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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For The Transition Period From                      To                     
Commission file number 1-4171
Kellanova
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 38-0710690
(State or other jurisdiction of Incorporation
or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 412 N. Wells Street
Chicago, IL 60654
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s telephone number: (269961-2000
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Act:
Title of each class:Trading symbol(s):Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $.25 par value per shareKNew York Stock Exchange
1.000% Senior Notes due 2024K 24New York Stock Exchange
1.250% Senior Notes due 2025K 25New York Stock Exchange
0.500% Senior Notes due 2029K 29New York Stock Exchange
 
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Act: None
 
 Indicate by a check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  









Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
    If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming for purposes of this computation only that the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Trust, directors and executive officers may be affiliates) as of the close of business on June 30, 2023 was approximately $19.2 billion based on the closing price of $67.40 for one share of common stock, as reported for the New York Stock Exchange on that date.
As of January 27, 2024, 340,678,265 shares of the common stock of the registrant were issued and outstanding.
Parts of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareowners to be held on April 26, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.










PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
The Company. Kellanova (formerly Kellogg Company), founded in 1906 and incorporated in Delaware in 1922, and its subsidiaries are engaged in the manufacture and marketing of snacks and convenience foods.
The address of the principal business office of Kellanova is 412 N. Wells Street, Chicago, Illinois 60654. Unless otherwise specified or indicated by the context, “Kellanova,” the "Company," “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Kellanova, its divisions and subsidiaries.

On October 2, 2023, the Company completed the separation of its North America cereal business resulting in two independent companies, Kellanova and WK Kellogg Co. As a result of the distribution, Kellanova shareholders of record on September 21, 2023, received one share of WK Kellogg Co common stock for every four shares of Kellanova common stock.

Reported results were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, include all net sales and expenses recognized during the periods, and reflect WK Kellogg Co as discontinued operations for all periods presented. All
amounts, percentages and disclosures for all periods presented reflect only the continuing operations of Kellanova unless otherwise noted. See the discussion in Item 1A. Risk Factors, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and in Note 2 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are located herein under Part II, Item 8.
Financial Information About Segments. Information on segments is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Principal Products. Our principal products are snacks, such as crackers, savory snacks, toaster pastries, cereal bars, granola bars and bites; and convenience foods, such as, ready-to-eat cereals, frozen waffles, veggie foods and noodles. These products were, as of February 20, 2024, manufactured by us in 21 countries and marketed in more than 180 countries. They are sold to retailers through direct sales forces for resale to consumers. We use broker and distributor arrangements for certain products and channels, as well as in certain geographies.
Our snacks brands are marketed under brands such as Kellogg’s, Cheez-It, Pringles, Austin, Parati, and RXBAR.  Our frozen foods are marketed under the Eggo and Morningstar Farms brands. 
We also market crackers, crisps, and other convenience foods, under brands such as Kellogg’s, Cheez-It, Pringles, and Austin, to supermarkets in the United States through a variety of distribution methods.
Additional information pertaining to the relative sales of our products for the years 2021 through 2023 is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included herein under Part II, Item 8.

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Leadership. Kellanova’s vision is to be the world’s best snacks-led powerhouse, unleashing the full potential of our differentiated brands and passionate people. Our purpose is creating better days, and a place at the table for everyone, through our trusted food brands. Our vision and purpose are brought to life through our Better Days™ Promise, our promise to advance sustainable and equitable access to food by addressing the intersection of wellbeing, hunger, sustainability, and equity, diversity and inclusion (ED&I) for 4 billion people by the end of 2030 (from a 2015 baseline).

This work is not new - we’ve been making progress on these topics for many decades and have been reporting our results annually through our Better Days™ Promise report (formerly Corporate Responsibility Report) and other disclosures since 2009. The information contained in our report is not incorporated by reference herein or otherwise made a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any of our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Our Commitments. Kellanova Better Days™ Promise, is our promise to create 4 billion better days by the end of 2030 (from a 2015 baseline, unless otherwise indicated), includes the following commitments:

Nourishing 1.5 billion people with our foods that deliver nutrients of need by the end of 2030.
Feeding 400 million people facing food insecurity or crisis by the end of 2030.
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Nurturing people and planet by creating a climate-positive future, including advancing the wellbeing of 250,000 people in our food chain, from farming communities to processors, prioritizing support for vulnerable groups by the end of 2030 (from a 2023 baseline).
Committing to set company-wide emission reductions in line with the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) Net-Zero Standard.
Valuing ED&I in our workforce by aspiring for gender 50/50 parity at the management level globally and 25% People of Color at the management level in the U.S. by the end of 2025.
And, engaging 2 billion people along our journey by the end of 2030.

The Company discusses the Kellanova Better Days™ Promise commitments in detail, including the methodologies used to track the metrics and commitments described above on the Kellanova Better Days™ Promise page on our website. The information on our web site is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated into any other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Climate-Related Disclosure. Climate change and food security are considerations for Kellanova to ensure the long-term health and viability of the ingredients we use in our products. As a plant-based food company, the success of Kellanova is dependent on having timely access to high quality, low cost ingredients, water and energy for manufacturing globally. Risks are identified annually through annual reporting and evaluated in the short (<3 years), medium (3 - 6 years) and long terms (>6 years). These natural capital dependencies are at risk of shortage, price volatility, regulation, and quality impacts due to climate change which is assessed as part of Kellanova’s overall enterprise risk management approach. Specific risks including water stress and social accountability are specifically identified and assessed on a regular basis, especially in emerging market expansion that fuels company growth.

Due to these risks, Kellanova has implemented short and long-term initiatives to mitigate and adapt to these environmental pressures, as well as the resulting challenge of food security. While these risks are not currently impacting business growth, they must be monitored, evaluated, and mitigated. The Company has incorporated the risks and opportunities of climate change and food security as part of the Differentiate, Drive, & Deliver Strategy and Kellanova Better Days™ Promise by continuing to identify risk, incorporate sustainability indicators into strategic priorities, and report regularly to leadership, the Board, and publicly.

Oversight. Kellanova's Board of Directors, including its Social Responsibility and Public Policy Committee, oversees our Better Days™ Promise strategy. Our Senior Vice President Chief Global Corporate Affairs Officer, Senior Vice President Global Supply Chain, Senior Vice President Chief Global Human Resources Officer, Senior Vice President Research and Development and other executives who report to the Chairman and CEO, are responsible for successfully implementing the strategy and regularly updating the CEO and Board Committee. Our Chief Sustainability Officer (CSO) reports to the Senior Vice President Chief Global Corporate Affairs Officer. Additionally, numerous leaders are accountable for achieving specific ESG commitments, based on their roles.

In addition, Kellanova has a Global Better Days™ Promise Council and regional Better Days™ Promise Councils. The Councils ensure execution on priority strategies to maximize environmental and social performance, share best practices to ensure we are progressing against our commitments.
Raw Materials. Agricultural commodities, including corn, wheat, rice, potato flakes, vegetable oils, sugar and cocoa, are the principal raw materials used in our products. Cartonboard, corrugate, and flexible packaging are the principal packaging materials used by us. We continually monitor world supplies and prices of such commodities (which include such packaging materials), as well as government trade policies. The cost of such commodities may fluctuate widely due to government policy and regulation, changing weather patterns and conditions, climate change, and other supply and/or demand impacting events such as pandemics, geopolitical events, wars or other unforeseen circumstances. Continuous efforts are made to maintain and improve the quality and supply of such commodities for purposes of our short-term and long-term requirements.
The principal ingredients in the products produced by us in the United States include wheat and wheat-based ingredients, potato flakes, oats, rice, cocoa and chocolate, soybeans and soybean derivatives, various fruits, sugars and sweeteners, vegetable oils, dairy products, eggs, and other ingredients, which are obtained from various sources. While most of these ingredients are purchased from sources in the United States, some materials are imported due to regional availability and specification requirements.
We enter into long-term contracts for the materials described in this section and purchase these items on the open market, depending on our view of possible price fluctuations, supply levels, and our relative negotiating power. Although we are unable to predict the impact to our ability to source these materials and services in the future, supply pressures are generally decreasing, though weather and geopolitical issues are resulting in other disruptions and logistical delays into 2024. As further discussed herein under Part II, Item 7A, we also use commodity futures and options to hedge some of our costs.
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Raw materials and packaging needed for internationally based operations are available in adequate supply and are sourced both locally and imported from countries other than those where used in manufacturing.
Natural gas and propane are the primary sources of energy used to power processing equipment at major domestic and international facilities, although certain locations may use electricity, oil, propane or solar cells as needed. In addition, considerable amounts of diesel fuel are used in connection with the distribution of our products.

Trademarks. Generally, our products are marketed under trademarks we own. Our principal trademarks are our housemarks, brand names, slogans, and designs related to snacks, frozen breakfast, international cereals and noodles and various other foods manufactured and marketed by us. We also grant licenses to third parties to use these marks on various goods.

In connection with the separation of WK Kellogg Co, the Company and WK Kellogg Co entered into agreements providing for intellectual property use and selling rights. Under the Master Ownership and License Agreement Regarding Trademarks and Certain Related Intellectual Property, ownership, use and selling rights of trademarks, domain names and certain copyrights were allocated between Kellanova and WK Kellogg Co. Under this agreement, Kellanova and WK Kellogg Co each grant the other party various perpetual, irrevocable, exclusive, and royalty-free licenses to use certain respective trademarks in connection with specific food and beverage categories in specified jurisdictions. The licenses granted by Kellanova to WK Kellogg Co include a perpetual, irrevocable, exclusive, royalty-free license to use the “Kellogg’s” house brand, along with other key brands such as Tony the Tiger, Kellogg's Frosted Flakes, Toucan Sam, Froot Loops, Special K, Rice Krispies and Snap, Crackle and Pop, in connection with WK Kellogg Co business in North America.

We market convenience foods under trademarks and tradenames which include Austin, Bisco, Cheez-It, Club, Luxe, Minueto, Parati, RXBAR, Special K, Toasteds, Town House, Zesta, and Zoo Cartoon. Other brand names include Kellogg’s Corn Flake Crumbs; Choco Krispis, Crunchy Nut, Kashi, Nutri-Grain, Special K, Squares, Zucaritas, Rice Krispies Treats, and Sucrilhos for cereal bars; Pop-Tarts for toaster pastries; Eggo and MorningStar Farms for frozen breakfast foods; Nutri-Grain cereal bars for convenience foods in the United States and elsewhere; K-Time, Sunibrite, Split Stix and LCMs for convenience foods in Australia; Nutri-Grain, Coco Pops, Crunchy Nut, Krave, Frosties, and Rice Krispies Squares for convenience foods in Europe; Special K for meal bars; Pringles for crisps; and Morningstar Farms, Incogmeato, Veggitizers, and Gardenburger for certain meat alternatives. Additionally, we market beverages under the Trink trademark. One of our subsidiaries is also the exclusive licensee of the Carr’s cracker line in the United States.

These trademarks include Kellogg’s for convenience foods and other products, including the Kellogg's branded noodles business in Africa, and the brand names of certain ready-to-eat international cereals, including Sucrilhos, Zucaritas, Kellogg's Extra, Müsli, and Choco Krispis for cereals in Latin America; Coco Pops, Choco Krispies, Frosties, Fruit ‘n Fibre, Kellogg’s Crunchy Nut, Krave, Kellogg’s Extra, Country Store, Smacks, Pops, Honey Bsss, Zimmy's, Toppas, and Tresor for cereals in Europe; and Froot Ring, Chocos, Chex, Guardian, Just Right, Sultana Bran, Frosties, Rice Bubbles, Nutri-Grain, and Sustain for cereals in Asia and Australia.

Our trademarks also include logos and depictions of certain animated characters in conjunction with our products, including the characters Snap, Crackle and Pop for use in connection Rice Krispies Treats convenience foods; Tony the Tiger for Zucaritas, Sucrilhos and Frosties cereals and convenience foods; Toucan Sam for Froot Loops and Froot Rings international cereal; Dig ‘Em for Smacks/Honey Smacks international cereal; Zimmy and Zimmy's cereal; Coco the Monkey for Coco Pops, Choco Krispies and Chocos cereal; Cornelius (aka Cornelio) for Kellogg’s Corn Flakes international cereal; Melvin the Elephant for certain cereal, dairy beverages and convenience foods; Chocovore, Poperto, Pops the Bee, and Sammy the Seal (aka Smaxey the Seal) for certain cereal products; and Mr. P or Julius Pringles for Pringles crisps.

The slogans L’ Eggo my Eggo and L’Eggo with Eggo are used in connection with our frozen waffles, pancakes and French toast sticks, and Snack Stacks used in connection with potato crisps and crackers are also important Kellanova trademarks.

The trademarks listed above, among others, individually and when taken as a whole, are important to our business. Certain individual trademarks are also important to our business. Depending on the jurisdiction, trademarks are generally valid as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained and they have not been found to have become generic. Registrations of trademarks can also generally be renewed indefinitely as long as the trademarks are in use.
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Seasonality. Demand for our products is generally level throughout the year, although some of our convenience foods have a bias for stronger demand in the second half of the year due to events and holidays.
Working Capital. A description of our working capital is included in the Liquidity section of MD&A within Item 7 of this Report.
Customers. Our largest customer, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates, accounted for approximately 15% of consolidated net sales during 2023, comprised principally of sales within the United States. No other customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in 2023. During 2023, our top five customers, collectively, including Wal-Mart, accounted for approximately 26% of our consolidated net sales and approximately 46% of U.S. net sales. There has been significant worldwide consolidation in the grocery industry and we believe that this trend is likely to continue. Although the loss of any large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profits, we do not anticipate that this will occur to a significant extent due to the consumer demand for our products and our relationships with our customers. Our products have been generally sold through our own sales forces and through broker and distributor arrangements, and have been generally resold to consumers in retail stores, restaurants, and other food service establishments.
Backlog. For the most part, orders are filled within a few days of receipt and are subject to cancellation at any time prior to shipment. The backlog of any unfilled orders at December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was not material to us.
Competition. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition for sales of all of our principal products in our major product categories, both domestically and internationally. Our products compete with advertised and branded products of a similar nature as well as unadvertised and private label products, which are typically distributed at lower prices, and generally with other food products. Principal methods and factors of competition include new product introductions, product quality, taste, convenience, nutritional value, price, advertising and promotion.
Research and Development. Research to support and expand the use of our existing products and to develop new food products is carried on at the W. K. Kellogg Institute for Food and Nutrition Research in Battle Creek, Michigan, and at other locations around the world. Our expenditures for research and development were approximately (in millions): 2023-$116; 2022-$111; 2020-$117. Information concerning our research and development expense is located in Note 1 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Regulation. Our activities in the United States are subject to regulation by various government agencies, including but not limited to the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission and the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, as well as voluntary regulation by other bodies. Various state and local agencies also regulate our activities. Other agencies and bodies outside of the United States, including those of the European Union and various countries, states and municipalities, also regulate our activities.
Environmental Matters. Our facilities are subject to various U.S. and foreign, federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding the release of material into the environment and the protection of the environment in other ways. We are not a party to any material proceedings arising under these regulations. We believe that compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations will not materially affect our consolidated financial condition or our competitive position.

Human Capital Resources. On December 30, 2023, we had approximately 23,000 employees. The majority of our employees work on a full-time basis. We are also party to numerous collective bargaining agreements. Our human capital objectives include attracting, developing, engaging, rewarding and retaining our employees.

Equity, Diversity and Inclusion: In 2005, Kellanova established an Office of Diversity & Inclusion. Since this time, our Company has enhanced our strategy and is currently known as the Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion. This office has been focused on recruiting and retaining employees, creating awareness, fostering a supportive, positive environment where inclusive behaviors are the norm, and embedding accountability for inclusion throughout the organization. Our goal is to create a place at the table for everyone. We report to our Board of Directors on a periodic basis about the actions we have taken to make progress on our ED&I journey, and we are firmly committed to continuing to advance ED&I. Our focus on equity, diversity and inclusion enables us to build a culture where employees are inspired to share their passion, talents and ideas. Our eight Business Employee Resource Groups, which include KVets and Supporters, Kellanova Multinational Employee Resource Group, Kellanova’s Young Professionals, Kellanova African American Resource Group, Women of Kellogg, Hola (our Latino resource group), KPride & Allies (our LBGTQ+ resource group), and Kapable (our resource group for people with disabilities and their supporters), also play a critical role in attracting diverse talent, providing mentoring and career development
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opportunities, delivering commercial business insights and connecting people to the Company and the communities where we do business.

Through many initiatives, supported by our Business Employee Resource Groups and ED&I Champions, several leading organizations recognized Kellanova for our commitment to building and supporting equity, diversity and inclusion in our workplace, marketplace and the communities where we work and live. These include Diversity Inc., Social Corporate Equity Index, Diversity Best Practice Index and Human Rights Campaign (HRC) Best Places to Work for LGBTQ Equality, to name a few.

Training and Development: We invest in ongoing leadership development through programs for future managers, for experienced managers and our executive leadership training program for developing our future leaders.

Employee Engagement: We communicate frequently and transparently with our employees through a variety of engagement vehicles, from externally managed global opinion surveys to weekly check-ins via our internal global recognition platform. We also provide a wide array of opportunities for volunteerism through Kellanova’s “Better Days” commitment, and provide matching donations for employees’ service to charities of their choosing in many regions.

Total Rewards: We provide a market-based competitive compensation through our salary, annual incentive and long-term incentive programs, and a benefits package that promotes employee well-being across all aspects of their lives, including physical, financial, social and emotional wellbeing. We sponsor a number of benefit plans for eligible employees in the United States and various foreign locations, including defined benefit pension plans, defined contributions retirement plans, retiree health and welfare, active health care, severance and other postemployment benefits. We continually review and implement new programs around the world to meet the evolving needs of our employees, including, but not limited to benefit programs for same sex partners and progressive leave benefits (e.g., paternity/maternity and active Military). We are also offering flexible work arrangements across our global population.

Health and Wellness: We aim to create a culture where all colleagues feel supported and valued in line with our corporate mission. We continue to evolve our programs to meet our colleagues’ health and wellness needs, which we believe is essential to attract and retain employees of the highest caliber, and we offer a competitive benefits package focused on fostering work/life integration. Our global employee wellbeing framework, "My Total Health," addresses physical, financial, social and emotional wellbeing to support our employees' personal goals. On an ongoing basis, we focus on each aspect of wellbeing and provide useful information, education, tools and resources. In North America, our “Find your Wings” employee assistance program provides access to valuable Mental Health resources. In addition, our “Lean on Me” program trains employees on how to identify other employees that may be struggling with mental health challenges and pointing them towards our available resources. We also provide company paid access to gyms and mindfulness resources in many parts of the world. Most of our locations now use the My Total Health framework to guide how they communicate and engage with employees in support of their wellbeing.

Company Ethics: The Company has processes in place for compliance with the Code of Conduct for Kellanova Board of Directors and Global Code of Ethics for Kellanova employees, each including a requirement for regular certification that provides employees an opportunity to disclose actual or potential conflicts of interest, report actual or potential violations of the law, the Code or policy and acknowledge their obligation to comply with the applicable code. The Company regularly re-enforces our commitment to ethics and integrity in employee communications, in our everyday actions and through our processes. In addition, the Company provides targeted training across the globe during the course of the year. The Company also maintains an ethics related hotline, managed by a third party, through which individuals can anonymously raise concerns or ask questions about business behavior.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas. Information on geographic areas is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included herein under Part II, Item 8.

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Executive Officers. The names, ages, and positions of our executive officers (as of February 20, 2024) are listed below, together with their business experience. Executive officers are elected annually by the Board of Directors.
Nicolas Amaya50 
Senior Vice President, Kellanova
President, Kellanova North America
Mr. Amaya assumed his current position on February 1, 2024. Prior to that, Mr. Amaya served as Senior Vice President, Kellanova (formerly Kellogg Company) and President, Kellanova Latin America. Mr. Amaya joined Kellanova in 2001 as a Marketing Intern for Eggo in the United States. Since then, he has held a variety of leadership positions in the U.S. and Latin America across the cereal, frozen and snacks businesses. Among his many contributions, Mr. Amaya led the complex and challenging regional integration of Pringles in 2012. In April 2013, he was appointed General Manager, Snacks and Growth Platforms for Latin America, and in 2015, he stepped up to the role of Vice President and General Manager, Category Marketing and Innovation, Latin America. He was promoted to Vice President and General Manager for Mexico in October 2016. In November 2019, Mr. Amaya was promoted to SVP and President Kellanova Latin America. Prior to Kellanova, Mr. Amaya held various marketing roles at Unilever Andina in the personal care division.
Kris Bahner54 
Senior Vice President & Chief Global Corporate Affairs Officer, Kellanova

Ms. Bahner assumed her current position in April 2023. Ms. Bahner has more than 30 years of Corporate Affairs experience within the food industry. She joined Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) in 2006. Ms. Bahner leads global Corporate Affairs – including Communications, Philanthropy, Sustainability and Government Relations. Prior to joining Kellanova, she held a variety of corporate affairs roles with Kraft Foods, and led public relations programs for food industry clients at both Edelman Public Relations Worldwide and Powers Agency. Ms. Bahner served as the Executive Sponsor of the company’s Women of Kellogg business employee resource group for more than nine years. She is the President of Kellanova’s Fund Board of Trustees and President of Kellanova’s 25‐Year Employees’ Fund, Inc.

Amit Banati55 
Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer

Mr. Banati has been Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Financial Officer, Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) since July 2019 and Vice Chairman since January 2023. Mr. Banati joined Kellanova in March 2012 as President, Asia Pacific, and his responsibilities were expanded to President, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa in July 2018. Before joining Kellanova, Mr. Banati served in a variety of finance, general management and board roles at Kraft Foods, Cadbury Schweppes and Procter & Gamble. He has worked extensively across the Asia Pacific and Africa region. At Kraft Foods, he was President, North Asia and Asia Pacific Strategy. Prior to that, Mr. Banati served as President, Pacific, for Cadbury Schweppes and Chairman of Cadbury Schweppes Australia. He was a member of the company’s Chief Executive Committee. He also served as the Chief Financial Officer for Cadbury Schweppes Asia Pacific. Mr. Banati is a director of Fortune Brands Home Innovations.
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Steven A. Cahillane 58 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Mr. Cahillane has been Chairman of the Board of Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) since March 2018, and President and Chief Executive Officer since October 2017. He has also served as a Kellanova Director since October 2017. Prior to joining Kellanova, Mr. Cahillane served as Chief Executive Officer and President, and as a member of the board of directors, of Alphabet Holding Company, Inc., a holding company, and its wholly-owned operating subsidiary, The Nature’s Bounty Co., a health and wellness company, from September 2014. Prior to that, Mr. Cahillane served as Executive Vice President of The Coca-Cola Company, a beverage company, from February 2013 to February 2014 and President of Coca-Cola Americas, the global beverage maker’s largest business, with $25 billion in annual sales at that time, from January 2013 to February 2014. Mr. Cahillane served as President of various Coca-Cola operating groups from 2007 to 2012. He has also been a trustee of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Trust since 2018. Mr. Cahillane is a director of Colgate-Palmolive Company.
Kurt D. Forche54 
Vice President and Corporate Controller

Mr. Forche was appointed Vice President and Corporate Controller, Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company), in July 2018. Previously, Mr. Forche served as Vice President, Assistant Corporate Controller since December 2016. Mr. Forche joined Kellanova as an internal auditor in 1997, subsequently holding a number of Finance roles in the North American business until being named Senior Director, Corporate Financial Reporting in April 2014. Prior to joining Kellanova in 1997, he spent four years at Price Waterhouse as an auditor.
Melissa A. Howell57 
Senior Vice President, Global Human Services

Ms. Howell assumed her current position in June 2016. Prior to joining Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company), she was Chief Human Resources Officer for Rockford, Michigan-based Wolverine since 2014. Prior to Wolverine, Ms. Howell spent 24 years with General Motors where she led a team of 2,800 Human Resource professionals worldwide, supporting a global business at one of the top automotive companies in the world, and also among the largest public corporations. Ms. Howell joined General Motors as a Labor Relations Representative at its Ypsilanti, Michigan, assembly plant in 1990. Over the following years, she served in a series of key human resources leadership roles in Europe, Asia and U.S. leading teams on six continents across an array of functional areas. Ms. Howell was promoted to Executive Director of North American Human Resources in 2011 and subsequently promoted to Senior Vice President of Global Human Resources.

Charisse Hughes53 
Senior Vice President, Chief Growth Officer

Ms. Hughes has been Senior Vice President, Chief Growth Officer, Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) since May 2023. Ms. Hughes joined Kellanova in 2020 as Chief Marketing Officer. Prior to her current role, she
served as Chief Brand & Advanced Analytics Officer. She is responsible for driving the growth agenda for the company through leadership of Global Brands, Innovation and R&D, Commercial Advanced Analytics, Marketing Excellence, and Licensing & Cultural Initiatives. Prior to joining Kellanova, Ms. Hughes was the Chief Marketing Officer for Pandora Americas. Her experience also includes marketing and brand leadership roles with The Estee Lauder Companies, Avon Products, Inc. and Sara Lee Corporation. Ms. Hughes serves on the Board of Directors for Crocs, Inc. She is also a Board Advisor for Pixability and a member of the Executive Leadership Council.

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Shumit Kapoor53 
Senior Vice President, Kellanova
President, Kellanova Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa

Mr. Kapoor assumed his current position in July 2020. Prior to joining Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company), he was Regional President, Pet Nutrition, Asia Pacific for Mars Inc. from January 2017 to June 2020. In this role, Mr. Kapoor had additional oversight of the confectionary and food business in Japan and New Zealand. Prior to that, he was Regional President, Asia Pacific, for Mars’ Royal Canin business from January 2015 to December 2016. Mr. Kapoor served in various leadership roles at Mars Inc., starting his career as General Manager, South East Asia and India Mars Multisales in July 2011. Prior to Mars Inc., Mr. Kapoor was with Nokia from 2005 to 2011 and Procter & Gamble from 1993 to 2005.
Rodrigo Lance49 
Senior Vice President, Global Supply Chain

Mr. Lance has been Senior Vice President, Global Supply Chain, Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) since March 2022. Prior to his current role, he was Senior Vice President, KNA Supply Chain from October 2019 to March 2022 and Vice President, Supply Chain Europe and Vice President, Supply Chain Latin America from May 2017 to October 2019. Prior to his Supply Chain roles, Mr. Lance served as Vice President, Snacks Engineering beginning in 2011. In 1997, Mr. Lance began his career at Kellanova and served in various roles including Production Supervisor at the Queretaro, Mexico, plant. He also served as the Plant Manager in Guatemala; Linares, Mexico, and Columbus, Georgia, U.S.
David Lawlor56 
Senior Vice President, Kellanova
President, Kellanova Europe

Mr. Lawlor assumed his current position in July 2018. He most recently served as Vice President, European Cereal from November 2017 to June 2018. Mr. Lawlor began his career at Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) in 1991, joining as a sales manager in its Dublin office. Following this, he held a number of senior roles, including running the company’s Middle Eastern business, setting up its Dubai office. Mr. Lawlor then served as General Manager of Kellogg Russia from October 2008 to August 2016 and led the integration of United Bakers Group, a local biscuit and cracker manufacturer. In August 2016, he was appointed Managing Director, UK/ROI where he refocused the company’s efforts to stabilize and grow its core cereal business.

Victor Marroquin48 
Senior Vice President, Kellanova Latin America

Mr. Marroquin was appointed Senior Vice President & President Kellanova Latin America, in February 2024. Previously, Mr. Marroquin served as General Manager, Kellanova Mexico, since December 2020. Mr. Marroquin joined Kellanova (formerly Kellogg Company) in 1997. Mr. Marroquin served as VP & General Manager Andean Region – Colombia, Ecuador, Peru & Bolivia from July 2018 through 2020, General Manager – Kellogg Brazil from December 2016 to July 2018 and General Manager of – Ecuador & Peru from June 2014 through December 2016. Prior to that, Mr. Marroquin held a number of marketing, customer development and commercial management roles at the Company across Latin American countries.
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John Min44 
Senior Vice President and Chief Legal Officer

Mr. Min has been Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, Kellanova (formerly known as Kellogg Company) since October 2023. Previously, Mr. Min served as Regional General Counsel in Europe and Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa regions. Prior to that, he served as Corporate Counsel, specializing in corporate governance, securities, and litigation. Mr. Min joined Kellanova in 2010 and has since worked in a variety of different areas, including food safety and regulatory compliance, class action litigation defense, recoveries, corporate governance and securities. Prior to Kellanova, Mr. Min was an attorney at the law firm of Jenner & Block.

Availability of Reports; Website Access; Other Information. Our internet address is http://www.kellanova.com. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not part of or incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All reports required to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission are available and can be accessed through the Investor Relations section of our website.
Copies of our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Charters of the Audit, Compensation and Talent Management, and Nominating and Governance Committees of the Board of Directors, the Code of Conduct for the Company's Board of Directors and Global Code of Ethics for the Company's employees (including the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and corporate controller) can also be found on the Kellanova website. Any amendments or waivers to the Global Code of Ethics applicable to the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and corporate controller can also be found in the “Investor Relations” section of the Kellanova website. Shareowners may also request a free copy of these documents from: Kellanova, P.O. Box CAMB, Battle Creek, Michigan 49016-9935 (phone: (800) 961-1413), Investor Relations Department at that same address (phone: (269) 961-2800) or investor.relations@Kellanova.com.

Forward-Looking Statements. This Report contains “forward-looking statements” with projections and expectations concerning, among other things, the Company’s restructuring programs; the integration of acquired businesses; our strategy, financial principles, and plans; initiatives, improvements and growth; sales, margins, advertising, promotion, merchandising, brand building, operating profit, and earnings per share; innovation; investments; capital expenditures; asset write-offs and expenditures and costs related to productivity or efficiency initiatives; the impact of accounting changes and significant accounting estimates; our ability to meet interest and debt principal repayment obligations; minimum contractual obligations; future common stock repurchases or debt reduction; effective income tax rate; cash flow and core working capital improvements; interest expense; commodity and energy prices; ESG performance; and employee benefit plan costs and funding. Forward-looking statements include predictions of future results or activities and may contain the words “expect,” “believe,” “will,” “can,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” or words or phrases of similar meaning. For example, forward-looking statements are found in this Item 1 and in several sections of Management’s Discussion and Analysis. Our actual results or activities may differ materially from these predictions.

Our future results could be affected by a variety of other factors, including the impact of macroeconomic conditions; business disruptions; consumers' and other stakeholders' perceptions of our brands; the ability to implement restructurings as planned, whether the expected amount of costs associated with restructurings will differ from forecasts, whether the Company will be able to realize the anticipated benefits from restructurings in the amounts and times expected; the ability to realize the anticipated benefits and synergies from business acquisitions in the amounts and at the times expected; the impact of competitive conditions; the ability to realize the intended benefits of the separation of WK Kellogg Co (the "separation"); the possibility of disruption from the separation, including changes to existing business relationships, disputes, litigation or unanticipated costs; uncertainty of the expected financial performance of the Company following completion of the separation; the effectiveness of pricing, advertising, and promotional programs; the success of innovation, renovation and new product introductions; the success of our Better Days and sustainability programs; the recoverability of the carrying value of goodwill and other intangibles; the success of productivity improvements and business transitions; commodity and energy prices, transportation costs, labor costs, disruptions or inefficiencies in supply chain; the availability of and interest rates on short-term and long-term financing; actual market performance of benefit plan trust investments; the levels of spending on systems initiatives, properties, business opportunities; integration of acquired businesses; other general and administrative costs; changes in consumer behavior and preferences; the effect of U.S. and foreign economic conditions on items such as interest rates; statutory tax rates; currency conversion and availability; legal and regulatory factors including changes in food safety, advertising and labeling laws and regulations, the ultimate impact of product recalls; business disruption or other losses from war, terrorist acts or political unrest; and the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A below. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they were made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update them.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this Report, the following risks and uncertainties could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our business is significantly impacted by general macroeconomic conditions, and accordingly, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected by further deterioration or a protracted extension of current macroeconomic challenges. Geopolitical instability, including wars and conflicts (including conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East), actual and potential shifts in U.S. and foreign, trade, economic and other policies, as well as other global events, have significantly increased macroeconomic uncertainty at a global level. The macroeconomic environment is and has been characterized by record-high inflation, supply chain challenges, labor shortages, high interest rates, foreign currency exchange volatility, volatility in global capital markets and growing recession risk. Such economic volatility could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and future market disruptions could negatively impact us. Further, adverse macroeconomic conditions may affect our customers’ and prospective customers’ operations and financial condition and make it difficult for our customers and prospective customers to accurately forecast and plan future business activities, which may in turn cause our customers to limit their purchase orders or affect their ability to pay amounts owed to us in a timely manner or at all, or adversely affect prospective customers’ ability or willingness to purchase our products. An economic downturn or a recession or increased uncertainty may also lead to increased credit and collectability risks, higher borrowing costs or reduced availability of capital and credit markets, reduced liquidity, adverse impacts on our suppliers, failures of counterparties including financial institutions and insurers, asset impairments, and declines in the value of our financial instruments.
Pandemics, epidemics or disease outbreaks, may disrupt our business, including, among other things, our supply chain and production processes, each of which could materially affect our operations, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations. The actual or perceived effects of a disease outbreak, epidemic, pandemic or similar widespread public health concern could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The occurrence of other widespread public health concerns (including a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic) in some markets could lead to the implementation of restrictions and impact our ability to perform critical functions. A shutdown of one or more of our manufacturing, warehousing or distribution facilities as a result of illness, government restrictions or other workforce disruptions or absenteeism, or reductions in capacity utilization levels, could result in us incurring additional direct costs and experiencing lost revenue. Illness, travel restrictions or workforce disruptions could negatively affect our supply chain, manufacturing, distribution or other business. These disruptions or our failure to effectively respond to them, could increase product or distribution costs, or cause delays or inability to deliver products to our customers. Disruptions to our supply chain in certain markets have occurred from time to time. Disruptions to our work force and supply chain could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Widespread public health concerns could materially impact our ability to meet the demands of our customers. The potential impact of widespread public health concerns on any of our supply, production or logistics providers could include, but is not limited to, problems with their respective businesses, finances, labor matters (including illness or absenteeism in workforce or closure due to positive testing), ability to source, import or secure ingredients and packaging, ability to transport products to our facilities, product quality issues, costs, production, insurance and reputation. Any of the foregoing could negatively affect the price and availability of our products and impact our supply chain. If disruptions caused by a widespread public health concern continue for an extended period of time, our ability to meet the demand for our products may be materially impacted.
We may not realize the benefits we expect from revenue growth management. We are utilizing formal revenue growth management practices to help us realize price in a more effective way. This data-driven approach addresses price strategy, price-pack architecture, promotion strategy, mix management, and trade strategies. Revenue growth management involves changes to the way we do business and may not always be accepted by our customers, consumers or third-party providers causing us not to realize the anticipated benefits. In addition, the complexity of the execution requires a substantial amount of management and operational resources. These and related demands on our resources may divert the organization's attention from other business issues and have adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers. Any failure to execute revenue growth management in accordance with our plans, including as a result of our revenue growth management process, could adversely affect our business or financial condition.
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Our results may be negatively impacted if consumers do not maintain their favorable perception of our brands. We have a number of iconic brands with significant value. Promoting and protecting the value of these brands is critical to the success of our business. Brand value is primarily based on consumer perceptions. Successful promotions and brand value enhancement depends in large part on our ability to provide high-quality products. Brand value could diminish significantly due to a number of factors, including consumer perception that we, or any of our employees or agents, have acted in an irresponsible manner, adverse publicity about our labor relations (whether or not valid), our products (whether or not valid), sponsorship or endorsement relationships (whether or not valid), our failure to maintain the quality of our products, the failure of our products or promotions to deliver consistently positive consumer experiences, the products becoming unavailable to consumers, or the failure to meet the nutrition expectations of our products or particular ingredients in our products (whether or not valid), including the perception of healthfulness of our products or their ingredients. In addition, due to our varied and geographically diverse consumer base, we must be responsive to local consumers, including when and how consumers consume food products and their desire for premium or value offerings and whether to provide an array of products that satisfy the broad spectrum of consumer preferences. Accordingly, we might fail to anticipate consumer preferences with respect to dietary trends or purchasing behaviors, invest sufficiently in maintaining, extending and expanding our brand image or achieve the desired effects of our marketing efforts or use data-driven marketing and advertising to reach consumers at the right time with the right message. The growing use of social and digital media platforms by consumers, Kellanova and third parties increases the speed and extent that information or misinformation and opinions can be shared. Negative posts or comments about Kellanova, our brands, our products, our labor relations or any of our employees or agents on social or digital media platforms could seriously damage our brands, reputation and brand loyalty, regardless of the information’s accuracy. Placement of our advertisements in digital media may also result in damage to our brands if the media itself experiences negative publicity itself. The harm may be immediate, and we may not be afforded an opportunity for redress or correction. Brand recognition and loyalty can also be impacted by the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns, marketing programs, influencers and sponsorships, as well as our use of social media. If we do not maintain the favorable perception of our brands, our results could be negatively impacted.
Business disruptions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We manufacture and source products and materials on a global scale. We have a complex network of suppliers, owned manufacturing locations, contract manufacturer locations, warehousing and distribution networks and information systems that support our ability to provide our products to our customers consistently. Our ability to make, move and sell products globally is critical to our success. Factors that are hard to predict or beyond our control, such as product or raw material scarcity, workforce disruptions, weather (including any potential effects of climate change), natural disasters, water availability, fires or explosions, terrorism, political unrest, government restrictions, mandates or shutdowns, tariffs and other trade restrictions, cybersecurity breaches, health pandemics, disruptions in logistics, loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites, supplier capacity constraints, or strikes, could damage or disrupt our operations or our suppliers', their suppliers or our contract manufacturers' operations. If we do not effectively prepare for and respond to disruptions in our operations, for example, by finding alternative suppliers or replacing capacity at key manufacturing or distribution locations, or cannot quickly repair damage to our information, technology, production or supply systems, we may be late in delivering or unable to deliver products to our customers. If that occurs, we may lose our customers' confidence, and long-term consumer demand for our products could decline. In addition, insurance policies that may provide coverage with regard to such events may not cover any or all of the resulting financial losses. These events could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many of our employees are covered by collectively-bargained agreements and other employees may seek to be covered by collectively-bargained agreements. Strikes or work stoppages and interruptions have occurred and could occur in the future if we are unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms or enter into new agreements on satisfactory terms, which could adversely impact our operating results.
In addition, we may be unable to meet the demand for our products during certain business disruptions. Short term or sustained increases in consumer demand at our retail customers may exceed our production capacity or otherwise strain our supply chain. We may face additional production disruptions in the future, which may place constraints on our ability to produce products in a timely manner or may increase our costs. Our failure to meet the demand for our products could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our businesses rely on independent third parties for the supply of materials for, and the manufacture of, many products. Our businesses could be materially affected if we fail to develop or maintain our relationships with these third parties, if any of these third parties is unable to fulfill its obligations to us, if any of these third parties fails to comply with governmental regulations applicable to the supply of materials for or the manufacturing of our products or if any of these third parties ceases doing business with us or goes out of business. Additionally, from time to time, we experience operational difficulties with these third parties, which may include increases in costs, reductions in
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the availability of materials or production capacity, delays in the addition of incremental capacity, failures to meet shipment or production deadlines, including as a result of public health crises (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) and related governmental restrictions or mandates and any naturally occurring or climate change induced acute (including extreme weather and natural disasters) or chronic (including prolonged temperature and weather patterns) climatic events, fire and water stress, cybersecurity incidents, errors in complying with specifications and insufficient quality control. The inability of a third-party supplier or manufacturer to ship orders in a timely manner or in desirable quantities or to meet our safety, quality and social compliance standards or regulatory requirements could have a material adverse impact on our businesses, reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, certain of our relationships with third-party manufacturers and suppliers require us to purchase minimum volumes, and we could incur significant penalties if we do not purchase the minimum quantities required under these commitments.
We may not achieve our targeted cost savings and efficiencies from cost reduction initiatives. Our success depends in part on our ability to be an efficient producer in a highly competitive industry. We have invested a significant amount in capital expenditures to improve our operational facilities. Ongoing operational issues are likely to occur when carrying out major production, procurement, manufacturing or logistical changes and these, as well as any failure by us to achieve our planned cost savings and efficiencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial position and on the consolidated results of our operations and profitability. Disruptions and uncertainties related to adverse macroeconomic conditions, including rising inflation and economic slowdowns or recessions, for a sustained period of time could result in delays or modifications to our strategic plans and other initiatives and hinder our ability to achieve our cost savings and productivity initiatives on the same timelines.
Structural and Organizational Risks
We may not realize the anticipated benefits from the separation of WK Kellogg Co, which could harm our business. On October 2, 2023, the Company completed the spin-off of WK Kellogg Co (the “separation”). The Company may incur significant additional expenses and challenges arising from and following the separation of the WK Kellogg Co business. The Company may not be able to achieve the full strategic, financial, operational, or other benefits that are expected to result from the separation and the anticipated benefits of the separation are based on a number of assumptions, some of which may prove incorrect. Additionally, stranded margins and a potential loss of synergies from the separation could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. A failure to realize all or some of the expected benefits of the spin-off, or if such benefits are delayed, could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
As a separated company, our shares may not match some holders’ investment strategies or meet minimum criteria for inclusion in stock market indices or portfolios, which could cause certain investors to sell their shares, which could lead to declines in the trading price of our common stock. Further, there can be no assurance that the combined value of the shares of the two separated companies will be equal to or greater than what the value of our common stock would have been had the separation not occurred.
Further, in connection with the separation, we and WK Kellogg Co entered a separation and distribution agreement and various other agreements. The separation and distribution agreement provides for cross-indemnities between the Company and WK Kellogg Co for liabilities allocated to the respective party pursuant to the terms of such agreement. If WK Kellogg Co or its successor entities are unable to satisfy their obligations under these agreements, we could incur operational difficulties or losses. In addition, the terms of the separation include licenses and other arrangements to provide for certain ongoing use of intellectual property in the operations of both businesses. For example, both the Company and WK Kellogg Co retain the ability to make ongoing use of certain brands and other intellectual property. As a result of this continuing shared use of brands and other intellectual property, there is a risk that conduct or events adversely affecting the reputation of WK Kellogg Co could also adversely affect our reputation.
The separation could result in substantial tax liability to us and our stockholders. The Company received an opinion of counsel and a private letter ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) regarding the qualification of the spin-off of WK Kellogg Co and certain related transactions as a transaction that is generally tax-free to the Company and the shareholders of the Company for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A tax opinion is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position. In addition, the Company’s tax counsel and the IRS relied on certain assumptions, representations and undertakings, including those relating to the past and future conduct of our business, and the opinion would not be valid if such assumptions, representations and undertakings were incorrect. If the IRS ultimately determines that the spin-off is taxable, then the spin-off could be treated as a taxable dividend or capital gain to the Company’s shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the Company could incur significant U.S. federal income tax
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liabilities. In certain circumstances if future significant acquisitions of our stock or the stock of WK Kellogg Co are determined to be part of a plan or series of related transactions that included the spin-off, the distribution would be taxable to us (but not to the Company’s shareholders). In this event, the resulting tax liability could be substantial. In connection with the spin-off, the Company entered into a Tax Matters Agreement with WK Kellogg Co, pursuant to which WK Kellogg Co agreed to not enter into transactions that could cause the spin-off or any related transactions to be taxable to us and to indemnify us for any tax liability resulting from any such transaction. However, there can be no assurance that WK Kellogg Co would have the resources or liquidity required to indemnify the Company for any such tax liability. In addition, these potential tax liabilities may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of the Company.
If we pursue strategic acquisitions, alliances, divestitures or joint ventures, we may not be able to successfully consummate favorable transactions or successfully integrate acquired businesses. From time to time, we may evaluate potential acquisitions, alliances, divestitures or joint ventures that would further our strategic objectives. With respect to acquisitions, we may not be able to identify suitable candidates, consummate a transaction on terms that are favorable to us, integrate the acquired business into our existing operations in a timely and cost-efficient manner, including implementation of enterprise-resource planning systems, or achieve expected returns, expected synergies and other benefits as a result of integration or other challenges, or may not achieve those objectives on a timely basis. Future acquisitions of foreign companies or new foreign ventures would subject us to local laws and regulations and could potentially lead to risks related to, among other things, increased exposure to foreign exchange rate changes, government price control, repatriation of profits and liabilities relating to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”).
With respect to proposed divestitures of assets or businesses, we may encounter difficulty in finding acquirers or alternative exit strategies on terms that are favorable to us, which could delay the accomplishment of our strategic objectives, or our divestiture activities may require us to recognize impairment charges. Companies or operations acquired or joint ventures created may not be profitable or may not achieve sales levels and profitability that justify the investments made. Our corporate development activities may present financial and operational risks, including diversion of management attention from existing core businesses, integrating or separating personnel and financial and other systems, and adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers. Future acquisitions could also result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities and/or amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets and increased operating expenses, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
To the extent we undertake divestitures in the future, we may face additional risks related to such activity. For example, risks related to our ability to find appropriate buyers, to execute transactions on favorable terms, to separate divested businesses from our remaining operations, and to effectively manage any transitional service arrangements. Any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Further, our participation in joint ventures may cause our results of operations and cash flows to fluctuate for reasons unrelated to the underlying financial performance of the joint venture. The manner and extent to which the financial results of joint ventures are reflected in our consolidated financial statements depend upon how the ownership and governance of a particular joint venture is characterized under GAAP including assessing the financial and governance control of the joint venture. Changes at Kellanova unrelated to the joint venture, such as a change of control, may result in changes to how a joint venture is assessed under GAAP. If a joint venture that we currently consolidate in our financial statements becomes unconsolidated, or vice versa, this could have an adverse effect on our reported revenues, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We may not be able to attract, develop and retain the highly skilled people we need to support our business. We depend on the skills and continued service of key personnel, including our experienced management team. In addition, our ability to achieve our strategic and operating goals depends on our ability to identify, recruit, hire, train and retain qualified individuals, including, for example, individuals with e-commerce, digital marketing and data analytics capabilities and skilled labor in our manufacturing facilities. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel, and we may lose key personnel or fail to attract, recruit, train, develop and retain other talented personnel. Recruiting and retention of talent has become especially challenging in the current employment market. Any such loss, failure or negative perception with respect to these individuals may adversely affect our business or financial results. In addition, activities related to identifying, recruiting, hiring and integrating qualified individuals may require significant time and expense. We may not be able to locate suitable replacements for any key employees who terminate their employment, or offer employment to potential replacements on reasonable terms, each of which may adversely affect our business and
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financial results. Additionally, changes in regional preferences, immigration laws and policies could also make it more difficult for us to recruit or relocate skilled employees.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Our results may be materially and adversely impacted as a result of increases in the price of raw materials, including agricultural commodities, packaging, fuel and labor. Agricultural commodities, including vegetable oils, wheat, corn, sugar, fruits and nuts, potato flakes, rice and cocoa, are the principal raw materials used in our products. Cartonboard, corrugated, and flexible packaging are the principal packaging materials used by us. The cost of such commodities may fluctuate widely due to government policy, regulation, and/or shutdown, import and export requirements (including tariffs), global geopolitical conditions (including war and conflicts, such as the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East), general economic conditions (including inflationary pressures), sanctions, drought and other weather conditions (including the potential effects of climate change), a pandemic illness, environmental or other sustainability regulation, or other unforeseen circumstances. Specifically, certain ingredients, packaging and other goods and services have been impacted by an unfavorable macroeconomic environment, including as a result of (among other things) labor shortages and inflationary pressures, and although we are unable to predict the impact to our ability to source such materials and services in the future, we expect some supply pressures and market disruptions to continue into 2024. To the extent that any of the foregoing factors affect the prices of such commodities and we are unable to increase our prices or adequately hedge against such changes in prices in a manner that offsets such changes, the results of our operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we use derivatives to hedge price risk associated with forecasted purchases of raw materials. Our hedged price could exceed the spot price on the date of purchase, resulting in an unfavorable impact on both gross margin and net earnings. Also, sustained price increases may lead to declines in volume as competitors may not adjust their prices, or consumers may decide not to pay the higher prices or may increasingly purchase lower-priced offerings or forego some purchases altogether during an economic downturn or a recession or instances of increased inflationary pressures, which could lead to sales declines and loss of market share. In an inflationary environment, such as the current economic environment, depending on the market conditions of the food industry and the raising of interest rates by the United States Federal Reserve, we may be unable to raise the prices of our products enough to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins, and continued inflationary pressures could impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Food processing equipment at our facilities is regularly fueled by natural gas or propane, as well as electricity, oil and solar, which are obtained from local utilities, other local suppliers or onsite. Short-term stand-by propane and/or oil storage exists at several plants for use in case of interruption in natural gas supplies. In addition, considerable amounts of diesel fuel are used in connection with the distribution of our products. The cost of fuel may fluctuate widely due to economic and political conditions, government policy, regulation and/or shutdown, war, or other unforeseen circumstances which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results or financial condition.
Our results may be adversely affected by increases in transportation costs and reduced availability of or increases in the price of oil or other fuels. We rely on trucking and railroad operators to deliver incoming ingredients to our manufacturing locations and to deliver finished products to our customers. Shortages of truck drivers and railroad workers have contributed to increased freight costs, which has had a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In recent years, the cost of distribution generally increased due to an increase in transportation and logistics costs. Transportation costs are further increasing as a result of high levels of long-haul driver turnover and increased railroad traffic and service issues. Additionally, energy and fuel costs can fluctuate dramatically and, at times, have resulted in significant cost increases, particularly for the price of oil and gasoline.
We operate in the highly competitive food industry, including with respect to retail shelf space. We face competition across our product lines, including snacks, ready-to-eat cereals and other convenience foods, from other companies that have varying abilities to withstand changes in market conditions. The principal aspects of our business where we face competition include brand recognition, taste, nutritional value, price, promotion, innovation, shelf space, navigating the growing e- commerce marketplace, convenient ordering and delivery to the consumer and customer service. Most of our competitors have substantial financial, marketing, sales and other resources, and some of our competitors may spend more aggressively on advertising and promotional activities than we do. Our competition with other companies in our various markets and product lines could cause us to reduce prices, increase capital, marketing or other expenditures, or lose category share, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. Our ability to compete also depends upon our ability to predict, identify, and interpret the tastes and dietary habits of consumers and to offer products that appeal to those preferences. For example, certain weight loss drugs, which may suppress a person’s appetite, may cause competition in our product categories to increase, if consumers reduce purchases of certain types of foods or of food products altogether. There are inherent marketplace risks associated with new product or packaging introductions, including uncertainties about trade and consumer acceptance. If we do not succeed in offering
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products that consumers want to buy, our sales and market share will decrease, resulting in reduced profitability. If we are unable to accurately predict which shifts in consumer preferences will be long-lasting, or are unable to introduce new and improved products to satisfy those preferences, our sales will decline. In addition, given the variety of backgrounds and identities of consumers in our consumer base, we must offer a sufficient array of products to satisfy the broad spectrum of consumer preferences.
Further, if the Company does not innovate and successfully to respond to shifting consumer demands, our business may suffer. Successful innovation depends on our ability to correctly anticipate customer and consumer acceptance and respond successfully to technological advances by and intellectual property rights of our competitors, and failure to do so could compromise our competitive position and impact our product sales, financial condition, and operating results.
In some cases, our competitors may be able to respond to changing business and economic conditions or consumer preferences more quickly than us. Category share and growth could also be adversely impacted if we are not successful in introducing new products, anticipating changes in consumer preferences with respect to dietary trends or purchasing behaviors or in effectively assessing, changing and setting proper pricing.
In addition, in nearly all of our product categories, we compete against branded products as well as private label products. Our products must provide higher value and/or quality to our consumers than alternatives, particularly during periods of economic uncertainty. Consumers may not buy our products if relative differences in value and/or quality between our products and private label products change in favor of competitors’ products or if consumers perceive this type of change. If consumers prefer private label products, which are typically sold at lower prices, then we could lose category share or sales volumes or shift our product mix to lower margin offerings, which could have a material effect on our business and consolidated financial position and on the consolidated results of our operations and profitability.
Further, our ability to compete may be limited by an inability to secure new retailers or maintain or add shelf and/or retail space for our products. There can be no assurance that retailers will provide sufficient, or any, shelf space, nor that online retailers will provide online access to, or adequate product visibility on, their platform. Unattractive placement or pricing may put our products at a disadvantage compared to those of our competitors. Even if we obtain shelf space or preferable shelf placement, our new and existing products may fail to achieve the sales expectations set by our retailers, potentially causing these retailers to remove our products from their shelves.
The changing retail environment and the growing presence of alternative retail channels, could negatively impact our sales and profits. Our businesses are largely concentrated in the traditional retail grocery trade. Our largest customer, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates, accounted for approximately 15% of consolidated net sales during 2023, comprised principally of sales within the United States. No other customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in 2023. During 2023, our top five customers, collectively, including Wal-Mart, accounted for approximately 26% of our consolidated net sales and approximately 46% of U.S. net sales. There can be no assurances that our largest customers will continue to purchase our products in the same mix or quantities or on the same terms as in the past. As the retail grocery trade continues to consolidate and retailers become larger, our large retail customers have sought, and may continue to seek in the future, to use their position to improve their profitability through improved efficiency, lower pricing, increased promotional programs funded by their suppliers and more favorable terms. Such consolidation can continue to adversely impact our smaller customers’ ability to compete effectively, resulting in an inability on their part to pay for our products or reduced or canceled orders of our products. In addition, larger retailers have the scale to develop supply chains that permit them to operate with reduced inventories or to develop and market their own private label products. If we are unable to use our scale, marketing expertise, product innovation and category leadership positions to respond, our profitability or volume growth could be negatively affected. As a result of the consolidated nature of the retail environment, the loss of any large customer or severe adverse impact on the business operations of any large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profits.
Additionally, alternative retail channels, such as e-commerce retailers (including as a result of the integration of traditional and digital operations at key retailers), subscription services, discount and dollar stores, direct-to-consumer brands, drug stores and club stores, have continued to grow. This trend away from traditional retail grocery, and towards such channels, is expected to continue in the future. If we are not successful in expanding sales in alternative retail channels, our business or financial results may be negatively impacted. In particular, substantial growth in e-commerce has encouraged the entry of new competitors and business models, intensifying competition by simplifying distribution and lowering barriers to entry. The expanding presence of e-commerce retailers has impacted, and may continue to impact, consumer preferences and market dynamics, which in turn may negatively affect our sales or profits. In addition, these alternative retail channels may create consumer price deflation, affecting our large retail and wholesale customer relationships and presenting additional challenges to
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increasing prices in response to commodity or other cost increases. Also, if these alternative retail channels, such as e-commerce retailers were to take significant share away from traditional retailers that could have a flow over effect on our business and our financial results could be negatively impacted.
Our consolidated financial results and demand for our products are dependent on the successful development of new products and processes, identification of changing consumer and customer preferences and behaviors, and meeting these preferences and behaviors. There are a number of trends in consumer preferences which may impact us and the industry as a whole. These include changing consumer dietary trends and consumer concerns regarding the health effects of ingredients such as sodium, trans fats, genetically modified organisms, sugar, or other product ingredients or attributes, and the availability of substitute products. Our success is dependent on anticipating changes in consumer preferences and on successful new product and process development and product relaunches in response to such changes. Trends within the food industry change often, and failure to identify and react to changes in these trends could lead to, among other things, reduced loyalty, reduced demand and price reductions for our brands and products. Additionally, certain weight loss drugs, which may suppress a person’s appetite, may impact demand for our products. We aim to introduce products or new or improved production processes on a timely basis in order to counteract obsolescence and decreases in sales of existing products. While we devote significant focus to the development of new products and to the research, development and technology process functions of our business, we may not be successful in developing new products or our new products may not be commercially successful. In addition, if sales generated by new products cause a decline in sales of the Company's existing products, the Company's financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Our future results and our ability to maintain or improve our competitive position will depend on our capacity to gauge the direction of our key markets and upon our ability to successfully identify, develop, manufacture, market and sell new or improved products in these changing markets, including through the expansion into complementary product categories.
Adverse changes in the global climate or extreme weather conditions could adversely affect our business or operations. As set forth in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, there is continuing scientific evidence, as well as concern from members of the general public, that emissions of greenhouse gases and contributing human activities have caused and will continue to cause significant changes in global temperatures and weather patterns and increase the frequency or severity of weather events, wildfires and flooding. As the pressures from climate change and global population growth lead to increased demand, the food system and global supply chain is becoming increasingly vulnerable to acute shocks, leading to increased prices and volatility, especially in the energy and commodity markets. Adverse changes such as these could (i) unfavorably impact the cost or availability of raw or packaging materials, especially if such events have a negative impact on agricultural productivity or on the supply of water, (ii) disrupt production schedules and our ability, or the ability of our suppliers or contract manufacturers, to manufacture or distribute our products, (iii) reduce crop size or quality, (iv) disrupt the retail operations of our customers, or (v) unfavorably impact the demand for, or the consumer's ability to purchase, our products.
Additionally, we face climate-related transition risks, including new legislation and regulation aimed at addressing climate change and shifts in market preferences for more sustainable products and services. There is an increased focus by foreign, federal, state and local regulatory and legislative bodies regarding environmental policies relating to climate change, regulating greenhouse gas emissions, energy policies and sustainability, including single use plastics. This new or increased focus may result in new or increasingly stringent laws and regulations that could increase the risk that we are subject to litigation or government enforcement actions and require us to incur increased legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place strain on our personnel, systems and resources. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions could substantially increase the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. In addition, consumers and customers may put an increased priority on purchasing products that are sustainably grown and made, requiring us to incur increased costs for additional transparency, due diligence and reporting. Our business may face increased scrutiny from the investment community, customers, consumers, employees,
activists, media, regulators and other stakeholders related to our sustainability initiatives, including the goals, targets
and objectives that we announce, and our methodologies and timelines for pursuing them. Any failure to meet or delay in meeting, or perceived failure to meet or delay in meeting, stakeholder expectations on environmental or sustainability matters or any perception of a failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment could lead to adverse publicity, which could damage our reputation, which in turn could adversely impact our financial results or our ability to raise capital, as well as expose us to regulatory and legal risks. As a result, climate change as well as actions taken to mitigate climate change could negatively affect our business and operations.

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Risks Related to Our Operations
A shortage in the labor pool, failure to successfully negotiate collectively bargained agreements, or other general inflationary pressures or changes in applicable laws and regulations could increase labor cost, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results or financial condition. Our labor costs include the cost of providing benefits for employees. We sponsor a number of benefit plans for employees in the United States and various foreign locations, including pension, retiree health and welfare, active health care, severance and other post-employment benefits. We also participate in multiemployer pension plans for certain of our manufacturing locations. Our major pension plans and U.S. collectively bargained retiree health and welfare plans are funded with trust assets invested in a globally diversified portfolio of equity securities with smaller holdings of bonds, real estate and other investments. The annual cost of benefits can vary significantly from year to year and is materially affected by such factors as changes in the assumed or actual rate of return on major plan assets, a change in the weighted-average discount rate used to measure obligations, the rate or trend of health care cost inflation, and the outcome of collectively-bargained wage and benefit agreements. Many of our employees are covered by collectively-bargained agreements and other employees may seek to be covered by collectively-bargained agreements. Strikes or work stoppages and interruptions have occurred and could occur in the future at any collectively-bargained location if we are unable to renew our current collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms or enter into new agreements on satisfactory terms, which could adversely impact our operating results. The terms and conditions of existing, renegotiated or new agreements could also increase our costs or otherwise affect our ability to fully implement future operational changes to enhance our efficiency. Furthermore, we rely on access to competitive, local labor supply, including skilled and unskilled positions, to operate our business consistently and reliably. We may encounter difficulty recruiting sufficient numbers of personnel at acceptable wage and benefit levels due to the competitive labor market. Our inability to attract, develop and retain the personnel necessary for the efficient operation of our business could result in higher costs and decreased productivity and efficiency, which may have a material adverse effect on our performance.
Multiemployer pension plans could adversely affect our business. We participate in “multiemployer” pension plans administered by labor unions representing some of our U.S. based employees. We make periodic contributions to these plans to allow them to meet their pension benefit obligations to their participants. Our required contributions to these funds could increase because of a shrinking contribution base as a result of the insolvency or withdrawal of other companies that currently contribute to these funds, inability or failure of withdrawing companies to pay their withdrawal liability, lower than expected returns on pension fund assets or other funding deficiencies. In the event that we withdraw from participation in one of these plans, then applicable law could require us to make withdrawal liability payments, and we would have to reflect that as an expense in our consolidated statement of operations and as a liability on our consolidated balance sheet. Our withdrawal liability obligation to a multiemployer plan would depend, in part, on the extent of the plan’s funding of vested benefits. In the ordinary course of our renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements with labor unions that maintain these plans, we may decide to discontinue participation in a plan, and in that event, we could face a withdrawal liability. One of the multiemployer plans in which we participate is reported to have significant underfunded liabilities. Such underfunding could impact the size of our potential withdrawal liability.
Our postretirement benefit-related costs and funding requirements could increase as a result of volatility in the financial markets, changes in interest rates and actuarial assumptions. Increases in the costs of postretirement medical and pension benefits may continue and could negatively affect our business as a result of increased usage of medical benefits by retired employees and medical cost inflation, an increase in participants enrolled, the effect of potential declines in the stock and bond markets on the performance of our pension and post-retirement plan assets, potential reductions in the discount rate used to determine the present value of our benefit obligations, and changes to our investment strategy that may impact our expected return on pension and post-retirement plan assets assumptions. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles require that we calculate income or expense for the plans using actuarial valuations. These valuations reflect assumptions about financial markets and interest rates, which may change based on economic conditions. The Company’s accounting policy for defined benefit plans may subject earnings to volatility due to the recognition of actuarial gains and losses, particularly those due to the change in the fair value of pension and post-retirement plan assets and interest rates. In addition, funding requirements for our plans may become more significant. However, the ultimate amounts to be contributed are dependent upon, among other things, interest rates, underlying asset returns, and the impact of legislative or regulatory changes related to pension and post-retirement funding obligations.
We use available borrowings under the credit facilities and other available debt financing for cash to operate our business, which subjects us to market and counter-party risk, some of which is beyond our control. In addition to cash we generate from our business, our principal existing sources of cash are borrowings available under our credit facilities and other available debt financing. If our access to such financing was
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unavailable or reduced, or if such financing were to become significantly more expensive for any reason, we may not be able to fund daily operations, which would cause material harm to our business or could affect our ability to operate our business as a going concern. In addition, if certain of our lenders experience difficulties that render them unable to fund future draws on the facilities, we may not be able to access all or a portion of these funds, which could have similar adverse consequences.
We utilize extended payment terms for customers supplemented with receivable sales programs (or “monetization programs”). We also utilize accounts payable tracking systems, which facilitate participating suppliers’ ability to monitor and, if elected at their discretion, sell payment obligations from the Company to designated third-party financial institutions. Together, these programs assist in helping to effectively managing our core working capital. If the extension of customer payment terms is reversed, if we shorten supplier payment terms through negotiation or due to regulation, or if financial institutions terminate their participation in these programs, our ability to maintain current levels of core working capital could be adversely impacted. Our principal source of liquidity is operating cash flows supplemented by borrowings for major acquisitions and other significant transactions. In order to mitigate the net working capital impact of offering extended customer payment terms, we entered into agreements to sell, on a revolving basis, certain trade accounts receivable balances to third party financial institutions (Monetization Programs). In addition, we have agreements with third parties (Accounts Payable Tracking Systems) to offer structured payables programs to our suppliers. Participating suppliers may, if elected at their discretion, make offers to sell one or more payment obligations of the Company prior to their scheduled due dates at a discounted price to participating financial institutions. If financial institutions were to terminate their participation in the Monetization Programs and we are not able to modify related customer payment terms, working capital could be negatively impacted. Additionally, working capital could be negatively impacted if we shorten our supplier payment terms as a result of supplier negotiations or as a result of regulations regarding payment terms. For suppliers participating in the Accounts Payable Tracking Systems, financial institutions may terminate their participation or we could experience a downgrade in our credit rating that could result in higher costs to suppliers. If working capital is negatively impacted as a result of these events and we were unable to secure alternative programs, we may have to utilize our various financing arrangements for short-term liquidity or increase our long-term borrowings.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness. We have indebtedness that is substantial in relation to our shareholders’ equity, and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future, or enter into off-balance sheet financing, which would increase our leverage risks. As of December 30, 2023, we had total debt of approximately $5.9 billion and total Kellanova equity of $3.2 billion. Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences, including (i) impairing the ability to access global capital markets to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures or general corporate purposes, particularly if the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating organizations were revised downward or if a rating organization announces that our ratings are under review for a potential downgrade, (ii) a downgrade in our credit ratings, particularly our short-term credit rating, would likely reduce the amount of commercial paper we could issue, increase our commercial paper borrowing costs, or both, (iii) restricting our flexibility in responding to changing market conditions or making us more vulnerable in the event of a general downturn in economic conditions or our business, (iv) requiring a substantial portion of the cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, reducing the funds available to us for other purposes such as expansion through acquisitions, paying dividends, repurchasing shares, marketing and other spending and expansion of our product offerings, (v) and causing us to be more leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage. Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance our obligations with respect to indebtedness or incur new indebtedness will depend on our financial and operating performance, which in turn, is subject to prevailing economic conditions, the availability of, and interest rates on, short-term financing, and financial, business and other factors beyond our control.
An impairment of the carrying value of goodwill or other acquired intangibles could negatively affect our consolidated operating results and net worth. The carrying value of goodwill represents the fair value of acquired businesses in excess of identifiable assets and liabilities as of the acquisition date. The carrying value of other intangibles represents the fair value of trademarks, trade names, and other acquired intangibles as of the acquisition date. Goodwill and other acquired intangibles expected to contribute indefinitely to our cash flows are not amortized, but must be evaluated by management at least annually for impairment. If carrying value exceeds current fair value, the intangible is considered impaired and is reduced to fair value via a charge to earnings. Factors which could result in an impairment include, but are not limited to: (i) reduced demand for our products; (ii) higher commodity prices; (iii) lower prices for our products or increased marketing as a result of increased competition; and (iv) significant disruptions to our operations as a result of both internal and external events. Should the value of one or more of the acquired intangibles become impaired, our consolidated earnings and net worth may
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be materially adversely affected. For example, as a result of the annual impairment testing in 2023 the Company recognized a non-cash impairment of $34 million in selling, general and administrative expense related to a brand in the North America operating segment that relates to snack category products. Any significant sustained adverse change in consumer purchasing behaviors, government restrictions, financial results, or macroeconomic conditions could result in future impairments.
As of December 30, 2023, the carrying value of intangible assets totaled approximately $7.0 billion, of which $5.2 billion was goodwill and $1.8 billion represented trademarks, tradenames, and other acquired intangibles compared to total assets of $15.6 billion and total Kellanova equity of $3.2 billion.
Risks Related to Regulations and Litigation
We face risks related to tax matters, including changes in tax rates, disagreements with taxing authorities and imposition of new taxes. The Company is subject to taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions where the Company’s subsidiaries are organized. Due to economic and political conditions (including shifts in the geopolitical landscape), tax rates in the U.S. and various foreign jurisdictions have been and may be subject to significant change. The future effective tax rate could be effected by changes in mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in valuation of deferred tax asset and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation which includes the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “U.S. Tax Reform”) and contemplated changes in other countries of long-standing tax principles if finalized and adopted could have a material impact on our income tax expense and deferred tax balances. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has introduced a framework to implement a global minimum corporate income tax. Several countries in which we operate have adopted, and others are in the process of introducing and finalizing legislation to implement the global minimum corporate income tax. Many aspects of the framework will be effective for tax years beginning in January 2024, with certain remaining impacts to be effective in 2025. While we do not expect the global minimum corporate income tax to have a material impact to our effective tax rate in 2024, as the OECD releases additional guidance and countries implement legislation, we will continue to analyze any potential impacts. To the extent that additional OECD and legislative changes take place in countries we operate, it is possible the changes may adversely impact our effective tax rate. We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the Internal Revenue Service and other taxing authorities with respect to taxes inside and outside of the U.S. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if a taxing authority disagrees with the positions we have taken, we could face additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. There can be no assurance that payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes will not have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position. We also need to comply with new, evolving or revised tax laws and regulations. The enactment of or increases in tariffs, including value added tax, or other changes in the application of existing taxes, in markets in which we are currently active, or may be active in the future, or on specific products that we sell or with which our products compete, may have an adverse effect on our business or on our results of operations.

If our food products become adulterated, misbranded or mislabeled, we might need to recall those items and may experience regulatory enforcement and product liability claims if consumers are injured or damaged as a result. Selling food products involves a number of legal, regulatory and other risks, including product contamination, foreign objects, food-borne illnesses, spoilage, product tampering, allergens, or other adulteration, which could result in product liability claims. We may need to recall some of our products if they become adulterated or misbranded. We may also be liable if the consumption of any of our products causes injury, illness or death. A widespread product recall or market withdrawal could result in significant losses due to their costs, the destruction of product inventory, and lost sales due to the unavailability of product for a period of time. We could also suffer losses from a significant product liability or consumer fraud judgment against us. In addition, we could be the target of claims that our advertising is false or deceptive under U.S. federal and state laws as well as foreign laws, including federal and state consumer protection statutes. Allegations of consumer fraud may result in fines, settlements and litigation expenses. A significant product recall, product liability or consumer fraud case could also result in adverse publicity, damage to our reputation, and a loss of consumer confidence in our food products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business results and the value of our brands. Moreover, even if a product liability or consumer fraud claim is meritless, does not prevail or is not pursued, the negative publicity surrounding assertions against our company and our products or processes could adversely affect our reputation or brands. We could also be adversely affected if consumers lose confidence in the safety and quality of certain food products or ingredients, or the food safety system generally. If another company recalls or experiences negative publicity related to a product in a category in which we compete, consumers might reduce their overall consumption of products in this category. Adverse publicity about these types of concerns, whether or not valid, may discourage consumers from buying our products or cause production and delivery disruptions.
Evolving tax, advertising, environmental, licensing, labeling, trade, food quality and safety, intellectual property, data privacy, artificial intelligence, or other regulations or failure to comply with existing regulations and laws could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition. Our
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activities and products, including our operation of our manufacturing facilities, both in and outside of the United States, are subject to regulation by various federal, state, provincial and local laws, regulations and government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, as well as similar and other authorities outside of the United States, International Accords and Treaties and others, including voluntary regulation by other bodies. Legal and regulatory systems can change quickly. In addition, legal and regulatory systems in emerging and developing markets may be less developed, and less certain. These laws and regulations and interpretations thereof may change, sometimes dramatically, as a result of a variety of factors, including political, economic, regulatory or social events. In addition, the enforcement of remedies in certain foreign jurisdictions may be less certain, resulting in varying abilities to enforce intellectual property and contractual rights.
The manufacturing, marketing and distribution of food products are subject to governmental regulations that impose additional regulatory requirements. Those regulations control such matters as food quality and safety (including the condition and operation of our manufacturing facilities where food is processed), ingredients, advertising and marketing (including, among other limitations, restricting the age of consumers to whom products are marketed and data privacy requirements), product or production requirements, labeling, sustainability of packaging (including plastics), import or export of our products or ingredients, relations with distributors and retailers, health and safety, the environment, and restrictions on the use of government programs, such as Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, to purchase certain of our products.
The marketing of food products has come under increased regulatory scrutiny in recent years, and the food industry has been subject to an increasing number of proceedings and claims relating to alleged false or deceptive labeling and marketing under federal, state and foreign laws or regulations. We are also regulated with respect to matters such as licensing requirements, trade and pricing practices, tax, anti-corruption standards, advertising and claims, data privacy, and environmental matters. The need to comply with new, evolving or revised tax, environmental, food quality and safety, labeling, data privacy, or other laws or regulations, or new, evolving or changed interpretations or enforcement of existing laws or regulations, may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Governmental and administrative bodies within the U.S. are considering a variety of trade and other regulatory reforms. Changes in legal or regulatory requirements (such as new food safety requirements and revised nutrition facts labeling, including front of pack labeling, and serving size regulations, and new corporate sustainability reporting requirements in the EU and elsewhere), or evolving interpretations of existing legal or regulatory requirements, may result in increased compliance costs, capital expenditures and other financial obligations that could adversely affect our business or financial results. If we are found to be out of compliance with applicable laws and regulations in these areas, we could be subject to civil remedies, including fines, injunctions, termination of necessary licenses or permits, or recalls, as well as potential criminal sanctions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if regulatory review does not result in these types of determinations, it could potentially create negative publicity or perceptions which could harm our business or reputation.
Modifications to international trade policy, including the ratification of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, changes in the European Union (such as Brexit), or the imposition of increased or new tariffs, quotas or trade barriers on key commodities with other countries could have a negative impact on us or the industries we serve, including as a result of related uncertainty, and could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Higher duties on existing tariffs or additional tariffs imposed by the United States on a broader range of imports, or further retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response, could result in an increase in supply chain costs that we are not able to offset.
Our operations in certain emerging markets expose us to political, economic and regulatory risks. Our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to expand our operations in emerging markets. However, some emerging markets have greater political, economic and currency volatility and greater vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions than more established markets. In many countries outside of the United States, particularly those with emerging economies, it may be common for others to engage in business practices prohibited by laws and regulations with extraterritorial reach, such as the FCPA and the UKBA, or local anti-bribery laws. These laws generally prohibit companies and their employees, contractors or agents from making improper payments to government officials, including in connection with obtaining permits or engaging in other actions necessary to do business. Failure to comply with these laws could subject us to civil and criminal penalties that could materially and adversely affect our reputation, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, competition in emerging markets is increasing as our competitors grow their global operations and low cost local manufacturers expand and improve their production capacities. Our success in emerging markets is critical to our growth strategy. If we cannot
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successfully increase our business in emerging markets and manage associated political, economic and regulatory risks, our product sales, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
Technology failures, cyber incidents, security incidents, privacy breaches or data breaches could disrupt our operations or reputation and negatively impact our business. We increasingly rely on information technology systems and third-party service providers, including through the internet, to process, transmit, and store electronic information. For example, our production and distribution facilities and inventory management utilize information technology to increase efficiencies and limit costs. Information technology systems are also integral to the reporting of our results of operations. Furthermore, a significant portion of the communications between, and storage of personal information of, our personnel, customers, consumers and suppliers depends on information technology. Our information technology systems, and the systems of the parties we communicate and collaborate with, may be vulnerable to a variety of interruptions, such as a result of our employees working remotely, the updating of our enterprise platform or due to events beyond our or their control, including, but not limited to, network or hardware failures, malicious or disruptive software, unintentional or malicious actions of employees or contractors, cyberattacks by common hackers, criminal groups or nation-state organizations or social-activist (hacktivist) organizations, geopolitical events, natural disasters, a pandemic illness, failures or impairments of telecommunications networks, or other catastrophic events.
Moreover, our computer systems have been, and will likely continue to be subjected to computer viruses, malware, ransomware or other malicious codes, social engineering attacks, unauthorized access attempts, password theft, physical breaches, employee or inside error, malfeasance and cyber- or phishing-attacks. Cyber threats are constantly evolving, are becoming more sophisticated and are being made by groups and individuals with a wide range of expertise and motives, and this increases the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. While we have implemented physical, administrative, and technical controls and taken other preventive actions, such as the maintenance of an information security program that includes updating our technology and security policies, insurance, employee training, and monitoring and routinely testing our information technology systems to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our information technology; however, these measures may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, cyber-attacks or other security breaches to our computer systems. Further, the Company (or third parties it relies on) may not be able to fully, continuously, and effectively implement security controls as intended. We utilize a risk-based approach and judgment to determine the security controls to implement and it is possible we may not implement appropriate controls if we do not recognize or underestimate a particular risk. In addition, security controls, no matter how well designed or implemented, may only mitigate and not fully eliminate risks. Moreover, events detected by security tools or third parties may not always be immediately understood or acted upon. These events could compromise our confidential information, impede or interrupt our business operations, and may result in other negative consequences, including remediation costs, loss of revenue, litigation and reputational damage. If a security incident, breach or other breakdown results in disclosure of confidential or personal information, we may suffer reputational, competitive and/or business harm. To date, we have not experienced a material breach of cyber security. For more information regarding the Company's cybersecurity activities, see Item 1C of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company offers promotions, rebates, customer loyalty and other programs through which it may receive personal information, and it or its vendors could experience cyber incidents, security incidents, privacy breaches, data breaches, security breaches or other incidents that result in unauthorized disclosure of consumer, customer, employee or Company information. The Company must also successfully integrate the technology systems of acquired companies into the Company’s existing and future technology systems. In addition, we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal information in the United States and other jurisdictions regarding privacy, data protection, and data security, including those related to the collection, storage, handling, use, disclosure, transfer, and security of personal information. There continues to be significant uncertainty with respect to compliance with such privacy and data protection laws and regulations, including with respect to the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”) and the California Privacy Rights Act because these laws are continuously evolving and developing and may be interpreted and applied differently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may create inconsistent or conflicting requirements. In the United States, several other states have introduced or passed similar privacy legislation, which may impose varying standards and requirements on our data collection, use and processing activities. Our efforts to comply with privacy and data protection laws, including the GDPR, CCPA and CPRA, may impose significant costs and challenges that are likely to increase over time.
If the Company suffers a loss as a result of a breach or other breakdown in its technology, including such cyber incidents, security incidents, privacy breaches, data breaches, security breaches, issues with or errors in system
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maintenance or security, migration of applications to the cloud, power outages, hardware or software failures, denial of service, telecommunication or other incident involving one of the Company's vendors, that result in unauthorized disclosure or significant unavailability of business, financial, personal or stakeholder information, the Company may suffer reputational, competitive and/or business harm and may be exposed to legal liability and government investigations, which may adversely affect the Company's results of operations and/or financial condition. The misuse, leakage or falsification of information could result in violations of data privacy laws and the Company may become subject to legal action and increased regulatory oversight. The Company could also be required to spend significant financial and other resources to remedy the damage caused by a security incident or security breach or to repair or replace networks and information systems. In addition, if the Company's suppliers or customers experience such a security incident, security breach or unauthorized disclosure or system failure, their businesses could be disrupted or otherwise negatively affected, which may result in a disruption in the Company's supply chain or reduced customer orders, which would adversely affect the Company's business operations. We have also outsourced several information technology support services and administrative functions to third-party service providers, including cloud-based service providers, and may outsource other functions in the future to achieve cost savings and efficiencies. If these service providers do not perform effectively due to breach or system failure, we may not be able to achieve the expected benefits and our business may be disrupted.
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could reduce the value of our products and brands. Our intellectual property rights are a significant and valuable aspect of our business and include trademarks, patents, trade secrets, and copyrights owned or licensed under certain licensing agreements. We attempt to protect these intellectual property rights using the appropriate laws and agreements including licenses, development agreements, nondisclosure agreements, and assignments. We also police third party misuses of our intellectual property in traditional retail and digital environments. Our failure to obtain or adequately protect our intellectual property rights may diminish our competitiveness and could materially harm our business. Similarly, changes in applicable laws or other changes that serve to lessen or remove the current legal protections of our intellectual property, may also diminish our competitiveness and could materially harm our business. We may be unaware of intellectual property rights of others that may cover some of our technology, brands or products or operations. In addition, if, in the course of developing new products or improving the quality of existing products, we are found to have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, directly or indirectly, such finding could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations and may limit our ability to introduce new products or improve the quality of existing products. Any litigation regarding intellectual property rights could be costly and time-consuming and could divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. Third party claims of intellectual property infringement might also require us to enter into costly license agreements. We also may be subject to significant damages or injunctions against development and sale of certain products.
General Risk Factors
We are subject to risks generally associated with companies that operate globally. We are a global company and generated almost half of our net sales for both 2023 and 2022 outside the United States. We manufacture our products in 21 countries and have operations in more than 180 countries, so we are subject to risks inherent in multinational operations. Those risks include (i) compliance with U.S. laws affecting operations outside of the United States, such as OFAC trade sanction regulations and Anti-Boycott regulations, (ii) compliance with anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA and UK Bribery Act (the “UKBA”), (iii) compliance with antitrust and competition laws, data privacy laws, and a variety of other local, national and multi-national regulations and laws in multiple regimes, (iv) changes in tax laws, interpretation of tax laws and tax audit outcomes, (v) fluctuations or devaluations in currency values, especially in emerging markets, (vi) changes in capital controls, including currency exchange controls, government currency policies or other limits on our ability to import raw materials or finished product or repatriate cash from outside the United States, (vii) changes in local regulations and laws, the lack of well-established, reliable and/or impartial legal systems in certain countries in which we operate and the uncertainty of enforcement of remedies in such jurisdictions, and foreign ownership restrictions and the potential for nationalization or expropriation of property or other resources, (viii) laws relating to information security, privacy (including the GDPR), cashless payments, and consumer protection, (ix) the ongoing longer-term impact of changes in international trade policies (including Brexit) on the local and international markets, the flow of goods and materials across borders, and political environments, (x) discriminatory or conflicting fiscal policies, (xi) challenges associated with cross-border product distribution, (xii) increased sovereign risk, such as default by or deterioration in the economies and credit worthiness of local governments, (xiii) varying abilities to enforce intellectual property, contractual, and other legal rights, (xiv) greater risk of uncollectible accounts and longer collection cycles, (xv) loss of ability to manage our operations in certain markets which could result in the deconsolidation of such businesses, (xvi) design and implementation of effective control environment processes across our diverse operations and employee base, (xvii) imposition of more or new tariffs, quotas, trade barriers, price controls, and similar restrictions in the countries in which we or our suppliers or manufacturers operate or regulations, taxes or policies that might negatively affect our
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sales, (xviii) changes in trade policies and trade relations, (xix) greater risk of uncollectible accounts or trade receivables and longer collection cycles, and (xx) political sentiment impacting global trade, including the willingness of non-U.S. consumers to purchase from U.S. corporations.
In addition, political and economic changes or volatility, geopolitical regional conflicts, terrorist activity, political unrest and government shutdowns, civil strife, acts of war, public corruption, expropriation and other economic or political or social uncertainties could interrupt and negatively affect our business operations or customer demand. The slowdown in economic growth or high unemployment in some emerging markets could constrain consumer spending, and declining consumer purchasing power could adversely impact our profitability. Dynamics associated with the federal and state debt and budget challenges in the United States could adversely affect us. All of these factors could result in increased costs or decreased revenues, and could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition and results of operations. There may be uncertainty as a result of key global events during 2023 that are expected to continue throughout 2024. For example, rising interest rates and inflation, recessionary pressures, geopolitical uncertainty, including wars and conflicts, fiscal and monetary policy uncertainty, international trade disputes, as well as ongoing terrorist activity, may adversely impact global stock markets (including The New York Stock Exchange on which our common shares are traded) and general global economic conditions. All of these factors are outside of our control but may nonetheless cause us to adjust our strategy in order to compete effectively in global markets.
Our performance is affected by general economic, political and social conditions and taxation policies. Customer and consumer demand for our products may be impacted by the negative impacts caused by pandemics and public health crises, recession, financial and credit market disruptions, government shutdowns or other economic downturns in the United States or other nations. Our results in the past have been, and in the future may continue to be, materially affected by changes in general economic, political and social conditions in the United States and other countries, including the interest rate environment in which we conduct business, the financial markets through which we access capital and currency, trade policy, political and social unrest and terrorist acts in the United States or other countries in which we carry on business.
Deteriorating economic conditions in our major markets, such as inflation, economic slowdowns or recessions, increased unemployment, decreases in disposable income, declines in consumer confidence, could result in reductions in sales of our products, reduced acceptance of innovations, and increased price competition. Such deterioration in any of the countries in which we do business could also cause slower collections on accounts receivable which may adversely impact our liquidity and financial condition.
Financial institutions may be negatively impacted by economic conditions, including rising inflation and interest rates, and may consolidate or cease to do business which could result in a tightening in the credit markets, a low level of liquidity in many financial markets, and increased volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets. Adverse macroeconomic conditions have increased volatility and pricing in the capital markets and as a result, we may not have access to preferred sources of liquidity when needed or on terms we find acceptable, causing our borrowing costs could increase. An economic or credit crisis could impair credit availability and our ability to raise capital when needed. A disruption in the financial markets may have a negative effect on our derivative counterparties and could impair our banking or other business partners, on whom we rely for access to capital and as counterparties to our derivative contracts. Any of these events would likely harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations face significant foreign currency exchange rate exposure and currency restrictions which could negatively impact our operating results. We hold assets and incur liabilities, earn revenue and pay expenses in a variety of currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the euro, British pound, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, Mexican peso, Brazilian real, and Nigerian naira. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we must translate our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses into U.S. dollars at then-applicable exchange rates and face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. For example, during the second quarter of 2023, the Nigerian government removed certain currency restrictions over the Nigerian Naira leading to a significant decline in the exchange rate of the Naira to the U.S. dollar on the official market in Nigeria. As a result of this decline in the exchange rate, the U.S. dollar value of the assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues of our Nigerian business in our consolidated financial statements decreased significantly compared to prior periods.
Geopolitical and international regulatory events, uncertainty or other factors may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business. Global political uncertainties, disruptions or major regulatory or policy changes, and/or the enforcement thereof may affect our business, financial performance, operations or products, including the ongoing impact of changes in international trade policies (for example, the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union). While trading through Brexit has become normal course of business, we continue to closely monitor and manage our inventory levels of imported raw materials, packaging and
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finished goods in the UK. We have made investments in resources, systems and processes to meet the new ongoing requirements and we work to mitigate disruptions to our local supply chain and distribution to reduce the impact on our input and distribution costs. As the EU and U.K. amend legislation and regulation post-Brexit, there is a risk of increased divergence between the EU and U.K. regulatory regimes and we continue to monitor for divergence in regulatory rules which could impact our supply chain operations. Despite our efforts to control costs, we have continued to see inflationary cost pressures rise in our UK business this year, as we have also experienced in other markets. If the UK’s exit from, or new trade arrangements with, the EU negatively impact the UK economy or result in disagreements on trade terms then the impact to our operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.
Potential liabilities and costs from litigation could adversely affect our business. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending our self in civil, criminal or regulatory actions (inclusive of class action lawsuits and foreign litigation), including under general, commercial, employment, environmental, data privacy or security, intellectual property, food quality and safety, anti-trust and trade, advertising and claims, and environmental laws and regulations, or in asserting our rights under various laws. For example, our marketing or claims could face allegations of false or deceptive advertising or other criticisms which could end up in litigation and result in potential liabilities or costs. As a result, we could incur substantial costs and fees in defending our self or in asserting our rights in these actions or meeting new legal requirements. The costs and other effects of potential and pending litigation and administrative actions against us, and new legal requirements, cannot be determined with certainty and may differ from expectations. In addition, we may be impacted by litigation trends, including class action lawsuits involving consumers, employees, and shareholders, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, the market price of our common stock, results of operations and financial condition.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
Risk Management and Strategy. Kellanova has established a cybersecurity program (the “program”) that is designed based on reviewing industry common practices and recognized frameworks (i.e., NIST and ISO, among others). The Company works to evolve its program to address material risks from cybersecurity threats. The program is developed from a top-down strategic risk management approach.

The program includes processes that identify how security measures and controls are developed, implemented, and maintained, as well as cybersecurity and information security training and awareness. The program includes a risk management process designed to identify internal and external cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities to the Company’s business and operations, assess the likelihood and potential impact of the threats and vulnerabilities to the Company, and assess and prioritize the risks from cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities to inform action plans and strategies to mitigate and manage these risks. The program’s risk assessment process, based on a method and guidance from a recognized national standards organization, is conducted annually. The risk assessment along with risk-based analysis and judgment are used to select security controls to address risks. During this process, the following factors, among others, are considered: recognized frameworks, likelihood and severity of risk, impact on the Company and others if a risk materializes, feasibility and cost of controls, and impact of controls on operations and others.

Third-party security firms are used in different capacities to provide or operate some of these controls and technology systems, including cloud-based services and platforms. For example, third parties are used to conduct assessments, such as vulnerability scans and penetration testing. The Company uses a variety of processes to address cybersecurity threats related to the use of third-party technology and services, including pre-acquisition diligence, imposition of contractual obligations, and performance monitoring.

The Company, as a part of its program has a documented cybersecurity incident response plan and conducts tabletop exercises to enhance incident response preparedness. Business continuity and disaster recovery plans are used to prepare for the potential for a disruption in technology we rely on. The Company is a member of cybersecurity intelligence and risk sharing organizations. Employees undergo security awareness training.

The Company has an Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program to address enterprise risks, and cybersecurity is a risk category evaluated and identified by that function. One of the leaders of the ERM process is Kellanova’s Vice President, Internal Audit, and the process includes individuals with designated areas of focus and subject matter experts across Kellanova, including cybersecurity leaders. As the enterprise risk owner for cybersecurity,
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the Chief Digital and Information Officer supports the Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) and the information security team, which includes a Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC) function, to manage cybersecurity risk. The information security team collaborates on privacy and security governance.

Our computer systems have been and will likely continue to be subjected to cybersecurity threats. To date, we have not experienced a cyber security threat that has materially affected the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial conditions.

Additionally, in Item 1A Risk Factors under the headings of “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Technology”, and “Technology failures, cyber incidents, privacy breaches or data breaches could disrupt our operations or reputation and negatively impact our business”, forward-looking cybersecurity threats that could have a material impact on the Company are discussed. Those sections of Item 1A should be read in conjunction with this Item 1C.

Governance. The Kellanova Board of Directors has risk oversight responsibility for Kellanova, which it administers directly and with assistance from its committees. Oversight of the information security program sits with the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee has oversight responsibilities with respect to ERM, including cybersecurity, information security and data protection risk exposures, and the steps management has taken to monitor and control these exposures. In addition to periodically providing the Executive Management Team with information and cybersecurity briefings, the Chief Digital and Information Officer (“CDIO”) and Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) provide at least biannual updates to the Audit Committee regarding cybersecurity, including on strategy and the Company's cybersecurity program. For cybersecurity incidents, the Company’s cybersecurity incident response plan includes a process for incidents to be evaluated for material impact. The escalation protocol includes reporting of security incidents to members of the Kellanova Executive Management Team and reporting of any cyber incidents that could have a material impact on the Company to the Audit Committee.

As mentioned above, the CISO is the management position with primary responsibility for the development, operation, and maintenance of our information security program. The Company’s CISO has work experience in various roles in risk management, including developing information and cybersecurity strategy/programs, information security audit and assessments, cybersecurity operations focused on identification, mitigation and response to cybersecurity threats. The CISO has experience leading enterprise global efforts to align systems to industry-accepted standards and practices, as well as regulatory compliance requirements. The CISO has degrees in the areas of management of information systems and cybersecurity, and also maintains several information security and technology certifications, including as a Certified Information System Security Professional (“CISSP”) and Boardroom Certified Qualified Technology Expert (“QTE”).

The CISO reports directly to the CDIO, who is a member of the Kellanova Executive Management Team. The Company’s CDIO has technology experience overseeing and executing technology strategies in complex, global, and matrixed environments. The CDIO has been in role since February 2019, bringing experience from overseeing and executing technology as European CIO at the Company, and over 20 years of experience leading IT strategy and change initiatives in the consumer packaged goods and manufacturing industries.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located in Chicago, Illinois and we maintain corporate offices and our principal research and development facilities in Battle Creek, Michigan.

We operated, as of February 20, 2024, offices, manufacturing plants and distribution and warehousing facilities totaling more than 36.5 million square feet of building area in the United States and other countries. Our plants have been designed and constructed to meet our specific production requirements, and we periodically invest money for capital and technological improvements. At the time of its selection, each location was considered to be favorable, based on the location of markets, sources of raw materials, availability of suitable labor, transportation facilities, location of our other plants producing similar products, and other factors. Our manufacturing facilities in the United States are located in San Jose, California; Rome, Georgia; Kansas City, Kansas; Pikeville, Kentucky; Grand Rapids and Wyoming, Michigan; Blue Anchor, New Jersey; Cary, North Carolina; Cincinnati and Zanesville, Ohio; Muncy, Pennsylvania; and Jackson and Rossville, Tennessee.

Outside the United States, we had, as of February 20, 2024, additional manufacturing locations, some with warehousing facilities, in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Great Britain, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, and Turkey.
We own many of our principal properties, including our principal research and development center and manufacturing facilities in the United States, and no owned property is subject to any major lien or other encumbrance. We lease our corporate headquarters, and our distribution facilities (including related warehousing
27







facilities) and offices of non-plant locations are also typically leased. In general, we consider our facilities, taken as a whole, to be suitable, adequate, and of sufficient capacity for our current operations.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to various legal proceedings, claims, and governmental inspections, audits or investigations arising out of our business which cover matters such as general commercial, governmental regulations, antitrust and trade regulations, product liability, environmental, intellectual property, employment and other actions. In the opinion of management, the ultimate resolution of these matters is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The principal market for trading Kellanova shares (Ticker symbol: K) is the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). At December 30, 2023 there were approximately 23,633 shareholders of record.
In February 2020, the Board of Directors approved an authorization to repurchase up to $1.5 billion of our common stock expiring in December 2022. In December 2022, the Board of Directors approved a new authorization to repurchase up to $1.5 billion of our common stock through December 2025. These authorizations were intended to allow us to repurchase shares for general corporate purposes and to offset issuances for employee benefit programs.
The following table provides information with respect to purchases of common shares under programs authorized by our Board of Directors during the quarter ended December 30, 2023.

(millions, except per share data)
  
  
  
Period(a)
Total
Number
of
Shares
Purchased
(b)
Average
Price
Paid Per
Share
(c)
Total
Number
of Shares
Purchased
as Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs
(d)
Approximate
Dollar
Value of
Shares
that May
Yet Be
Purchased
Under the
Plans or
Programs
Month #1:
10/01/23-10/28/23
— $— — $1,440 
Month #2:
10/29/23-11/25/23
2.1 $52.61 2.1 $1,330 
Month #3:
11/26/23-12/30/23
— $— — $1,330 
 

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Kellanova and Subsidiaries
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Business overview
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand Kellanova, our operations and our present business environment. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes thereto contained in Item 8 of this Report.

For more than 115 years, consumers have counted on Kellanova for great-tasting, high-quality and nutritious foods. These foods include snacks, such as crackers, savory snacks, toaster pastries, cereal bars and bites; and convenience foods, such as ready-to-eat cereals, frozen waffles, veggie foods and noodles. Kellanova products are manufactured and marketed globally. Our MD&A references consumption and net sales in discussing our sales trends for certain categories and brands. We record net sales upon delivery of shipments to our customers. Consumption and share data noted within is based on Nielsen x-AOC or other comparable source, for the applicable period. Consumption refers to consumer purchases of our products from our customers. Unless otherwise noted, consumption and shipment trends are materially consistent.

Separation transaction
On June 21, 2022, the Company announced its intent to separate its North American cereal business, via tax-free spin-off. The transaction was completed on October 2, 2023, resulting in two independent public companies, Kellanova and WK Kellogg Co.

In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the results of WK Kellogg Co are presented as discontinued operations in the Kellanova consolidated statement of income and, as such, have been excluded from both continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented. The recast operating profit includes certain costs that are reported in continuing operations but relate to items that will be reimbursed by the transition services agreement (“TSA”) with WK Kellogg Co. We expect that the costs for such services will be fully reimbursed under the TSA for the applicable future periods. Following the end of the TSA period, we expect that such costs will no longer be incurred by Kellanova.

Further, the Company reclassified the assets and liabilities of WK Kellogg Co as assets and liabilities of discontinued operations in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022. The consolidated statements of cash flows are presented on a consolidated basis for both continuing operations and discontinued operations.

Nigerian Naira
During the second quarter of 2023, the Nigerian government removed certain currency restrictions over the Nigerian Naira leading to a significant decline in the exchange rate of the Naira to the U.S. dollar on the official market in Nigeria. As a result of this decline in the exchange rate, the U.S. dollar value of the assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues of our Nigerian business in our consolidated financial statements has decreased significantly compared to prior periods. The consolidated assets of our Nigerian business represented approximately 5% of our consolidated assets as of December 30, 2023, compared to 8% as of December 31, 2022. Net sales of our Nigerian business were 8% of our consolidated net sales for the year ended December 30, 2023 but could become a smaller percentage of our overall sales if exchange rates as of the end of the year persist or decline further in 2024.

In addition to our consolidated Nigerian business, the Company also has an investment in an unconsolidated entity, Tolaram Africa Foods PTE LTD (TAF), that holds an investment in a Nigerian food manufacturer. This investment is accounted for under the equity method of accounting and is evaluated for indicators of other than temporary impairment. During 2023, the Company recorded significant foreign currency translation adjustments related to its investment in TAF due to the devaluation of the Nigerian Naira. The Company, following its accounting practice of recording the operations of its subsidiary, TAF, on a one-month lag basis has recognized these adjustments based on the foreign currency exchange rates as of the end of November 2023. The aggregate effect of these adjustments for the year resulted in translation losses of approximately $141 million, which have been recognized in other comprehensive income.
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War in Ukraine
The war in Ukraine and the related sanctions imposed have increased global economic and geopolitical uncertainty. In March 2022, we suspended all new investments and shipments of all products to Russia. We have no employees or direct operations in Ukraine. Our business in Russia consisted of three manufacturing facilities.

In December 2022 the Company entered into an agreement to sell our Russian business to a third party, pending a number of local government regulatory approvals. In July 2023 the Company completed the sale of the Russian business. As a result of completing the transaction, the Company derecognized net assets of approximately $65 million and recorded a non-cash loss on the transaction of approximately $113 million, primarily related to the release of historical currency translation adjustments. The business was part of the Europe reportable segment and the sale resulted in a complete exit from the Russian market. The business in Russia represented approximately 1% of consolidated Kellanova net sales.

Impacts of the war to our net sales, earnings, and cash flows extends beyond our business in Russia. Regional or global economic recessions, inflation, and supply chain challenges as a result of the war or further escalation could have a material impact on our results.

Inflationary pressures
Geopolitical instability, including wars and conflicts (including conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East), as well as other global events have resulted in certain impacts to the global economy, including market disruptions, supply chain challenges, and inflationary pressures. During the year ended December 30, 2023 we continued to experience elevated commodity and supply chain costs, including procurement and manufacturing costs, although certain supply chain challenges have eased. We continue to mitigate the dollar impact of this input cost inflation through the execution of productivity initiatives and revenue growth management actions. Additionally, from time to time we may enter into a combination of fixed price contracts with suppliers and commodity derivative instruments to manage the impact of volatility in the price of raw materials. We continue to expect input cost inflation to be flat during 2024.

Segments
We manage our operations through four operating segments that are based on geographic location – North America which includes the U.S. businesses and Canada; Europe which consists principally of European countries; Latin America which consists of Central and South America and includes Mexico; and AMEA (Asia Middle East Africa) which consists of Africa, Middle East, Australia and other Asian and Pacific markets. These operating segments also represent our reportable segments

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This filing includes non-GAAP financial measures that we provide to management and investors that exclude certain items that we do not consider part of on-going operations. Reported results were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, include all net sales and expenses recognized during the periods. Items excluded from our non-GAAP financial measures are discussed in the "Significant items impacting comparability" section of this filing. Our management team consistently utilizes a combination of GAAP and non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate business results, to make decisions regarding the future direction of our business, and for resource allocation decisions, including incentive compensation. As a result, we believe the presentation of both GAAP and non-GAAP financial measures provides investors with increased transparency into financial measures used by our management team and improves investors’ understanding of our underlying operating performance and in their analysis of ongoing operating trends. All historic non-GAAP financial measures have been reconciled with the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Non-GAAP financial measures used for evaluation of performance include currency-neutral and organic net sales, adjusted and currency-neutral adjusted operating profit, adjusted and currency-neutral adjusted diluted earnings per share (EPS), adjusted and currency-neutral adjusted gross profit, adjusted and currency neutral adjusted gross margin, net debt and cash flow. We determine currency-neutral results by dividing or multiplying, as appropriate, the current-period local currency operating results by the currency exchange rates used to translate our financial statements in the comparable prior-year period to determine what the current period U.S. dollar operating results would have been if the currency exchange rate had not changed from the comparable prior-year period. These non-GAAP financial measures may not be comparable to similar measures used by other companies.

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Currency-neutral net sales and organic net sales: We adjust the GAAP financial measure to exclude the impact of foreign currency, resulting in currency-neutral net sales. In addition, we exclude the impact of acquisitions, divestitures, and foreign currency, resulting in organic net sales. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying net sales performance. By providing these non-GAAP net sales measures, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of net sales performance for the Company and each of our reportable segments for the periods presented. Management uses these non-GAAP measures to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives behind net sales growth, pricing realization, and the impact of mix on our business results. These non-GAAP measures are also used to make decisions regarding the future direction of our business, and for resource allocation decisions.
Adjusted: gross profit, gross margin, operating profit, operating margin, and diluted EPS: We adjust the GAAP financial measures to exclude the effect of restructuring programs, costs of the separation transaction, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans (service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and other net periodic pension costs are not excluded), commodity contracts, certain equity investments and certain foreign currency contracts, a gain on interest rate swaps, and other costs impacting comparability resulting in adjusted. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying profitability. By providing these non-GAAP profitability measures, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's profitability measures for the periods presented. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives intended to improve profitability, as well as to evaluate the impacts of inflationary pressures and decisions to invest in new initiatives within each of our segments.
Currency-neutral adjusted: gross profit, gross margin, operating profit, operating margin, and diluted EPS: We adjust the GAAP financial measures to exclude the effect of restructuring programs, costs of the separation transaction, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans (service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and other net periodic pension costs are not excluded), commodity contracts, certain equity investments and certain foreign currency contracts, a gain on interest rate swaps, other costs impacting comparability, and foreign currency, resulting in currency-neutral adjusted. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying profitability. By providing these non-GAAP profitability measures, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's profitability measures for the periods presented. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives intended to improve profitability, as well as to evaluate the impacts of inflationary pressures and decisions to invest in new initiatives within each of our segments.
Adjusted other income (expense): We adjust the GAAP financial measure to exclude the effect of restructuring programs, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans (service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and other net periodic pension costs are not excluded) and certain equity investments, losses resulting from divestitures, and other costs impacting comparability. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying profitability. By providing this non-GAAP measure, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's other income (expense), excluding the impact of the items noted above, for the periods presented. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives intended to improve profitability.
Adjusted effective income tax rate: We adjust the GAAP financial measures to exclude the effect of restructuring programs, costs of the separation transaction, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans (service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and other net periodic pension costs are not excluded), commodity contracts, certain equity investments, and certain foreign currency contracts, a gain on interest rate swaps, and other costs impacting comparability. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our pre-tax income and the related tax effect of those items on our adjusted effective income tax rate, and other impacts to tax expense. By providing this non-GAAP measure, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's effective tax rate, excluding the pre-tax income and tax effect of the items noted above, for the periods presented. Management uses this non-GAAP measure to monitor the effectiveness of initiatives in place to optimize our global tax rate.
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Net debt: Defined as the sum of long-term debt, current maturities of long-term debt and notes payable, less cash and cash equivalents, and marketable securities. With respect to net debt, cash and cash equivalents, and marketable securities are subtracted from the GAAP measure, total debt liabilities, because they could be used to reduce the Company’s debt obligations. Company management and investors use this non-GAAP measure to evaluate changes to the Company's capital structure and credit quality assessment.
Free cash flow: Defined as net cash provided by operating activities reduced by expenditures for property additions. Free cash flow does not represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures. We use this non-GAAP financial measure of free cash flow to focus management and investors on the amount of cash available for debt repayment, dividend distributions, acquisition opportunities, and share repurchases once all of the Company’s business needs and obligations are met. Additionally, certain performance-based compensation includes a component of this non-GAAP measure.

These measures have not been calculated in accordance with GAAP and should not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP reporting measures.

Significant items impacting comparability
Mark-to-market
We recognize mark-to-market adjustments for pension and postretirement benefit plans, commodity contracts, and certain foreign currency contracts as incurred. Actuarial gains/losses for pension plans were recognized in the year they occur. Mark-to-market gains/losses for certain equity investments are recorded based on observable price changes. Changes between contract and market prices for commodities contracts and certain foreign currency contracts result in gains/losses that were recognized in the quarter they occur. We recorded a pre-tax mark-to-market loss of $163 million for 2023, a pre-tax mark-to-market loss of $369 million for 2022, and a pre-tax mark-to-market gain of $100 million in 2021. Included within the aforementioned totals was a pre-tax mark-to-market loss for pension plans of $146 million for 2023, a pre-tax mark-to-market loss for pension plans of $229 million for 2022, and a pre-tax mark-to-market gain for pension plans of $98 million for 2021.

Separation costs
The Company successfully completed the separation of its North America cereal business on October 2, 2023. As a result, we incurred pre-tax charges related to the separation, primarily related to legal and consulting costs, of $60 million for 2023 and $8 million for 2022.

Business and portfolio realignment
One-time costs related to reorganizations in support of our Deploy for Growth priorities and a reshaped portfolio; investments in enhancing capabilities prioritized by our Deploy for Growth strategy; and completed and prospective divestitures and acquisitions. As a result, we incurred pre-tax charges, primarily related to reorganizations of $2 million in 2023, $15 million in 2022, and 31 million in 2021.

Intangible Asset Impairment
During the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company completed its annual impairment testing and determined the fair value of an intangible asset did not exceed its carrying value. As a result, we incurred pre-tax charges related to the impairment of $34 million for 2023.

Loss related to divestiture
During the third quarter of 2023, the Company completed the sale of the Russian business. As a result of completing the transaction, the Company recorded a non-cash loss on the transaction of approximately $113 million, primarily related to the release of historical currency translation adjustments.

Gain related to interest rate swaps
During the third quarter of 2022, the Company recognized a pre-tax gain of $18 million in interest expense related to a portion of certain forward-starting interest rate swaps no longer designated as cash flow hedges due to changes in forecasted debt issuance.

Valuation allowance
During the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company recorded a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets of $21 million in conjunction with the separation of our North America cereal business.

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Foreign valuation allowance
During the third quarter of 2021, the Company determined that certain foreign deferred tax assets were no longer more likely than not to be realized in the future and a full valuation allowance of $20 million was recorded.

UK tax rate change
During the second quarter of 2021, the Company recorded tax expense of $23 million as a result of tax legislation enacted in the UK in June of 2021, which increased the statutory UK tax rate from 19 percent to 25 percent and required us to re-value our net UK deferred tax liability balance to reflect this higher rate.

Foreign currency translation
We evaluate the operating results of our business on a currency-neutral basis. We determine currency-neutral operating results by dividing or multiplying, as appropriate, the current period local currency operating results by the currency exchange rates used to translate our financial statements in the comparable prior year period to determine what the current period U.S. dollar operating results would have been if the currency exchange rate had not changed from the comparable prior-year period. Organic net sales exclude the impact of acquisitions, including the foreign currency impact calculated by applying the prior year foreign currency rates to current period results.


33







Financial results
For the full year ended December 30, 2023, our reported net sales increased 3.7% versus the prior year on positive price/mix across all regions which more than offset the impacts of price elasticity on volume and adverse foreign currency translation. Growth was led by Snacks across all four regions and consolidated net sales grew in cereal and noodles and other. Organic net sales increased 8.3% from the prior year after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Reported operating profit increased 24.3% versus the prior year due primarily to less unfavorable mark-to-market impacts, higher net sales, and recovery of gross margins, partially offset by loss on divestiture and higher costs related to the separation of our North America cereal business. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased 18.4%, after excluding the impact of mark-to-market, separation costs, intangible asset impairment, and foreign currency.

Reported diluted EPS of $2.25 for the year increased 6.1% compared to the prior year EPS of $2.12 due primarily to less unfavorable mark-to-market impacts partially offset by higher costs related to the separation of our North America cereal business. Currency-neutral adjusted diluted EPS of $3.18 for the year increased 7.4% compared to prior year EPS of $2.96, after excluding the impact of significant items impacting comparability.

Reconciliation of certain non-GAAP Financial Measures
Consolidated results (dollars in millions, except per share data)20232022
Reported net income attributable to Kellanova$951 $960 
Mark-to-market (pre-tax)(163)(370)
Separation costs (pre-tax)(60)(8)
Business and portfolio realignment (pre-tax)(2)(15)
Intangible asset impairment (pre-tax)(34)— 
Gain related to interest rate swaps (pre-tax) 18 
Loss on divestiture(113)— 
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*55 85 
Valuation allowance(21)— 
Adjusted net income attributable to Kellanova$1,289 $1,250 
Foreign currency impact16 
Currency-neutral adjusted net income attributable to Kellanova1,273 $1,250 
Reported diluted EPS$2.25 $2.12 
Mark-to-market (pre-tax)(0.47)(1.07)
Separation costs (pre-tax)(0.17)(0.03)
Business and portfolio realignment (pre-tax)(0.01)(0.04)
Intangible asset impairment (pre-tax)(0.10)— 
Gain related to interest rate swaps (pre-tax) 0.05 
Loss on divestiture (pre-tax)(0.33)— 
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*0.17 0.25 
Valuation allowance(0.06)— 
Adjusted diluted EPS from continuing operations$3.23 $2.96 
Foreign currency impact0.05 — 
Currency-neutral adjusted diluted EPS from continuing operations3.18 $2.96 
Currency-neutral adjusted diluted EPS growth7.4 %
Note: Tables may not foot due to rounding.
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.
* Represents the estimated income tax effect on the reconciling items, using weighted-average statutory tax rates, depending upon the applicable jurisdiction.

34







Net sales and operating profit
2023 compared to 2022
The following tables provide an analysis of net sales and operating profit performance for 2023 versus 2022:
Year ended December 30, 2023
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported net sales $6,574 $2,501 $1,265 $2,785 $(4)$13,122 
Foreign currency(9)54 86 (643) (513)
Organic net sales $6,583 $2,448 $1,179 $3,428 $(3)$13,635 
Year ended December 31, 2022
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported net sales $6,330 $2,310 $1,088 $2,933 $(9)$12,653 
Divestitures— 68 — — — 68 
Organic net sales $6,330 $2,243 $1,088 $2,933 $(9)$12,585 
% change - 2023 vs. 2022:
Reported growth3.8 %8.3 %16.3 %(5.1)%n/m3.7 %
Foreign currency(0.2)%2.3 %7.9 %(22.0)%n/m(4.1)%
Currency-neutral growth4.0 %6.0 %8.4 %16.9 %n/m7.8 %
Divestitures— %(3.2)%— %— %n/m(0.5)%
Organic growth4.0 %9.2 %8.4 %16.9 %n/m8.3 %
Volume (tonnage)(6.1)%(6.2)%(7.0)%0.8 %n/m(4.0)%
Pricing/mix10.1 %15.4 %15.4 %16.1 %n/m12.3 %
Note: Tables may not foot due to rounding.
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.




35







Year ended December 30, 2023
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported operating profit $1,024 $357 $130 $270 $(276)$1,505 
Mark-to-market  (3) (14)(17)
Separation costs(42) (3) (14)(60)
Business and portfolio realignment 1 (2) (1)(2)
Intangible asset impairment(34)    (34)
Adjusted operating profit $1,100 $356 $138 $270 $(247)$1,618 
Foreign currency impact 9 10 (32)4 (10)
Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit $1,101 $348 $128 $303 $(251)$1,628 
Year ended December 31, 2022
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported operating profit $907 $329 $116 $252 $(393)$1,212 
Mark-to-market— — (2)— (138)(140)
Separation costs(8)— — — — (8)
Business and portfolio realignment(12)— — (4)(15)
Adjusted operating profit $927 $328 $118 $252 $(252)$1,374 
% change - 2023 vs. 2022:
Reported growth12.8 %8.5 %12.0 %7.1 %29.9 %24.3 %
Mark-to-market— %— %(0.5)%— %32.3 %11.7 %
Separation costs(3.6)%— %(2.6)%— %(5.6)%(3.7)%
Business and portfolio realignment1.5 %— %(1.6)%— %1.1 %1.2 %
Intangible asset impairment(3.8)%— %— %— %— %(2.6)%
Adjusted growth18.7 %8.5 %16.7 %7.1 %2.1 %17.7 %
Foreign currency impact— %2.6 %8.7 %(12.8)%1.8 %(0.7)%
Currency-neutral adjusted growth18.7 %5.9 %8.0 %19.9 %0.3 %18.4 %
Note: Tables may not foot due to rounding.
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.

North America
Reported net sales increased 3.8% versus the prior year as a result of price/mix growth that more than offset rising price elasticity. Organic net sales increased 4.0% after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Net sales % change - 2023 vs. 2022: 
North AmericaReported Net Sales GrowthForeign CurrencyCurrency-Neutral Net Sales GrowthDivestitureOrganic Net Sales Growth
Snacks4.6 %(0.1)%4.7 %— %4.7 %
Frozen(0.4)%(0.2)%(0.2)%— %(0.2)%

North America snacks net sales increased 4.6% on price/mix growth in crackers, salty snacks, and portable wholesome snacks.

36







North America frozen foods net sales decreased 0.4%, as rising price elasticities offset price/mix growth.

North America operating profit increased 12.8% compared to the prior year due to higher net sales, recovery of gross margin, and reimbursement for transition services provided to WK Kellogg Co. These impacts were partially offset by a $34 million impairment charge taken on an intangible asset during the fourth quarter. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased 18.7%, after excluding the impact of separation costs, intangible asset impairment, and business and portfolio realignment.

Europe
Reported net sales increased 8.3% due primarily to favorable price/mix, momentum in snacks, and favorable foreign currency translation. Organic net sales increased 9.2% after excluding the impact of the divestiture of our business in Russia and foreign currency.

Net sales % change - 2023 vs. 2022: 
EuropeReported Net Sales GrowthForeign CurrencyCurrency-Neutral Net Sales GrowthDivestitureOrganic Net Sales Growth
Snacks16.0 %2.7 %13.3 %(3.7)%17.0 %
Cereal(0.2)%1.9 %(2.1)%(2.7)%0.6 %

Snacks net sales growth was led by sustained momentum in Pringles, with growth across key markets.

Cereal net sales declined slightly on a reported basis primarily due to unfavorable foreign currency.

Reported operating profit increased 8.5% due primarily to higher net sales and favorable foreign currency. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased 5.9% after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Latin America
Reported net sales increased 16.3% driven by strong price/mix growth and favorable foreign currency translation, with growth in snacks and cereal. Organic net sales increased 8.4%, after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Net sales % change - 2023 vs. 2022: 
Latin AmericaReported Net Sales GrowthForeign CurrencyCurrency-Neutral Net Sales GrowthDivestitureOrganic Net Sales Growth
Snacks12.4 %5.6 %6.8 %— %6.8 %
Cereal18.9 %9.5 %9.4 %— %9.4 %

Snacks net sales growth was led by double-digit consumption growth in key markets for salty snacks, including Mexico and Brazil.

Cereal net sales increased due to share gains in key markets, notably Mexico.

Reported operating profit increased 12.0% due to higher net sales and favorable foreign currency translation. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased 8.0% after excluding the impact of mark-to-market and foreign currency.

AMEA
Reported net sales decreased 5.1% driven by unfavorable foreign currency primarily due to the devaluation of the Nigerian Naira, which more than offset growth in volume and price/mix. Organic net sales increased 16.9% after excluding foreign currency.

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Net sales % change - 2023 vs. 2022: 
AMEAReported Net Sales GrowthForeign CurrencyCurrency-Neutral Net Sales GrowthDivestitureOrganic Net Sales Growth
Snacks8.3 %(7.3)%15.6 %— %15.6 %
Cereal(1.0)%(7.0)%6.0 %— %6.0 %
Noodles and Other(14.0)%(38.4)%24.4 %— %24.4 %

Snacks net sales increased due primarily to strong growth in Pringles across the region.

Cereal net sales declined on a reported basis, as unfavorable foreign currency more than offset higher price/mix.

Noodles and other net sales decreased due to unfavorable foreign currency that more than offset higher volume and price/mix growth.

Reported operating profit increased 7.1% due primarily to the recovery of gross margins partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased 19.9%, after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Corporate
Reported operating profit increased significantly versus the prior year due primarily to less unfavorable mark-to-market impacts. Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit increased $1 million from the prior year after excluding the impact of mark-to-market and separation costs.
38







Net sales and operating profit
2022 compared to 2021
The following tables provide an analysis of net sales and operating profit performance for 2022 versus 2021:
Year ended December 31, 2022
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported net sales $6,331 $2,310 $1,089 $2,933 $(9)$12,653 
Foreign currency impact(12)(245)7 (228) (478)
Organic net sales $6,343 $2,555 $1,082 $3,161 $(9)$13,131 
Year ended January 1, 2022
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported net sales $5,775 $2,397 $962 $2,613 $— $11,747 
% change - 2022 vs. 2021:
Reported growth9.6 %(3.6)%13.2 %12.2 % %7.7 %
Foreign currency impact(0.2)%(10.2)%0.8 %(8.8)%— %(4.0)%
Organic growth9.8 %6.6 %12.4 %21.0 % %11.7 %
Volume (tonnage)(1.2)%(3.4)%(5.2)%(2.5)%— %(2.5)%
Pricing/mix11.0 %10.0 %17.6 %23.5 %— %14.2 %
Note: Tables may not foot due to rounding.
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.




39







Year ended December 31, 2022
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported operating profit $906 $329 $117 $253 $(392)$1,212 
Mark-to-market  (2) (138)(140)
Separation costs(8)    (8)
Business and portfolio realignment(12)1   (4)(15)
Adjusted operating profit $927 $328 $118 $252 $(252)$1,374 
Foreign currency impact(1)(32)(1)(20) (54)
Currency-neutral adjusted operating profit $928 $360 $119 $272 $(252)$1,428 
Year ended January 2, 2021
(millions)North AmericaEuropeLatin
America
AMEACorporateKellanova
Consolidated
Reported operating profit $932 $350 $101 $246 $(245)$1,383 
Mark-to-market— — — 
Business and portfolio realignment(18)(4)— (10)(31)
Adjusted operating profit $950 $349 $104 $246 $(236)$1,412 
% change - 2022 vs. 2021:
Reported growth(2.7)%(5.9)%16.3 %2.7 %(60.7)%(12.3)%
Mark-to-market— %— %(3.5)%— %(56.3)%(10.2)%
Separation costs(0.9)%— %— %— %— %(0.6)%
Business and portfolio realignment0.6 %0.1 %4.7