10-K 1 k-2017q410xk.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2017
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For The Transition Period From                      To                     
Commission file number 1-4171
Kellogg Company
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
38-0710690
(State or other jurisdiction of Incorporation
or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 One Kellogg Square
Battle Creek, Michigan 49016-3599
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s telephone number: (269) 961-2000
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Act:
Title of each class:
  
Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $.25 par value per share
  
New York Stock Exchange
1.750% Senior Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
0.800% Senior Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.000% Senior Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.250% Senior Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Act: None
 
 Indicate by a check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  þ
Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.






Large accelerated filer  þ
Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company  ¨
 
Emerging growth company  ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  þ
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming for purposes of this computation only that the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Trust, directors and executive officers may be affiliates) as of the close of business on July 1, 2017 was approximately $18.9 billion based on the closing price of $68.34 for one share of common stock, as reported for the New York Stock Exchange on that date.
As of January 27, 2018, 345,748,749 shares of the common stock of the registrant were issued and outstanding.
Parts of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareowners to be held on April 27, 2018 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.






PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
The Company. Kellogg Company, founded in 1906 and incorporated in Delaware in 1922, and its subsidiaries are engaged in the manufacture and marketing of ready-to-eat cereal and convenience foods.
The address of the principal business office of Kellogg Company is One Kellogg Square, P.O. Box 3599, Battle Creek, Michigan 49016-3599. Unless otherwise specified or indicated by the context, “Kellogg,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Kellogg Company, its divisions and subsidiaries.
Financial Information About Segments. Information on segments is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Principal Products. Our principal products are snacks, such as cookies, crackers, savory snacks, toaster pastries, cereal bars, granola bars and bites, fruit-flavored snacks; and convenience foods, such as, ready-to-eat cereals, frozen waffles and veggie foods. These products were, as of February 20, 2018, manufactured by us in 21 countries and marketed in more than 180 countries. They are sold to retailers through direct sales forces for resale to consumers. We use broker and distributor arrangements for certain products and channels, as well as less-developed market areas or in those market areas outside of our focus.
Our snacks brands are marketed under brands such as Kellogg’s, Keebler, Cheez-It, Pringles, Murray, Austin, Famous Amos, Parati, and RXBAR.  Our cereals and cereal bars are generally marketed under the Kellogg’s name, with some under the Kashi and Bear Naked brands.  Our frozen foods are marketed under the Eggo and Morningstar Farms brands. 
We also market cookies, crackers, crisps, and other convenience foods, under brands such as Kellogg’s, Keebler, Cheez-It, Pringles, Murray, Austin and Famous Amos, to supermarkets in the United States through a variety of distribution methods.
Additional information pertaining to the relative sales of our products for the years 2015 through 2017 is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included herein under Part II, Item 8.

Corporate responsibility and sustainability. Climate change and food security are core business issues for Kellogg to ensure the long-term health and viability of the ingredients we use in our products. The Social Responsibility & Public Policy Committee of our Board of Directors oversees the company's sustainability efforts and climate policy. All four committee members are independent. At the executive level, environmental and social issues in our supply chain are overseen by our Chief Sustainability Officer and are aligned and included in parallel work streams within internal audit and audit committee. Policies and strategies regarding these topics are aligned in the organization’s lobbying, advocacy, and membership efforts. In multi-stakeholder initiatives, Kellogg partners with suppliers, customers, governments and non-governmental organizations, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the Consumer Goods Forum.

Kellogg Company relies on natural capital including energy for product manufacturing and distribution, water as an ingredient, for facility cleaning and steam power, and food crops and commodities as an ingredient. These natural capital dependencies are at risk of shortage, price volatility, regulation, and quality impacts due to climate change which is assessed as part of Kellogg’s overall enterprise risk management approach. Specific risks including water stress and social accountability are specifically identified and assessed on a regular basis, especially in emerging market expansion that fuels company growth. Due to these risks, Kellogg has implemented major short- and long-term initiatives to mitigate and adapt to these environmental pressures, as well as the resulting challenge of food security.
Global sustainability commitments. Kellogg has committed to improving efficiency in its owned manufacturing footprint by reducing water use, total waste, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 15% per metric tonne of food produced by 2020 from a 2015 baseline. We will report 2017 energy, GHG, and water use reductions in our 2017/2018 Corporate Responsibility Report. The goal is to reduce the risk of disruptions from unexpected constraints in natural resource availability or impacts on raw material pricing. Additionally, Kellogg is committed to implement water reuse projects in at least 25% of our plants by 2020 from a 2015 baseline, with a specific focus on plants located in water stressed areas. Kellogg has committed to responsibly sourcing our ten priority ingredients as determined by environmental, social, and business risk by 2020 by partnering with suppliers and farmers to

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measure continuous improvement. In addition, Kellogg established third-party approved science-based targets to reduce absolute Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse emissions by 65% and Scope 3 greenhouse emissions by 50% by 2050 from a 2015 baseline. Through these commitments, Kellogg supports the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #13 to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
In 2016, the manufacturing organization led sustainability efforts that resulted in a reduction in water use by 2.7%, energy use by 0.1%, an increase in GHG emissions by 1.8% per metric tonne of food produce compared to a 2015 baseline. In the first year of our science-based targets, we’ve reduced absolute Scope 1 and 2 emissions by 0.2%. Numerous factors contributed to our increased GHG emissions, including 1) in several countries where we operate, drought conditions have decreased the generation of clean energy from hydropower; 2) the decreasing prices of fossil fuels has encouraged some countries to generate more electricity from these non-renewable sources; and 3) our growing Pringles® business requires more energy (and water) to produce than other Kellogg foods. In September 2017, Kellogg joined RE100, an industry platform working together towards 100% renewable electricity. Increasing our use of renewable electricity will lower business risk and reduce GHG emissions.

Food Loss and Waste: As a global food company, Kellogg is committed to addressing the critical issues of climate and food security, and we’re committed to address food loss and waste. Kellogg supports the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3, to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses, by 2030. These goals are aligned with Kellogg commitments to reduce waste, with a focus on food waste across our end-to-end supply chain. And through our global signature cause platform, Breakfasts for Better Days™ we’re donating food for hunger relief that may otherwise go to waste.

Breakfasts for Better Days: In 2016, this global social purpose platform expanded with the intent to contribute to food security - aligned to United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #2 SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. The goal of the program is to create 3 billion Better Days by 2025 to address food security risks that can impact the Company as well as create opportunity to engage consumers. The Company’s five key commitments include food donations, expansion of breakfast clubs, supporting 500,000 farmers, committing to 45,000 employee volunteer days, and engaging 300 million people to join Kellogg in its hunger relief efforts. Through Breakfasts for Better Days, Kellogg has helped make billions of days better for people in need, providing 1.9 billion servings of food since 2013.
As a grain-based food company, the success of Kellogg Company is dependent on having timely access to high quality, low cost ingredients, water and energy for manufacturing globally. Risks are identified annually through annual reporting and evaluated in the short (<3 years), medium (3 - 6 years) and long terms (>6 years). The Company has incorporated the risks and opportunities of climate change and food security as part of the Global 2020 Growth Strategy and global Heart and Soul Strategy by continuing to identify risk, incorporate sustainability indicators into strategic priorities, and report regularly to leadership, the Board, and publicly. While these risks are not currently impacting business growth, they must be monitored, evaluated, and mitigated.
Raw Materials. Agricultural commodities, including corn, wheat, potato flakes, vegetable oils, sugar and cocoa, are the principal raw materials used in our products. Cartonboard, corrugate, and plastic are the principal packaging materials used by us. We continually monitor world supplies and prices of such commodities (which include such packaging materials), as well as government trade policies. The cost of such commodities may fluctuate widely due to government policy and regulation, weather conditions, climate change or other unforeseen circumstances. Continuous efforts are made to maintain and improve the quality and supply of such commodities for purposes of our short-term and long-term requirements.
The principal ingredients in the products produced by us in the United States include corn grits, wheat and wheat derivatives, potato flakes, oats, rice, cocoa and chocolate, soybeans and soybean derivatives, various fruits, sweeteners, vegetable oils, dairy products, eggs, and other ingredients, which are obtained from various sources. While most of these ingredients are purchased from sources in the United States, some materials are imported due to regional availability and specification requirements.
We enter into long-term contracts for the materials described in this section and purchase these items on the open market, depending on our view of possible price fluctuations, supply levels, and our relative negotiating power. While the cost of some of these materials has, and may continue to increase over time, we believe that we will be able to purchase an adequate supply of these items as needed. As further discussed herein under Part II, Item 7A, we also use commodity futures and options to hedge some of our costs.

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Raw materials and packaging needed for internationally based operations are available in adequate supply and are sourced both locally and imported from countries other than those where used in manufacturing.
Natural gas and propane are the primary sources of energy used to power processing ovens at major domestic and international facilities, although certain locations may use electricity, oil, propane or solar cells on a back-up or alternative basis. In addition, considerable amounts of diesel fuel are used in connection with the distribution of our products.
Trademarks and Technology. Generally, our products are marketed under trademarks we own. Our principal trademarks are our housemarks, brand names, slogans, and designs related to cereals, snacks and various other foods manufactured and marketed by us, and we also grant licenses to third parties to use these marks on various goods. These trademarks include Kellogg’s for cereals, convenience foods and our other products, and the brand names of certain ready-to-eat cereals, including All-Bran, Apple Jacks, Choco Zucaritas, Cocoa Krispies, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, Corn Pops, Cracklin’ Oat Bran, Crispix, Eggo, Froot Loops, Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes, Krave, Frosted Krispies, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Mueslix, Pops, Kellogg's Raisin Bran, Raisin Bran Crunch, Rice Krispies, Rice Krispies Treats, Smacks/Honey Smacks, Special K, Special K Nourish, Special K Red Berries and Zucaritas in the United States and elsewhere; Sucrilhos, Krunchy Granola, Kellogg's Extra, Kellness, Müsli, and Choco Krispis for cereals in Latin America; Vector in Canada; Ancient Legends, Coco Pops, Choco Krispies, Frosties, Fruit ‘N Fibre, Kellogg’s Crunchy Nut, Krave, Honey Loops, Kellogg’s Extra, Country Store, Smacks, Pops, Honey Bsss, Croco Copters, W.K. Kellogg, Toppas and Tresor for cereals in Europe; and Froot Ring, Guardian, Just Right, Sultana Bran, Frosties, Rice Bubbles, Nutri-Grain, and Sustain for cereals in Asia and Australia. Additional trademarks are the names of certain combinations of ready-to-eat Kellogg’s cereals, including Fun Pak and Variety.
Other brand names include Kellogg’s Corn Flake Crumbs; All-Bran, Choco Krispis, Crunchy Nut, Frutela, Special K, Squares, Zucaritas and Sucrilhos for cereal bars; Pop-Tarts for toaster pastries; Eggo and Nutri-Grain for frozen waffles and pancakes; Eggo, Special K and MorningStar Farms for breakfast sandwiches; Rice Krispies Treats for convenience foods; Special K protein shakes; Nutri-Grain cereal bars for convenience foods in the United States and elsewhere; K-Time, Split Stix, Be Natural, Sunibrite and LCMs for convenience foods in Australia; Choco Krispies, Coco Pops, and Rice Krispies Squares for convenience foods in Europe; Kashi for certain cereals, convenience foods, frozen foods, powders and pilaf; GoLean for cereals and nutrition bars; Special K and Vector for meal bars; Bear Naked for granola cereal and snack bites, Pringles for potato crisps, corn crisps, grain and vegetable crisps and potato sticks; and Morningstar Farms and Gardenburger for certain meat alternatives.
We also market convenience foods under trademarks and tradenames which include Keebler, Austin, Cheez-It, Chips Deluxe, Club, E. L. Fudge, Famous Amos, Fudge Shoppe, Gripz, Krispy, Minueto, Mother’s, Murray, Murray Sugar Free, Parati, Ready Crust, RXBAR, Sandies, Special K, Soft Batch, Simply Made, Stretch Island, Sunshine, Toasteds, Town House, Trink, Vienna Fingers, Zesta and Zoo Cartoon. One of our subsidiaries is also the exclusive licensee of the Carr’s cracker line in the United States.
Our trademarks also include logos and depictions of certain animated characters in conjunction with our products, including Snap! Crackle! Pop! for Cocoa Krispies and Rice Krispies cereals and Rice Krispies Treats convenience foods; Tony the Tiger for Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes, Zucaritas, Sucrilhos and Frosties cereals and convenience foods; Ernie Keebler for cookies, convenience foods and other products; the Hollow Tree logo for certain convenience foods; Toucan Sam for Froot Loops cereal; Dig ‘Em for Smacks/Honey Smacks cereal; Sunny for Kellogg’s Raisin Bran and Raisin Bran Crunch cereals; Coco the Monkey for Coco Pops and Chocos cereal; Cornelius (aka Cornelio) for Kellogg’s Corn Flakes; Melvin the Elephant for certain cereal and convenience foods; Chocovore and Sammy the Seal (aka Smaxey the Seal) for certain cereal products; and Mr. P or Julius Pringles for Pringles potato crisps, corn crisps, grain and vegetable crisps and potato sticks.
The slogans The Original & Best, They’re Gr-r-reat!, Show Your Stripes and Follow Your Nose, are used in connection with our ready-to-eat cereals, along with L’ Eggo my Eggo, used in connection with our frozen waffles, pancakes, French toast sticks and breakfast sandwiches, Uncommonly Good and It Takes Heart To Make a Good Cookie used in connection with convenience food products, Taste It To Believe It used in connection with meat alternatives and Pop Play Eat used in connection with potato crisps are also important Kellogg trademarks.
The trademarks listed above, among others, when taken as a whole, are important to our business. Certain individual trademarks are also important to our business. Depending on the jurisdiction, trademarks are generally valid as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained and they have not been found to

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have become generic. Registrations of trademarks can also generally be renewed indefinitely as long as the trademarks are in use.
We consider that, taken as a whole, the rights under our various patents, which expire from time to time, are a valuable asset, but we do not believe that our businesses are materially dependent on any single patent or group of related patents. Our activities under licenses or other franchises or concessions which we hold are similarly a valuable asset, but are not believed to be material.
Seasonality. Demand for our products has generally been approximately level throughout the year, although some of our convenience foods have a bias for stronger demand in the second half of the year due to events and holidays. We also custom-bake cookies for the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., which are principally sold in the first quarter of the year.
Working Capital. A description of our working capital is included in the Liquidity section of MD&A within Item 7 of this report.
Customers. Our largest customer, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates, accounted for approximately 20% of consolidated net sales during 2017, comprised principally of sales within the United States. At December 30, 2017, approximately 17% of our consolidated receivables balance and 26% of our U.S. receivables balance was comprised of amounts owed by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates. No other customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in 2017. During 2017, our top five customers, collectively, including Wal-Mart, accounted for approximately 35% of our consolidated net sales and approximately 49% of U.S. net sales. There has been significant worldwide consolidation in the grocery industry and we believe that this trend is likely to continue. Although the loss of any large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profits, we do not anticipate that this will occur to a significant extent due to the consumer demand for our products and our relationships with our customers. Our products have been generally sold through our own sales forces and through broker and distributor arrangements, and have been generally resold to consumers in retail stores, restaurants, and other food service establishments.
Backlog. For the most part, orders are filled within a few days of receipt and are subject to cancellation at any time prior to shipment. The backlog of any unfilled orders at December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 was not material to us.
Competition. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition for sales of all of our principal products in our major product categories, both domestically and internationally. Our products compete with advertised and branded products of a similar nature as well as unadvertised and private label products, which are typically distributed at lower prices, and generally with other food products. Principal methods and factors of competition include new product introductions, product quality, taste, convenience, nutritional value, price, advertising and promotion.
Research and Development. Research to support and expand the use of our existing products and to develop new food products is carried on at the W. K. Kellogg Institute for Food and Nutrition Research in Battle Creek, Michigan, and at other locations around the world. Our expenditures for research and development were approximately (in millions): 2017-$148; 2016-$182; 2015-$193.
Regulation. Our activities in the United States are subject to regulation by various government agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, Federal Trade Commission and the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, as well as voluntary regulation by other bodies. Various state and local agencies also regulate our activities. Other agencies and bodies outside of the United States, including those of the European Union and various countries, states and municipalities, also regulate our activities.
Environmental Matters. Our facilities are subject to various U.S. and foreign, federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding the release of material into the environment and the protection of the environment in other ways. We are not a party to any material proceedings arising under these regulations. We believe that compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations will not materially affect our consolidated financial condition or our competitive position.
Employees. At December 30, 2017, we had approximately 33,000 employees.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas. Information on geographic areas is located in Note 18 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included herein under Part II, Item 8.

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Executive Officers. The names, ages, and positions of our executive officers (as of February 20, 2018) are listed below, together with their business experience. Executive officers are elected annually by the Board of Directors.
 
 
Amit Banati
49

Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company
President, Asia Pacific
Mr. Banati assumed his current position in March 2012. Prior to joining Kellogg Company, he served in a variety of board and leadership roles at Kraft Foods, Cadbury Schweppes and Procter & Gamble. Mr. Banati has worked extensively across the Asia Pacific region, particularly in Australia, India, China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and Singapore. At Kraft Foods, he was President, North Asia and Asia Pacific strategy, leading the company’s operations in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Prior to that, Mr. Banati served as President, Pacific, for Cadbury Schweppes, leading its Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Singapore operations. He was also Chairman of Cadbury Schweppes Australia Limited.
 
 
John A. Bryant
52

Chairman

Mr. Bryant has been Chairman of the Board of Kellogg Company since July 2014.  Mr. Bryant retired from his role as President and Chief Executive Officer on October 1, 2017, having served in that role since January 2011.  He has been a member of Kellogg Company’s Board of Directors since July 2010.  From December 2006 through January 2011, Mr. Bryant held various operating roles, including President, Kellogg International; President, Kellogg North America; and Chief Operating Officer.  He was also the Chief Financial Officer of Kellogg Company from February 2002 until June 2004 and again from December 2006 through December 2009.   Mr. Bryant joined Kellogg Company in 1998 and was promoted during the next four years to a number of key financial and executive leadership roles.  He has also been a trustee of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Trust since 2015, and is a director of Macy’s Inc.
 
 
Steven A. Cahillane
52

President and Chief Executive Officer

Mr. Cahillane became President and Chief Executive Officer on October 2, 2017, and has served as a Kellogg Director since October 2017. Prior to joining Kellogg, Mr. Cahillane served as Chief Executive Officer and President, and as member of the board of directors, of Alphabet Holding Company, Inc., and its wholly-owned operating subsidiary, The Nature’s Bounty Co., since September 8, 2014. Prior to that, Mr. Cahillane served as Executive Vice President of The Coca-Cola Company from February 2013 to February 2014 and President of Coca-Cola Americas, the global beverage maker’s largest business, with $25 billion in annual sales at that time, from January 2013 to February 2014. Mr. Cahillane served as President of various Coca-Cola operating groups from 2007 to 2012.
 
 
Alistair D. Hirst
58

Senior Vice President, Global Supply Chain
Mr. Hirst assumed his current position in April 2012. He joined the company in 1984 as a Food Technologist at the Springs, South Africa, plant. While at the facility, he was promoted to Quality Assurance Manager and Production Manager. From 1993 to 2001, Mr. Hirst held numerous positions in South Africa and Australia, including Production Manager, Plant Manager, and Director, Supply Chain. In 2001, Mr. Hirst was promoted to Director, Procurement at the Manchester, England, facility and was later named European Logistics Director. In 2005, he transferred to the U.S. when promoted to Vice President, Global Procurement. In 2008, he was promoted to Senior Vice President, Snacks Supply Chain and to Senior Vice President, North America Supply Chain, in October 2011.

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Christopher M. Hood
55

Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company
President, Kellogg Europe
Mr. Hood assumed his current position in October 2013. He joined The Procter and Gamble Company in 1993, and had a distinguished 19-year career in Marketing and General Management, based in Cincinnati, Ohio. Mr. Hood joined Kellogg Company in 2012 as the Vice President of European Snacks. He has held a number of Board roles across the Food and Beverage Industry. Mr. Hood is currently serving on the Board of Food Drink Europe and the European Brands Association.
 
 
Melissa A. Howell
51

Senior Vice President, Global Human Services
Ms. Howell assumed her current position in June 2016. Prior to joining Kellogg, she was Chief Human Resource Officer for Rockford, Michigan-based Wolverine since 2014. Prior to Wolverine, Ms. Howell spent 24 years with General Motors where she led a team of 2,800 Human Resource professionals worldwide, supporting a global business at one of the top automotive companies in the world, and also among the largest public corporations. Ms. Howell joined General Motors as a Labor Relations Representative at its Ypsilanti, Michigan, assembly plant in 1990. Over the following years, she served in a series of key human resource leadership roles in Europe, Asia and U.S. leading teams on six continents across an array of functional areas. Ms. Howell was promoted to Executive Director of North American Human Resources in 2011 and subsequently promoted to Senior Vice President of Global Human Resources.
 
 
Fareed Khan
52

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Khan has been Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Financial Officer, Kellogg Company since February 22, 2017. Mr. Khan joined Kellogg in February 2017. Before joining the Company, he served as Chief Financial Officer of US Foods Holding Corp. since 2013. Prior to that, Mr. Khan had been Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of United Stationers Inc. since July 2011. Prior to United Stationers Inc., he spent twelve years with USG Corporation, where he most recently served as Executive Vice President, Finance and Strategy. Before joining USG Corporation in 1999, Mr. Khan was a consultant with McKinsey & Company, where he served global clients on a variety of projects.
 
 
Maria Fernanda Mejia
54

Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company
President, Kellogg Latin America
Ms. Mejia assumed her current position in November 2011. She previously held a variety of global marketing and management roles at the Colgate-Palmolive Company, including Corporate Vice President and General Manager, Global Personal Care and Corporate Fragrance Development, Corporate Vice President of Marketing and Innovation for Europe/South Pacific, and President and CEO of Colgate-Palmolive Spain. She joined Colgate in 1989.

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Donald O. Mondano
46

Vice President and Corporate Controller
Mr. Mondano assumed his current position in March 2016. Prior to joining Kellogg Company, Mr. Mondano was Vice President, Finance and Corporate Controller at The Manitowoc Company, a Wisconsin-based manufacturer specializing in products for global foodservice and construction industries, since 2012. In this role, he was not only responsible for the enterprise reporting and accounting function, but he was also responsible for overseeing enterprise financial planning and analysis, management reporting and the overall finance function of one of the two business segments, the Cranes business unit. Prior to that role, he worked in various roles of increasing responsibility at PricewaterhouseCoopers at various international and domestic offices from March 2000 to June 2012. Mr. Mondano previously held positions in Phillip Semiconductors and The Bank of the Philippine Islands, as a cost accountant and commercial lender, respectively.
 
 
Paul T. Norman
53

Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company
President, Kellogg North America
Mr. Norman was appointed President, Kellogg North America in May 2015. He was appointed Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company in December 2005. Mr. Norman was appointed Chief Growth Officer in October 2013 and also held the role of interim U.S. Morning Foods President from June 2014 to May 2015. Mr. Norman joined Kellogg’s U.K. sales organization in 1987. From 1989 to 1996, Mr. Norman was promoted to several marketing roles in France and Canada. He was promoted to director, marketing, Kellogg de Mexico in January 1997; to Vice President, Marketing, Kellogg USA in February 1999; to President, Kellogg Canada Inc. in December 2000; and to Managing Director, United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland in February 2002. In September 2004, Mr. Norman was appointed to Vice President, Kellogg Company, and President, U.S. Morning Foods. In August 2008, Mr. Norman was promoted to President, Kellogg International.
 
 
Gary H. Pilnick
53

Vice Chairman, Corporate Development
and Chief Legal Officer
Mr. Pilnick was appointed Vice Chairman, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer in January 2016. In August 2003, he was appointed Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary and assumed responsibility for Corporate Development in June 2004. He joined Kellogg as Vice President — Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Secretary in September 2000 and served in that position until August 2003. Before joining Kellogg, he served as Vice President and Chief Counsel of Sara Lee Branded Apparel and as Vice President and Chief Counsel, Corporate Development and Finance at Sara Lee Corporation.
 
 
Clive M. Sirkin
54

Senior Vice President, Kellogg Company
Chief Growth Officer
Mr. Sirkin assumed his current position in December 2015. Prior to joining Kellogg Company, he served as Kimberly-Clark’s Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) since 2012. Prior to joining Kimberly-Clark, Mr. Sirkin served as Principal, Plunger Group, a consulting firm focused on working with CMOs to transform brand building from an analog advertising and communication model to a digitally driven commercial model focused on driving growth. Prior to founding Plunger Group, he served as Group Managing Director Leo Burnett Worldwide. During his 15-year tenure with Leo Burnett, Mr. Sirkin also served as Executive Vice President - Global Director, and Vice President, Leo Burnett Canada.

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Availability of Reports; Website Access; Other Information. Our internet address is http://www.kelloggcompany.com. Through “Investor Relations” — “Financial Reports” — “SEC Filings” on our home page, we make available free of charge our proxy statements, our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K, SEC Forms 3, 4 and 5 and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission are also made available to read and copy at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information about the Public Reference Room by contacting the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Reports filed with the SEC are also made available on its website at www.sec.gov.
Copies of the Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Charters of the Audit, Compensation and Talent Management, and Nominating and Governance Committees of the Board of Directors, the Code of Conduct for Kellogg Company directors and Global Code of Ethics for Kellogg Company employees (including the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and corporate controller) can also be found on the Kellogg Company website. Any amendments or waivers to the Global Code of Ethics applicable to the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and corporate controller can also be found in the “Investor Relations” section of the Kellogg Company website. Shareowners may also request a free copy of these documents from: Kellogg Company, P.O. Box CAMB, Battle Creek, Michigan 49016-9935 (phone: (800) 961-1413), Investor Relations Department at that same address (phone: (269) 961-2800) or investor.relations@kellogg.com.
Forward-Looking Statements. This Report contains “forward-looking statements” with projections concerning, among other things, the Company’s global growth and efficiency program (Project K), the integration of acquired businesses, our strategy, zero-based budgeting, financial principles, and plans; initiatives, improvements and growth; sales, margins, advertising, promotion, merchandising, brand building, operating profit, and earnings per share; innovation; investments; capital expenditures; asset write-offs and expenditures and costs related to productivity or efficiency initiatives; the impact of accounting changes and significant accounting estimates; our ability to meet interest and debt principal repayment obligations; minimum contractual obligations; future common stock repurchases or debt reduction; effective income tax rate; cash flow and core working capital improvements; interest expense; commodity and energy prices; and employee benefit plan costs and funding. Forward-looking statements include predictions of future results or activities and may contain the words “expect,” “believe,” “will,” “can,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” or words or phrases of similar meaning. For example, forward-looking statements are found in this Item 1 and in several sections of Management’s Discussion and Analysis. Our actual results or activities may differ materially from these predictions. Our future results could be affected by a variety of factors, including the ability to implement Project K, including exiting our Direct-Store-Door distribution system, whether the expected amount of costs associated with Project K will exceed forecasts, whether the Company will be able to realize the anticipated benefits from Project K in the amounts and times expected, the ability to realize the benefits we expect from the adoption of zero-based budgeting in the amounts and at the times expected, the ability to realize anticipated benefits from revenue growth management, the ability to realize the anticipated benefits and synergies from acquired businesses in the amounts and at the times expected, the impact of competitive conditions; the effectiveness of pricing, advertising, and promotional programs; the success of innovation, renovation and new product introductions; the recoverability of the carrying value of goodwill and other intangibles; the success of productivity improvements and business transitions; commodity and energy prices; labor costs; disruptions or inefficiencies in supply chain; the availability of and interest rates on short-term and long-term financing; actual market performance of benefit plan trust investments; the levels of spending on systems initiatives, properties, business opportunities, integration of acquired businesses, and other general and administrative costs; changes in consumer behavior and preferences; the effect of U.S. and foreign economic conditions on items such as interest rates, statutory tax rates, currency conversion and availability; legal and regulatory factors including changes in food safety, advertising and labeling laws and regulations; the ultimate impact of product recalls; adverse changes in global climate or extreme weather conditions; business disruption or other losses from natural disasters, war, terrorist acts, or political unrest; and the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A below. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they were made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update them.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this Report, the following risks and uncertainties could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and financial condition.

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We may not realize the benefits that we expect from our global efficiency and effectiveness program (Project K).
In November 2013, the Company announced a global efficiency and effectiveness program (Project K). The successful implementation of Project K presents significant organizational design and infrastructure challenges and in many cases will require successful negotiations with third parties, including labor organizations, suppliers, business partners, and other stakeholders. In addition, the project may not advance our business strategy as expected. While we are four years into the implementation of Project K and many of the initiatives under the program have been successfully implemented or are nearing completion, we may not be able to implement Project K as planned, including the successful exit of our Direct Store Delivery network and transitioning that business to a warehouse model. Events and circumstances, such as financial or strategic difficulties, delays and unexpected costs may occur that could result in our not realizing all or any of the anticipated benefits or our not realizing the anticipated benefits on our expected timetable. If we are unable to realize the anticipated savings of the program, our ability to fund other initiatives may be adversely affected. Any failure to implement Project K in accordance with our expectations could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, the complexity of Project K has required, and will continue to require a substantial amount of management and operational resources. Our management team must successfully implement administrative and operational changes necessary to achieve the anticipated benefits of Project K. These and related demands on our resources may divert the organization’s attention from existing core businesses, integrating or separating personnel and financial or other systems, have adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers, and impact employee morale. As a result our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows may be adversely affected.
We may not realize the benefits we expect from the adoption of zero-based budgeting.
We adopted zero-based budgeting which presents significant organizational challenges. As a result, we may not realize all or part of the anticipated cost savings or other benefits from the initiative. Other events and circumstances, such as financial or strategic difficulties, delays or unexpected costs, may also adversely impact our ability to realize all or part of the anticipated cost savings or other benefits, or cause us not to realize the anticipated cost savings or other benefits on the expected timetable. If we are unable to realize the anticipated cost savings, our ability to fund other initiatives may be adversely affected. In addition, the initiatives may not advance our strategy as expected. Finally, the complexity of the implementation will require a substantial amount of management and operational resources. Our management team must successfully execute the administrative and operational changes necessary to achieve the anticipated benefits of the initiatives. These and related demands on our resources may divert the organization's attention from other business issues, have adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers, and impact employee morale.
Any failure to implement our cost reduction, organizational design or other initiatives in accordance with our plans could adversely affect our business or financial results.
We may not realize the benefits we expect from revenue growth management.
We are establishing a more formal revenue growth management discipline to help us realize price in a more effective way. This approach addresses price strategy, price-pack architecture, promotion strategy, mix management, and trade strategies. Revenue growth management will involve changes to the way we do business and may not always be accepted by our customers or consumers causing us not to realize the anticipated benefits. In addition, the complexity of the implementation will require a substantial amount of management and operational resources. Our management team must successfully execute the administrative and operational changes necessary to achieve the anticipated benefits of the initiative. These and related demands on our resources may divert the organization's attention from other business issues and have adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers. Any failure to implement revenue growth management in accordance with our plans could adversely affect our business or financial condition.
Our results may be materially and adversely impacted as a result of increases in the price of raw materials, including agricultural commodities, fuel and labor.
Agricultural commodities, including corn, wheat, potato flakes, vegetable oils, sugar and cocoa, are the principal raw materials used in our products. Cartonboard, corrugated, and plastic are the principal packaging materials used by us. The cost of such commodities may fluctuate widely due to government policy and regulation, drought and other weather conditions (including the potential effects of climate change) or other unforeseen circumstances. To the extent that any of the foregoing factors affect the prices of such commodities and we are unable to increase our

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prices or adequately hedge against such changes in prices in a manner that offsets such changes, the results of our operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we use derivatives to hedge price risk associated with forecasted purchases of raw materials. Our hedged price could exceed the spot price on the date of purchase, resulting in an unfavorable impact on both gross margin and net earnings.
Cereal processing ovens at major domestic and international facilities are regularly fueled by electricity, natural gas or propane, which are obtained from local utilities or other local suppliers. Short-term stand-by propane storage exists at several plants for use in case of interruption in natural gas supplies. Oil may also be used to fuel certain operations at various plants. In addition, considerable amounts of diesel fuel are used in connection with the distribution of our products. The cost of fuel may fluctuate widely due to economic and political conditions, government policy and regulation, war, or other unforeseen circumstances which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results or financial condition.
A shortage in the labor pool, failure to successfully negotiate collectively bargained agreements, or other general inflationary pressures or changes in applicable laws and regulations could increase labor cost, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results or financial condition.
Our labor costs include the cost of providing benefits for employees. We sponsor a number of benefit plans for employees in the United States and various foreign locations, including pension, retiree health and welfare, active health care, severance and other postemployment benefits. We also participate in a number of multiemployer pension plans for certain of our manufacturing locations. Our major pension plans and U.S. retiree health and welfare plans are funded with trust assets invested in a globally diversified portfolio of equity securities with smaller holdings of bonds, real estate and other investments. The annual cost of benefits can vary significantly from year to year and is materially affected by such factors as changes in the assumed or actual rate of return on major plan assets, a change in the weighted-average discount rate used to measure obligations, the rate or trend of health care cost inflation, and the outcome of collectively-bargained wage and benefit agreements. Many of our employees are covered by collectively-bargained agreements and other employees may seek to be covered by collectively-bargained agreements. Strikes or work stoppages and interruptions could occur if we are unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms or enter into new agreements on satisfactory terms, which could adversely impact our operating results. The terms and conditions of existing, renegotiated or new agreements could also increase our costs or otherwise affect our ability to fully implement future operational changes to enhance our efficiency.
Multiemployer pension plans could adversely affect our business.
We participate in various “multiemployer” pension plans administered by labor unions representing some of our employees. We make periodic contributions to these plans to allow them to meet their pension benefit obligations to their participants. Our required contributions to these funds could increase because of a shrinking contribution base as a result of the insolvency or withdrawal of other companies that currently contribute to these funds, inability or failure of withdrawing companies to pay their withdrawal liability, lower than expected returns on pension fund assets or other funding deficiencies. In the event that we withdraw from participation in one of these plans,
then applicable law could require us to make an additional lump-sum contribution to the plan, and we would have to reflect that as an expense in our consolidated statement of operations and as a liability on our consolidated balance sheet. Our withdrawal liability for any multiemployer plan would depend on the extent of the plan’s funding of vested benefits. In the ordinary course of our renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements with labor unions that maintain these plans, we may decide to discontinue participation in a plan, and in that event, we could face a withdrawal liability. Some multiemployer plans in which we participate are reported to have significant underfunded liabilities. Such underfunding could increase the size of our potential withdrawal liability.
We operate in the highly competitive food industry.
We face competition across our product lines, including ready-to-eat cereals and convenience foods, from other companies which have varying abilities to withstand changes in market conditions. Most of our competitors have substantial financial, marketing and other resources, and competition with them in our various markets and product lines could cause us to reduce prices, increase capital, marketing or other expenditures, or lose category share, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. In some cases, our competitors may be able to respond to changing business and economic conditions more quickly than us. Category share and growth could also be adversely impacted if we are not successful in introducing new products, anticipating changes in consumer preferences with respect to dietary trends or purchasing behaviors or in effectively assessing, changing and setting proper pricing.

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The changing retail environment could negatively impact our sales and profits.
Our businesses are largely concentrated in the traditional retail grocery trade. Our largest customer, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates, accounted for approximately 20% of consolidated net sales during 2017, comprised principally of sales within the United States. At December 30, 2017, approximately 17% of our consolidated receivables balance and 26% of our U.S. receivables balance was comprised of amounts owed by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates. No other customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in 2017. During 2017, our top five customers, collectively, including Wal-Mart, accounted for approximately 35% of our consolidated net sales and approximately 49% of U.S. net sales. There can be no assurances that our largest customers will continue to purchase our products in the same mix or quantities or on the same terms as in the past. As the retail grocery trade continues to consolidate and retailers become larger, our large retail customers have sought, and may continue to seek in the future, to use their position to improve their profitability through improved efficiency, lower pricing, increased promotional programs funded by their suppliers and more favorable terms. If we are unable to use our scale, marketing expertise, product innovation and category leadership positions to respond, our profitability or volume growth could be negatively affected. The loss of any large customer or severe adverse impact on the business operations of any large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profits.
Additionally, alternative retail channels, such as internet-based retailers, mobile applications, subscription services, discount and dollar stores, drug stores and club stores, have become more prevalent. If we are not successful in expanding sales in alternative retail channels, our business or financial results may be negatively impacted. In addition, these alternative retail channels may create consumer price deflation, affecting our retail customer relationships and presenting additional challenges to increasing prices in response to commodity or other cost increases. Also, if these alternative retail channels, such as internet-based retailers were to take significant share away from traditional retailers that could have a flow over effect on our business and our financial results could be negatively impacted.
Our results may be negatively impacted if consumers do not maintain their favorable perception of our brands.
We have a number of iconic brands with significant value. Maintaining and continually enhancing the value of these brands is critical to the success of our business. Brand value is based in large part on consumer perceptions. Success in promoting and enhancing brand value depends in large part on our ability to provide high-quality products. Brand value could diminish significantly due to a number of factors, including consumer perception that we have acted in an irresponsible manner, adverse publicity about our products (whether or not valid), our failure to maintain the quality of our products, the failure of our products to deliver consistently positive consumer experiences, the products becoming unavailable to consumers, or the failure to meet the nutrition expectations of our products or particular ingredients in our products (whether or not valid), including whether certain of our products are perceived to contribute to obesity. In addition, we might fail to anticipate consumer preferences with respect to dietary trends or purchasing behaviors, invest sufficiently in maintaining, extending and expanding our brand image or achieve the desired efforts of our marketing efforts. The growing use of social and digital media by consumers, Kellogg and third parties increases the speed and extent that information or misinformation and opinions can be shared. Negative posts or comments about Kellogg, our brands or our products on social or digital media could seriously damage our brands, reputation and brand loyalty, regardless of the information’s accuracy. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. Brand recognition and loyalty can also be impacted by the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns, marketing programs and sponsorships, as well as our use of social media. If we do not maintain the favorable perception of our brands, our results could be negatively impacted.
The impact of recently enacted tax reform legislation in the U.S. on our business is uncertain.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code which impact our year ended 12/30/17, including but not limited to, reducing the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%,  requiring a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries that may be electively paid over eight years, and accelerating first year expensing of certain capital expenditures. 
The Tax Act also introduces new tax laws that may impact our taxable income beginning in 2018 which will include, but not limited to the repeal of the domestic production activity deduction, generally eliminating U.S. federal income taxes on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), a new provision designed to tax currently global intangible low taxed income (GILTI), a provision that could limit the amount of deductible interest expense,

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limitations on the deductibility of certain executive compensation, creating a base erosion anti-abuse tax (BEAT),  and modifying or repealing many deductions and credits. 
The impact of many provisions of the Tax Act lack clarity and is subject to interpretation until additional Internal Revenue Service guidance is issued.  The ultimate impact of the act may differ from the Company’s estimates due to changes in the interpretations and assumptions made as well as any forthcoming regulatory guidance.
Tax matters, including changes in tax rates, disagreements with taxing authorities and imposition of new taxes could impact our results of operations and financial condition.
The Company is subject to taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions where the Company’s subsidiaries are organized. Due to economic and political conditions (including shifts in the geopolitical landscape), tax rates in the U.S. and various foreign jurisdictions have been and may be subject to significant change. The future effective tax rate could be effected by changes in mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in valuation of deferred tax asset and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation which includes recently enacted U.S. tax reform and contemplated changes in other countries of long-standing tax principles if finalized and adopted could have a material impact on our income tax expense and deferred tax balances.
We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the Internal Revenue Service and other taxing authorities with respect to taxes inside and outside of the U.S. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if a taxing authority disagrees with the positions we have taken, we could face additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. There can be no assurance that payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes will not have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.
The cash we generate outside the U.S. is principally to be used to fund our international development. If the funds generated by our U.S. business are not sufficient to meet our need for cash in the U.S., we may need to repatriate a portion of our future international earnings to the U.S. Such international earnings would be subject to U.S. tax which could cause our worldwide effective tax rate to increase.
We also need to comply with new, evolving or revised tax laws and regulations. The enactment of or increases in tariffs, including value added tax, or other changes in the application of existing taxes, in markets in which we are currently active, or may be active in the future, or on specific products that we sell or with which our products compete, may have an adverse effect on our business or on our results of operations.
If our food products become adulterated, misbranded or mislabeled, we might need to recall those items and may experience product liability if consumers are injured as a result.
Selling food products involves a number of legal and other risks, including product contamination, spoilage, product tampering, allergens, or other adulteration. We may need to recall some of our products if they become adulterated or misbranded. We may also be liable if the consumption of any of our products causes injury, illness or death. A widespread product recall or market withdrawal could result in significant losses due to their costs, the destruction of product inventory, and lost sales due to the unavailability of product for a period of time. We could also suffer losses from a significant product liability judgment against us. A significant product recall or product liability case could also result in adverse publicity, damage to our reputation, and a loss of consumer confidence in our food products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business results and the value of our brands. Moreover, even if a product liability or consumer fraud claim is meritless, does not prevail or is not pursued, the negative publicity surrounding assertions against our company and our products or processes could adversely affect our reputation or brands.
We could also be adversely affected if consumers lose confidence in the safety and quality of certain food products or ingredients, or the food safety system generally. If another company recalls or experiences negative publicity related to a product in a category in which we compete, consumers might reduce their overall consumption of products in this category. Adverse publicity about these types of concerns, whether or not valid, may discourage consumers from buying our products or cause production and delivery disruptions.
Unanticipated business disruptions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We manufacture and source products and materials on a global scale. We have a complex network of suppliers, owned manufacturing locations, contract manufacturer locations, distribution networks and information systems that support our ability to provide our products to our customers consistently. Our ability to make, move and sell

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products globally is critical to our success. Factors that are hard to predict or beyond our control, such as product or raw material scarcity, weather (including any potential effects of climate change), natural disasters, fires or explosions, terrorism, political unrest, health pandemics or strikes, could damage or disrupt our operations or our suppliers' or contract manufacturers' operations. If we do not effectively respond to disruptions in our operations, for example, by finding alternative suppliers or replacing capacity at key manufacturing or distribution locations, or cannot quickly repair damage to our information, production or supply systems, we may be late in delivering or unable to deliver products to our customers. If that occurs, we may lose our customers' confidence, and long-term consumer demand for our products could decline. These events could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Evolving tax, environmental, food quality and safety or other regulations or failure to comply with existing licensing, labeling, trade, food quality and safety and other regulations and laws could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition.
Our activities or products, both in and outside of the United States, are subject to regulation by various federal, state, provincial and local laws, regulations and government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, as well as similar and other authorities outside of the United States, International Accords and Treaties and others, including voluntary regulation by other bodies. In addition, legal and regulatory systems in emerging and developing markets may be less developed, and less certain. These laws and regulations and interpretations thereof may change, sometimes dramatically, as a result of a variety of factors, including political, economic or social events. In addition, the enforcement of remedies in certain foreign jurisdictions may be less certain, resulting in varying abilities to enforce intellectual property and contractual rights.
The manufacturing, marketing and distribution of food products are subject to governmental regulation that impose additional regulatory requirements. Those regulations control such matters as food quality and safety, ingredients, advertising, product or production requirements, labeling, import or export of our products or ingredients, relations with distributors and retailers, health and safety, the environment, and restrictions on the use of government programs, such as Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, to purchase certain of our products.
The marketing of food products has come under increased regulatory scrutiny in recent years, and the food industry has been subject to an increasing number of proceedings and claims relating to alleged false or deceptive marketing under federal, state and foreign laws or regulations. We are also regulated with respect to matters such as licensing requirements, trade and pricing practices, tax, anticorruption standards, advertising and claims, and environmental matters. The need to comply with new, evolving or revised tax, environmental, food quality and safety, labeling or other laws or regulations, or new, evolving or changed interpretations or enforcement of existing laws or regulations, may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Governmental and administrative bodies within the U.S. are considering a variety of trade and other regulatory forms. Changes in legal or regulatory requirements (such as new food safety requirements and revised nutrition facts labeling and serving size regulations), or evolving interpretations of existing legal or regulatory requirements, may result in increased compliance costs, capital expenditures and other financial obligations that could adversely affect our business or financial results. If we are found to be out of compliance with applicable laws and regulations in these areas, we could be subject to civil remedies, including fines, injunctions, termination of necessary licenses or permits, or recalls, as well as potential criminal sanctions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if regulatory review does not result in these types of determinations, it could potentially create negative publicity or perceptions which could harm our business or reputation. Further, modifications to international trade policy, including changes to or repeal of the North American Free Trade Agreement or the imposition of increased or new tariffs, quotas or trade barriers on key commodities, could have a negative impact on us or the industries we serve, including as a result of related uncertainty, and could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Our operations face significant foreign currency exchange rate exposure and currency restrictions which could negatively impact our operating results.
We hold assets and incur liabilities, earn revenue and pay expenses in a variety of currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the euro, British pound, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, Mexican peso, Brazilian Real, Nigerian Naira, and Russian ruble. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we must translate our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses into U.S. dollars at then-applicable exchange rates and face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. For example, the announcement of Brexit has caused, and may continue to cause, significant volatility in currency exchange rate fluctuations. Consequently, changes in the value of the U.S. dollar may unpredictably and negatively affect the value of these items in our consolidated financial statements, even if their value has not changed in their original currency.
If we pursue strategic acquisitions, alliances, divestitures or joint ventures, we may not be able to successfully consummate favorable transactions or successfully integrate acquired businesses.
From time to time, we may evaluate potential acquisitions, alliances, divestitures or joint ventures that would further our strategic objectives. With respect to acquisitions, we may not be able to identify suitable candidates, consummate a transaction on terms that are favorable to us, or achieve expected returns, expected synergies and other benefits as a result of integration challenges, or may not achieve those objectives on a timely basis. Future acquisitions of foreign companies or new foreign ventures would subject us to local regulations and could potentially lead to risks related to, among other things, increased exposure to foreign exchange rate changes, government price control, repatriation of profits and liabilities relating to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
With respect to proposed divestitures of assets or businesses, we may encounter difficulty in finding acquirers or alternative exit strategies on terms that are favorable to us, which could delay the accomplishment of our strategic objectives, or our divestiture activities may require us to recognize impairment charges. Companies or operations acquired or joint ventures created may not be profitable or may not achieve sales levels and profitability that justify the investments made. Our corporate development activities may present financial and operational risks, including diversion of management attention from existing core businesses, integrating or separating personnel and financial and other systems, and adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers. Future acquisitions could also result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities and/or amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets and increased operating expenses, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Potential liabilities and costs from litigation could adversely affect our business.
There is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending our self in civil, criminal or regulatory actions, including under general, commercial, employment, environmental, food quality and safety, anti-trust and trade, advertising and claims, and environmental laws and regulations, or in asserting our rights under various laws. For example, our marketing or claims could face allegations of false or deceptive advertising or other criticisms which could end up in litigation and result in potential liabilities or costs. In addition, we could incur substantial costs and fees in defending our self or in asserting our rights in these actions or meeting new legal requirements. The costs and other effects of potential and pending litigation and administrative actions against us, and new legal requirements, cannot be determined with certainty and may differ from expectations.
Our consolidated financial results and demand for our products are dependent on the successful development of new products and processes.
There are a number of trends in consumer preferences which may impact us and the industry as a whole. These include changing consumer dietary trends and the availability of substitute products.
Our success is dependent on anticipating changes in consumer preferences and on successful new product and process development and product relaunches in response to such changes. Trends within the food industry change often, and failure to identify and react to changes in these trends could lead to, among other things, reduced loyalty demand and price reductions for our brands and products. We aim to introduce products or new or improved production processes on a timely basis in order to counteract obsolescence and decreases in sales of existing products. While we devote significant focus to the development of new products and to the research, development and technology process functions of our business, we may not be successful in developing new products or our new products may not be commercially successful. In addition, if sales generated by new products cause a decline in sales of the Company's existing products, the Company's financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Our future results and our ability to maintain or improve our competitive position will

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depend on our capacity to gauge the direction of our key markets and upon our ability to successfully identify, develop, manufacture, market and sell new or improved products in these changing markets.
Our postretirement benefit-related costs and funding requirements could increase as a result of volatility in the financial markets, changes in interest rates and actuarial assumptions.
Increases in the costs of postretirement medical and pension benefits may continue and negatively affect
our business as a result of increased usage of medical benefits by retired employees and medical cost inflation, the effect of potential declines in the stock and bond markets on the performance of our pension and post-retirement plan assets, potential reductions in the discount rate used to determine the present value of our benefit obligations, and changes to our investment strategy that may impact our expected return on pension and post-retirement plan assets assumptions. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles require that we calculate income or expense for the plans using actuarial valuations. These valuations reflect assumptions about financial markets and interest rates, which may change based on economic conditions. The Company’s accounting policy for defined benefit plans may subject earnings to volatility due to the recognition of actuarial gains and losses, particularly those due to the change in the fair value of pension and post-retirement plan assets and interest rates. In addition, funding requirements for our plans may become more significant. However, the ultimate amounts to be contributed are dependent upon, among other things, interest rates, underlying asset returns, and the impact of legislative or regulatory changes related to pension and post-retirement funding obligations.
We use available borrowings under the credit facilities and other available debt financing for cash to operate our business, which subjects us to market and counter-party risk, some of which is beyond our control.
In addition to cash we generate from our business, our principal existing sources of cash are borrowings available under our credit facilities and other available debt financing. If our access to such financing was unavailable or reduced, or if such financing were to become significantly more expensive for any reason, we may not be able to fund daily operations, which would cause material harm to our business or could affect our ability to operate our business as a going concern. In addition, if certain of our lenders experience difficulties that render them unable to fund future draws on the facilities, we may not be able to access all or a portion of these funds, which could have similar adverse consequences.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness.
We have indebtedness that is substantial in relation to our shareholders’ equity, and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future, or enter into off-balance sheet financing, which would increase our leverage risks. As of December 30, 2017, we had total debt of approximately $8.6 billion and total Kellogg Company equity of $2.2 billion.
Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences, including:
impairing the ability to access global capital markets to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures or general corporate purposes, particularly if the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating organizations were revised downward or if a rating organization announces that our ratings are under review for a potential downgrade;
a downgrade in our credit ratings, particularly our short-term credit rating, would likely reduce the amount of commercial paper we could issue, increase our commercial paper borrowing costs, or both;
restricting our flexibility in responding to changing market conditions or making us more vulnerable in the event of a general downturn in economic conditions or our business;
requiring a substantial portion of the cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, reducing the funds available to us for other purposes such as expansion through acquisitions, paying dividends, repurchasing shares, marketing and other spending and expansion of our product offerings; and
causing us to be more leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage.
Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance our obligations with respect to indebtedness or incur new indebtedness will depend on our financial and operating performance, which in turn, is subject to prevailing economic conditions, the availability of, and interest rates on, short-term financing, and financial, business and other factors beyond our control.

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Our performance is affected by general economic and political conditions and taxation policies.
Customer and consumer demand for our products may be impacted by recession, financial and credit market disruptions, or other economic downturns in the United States or other nations. Our results in the past have been, and in the future may continue to be, materially affected by changes in general economic and political conditions in the United States and other countries, including the interest rate environment in which we conduct business, the financial markets through which we access capital and currency, political unrest and terrorist acts in the United States or other countries in which we carry on business.
Current economic conditions globally may delay or reduce purchases by our customers and consumers. This could result in reductions in sales of our products, reduced acceptance of innovations, and increased price competition. Deterioration in economic conditions in any of the countries in which we do business could also cause slower collections on accounts receivable which may adversely impact our liquidity and financial condition. Financial institutions may be negatively impacted by economic conditions and may consolidate or cease to do business which could result in a tightening in the credit markets, a low level of liquidity in many financial markets, and increased volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets. There could be a number of effects from a financial institution credit crisis on our business, which could include impaired credit availability and financial stability of our customers, including our suppliers, co-manufacturers and distributors. A disruption in financial markets may also have an effect on our derivative counterparties and could also impair our banking partners on which we rely for operating cash management. Any of these events would likely harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled people we need to support our business
We depend on the skills and continued service of key personnel, including our experienced management team. In addition, our ability to achieve our strategic and operating goals depends on our ability to identify, recruit, hire, train and retain qualified individuals. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel, and we may lose key personnel or fail to attract, recruit, train and retain other talented personnel. Any such loss or failure may adversely affect our business or financial results. In addition, activities related to identifying, recruiting, hiring and integrating qualified individuals may require significant time and expense. We may not be able to locate suitable replacements for any key employees who leave, or offer employment to potential replacements on reasonable terms, each of which may adversely affect our business and financial results
An impairment of the carrying value of goodwill or other acquired intangibles could negatively affect our consolidated operating results and net worth.
The carrying value of goodwill represents the fair value of acquired businesses in excess of identifiable assets and liabilities as of the acquisition date. The carrying value of other intangibles represents the fair value of trademarks, trade names, and other acquired intangibles as of the acquisition date. Goodwill and other acquired intangibles expected to contribute indefinitely to our cash flows are not amortized, but must be evaluated by management at least annually for impairment. If carrying value exceeds current fair value, the intangible is considered impaired and is reduced to fair value via a charge to earnings. Factors which could result in an impairment include, but are not limited to: (i) reduced demand for our products; (ii) higher commodity prices; (iii) lower prices for our products or increased marketing as a result of increased competition; and (iv) significant disruptions to our operations as a result of both internal and external events. Should the value of one or more of the acquired intangibles become impaired, our consolidated earnings and net worth may be materially adversely affected.
As of December 30, 2017, the carrying value of intangible assets totaled approximately $8.1 billion, of which $5.5 billion was goodwill and $2.6 billion represented trademarks, tradenames, and other acquired intangibles compared to total assets of $16.4 billion and total Kellogg Company equity of $2.2 billion.
Competition against retailer brands could negatively impact our business.
In nearly all of our product categories, we face branded and price-based competition. Our products must provide higher value and/or quality to our consumers than alternatives, particularly during periods of economic uncertainty. Consumers may not buy our products if relative differences in value and/or quality between our products and retailer brands change in favor of competitors’ products or if consumers perceive this type of change. If consumers prefer retailer brands, then we could lose category share or sales volumes or shift our product mix to lower margin offerings, which could have a material effect on our business and consolidated financial position and on the consolidated results of our operations and profitability.

16



We may not achieve our targeted cost savings and efficiencies from cost reduction initiatives.
Our success depends in part on our ability to be an efficient producer in a highly competitive industry. We have invested a significant amount in capital expenditures to improve our operational facilities. Ongoing operational issues are likely to occur when carrying out major production, procurement, or logistical changes and these, as well as any failure by us to achieve our planned cost savings and efficiencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial position and on the consolidated results of our operations and profitability.
Technology failures could disrupt our operations and negatively impact our business.
We increasingly rely on information technology systems to process, transmit, and store electronic information. For example, our production and distribution facilities and inventory management utilize information technology to increase efficiencies and limit costs. Information technology systems are also integral to the reporting of our results of operations. Furthermore, a significant portion of the communications between, and storage of personal data of, our personnel, customers, consumers and suppliers depends on information technology. Our information technology systems, and the systems of the parties we communicate and collaborate with, may be vulnerable to a variety of interruptions, as a result of updating our enterprise platform or due to events beyond our or their control, including, but not limited to, network or hardware failures, malicious or disruptive software, unintentional or malicious actions of employees or contractors, cyberattacks by common hackers, criminal groups or nation-state organizations or social-activist (hacktivist) organizations, geopolitical events, natural disasters, failures or impairments of telecommunications networks, or other catastrophic events. Moreover, our computer systems have been, and will likely continue to be subjected to computer viruses, malware, ransonware or other malicious codes, unauthorized access attempts, and cyber- or phishing-attacks. Cyber threats are constantly evolving and this increases the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. These events could compromise our confidential information, impede or interrupt our business operations, and may result in other negative consequences, including remediation costs, loss of revenue, litigation and reputational damage. Furthermore, if a breach or other breakdown results in disclosure of confidential or personal information, we may suffer reputational, competitive and/or business harm. To date, we have not experienced a material breach of cyber security. While we have implemented administrative and technical controls and taken other preventive actions to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our information technology, they may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, cyber-attacks or other security breaches to our computer systems.
The Company offers promotions, rebates, customer loyalty and other programs through which it may receive personal information, and it or its vendors could experience cyber-attacks, privacy breaches, data breaches or other incidents that result in unauthorized disclosure of consumer, customer, employee or Company information. If the Company suffers a loss as a result of a breach or other breakdown in its technology, including such cyber-attack, privacy breaches, data breaches or other incident involving one of the Company's vendors, that result in unauthorized disclosure or significant unavailability of business, financial, personal or stakeholder information, the Company may suffer reputational, competitive and/or business harm and may be exposed to legal liability, which may adversely affect the Company's results of operations and/or financial condition. The misuse, leakage or falsification of information could result in violations of data privacy laws, the Company may become subject to legal action and increased regulatory oversight. The Company could also be required to spend significant financial and other resources to remedy the damage caused by a security breach or to repair or replace networks and information systems. In addition, if the Company's suppliers or customers experience such a breach or unauthorized disclosure or system failure, their businesses could be disrupted or otherwise negatively affected, which may result in a disruption in the Company's supply chain or reduced customer orders, which would adversely affect the Company's business operations.
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could reduce the value of our products and brands.
We consider our intellectual property rights, particularly and most notably our trademarks, but also including patents, trade secrets, copyrights and licensing agreements, to be a significant and valuable aspect of our business. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements, third party nondisclosure and assignment agreements and policing of third party misuses of our intellectual property. Our failure to obtain or adequately protect our trademarks, products, new features of our products, or our technology, or any change in law or other changes that serve to lessen or remove the current legal protections of our intellectual property, may diminish our competitiveness and could materially harm our business.


17



We may be unaware of intellectual property rights of others that may cover some of our technology, brands or products. In addition, if, in the course of developing new products or improving the quality of existing products, we are found to have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, directly or indirectly, such finding could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations and may limit our ability to introduce new products or improve the quality of existing products. Any litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and could divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. Third party claims of intellectual property infringement might also require us to enter into costly license agreements. We also may be subject to significant damages or injunctions against development and sale of certain products.
We are subject to risks generally associated with companies that operate globally.
We are a global company and generated 37% of our 2017 net sales, 35% of 2016 and 37% of our 2015 net sales outside the United States. We manufacture our products in 21 countries and have operations in more than 180 countries, so we are subject to risks inherent in multinational operations. Those risks include:
compliance with U.S. laws affecting operations outside of the United States, such as OFAC trade sanction regulations and Anti-Boycott regulations,
compliance with anti-corruption laws, including U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and U.K. Bribery Act (UKBA),
compliance with antitrust and competition laws, data privacy laws, and a variety of other local, national and multi-national regulations and laws in multiple regimes,
changes in tax laws, interpretation of tax laws and tax audit outcomes,
fluctuations or devaluations in currency values, especially in emerging markets,
changes in capital controls, including currency exchange controls, government currency policies or other limits on our ability to import raw materials or finished product or repatriate cash from outside the United States,
changes in local regulations and laws, the uncertainty of enforcement of remedies in foreign jurisdictions, and foreign ownership restrictions and the potential for nationalization or expropriation of property or other resources;
discriminatory or conflicting fiscal policies,
increased sovereign risk, such as default by or deterioration in the economies and credit worthiness of local governments,
varying abilities to enforce intellectual property and contractual rights,
greater risk of uncollectible accounts and longer collection cycles,
loss of ability to manage our operations in certain markets which could result in the deconsolidation of such businesses,
design and implementation of effective control environment processes across our diverse operations and employee base,
imposition of more or new tariffs, quotas, trade barriers, and similar restrictions on our sales or regulations, taxes or policies that might negatively affect our sales, and
changes in trade policies and trade relations.
Please refer to Note 16 for more information regarding our operations in Venezuela, including the impact on our operations from currency restrictions and our decision to deconsolidate our Venezuelan operations effective December 31, 2016.
In addition, political and economic changes or volatility, geopolitical regional conflicts, terrorist activity, political unrest, civil strife, acts of war, public corruption, expropriation and other economic or political uncertainties could interrupt and negatively affect our business operations or customer demand. The slowdown in economic growth or high unemployment in some emerging markets could constrain consumer spending, and declining consumer purchasing power could adversely impact our profitability. Continued instability in the banking and governmental sectors of certain countries in the European Union or the dynamics associated with the federal and state debt and budget challenges in the United States could adversely affect us. All of these factors could result in increased costs or decreased revenues, and could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition and results of operations.
There may be uncertainty as a result of key global events during 2018. For example, the continuing uncertainty arising from the Brexit referendum in the United Kingdom as well as ongoing terrorist activity, may adversely impact global stock markets (including The New York Stock Exchange on which our common shares are traded) and general global economic conditions. All of these factors are outside of our control, but may nonetheless cause us to

18



adjust our strategy in order to compete effectively in global markets.
The results of the United Kingdom's referendum on withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom elected to withdraw from the European Union in a national referendum. In February 2017, the British Parliament voted in favor of allowing the British government to begin negotiating the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, and, in March 2017, the British government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which, per the terms of the treaty, formally triggered a two-year negotiation process and puts the United Kingdom on a course to withdraw from the European Union by the end of March 2019. The terms of withdrawal have not been established and the United Kingdom will remain a member of the European Union until conclusion of the withdrawal agreement. If no agreement is concluded within two years of formal notification of withdrawal, however, then the United Kingdom may leave the European Union at such time. Accordingly, the referendum has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union, including with respect to the laws and regulations that will apply as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate in the event of a withdrawal. The referendum has also given rise to calls for the governments of other European Union member states to consider withdrawal.
The economic conditions and outlook in the United Kingdom, the European Union and elsewhere could be further adversely affected by (i) the uncertainty concerning the timing and terms of the exit, (ii) new or modified trading arrangements between the United Kingdom and other countries, (iii) the risk that one or more other European Union countries could come under increasing pressure to leave the European Union, or (iv) the risk that the euro as the single currency of the Eurozone could cease to exist. Any of these developments, or the perception that any of these developments are likely to occur, could affect economic growth or business activity in the United Kingdom or the European Union, and could result in the relocation of businesses, cause business interruptions, lead to economic recession or depression, and impact the stability of the financial markets, availability of credit, currency exchange rates, interest rates, financial institutions, and political, financial and monetary systems. Any of these developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, could depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital, which could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations in certain emerging markets expose us to political, economic and regulatory risks.
Our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to expand our operations in emerging markets. However, some emerging markets have greater political, economic and currency volatility and greater vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions than more established markets. In many countries outside of the United States, particularly those with emerging economies, it may be common for others to engage in business practices prohibited by laws and regulations with extraterritorial reach, such as the FCPA and the UKBA, or local anti-bribery laws. These laws generally prohibit companies and their employees, contractors or agents from making improper payments to government officials, including in connection with obtaining permits or engaging in other actions necessary to do business. Failure to comply with these laws could subject us to civil and criminal penalties that could materially and adversely affect our reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, competition in emerging markets is increasing as our competitors grow their global operations and low cost local manufacturers expand and improve their production capacities. Our success in emerging markets is critical to our growth strategy. If we cannot successfully increase our business in emerging markets and manage associated political, economic and regulatory risks, our product sales, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Adverse changes in the global climate or extreme weather conditions could adversely affect our business or operations

Climate change is a core business issue for Kellogg to ensure the long-term health and viability of the ingredients we use in our products. As set forth in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, there is continuing scientific evidence, as well as concern from members of the general public, that emissions of greenhouse gases and contributing human activities have caused and will continue to cause significant changes in global temperatures and weather patterns and increase the frequency or severity of weather events, wildfires and flooding. As the pressures from climate change and global population growth lead to increased demand, the food

19



system and global supply chain is becoming increasingly vulnerable to acute shocks, leading to increased prices and volatility, especially in the energy and commodity markets. Adverse changes such as these could:

unfavorably impact the cost or availability of raw or packaging materials, especially if such events have a negative impact on agricultural productivity or on the supply of water;
disrupt our ability, or the ability of our suppliers or contract manufacturers, to manufacture or distribute our products;
disrupt the retail operations of our customers; or
unfavorably impact the demand for, or the consumer's ability to purchase, our products.

Foreign, federal, state and local regulatory and legislative bodies have proposed various legislative and regulatory measures relating to climate change, regulating greenhouse gas emissions and energy policies. In the event that such regulation is enacted, we may experience significant increases in our costs of operation and delivery. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions could substantially increase the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. Lastly, consumers and customers may put an increased priority on purchasing products that are sustainably grown and made, requiring us to incur increased costs for additional transparency, due diligence and reporting. As a result, climate change could negatively affect our business and operations.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters and principal research and development facilities are located in Battle Creek, Michigan.
We operated, as of February 20, 2018, offices, manufacturing plants and distribution and warehousing facilities totaling more than 39 million square feet of building area in the United States and other countries. Our plants have been designed and constructed to meet our specific production requirements, and we periodically invest money for capital and technological improvements. At the time of its selection, each location was considered to be favorable, based on the location of markets, sources of raw materials, availability of suitable labor, transportation facilities, location of our other plants producing similar products, and other factors. Our manufacturing facilities in the United States include four cereal plants and warehouses located in Battle Creek, Michigan; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Memphis, Tennessee; and Omaha, Nebraska and other plants or facilities in San Jose, California; Atlanta, Augusta, and Rome, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Seelyville, Indiana; Kansas City, Kansas; Florence, Louisville and Pikeville, Kentucky; Grand Rapids and Wyoming, Michigan; Blue Anchor, New Jersey; Cary, North Carolina; Cincinnati and Zanesville, Ohio; Muncy, Pennsylvania; Jackson and Rossville, Tennessee; and Allyn, Washington.
Outside the United States, we had, as of February 20, 2018, additional manufacturing locations, some with warehousing facilities, in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, and Venezuela. We also have joint ventures in China, Nigeria, Ghana and Turkey which own or operate manufacturing or warehouse facilities.
We generally own our principal properties, including our major office facilities, although some manufacturing facilities are leased, and no owned property is subject to any major lien or other encumbrance. Distribution facilities (including related warehousing facilities) and offices of non-plant locations typically are leased. In general, we consider our facilities, taken as a whole, to be suitable, adequate, and of sufficient capacity for our current operations.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to various legal proceedings, claims, and governmental inspections, audits or investigations arising out of our business which cover matters such as general commercial, governmental regulations, antitrust and trade regulations, product liability, environmental, intellectual property, employment and other actions. In the opinion of management, the ultimate resolution of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.

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ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Not applicable.


PART II
 
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Information on the market for our common stock, number of shareowners and dividends is located in Note 17 within Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2015, the board of directors approved a new authorization to repurchase of up to $1.5 billion of our common stock beginning in 2016 through December 2017. In December 2017, a new authorization by the board of directors approved the repurchase of up to $1.5 billion of our common stock beginning in January 2018 through December 2019.
The following table provides information with respect to purchases of common shares under programs authorized by our board of directors during the quarter ended December 30, 2017.
 
(millions, except per share data)
 
  
 
  
 
  
Period
 
(a)
Total
Number
of
Shares
Purchased
 
(b)
Average
Price
Paid Per
Share
 
(c)
Total
Number
of Shares
Purchased
as Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs
 
(d)
Approximate
Dollar
Value of
Shares
that May
Yet Be
Purchased
Under the
Plans or
Programs
Month #1:
10/01/17-10/28/17
 

 

 

 
$
558

Month #2:
10/29/17-11/25/17
 

 

 

 
$
558

Month #3:
11/26/17-12/30/17
 

 

 

 
$
558



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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Kellogg Company and Subsidiaries
Selected Financial Data
 
(millions, except per share data and number of employees)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Operating trends
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
12,923

 
$
13,014

 
$
13,525

 
$
14,580

 
$
14,792

Gross profit as a % of net sales
 
38.9
%
 
36.5
%
 
34.6
%
 
34.7
%
 
41.3
%
Depreciation
 
469

 
510

 
526

 
494

 
523

Amortization
 
12

 
7

 
8

 
9

 
9

Advertising expense (a)
 
731

 
735

 
898

 
1,094

 
1,131

Research and development expense (a)
 
148

 
182

 
193

 
199

 
199

Operating profit
 
1,946

 
1,395

 
1,091

 
1,024

 
2,837

Operating profit as a % of net sales
 
15.1
%
 
10.7
%
 
8.1
%
 
7.0
%
 
19.2
%
Interest expense
 
256

 
406

 
227

 
209

 
235

Net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
1,269

 
694

 
614

 
632

 
1,807

Average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
348

 
350

 
354

 
358

 
363

Diluted
 
350

 
354

 
356

 
360

 
365

Per share amounts:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
3.65

 
1.98

 
1.74

 
1.76

 
4.98

Diluted
 
3.62

 
1.96

 
1.72

 
1.75

 
4.94

Cash flow trends
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
1,646

 
$
1,628

 
$
1,691

 
$
1,793

 
$
1,807

Capital expenditures
 
501

 
507

 
553

 
582

 
637

Net cash provided by operating activities reduced by capital expenditures (b)
 
1,145

 
1,121

 
1,138

 
1,211

 
1,170

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(1,094
)
 
(893
)
 
(1,127
)
 
(573
)
 
(641
)
Net cash used in financing activities
 
(604
)
 
(642
)
 
(706
)
 
(1,063
)
 
(1,141
)
Interest coverage ratio (c)
 
9.5

 
4.6

 
6.8

 
7.3

 
14.3

Capital structure trends
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
16,350

 
$
15,111

 
$
15,251

 
$
15,139

 
$
15,456

Property, net
 
3,716

 
3,569

 
3,621

 
3,769

 
3,856

Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt
 
779

 
1,069

 
2,470

 
1,435

 
1,028

Long-term debt
 
7,836

 
6,698

 
5,275

 
5,921

 
6,312

Total Kellogg Company equity
 
2,212

 
1,910

 
2,128

 
2,789

 
3,545

Share price trends
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stock price range
 
$59-76

 
$70-87

 
$61-74

 
$57-69

 
$55-68

Cash dividends per common share
 
2.12

 
2.04

 
1.98

 
1.90

 
1.80

Number of employees
 
33,000

 
37,000

 
34,000

 
30,000

 
30,000


(a)
Advertising declined in both 2016 and 2015 as a result of foreign currency translation, implementation of efficiency and effectiveness programs including zero-based budgeting, the change in media landscape migrating investment to digital, and shifting investment to food innovation and renovation.  Research and development declined due to changes intended to create a more efficient organizational design. We remain committed to invest in our brands at an industry-leading level to maintain the strength of our many recognizable brands in the marketplace.
(b)
We use this non-GAAP financial measure, which is reconciled above, to focus management and investors on the amount of cash available for debt repayment, dividend distribution, acquisition opportunities, and share repurchase.
(c)
Interest coverage ratio is calculated based on net income attributable to Kellogg Company before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, divided by interest expense.





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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Kellogg Company and Subsidiaries
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Business overview
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand Kellogg Company, our operations and our present business environment. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes thereto contained in Item 8 of this report.

For more than 100 years, consumers have counted on Kellogg for great-tasting, high-quality and nutritious foods. These foods include snacks, such as cookies, crackers, savory snacks, toaster pastries, cereal bars and bites, fruit-flavored snacks; and convenience foods, such as, ready-to-eat cereals, frozen waffles and veggie foods. 
Kellogg products are manufactured and marketed globally.

Segments
We manage our operations through ten operating segments that are based on product category or geographic location. These operating segments are evaluated for similarity with regards to economic characteristics, products, production processes, types or classes of customers, distribution methods and regulatory environments to determine if they can be aggregated into reportable segments. We report results of operations in the following reportable segments: U.S. Morning Foods; U.S. Snacks; U.S. Specialty; North America Other; Europe; Latin America; and Asia Pacific. The reportable segments are discussed in greater detail in Note 18 within Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Operating Margin Expansion Through 2018
In 2016, we announced a plan to increase our currency-neutral comparable operating margin by 350 basis points from 2015 through 2018, excluding the impact of pending accounting changes beginning in the first quarter of 2018. In 2017, currency-neutral comparable operating margin increased 160 basis points as a result of COGS and SG&A savings realized from Project K and ZBB initiatives. Currency-neutral comparable operating margin was 16.9% for the full year 2017, which is 250 basis points higher than the level recorded for 2015.

During 2018, we expect to realize more than half of the remaining Project K savings, including savings from our DSD exit, and all remaining planned ZBB savings. These savings are expected to more than offset increased reinvestment in brand building, modest input cost inflation and higher transportation costs. As a result, we are currently on pace to deliver our targeted 3-year goal of margin expansion in 2018, excluding the impact of accounting changes.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This filing includes non-GAAP financial measures that we provide to management and investors that exclude certain items that we do not consider part of on-going operations. Items excluded from our non-GAAP financial measures are discussed in the "Significant items impacting comparability" section of this filing. Our management team consistently utilizes a combination of GAAP and non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate business results, to make decisions regarding the future direction of our business, and for resource allocation decisions, including incentive compensation. As a result, we believe the presentation of both GAAP and non-GAAP financial measures provides investors with increased transparency into financial measures used by our management team and improves investors’ understanding of our underlying operating performance and in their analysis of ongoing operating trends. All historic non-GAAP financial measures have been reconciled with the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.


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2017, 2016, and 2015 Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Non-GAAP financial measures used for evaluation of 2017, 2016 and 2015 performance include comparable net sales, comparable gross margin, comparable SGA, comparable operating profit, comparable operating profit margin, comparable effective tax rate, comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company, comparable diluted EPS, and cash flow. These non-GAAP financial measures are also evaluated for year-over-year growth and on a currency-neutral basis to evaluate the underlying growth of the business and to exclude the effect of foreign currency. We determine currency-neutral operating results by dividing or multiplying, as appropriate, the current-period local currency operating results by the currency exchange rates used to translate our financial statements in the comparable prior-year period to determine what the current period U.S. dollar operating results would have been if the currency exchange rate had not changed from the comparable prior-year period. These non-GAAP financial measures may not be comparable to similar measures used by other companies.

Comparable net sales: We adjust the GAAP financial measures to exclude the pre-tax effect of acquisitions, divestitures, shipping day differences, and impacts of the Venezuela deconsolidation . We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying net sales performance. By providing this non-GAAP net sales measure, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of net sales performance for the Company and each of our reportable segments for the periods presented. Management uses this non-GAAP measure to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives behind net sales growth, pricing realization, and the impact of mix on our business results. This non-GAAP measure is also used to make decisions regarding the future direction of our business, and for resource allocation decisions. Currency-neutral comparable net sales represents comparable net sales excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Comparable gross profit, comparable gross margin, comparable SGA, comparable SGA%, comparable operating profit, comparable operating profit margin, comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company, and comparable diluted EPS: We adjust the GAAP financial measures to exclude the effect of Project K and cost reduction activities, acquisitions, divestitures, integration costs, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans, commodities and certain foreign currency contracts, shipping day differences, impacts of the Venezuela remeasurement and deconsolidation, costs associated with the VIE deconsolidation, and costs associated with the early redemption of debt outstanding. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying profitability. The impact of acquisitions and divestitures are not excluded from comparable diluted EPS. By providing these non-GAAP profitability measures, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's profitability measures for the periods presented. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate the effectiveness of initiatives intended to improve profitability, such as Project K, ZBB and Revenue Growth Management, as well as to evaluate the impacts of inflationary pressures and decisions to invest in new initiatives within each of our segments. Currency-neutral comparable represents comparable excluding foreign currency impact.

Comparable effective tax rate: We adjust the GAAP financial measure to exclude tax effect of Project K and cost reduction activities, integration costs, mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans, commodities and certain foreign currency contracts, shipping day differences, impacts of the Venezuela remeasurement and deconsolidation, costs associated with the VIE deconsolidation, and costs associated with the early redemption of debt outstanding. In addition, we have excluded the impact of adopting U.S. Tax Reform. We excluded the items which we believe may obscure trends in our underlying tax rate. By providing this non-GAAP measure, management intends to provide investors with a meaningful, consistent comparison of the Company's effective tax rate for the periods presented. Management uses this non-GAAP measure to monitor the effectiveness of initiatives in place to optimize our global tax rate.

Cash flow: Defined as net cash provided by operating activities reduced by expenditures for property additions. Cash flow does not represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures. We use this non-GAAP financial measure of cash flow to focus management and investors on the amount of cash available for debt repayment, dividend distributions, acquisition opportunities, and share repurchases once all of the Company’s business needs and obligations are met. Additionally, certain performance-based compensation includes a component of this non-GAAP measure.

These measures have not been calculated in accordance with GAAP and should not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP reporting measures.


24



Significant items impacting comparability
Mark-to-market accounting for pension plans, commodities, and certain foreign currency contracts
We recognized mark-to-market adjustments for pension plans, commodity contracts, and certain foreign currency contracts as incurred. Actuarial gains/losses for pension plans are recognized in the year they occur. Changes between contract and market prices for commodities contracts and certain foreign currency contracts result in gains/losses that are recognized in the quarter they occur. We recorded a total pre-tax mark-to-market benefit of $45 million for 2017 and pre-tax mark-to-market charges of $261 million and $446 million for 2016, and 2015, respectively. Within this total, the pre-tax mark-to-market benefit for pension plans was $86 million for 2017 and pre-tax mark-to-market charges of $314 million and $471 million for 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Project K and cost reduction activities
In February 2017, the Company announced an expansion and an extension to its previously-announced global efficiency and effectiveness program ("Project K"). Project K continued generating a significant amount of savings used to invest in key strategic areas of focus for the business. We recorded pre-tax charges of $260 million in 2017, $300 million in 2016, and $311 million in 2015.

In support of the ZBB initiative, we incurred pre-tax charges of $3 million in 2017, $25 million in 2016, and $12 million in 2015.

See the Restructuring and cost reduction activities section for more information.

Debt redemption
During the quarter ended April 2, 2016, we redeemed $475 million of our 7.45% U.S. Dollar Debentures due 2031. In connection with the debt redemption, we incurred $153 million of interest expense, consisting primarily of a premium on the tender offer and also including accelerated losses on pre-issuance interest rate hedges, acceleration of fees and debt discount on the redeemed debt and fees related to the tender offer.

Variable interest entity (VIE) deconsolidation
During the quarter ended July 4, 2015, a series of previously executed agreements between Kellogg's and a third party VIE were terminated resulting in our determination that we were no longer the primary beneficiary of the VIE. Accordingly, we deconsolidated the financial statements of the VIE as of the end of the quarter. As a result of the agreement terminations and related settlements, we recognized a gain of $6 million in Other income (expense), net during the quarter. This gain, in combination with a related $25 million charge that was recorded during the quarter ended April 4, 2015, resulted in a net loss of $19 million in Other income (expense), net for the year-to-date period ended July 4, 2015.

In connection with the deconsolidation that occurred during the quarter, we derecognized all assets and liabilities of the VIE, including an allocation of a portion of goodwill from the U.S. Snacks operating segment, resulting in a $67 million non-cash gain, which was recorded within operating profit.

Integration and transaction costs
We incurred integration costs related to the integration of various acquisitions in the years presented. We recorded pre-tax integration costs of $5 million, $12 million, and $30 million for 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively.

Acquisitions
In January 2015, we completed the acquisition of a majority interest in Bisco Misr, the number one packaged biscuits company in Egypt for $125 million, or $117 million net of cash and cash equivalents acquired. In our European reportable segment, the acquisition added $9 million in net sales and less than $1 million of operating profit (before integration costs) in 2016 that impacted the comparability to 2015 reported results.

In September 2015, we completed the acquisition of Mass Foods, Egypt's leading cereal company for $46 million, or $44 million net of cash and cash equivalents acquired. In our European reportable segment, the acquisition added $16 million in net sales and approximately $2 million in operating profit (before integration costs) in 2016 that impacted comparability to 2015 reported results.

In December 2016, the Company acquired Ritmo Investimentos, controlling shareholder of Parati S/A, Afical Ltda and Padua Ltda ("Parati Group"), a leading Brazilian food group. In our Latin America reportable segment for the year-to-date period ended December 30, 2017, the acquisition added $203 million in net sales and $25 million of operating profit (before integration costs) that impacted the comparability to 2016 reported results.

25




In October of 2017, the Company acquired Chicago Bar Company LLC manufacturer of RXBAR, a high protein snack bar made of simple ingredients. In our North America Other reportable segment for year-to-date period ended December 30, 2017, the acquisition added $27 million in net sales and $3 million of operating profit (before integration costs) that impacted the comparability of 2016 reported results.

Shipping day differences
In December 2017, we eliminated a one-month timing difference in reporting of financial results for the Parati Group. This update resulted in an additional month of financial results being reported in the quarter and year-to-date period ended December 30, 2017, which included $14 million of net sales that impacted the comparability of our reported results.

Venezuela
There was a material change in the business environment, including a worsening of our access to key raw materials subject to restrictions, and a related significant drop in production volume in the fourth quarter. These supply chain disruptions, along with other factors such as the worsening economic environment in Venezuela and the limited access to dollars to import goods through the use of any of the available currency mechanisms, have impaired our ability to effectively operate and fully control our Venezuelan subsidiary.

As of December 31, 2016, we deconsolidated and changed to the cost method of accounting for our Venezuelan subsidiary. We recorded a $72 million pre-tax charge in Other income (expense), net as we fully impaired the value of our cost method investment in Venezuela. The deconsolidation charge included the historical cumulative translation losses of approximately $63 million related to our Venezuelan operations that had previously been recorded in accumulated other comprehensive losses within equity. Additionally, the deconsolidation reduced net sales by $31 million and operating profit by $9 million for the year-to-date period ended December 30, 2016 which impacted the comparability of 2017 to 2016 reported results.

In 2015 we concluded that we were no longer able to obtain sufficient U.S. dollars on a timely basis through the DIPRO exchange resulting in a decision to remeasure our Venezuela subsidiary's financial statements using the DICOM (formerly SIMADI) rate. In connection with the change in rates, we recorded pre-tax charges totaling $152 million, including $112 million in the Latin America operating segment and $40 million in the Corporate operating segment. Of the total charges, $100 million was recorded in COGS, $3 million was recorded in SGA, and $49 million was recorded in Other income (expense), net. These charges consisted of $47 million related to the remeasurement of net monetary assets denominated in Venezuelan bolivar at the SIMADI exchange rate (recorded in Other income (expense), net), $56 million related to reducing inventory to the lower of cost or market (recorded in COGS) and $49 million related to the impairment of long-lived assets in Venezuela (recorded primarily in COGS).

Following the change to the DICOM (formerly SIMADI) rate in 2015, certain non-monetary assets related to our Venezuelan subsidiary continued to be remeasured at historical exchange rates. As these assets were utilized by our Venezuelan subsidiary during 2016 and 2015 they were recognized in the income statement at historical exchange rates resulting in an unfavorable impact. We experienced an unfavorable pre-tax impact of approximately $11 million in 2016 and $17 million in 2015 related to the utilization of these remaining non-monetary assets, primarily impacting COGS.

Foreign currency translation
We evaluate the operating results of our business on a currency-neutral basis. We determine currency-neutral operating results by dividing or multiplying, as appropriate, the current-period local currency operating results by the currency exchange rates used to translate our financial statements in the comparable prior-year period to determine what the current period U.S. dollar operating results would have been if the currency exchange rate had not changed from the comparable prior-year period.

Financial results
For the full year 2017, our reported net sales decreased by 0.7% due primarily to the list-price adjustments and other impacts in U.S. Snacks related to its transition from DSD and lower volume in U.S. Morning Foods. These impacts were partially offset by the Parati and RXBAR acquisitions, solid performance in U.S. Specialty and Asia-Pacific, and favorable foreign currency. Currency-neutral comparable net sales decreased by 2.6%, within our full year guidance, after eliminating the impact of acquisitions, shipping day differences, foreign currency and prior year Venezuela results.


26



Reported operating profit increased by 39.5% as a result of productivity savings from Project K restructuring, which includes this year's exit from its U.S. Snacks segment's Direct Store Delivery sales and delivery system. Reported operating profit also benefited from the year-over-year impact of mark-to-market, restructuring, integration costs, acquisitions, and Venezuela remeasurement, partially mitigated by prior year Venezuela results and foreign currency. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit increased by 7.6%, within our full-year guidance range, after excluding the impact of mark-to-market, restructuring, acquisitions, integration costs, prior year Venezuela results, Venezuela remeasurement, and foreign currency.

Reported operating margin for the year was favorable 440 basis points due primarily to COGS and SG&A savings realized from Project K and ZBB initiatives, the impact of mark-to-market accounting for pension, and lower restructuring charges. Currency-neutral comparable operating margin was favorable 160 basis points after excluding the year-over-year impact of mark-to-market, restructuring, integration costs, acquisitions, Venezuela remeasurement, and foreign currency.

Reported diluted EPS of $3.62 was up 84.7% compared to the prior year of $1.96 due primarily to higher operating profit, favorable mark-to-market adjustments, lower restructuring charges, and prior year debt redemption expense. Currency-neutral comparable diluted EPS of $4.06 was up 9.1% compared to prior year of $3.72, within our full-year guidance range, after excluding the impact of mark-to-market, restructuring, and debt redemption expense.

Reconciliation of certain non-GAAP Financial Measures
Consolidated results (dollars in millions, except per share data)
 
2017
 
2016
Reported net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
1,269

 
$
694

Mark-to-market (pre-tax)
 
45

 
(261
)
Project K and cost reduction activities (pre-tax)
 
(263
)
 
(325
)
Debt redemption (pre-tax)
 

 
(153
)
Integration and transaction costs (pre-tax)
 
(5
)
 
(12
)
Shipping day differences (pre-tax)
 
(1
)
 

Venezuela operations impact (pre-tax)
 

 
9

Venezuela deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 

 
(72
)
Venezuela remeasurement (pre-tax)
 

 
(11
)
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*
 
82

 
200

U.S. Tax Reform adoption impact
 
(4
)
 

Comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
1,415

 
$
1,319

Foreign currency impact
 
(6
)
 
 
Currency neutral comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
1,421

 


Reported diluted EPS
 
$
3.62

 
$
1.96

Mark-to-market (pre-tax)
 
0.13

 
(0.74
)
Project K and cost reduction activities (pre-tax)
 
(0.75
)
 
(0.92
)
Debt redemption (pre-tax)
 

 
(0.43
)
Integration and transaction costs (pre-tax)
 
(0.01
)
 
(0.03
)
Venezuela operations impact (pre-tax)
 

 
0.02

Venezuela deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 

 
(0.20
)
Venezuela remeasurement (pre-tax)
 

 
(0.03
)
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*
 
0.22

 
0.57

U.S. Tax Reform adoption impact
 
(0.01
)
 

Comparable diluted EPS
 
$
4.04

 
$
3.72

Foreign currency impact
 
(0.02
)
 
 
Currency neutral comparable diluted EPS
 
$
4.06

 


Currency neutral comparable diluted EPS growth
 
9.1
%
 
 
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.
* Represents the estimated income tax effect on the reconciling items, using weighted-average statutory tax rates, depending upon the applicable jurisdiction.

27



Consolidated results (dollars in millions, except per share data)
 
2016
 
2015
Reported net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
694

 
$
614

Mark-to-market (pre-tax)
 
(261
)
 
(446
)
Project K and cost reduction activities (pre-tax)
 
(325
)
 
(323
)
Debt redemption (pre-tax)
 
(153
)
 
 
VIE deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 

 
48

Integration and transaction costs (pre-tax)
 
(12
)
 
(26
)
Acquisitions/divestitures (pre-tax)
 
1

 

Venezuela deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 
(72
)
 

Venezuela remeasurement (pre-tax)
 
(11
)
 
(169
)
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*
 
201

 
273

Comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
1,326

 
$
1,257

Foreign currency impact
 
(203
)
 
 
Currency neutral comparable net income attributable to Kellogg Company
 
$
1,529

 


Reported diluted EPS
 
$
1.96

 
$
1.72

Mark-to-market (pre-tax)
 
(0.74
)
 
(1.25
)
Project K and cost reduction activities (pre-tax)
 
(0.92
)
 
(0.91
)
Debt redemption (pre-tax)
 
(0.43
)
 

VIE deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 

 
0.13

Integration and transaction costs (pre-tax)
 
(0.03
)
 
(0.08
)
Venezuela deconsolidation (pre-tax)
 
(0.20
)
 

Venezuela remeasurement (pre-tax)
 
(0.03
)
 
(0.47
)
Income tax impact applicable to adjustments, net*
 
0.57

 
0.77

Comparable diluted EPS
 
$
3.74

 
$
3.53

Foreign currency impact
 
(0.57
)
 
 
Currency neutral comparable diluted EPS
 
$
4.31

 


Currency neutral comparable diluted EPS growth
 
22.1
%
 
 
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.
* Represents the estimated income tax effect on the reconciling items, using weighted-average statutory tax rates, depending upon the applicable jurisdiction.


28




Net sales and operating profit
2017 compared to 2016
The following tables provide an analysis of net sales and operating profit performance for 2017 versus 2016:
Year ended December 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported net sales
 
$
2,778

 
$
3,067

 
$
1,249

 
$
1,616

 
$
2,291

 
$
955

 
$
967

 
$

 
$
12,923

Acquisitions/divestitures
 

 

 

 
28

 
11

 
203

 

 

 
242

Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 

 
14

 

 

 
14

Comparable net sales
 
$
2,778

 
$
3,067

 
$
1,249

 
$
1,588

 
$
2,280

 
$
738

 
$
967

 
$

 
$
12,667

Foreign currency impact
 

 

 

 
12

 
(14
)
 
4

 
26

 

 
28

Currency-neutral comparable net sales
 
$
2,778

 
$
3,067

 
$
1,249

 
$
1,576

 
$
2,294

 
$
734

 
$
941

 
$

 
$
12,639

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported net sales
 
$
2,931

 
$
3,198

 
$
1,214

 
$
1,598

 
$
2,377

 
$
780

 
$
916

 
$

 
$
13,014

Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venezuela operations impact
 

 

 

 

 

 
31

 

 

 
31

Comparable net sales
 
$
2,931

 
$
3,198

 
$
1,214

 
$
1,598

 
$
2,377

 
$
749

 
$
916

 
$

 
$
12,983

% change - 2017 vs. 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reported growth
 
(5.2
)%
 
(4.1
)%
 
2.9
%
 
1.1
 %
 
(3.6
)%
 
22.3
 %
 
5.6
%
 
%
 
(0.7
)%
Acquisitions/divestitures
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
1.7
 %
 
0.5
 %
 
25.9
 %
 
%
 
%
 
1.9
 %
Shipping day differences
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
1.9
 %
 
%
 
%
 
0.1
 %
Venezuela operations impact
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
(4.0
)%
 
%
 
%
 
(0.3
)%
Comparable Growth
 
(5.2
)%
 
(4.1
)%
 
2.9
%
 
(0.6
)%
 
(4.1
)%
 
(1.5
)%
 
5.6
%
 
%
 
(2.4
)%
Foreign currency impact
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
0.8
 %
 
(0.6
)%
 
0.4
 %
 
2.8
%
 
%
 
0.2
 %
Currency-neutral comparable growth
 
(5.2
)%
 
(4.1
)%
 
2.9
%
 
(1.4
)%
 
(3.5
)%
 
(1.9
)%
 
2.8
%
 
%
 
(2.6
)%
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.






29



Year ended December 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported operating profit
 
$
601

 
$
115

 
$
312

 
$
230

 
$
279

 
$
108

 
$
86

 
$
215

 
$
1,946

Mark-to-market
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
45

 
45

Project K and cost reduction activities
 
(18
)
 
(309
)
 
(2
)
 
(16
)
 
(40
)
 
(8
)
 
(11
)
 
141

 
(263
)
Integration and transaction costs
 

 

 

 
(2
)
 

 
(3
)
 

 

 
(5
)
Acquisitions/divestitures
 

 

 

 
1

 
(1
)
 
25

 

 

 
25

Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparable operating profit
 
$
619

 
$
424

 
$
314

 
$
247

 
$
320

 
$
94

 
$
97

 
$
29

 
$
2,144

Foreign currency impact
 

 

 

 
1

 
(4
)
 
(1
)
 
2

 

 
(2
)
Currency-neutral comparable operating profit
 
$
619

 
$
424

 
$
314

 
$
246

 
$
324

 
$
95

 
$
95

 
$
29

 
$
2,146

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported operating profit
 
$
593

 
$
324

 
$
279

 
$
181

 
$
205

 
$
84

 
$
70

 
$
(341
)
 
$
1,395

Mark-to-market
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(261
)
 
(261
)
Project K and cost reduction activities
 
(23
)
 
(76
)
 
(8
)
 
(38
)
 
(126
)
 
(8
)
 
(7
)
 
(39
)
 
(325
)
Integration and transaction costs
 

 

 

 

 
(3
)
 
(2
)
 
(3
)
 
(2
)
 
(10
)
Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venezuela operations impact
 

 

 

 

 

 
9

 

 

 
9

Venezuela remeasurement
 

 

 

 

 

 
(13
)
 

 

 
(13
)
Comparable operating profit
 
$
616

 
$
400

 
$
287

 
$
219

 
$
334

 
$
98

 
$
80

 
$
(39
)
 
$
1,995

% change - 2017 vs. 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reported growth
 
1.3
%
 
(64.5
)%
 
12.0
%
 
27.3
 %
 
35.6
 %
 
28.2
 %
 
23.1
 %
 
163.0
 %
 
39.5
 %
Mark-to-market
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
(149.5
)%
 
24.7
 %
Project K and cost reduction activities
 
0.8
%
 
(70.5
)%
 
2.6
%
 
14.5
 %
 
39.6
 %
 
2.5
 %
 
(3.3
)%
 
143.8
 %
 
5.6
 %
Integration and transaction costs
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
(0.8
)%
 
1.0
 %
 
(0.5
)%
 
5.3
 %
 
(2.5
)%
 
0.3
 %
Acquisitions/divestitures
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
0.4
 %
 
(0.3
)%
 
26.9
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
1.3
 %
Shipping day differences
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
(0.2
)%
 
 %
 
 %
 
 %
Venezuela operations impact
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
(11.5
)%
 
 %
 
(0.6
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Venezuela remeasurement
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
14.7
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
0.6
 %
Comparable growth
 
0.5
%
 
6.0
 %
 
9.4
%
 
13.2
 %
 
(4.7
)%
 
(3.7
)%
 
21.1
 %
 
171.8
 %
 
7.5
 %
Foreign currency impact
 
%
 
 %
 
%
 
0.8
 %
 
(1.3
)%
 
(2.0
)%
 
3.6
 %
 
(1.6
)%
 
(0.1
)%
Currency-neutral comparable growth
 
0.5
%
 
6.0
 %
 
9.4
%
 
12.4
 %
 
(3.4
)%
 
(1.7
)%
 
17.5
 %
 
173.4
 %
 
7.6
 %
For more information on reconciling items in the table above, please refer to the Significant items impacting comparability section.

U.S. Morning Foods
This segment consists of primarily cereal and toaster pastries. As reported and currency-neutral comparable net sales declined 5.2% as a result of decreased volume partially offset by favorable pricing/mix.

Cereal category consumption declined for the year, particularly in the health and wellness segment. Our kid-oriented brands have performed well. Frosted Flakes grew consumption and share during the year behind effective media and innovation, including new Cinnamon Frosted Flakes. Special K returned to share growth in the fourth quarter as a result of an effective media campaign and in-store activation.

Toaster pastries grew share during the year, despite lower consumption in the category.

30




As Reported operating profit increased 1.3% due to productivity initiatives and lower restructuring charges partially offset by lower net sales. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit increased 0.5% after eliminating the impact of restructuring charges.

U.S. Snacks
This segment consists of crackers, cookies, savory snacks, wholesome snacks and fruit-flavored snacks.

As reported and currency-neutral comparable net sales declined 4.1% primarily due to impacts related to our conversion from DSD to warehouse distribution; specifically, reduced merchandising during the transition, reduction of SKUs, and a list-price adjustment to eliminate the premium charged for DSD services.

Crackers, Cookies and Wholesome Snacks declined in consumption and share for the year due to the reduction of promotion activity related to our efforts to smoothly transition out of DSD during the second and third quarters. Savory snacks consumption was pulled down, in part, by the elimination of a promotion-sized can. Focused marketing investment behind key brands resulted in improved consumption in the second half for Cheez-it and Club crackers, Keebler Fudge Shoppe cookies, and Rice Krispies Treats wholesome snacks.

As reported operating profit declined 64.5% due to increased Project K restructuring charges in the current year associated with our DSD transition. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit increased 6.0% after excluding the impact of restructuring charges; this was driven by DSD-related overhead reductions partially offset by increased brand investment.

U.S. Specialty
This segment sells the full line of Kellogg products to channels such as food service, vending, convenience stores, and Girl Scouts.

As reported and currency-neutral comparable net sales improved 2.9% as a result of higher volume and improved pricing/mix aided by innovation and expansion in core and emerging growth channels. In addition, the back half of the year benefited from hurricane-related shipments.

As reported operating profit increased 12.0% due to the higher net sales, savings from Project K and ZBB initiatives, and lower restructuring charges. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit increased 9.4% after excluding the impact of restructuring charges.

North America Other
This segment is composed of our U.S. Frozen Foods, Kashi Company, Canada, and RXBAR businesses.

As reported net sales increased 1.1% due primarily to the RXBAR acquisition, U.S. Frozen growth, and foreign currency. Currency-neutral comparable net sales declined 1.4% after excluding the impact of acquisitions and foreign currency.

In U.S. Frozen, Eggo® grew share and consumption during the year, benefiting from the removal of artificial ingredients and the success of Disney-shaped waffles, as well as the exit of a competitor. Our frozen veggie business, under the Morningstar Farms® and Gardenburger® brands, returned to consumption and share growth during the second half of the year, driven by marketing and in-store support focused on core grilling items.

In Canada, consumption and share performance continued to improve in both cereal and in snacks during the back half of the year. Recent share gains in cereal were the result of effective innovation and commercial programs.

Kashi Company reported net sales and operating profit were lower versus the prior year, as we continue to stabilize the Kashi brand outside of the natural channel. The business benefited from the continued success of our Bear Naked brand, which has become the #1 granola brand in the U.S. behind on-trend innovation and expanded distribution. Bear Naked grew both consumption and share for the year.

Reported operating profit increased 27.3% due to lower restructuring charges and by Project K and ZBB savings. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit increased 12.4% after excluding the impact of restructuring charges and foreign currency.


31



Europe
Reported net sales declined 3.6% due to lower volume partially offset by the favorable impact of foreign currency, pricing/mix and acquisitions. Currency-neutral comparable net sales declined 3.5% after excluding the impact of foreign currency and acquisitions.

Pringles volume was lower due primarily to prolonged negotiations with our customers as we sought to price behind our food and packaging upgrades. These negotiations were resolved by April but caused us to miss out on several first and second quarter merchandising programs.  Promotional activity resumed in the third quarter and the brand returned to growth during the back half of the year with a particularly strong fourth quarter.

Cereal sales declined versus the prior year across the region but improved during the second half of the year. In the U.K., our largest market in the region, consumption and share turned positive in the second half of the year as a result of increased advertising behind our core brands, most notably Special K.

As reported operating profit increased 35.6% due to lower restructuring charges and incremental Project K savings, partially offset by lower sales and unfavorable foreign currency. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit declined 3.4% after excluding the impact of restructuring charges, prior year integration costs, acquisitions and foreign currency.

Latin America
Reported net sales improved 22.3% due to increased volume as a result of the Parati acquisition, favorable pricing/mix, and foreign currency. This was partially offset by lower volume in the Caribbean/Central America business and prior year Venezuela results. Currency-neutral comparable net sales declined 1.9% after excluding the impact of acquisitions, prior year Venezuela results, and foreign currency.

This decline was due primarily to the Caribbean/Central America sub-region, where first half distributor transitions and economic softness were followed during the back half of the year by shipment disruptions due to hurricanes Maria and Irma.

We did post solid growth for the year in Mexico and the Mercosur region. Our Mexico business continued to perform well with consumption and sales increasing versus the prior year in both cereal and snacks. Mercosur posted particularly strong growth in Pringles.

The integration of Parati, our acquisition in Brazil, continues to progress well, and the business posted double digit growth for the year.

As Reported operating profit increased 28.2%, primarily due to the impact of the Parati acquisition partially offset by lower sales in the Caribbean/Central America business.  Currency-neutral comparable operating profit decreased 1.7% after excluding the impact of restructuring costs, integration costs, acquisitions, prior year Venezuela operations, Venezuela remeasurement, and foreign currency.

Asia Pacific
Reported net sales improved 5.6% due to favorable foreign currency and pricing/mix as well as higher volume. Currency-neutral comparable net sales increased 2.8%, after excluding the impact of foreign currency.

Growth in cereal was led by India and Korea. Australia, our largest market in the region, gained share during the second half of the year, reflecting continued stabilization. We are experiencing growth in consumption and share through food news and media behind our health and wellness brands, as well as innovation and brand building behind our taste-oriented brands.

Our Pringles business posted solid growth for the year across the region, driven by emerging markets as well as Australia and Korea. We are also seeing the benefits from the expansion of our wholesome snacks business in the region.

As reported operating profit increased 23.1% due to higher net sales and brand-building efficiencies. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit improved 17.5% after excluding the impact of restructuring, prior year integration costs and foreign currency.


32



Outside of our reported results, our joint ventures in West Africa and China continued to perform extremely well. Double-digit growth was driven by strong noodles volume in West Africa and e-commerce sales in China.

Corporate
As reported operating expense improved $556 million year on year due primarily to the year over year benefit from pension mark-to-market as well as pension curtailment gains in conjunction with Project K restructuring. Currency-neutral comparable operating profit improved $68 million year on year, primarily due to lower pension costs, after excluding the impact of mark-to-market, restructuring, integration costs, and foreign currency.

33



2016 compared to 2015
The following tables provide an analysis of net sales and operating profit performance for 2016 versus 2015:
Year ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported net sales
 
$
2,931

 
$
3,198

 
$
1,214

 
$
1,598

 
$
2,377

 
$
780

 
$
916

 
$

 
$
13,014

Project K and cost reduction activities
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Integration and transaction costs
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acquisitions/divestitures
 

 

 

 
3

 
28

 
 
 

 

 
31

Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparable net sales
 
$
2,931

 
$
3,198

 
$
1,214

 
$
1,595

 
$
2,349

 
$
780

 
$
916

 
$

 
$
12,983

Comparable net sales excluding Venezuela
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
749

 
 
 
 
 
$
12,952

Foreign currency impact
 

 

 

 
(14
)
 
(132
)
 
(922
)
 
(5
)
 

 
(1,073
)
Currency-neutral comparable net sales
 
$
2,931

 
$
3,198

 
$
1,214

 
$
1,609

 
$
2,481

 
$
1,702

 
$
921

 
$

 
$
14,056

Currency-neutral comparable net sales excluding Venezuela
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
824

 
 
 
 
 
$
13,178

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended January 2, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(millions)
 
U.S.
Morning
Foods
 
U.S.
Snacks
 
U.S.
Specialty
 
North
America
Other
 
Europe
 
Latin
America
 
Asia
Pacific
 
Corporate
 
Kellogg
Consolidated
Reported net sales
 
$
2,992

 
$
3,234

 
$
1,181

 
$
1,687

 
$
2,497

 
$
1,015

 
$
919

 
$

 
$
13,525

Project K and cost reduction activities
 

 

 

 
(2
)
 
(2
)
 

 

 

 
(4
)
Integration and transaction costs
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(1
)
 

 
(1
)
Acquisitions/divestitures
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
14

 

 
14

Shipping day differences
 

 

 

 

 
(3
)
 

 

 

 
(3
)
Comparable net sales
 
$
2,992

 
$
3,234

 
$
1,181

 
$
1,689

 
$
2,502

 
$
1,015

 
$
906

 
$

 
$
13,519

Comparable net sales excluding Venezuela
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
818

 
 
 
 
 
$
13,322

% change - 2016 vs. 2015:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reported growth
 
(2.0
)%
 
(1.1
)%
 
2.8
%
 
(5.3
)%
 
(4.8
)%
 
(23.1
)%
 
(0.4
)%
 
%
 
(3.8
)%
Project K and cost reduction activities
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
0.1
 %
 
0.1
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
Integration and transaction costs
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
 
 %
 
0.2
 %
 
%
 
 %
Acquisitions/divestitures
 
 %
 
 %
 
%
 
0.2
 %
 
1.1
 %
 
 %
 
(1.6
)%
 
%
 
0.1
 %
Shipping day differences