events resulting from portfolio management actions and other evolving business strategies, and possible organizational restructuring could affect future results. The Company monitors its business portfolio and organizational structure and has made and may continue to make acquisitions, strategic alliances, divestitures and changes to its organizational structure. With respect to acquisitions, future results will be affected by the Company’s ability to integrate acquired businesses quickly and obtain the anticipated synergies.

 

* The Company’s future results may be affected if the Company generates fewer productivity improvements than estimated. The Company utilizes various tools, such as Lean Six Sigma, to improve operational efficiency and productivity. There can be no assurance that all of the projected productivity improvements will be realized.

 

* The Company employs information technology systems to support its business, including ongoing phased implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system on a worldwide basis over the next several years. Security breaches and other disruptions to the Company’s information technology infrastructure could interfere with the Company’s operations, compromise information belonging to the Company and its customers and suppliers, and expose the Company to liability which could adversely impact the Company’s business and reputation. In the ordinary course of business, the Company relies on information technology networks and systems, some of which are managed by third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. Additionally, the Company collects and stores certain data, including proprietary business information, and may have access to confidential or personal information in certain of our businesses that is subject to privacy and security laws, regulations and customer-imposed controls. Despite our cybersecurity measures (including employee and third-

 

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party training, monitoring of networks and systems, and maintenance of backup and protective systems) which are continuously reviewed and upgraded, the Company’s information technology networks and infrastructure may still be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attack by hackers or breaches, employee error or malfeasance, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters or other catastrophic events. It is possible for such vulnerabilities to remain undetected for an extended period, up to and including several years. While we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, these types of threats to the Company’s information technology networks and infrastructure, none of them to date has had a material impact to the Company. There may be other challenges and risks as the Company upgrades and standardizes its ERP system on a worldwide basis. Any such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy laws, disruption in operations, and damage to the Company’s reputation, which could adversely affect the Company’s business. Although the Company maintains insurance coverage for various cybersecurity risks, there can be no guarantee that all costs or losses incurred will be fully insured.

 

* The Company’s future results may be affected by various legal and regulatory proceedings and legal compliance risks, including those involving product liability, antitrust, intellectual property, environmental, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery, anti-corruption, or other matters. The outcome of these legal proceedings may differ from the Company’s expectations because the outcomes of litigation, including regulatory matters, are often difficult to reliably predict. Various factors or developments can lead the Company to change current estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables where applicable, or make such estimates for matters previously not susceptible of reasonable estimates, such as a significant judicial ruling or judgment, a significant settlement, significant regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in future charges that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows in any particular period. For a more detailed discussion of the legal proceedings involving the Company and the associated accounting estimates, see the discussion in Note 13 “Commitments and Contingencies” within the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

None.

 

Item 2. Properties.

 

3M’s general offices, corporate research laboratories, and certain division laboratories are located in St. Paul, Minnesota. The Company operates 88 manufacturing facilities in 30 states. The Company operates 127 manufacturing and converting facilities in 38 countries outside the United States.

 

3M owns the majority of its physical properties. 3M’s physical facilities are highly suitable for the purposes for which they were designed. Because 3M is a global enterprise characterized by substantial intersegment cooperation, properties are often used by multiple business segments.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

 

Discussion of legal matters is incorporated by reference from Part II, Item 8, Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies,” of this document, and should be considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.”

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

Pursuant to Section 1503 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Act”), the Company is required to disclose, in connection with the mines it operates, information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters in its periodic reports filed with the SEC. For the year 2014, the information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Act is included in Exhibit 95 to this annual report.

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

 

Equity compensation plans’ information is incorporated by reference from Part III, Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters,” of this document, and should be considered an integral part of Item 5. At January 31, 2015, there were 87,598 shareholders of record. 3M’s stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (NYSE), the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc., and the SWX Swiss Exchange. Cash dividends declared in the fourth quarter of 2014 included a dividend paid in November 2014 of $0.855 per share and a dividend payable in March 2015 of $1.025 per share. Cash dividends declared and paid totaled $0.855 per share for the second and third quarters of 2014. Cash dividends declared in the fourth quarter of 2013 included a dividend paid in November 2013 of $0.635 per share and a dividend paid in March 2014 of $0.855 per share. Cash dividends declared and paid totaled $0.635 per share for the first three quarters of 2013. Stock price comparisons follow:

 

Stock price comparisons (NYSE composite transactions)

 

(Per share amounts)

 

First Quarter

 

Second
Quarter

 

Third Quarter

 

Fourth
Quarter

 

Total

 

2014 High

 

$

139.29

 

$

145.53

 

$

147.87

 

$

168.16

 

$

168.16

 

2014 Low

 

123.61

 

132.02

 

138.43

 

130.60

 

123.61

 

2013 High

 

$

106.88

 

$

113.25

 

$

122.27

 

$

140.43

 

$

140.43

 

2013 Low

 

93.96

 

102.89

 

108.21

 

116.65

 

93.96

 

 

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Repurchases of 3M common stock are made to support the Company’s stock-based employee compensation plans and for other corporate purposes. In February 2013, 3M’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $7.5 billion of 3M’s outstanding common stock, with no pre-established end date. In February 2014, 3M’s Board of Directors replaced the Company’s February 2013 repurchase program with a new repurchase program. This new program authorizes the repurchase of up to $12 billion of 3M’s outstanding common stock, with no pre-established end date.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

(registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act)

 

Period

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
(1)

 

Average Price
Paid per
Share

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs (2)

 

Maximum
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
under the Plans
or Programs
(Millions)

 

January 1-31, 2014

 

2,152,171

 

$

134.07

 

2,148,754

 

$

2,229

 

February 1-28, 2014

 

5,058,426

 

$

130.79

 

5,058,426

 

$

11,338

 

March 1-31, 2014

 

5,789,597

 

$

132.90

 

5,786,921

 

$

10,569

 

Total January 1-March 31, 2014

 

13,000,194

 

$

132.27

 

12,994,101

 

$

10,569

 

April 1-30, 2014

 

4,615,353

 

$

135.93

 

4,607,663

 

$

9,943

 

May 1-31, 2014

 

2,619,394

 

$

141.05

 

2,613,100

 

$

9,574

 

June 1-30, 2014

 

2,674,367

 

$

143.80

 

2,674,367

 

$

9,190

 

Total April 1-June 30, 2014

 

9,909,114

 

$

139.41

 

9,895,130

 

$

9,190

 

July 1-31, 2014

 

2,969,148

 

$

144.54

 

2,963,047

 

$

8,762

 

August 1-31, 2014

 

3,783,000

 

$

141.90

 

3,783,000

 

$

8,225

 

September 1-30, 2014

 

2,209,057

 

$

143.58

 

2,209,057

 

$

7,908

 

Total July 1-September 30, 2014

 

8,961,205

 

$

143.19

 

8,955,104

 

$

7,908

 

October 1-31, 2014

 

6,112,233

 

$

137.96

 

6,109,426

 

$

7,065

 

November 1-30, 2014

 

881,629

 

$

158.12

 

881,629

 

$

6,925

 

December 1-31, 2014

 

1,370,427

 

$

162.45

 

1,369,777

 

$

6,703

 

Total October 1-December 31, 2014

 

8,364,289

 

$

144.10

 

8,360,832

 

$

6,703

 

Total January 1-December 31, 2014

 

40,234,802

 

$

138.92

 

40,205,167

 

$

6,703

 

 


(1)

The total number of shares purchased includes: (i) shares purchased under the Board’s authorizations described above, and (ii) shares purchased in connection with the exercise of stock options.

 

 

(2)

The total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs includes shares purchased under the Board’s authorizations described above.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

 

(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011

 

2010

 

Years ended December 31:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net sales

 

$

31,821

 

$

30,871

 

$

29,904

 

$

29,611

 

$

26,662

 

Net income attributable to 3M

 

4,956

 

4,659

 

4,444

 

4,283

 

4,085

 

Per share of 3M common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to 3M — basic

 

7.63

 

6.83

 

6.40

 

6.05

 

5.72

 

Net income attributable to 3M — diluted

 

7.49

 

6.72

 

6.32

 

5.96

 

5.63

 

Cash dividends declared per 3M common share

 

3.59

 

3.395

 

2.36

 

2.20

 

2.10

 

Cash dividends paid per 3M common share

 

3.42

 

2.54

 

2.36

 

2.20

 

2.10

 

At December 31:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

31,269

 

$

33,550

 

$

33,876

 

$

31,616

 

$

30,156

 

Long-term debt (excluding portion due within one year) and long-term capital lease obligations

 

6,790

 

4,384

 

4,987

 

4,563

 

4,277

 

 

In December 2014, 3M’s Board of Directors declared a first-quarter 2015 dividend of $1.025 per share (payable in March 2015), which when added to second, third and fourth quarter 2014 declared dividends of $0.855 per share, resulted in total year 2014 declared dividends of $3.59 per share. In December 2013, 3M’s Board of Directors declared a first-quarter 2014 dividend of $0.855 per share (paid in March 2014). This resulted in total year 2013 declared dividends of $3.395 per share, with $2.54 per share paid in 2013 and the additional $0.855 per share paid in March 2014.

 

Year 2010 included a one-time, non-cash income tax charge of $84 million, or 12 cents per diluted share, resulting from the March 2010 enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, including modifications made in the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This impact is included in the preceding table.

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is designed to provide a reader of 3M’s financial statements with a narrative from the perspective of management. 3M’s MD&A is presented in eight sections:

 

·       Overview

·       Results of Operations

·       Performance by Business Segment

·       Performance by Geographic Area

·       Critical Accounting Estimates

·       New Accounting Pronouncements

·       Financial Condition and Liquidity

·       Financial Instruments

 

Forward-looking statements in Item 7 may involve risks and uncertainties that could cause results to differ materially from those projected (refer to the section entitled “Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results” in Item 1 and the risk factors provided in Item 1A for discussion of these risks and uncertainties).

 

OVERVIEW

 

3M is a diversified global manufacturer, technology innovator and marketer of a wide variety of products and services. As described in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2014, 3M transferred a product line between divisions within business segments, and in the first, second and fourth quarters of 2014 also made certain changes within business segments in its continuing effort to improve the alignment of its businesses around markets and customers. Segment information presented herein reflects the impact of these changes for all periods presented. 3M manages its operations in five operating business segments: Industrial; Safety and Graphics; Electronics and Energy; Health Care; and Consumer. From a geographic perspective, any references to EMEA refer to Europe, Middle East and Africa on a combined basis.

 

Financial goals:

 

As a result of 3M’s performance in 2014, the Company believes it remains on track to deliver its 2013-2017 financial goals:

 

·                  Grow diluted earnings per share 9-11 percent per year, on average (11.5 percent in 2014)

·                  Grow organic local-currency sales 4-6 percent per year, on average (4.9 percent in 2014)

·                  Achieve return on invested capital of approximately 20 percent (22 percent in 2014)

·                  Convert approximately 100 percent of net income to free cash flow (104 percent in 2014)

 

These results are discussed further in the following MD&A discussion, with return on invested capital and free cash flow conversion (non-GAAP measures) discussed more fully in the Financial Condition and Liquidity section.

 

Fourth quarter of 2014 results:

 

Fourth-quarter 2014 net income attributable to 3M was $1.179 billion, or $1.81 per diluted share, compared to $1.103 billion, or $1.62 per diluted share, in the fourth quarter of 2013. Fourth-quarter 2014 sales totaled $7.7 billion, an increase of 2.0 percent from the fourth quarter of 2013. 3M achieved organic local-currency sales growth (which includes organic volume and selling price impacts) in all five of its business segments, led by Safety and Graphics. Organic local-currency sales increased 9.2 percent in Safety and Graphics, led by personal safety and commercial solutions, partially offset by declines in roofing granules, and traffic safety and security. Organic local-currency sales grew 6.4 percent in the Health Care business segment, with every business posting positive growth, led by health information systems, food safety, infection prevention, and critical and chronic care. Electronics and Energy organic local-currency sales growth was 6.2 percent, with increases in electronic-related sales in both electronics materials solutions, and display materials and systems. Energy-related sales growth was led by electrical markets, partially offset by declines in renewable energy and communications markets. Industrial organic local-currency sales increased 5.9 percent, led by advanced materials, aerospace and commercial transportation, industrial adhesives and tapes, automotive aftermarket, and automotive OEM. Organic local-currency sales increased 5.8 percent in the Consumer business segment, with positive growth in all businesses, led by the construction and home improvement business (do-it-yourself), and consumer health care. For the Company in total, organic-local currency sales grew 6.3 percent, with higher organic volumes contributing 5.6 percent and

 

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selling price increases contributing 0.7 percent. Acquisitions added 0.1 percent to sales, which related to the April 2014 acquisition of Treo Solutions LLC (Treo). Foreign currency translation reduced sales by 4.4 percent year-on-year.

 

From a geographic area perspective, fourth-quarter 2014 organic local-currency sales growth was 9.0 percent in Latin America/Canada, 6.9 percent in Asia Pacific, 6.6 percent in the United States, and 3.3 percent in EMEA. Organic local-currency sales growth in Latin America/Canada was led by Electronics and Energy, Health Care, and Safety and Graphics. Mexico delivered strong growth and Brazil was up slightly. Organic local-currency sales growth in Asia Pacific was led by Safety and Graphics, and Health Care. Sales in Japan grew 9 percent organically, or 4 percent excluding electronics. China/Hong Kong sales grew 4 percent organically, or 6 percent excluding electronics. Organic local-currency sales growth in the United States was strong in four of the five business segments, while Electronics and Energy was flat. Organic local-currency sales growth in EMEA was positive in four of five business segments, led by Safety and Graphics, and Electronics and Energy, while Consumer was down slightly in the quarter. Central/East Europe and Middle East/Africa each showed solid local-currency sales growth in the quarter, while West Europe grew 1 percent. EMEA economies remain soft, but 3M is managing the situation by growing market positions and driving continuous productivity across the region.

 

Operating income in the fourth quarter of 2014 was 21.5 percent of sales, compared to 20.9 percent of sales in the fourth quarter of 2013, an increase of 0.6 percentage points. These results included a benefit from the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases, lower pension/postretirement benefit costs, and profit leverage on organic volume growth. These factors were partially offset by strategic investments, and other factors. Strategic investments are further described for year 2014 in the section entitled “Results of Operations”.

 

The income tax rate was 28.0 percent in the fourth quarter of 2014, down 0.4 percentage points versus the fourth quarter of 2013, which increased earnings per diluted share by approximately 1 cent. Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding in the fourth quarter of 2014 declined 4.5 percent year-on-year to 650.9 million, which increased earnings per diluted share by approximately 8 cents. Foreign exchange impacts decreased earnings per diluted share by approximately 5 cents.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

For total year 2014, net income attributable to 3M was $4.956 billion, or $7.49 per diluted share, compared to $4.659 billion, or $6.72 per diluted share, in 2013, an increase of 11.5 percent on a per diluted share basis. Sales totaled $31.8 billion, an increase of 3.1 percent from 2013. From a business segment perspective, organic local-currency sales growth was 5.8 percent in Health Care, 5.4 percent in Safety and Graphics, 5.2 percent in Electronics and Energy, 4.9 percent in Industrial, and 3.9 percent in Consumer. From a geographic area perspective, 2014 organic local-currency sales growth was 6.3 percent in Asia Pacific, 4.9 percent in the United States, 4.5 percent in Latin America/Canada, and 3.2 percent in EMEA. For the Company in total, organic local-currency sales grew 4.9 percent, with higher organic volumes contributing 3.9 percent and selling price increases contributing 1.0 percent. Acquisitions added 0.1 percent to sales, driven by the Treo acquisition discussed above. Foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.9 percent year-on-year.

 

Operating income in 2014 was 22.4 percent of sales, compared to 21.6 percent of sales in 2013, an increase of 0.8 percentage points. These results included a benefit from the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases, lower pension/postretirement benefit costs, and profit leverage on organic volume growth. These factors were partially offset by strategic investments and other factors. Refer to the section entitled “Results of Operations” for further discussion.

 

The income tax rate was 28.9 percent in 2014, up 0.8 percentage points versus 2013, which decreased earnings per diluted share by approximately 8 cents. Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding in 2014 declined 4.6 percent year-on-year to 662.0 million, which increased earnings per diluted share by approximately 34 cents. Foreign exchange impacts decreased earnings per diluted share by approximately 15 cents.

 

Fourth quarter of 2013 results:

 

Fourth-quarter 2013 net income attributable to 3M was $1.103 billion, or $1.62 per diluted share, compared to $991 million, or $1.41 per diluted share, in the fourth quarter of 2012. Fourth-quarter 2013 sales totaled $7.6 billion, an increase of 2.4 percent from the fourth quarter of 2012. 3M achieved organic local-currency sales growth (which includes organic volume and selling price impacts) in all five of its business segments, led by Industrial. Industrial organic local-currency sales increased 5.8 percent, led by advanced materials, automotive OEM, 3M Purification Inc. (filtration products), aerospace and commercial transportation, and automotive aftermarket. Organic local-currency sales increased 4.7 percent in Safety and Graphics, led by roofing granules, personal safety, and commercial solutions. Organic local-

 

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currency sales grew 3.6 percent in the Health Care business segment, with the strongest sales growth in health information systems, food safety, critical and chronic care, and infection prevention; organic local-currency sales declined in drug delivery systems. Organic local-currency sales increased 1.3 percent in the Consumer business segment, led by the consumer health care and home care businesses. Electronics and Energy organic local-currency sales growth was 0.4 percent, with increases in energy-related sales in renewable energy and electrical markets. Electronic-related sales declined, with growth in display materials and systems more than offset by declines in electronics materials solutions. For the Company in total, organic-local currency sales grew 3.4 percent, with higher organic volumes contributing 2.0 percent and selling price increases contributing 1.4 percent. Acquisitions added 0.7 percent to sales, which related to the late November 2012 acquisition of Ceradyne, Inc. Foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.7 percent year-on-year.

 

From a geographic area perspective, fourth-quarter 2013 organic local-currency sales growth was 4.5 percent in the United States, 3.4 percent in EMEA, 3.3 percent in Asia Pacific, and 2.2 percent in Latin America/Canada. In the U.S., EMEA, and Asia Pacific, all five business segments generated positive organic local-currency sales growth. Organic local-currency sales growth in the United States was led by Industrial, and Safety and Graphics. Organic local-currency sales growth in EMEA was led by Industrial. West Europe grew organically by 3 percent year-on-year, continuing the positive trends 3M had seen in preceding quarters. Organic local-currency sales growth in Asia Pacific was led by Consumer, Safety and Graphics, and Health Care. Sales in Japan grew 4 percent organically. China/Hong Kong sales grew 1 percent organically, impacted by a strong prior-year comparison of 16 percent growth in the fourth quarter of 2012 and weakness in electronics. Organic local-currency sales growth in Latin America/Canada was positive across most countries, but below trend levels for a few reasons. First, slowing in government tenders for infrastructure projects in certain countries impacted sales in Electronics and Energy. Consumer was also soft in the fourth quarter due to weak retail demand and challenging year-on-year comparisons. And lastly, sales in Venezuela declined year-on-year due to the economic and political situation there. Venezuela diluted fourth-quarter organic sales growth in Latin America/Canada by 1.5 percentage points, as 3M continued to work towards minimizing its Bolivar exposure and any associated costs.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

For total year 2013, net income attributable to 3M was $4.659 billion, or $6.72 per diluted share, compared to $4.444 billion, or $6.32 per diluted share, in 2012, an increase of 6.3 percent on a per diluted share basis. Sales totaled $30.9 billion, an increase of 3.2 percent from 2012. From a business segment perspective, organic local-currency sales growth was 5.0 percent in Health Care, 4.6 percent in Industrial, 4.1 percent in Safety and Graphics, 3.0 percent in Consumer, and was flat in Electronics and Energy. From a geographic area perspective, 2013 organic local-currency sales growth was 7.1 percent in Latin America/Canada, 3.6 percent in Asia Pacific, 3.1 percent in the United States, and 2.1 percent in EMEA. For the Company in total, organic local-currency sales grew 3.4 percent, with higher organic volumes contributing 2.5 percent and selling price increases contributing 0.9 percent. Acquisitions added 1.4 percent to sales, driven by the November 2012 acquisition of Ceradyne, Inc. (Industrial), the September 2012 purchase of the net assets that comprised the business of Federal Signal Technologies Group (Safety and Graphics), and the April 2012 acquisition of CodeRyte, Inc. (Health Care). Foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.6 percent year-on-year.

 

Operating income in 2013 was 21.6 percent of sales, compared to 21.7 percent of sales in 2012, a decline of 0.1 percentage points. Items that reduced operating income margins included lower factory utilization/productivity, strategic investments, the impact of 2012 acquisitions, and other factors. These factors were largely offset by the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases, in addition to lower pension/postretirement benefit costs. Refer to the section entitled “Results of Operations” for further discussion.

 

The income tax rate was 28.1 percent in 2013, down 0.9 percentage points versus 2012, which increased earnings per diluted share by approximately 9 cents. Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding in 2013 declined 1.4 percent year-on-year to 693.6 million, which increased earnings per diluted share by approximately 9 cents. Foreign exchange impacts decreased earnings per diluted share by approximately 11 cents.

 

Sales and operating income by business segment:

 

The following table contains sales and operating income results by business segment for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013. In addition to the discussion below, refer to the section entitled “Performance by Business Segment” and “Performance by Geographic Area” later in MD&A for a more detailed discussion of the sales and income results of the Company and its respective business segments (including Corporate and Unallocated). Refer to Note 15 for additional information on business segments, including Elimination of Dual Credit.

 

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Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014 vs. 2013

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

% change

 

 

 

Net

 

% of

 

Oper.

 

Net

 

% of

 

Oper.

 

Net

 

Oper.

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

Sales

 

Total

 

Income

 

Sales

 

Total

 

Income

 

Sales

 

Income

 

Business Segments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Industrial

 

$

10,990

 

34.5

%

$

2,389

 

$

10,657

 

34.5

%

$

2,307

 

3.1

%

3.6

%

Safety and Graphics

 

5,732

 

18.0

%

1,296

 

5,584

 

18.1

%

1,227

 

2.7

%

5.6

%

Electronics and Energy

 

5,604

 

17.6

%

1,115

 

5,393

 

17.5

%

954

 

3.9

%

16.8

%

Health Care

 

5,572

 

17.5

%

1,724

 

5,334

 

17.3

%

1,672

 

4.5

%

3.1

%

Consumer

 

4,523

 

14.2

%

995

 

4,435

 

14.4

%

945

 

2.0

%

5.3

%

Corporate and Unallocated

 

4

 

%

(251

)

8

 

%

(321

)

 

 

Elimination of Dual Credit

 

(604

)

(1.8

)%

(133

)

(540

)

(1.8

)%

(118

)

 

 

Total Company

 

$

31,821

 

100.0

%

$

7,135

 

$

30,871

 

100.0

%

$

6,666

 

3.1

%

7.0

%

 

Sales in 2014 increased 3.1 percent, led by Health Care at 4.5 percent, Electronics and Energy at 3.9 percent, Industrial at 3.1 percent, Safety and Graphics at 2.7 percent, and Consumer at 2.0 percent. Total company organic local-currency sales growth (which includes organic volume and selling price impacts) was 4.9 percent, acquisitions added 0.1 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.9 percent. All of 3M’s five business segments posted operating income margins of approximately 20 percent or more in 2014. Worldwide operating income margins for 2014 were 22.4 percent, compared to 21.6 percent for 2013.

 

Sales in 2013 increased 3.2 percent, led by Industrial at 6.5 percent, Health Care at 3.8 percent, and Safety and Graphics at 3.3 percent. Sales increased 1.1 percent in Consumer and declined 1.2 percent in Electronics and Energy. Total company organic local-currency sales growth (which includes organic volume and selling price impacts) was 3.4 percent, acquisitions added 1.4 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.6 percent. Four of 3M’s five business segments posted operating income margins in excess of 21 percent in 2013. Worldwide operating income margins for 2013 were 21.6 percent, compared to 21.7 percent for 2012.

 

Financial condition:

 

3M generated $6.626 billion of operating cash flow in 2014, an increase of $809 million when compared to 2013. This followed an increase of $517 million when comparing 2013 to 2012. Refer to the section entitled “Financial Condition and Liquidity” later in MD&A for a discussion of items impacting cash flows. In February 2014, 3M’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $12 billion of 3M’s outstanding common stock, which replaced the Company’s February 2013 repurchase program. This new program has no pre-established end date. In 2014, the Company purchased $5.652 billion of stock, and in 2013 the Company purchased $5.212 billion of stock, up significantly from $2.204 billion in 2012. The Company expects to purchase $3 billion to $5 billion of stock in 2015. In December 2014, 3M’s Board of Directors declared a first-quarter 2015 dividend of $1.025 per share, an increase of 20 percent. This marked the 57th consecutive year of dividend increases for 3M. 3M’s debt to total capital ratio (total capital defined as debt plus equity) was 34 percent at December 31, 2014, and 25 percent at both December 31, 2013 and 2012. As of February 2015, the Company has an AA- credit rating, with a stable outlook, from Standard & Poor’s and an Aa3 credit rating, with a negative outlook, from Moody’s Investors Service. The Company has significant cash on hand and sufficient additional access to capital markets to meet its funding needs. 3M currently expects that its effective tax rate for 2015 will be approximately 28.0 to 29.0 percent, which assumes that the U.S. research and development credit will be reinstated for 2015.

 

Raw materials:

 

In 2014, the Company experienced stable to declining costs for most raw material categories and transportation fuel. This was driven by year-on-year cost decreases in many feedstock categories, including petroleum based materials, minerals, metals and wood pulp based products. To date the Company is receiving sufficient quantities of all raw materials to meet its reasonably foreseeable production requirements. It is impossible to predict future shortages of raw materials or the impact any such shortages would have. 3M has avoided disruption to its manufacturing operations through careful management of existing raw material inventories and development and qualification of additional supply sources. 3M manages commodity price risks through negotiated supply contracts, price protection agreements and forward contracts.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Pension and postretirement defined benefit plans:

 

On a worldwide basis, 3M’s pension and postretirement plans were 85 percent funded at year-end 2014. The primary U.S. qualified pension plan, which is approximately 68 percent of the worldwide pension obligation, was 92 percent funded and the international pension plans were 85 percent funded. The U.S. non-qualified pension plan is not funded due to tax considerations and other factors. Asset returns in 2014 for the primary U.S. qualified pension plan was 13.0%, as 3M strategically invests in both growth assets and fixed income matching assets to manage its funded status. For the primary U.S. qualified pension plan, the expected long-term rate of return on an annualized basis for 2015 is 7.75%, unchanged from 2014. The primary U.S. qualified pension plan year-end 2014 discount rate was 4.10%, down 0.88 percentage points from the year-end 2013 discount rate of 4.98%. The decrease in U.S. discount rates resulted in an increased valuation of the projected benefit obligation, which decreased the plans’ funded status. Additional detail and discussion of international plan asset returns and discount rates is provided in Note 10 (Pension and Postretirement Benefit Plans).

 

The changes in 3M’s defined benefit pension and postretirement plans’ funded status, which is required to be measured as of each year-end, significantly impacted several balance sheet amounts. In the fourth quarter of 2014, these required annual measurements decreased prepaid pension benefits by $0.7 billion, increased deferred taxes within other assets by $0.8 billion, increased pension and postretirement benefits’ long-term liabilities by $1.9 billion, and decreased stockholders’ equity by $1.8 billion. Other pension and postretirement changes during the year, such as contributions and amortization, also impacted these balance sheet amounts.

 

In addition, two items will impact the income statement in 2015:

 

·                  In the fourth quarter of 2014, 3M’s Board of Directors approved an amendment of the U.S. defined benefit pension plan to include a lump sum payment option for employees that have vested retirement benefits who commence their pension January 1, 2015, or later. This option is also available to vested employees who leave 3M before becoming eligible to retire at the time of termination. This change reduced 3M’s year-end 2014 projected benefit obligation (PBO) liability by approximately $266 million.

·                  As of December 31, 2014, the Company converted to the “RP 2014 Mortality Tables” and updated the mortality improvement scale it used for calculating the year-end 2014 U.S. defined benefit pension annuitant and postretirement obligations and 2015 expense. The impact of this change increased the year-end 2014 U.S. PBO for pension by approximately $820 million and the 2014 U.S. accumulated postretirement benefit obligation by approximately $100 million.

 

3M expects to contribute approximately $100 million to $200 million of cash to its global defined benefit pension and postretirement plans in 2015. The Company does not have a required minimum cash pension contribution obligation for its U.S. plans in 2015. 3M expects global defined benefit pension and postretirement expense in 2015 (before settlements, curtailments, special termination benefits and other) to increase by approximately $210 million pre-tax when compared to 2014. Refer to “Critical Accounting Estimates” within MD&A and Note 10 (Pension and Postretirement Benefit Plans) for additional information concerning 3M’s pension and post-retirement plans.

 

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Table of Contents

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Net Sales:

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

 

 

U.S.

 

Intl.

 

Worldwide

 

U.S.

 

Intl.

 

Worldwide

 

Net sales (millions)

 

$

11,714

 

$

20,107

 

$

31,821

 

$

11,151

 

$

19,720

 

$

30,871

 

% of worldwide sales

 

36.8

%

63.2

%

 

 

36.1

%

63.9

%

 

 

Components of net sales change:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volume — organic

 

4.4

%

3.8

%

3.9

%

2.4

%

2.7

%

2.5

%

Price

 

0.5

 

1.2

 

1.0

 

0.7

 

0.9

 

0.9

 

Organic local-currency sales

 

4.9

 

5.0

 

4.9

 

3.1

 

3.6

 

3.4

 

Acquisitions

 

0.2

 

 

0.1

 

2.5

 

0.9

 

1.4

 

Divestitures

 

(0.1

)

 

 

(0.1

)

 

 

Translation

 

 

(3.0

)

(1.9

)

 

(2.5

)

(1.6

)

Total sales change

 

5.0

%

2.0

%

3.1

%

5.5

%

2.0

%

3.2

%

 

In 2014, organic local-currency sales grew 4.9 percent, with increases of 6.3 percent in Asia Pacific, 4.9 percent in the United States, 4.5 percent in Latin America/Canada, and 3.2 percent in EMEA. Organic local-currency sales growth was 5.6 percent across developing markets, and 4.5 percent in developed markets. Worldwide organic local-currency sales grew 5.8 percent in Health Care, 5.4 percent in Safety and Graphics, 5.2 percent in Electronics and Energy, 4.9 percent in Industrial, and 3.9 percent in Consumer. Acquisitions added 0.1 percent to worldwide growth and foreign currency translation reduced worldwide sales growth by 1.9 percent.

 

Worldwide selling prices rose 1.0 percent in 2014. Selling prices continue to be supported by technology innovation, which is a key fundamental strength of the Company, helping to drive unique customer solutions and an increasing flow of new products. 3M also began raising selling prices in mid-2013 to help offset currency weakness in select developing countries. This resulted in 3M’s price performance moderating in the second half of 2014.

 

In 2013, organic local-currency sales grew 3.4 percent, with increases of 7.1 percent in Latin America/Canada, 3.6 percent in Asia Pacific, 3.1 percent in the United States, and 2.1 percent in EMEA. Organic local-currency sales growth was 6.9 percent across developing markets, and 1.6 percent in developed markets. Worldwide organic local-currency sales grew 5.0 percent in Health Care, 4.6 percent in Industrial, 4.1 percent in Safety and Graphics, 3.0 percent in Consumer, and were flat in Electronics and Energy. Acquisitions added 1.4 percent to worldwide growth and foreign currency translation reduced worldwide sales growth by 1.6 percent.

 

Refer to the sections entitled “Performance by Business Segment” and “Performance by Geographic Area” later in MD&A for additional discussion of sales change.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Operating Expenses:

 

(Percent of net sales)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2014 Versus
2013

 

2013 Versus
2012

 

Cost of sales

 

51.7

%

52.1

%

52.4

%

(0.4

)%

(0.3

)%

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

20.3

 

20.7

 

20.4

 

(0.4

)

0.3

 

Research, development and related expenses

 

5.6

 

5.6

 

5.5

 

 

0.1

 

Operating income

 

22.4

%

21.6

%

21.7

%

0.8

%

(0.1

)%

 

Pension and postretirement expense decreased $162 million in 2014 compared to 2013, versus a decrease of $97 million in 2013 compared to 2012. 2012 includes a $26 million charge related to the first-quarter 2012 voluntary early retirement incentive program (discussed in Note 10). Pension and postretirement expense is recorded in cost of sales; selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A); and research, development and related expenses (R&D). Refer to Note 10 (Pension and Postretirement Plans) for components of net periodic benefit cost and the assumptions used to determine net cost.

 

The Company is investing in business transformation. This term includes the ongoing multi-year phased implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system on a worldwide basis, as well as changes in processes and internal/external service delivery across 3M.

 

Cost of Sales:

 

Cost of sales includes manufacturing, engineering and freight costs.

 

Cost of sales, measured as a percent of net sales, was 51.7 percent in 2014, a decrease of 0.4 percentage points from 2013. Cost of sales as a percent of sales decreased due to the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases, as selling prices increased net sales by 1.0 percent and raw material cost deflation was favorable by approximately 1.5 percent year-on-year. In addition, lower pension and postretirement costs (of which a portion impacts cost of sales), along with organic volume leverage, decreased cost of sales as a percent of sales.

 

Cost of sales, measured as a percent of net sales, was 52.1 percent in 2013, a decrease of 0.3 percentage points from 2012. Cost of sales as a percent of sales decreased due to the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases, as selling prices increased net sales by 0.9 percent and raw material cost deflation was favorable by approximately 2 percent year-on-year. In addition, lower pension and postretirement costs (of which a portion impacts cost of sales), in addition to organic volume increases, decreased cost of sales as a percent of sales. These benefits were partially offset by the impact of 2012 acquisitions and lower factory utilization.

 

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses:

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A) increased $85 million, or 1.3 percent, in 2014 when compared to 2013. Year 2014 included strategic investments in business transformation, while lower pension and postretirement expense benefitted SG&A. SG&A, measured as a percent of sales, decreased 0.4 percentage points to 20.3 percent in 2014, compared to 20.7 percent of sales in 2013.

 

SG&A increased $282 million, or 4.6 percent, in 2013 when compared to 2012. In 2013, SG&A included strategic investments in business transformation, in addition to increases from acquired businesses that were largely not in 3M’s 2012 spending (Ceradyne, Inc. and Federal Signal Technologies), which were partially offset by lower pension and postretirement expense. SG&A, measured as a percent of sales, increased 0.3 percentage points to 20.7 percent in 2013, compared to 20.4 percent of sales in 2012.

 

Research, Development and Related Expenses:

 

Research, development and related expenses (R&D) increased 3.2 percent in 2014 compared to 2013 and increased 4.9 percent in 2013 compared to 2012, as 3M continued to support its key growth initiatives, including more R&D aimed at disruptive innovation, which refers to innovation which has the potential to create new markets and disrupt existing markets. These increases were partially offset by lower pension and postretirement expense. In 2013, increases from acquired businesses that were largely not in 3M’s 2012 spending (primarily Ceradyne, Inc. and Federal Signal

 

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Table of Contents

 

Technologies) were partially offset by lower pension and postretirement expense. R&D, measured as a percent of sales, was 5.6 percent in both 2014 and 2013, compared to 5.5 percent in 2012.

 

Operating Income:

 

3M uses operating income as one of its primary business segment performance measurement tools.

 

Operating income margins were 22.4 percent in 2014 compared to 21.6 in 2013, an increase of 0.8 percentage points. These results included a 1.0 percentage point benefit from the combination of higher selling prices and lower raw material costs. In addition, lower year-on-year pension and postretirement benefit costs provided a 0.5 percentage point benefit and profit leverage on organic volume growth added 0.3 percentage points. Items that reduced operating income margins included a 0.6 percentage point impact from strategic investments, which included investments in disruptive R&D, business transformation, the supply chain center of expertise in Europe, and portfolio management actions. The Company invested $90 million in 2014 in portfolio management actions to position 3M for greater success. Foreign currency effects reduced operating income margins by 0.3 percentage points, and the Treo acquisition reduced operating income margins by 0.1 percentage points.

 

Operating income margins were 21.6 percent in 2013, compared to 21.7 in 2012, a decrease of 0.1 percentage points. Items that reduced operating income margins included a 0.5 percentage point impact from lower factory utilization/productivity, along with a 0.4 percentage point impact from strategic investments, which included business transformation, along with more R&D aimed at disruptive innovation. The recently enacted medical device excise tax in the U.S., foreign currency effects, acquisition impacts, and other net impacts reduced operating income margins by 0.7 percentage points. These factors were largely offset by items that increased operating income margins, which included a 1.2 percentage point benefit from the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases. Finally, lower pension/postretirement benefit costs increased operating income margins by 0.3 percentage points.

 

Interest Expense and Income:

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Interest expense

 

$

142

 

$

145

 

$

171

 

Interest income

 

(33

)

(41

)

(39

)

Total

 

$

109

 

$

104

 

$

132

 

 

Interest Expense: Interest expense, despite higher debt levels, decreased in 2014 compared to 2013, primarily due to lower U.S. borrowing costs as debt maturities were replaced with lower cost financing from commercial paper and lower interest rates on new debt issuances. Interest expense decreased in 2013 compared to 2012, driven by lower interest rates on U.S. debt. Capitalized interest related to property, plant and equipment construction in progress is recorded as a reduction to interest expense. The amounts shown in the table above for interest expense are net of capitalized interest amounts of $15 million, $21 million, and $23 million, in 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

 

Interest Income: Interest income in 2014 was lower when compared to 2013 due to lower cash balances. Interest income was up $2 million when comparing 2013 to 2012, as higher average international cash balances were largely offset by lower average U.S. balances and lower U.S. and international interest rates.

 

Provision for Income Taxes:

 

(Percent of pre-tax income)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Effective tax rate

 

28.9

%

28.1

%

29.0

%

 

The effective tax rate for 2014 was 28.9 percent, compared to 28.1 percent in 2013, an increase of 0.8 percentage points, impacted by many factors. Factors which increased the Company’s effective tax rate included a one-time international tax impact related to the establishment of the supply chain center of expertise in Europe, decreased U.S. research and development credit in 2014 compared to 2013 due to two years inclusion as a result of the reinstatement in 2013, decreased domestic manufacturer’s deduction, and other items. Combined, these factors increased the Company’s effective tax rate by 1.6 percentage points. This increase was partially offset by a 0.8 percentage point decrease, which related to both lower 3M income tax reserves for 2014 when compared to 2013 and international taxes as a result of changes to the geographic mix of income before taxes.

 

The effective tax rate for 2013 was 28.1 percent, compared to 29.0 percent in 2012, a decrease of 0.9 percentage points, impacted by many factors. Factors that decreased the Company’s effective tax rate included international taxes as a

 

23



Table of Contents

 

result of changes to the geographic mix of income before taxes, the reinstatement of the U.S. research and development credit in 2013, an increase in the domestic manufacturer’s deduction benefit, the restoration of tax basis on certain assets for which depreciation deductions were previously limited, and other items. Combined, these factors decreased the Company’s effective tax rate by 4.0 percentage points. This benefit was partially offset by factors that increased the effective tax rate by 3.1 percentage points, which largely related to increases in 3M’s income tax reserves for 2013 when compared to 2012.

 

The Company currently expects that its effective tax rate for 2015 will be approximately 28.0 to 29.0 percent, which assumes that the U.S. research and development credit will be reinstated for 2015. The rate can vary from quarter to quarter due to discrete items, such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax laws, as well as recurring factors, such as the geographic mix of income before taxes.

 

Refer to Note 7 for further discussion of income taxes.

 

Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest:

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

$

42

 

$

62

 

$

67

 

 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest represents the elimination of the income or loss attributable to non-3M ownership interests in 3M consolidated entities. The changes in noncontrolling interest amounts have largely related to Sumitomo 3M Limited (Japan), which was 3M’s most significant consolidated entity with non-3M ownership interests. As discussed in Note 5, on September 1, 2014, 3M purchased the remaining 25 percent ownership in Sumitomo 3M Limited, bringing 3M’s ownership to 100 percent. Thus, effective September 1, 2014, net income attributable to noncontrolling interest was significantly reduced. The primary remaining noncontrolling interest relates to 3M India Limited, of which 3M’s effective ownership is 75 percent.

 

Currency Effects:

 

3M estimates that year-on-year currency effects, including hedging impacts, decreased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $97 million and $74 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. These estimates include the effect of translating profits from local currencies into U.S. dollars; the impact of currency fluctuations on the transfer of goods between 3M operations in the United States and abroad; and transaction gains and losses, including derivative instruments designed to reduce foreign currency exchange rate risks and the negative impact of swapping Venezuelan bolivars into U.S. dollars. 3M estimates that year-on-year derivative and other transaction gains and losses increased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $8 million in 2014 and decreased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $12 million in 2013. Refer to Note 11 in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information concerning 3M’s hedging activities.

 

24



Table of Contents

 

PERFORMANCE BY BUSINESS SEGMENT

 

Disclosures relating to 3M’s business segments are provided in Item 1, Business Segments. Financial information and other disclosures are provided in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. As discussed in Note 15, effective in the first quarter of 2014, 3M transferred a product line between divisions within business segments, and in the first, second, and fourth quarters of 2014 also made certain changes within business segments in its continuing effort to improve the alignment of its businesses around markets and customers. Segment information presented herein reflects the impact of these changes for all periods presented. 3M manages its operations in five operating business segments. The reportable segments are Industrial; Safety and Graphics; Electronics and Energy; Health Care; and Consumer.

 

Corporate and Unallocated:

 

In addition to these five operating business segments, 3M assigns certain costs to “Corporate and Unallocated,” which is presented separately in the preceding business segments table and in Note 15. Corporate and Unallocated includes a variety of miscellaneous items, such as corporate investment gains and losses, certain derivative gains and losses, certain insurance-related gains and losses, certain litigation and environmental expenses, corporate restructuring charges and certain under- or over-absorbed costs (e.g. pension, stock-based compensation) that the Company may choose not to allocate directly to its business segments. Because this category includes a variety of miscellaneous items, it is subject to fluctuation on a quarterly and annual basis.

 

Corporate and Unallocated operating expenses decreased by $70 million in 2014 when compared to 2013. This decrease was driven by lower pension and postretirement benefit expenses, which declined year-on-year by $162 million. Of this reduction, $116 million was allocated to Corporate and Unallocated. This was partially offset by higher Corporate and Unallocated expenses related to year-on-year increases in annual incentive plan expenses and legal accruals.

 

Corporate and Unallocated operating expenses decreased by $151 million in 2013 when compared to 2012. Of the $151 million decrease in 2013, approximately $127 million was due to lower pension and postretirement benefit expense.

 

Operating Business Segments:

 

Each of 3M’s five business segments absorbed additional incremental investments in both 2014 and 2013 related to business transformation, enabled by 3M’s global ERP implementation. This negatively impacted each of the five business segments’ 2014 annual operating margins by approximately 0.20 percentage points when compared to 2013, following an approximate 0.30 percentage point year-on-year reduction in operating income margins for 2013 when compared to 2012.

 

Information related to 3M’s business segments is presented in the tables that follow. Organic local-currency sales include both organic volume impacts plus selling price impacts. Acquisition impacts, if any, are measured separately for the first twelve months of the acquisition. The divestiture impacts, if any, foreign currency translation impacts and total sales change are also provided for each business segment. Any references to EMEA relate to Europe, Middle East and Africa on a combined basis.

 

The following discusses total year results for 2014 compared to 2013, and also discusses 2013 compared to 2012, for each business segment.

 

25



Table of Contents

 

Industrial Business (34.5% of consolidated sales):

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Sales (millions)

 

$

10,990

 

$

10,657

 

$

10,008

 

Sales change analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organic local currency

 

4.9

%

4.6

%

5.2

%

Acquisitions

 

 

3.6

 

1.1

 

Translation

 

(1.8

)

(1.7

)

(3.0

)

Total sales change

 

3.1

%

6.5

%

3.3

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

2,389

 

$

2,307

 

$

2,244

 

Percent change

 

3.6

%

2.8

%

12.9

%

Percent of sales

 

21.7

%

21.6

%

22.4

%

 

The Industrial segment serves a broad range of markets, such as automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and automotive aftermarket (auto body shops and retail), electronics, appliance, paper and printing, packaging, food and beverage, and construction. Industrial products include tapes, a wide variety of coated, non-woven and bonded abrasives, adhesives, advanced ceramics, sealants, specialty materials, 3M Purification Inc. (filtration products), closure systems for personal hygiene products, acoustic systems products, and components and products that are used in the manufacture, repair and maintenance of automotive, marine, aircraft and specialty vehicles.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

Sales in Industrial totaled $11.0 billion, up 3.1 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 4.9 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.8 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, sales growth was positive across all businesses, led by aerospace and commercial transportation, automotive OEM, 3M Purification Inc., advanced materials, and abrasive systems.

 

Geographically, organic local-currency sales increased 6 percent in the United States, 5 percent in Asia Pacific, and 3 percent in both EMEA and Latin America/Canada.

 

Operating income was $2.4 billion in 2014, an increase of 3.6 percent. Operating income margins increased by 0.1 percentage points to 21.7 percent. Operating income margins improved due to sales volume leverage, plus the combination of selling price increases and raw material cost decreases. As indicated in the preceding Operating Business Segments section, each of 3M’s five business segments absorbed incremental investments in 2014 related to business transformation and global ERP implementation. This reduced operating income margins in each of the businesses by approximately 0.2 percentage points year-on-year.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

Sales in Industrial totaled $10.7 billion, up 6.5 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 4.6 percent, acquisitions added 3.6 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.7 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, all of Industrial’s businesses experienced positive sales growth in 2013, led by aerospace and commercial transportation, automotive OEM, 3M Purification Inc. (filtration products), and industrial adhesives and tapes. Acquisition growth related to the 2012 acquisition of Ceradyne, Inc. (Ceradyne). As disclosed in Note 2, in November 2012, 3M acquired Ceradyne, which is headquartered in Costa Mesa, California. Ceradyne is involved in the development and production of advanced technical ceramics for demanding applications in the automotive, oil and gas, solar, industrial, electronics and defense industries.

 

Geographically, organic local-currency sales increased 8 percent in Latin America/Canada, 5 percent in the United States, 4 percent in EMEA, and 3 percent in Asia Pacific.

 

Operating income was $2.3 billion in 2013, up 2.8 percent year-on-year. Operating income margins decreased by 0.8 percentage points to 21.6 percent. This decline in margins largely related to the Ceradyne acquisition, which reduced 2013 operating income margins by 0.7 percentage points. As indicated in the preceding Operating Business Segments section, each of 3M’s five business segments absorbed incremental investments related to business transformation, enabled by 3M’s global ERP implementation, which reduced operating income margins in each of 3M’s five business segments by approximately 0.3 percentage points when comparing 2013 to 2012.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Safety and Graphics Business (18.0% of consolidated sales):

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Sales (millions)

 

$

5,732

 

$

5,584

 

$

5,406

 

Sales change analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organic local currency

 

5.4

%

4.1

%

2.3

%

Acquisitions

 

 

1.3

 

0.6

 

Translation

 

(2.7

)

(2.1

)

(2.8

)

Total sales change

 

2.7

%

3.3

%

0.1

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

1,296

 

$

1,227

 

$

1,210

 

Percent change

 

5.6

%

1.4

%

(1.8

)%

Percent of sales

 

22.6

%

22.0

%

22.4

%

 

The Safety and Graphics segment serves a broad range of markets that increase the safety, security and productivity of people, facilities and systems. Major product offerings include personal protection products; traffic safety and security products, including border and civil security solutions; commercial solutions, including commercial graphics sheeting and systems, architectural surface and lighting solutions, and cleaning and protection products for commercial establishments; and roofing granules for asphalt shingles.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

Sales in Safety and Graphics totaled $5.7 billion, up 2.7 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 5.4 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 2.7 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, sales growth was led by personal safety. 3M also saw positive organic local-currency sales growth in commercial solutions, and traffic safety and security systems. Sales in the roofing granules business declined year-on-year.

 

Organic local-currency sales increased 6 percent in EMEA, and increased 5 percent in the United States, Asia Pacific, and Latin America/Canada.

 

Operating income in 2014 totaled $1.3 billion, up 5.6 percent. Operating income margins were 22.6 percent of sales, compared to 22.0 percent in 2013. Operating income margins benefited from organic volume leverage plus selling price increases, partially offset by incremental investments related to business transformation, enabled by 3M’s global ERP implementation, plus selective restructuring.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

Sales in Safety and Graphics totaled $5.6 billion, up 3.3 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 4.1 percent, acquisitions added 1.3 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 2.1 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, sales grew in personal safety, commercial solutions, and industrial minerals. Organic local-currency sales declined in traffic safety and security systems. Acquisition growth related to the September 2012 purchase of net assets that comprised the business of Federal Signal Technologies Group.

 

Organic local-currency sales increased 9 percent in both Latin America/Canada and Asia Pacific, and 2 percent in the United States. Organic local-currency sales were flat in EMEA.

 

Operating income in 2013 totaled $1.2 billion, up 1.4 percent. Operating income margins were 22.0 percent of sales, compared to 22.4 percent in 2012. This decline in margins related to the Federal Signal Technologies Group acquisition, which reduced 2013 operating income margins by 0.5 percentage points.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Electronics and Energy Business (17.6% of consolidated sales):

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Sales (millions)

 

$

5,604

 

$

5,393

 

$

5,458

 

Sales change analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organic local currency

 

5.2

%

%

(3.7

)%

Translation

 

(1.3

)

(1.2

)

(1.1

)

Total sales change

 

3.9

%

(1.2

)%

(4.8

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

1,115

 

$

954

 

$

1,026

 

Percent change

 

16.8

%

(7.0

)%

(10.0

)%

Percent of sales

 

19.9

%

17.7

%

18.8

%

 

The Electronics and Energy segment serves customers in electronics and energy markets, including solutions that improve the dependability, cost-effectiveness, and performance of electronic devices; electrical products, including infrastructure protection; telecommunications networks, and power generation and distribution. This segment’s electronics solutions include optical film solutions for the electronic display industry; packaging and interconnection devices; high performance fluids and abrasives; high-temperature and display tapes; flexible circuits, which use electronic packaging and interconnection technology; and touch systems products, which includes touch screens, touch monitors, and touch sensor components. This segment’s energy solutions include pressure sensitive tapes and resins; electrical insulation; infrastructure products that provide both protection and detection solutions; a wide array of fiber-optic and copper-based telecommunications systems; and renewable energy component solutions for the solar and wind power industries.

 

The display materials and systems business provides films that serve numerous market segments of the electronic display industry. 3M provides distinct products for five market segments, including products for: 1) LCD computer monitors 2) LCD televisions 3) handheld devices such as cellular phones and tablets 4) notebook PCs and 5) automotive displays. The optical business includes a number of different products that are protected by various patents and groups of patents. These patents provide varying levels of exclusivity to 3M for a number of such products. As some of 3M’s multi-layer optical film patents expired at the end of 2013 and will expire over several years thereafter, 3M will likely see more competition in these products. 3M continues to innovate in the area of optical films and files patents on its new technology and products. 3M’s proprietary manufacturing technology and know-how also provide a competitive advantage to 3M independent of its patents.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

Electronics and Energy sales totaled $5.6 billion, up 3.9 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 5.2 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.3 percent.

 

Organic local-currency sales increased approximately 8 percent in 3M’s electronics-related businesses, with growth led by display materials and systems. In 3M’s energy-related businesses, organic local-currency sales increased approximately 1 percent, with growth in electrical markets and telecommunications, partially offset by reductions in renewable energy.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased 8 percent in Latin America/Canada, 7 percent in Asia Pacific, and 1 percent in EMEA, while sales in the United States were flat.

 

Operating income increased 16.8 percent to $1.1 billion in 2014. Operating income margins were 19.9 percent compared to 17.7 percent in 2013, helped by sales volume leverage. In addition, recent portfolio management actions are enhancing 3M’s relevance with customers and generating operational efficiencies, which also contributed to the operating income margin improvement in 2014.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

Electronics and Energy sales totaled $5.4 billion, down 1.2 percent in U.S. dollars, with this decrease related to foreign currency translation. Organic local-currency sales were flat in 3M’s electronics-related businesses, with sales increases in display materials and systems offset by declines in electronics materials solutions. Organic local-currency sales were also flat in 3M’s energy-related businesses, where sales gains in electrical markets were offset by sales declines in telecommunication markets, and renewable energy.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased slightly in Latin America/Canada and Asia Pacific. Organic local-currency sales declined slightly in the United States and EMEA.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Operating income decreased 7.0 percent to $954 million in 2013. Operating income margins were 17.7 percent, compared to 18.8 percent in 2012. The operating margin decline was primarily attributable to lower factory utilization and flat year-on-year organic local-currency sales.

 

Health Care Business (17.5% of consolidated sales):

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Sales (millions)

 

$

5,572

 

$

5,334

 

$

5,138

 

Sales change analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organic local currency

 

5.8

%

5.0

%

4.7

%

Acquisitions

 

0.4

 

0.1

 

0.3

 

Translation

 

(1.7

)

(1.3

)

(2.5

)

Total sales change

 

4.5

%

3.8

%

2.5

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

1,724

 

$

1,672

 

$

1,641

 

Percent change

 

3.1

%

1.9

%

10.5

%

Percent of sales

 

30.9

%

31.3

%

31.9

%

 

The Health Care segment serves markets that include medical clinics and hospitals, pharmaceuticals, dental and orthodontic practitioners, health information systems, and food manufacturing and testing. Products and services provided to these and other markets include medical and surgical supplies, skin health and infection prevention products, inhalation and transdermal drug delivery systems, dental and orthodontic products (oral care), health information systems, and food safety products.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

Health Care sales totaled $5.6 billion, an increase of 4.5 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 5.8 percent, acquisitions added 0.4 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.7 percent. Organic local-currency sales grew in all businesses, with the strongest growth in health information systems, drug delivery systems, food safety, critical and chronic care, and infection prevention.

 

Acquisition sales growth related to the April 2014 purchase of Treo Solutions LLC, headquartered in Troy, New York. Treo Solutions LLC is a provider of data analytics and business intelligence to healthcare payers and providers.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased 9 percent in Latin America/Canada, 8 percent in Asia Pacific, 6 percent in the United States, and 3 percent in EMEA.

 

In developing markets, Health Care organic local-currency sales grew 12 percent.

 

Operating income increased 3.1 percent to $1.7 billion. Operating income margins were 30.9 percent in 2014, compared to 31.3 percent in 2013, with acquisition impacts reducing operating income margins by 0.3 percentage points. As discussed below in 2013 results, the gain from sale of a non-strategic equity method investment benefited total year 2013 operating income margins by 0.3 percentage points.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

Health Care sales totaled $5.3 billion, an increase of 3.8 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 5.0 percent, acquisitions added 0.1 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.3 percent. Organic local-currency sales growth was led by health information systems, food safety, critical and chronic care, infection prevention, and oral care. Organic local-currency sales declined in drug delivery. Acquisition growth related to the April 2012 acquisition of CodeRyte, Inc., which provides clinical natural language processing technology and computer-assisted coding solutions for outpatient providers.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased 10 percent in Latin America/Canada, 8 percent in Asia Pacific, and 4 percent in both EMEA and the United States.

 

Operating income increased 1.9 percent to $1.7 billion. Operating income margins were 31.3 percent in 2013, compared to 31.9 percent in 2012. Effective January 1, 2013, 3M began to absorb additional costs related to the U.S. medical device excise tax, which decreased operating income margins by 0.4 percentage points. The third-quarter 2013 gain from sale of a non-strategic equity method investment benefited total year 2013 operating income margins by 0.3 percentage points.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Consumer Business (14.2% of consolidated sales):

 

 

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

Sales (millions)

 

$

4,523

 

$

4,435

 

$

4,386

 

Sales change analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organic local currency

 

3.9

%

3.0

%

3.6

%

Acquisitions

 

 

 

2.0

 

Divestitures

 

(0.1

)

(0.1

)

 

Translation

 

(1.8

)

(1.8

)

(1.9

)

Total sales change

 

2.0

%

1.1

%

3.7

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

995

 

$

945

 

$

943

 

Percent change

 

5.3

%

0.2

%

10.3

%

Percent of sales

 

22.0

%

21.3

%

21.5

%

 

The Consumer segment serves markets that include consumer retail, office retail, office business to business, home improvement, drug and pharmacy retail, and other markets. Products in this segment include office supply products, stationery products, construction and home improvement products (do-it-yourself), home care products, protective material products, certain consumer retail personal safety products, and consumer health care products.

 

Year 2014 results:

 

Sales in Consumer totaled $4.5 billion, up 2.0 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 3.9 percent, divestitures reduced sales by 0.1 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.8 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, sales growth was led by construction and home improvement. 3M also posted positive growth in its consumer health care and home care businesses. Sales in the stationery and office supplies business were flat.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased 6 percent in Asia Pacific, 4 percent in the United States, 3 percent in Latin America/Canada, and 1 percent in EMEA.

 

In developing markets, organic local-currency growth was 6 percent.

 

Consumer operating income was $1.0 billion, up 5.3 percent from 2013. Operating income margins were 22.0 percent, up from 21.3 percent in 2013. The combination of strong organic growth, productivity, and portfolio prioritization continued to drive efficiencies across this business.

 

Year 2013 results:

 

Sales in Consumer totaled $4.4 billion, up 1.1 percent in U.S. dollars. Organic local-currency sales increased 3.0 percent, divestitures reduced sales by 0.1 percent, and foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.8 percent. On an organic local-currency basis, sales growth was led by consumer health care, home care, and construction and home improvement. Organic local-currency sales increased slightly in stationery and office supplies, impacted by continued consolidation trends in the office retail and wholesale market.

 

On a geographic basis, organic local-currency sales increased 7 percent in Asia Pacific and 3 percent in both Latin America/Canada and the United States. Organic local-currency sales declined 1 percent in EMEA.

 

Consumer operating income was $945 million, up 0.2 percent from 2012. Operating income margins were 21.3 percent, down slightly from 2012.

 

As discussed in Note 2, in June 2013, 3M completed the sale of the Scientific Anglers and Ross Reels businesses to The Orvis Company, Inc. based in Manchester, Vermont.

 

30



Table of Contents

 

PERFORMANCE BY GEOGRAPHIC AREA

 

While 3M manages its businesses globally and believes its business segment results are the most relevant measure of performance, the Company also utilizes geographic area data as a secondary performance measure. Export sales are generally reported within the geographic area where the final sales to 3M customers are made. A portion of the products or components sold by 3M’s operations to its customers are exported by these customers to different geographic areas. As customers move their operations from one geographic area to another, 3M’s results will follow. Thus, net sales in a particular geographic area are not indicative of end-user consumption in that geographic area. Financial information related to 3M operations in various geographic areas is provided in Note 16.

 

A summary of key information and discussion related to 3M’s geographic areas follow:

 

 

 

2014

 

 

 

United
States

 

Asia
Pacific

 

Europe,
Middle East
& Africa

 

Latin
America/
Canada

 

Other
Unallocated

 

Worldwide

 

Net sales (millions)

 

$

11,714

 

$

9,418

 

$

7,198

 

$

3,504

 

$

(13

)

$

31,821

 

% of worldwide sales

 

36.8

%

29.6

%

22.6

%

11.0

%

 

100.0

%

Components of net sales change:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volume — organic

 

4.4

%

6.2

%

2.1

%

0.2

%

 

3.9

%

Price

 

0.5

 

0.1

 

1.1

 

4.3

 

 

1.0

 

Organic local-currency sales

 

4.9

 

6.3

 

3.2

 

4.5

 

 

4.9

 

Acquisitions

 

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

Divestitures

 

(0.1

)

 

 

 

 

 

Translation

 

 

(2.2

)

(1.6

)

(7.5

)

 

(1.9

)

Total sales change

 

5.0

%

4.1

%

1.6

%

(3.0

)%

 

3.1

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

2,540

 

$

2,487

 

$

1,234

 

$

867

 

$

7

 

$

7,135

 

Percent change

 

14.9

%

4.2

%

5.7

%

(4.5

)%

 

7.0

%

 

For total year 2014, as shown in the preceding table, sales rose 3.1 percent, with organic volume increases of 3.9 percent and selling price increases of 1.0 percent. Acquisitions added 0.1 percent, while foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.9 percent. Organic local-currency sales increased 6.3 percent in Asia Pacific, 4.9 percent in the United States, 4.5 percent in Latin America/Canada, and 3.2 percent in EMEA. For 2014, international operations represented 63.2 percent of 3M’s sales.

 

 

 

2013

 

 

 

United
States

 

Asia
Pacific

 

Europe,
Middle East
& Africa

 

Latin
America/
Canada

 

Other
Unallocated

 

Worldwide

 

Net sales (millions)

 

$

11,151

 

$

9,047

 

$

7,085

 

$

3,611

 

$

(23

)

$

30,871

 

% of worldwide sales

 

36.1

%

29.3

%

22.9

%

11.7

%

 

100.0

%

Components of net sales change:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volume — organic

 

2.4

%

4.3

%

1.5

%

1.5

%

 

2.5

%

Price

 

0.7

 

(0.7

)

0.6

 

5.6

 

 

0.9

 

Organic local-currency sales

 

3.1

 

3.6

 

2.1

 

7.1

 

 

3.4

 

Acquisitions

 

2.5

 

0.2

 

2.0

 

0.3

 

 

1.4

 

Divestitures

 

(0.1

)

 

 

 

 

 

Translation

 

 

(4.3

)

1.2

 

(5.1

)

 

(1.6

)

Total sales change

 

5.5

%

(0.5

)%

5.3

%

2.3

%

 

3.2

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (millions)

 

$

2,210

 

$

2,386

 

$

1,168

 

$

908

 

$

(6

)

$

6,666

 

Percent change

 

14.0

%

(2.6

)%

0.4

%

(3.0

)%

 

2.8

%

 

For total year 2013, as shown in the preceding table, sales rose 3.2 percent, with organic volume increases of 2.5 percent and selling price increases of 0.9 percent. Acquisitions added 1.4 percent, while foreign currency translation reduced sales by 1.6 percent. Organic local-currency sales increased 7.1 percent in Latin America/Canada, 3.6 percent in Asia

 

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Table of Contents

 

Pacific, 3.1 percent in the United States, and 2.1 percent in EMEA. For 2013, international operations represented 63.9 percent of 3M’s sales.

 

Geographic Area Supplemental Information

 

 

 

Employees as of December 31,

 

Capital Spending

 

Property, Plant and
Equipment - net
as of December 31,

 

(Millions, except Employees)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2014

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States

 

35,581

 

34,719

 

34,851

 

$

909

 

$

941

 

$

816

 

$

4,619

 

$

4,478

 

Asia Pacific

 

17,854

 

18,417

 

18,210

 

184

 

284

 

332

 

1,798

 

1,943

 

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

20,506

 

20,504

 

20,638

 

288

 

290

 

226

 

1,502

 

1,636

 

Latin America and Canada

 

15,859

 

15,027

 

13,978

 

112

 

150

 

110

 

570

 

595

 

Total Company

 

89,800

 

88,667

 

87,677

 

$

1,493

 

$

1,665

 

$

1,484

 

$

8,489

 

$

8,652

 

 

Employment:

 

Employment increased by 1,133 positions in 2014 and 990 positions in 2013. The primary factors that increased employment in both years was additions in developing economies to support growth, plus additions related to the Treo Solutions LLC acquisition in 2014.

 

Capital Spending/Net Property, Plant and Equipment:

 

Investments in property, plant and equipment enable growth across many diverse markets, helping to meet product demand and increasing manufacturing efficiency. 3M’s capital spending by geography has been led by the United States (61% of spending in 2014), followed by Europe, Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific, and Latin America/Canada. 3M is continuing to increase its manufacturing and sourcing capability, particularly in developing economies, in order to more closely align its product capability with its sales in major geographic areas. 3M will continue to make investments in critical developing markets, such as Brazil, China, Mexico, Panama, Poland, Singapore, Southeast Asia, and Turkey. Capital spending is discussed in more detail later in MD&A in the section entitled “Cash Flows from Investing Activities.”

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

 

Information regarding significant accounting policies is included in Note 1. As stated in Note 1, the preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

 

The Company believes its most critical accounting estimates relate to legal proceedings, the Company’s pension and postretirement obligations, asset impairments and income taxes. Senior management has discussed the development, selection and disclosure of its critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee of 3M’s Board of Directors.

 

Legal Proceedings:

 

The categories of claims for which the Company has a probable and estimable liability, the amount of its liability accruals, and the estimates of its related insurance receivables are critical accounting estimates related to legal proceedings. Please refer to the section entitled “Process for Disclosure and Recording of Liabilities and Insurance Receivables Related to Legal Proceedings” (contained in “Legal Proceedings” in Note 13) for additional information about such estimates.

 

Pension and Postretirement Obligations:

 

3M has various company-sponsored retirement plans covering substantially all U.S. employees and many employees outside the United States. The primary U.S. defined-benefit pension plan was closed to new participants effective January 1, 2009. The Company accounts for its defined benefit pension and postretirement health care and life insurance benefit plans in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) 715, Compensation — Retirement Benefits, in measuring plan assets and benefit obligations and in determining the amount of net periodic benefit cost. ASC 715

 

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Table of Contents

 

requires employers to recognize the underfunded or overfunded status of a defined benefit pension or postretirement plan as an asset or liability in its statement of financial position and recognize changes in the funded status in the year in which the changes occur through accumulated other comprehensive income, which is a component of stockholders’ equity. While the company believes the valuation methods used to determine the fair value of plan assets are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.

 

Pension benefits associated with these plans are generally based primarily on each participant’s years of service, compensation, and age at retirement or termination. Two critical assumptions, the discount rate and the expected return on plan assets, are important elements of expense and liability measurement. See Note 10 for additional discussion of actuarial assumptions used in determining pension and postretirement health care liabilities and expenses.

 

The Company determines the discount rate used to measure plan liabilities as of the December 31 measurement date for its pension and postretirement benefit plans. The discount rate reflects the current rate at which the associated liabilities could be effectively settled at the end of the year. The Company sets its rate to reflect the yield of a portfolio of high quality, fixed-income debt instruments that would produce cash flows sufficient in timing and amount to settle projected future benefits. Using this methodology, the Company determined a discount rate of 4.10% for the primary U.S. qualified pension plan and 4.07% for U.S. postretirement plans to be appropriate as of December 31, 2014, which represents a decrease from the 4.98% and 4.83% rates, respectively, used as of December 31, 2013. The weighted average discount rate for international pension plans as of December 31, 2014 was 3.11%, a decrease from the 4.02% rate used as of December 31, 2013.

 

A significant element in determining the Company’s pension expense in accordance with ASC 715 is the expected return on plan assets, which is based on historical results for similar allocations among asset classes. For the primary U.S. qualified pension plan, the expected long-term rate of return on an annualized basis for 2015 is 7.75%, unchanged from 2013. Refer to Note 10 for information on how the 2014 rate was determined. Return on assets assumptions for international pension and other post-retirement benefit plans are calculated on a plan-by-plan basis using plan asset allocations and expected long-term rate of return assumptions. The weighted average expected return for the international pension plan is 5.90% for 2015, compared to 5.83% for 2014.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2014, the Company recognized total consolidated defined benefit pre-tax pension and postretirement expense (after settlements, curtailments, special termination benefits and other) of $391 million, down from $553 million in 2013. Defined benefit pension and postretirement expense (before settlements, curtailments, special termination benefits and other) is anticipated to increase to $601 million in 2015, an increase of $210 million compared to 2014. For the pension plans, holding all other factors constant, a 0.25 percentage point increase/decrease in the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets would decrease/increase 2015 pension expense by approximately $34 million for U.S. pension plans and approximately $15 million for international pension plans. Also, holding all other factors constant, a 0.25 percentage point increase in the discount rate used to measure plan liabilities would decrease 2015 pension expense by approximately $33 million for U.S. pension plans and approximately $24 million for international pension plans. In addition, a 0.25 percentage point decrease in the discount rate used to measure plan liabilities would increase 2015 pension expense by approximately $34 million for U.S. pension plans and approximately $26 million for international pension plans.

 

Asset Impairments:

 

As of December 31, 2014, net property, plant and equipment totaled $8.5 billion and net identifiable intangible assets totaled $1.4 billion. Management makes estimates and assumptions in preparing the consolidated financial statements for which actual results will emerge over long periods of time. This includes the recoverability of long-lived assets employed in the business, including assets of acquired businesses. These estimates and assumptions are closely monitored by management and periodically adjusted as circumstances warrant. For instance, expected asset lives may be shortened or an impairment recorded based on a change in the expected use of the asset or performance of the related asset group.

 

3M goodwill totaled approximately $7.1 billion as of December 31, 2014. 3M’s annual goodwill impairment testing is performed in the fourth quarter of each year. Impairment testing for goodwill is done at a reporting unit level, with all goodwill assigned to a reporting unit. Reporting units are one level below the business segment level, but can be combined when reporting units within the same segment have similar economic characteristics. At 3M, reporting units generally correspond to a division. 3M did not combine any of its reporting units for impairment testing.

 

An impairment loss generally would be recognized when the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s net assets exceeds the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. The estimated fair value of a reporting unit is determined using earnings for

 

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the reporting unit multiplied by a price/earnings ratio for comparable industry groups, or by using a discounted cash flow analysis. 3M typically uses the price/earnings ratio approach for stable and growing businesses that have a long history and track record of generating positive operating income and cash flows. 3M uses the discounted cash flow approach for start-up, loss position and declining businesses, but also uses discounted cash flow as an additional tool for businesses that may be growing at a slower rate than planned due to economic or other conditions.

 

As discussed in Notes 3 and 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2014, 3M transferred a product line between divisions within business segments, and in the first, second and fourth quarters of 2014 also made certain changes within business segments in its continuing effort to improve the alignment of its businesses around markets and customers. Concurrent with these business segment changes, certain products were moved between and within business segments. For any product moves that resulted in reporting unit changes, the Company applied the relative fair value method to determine the impact on goodwill of the associated reporting units. During the first, second and fourth quarters of 2014, the Company completed its assessment of any potential goodwill impairment for reporting units impacted by this new structure and determined that no impairment existed. The discussion that follows relates to the separate fourth quarter 2014 annual impairment test and is in the context of the reporting unit structure that existed at that time.

 

As of October 1, 2014, 3M had 27 primary reporting units, with ten reporting units accounting for approximately 81 percent of the goodwill. These ten reporting units were comprised of the following divisions: 3M ESPE, 3M Purification Inc., Advanced Materials, Communication Markets, Display Materials and Systems, Health Information Systems, Industrial Adhesives and Tapes, Infection Prevention, Personal Safety, and Traffic Safety and Security Systems. The estimated fair values for all significant reporting units were in excess of carrying value by approximately 50 percent or more. 3M’s market value at both September 30, 2014, and December 31, 2014, was significantly in excess of its equity of approximately $16 billion and $13 billion, respectively.

 

In 2014, 3M primarily used an industry price-earnings ratio approach, but also used a discounted cash flows approach for certain reporting units, to determine fair values. Where applicable, 3M used a weighted-average discounted cash flow analysis for certain divisions, using projected cash flows that were weighted based on different sales growth and terminal value assumptions, among other factors. The weighting was based on management’s estimates of the likelihood of each scenario occurring.

 

3M is an integrated materials enterprise, thus many of 3M’s businesses could not easily be sold on a stand-alone basis. 3M’s focus on research and development has resulted in a portion of 3M’s value being comprised of internally developed businesses that have no goodwill associated with them. Based on the annual test in the fourth quarter of 2014, no goodwill impairment was indicated for any of the reporting units.

 

Factors which could result in future impairment charges include, among others, changes in worldwide economic conditions, changes in competitive conditions and customer preferences, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. These risk factors are discussed in Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this document. In addition, changes in the weighted average cost of capital could also impact impairment testing results. As indicated above, during the first, second and fourth quarters of 2014, the Company completed its assessment of any potential goodwill impairment for reporting units impacted by product moves plus other changes between reporting units and determined that no impairment existed. Long-lived assets with a definite life are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. If future non-cash asset impairment charges are taken, 3M would expect that only a portion of the long-lived assets or goodwill would be impaired. 3M will continue to monitor its reporting units and asset groups in 2015 for any triggering events or other indicators of impairment.

 

Income Taxes:

 

The extent of 3M’s operations involves dealing with uncertainties and judgments in the application of complex tax regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. The final taxes paid are dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in various jurisdictions and resolution of disputes arising from federal, state, and international tax audits. The Company recognizes potential liabilities and records tax liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues in the United States and other tax jurisdictions based on its estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. The Company follows guidance provided by ASC 740, Income Taxes, regarding uncertainty in income taxes, to record these liabilities (refer to Note 7 for additional information). The Company adjusts these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances; however, due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from the Company’s current estimate of the tax liabilities. If the Company’s estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, an additional charge to expense would result. If payment of

 

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these amounts ultimately proves to be less than the recorded amounts, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when the Company determines the liabilities are no longer necessary.

 

NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

 

Information regarding new accounting pronouncements is included in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY

 

3M continues to manage towards a better-optimized capital structure by adding balance sheet leverage, which is being used for two purposes: first, to invest in 3M’s businesses, and second, to increase cash returns to shareholders. The strength and stability of 3M’s business model and strong free cash flow capability, together with proven capital markets access, enables 3M to implement this strategy while continuing to invest in its businesses. Organic growth remains a high priority, thus 3M will continue to invest in research and development, capital expenditures, and commercialization capability. In addition, sources for cash availability in the United States, such as ongoing cash flow from operations and access to capital markets, have historically been sufficient to fund dividend payments to shareholders and share repurchases, as well as funding U.S. acquisitions and other items as needed. For those international earnings considered to be reinvested indefinitely, the Company currently has no plans or intentions to repatriate these funds for U.S. operations. However, if these international funds are needed for operations in the U.S., 3M would be required to accrue and pay U.S. taxes to repatriate them. See Note 7 for further information on earnings considered to be reinvested indefinitely.

 

3M’s primary short-term liquidity needs are met through cash on hand and U.S. commercial paper issuances. 3M resumed commercial paper funding in July 2013 for the first time since late 2008. 3M expects to maintain a consistent presence in the market and believes it will have continuous access to the commercial paper market. 3M’s commercial paper program permits the Company to have a maximum of $3 billion outstanding with a maximum maturity of 397 days from date of issuance.

 

Net Debt:

 

The Company defines net debt as total debt less the total of cash, cash equivalents and current and long-term marketable securities. 3M considers net debt and its components to be an important indicator of liquidity and a guiding measure of capital structure strategy. Net debt is not defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and may not be computed the same as similarly titled measures used by other companies. The following table provides net debt as of December 31, 2014 and 2013.

 

At December 31

 

 

 

 

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Debt

 

$

6,837

 

$

6,009

 

Less: Cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

3,351

 

4,790

 

Net Debt

 

$

3,486

 

$

1,219

 

 

In 2014, net debt increased by $2.3 billion to a net debt balance of $3.5 billion (as of December 31, 2014), as 3M progressed on its capital structure strategy and experienced higher debt levels and lower cash balances in both the U.S. and internationally. Specific actions related to cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, in addition to debt, are discussed further below.

 

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities:

 

At December 31, 2014, 3M had $3.4 billion of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, of which approximately $3.3 billion was held by the Company’s foreign subsidiaries and less than $100 million was held by the United States. Of the $3.3 billion held internationally, U.S. dollar-based cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled $1.9 billion, or 58 percent, which was invested in money market funds, asset-backed securities, agency securities, corporate medium-term note securities and other high quality fixed income securities. At December 31, 2013, cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities held by the Company’s foreign subsidiaries and in the United States totaled approximately $4.3 billion and $0.5 billion, respectively.

 

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The Company’s total balance of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities was $1.4 billion lower at December 31, 2014 when compared to December 31, 2013. 3M was able to manage the business with lower cash levels, particularly in the U.S., due to significant ongoing cash flow generation and proven access to capital markets funding throughout business cycles.

 

Total debt:

 

The Company’s total debt was $0.8 billion higher at December 31, 2014 when compared to December 31, 2013. The strength of 3M’s capital structure and significant ongoing cash flows provide 3M proven access to capital markets. Additionally, the Company’s maturity profile is staggered to help ensure refinancing needs in any given year are reasonable in proportion to the total portfolio. As of February 2015, the Company has an AA- credit rating, with a stable outlook, from Standard & Poor’s and an Aa3 credit rating, with a negative outlook, from Moody’s Investors Service. The Company’s ongoing transition to a more optimized capital structure, financed with additional low-cost debt, could impact 3M’s credit rating in the future.

 

Effective May 16, 2014, the Company updated its “well-known seasoned issuer” shelf registration statement, which registers an indeterminate amount of debt or equity securities for future sales. This replaced 3M’s previous shelf registration dated August 5, 2011. In June 2014, in connection with the May 16, 2014 shelf registration, 3M re-commenced its medium-term notes program (Series F) under which 3M may issue, from time to time, up to $9 billion aggregate principal amount of notes. Included in this $9 billion are $2.25 billion of notes previously issued in 2011 and 2012 as part of Series F.

 

Significant long-term debt activity during 2013 is summarized below:

 

·                  In August 2013, 3M repaid $850 million (principal amount) of medium-term notes.

·                  In November 2013, 3M issued an eight-year Eurobond for an amount of 600 million Euros.

 

Significant long-term debt activity in 2014 is summarized below:

 

·                  In June 2014, 3M issued $625 million aggregate principal amount of five-year fixed-rate medium-term notes due 2019 with a coupon rate of 1.625%. Upon debt issuance, the Company entered into an interest rate swap to convert $600 million of this amount to an interest rate based on a floating LIBOR index (Series F).

·                  In addition, in June 2014, 3M issued $325 million aggregate principal amount of thirty-year fixed-rate medium-term notes due 2044 with a coupon rate of 3.875% (Series F).

·                  In July 2014, 3M repaid 1.025 billion Euros (principal amount) of maturing Eurobond notes.

·                  In November 2014, the Company issued 500 million Euros aggregate principal amount of four-year floating rate medium-term notes due 2018 with interest based on a floating EURIBOR index (Series F).

·                  Also, in November 2014, the Company issued a 750 million Euros aggregate principal amount of 12-year fixed rate medium-term notes due 2026 with a coupon rate of 1.5% (Series F).

 

In August 2014, 3M amended and extended the existing $1.5 billion five-year multi-currency revolving credit agreement to a $2.25 billion five-year multi-currency revolving credit agreement, with an expiration date of August 2019. This credit agreement includes a provision under which 3M may request an increase of up to $2.25 billion, bringing the total facility up to $4.5 billion (at the lenders’ discretion). This facility was undrawn at December 31, 2014. Under the $2.25 billion credit agreement, the Company is required to maintain its EBITDA to Interest Ratio as of the end of each fiscal quarter at not less than 3.0 to 1. This is calculated (as defined in the agreement) as the ratio of consolidated total EBITDA for the four consecutive quarters then ended to total interest expense on all funded debt for the same period. At December 31, 2014, this ratio was approximately 60 to 1. Debt covenants do not restrict the payment of dividends.

 

In December 2012, 3M entered into a three-year 66 million British Pound (approximately $106 million based on agreement date exchange rates) committed credit agreement, which was fully drawn as of December 31, 2012. 3M repaid 36 million British Pounds in the first quarter of 2014, with the remaining balance of 30 million British Pounds repaid in December 2014. Apart from the committed facilities, an additional $219 million in stand-alone letters of credit and $18 million in bank guarantees were also issued and outstanding at December 31, 2014. These lines of credit are utilized in connection with normal business activities.

 

Balance Sheet:

 

3M’s strong balance sheet and liquidity provide the Company with significant flexibility to take advantage of numerous opportunities going forward. The Company will continue to invest in its operations to drive growth, including continual review of acquisition opportunities.

 

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Various assets and liabilities, including cash and short-term debt, can fluctuate significantly from month to month depending on short-term liquidity needs. Working capital (defined as current assets minus current liabilities) totaled $5.767 billion at December 31, 2014, compared with $5.235 billion at December 31, 2013, an increase of $532 million. Current asset balance changes decreased working capital by $968 million, driven by decreases in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, plus inventory decreases. Current liability balance changes increased working capital by $1.5 billion, largely due to decreases in short-term debt.

 

The Company uses various working capital measures that place emphasis and focus on certain working capital assets and liabilities. These measures are not defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and may not be computed the same as similarly titled measures used by other companies. One of the primary working capital measures 3M uses is a combined index, which includes accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable. This combined index (defined as quarterly net sales — fourth quarter at year-end — multiplied by four, divided by ending net accounts receivable plus inventories less accounts payable) was 5.0 at December 31, 2014 compared to 4.8 at December 31, 2013. Receivables decreased $15 million, or 0.4 percent, compared with December 31, 2013, with higher December 2014 sales compared to December 2013 sales contributing to this increase. Currency translation impacts decreased accounts receivable by $292 million. Inventories decreased $158 million, or 4.1 percent, compared with December 31, 2013. The inventory decrease was attributable to currency translation, which decreased inventories by $271 million, partially offset by an increase in demand. Accounts payable had a minimal change when compared with December 31, 2013.

 

Return on Invested Capital (non-GAAP measure):

 

The Company uses non-GAAP measures to focus on shareholder value creation. 3M uses return on invested capital (ROIC), defined as annualized after-tax operating income (including interest income) divided by average operating capital. Operating capital is defined as net assets (total assets less total liabilities) excluding debt. This measure is not recognized under U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. ROIC was 22.0 percent for 2014, and 20.0 percent for 2013.

 

Cash Flows:

 

Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities are provided in the tables that follow. Individual amounts in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows exclude the effects of acquisitions, divestitures and exchange rate impacts on cash and cash equivalents, which are presented separately in the cash flows. Thus, the amounts presented in the following operating, investing and financing activities tables reflect changes in balances from period to period adjusted for these effects.

 

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Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

 

Years Ended December 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income including noncontrolling interest

 

$

4,998

 

$

4,721

 

$

4,511

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

1,408

 

1,371

 

1,288

 

Company pension contributions

 

(210

)

(476

)

(1,079

)

Company postretirement contributions

 

(5

)

(6

)

(67

)

Company pension expense

 

310

 

446

 

534

 

Company postretirement expense

 

81

 

107

 

116

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

280

 

240

 

223

 

Income taxes (deferred and accrued income taxes)

 

60

 

39

 

123

 

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation

 

(167

)

(92

)

(62

)

Accounts receivable

 

(268

)

(337

)

(133

)

Inventories

 

(113

)

(86

)

(251

)

Accounts payable

 

75

 

16

 

72

 

Other — net

 

177

 

(126

)

25

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

6,626

 

$

5,817

 

$

5,300

 

 

Cash flows from operating activities can fluctuate significantly from period to period, as pension funding decisions, tax timing differences and other items can significantly impact cash flows.

 

In 2014, cash flows provided by operating activities increased $809 million compared to 2013. Operating cash flows benefited year-on-year from increases in net income including noncontrolling interest, lower pension and postretirement plans contributions, and lower year-on-year working capital requirements. The combination of accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable increased working capital by $306 million in 2014, compared to increases of $407 million in 2013, with the year-on-year improvement related to higher receivable and inventory turns. Additional discussion on working capital changes is provided earlier in the “Financial Condition and Liquidity” section.

 

In 2013, cash flows provided by operating activities increased $517 million compared to 2012. Operating cash flows benefited year-on-year from $664 million of lower pension and postretirement plans contributions and increases in net income including noncontrolling interest, which were partially offset by higher year-on-year working capital requirements. The combination of accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable increased working capital by $407 million in 2013, compared to increases of $312 million in 2012, primarily driven by year-on-year increases in working capital requirements due to increasing sales.

 

Free Cash Flow (non-GAAP measure):

 

In addition, to net cash provided by operating activities, 3M believes free cash flow and free cash flow conversion are useful measures of performance and uses these measures as an indication of the strength of the Company and its ability to generate cash. Free cash flow and free cash flow conversion are not defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Therefore, they should not be considered a substitute for income or cash flow data prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. 3M defines free cash flow as net cash provided by operating activities less purchases of property, plant and equipment (which is classified as an investing activity). It should not be inferred that the entire free cash flow amount is available for discretionary expenditures. 3M defines free cash flow conversion as free cash flow divided by net income attributable to 3M. Below find a recap of free cash flow and free cash flow conversion for 2014, 2013 and 2012.

 

Years ended December 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

6,626

 

$

5,817

 

$

5,300

 

Purchases of property, plant and equipment (PP&E)

 

(1,493

)

(1,665

)

(1,484

)

Free Cash Flow

 

$

5,133

 

$

4,152

 

$

3,816

 

Free Cash Flow Conversion

 

104

%

89

%

86

%

 

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Cash Flows from Investing Activities:

 

Years ended December 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property, plant and equipment (PP&E)

 

$

(1,493

)

$

(1,665

)

$

(1,484

)

Proceeds from sale of PP&E and other assets

 

135

 

128

 

41

 

Acquisitions, net of cash acquired

 

(94

)

 

(1,046

)

Purchases and proceeds from maturities and sale of marketable securities and investments, net

 

754

 

627

 

(211

)

Proceeds from sale of businesses

 

 

8

 

 

Other investing activities

 

102

 

46

 

14

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

$

(596

)

$

(856

)

$

(2,686

)

 

Investments in property, plant and equipment enable growth across many diverse markets, helping to meet product demand and increasing manufacturing efficiency. Capital spending was $1.493 billion in 2014, compared to $1.665 billion in 2013 and $1.484 billion in 2012. The Company expects 2015 capital spending to be approximately $1.5 billion to $1.7 billion as 3M continues to invest in its businesses.

 

3M invests in renewable and maintenance programs, which pertains to cost reduction, cycle time, maintaining and renewing current capacity, eliminating pollution, and compliance. Costs related to maintenance, ordinary repairs, and certain other items are expensed. 3M also invests in growth, which adds to capacity, driven by new products, both through expansion of current facilities and new facilities, plus research facilities. Finally, 3M also invests in other initiatives, such as information technology (IT) and corporate laboratory facilities.

 

In 2014, investments in growth across geographies included production equipment, new sites and buildings, capacity investments, converting, and distribution, and other growth initiatives. Other investments include IT systems and infrastructure, including an ongoing multi-year phased implementation of an ERP system on a worldwide basis, In addition, 3M began a multi-year program in the United States to renew and upgrade laboratory facilities and administrative buildings.

 

In 2013, 3M continued its expansion of manufacturing capacity in key growth markets, including investments in the U.S., China, Germany, and Brazil. This included significant investments across 3M’s many businesses, such as abrasives, industrial adhesives and tapes, advanced materials, electronics-related, infection prevention, and other businesses. 3M continued its investments in IT systems and infrastructure. In addition, 3M sustained existing facilities through general maintenance, cost reduction, and compliance efforts.

 

In 2012, 3M expanded manufacturing capacity in key growth markets, particularly with respect to international and developing countries. This included investments in China, Turkey and Poland, in addition to investments in Singapore and the U.S. 3M also increased investments in IT systems and infrastructure and made strategic investments in research/development infrastructure and manufacturing sites to lay the foundation for future growth.

 

Proceeds from sale of PP&E and other assets totaled $135 million in 2014, $128 million in 2013, and $41 million in 2012. Apart from the normal periodic sales of PP&E, 2014 included proceeds of $114 million related to the sales of real estate and non-production equipment, and 2013 included proceeds of $79 million related to non-production equipment.

 

Refer to Note 2 for information on acquisitions and divestitures. The Company is actively considering additional acquisitions, investments and strategic alliances, and from time to time may also divest certain businesses.

 

Purchases of marketable securities and investments and proceeds from maturities and sale of marketable securities and investments are primarily attributable to asset-backed securities, agency securities, corporate medium-term note securities and other securities, which are classified as available-for-sale. Refer to Note 8 for more details about 3M’s diversified marketable securities portfolio. Purchases of investments include additional survivor benefit insurance, plus cost method and equity investments.

 

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Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

 

Years Ended December 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Millions)

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in short-term debt — net

 

$

27

 

$

(2

)

$

(36

)

Repayment of debt (maturities greater than 90 days)

 

(1,625

)

(859

)

(612

)

Proceeds from debt (maturities greater than 90 days)

 

2,608

 

824

 

1,370

 

Total cash change in debt

 

$

1,010

 

$

(37

)

$

722

 

Purchases of treasury stock

 

(5,652

)

(5,212

)

(2,204

)

Proceeds from issuances of treasury stock pursuant to stock option and benefit plans

 

968

 

1,609

 

1,012

 

Dividends paid to stockholders

 

(2,216

)

(1,730

)

(1,635

)

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation

 

167

 

92

 

62

 

Purchase of noncontrolling interest

 

(861

)

 

 

Other — net

 

(19

)

32

 

(15

)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

$

(6,603

)

$

(5,246

)

$

(2,058

)