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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 29, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____

Commission File No. 1-7463
_________________________________________________________________ 
Jacobs Solutions Inc.
 
Delaware 88-1121891
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (IRS Employer
identification number)
   
1999 Bryan StreetSuite 3500DallasTexas75201
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

(214) 583 – 8500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
_________________________________________________________________ 
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock$1 par valueJNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_________________________________________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act:  ☒    Yes  ☐    No
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  ☐    Yes  ☒    No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  ☒    Yes  ☐    No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  ☒    Yes  ☐    No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company    
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.        
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act)  ☐    Yes      No
There were 126,024,433 shares of common stock outstanding as of November 10, 2023. The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $14.6 billion as of March 31, 2023, based upon the last reported sales price on the New York Stock Exchange on that date.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be issued in connection with its 2024 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated.



JACOBS SOLUTIONS INC.
Fiscal 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
Item     Page No.
      
  Item 1.  
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  Item 1A.  
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  Item 1B.  
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  Item 4.  
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  Item 7A.  
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  Item 9.  
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  Item 9A.  
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  Item 9B.  
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  Item 14.  
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  Item 15.  
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PART I
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements that do not directly relate to any historical or current fact. When used herein, words such as "expects," "anticipates," "believes," "seeks," "estimates," "plans," "intends," “future,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” "target," "goal" and similar words are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements we make concerning the financial condition and results of operations and our expectations as to our future growth, prospects, financial outlook and business strategy for fiscal 2024 or future fiscal years, our plans to spin off and merge with Amentum our Critical Missions Solutions (“CMS”) business and a portion of our Divergent Solutions business in a proposed transaction that is intended to be tax-free to stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our and our stockholders respective ownership percentages of the combined company, the amount of cash payment and value to be derived from the disposition of Jacobs’ stake in the combined company, the expected timing, structure and tax treatment of the proposed transaction, the ability of the parties to complete the proposed transaction, and the potential benefits and synergies of the proposed transaction, including the future financial and operating results and strategic benefits, and any assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Although such statements are based on management’s current estimates and expectations and/or currently available competitive, financial, and economic data, forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and you should not place undue reliance on such statements as actual results may differ materially. We caution the reader that there are a variety of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from what is contained, projected or implied by our forward-looking statements. Such factors include uncertainties as to the structure and timing of the proposed transaction, the impact of the proposed transaction on Jacobs’ and the combined company’s businesses if the transaction is completed, including a possible impact on Jacobs’ credit profile, and a possible decrease in the trading price of Jacobs' and/or the combined company’s shares, the possibility that the proposed transaction, if completed, may not qualify for the expected tax treatment, the ability to obtain all required regulatory approvals, the possibility that closing conditions for the proposed transaction may not be satisfied or waived, on a timely basis or otherwise, the risk that any consents or approvals required in connection with the proposed transaction may not be received, the risk that the proposed transaction may not be completed on the terms or in the time-frame expected by the parties, unexpected costs, charges or expenses resulting from the proposed transaction, business and management strategies and the growth expectations of the combined company, the inability of Jacobs’ and the combined company to retain and hire key personnel, customers or suppliers while the proposed transaction is pending or after it is completed, and the ability of the Company to eliminate all stranded costs, as well as other factors related to our business, such as our ability to fully execute on our three-year corporate strategy, including our ability to invest in the tools needed to implement our strategy, competition from existing and future competitors in our target markets, our ability to achieve the cost-savings and synergies contemplated by our recent acquisitions within the expected time frames or to achieve them fully and to successfully integrate acquired businesses while retaining key personnel, the impact of any pandemic, and any resulting economic downturn on our results, prospects and opportunities, measures or restrictions imposed by governments and health officials in response to the pandemic, the timing of the award of projects and funding and potential changes to the amounts provided for, under the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, as well as other legislation related to governmental spending, any changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances that may adversely impact our future financial positions or results of operations, financial market risks that may affect the Company, including by affecting the Company's access to capital, the cost of such capital and/or the Company's funding obligations under defined benefit pension and postretirement plans, as well as general economic conditions, including inflation and the actions taken by monetary authorities in response to inflation, changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, changes in capital markets, instability in the banking industry, or the impact of a possible recession or economic downturn on our results, prospects and opportunities, and geopolitical events and conflicts, among others. The impact of such matters includes, but is not limited to, the possible reduction in demand for certain of our product solutions and services and the delay or abandonment of ongoing or anticipated projects due to the financial condition of our clients and suppliers or to governmental budget constraints or changes to governmental budgetary priorities; the inability of our clients to meet their payment obligations in a timely manner or at all; potential issues and risks related to a significant portion of our employees working remotely; illness, travel restrictions and other workforce disruptions that have and could continue to negatively affect our supply chain and our ability to timely and satisfactorily complete our clients’ projects; and the inability of governments in certain of the countries in which we operate to effectively mitigate the financial or other impacts of any future pandemics or infectious disease outbreaks on their economies and workforces and our operations therein. The foregoing factors and potential future developments are inherently uncertain, unpredictable and, in many cases, beyond our control. For a description of these and additional factors that may occur that could cause actual results to differ from our forward-looking statements, see Item 1A—Risk Factors below. We undertake no obligation to release publicly any revisions or updates to any forward-looking statements. We encourage you to read carefully the risk factors described herein and in other documents we file from time to time with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").
Unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to "Jacobs" or the "Registrant" are to Jacobs Solutions Inc. and its predecessors, and references to the "Company", "we", "us" or "our" are to Jacobs Solutions Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. On August 29, 2022, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEGI), the predecessor to Jacobs Solutions
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Inc., implemented a holding company structure, which resulted in Jacobs Solutions Inc. becoming the parent company of, and successor issuer to, JEGI (the "Holding Company Reorganization"). For purposes of this Annual Report, references to the "Company", "we", "us" or "our" or our management or business at any point prior to August 29, 2022 (the "Holding Company Implementation Date") refer to JEGI and its consolidated subsidiaries as the predecessor to Jacobs Solutions Inc.
On May 9, 2023, the Company announced our intention to spin-off our Critical Mission Solutions business into an independent publicly traded company to Jacobs’ stockholders. On November 20, 2023, Jacobs entered into a definitive agreement to spin-off and combine our CMS and Cyber and Intelligence government services (part of Divergent Solutions ("DVS")) businesses with Amentum, in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction intended to be tax-free to Jacobs’ shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The transaction, which is expected to close in fiscal year 2024, is subject to regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions. CMS and DVS are each a reportable segment and are reported in our continuing operations for the 12 months ended September 29, 2023.

Item 1.     BUSINESS
Creating a More Connected, Sustainable World
At Jacobs, we’re challenging today to reinvent tomorrow by solving the world’s most critical problems for thriving cities, resilient environments, mission-critical outcomes, operational advancement, scientific discovery and cutting-edge manufacturing, turning abstract ideas into realities that transform the world for good. Leveraging a talent force of approximately 60,000, Jacobs provides a full spectrum of professional services including consulting, technical, engineering, scientific and project delivery for the government and private sector.
Over the last seven years, Jacobs has been on a transformation journey, starting with a re-emphasis on business excellence, our culture and brand, and evolving our portfolio to create an inclusive, technology-forward company producing the critical solutions of tomorrow. This transformation included acquiring a 65% stake in PA Consulting Group Limited ("PA Consulting") in fiscal 2021. Acquisitions of Buffalo Group, BlackLynx and StreetLight further positioned us as a leader in high-value government services and technology-enabled solutions.
Our brand promise: "Challenging today. Reinventing tomorrow." signals our transition to a global technology-forward solutions company. We began trading as “J” on the New York Stock Exchange in December 2019, and in March 2021 our Global Industry Classifications Standard code changed to Research & Consulting Services. Our Focus 2023 Transformation Office drove further innovation, delivering value-creating solutions for our clients and leveraging an integrated digital and technology strategy to improve our efficiency and effectiveness, ultimately freeing up valuable time and resources for reinvestment in our people.
Boldly Moving Forward
In March 2022, Jacobs launched a three-year strategy that builds on our success over the preceding three years and takes advantage of a new lens crafted from the incredible pace of change in the world and in our markets. We’re now focused on broadening our leadership in high growth sectors aligned with long-term secular trends, such as infrastructure renewal and investment, and the global transition to more sustainable ways of living. Our strategy is driven by our purpose and values and reflects our vision of becoming a company like no other. An extensive evaluation of global trends, capabilities and markets to understand the largest opportunities, projected spend and growth rates identified three growth accelerators: Climate Response, Consulting & Advisory and Data Solutions, which cut across our entire organization and markets creating connections among global market trends, the solutions we deliver and our company purpose. Our three growth accelerators are delivering significant value for our clients, positioning Jacobs for high-margin growth while advancing sustainability and social value in the communities where we serve.

We know we have a pivotal role to play across the entire Climate Response value chain – focusing on end-to-end solutions in energy transition, decarbonization, adaptation and resilience, and regenerative and nature-based climate solutions. Today our clients are facing a rapidly changing world - navigating multifaceted challenges such as the increasing pace of technological change, budget and supply chain limitations, global climate change events and complex geopolitical conditions. Through our Consulting & Advisory capabilities, we deepen our involvement with our clients to help them conceptualize, shape and realize their future. We also harness our Data Solutions, providing data and digital capabilities,
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products and tools to help our clients operate more efficiently in a safe environment and capitalize on their data more than ever before. We're empowering innovation and ingenuity to unlock better outcomes.
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We believe our deep global knowledge in our core sectors, applied together with the latest advances in technology, are why customers large and small choose to partner with Jacobs. In fiscal 2022, we operated in two lines of business (LOBs): Critical Mission Solutions and People & Places Solutions, and a third business segment as a result of our majority investment in PA Consulting. As part of our strategy, starting in fiscal 2023 Jacobs formed a new enabling platform, Divergent Solutions (DVS), which serves as the core foundation for developing and delivering innovative, next-generation cloud, cyber, data and digital technologies - further strengthening our ability to drive value for our clients.
Jacobs holds leading positions across our sectors in the Engineering News Record (ENR)'s rankings for Advanced Manufacturing, Cities & Places, Energy & Environment, Health & Life Sciences and Infrastructure. In fiscal 2023, we ranked № 1 on ENR's list of Top 500 design firms for the sixth consecutive year, № 1 on ENR's Top 50 Program Management Firms for the third consecutive year, and № 1 on ENR's Top 20 Firms in Combined Design and CM-PM Professional Services Revenue.
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (the predecessor parent company) created a new holding company, Jacobs Solutions Inc., which became the new parent of Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. Jacobs Solutions Inc. is now more closely aligning our public identity with a global technology-forward solutions company. As a result of the transaction, the predecessor company’s then-current stockholders automatically became stockholders of Jacobs Solutions Inc., on a one-for-one basis, with the same number of shares and same ownership percentage of the Company’s common stock that they held in the predecessor company immediately prior to the transaction.

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Challenging today. Reinventing tomorrow
Our values continue to guide our behaviors, relationships and outcomes allowing us to act as one company and unify us worldwide when interacting with our clients, employees, communities and shareholders.
We do things right. We always act with integrity taking responsibility for our work, caring for our people and staying focused on safety and sustainability. We make investments in our clients, people and communities, so we can grow together.
We challenge the accepted. We know that to create a better future, we must ask difficult questions. We always stay curious and are not afraid to try new things.
We aim higher. We do not settle always looking beyond to raise the bar and deliver with excellence. We are committed to our clients by bringing innovative solutions that lead to profitable growth and shared success.
We live inclusion. We put people at the heart of our business. We embrace different perspectives, collaborating to make a positive impact. Through a strong focus on inclusion, with a diverse team of visionaries, thinkers and doers, we build trust in each other and across our company.

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We do things right
Jacobs' ethics and Code of Conduct are rooted in our values and provide the standards and support to help us successfully navigate issues, make the right decisions and conduct our business with the integrity that reflects our heritage and ethical reputation. We hold our suppliers and business partners to the same standards.
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From the way we operate our business, to the sustainable solutions we co-create with clients and other organizations, we look for ways to make a positive environmental, societal and economic impact for our people, businesses, governments and communities around the world.

Aligned with the United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), PlanBeyond® is our approach to integrating sustainability throughout our operations and client solutions — planning beyond today for a more sustainable future for everyone. We identified six core SDGs that are material to our business, where we can have the most influence and impact, and we remain committed to contribute toward all 17 of the UN SDGs. We also continue to remain agile as our business evolves. Given the level of interconnectedness, complexity and pace of change in our world and company, we recognize that other SDGs are of elevated importance to Jacobs, too. Notably these include, SDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energy; SDGs 14 and 15 - Life Below Water and Life on Land, respectively; and SDG 5 - Gender Equality.
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Industry Leadership on Climate Response
Jacobs identified Climate Response as one of three core growth accelerators within our fiscal 2022 to 2024 Company Strategy – aligning positive societal impact with long-term business growth.
Our key ambitions focus on driving positive impact through our operations and client solutions - including achieving net zero across the value chain by 2040 and contributing to the UN SDGs across all of our solutions by 2025. Our net-zero targets are approved by the Science Based Targets initiative and our carbon neutrality status is in line with the international standard PAS 2060. Detailed in our Carbon Neutrality Commitment, starting in 2020 and throughout fiscal 2021, we achieved 100% low-carbon electricity, and we also became carbon neutral for our operations and business travel in 2020. We continue to maintain these commitments.
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In fiscal 2023, Jacobs launched our inaugural Sustainability Linked Bonds (SLBs) further reflecting our industry leadership and commitment to incorporating sustainability into the Company's financing strategy. The SLBs' performance is underpinned by two Key Performance Indicators, one that is directly linked to Gender Equality and Reduced Inequalities (UN SDG 5 and UN SDG 10) and the other to Climate Action (UN SDG 13).
Our ESG Disclosures Report shares our Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance, reported in alignment with the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board framework. We have sustained industry leading ISS Prime Status for our ESG corporate rating – this is awarded to companies with an ESG performance above the sector-specific Prime threshold, which means that we fulfil ambitious absolute performance requirements. In fiscal 2023, Jacobs was included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index 2022, reinforcing our position as a global sustainability leader. The Dow Jones Sustainability World Index tracks the financial performance of leading sustainability-driven companies worldwide. Jacobs is one of only 325 organizations globally to make the list, out of the more than 10,000 publicly traded companies that are invited to participate in the assessment.

We received the World Environment Center’s prestigious 2023 Gold Medal Award recognizing our international corporate achievement in sustainable development. We also earned a place on CDP's “A” List for climate for the first time and received a gold medal in the EcoVadis Sustainability Ratings.

Supporting our Communities

We focus on putting our values into practice. Around the world, our people craft solutions that affect the way people live; helping to improve social, environmental and economic resiliency.

Every year, we invest in local communities not only where our employees live and work, but globally, collaborating with charities and not-for-profit organizations to make a positive impact and live our values. Through Collectively℠, our global giving and volunteering program, employees can support eligible charities with Jacobs matching donations to a certain level, request a company donation to a charity of their choice that is aligned with our values and strategic causes, and receive paid volunteer time and rewards.

In fiscal 2023, we donated over $3.2 million to 2,700+ charities across 29 countries. Our people tracked approximately 21,000 volunteer hours and completed nearly 1,700 engagement activities.

Social Value and Equity Advisory

Supporting UN SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities, we integrate social value and equity considerations and innovations into the solutions we deliver for our clients. We work with our clients to help them realize social value opportunities through their projects and services by embedding social, economic and environmental benefit generation in what they do. Our blueprint for creating social value through infrastructure investments sets the overarching framework for the solutions we provide to help clients create social value and contribute to a more inclusive economy.

Social value is a fast-evolving field, and its successful delivery requires a wide range of specialisms. Our partner and fully owned subsidiary Simetrica-Jacobs specializes in social value, wellbeing research and impact evaluation, and has contributed to internationally endorsed methods set out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and government-produced guidelines, including the U.K. Government’s HM Treasury Green Book. We help clients understand how they can transform local, city and regional decision-making – identifying innovative, inclusive and ethical investments that will drive social change, spread prosperity and meet the growing challenges facing communities.


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As global challenges to our security, wellbeing and ability to operate evolve, BeyondZero® continues to drive a safer, more secure, healthier and more resilient future for our Jacobs family. Aligning with UN SDG 3: Good Health & Wellbeing, we stay focused on managing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and security risks effectively and leveraging our Culture of Caring℠ to deliver the best outcomes for our people, the environment, our clients, our communities and our shareholders. Through our Mental Health Matters program, we empower our workforce, so they know they work in an environment where their mental health and wellbeing is the top priority and where everyone can "bring their best whole self to work."

We challenge the accepted
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To us, everything we do – whether tackling water scarcity, aging infrastructure, access to life-saving therapies or sophisticated cyberattacks – is more than a job. We work every day to make the world better for all.
Supporting UN SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, we foster a culture of technology and innovation to support the advancement of society. For us, innovation means creating and delivering value and Beyond IfSM is our global innovation program instilling and sustaining our innovation culture. It represents our creativity and agility to challenge the accepted, with the domain expertise to push beyond our boundaries and deliver for today and into tomorrow. We act to turn ideas into reality and create outcomes that deliver value for our clients and society at large.
We aim higher
We take on some of the world’s biggest challenges, bringing a different way of thinking to everything we do, challenging the status quo and questioning what others might accept. We craft solutions that affect the way people live. From delivering vital infrastructure to help communities adapt and thrive to retrofitting vaccine facilities to protect public health, we solve for better, never losing sight of our responsibility to each other.
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BeyondExcellence℠ is our global approach to quality, performance excellence, continual improvement and recognizing those who set the new standard in delivering for our clients. With a core set of processes in place, BeyondExcellence gives us a framework to deliver value on our projects through good governance, assurance and improvement.
We live inclusion
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At Jacobs, we’re building an inclusive and diverse culture to provide a solid foundation for selecting, developing and retaining the best and brightest minds at Jacobs — a culture we call TogetherBeyond℠. We’re taking tangible action to drive meaningful, measurable change both in our company and in the communities we serve. Creating a culture of belonging where everyone can thrive – where our differences are harnessed to bring the innovative, extraordinary solutions to life that our clients demand from us. We also recognize that our Inclusion & Diversity (I&D) and holistic wellbeing efforts are key components of the "S" in ESG — the social value and equity considerations for our people as well as the communities we serve.

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Our eight Jacobs Employee Networks (JENs) promote inclusion and equality, not only within Jacobs but with our clients, potential recruits and within the communities that we serve. The JENs are employee-led and organized, partnering with leadership to shape an inclusive organization and ensure everyone feels that they belong.
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We maintain agile and disciplined capital deployment
M&A and Divestitures
Consistent with our profitable growth strategy, Jacobs pursues acquisitions, divestitures, strategic investments and other transactions to maximize long-term value by continuing to reshape our portfolio to higher value solutions and accelerating profitable growth strategy. The Company has recently made, or announced its intention to make, the following acquisitions, strategic investments and divestitures:
On May 9, 2023, the Company announced our intention to spin-off our Critical Mission Solutions business into an independent publicly traded company to Jacobs’ stockholders. On November 20, 2023, Jacobs entered into a definitive agreement to spin-off and combine our CMS and Cyber and Intelligence government services (part of Divergent Solutions ("DVS")) businesses with Amentum, in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction intended to be tax-free to Jacobs’ shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The transaction, which is expected to close in fiscal year 2024, is subject to regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.
On February 4, 2022, Jacobs acquired StreetLight Data, Inc. ("StreetLight"). StreetLight is a pioneer of mobility analytics who uses its data and machine learning resources to shed light on mobility and enable users to solve complex transportation problems.
On November 19, 2021, Jacobs acquired BlackLynx, Inc. ("BlackLynx"), a provider of high-performance software, to complement Jacobs' portfolio of cyber, intelligence and digital solutions.
On March 2, 2021, Jacobs completed the strategic investment of a 65% interest in PA Consulting, a UK-based leading innovation and transformation consulting firm.
On November 24, 2020, Jacobs completed the acquisition of Buffalo Group, a leader in advanced cyber and intelligence solutions.
Share Repurchases
During fiscal 2023, the Company repurchased $265.7 million in shares.
Shareholder Dividends
During fiscal 2023, the Company paid dividends of $0.23 per share in the first quarter and $0.26 per share in the second, third and fourth quarters.
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Operating Segments
The services we provided to our markets in fiscal 2023 fall into the following two lines of business (LOB): Critical Mission Solutions (CMS) and People & Places Solutions (P&PS). Our LOBs, our business unit Divergent Solutions (DVS), which operates as an integrated offering to both LOBs, and a majority investment in PA Consulting, constitute the Company’s operating segments. 
For additional information regarding our segments, including information about our financial results by segment and financial results by geography, see Note 19 - Segment Information of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Critical Mission Solutions (CMS)
In fiscal 2023, Jacobs’ Critical Mission Solutions line of business provided a full spectrum of solutions for clients to address evolving challenges like digital transformation and modernization, national security and defense, space exploration, digital asset management, the clean energy transition, and nuclear decommissioning and cleanup. Our core capabilities include systems and software development and application integration services and consulting; enterprise level IT operations and mission IT services; engineering, design and construction of specialized technical facilities and systems; testing and mission integration; enterprise operations and maintenance; program management; research, development, test and evaluation services; specialized training and mission operations; environmental remediation; and other highly technical consulting solutions to government agencies as well as commercial clients in the U.S. and international markets.

We leverage our deep experience to support clients in the Aerospace, Automotive, Telecommunications, Intelligence, Defense and Energy sectors to develop lasting solutions in the communities where we live and work.

Our clients include the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the Combatant Commands, the U.S. Intelligence Community, NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE), EDF Nuclear Generation, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), and the Australian Department of Defence, as well as private sector clients mainly in the aerospace, automotive, motorsports, energy and telecom sectors.
Serving mission-critical sectors
The U.S. Government is the world’s largest buyer of technical services, and in fiscal 2023, approximately 70% of CMS’s revenue was earned from serving the DoD, Intelligence Community, DoE and other U.S. Federal Civilian governmental entities.
Trends affecting our government clients include an evolving external threat environment including digital transformation and IT modernization; national security and defense infrastructure modernization; space exploration and domain dominance; intelligent asset management to improve capability and extend the life of aging facilities; research and development of nuclear fission and fusion energy technologies and solutions to accelerate the global clean energy transition; and decommissioning and remediation of legacy nuclear sites, all of which are driving demand for our highly technical solutions.
We are also witnessing an increase in the capabilities of unmanned aircraft and hypersonic weapons, which is impacting both offensive and defensive spending priorities among our clients and is a driver for next generation solutions such as C5ISR (command, control, communications, computer, combat systems, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) and advanced aeronautical and aerothermal testing, respectively. Additionally, we have seen an increase in space exploration initiatives both from the U.S. government, such as NASA’s Artemis program to return to the moon in 2024, as well as the commercial sector.
Within nuclear energy and as part of our Climate Response, our customers have decades-long initiatives to manage and upgrade existing energy infrastructure, construct new nuclear power plants as well as small and advanced modular reactors, and decommission and remediate end-of-life assets. Our customers also manage critical nuclear facilities supporting national security objectives.
Our international clients, which accounted for 22% of fiscal 2023 revenue, have also increased demand for our IT and advanced infrastructure solutions, defense and nuclear energy capabilities.
In fiscal 2023, approximately 8% of CMS’s revenue was from U.S. commercial sectors, including telecommunications, which anticipates a large cellular infrastructure build-out from 4G to 5G technology. Like our government services clients, our commercial clients are seeking ways to improve capabilities, reduce maintenance costs and optimize their facilities
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with network connected facilities and equipment. They also look to CMS for advanced research and development systems and facilities that enable advanced product development.
On May 9, 2023, the Company announced our intention to spin-off our Critical Mission Solutions business into an independent publicly traded company to Jacobs’ stockholders. On November 20, 2023, Jacobs entered into a definitive agreement to spin-off and combine our Critical Mission Solutions and Cyber and Intelligence government services businesses (part of Divergent Solutions ("DVS")) with Amentum, in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction intended to be tax-free to Jacobs’ shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The transaction, which is expected to close in fiscal year 2024, is subject to regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.

People & Places Solutions (P&PS)
In fiscal 2023, Jacobs' People & Places Solutions line of business provided end-to-end solutions for our clients’ most complex challenges related to climate change, energy transition, connected mobility, integrated water management and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. In doing so, we combine deep experience in the following sectors - Advanced Manufacturing, Cities & Places, Energy & Environment, Transportation and Water.

Our core skills revolve around consulting, planning, architecture, design, engineering, infrastructure delivery services including project, program and construction management and long-term operation of facilities. Solutions are delivered as standalone professional service engagements, comprehensive program management partnerships, and selective progressive design-build and construction management at-risk delivery services. Increasingly, we use data science and technology-enabled expertise to deliver positive and enduring outcomes for the clients and communities we serve.

Our clients include national, state and local governments in the U.S., Europe, U.K., Middle East, and Asia Pacific, and multinational and local private sector clients throughout the world.

Serving broad industry sectors that support people and places

Infrastructure modernization; climate change; urbanization and population growth; water, food and energy security; strengthening global supply chains; and digital transformation are driving new challenges and opportunities for our clients. These drivers require holistic, integrated and sustainable solutions that draw on our significant knowledge in the markets we serve. For example, an airport is now a smart city with extensive operational, cybersecurity, sustainability and autonomous mobility requirements. Major projects and programs now require advanced analytics to plan for climate adaptation, just and equitable inclusion, and next-generation mobility services. The future of major utilities (water, power/energy, telecommunications) is highly technology-enabled, using digital twins, predictive analytics and smart metering technology to maximize services in the most carbon and commercially efficient manner while protecting the natural environment and the security of supply.

This increase in technology-enabled solutions is a key factor in our growth strategy - both organic and through our recent acquisitions and strategic investments. Our business model is evolving to include proprietary software and analytics to solve modern challenges. A key example of this is the addition of StreetLight's on-demand analytics which are transforming transportation and infrastructure solutions, enabling smarter, more impactful investments.

The combination of these attributes results in a significant effort to modernize infrastructure around the globe. Key examples include advising transportation agencies in major cities as they decarbonize vehicle fleets, including the electrification of New York City’s bus fleet – the largest in North America – and San Francisco. We design and deliver battery and vehicle manufacturing facilities for private clients across North America and Europe. In the Energy & Power space, we are supporting the buildout of enabling infrastructure supporting the development of offshore wind assets, especially in the northeast United States. Our knowledge in the environmental, water and wastewater, solid waste, aviation and infrastructure markets has made us a top-ranked environmental consultant and we have supported clients with PFAS assessment and remediation at thousands of sites. Finally, we have long-standing partnerships with the world’s leading life sciences firms, designing and delivering advanced facilities that manufacture critical life-changing vaccines and therapies.

A strong foundation of innovative solutions, a culture of sustainability and inclusion, a focus on climate response and resilience, and an expansive consulting and advisory mindset are woven into every project we deliver for the benefit of people, places and the planet in the communities we serve.
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Divergent Solutions (DVS)
Jacobs’ business unit and operating segment, Divergent Solutions, serves as the core foundation for developing and delivering innovative, next-generation cloud, cyber, data and digital technologies. DVS further strengthens our ability to drive value for clients of both LOBs by leveraging a full spectrum of cyber, data analytics, systems and software application integration services across Jacobs. Our core capabilities include global strategic alliances, innovation collaboration, next-generation technologies, software and data as a service, and data and secure solutions, all aligned to the three high-growth verticals of Transportation, Water and National Security. DVS clients include government agencies and commercial clients in the U.S. and international markets. The Reverse Morris Trust transaction announced on November 20, 2023 includes portions of DVS, including the Cyber & Intelligence business.
PA Consulting (PA)
Jacobs invested in a 65% stake in PA Consulting, the company that is bringing ingenuity to life. PA accelerates new growth ideas from concept, through design and development and to commercial success, and revitalizes organizations, building leadership, culture, systems and processes to make innovation a reality. PA’s team of approximately 4,000 strategists, innovators, designers, consultants, digital experts, scientists, engineers and technologists work across seven sectors: consumer and manufacturing, defense and security, energy and utilities, financial services, government, health and life sciences, and transport to make a positive impact alongside the clients it supports.

PA has a diverse mix of private and public sector clients. Private sector clients include global household names like Unilever and Pret A Manger; and start-ups like PulPac, which is converting plant fibers into sustainable packaging, and Hydrow, with its award-winning indoor rowing machine. Public sector clients include national and local government entities like the U.K.’s Ministry of Defence and National Health Service, the Swedish Payments Authority (Utbetalningsmyndigheten), and the U.K.’s Hampshire County Council.

In a fast-moving, complex world, we’re deploying the collective strengths of Jacobs and PA to create significant opportunities for our clients to adapt, innovate and transform. Alongside Copenhagen Metro – one of the most advanced public transport systems in Europe – we’re providing strategic management and technical services to support its operations and maintenance. We’ve also been selected by the U.K. Department for Transport to provide technical and commercial advice on its portfolio of rail and other transport mode agreements, major projects and programs, and its policy and strategic work in transport.
Significant Customers
The following table sets forth the percentage of total revenues earned directly or indirectly from agencies of the U.S. federal government for each of the last three fiscal years:
20232022 2021
31%31% 33%
Given the percentage of total revenue derived directly from the U.S. federal government, the loss of U.S. federal government agencies as customers could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, any or all of our government contracts could be terminated, we could be suspended or debarred from all government contract work, or payment of our costs could be disallowed. Approximately 64% of revenue derived directly from the U.S. federal government is in the CMS segment. For more information on risks relating to our government contracts, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Contracts
While there is considerable variation in the pricing provisions of the contracts we undertake, our contracts generally fall into two broad categories: cost-reimbursable and fixed-price. The following table sets forth the percentages of total revenues represented by these types of contracts for each of the last three fiscal years:
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20232022 2021
Cost-reimbursable74%74%76%
Fixed-price, limited risk21%21%18%
Fixed-price, at risk5%5%6%
In accordance with industry practice, most of our contracts (including those with the U.S. federal government) are subject to termination at the discretion of the client, which is discussed in greater detail in Item 1A - Risk Factors. In such situations, our contracts typically provide for reimbursement of costs incurred and payment of fees earned through the date of termination.
Cost-Reimbursable Contracts
Cost-reimbursable contracts generally provide for reimbursement of costs incurred plus an amount of profit. The profit element may be in the form of a simple mark-up applied to the labor costs incurred or it may be in the form of a fee, or a combination of a mark-up and a fee. The fee element can also take several forms. The fee may be a fixed amount; it may be an amount based on a percentage of the costs incurred; or it may be an incentive fee based on targets, milestones, or performance factors defined in the contract.
Fixed-Price Contracts
Fixed-price contracts include both “lump sum bid” contracts and “negotiated fixed-price” contracts. Under lump sum bid contracts, we typically bid against competitors based on client-furnished specifications. This type of pricing presents certain inherent risks, including the possibility of ambiguities in the specifications received, problems with new technologies, and economic and other changes that may occur over the contract period. Additionally, it is not unusual for lump sum bid contracts to lead to an adversarial relationship with clients, which is contrary to our relationship-based business model. Accordingly, lump sum bid contracts are not our preferred form of contract. In contrast, under a negotiated fixed-price contract, we are selected as the contractor first and then we negotiate a price with our client. Negotiated fixed-price contracts frequently exist in single-responsibility arrangements where we perform some portion of the work before negotiating the total price of the project. Thus, although both types of contracts involve a firm price for the client, the lump sum bid contract provides the greater degree of risk to us in our services contracts as well as construction. However, because of economies that may be realized during the contract term, both negotiated fixed-price and lump sum bid contracts may offer greater profit potential than other types of contracts. The Company carefully manages the risk inherent in these types of contracts. In recent years, most of our fixed-price work has been either negotiated fixed-price contracts or lump sum bid contracts for design and/or project services, rather than turnkey construction.
Competition
We compete with many companies across the world including technology consulting, federal IT services, aerospace, defense and engineering firms. Typically, no single company or companies dominate the markets in which we provide services, and in many cases we partner with our competitors or other companies to jointly pursue projects. AECOM, Booz Allen, CACI, KBR, Leidos, ManTech, Parsons, SAIC, Tetra Tech, WSP, General Dynamics, Northrop Grumman, Accenture, Altair, Stantec, Montrose, Capgemini, Cognizant, DXC Technology, Fluor, 3LHarris, EPAM Systems, Globant, Endava, Exponent, IBM, Infosys, Deloitte, KPMG, PwC, Perficient, Procure, ICF International, TTEC and Huron are some of our competitors. We compete based on the following factors, among others: technical capabilities, reputation for quality, price of services, safety record, availability of qualified personnel, and ability to timely perform work and contract terms.
Our People

Our people and our culture are fundamental to what truly makes Jacobs. Authentic leadership and a commitment to living our core values every day creates a culture of trust, respect and empowerment across our business to help us deliver the best outcomes for all our stakeholders. Together, we deliver extraordinary solutions for a better tomorrow and live by our employee value statement: "Jacobs. A world where you can." Our strategy further connects our people to our purpose and helps us continue to evolve our culture to support, empower and enable our talent to thrive.
Attracting, Engaging and Developing our Workforce
As of September 29, 2023, we had a workforce of approximately 60,000 people worldwide, including a contingent workforce of approximately 2,900 people. This represents an increase of 2% in our total workforce year-over-year. The
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breakdown of our employees by region is as follows:
Region
Percentage of Global Workforce(1)
Americas55 %
Europe (including U.K)26 %
Asia Pacific (including India)15 %
Middle East and Africa%
(1) Excludes contingent workforce
The success of Jacobs is dependent on our ability to hire, retain, engage and leverage highly qualified employees, across the full spectrum of technical, professional, scientific and consulting disciplines.

By fostering learning and unlocking career opportunities for our people, we attract and retain the best talent to deliver for our clients and fuel long-term growth for Jacobs. Our global learning and development resources help our talent grow and develop their careers while also sharing expertise and specialized skills. Our global graduate development program and our local apprenticeships transition our future talent into our community with the skills, networks and knowledge necessary to create the foundation for a successful career at Jacobs. We provide our interns with practical, relevant “real life experience” to help support their professional goals. In fiscal 2023, close to 2,600 graduates, interns and apprentices were welcomed to our global team.

Our people can pursue different careers and lifelong professional opportunities at Jacobs. We promote and foster agile careers enabling employees to develop new skills and accelerate learning in different areas of our business. Our Jacobs Go! Program provides inter-regional and international six-month secondments to enhance employee experience and support their connectivity across Jacobs. In fiscal 2023, we also introduced our Returnship Program for talented professionals looking to refresh skills and reignite careers after an extended career break. As an employer of choice for diverse talent, these programs enable us to bring more innovative thought and solutions into our teams to support our clients.

Having established a baseline for our organizational health with a comprehensive Culture Survey in 2021, we are conducting shorter, periodic pulse surveys with employees to continually evaluate progress in priority areas and identify new opportunities for growth. In the most recent pulse survey, our people generally fed back that they feel included, have a sense of personal accomplishment and are likely to recommend Jacobs to a friend. We continue to make improvements in all areas including ensuring that advancement is fair and transparent.

Our unique employee experience platform – e3: engage. excel. elevate. – is not just a tool but a mindset enabling our employees to develop through continuous feedback and celebrations, aligning priorities, learning new skills and increasing knowledge. As of October 23, 2023, 87% of our employees have participated in their current annual conversation about their priorities and accomplishments. Employees also took the time to submit approximately 27,000 celebrations to recognize the work and commitment of colleagues across the business.

In addition, in fiscal 2023, 263 of our Jacobs leaders completed Amplif(i)3, a program with top-notch educators, to strengthen inspirational leadership and development of inclusive, innovative teams to enhance strategy engagement and execution across our global organization. Another successful leadership program has been our award-winning CEO Leadership Roundtable series which helps our people leaders and influencers to strengthen their leadership capabilities and grow as inspiring, impactful leaders. This past year, 8,577 Jacobs' people leaders were invited to programs led by CEO Bob Pragada. They engaged on topics such as how leaders can focus on the most important actions to lead people, and how they lead through times of professional and enterprise change. The program received a prestigious "Gold" Brandon Hall Group HCM Excellence Award.

We foster and encourage robust mentoring. Employees can request a mentor through e3 in our mentor match programs. Our eight Jacobs Employee Networks (JENs) offer mentoring programs that connect members with leaders who understand the unique challenges of their journeys and provide insight and guidance for those looking to elevate their careers. Our Board of Directors is also engaged with our JENs and leadership programs, participating in panel discussions and mentoring events within the Company, and at industry events.
Focus on Inclusion and Diversity
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TogetherBeyondis our approach to living inclusion every day and enabling diversity and equity globally. Integral to our strategy and how our culture continues to evolve, our TogetherBeyond approach supports a workplace where our people are curious, embrace different perspectives and harness new ideas to bring the innovative, extraordinary solutions clients demand from us. We know that if our people feel connected and valued and that they belong, then there is no limit to who they can be and what we can achieve together. Whether they connect through our JENs, our Communities of Practice, or in other ways, our people can collaborate and drive pivotal initiatives within Jacobs that directly impact our clients and create a workplace where everyone thrives.

Through TogetherBeyond, we tackle topics that are important to our employees such as equality, conscious inclusion and allyship. While providing training and resources to our people is important, equally effective are the regular authentic and courageous conversations our grassroots employee networks are creating around these topics. Through our JENs and other internal communities, our people play a critical role in attracting new talent into our business, helping to shape our recruiting strategies and policies, our science, technology, engineering, arts and math (STEAM) programs, and our accessibility practices.

Tangible leadership commitment and accountability helps drive our culture at Jacobs. At fiscal year-end 2023, our Board's independent directors were 55% diverse (race and gender), and our Executive Leadership Team was 71% diverse, based on self-reported data.

We hold leaders accountable to making sure that broad-based-diversity is reflected in their actions, their teams and the way we operate. Each year, our people leaders commit to meaningful inclusion and diversity (I&D) actions. Our Senior Vice Presidents and above sign our annual I&D commitment statement. Inclusive behaviors and outcomes are a formal component of all our leaders’ performance and compensation reviews, and all leaders at Vice President level and above are encouraged to mentor junior members of staff, including those who have a different background from themselves. This framework supports our essential I&D priorities – such as recruiting, developing and retaining outstanding veteran talent, advancing the rights of LGBTQ+ people and creating an environment where people living with disabilities participate fully and meaningfully – and ensures that we are propelling a new generation of visionary thinkers throughout our company. We also issued our new industry-leading Sustainability-Linked Bond Framework, where the interest rates payable on the bonds are tied to Jacobs' commitment to increase gender diversity in leadership positions by 2028.

An important component of these priorities is our “Be Seen @ Jacobs” data disclosure campaign which allows employees globally to confidentially and voluntarily report the demographic data they want to report. This helps us enhance our data reporting, giving us a holistic overview of all our talent in the business and the ability to identify and address any pay gaps or inequities that may exist.
As of September 29, 2023, our U.S. employees had the following race and ethnicity demographics based on self-reported data:
September 29, 2023
All U.S. Employees (1)
White66.9 %
Hispanic / Latin9.9 %
Black8.1 %
Asian7.9 %
Multiracial2.8 %
American Indian or Alaska Native0.5 %
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander0.3 %
Not provided3.6 %
(1) Includes U.S. employee population only (excludes contingent and craft employees)

Our focus on creating equal opportunities within Jacobs continues as we deliver on the commitments laid out in our Global Action Plan for Advancing Justice and Equality (the "Action Plan") launched in fiscal 2020.

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In the Action Plan, we continue to work toward our five-year target of investing $10 million by 2025 to support charitable donations aligned with the Action Plan pillars, further STEAM outreach efforts to historically underrepresented groups, increase our support of diverse suppliers, and strengthen our commitment to developing and hiring the best diverse talent. In fiscal 2023, we invested more than $1.7 million toward this commitment. We are supporting several Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs), including Howard University where the Jacobs Equity and Advancement Program, a scholarship program and student engagement plan, provides monetary supplement to STEAM education, as well as opportunities for research, mentorship and continued STEAM outreach. We've also donated $1 million to support SEED School of LA County in South Los Angeles supporting at risk students. Additionally, we’re supporting the Cowrie Scholarship Foundation’s mission to graduate 100 disadvantaged Black Britons through U.K. universities in the next decade and we're working with 20/20 to help racially underrepresented people to access career and business development opportunities. We're also partnering with Tent’s LGBTQ+ Refugee Mentorship Initiative, pairing Jacobs mentors with LGBTQ+ refugees fleeing persecution. In fiscal 2023, we ranked in the top 75 employers of Social Mobility Foundation's Employer Index 2023.

Another key success story driven by the Action Plan is our ongoing commitment to supplier diversity, part of the Action Plan’s goal to “contribute to structural change in the broader society”. We are focusing on intentionally working with small or disadvantaged businesses across the globe, inclusive of minority and veteran owned businesses, and are working on quantifying diverse supplier spend. While industry benchmarks for supplier diversity currently average around 7.2% of total spend, in fiscal 2023 we spent $2.18 billion on diverse, minority-owned and disadvantaged businesses, representing approximately 34.35% of our total supply chain spend.
As of September 29, 2023, our global employees had the following gender demographics based on self-reported data:
September 29, 2023(1)
WomenMen
All employees
31.0%
69.0%
(1) Excludes contingent workforce and craft employees

Total U.S. diversity (ethnicity & female) was 48.9% (excludes contingent workers and craft employees). In partnership with our Women’s Network, we deliver various workforce diversity initiatives to elevate the value of women in the workplace, while fostering the next generation of professional women. Strategic efforts include tools and resources to support gender-balanced interview teams, flexible working arrangements, improved caregiver leave, and “Bridge the Gap”, a program that actively supports parents returning to work. We are in constant communication with our employees about their healthcare needs.

In fiscal 2023, we were named one of The Times Top 50 Employers for Gender Equality 2023, the U.K.’s most highly profiled and well-established listing of employers striving for gender equality in the workplace.

In fiscal 2023, our U.S. university hiring demographics show hires of 39% female, 57% male, and 4% undisclosed or non-binary gender, as well as 45% ethnically diverse employees. Overall U.S. hiring at Jacobs is at 37% for ethnically diverse employees (excludes contingent workers and craft employees) in 2023.

Our ACE employee network connects and empowers members living with disability, health challenges or neurodiversity, and those who provide care to others. ACE embraces the social model of disability which aims to identify and remove the social, digital, and physical barriers that create exclusion in the workplace and society in general. We again earned the top score of 100 in the 2023 Disability Equality Index, a joint initiative of the American Association of People with Disabilities and Disability:IN, the leading nonprofit resource for business disability inclusion worldwide.

Through our Careers Network, we empower every employee to maximize their potential and make Jacobs the industry leader and workplace of choice. The network organizes and supports career-enriching development and networking opportunities in all our geographies.

Our One World employee network continues to celebrate cultures around the globe and to foster global connectivity, nurturing and supporting our diverse employees and clients across all ethnicities and cultures.

We supported our Prism network to drive inclusion of our LGBTQ+ family by continuing to review healthcare plans to ensure they are inclusive, train HR specialists on transgender guidelines and establish gender-neutral restrooms. In fiscal 2023, we received the People First and Large Firm of the Year awards from Consult Australia and were named to the Straits
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Times’ Singapore’s Best Employers for 2023. We again ranked No. 6 in Stonewall’s U.K. Workplace Equality Index (WEI) Top 100 Employers List for LGBTQIA+ People and retained Stonewall’s Gold Award.

Through VetNet, our employee network for veterans, their families and current military reserve members, we continue to work to recruit, develop and retain the best military and veteran talent, partnering with key organizations like Hiring Our Heroes. We were proud to be honored as a 2023 VETS Indexes 4 Star Employer, recognizing our commitment to recruiting, hiring, retaining, developing and supporting veterans and the military-connected community.

Looking ahead, we will continue to focus on inclusion, belonging and diversity by:
Continuing progress through our global Action Plan for Advancing Justice and Equality
Striving to achieve our aspirational goals of creating a more gender-balanced and a more racially/ethnically diverse workforce around the globe to more closely reflect the labor markets and communities in which we live and serve
Amplifying our culture of belonging and helping all employees see the various communities they can engage with at Jacobs so that everyone has a sense of belonging
Following through on our priority areas identified through our global employee culture pulse surveys
Identifying, developing and promoting allies across Jacobs
Continue our data sharing campaign and enhance data reporting
Continue to grow the diversity of talent for early career to experience staff through our graduates, interns, apprentices and STEAM education opportunities
Increase measurement and diversification of our supply chain to improve our impact.
Our Employees’ Wellbeing and Resilience
We believe in a comprehensive approach to our employees’ resilience that covers physical, emotional, financial and social dimensions. Our programs, tools and benefits prioritize our people, equipping them with the resources and support they need to excel in all aspects of life. Our new global financial counseling benefit is designed to help our employees manage their finances confidently and be financially resilient, both in the present and the future. Additionally, our partnership with Carrot provides inclusive fertility healthcare and family-forming benefits for all paths to parenthood. We've also expanded our parental leave policies in the U.S. to further support our growing families.

We support the emotional resilience of our people and communities through our "One Million Lives" initiative, developed with global mental health professionals, where we offer a free and accessible mental health check-in tool. Since its launch in December 2020 to fiscal year end 2023, over 40,000 check-ins have been completed. Our e3 Learning platform empowers employees with self-guided learning opportunities in wellbeing and related topics. To ensure continued mental wellbeing, we have a network of dedicated Positive Mental Health Leads and an employee volunteer community of 2,036 Positive Mental Health Champions, with one in every 29 employees being an active champion.

Organizationally, as global challenges to our security, wellbeing and ability to operate evolve, we stay focused on managing risks effectively and building our resilience by leveraging our Culture of Caring℠ to deliver the best outcomes for our people, the environment and our company. Our BeyondZero® program continues to drive a safer, more secure, healthier, and more resilient future for our Jacobs family, our communities and the environment. Our business continuity program to assure business delivery and resilience continues to prove its effectiveness in an ever-changing operational environment. Jacobs’ Strategic Risk Analysis capability is a coordinated program for the identification, collation and analysis of threat intelligence and information. It enables relevant reporting among operational and strategic contextualization for effective guidance, strategic contemplation and critical business decision-making processes. Despite numerous climate-related and other global events, Jacobs has successfully maintained business continuity throughout our operations. The physical resilience of our employees at work is demonstrated though our commitment to safety excellence with another year of zero employee fatalities at work and a total recordable incident rate1 of 0.20, compared to the North American Industry Classification System’s most recently reported2 aggregate rate of 0.60.

Our enhanced Global Travel Assistance program in partnership with our Global Assistance & Response provider, International SOS, helps keep our employees safe and healthy while traveling or on assignment outside their home country.

Even in challenging global circumstances, our dedication to humanitarian efforts remains resolute. Our employees actively support humanitarian relief through Collectively, our global giving and volunteering program, which enables them to make donations and volunteer their time to natural and climate-related disaster recovery and relief campaigns, water security
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and scarcity, and the impacts of conflicts around the world. Jacobs proudly extends our Employee Assistance Program to support Ukrainian refugees who are hosted by Jacobs employees as household members.

1 As of October 15, 2023 and recorded in accordance with OSHA record keeping requirements, but subject to change thereafter due to possible injury/illness classification changes. The TRIR calculation uses the US OSHA formula of ‘Number of Incidents x 200,000 / total number of hours worked in a year’. The 200,000 is the benchmark established by OSHA because it represents the total number of hours 100 employees would log in 50 weeks based on a 40-hour work week.
2 Cited on September 14th, 2023 via U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Incidence rates of non-fatal occupational injuries
and illnesses by industry and case types, 2021 for NAICS code 54133
Information About Our Executive Officers
The information required by Paragraph (a), and Paragraphs (c) through (g) of Item 401 of Regulation S-K (except for information required by Paragraph (e) of that Item to the extent the required information pertains to our executive officers) and Item 405 of Regulation S-K is set forth under the caption “Members of the Board of Directors” in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year and is incorporated herein by reference.
The following table presents the information required by Paragraph (b) of Item 401 of Regulation S-K.
Name Age Position with the Company Year Joined the Company
Steven J. Demetriou 65  Executive Chair 2015
Robert V. Pragada55 Chief Executive Officer and Director2016
Claudia Jaramillo 51  Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer 2022
Steve Arnette 56  Executive Vice President and President, Critical Mission Solutions 1995
Joanne E. Caruso63 Executive Vice President, Chief Legal and Administrative Officer2012
Patrick X. Hill50 Executive Vice President and President, People & Places Solutions1998
Shannon Miller47 Executive Vice President and President, Divergent Solutions1998
William B. Allen, Jr.  59  Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer 2016
All of the officers listed in the preceding table serve in their respective capacities at the pleasure of the Board of Directors of the Company.
Mr. Demetriou joined the Company in August 2015, and served as Chair and CEO until January 2023, when he assumed the Executive Chair position. Mr. Demetriou served as Chairman and CEO of Aleris Corporation for 14 years, a global downstream aluminum producer based in Cleveland, Ohio. Over the course of his career, he has gained broad experience with companies in a range of industries including metals, specialty chemicals, oil & gas, manufacturing and fertilizers.
Mr. Pragada rejoined the Company in February 2016 after serving as President and Chief Executive Officer of The Brock Group since August 2014. From March 2006 to August 2014 Mr. Pragada served in executive and senior leadership capacities with the Company. Mr. Pragada most recently served as President and Chief Operating Officer, until he succeeded Mr. Demetriou as Chief Executive Officer and was elected as a Director of the Company in January 2023.
Ms. Jaramillo joined the Company in July 2022 as Executive Vice President, Strategy and Corporate Development. Prior to that, Ms. Jaramillo spent more than 20 years at Schlumberger Limited, a global energy company, where she served in multiple executive roles in both operations and corporate finance, most recently as Vice President & Group Treasurer until June 2022. In August 2023, Ms. Jaramillo assumed the role of Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.
Mr. Arnette joined the Company in 1995. Mr. Arnette's career at Jacobs spans more than 25 years in several senior leadership positions, crossing multiple sectors and operations. Most recently he led CMS's largest business unit as Senior Vice President of Advanced Engineering, Research & Operations, serving public and private sector clients around the globe with solutions for complex, mission-essential programs and projects in aerospace, automotive, defense and telecommunications sectors.
Ms. Caruso joined the Company in 2012. Prior to becoming Executive Vice President, Chief Legal and Administrative Officer, Ms. Caruso was Senior Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer, and previously held the positions of Senior Vice
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President, Global Human Resources and Vice President, Global Litigation. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Caruso was a partner in two international law firms, Howrey LLP and Baker & Hostetler LLP.
Mr. Hill joined the Company through the SKM acquisition, where he started in 1998. Mr. Hill has served in several senior leadership positions crossing multiple sectors and operations throughout Australia, New Zealand, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the United States. Prior to his appointment as President – People & Places Solutions, Mr. Hill jointly led People & Places Solutions with day-to-day responsibilities for Jacobs' Buildings and Infrastructure global operations outside of North America.
Ms. Miller joined the Company in 1998. During her almost 25-year career at Jacobs, Ms. Miller has had a rich and varied global journey in operations, sales and functional roles leading cultural and digital transformation for both the company and its markets, including technology, resources, infrastructure, pharmaceutical and consumer products. Most recently Ms. Miller served as Jacobs’ Chief Growth Officer and lead for Enterprise Risk Management.
Mr. Allen joined the Company in October 2016. Mr. Allen served as Vice President, Finance and Principal Accounting Officer at LyondellBasell Industries, N.V. from 2013 to 2016. Prior to that, he was with Albemarle Corporation, where he served as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer from 2009 to 2013 after serving in CFO roles for their Catalysts and Fine Chemistry businesses from 2005 to 2009.
Additional Information
Jacobs was founded in 1947 and incorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1987. We are headquartered in Dallas, Texas, USA. The SEC maintains a site on the Internet that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and download the various reports we file with, or furnish to, the SEC free of charge from our website at www.jacobs.com.
Item 1A.    RISK FACTORS
We operate in a changing global environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The risks described below highlight some of the factors that have affected and could affect us in the future. We may also be affected by unknown risks or risks that we currently think are immaterial. If any such events actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Summary Risk Factors
The following is a summary of some of the risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk factor contained below.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We engage in a highly competitive business. If we are unable to compete effectively, we could lose market share and our business and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
Our results of operations depend on the award of new contracts and the timing of the award of these contracts and economic conditions. Demand for our services may be impacted by continuing inflation, rising or continued high interest rates, and/or construction costs.
We may be unable to realize the benefits of implementing our three-year corporate strategy.
Project sites are inherently dangerous workplaces. Failure to maintain safe work sites exposes us to significant financial losses and reputational harm, as well as civil and criminal liabilities.
The nature of our contracts, particularly any fixed-price contracts, subjects us to risks of cost overruns. We may experience losses if costs increase above budgets or estimates or the project experiences delays.
Our failure to meet performance requirements or contractual schedules could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The contracts in our backlog may be adjusted, canceled or suspended by our clients and, therefore, our backlog is not necessarily indicative of our future revenues or earnings.
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Contracts with the U.S. federal government and other governments and their agencies pose additional risks compared to contracts with private sector clients.
Our services expose us to significant monetary damages or even criminal violations and our insurance policies may not provide adequate coverage.
The outcome of pending and future claims and litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations and damage our reputation.
A reduction in the amount of available governmental funding could materially affect our results of operations.
We are dependent on third parties to complete many of our contracts.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct, or our overall failure to comply with laws or regulations, could weaken our ability to win contracts, which could result in reduced revenues and profits.
Cybersecurity or privacy breaches, or systems and information technology interruption or failure could adversely impact our ability to operate or expose us to significant financial losses and reputational harm.
If we do not have adequate indemnification for our nuclear services, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions used to prepare our financial statements.
Our benefit plan expenses and obligations may fluctuate depending on various factors, including inflation, changes in levels of interest rates, and pension plan asset performance.
Our businesses could be materially and adversely affected by events outside of our control.
Our continued success is dependent upon our ability to hire, retain, and utilize qualified personnel while managing the risks associated with sustained remote working arrangements.
Our professional reputation and relationships with government agencies are critical to our business, and any harm to our reputation or relationships could decrease the amount of business that government agencies do with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our focus on new growth areas entails risks, including those associated with new relationships, clients, talent needs, capabilities, service offerings, and maintaining our collaborative culture and core values.
If we, or our subsidiaries or companies in which we have made strategic investments, lose, or experience a significant reduction in, business from one or a few customers, it could have a material adverse impact on us.
Risks Related to International Operations
Our international operations are exposed to additional risks and uncertainties, including unfavorable political developments and weak foreign economies.
Foreign exchange risks may affect our ability to realize a profit from certain projects.
Our global presence could give rise to material fluctuations in our income tax rates.
Risks Related to Acquisitions, Investments, Joint Ventures and Divestitures
Our use of joint ventures, partnerships and strategic investments in entities exposes us to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control.
An impairment charge on our goodwill or intangible assets could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
Our business strategy relies in part on acquisitions and strategic investments to sustain our growth and we may make minority investments as well, all of which present certain risks and uncertainties.
Our transaction to combine CMS and portions of DVS with Amentum may not be completed on the currently contemplated timeline or at all and may not achieve the intended benefits.
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance
Past and future environmental, health, and safety laws could impose significant additional costs and liabilities.
If we fail to comply with any governmental requirements, our business may be adversely affected.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
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Risks Related to Climate Change
Climate change and related environmental issues, including market or regulatory responses to climate change, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to achieve our climate commitments and targets.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Credit Markets
We rely in part on liquidity from our credit facilities to fund our business. Restrictions in our credit facilities and other indebtedness could adversely impact our business. Our businesses may be adversely affected by disruptions or lack of liquidity in the credit markets, including reduced access to credit and higher costs of obtaining credit.
Maintaining adequate bonding and letter of credit capacity is necessary for us to successfully win some contracts.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase and our net income and cash flows to correspondingly decrease.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Corporate Structure
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly, which could have a material negative effect on the price of our common stock.
There can be no assurance that we will pay dividends on our common stock.
In the event we issue stock as consideration for certain acquisitions we may make, we could dilute share ownership, and if we receive stock in connection with a divestiture, the value of stock is subject to fluctuation.
We are a holding company. Substantially all of our business is conducted through our subsidiaries. We depend on the performance of our subsidiaries and their ability to make distributions to us to fund our operations.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We engage in a highly competitive business. If we are unable to compete effectively, we could lose market share and our business and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
We face intense competition to provide technical, professional and construction management services to clients. The markets we serve are highly competitive and we compete against a large number of regional, national and multinational companies. The extent and type of our competition varies by industry, geographic area and project type. Our projects are frequently awarded through a competitive procurement process. We are constantly competing for project awards based on pricing, schedule and the breadth and technical sophistication of our services. Competition can place downward pressure on our contract prices and profit margins, which increases the risk that, among other things, we may not realize profit margins at the same rates as we have seen in the past or may become responsible for costs or other liabilities we have not accepted in the past. If we are unable to compete effectively, we may experience a loss of market share or reduced profitability or both, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results of operations depend on the award of new contracts and the timing of the award of these contracts.
Our revenues depend on new contract awards. Delays in the timing of the awards or cancellations of such projects as a result of economic conditions, material and equipment pricing and availability or other factors could impact our long-term projected results. It is particularly difficult to predict whether or when we will receive large-scale projects as these contracts frequently involve a lengthy and complex procurement and selection process, which is affected by a number of factors, such as market conditions or governmental and environmental approvals. Since a significant portion of our revenues is generated from such projects, our results of operations and cash flows can fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter depending on the timing of our contract awards and the commencement or progress of work under awarded contracts. Furthermore, many of these contracts are subject to financing contingencies and, as a result, we are subject to the risk that the customer will not be able to secure the necessary financing for the project.
The uncertainty of our contract award timing can also present difficulties in matching workforce size with contract needs. In some cases, we maintain and bear the cost of a ready workforce that is larger than necessary under existing contracts in anticipation of future workforce needs for expected contract awards. When an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we incur additional costs resulting from reductions in staff or redundancy of facilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Demand for our services is impacted by economic downturns, reductions in government or private spending and times of political uncertainty.
We provide full spectrum technical and professional solutions to clients operating in a number of sectors and industries, including programs for various national governments, including the U.S. federal government; aerospace; automotive; pharmaceuticals and biotechnology; infrastructure; environmental; nuclear decommissioning; buildings; smart cities; energy and power; water; transportation; telecom and other general industrial and consumer businesses and sectors. These sectors and industries and the resulting demand for our services have been, and we expect will continue to be, subject to significant fluctuations due to a variety of factors beyond our control, including economic conditions and changes in client spending, particularly during periods of economic or political uncertainty. Consequently, our results have varied, and may continue to vary, depending upon the demand for future projects in the markets and the locations in which we operate.
Uncertain global economic, socioeconomic and political conditions may negatively impact our clients’ ability and willingness to fund their projects, including their ability to raise capital and pay, or timely pay, our invoices. These factors may also cause our clients to reduce their capital expenditures, alter the mix of services purchased, seek more favorable pricing and other contract terms and otherwise slow their spending on our services. For example, in the public sector, declines in state and local tax revenues as well as other economic declines may result in lower state and local government spending. In addition, under such conditions, many of our competitors may be more inclined to take greater or unusual risks or accept terms and conditions in contracts that we might not deem acceptable. These conditions may reduce the demand for our services, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, uncertain economic, socioeconomic and political conditions may make it difficult for our clients, our vendors, and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. We cannot predict the outcome of changing trade policies or other unanticipated socioeconomic or political conditions, nor can we predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic recovery or downturn worldwide or in our clients’ markets. In addition, our business has traditionally lagged recoveries in the general economy and, therefore, may not recover as quickly as the economy at large. Weak economic conditions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if a significant portion of our clients or projects are concentrated in a specific geographic area or industry, our business may be disproportionately affected by regional conflicts, negative trends or economic downturns in those specific geographic areas or industries.
Continuing inflation, rising or continued high interest rates, and/or construction costs could reduce the demand for our services as well as decrease our profit on our existing contracts, in particular with respect to our fixed-price contracts.
Rising inflation, interest rates, and/or construction costs could reduce the demand for our services. In addition, we bear all of the risk of high inflation with respect to those contracts that are fixed-price. Because a significant portion of our revenues are earned from cost-reimbursable type contracts (approximately 74.1% during fiscal 2023), the effects of inflation on our financial condition and results of operations over the past few years have been generally minor. However, if we continue to experience inflationary pressures, inflation may have a larger impact on our results of operations in the future, particularly if we expand our business into markets and geographic areas where fixed-price and lump-sum work is more prevalent. Therefore, continued inflation, rising or continued high interest rates and/or construction costs could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to realize the benefits of implementing our three-year corporate strategy.
This is a transformative time for the Company. In fiscal 2022, we launched our new three-year corporate strategy after identifying three growth accelerators to achieve our vision for future growth: Climate Response, Consultancy & Advisory and Data Solutions. During the first quarter of fiscal 2023, we created a new operating segment, Divergent Solutions, which, consistent with our corporate strategy, is aligned to our data solutions growth accelerator. Developing a new business carries certain inherent risks, including potential diversion of management’s time and other resources from our previously-established revenue streams, the need for additional capital and other resources to expand this new business, and inefficient integration of operational and management systems and controls. Our success growing and developing the solutions offered by this new business will depend on a variety of factors, some of which may be outside of our control. There can be no assurance that this new operating segment will produce the revenues, earnings or business synergies that we anticipate. Additionally, we cannot guarantee that our corporate strategy will be successful in achieving our financial growth targets or that we will deliver our anticipated results. The failure to successfully implement our corporate strategy could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Project sites are inherently dangerous workplaces. Failure to maintain safe work sites by us, the owner or others working at the project site can lead to our employees or others becoming injured, disabled or even losing their lives, and exposes us to significant financial losses and reputational harm, as well as civil and criminal liabilities.
Project sites often put our employees and others in close proximity with large pieces of mechanized equipment, moving vehicles, chemical and manufacturing processes and hazardous and highly regulated materials, in a challenging environment and often in geographically remote locations. We may be responsible for safety on some project sites, and, accordingly, we have an obligation to implement effective safety procedures. The failure by us or others working at such sites to implement safety procedures or the implementation of ineffective procedures, or the failure to implement and follow appropriate safety procedures, subjects our employees and others to the risk of injury, disability or loss of life, and subjects us to risk that the completion or commencement of our projects may be delayed and we may be exposed to litigation or investigations. Unsafe work sites also have the potential to increase employee turnover, increase the cost of a project to our clients and raise our operating and insurance costs.
We are also subject to regulations dealing with occupational health and safety. Although we maintain functional groups whose primary purpose is to ensure we implement effective HSE work procedures throughout our organization, including project sites and maintenance sites, the failure to comply with such regulations could subject us to liability. In addition, despite the work of our functional groups, we cannot guarantee the safety of our personnel or that there will be no damage to or loss of our work, equipment or supplies.
Our safety record is critical to our reputation. Many of our clients require that we meet certain safety criteria to be eligible to bid for contracts and many contracts provide for automatic termination or forfeiture of some or all of our contract fees or profit in the event we fail to meet certain measures.
For all of the foregoing reasons, if we fail to maintain adequate safety standards, we could suffer harm to our reputation, reduced profitability or the loss of projects or clients, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The nature of our contracts, particularly any fixed-price contracts, subjects us to risks of cost overruns. We may experience reduced profits or losses if costs increase above budgets or estimates or the project experiences delays.
For fiscal 2023, approximately 25.9% of our revenues were earned under fixed-price contracts. Both fixed-price and many cost-reimbursable contracts require us to estimate the total cost of the project in advance of our performance. For fixed-price contracts, we may benefit from any cost-savings, but we bear greater risk of paying some, if not all, of any cost overruns. Fixed-price contracts are established in part on proposed designs, which may be partial or incomplete, cost and scheduling estimates that are based on a number of assumptions, including those about future economic conditions, commodity and other materials pricing and cost and availability of labor (including the cost of any related benefits or entitlements), equipment and materials and other exigencies. Cost overruns can occur, leading to reduced profits or, in some cases, a loss for that project for a variety of reasons, including if the design or the estimates prove inaccurate or if circumstances change due to, among other things, unanticipated technical problems, difficulties in obtaining permits or approvals, changes in local laws or labor conditions, weather or other delays beyond our control, changes in the costs of equipment or raw materials, our vendors’ or subcontractors’ inability or failure to perform, or changes in general economic conditions and inflationary pressures. We may present change orders and claims to our clients, subcontractors and vendors for, among other things, additional costs exceeding the original contract price. If we fail to properly document the nature of our claims and change orders or are otherwise unsuccessful in negotiating reasonable settlements with our clients, subcontractors and vendors, we will likely incur cost overruns, reduced profits or, in some cases, result in a loss for a project. These risks are exacerbated for projects with long-term durations because there is an increased risk that the circumstances on which we based our original estimates will change in a manner that increases costs. The occurrence of significant costs overruns could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to meet performance requirements or contractual schedules could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many of our contracts require us to satisfy specific progress or performance milestones in order to receive payment from the customer. As a result, we often incur significant costs for engineering, materials, components, equipment, labor or subcontractors prior to receipt of payment from a customer, which may impact our liquidity. In some circumstances, we may incur penalties if we do not achieve project completion by a scheduled date. In some cases, the occurrence of delays may be due to factors outside of our control, such as due to supply chain shortages.
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Our contracts that are fundamentally cost reimbursable in nature may also present a risk to the extent the final cost on a project exceeds the amount the customer expected or budgeted. Like fixed-price contracts, the expected cost of cost-reimbursable projects is based in part on partial design and our estimates of the resources and time necessary to perform such contracts. A portion of the fee is often linked to these estimates and the related final cost and schedule objectives, and if for whatever reason these objectives are not met, the project may be less profitable than we expect or even result in losses.
The contracts in our backlog may be adjusted, canceled or suspended by our clients and, therefore, our backlog is not necessarily indicative of our future revenues or earnings.
Backlog represents estimates of the total dollar amount of revenues we expect to record in the future as a result of performing work under contracts that have been awarded to us. As of the end of fiscal 2023, our backlog totaled approximately $29.1 billion. There is no assurance that backlog will actually be realized as revenues in the amounts reported or, if realized, will result in profits. In accordance with industry practice, substantially all of our contracts, including our U.S. government work, are subject to cancellation, termination, or suspension at the discretion of the client, and may be subject to changes in the scope of services to be provided, as well as adjustments to the costs relating to the contracts. In the event of a project cancellation, we would generally have no contractual right to the total revenue reflected in our backlog. Projects can remain in backlog for extended periods of time because of the nature of the project and the timing of the particular services required by the project. The risk of contracts in backlog being canceled or suspended generally increases during periods of widespread economic slowdowns or in response to changes in commodity prices.
In some markets, there is a continuing trend toward cost-reimbursable contracts with incentive-fee arrangements. Typically, our incentive fees are based on such things as achievement of target completion dates or target costs, overall safety performance, overall client satisfaction and other performance criteria. If we fail to meet such targets or achieve the expected performance standards, we may receive a lower, or even zero, incentive fee resulting in lower gross margins. Accordingly, there is no assurance that the contracts in backlog, assuming they produce the revenues currently expected, will generate gross margins at the rates we have realized in the past.
Contracts with the U.S. federal government and other governments and their agencies pose additional risks compared to contracts with private sector clients.
We depend on contracts with the U.S. federal government and other governments and their agencies. The U.S. federal government represented approximately 31% of our total revenue in fiscal 2023. These contracts, which are a significant source of our revenue and profit, are subject to additional risks compared to contracts with private sector clients:
Some of our contracts are long-term government contracts, which are only funded on an annual basis. In addition, public-supported financing, such as state and local municipal bonds, may be only partially raised at the beginning of a program, with additional funding normally only committed as appropriations are made in each fiscal year. If appropriations for funding are not made in subsequent years of a multiple-year contract, we may not be able to realize all of our anticipated revenue and profits from that project. U.S. government shutdowns or any related under-staffing of the government departments or agencies that interact with our business could result in program cancellations, disruptions and/or stop work orders, could limit the government’s ability to effectively progress programs and make timely payments, and could limit our ability to perform on our existing U.S. government contracts and successfully compete for new work. Governments are typically under no obligation to maintain funding at any specific level, and funds for government programs may even be eliminated. The U.S. government may also shift its spending focus away from areas, such as defense and space exploration, and toward other areas in which we do not currently provide services.
Our contracts with governmental agencies are subject to audit, investigations and proceedings which could result in adjustments to reimbursable contract costs or, if we are charged with wrongdoing, possible temporary or permanent suspension from participating in government programs, and a variety of penalties can be imposed on us including monetary damages and criminal and civil penalties.
Governmental agencies may modify, curtail or terminate our contracts at any time prior to their completion and, if we do not replace them, we may suffer a decline in revenue. In addition, for some assignments, the U.S. government may attempt to “insource” the services to government employees rather than outsource to a contractor.
Most government contracts are awarded through a rigorous competitive process, which may emphasize price over other qualitative factors. The U.S. federal government has increasingly relied upon multiple-year contracts with
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multiple contractors that generally require those contractors to engage in an additional competitive procurement process for each task order issued under a contract. This process may result in us facing significant additional pricing pressure and uncertainty and incurring additional costs.
We may not be awarded government contracts because of existing policies designed to protect small businesses and under-represented minorities.
Government contracts are subject to specific procurement regulations and a variety of other socio-economic requirements, which affect how we transact business with our clients and, in some instances, impose additional costs on our business operations. For example, for contracts with the U.S. federal government, we must comply with the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Cost Accounting Standards, and numerous regulations governing environmental protection and employment practices. Government contracts also contain terms that expose us to heightened levels of risk and potential liability than non-government contracts. This includes, for example, unlimited indemnification obligations.
Many of our federal government contracts require us to have security clearances, which can be difficult and time consuming to obtain. If our employees or our facilities are unable to obtain or retain the necessary security clearances, our clients could terminate or not renew existing contracts or award us new contracts, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
These various uncertainties, restrictions, and regulations including oversight audits by government authorities as well as profit and cost controls, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our services expose us to significant monetary damages or even criminal violations and our insurance policies may not provide adequate coverage.
We provide services that are subject to professional standards and qualifications, including providing services that are based on our professional engineering expertise, as well as our other professional credentials. These services must comply with various professional standards, duties and obligations regulating the performance of such services. Our engineering practice, for example, involves professional judgments regarding the planning, design, development, construction, operations and management of industrial facilities and public infrastructure projects. We also issue reports and opinions to clients based on our professional expertise, such as issuing opinions and reports to government clients in connection with securities offerings. While we do not generally accept liability for consequential damages in our contracts, and although we have adopted a range of insurance, risk management and risk avoidance programs designed to reduce potential liabilities, we may be deemed to be responsible for these professional judgments, recommendations or opinions if they are later determined to be inaccurate, or if a catastrophic event or other failure occurs at one of our project sites or completed projects. Any unfavorable legal ruling against us could result in substantial monetary damages, disqualification to perform services in the future, or even criminal violations.
Such events could result in significant professional or product liability and warranty or other claims against us that could be highly publicized and have reputational harm, especially if public safety is impacted. We could also be liable to third parties, including through class actions, even if we are not contractually bound to those third parties. These liabilities could exceed our insurance limits or the fees we generate, may not be covered by insurance at all due to various exclusions in our coverage and could impact our ability to obtain insurance in the future. Further, even where coverage applies, the policies have limits and deductibles or retentions, which results in our assumption of exposure for certain amounts with respect to any claim filed against us. In addition, indemnification from clients or subcontractors may not be available. An uninsured claim, either in part or in whole, as well as any claim covered by insurance but subject to a policy limit, high deductible and/or retention, if successful and of a material magnitude, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The outcome of pending and future claims and litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations and damage our reputation.
We are a party to claims and litigation in the normal course of business, including litigation inherited through acquisitions. Since we engage in engineering and construction activities for large facilities and projects where design, construction or systems failures at any such facility or project can result in substantial injury or damage to employees or others, and expose us to substantial claims and litigation and investigations relating to, among other things, personal injury, loss of life, business interruption, property damage, or pollution and environmental damage. We can also be exposed to claims if we agreed that a project will achieve certain performance standards or satisfy certain technical
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requirements and those standards or requirements are not met. In many of our contracts with clients, subcontractors and vendors, we agree to retain or assume potential liabilities for damages, penalties, losses and other exposures relating to projects that could result in claims that greatly exceed the anticipated profits relating to those contracts. In addition, while clients and subcontractors may agree to indemnify us against certain liabilities, such third parties may refuse or be unable to pay us.
With a workforce of approximately 60,000 people globally, we are also party to labor and employment claims in the normal course of business. Certain of these claims relate to allegations of harassment and discrimination, pay equity, denial of benefits, wage and hour violations, whistleblower protections, concerted protected activity, and other employment protections, and may be pursued on an individual or class action basis depending on applicable laws and regulations. Some of such claims may be insurable, while other such claims may not.
In addition, claims received from subcontractors or made by us for change orders can be the subject of lengthy negotiations, arbitration or litigation proceedings, which could result in the investment of significant amounts of working capital pending the resolution of the relevant change orders and claims. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and financial results. Additionally, irrespective of how well we document the nature of our claims and change orders, the cost to prosecute and defend claims and change orders can be significant.
Litigation and regulatory proceedings are subject to inherent uncertainties and unfavorable rulings can and do occur. Pending or future claims against us could result in professional liability, product liability, criminal liability, warranty obligations, default under our credit agreements and other liabilities which, to the extent we are not insured against a loss or our insurer fails to provide coverage, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations and damage our reputation.
Unavailability or cancellation of insurance coverage could increase our overall risk exposure as well as disrupt the management of our business operations.
We maintain insurance coverage from third-party insurers as part of our overall risk management strategy and because some of our contracts require us to maintain specific insurance coverage limits. Catastrophic events, litigation claims, and other market factors can result in decreased coverage limits, coverage that is more limited, increased premium costs or higher deductibles and/or retentions. If any of our third-party insurers fail, suddenly cancel our coverage or otherwise are unable to provide us with adequate insurance coverage, then our overall risk exposure and our operational expenses could increase, and the management of our business operations could be disrupted. In addition, there can be no assurance that any of our existing insurance coverage will be renewable upon the expiration of the coverage period or that future coverage will be affordable at the required limits.
We have also elected to retain a portion of losses that may occur through the use of various deductibles, retentions and limits under these programs. As a result, we may be subject to future liability for which we are only partially insured, or completely uninsured.
A reduction in the amount of available governmental funding could materially affect our results of operations.
Historically, we have benefited from both domestic and international government investment programs that provide funding for our services, and we expect to continue to benefit from bills such as the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the CHIPS and Science Act and the Inflation Reduction Act. While spending and stimulus bills are expected to provide funding in many of the markets in which we operate, we may not be able to obtain the expected benefits from these bills or similar bills in the future. In addition, the timing of funding awards under these bills is uncertain. A reduction in the amount of governmental funding available could materially affect our results of operations.
We are dependent on third parties to complete many of our contracts.
Third-party subcontractors we hire perform a significant amount of the work performed under our contracts. We also rely on third-party equipment manufacturers or suppliers to provide much of the equipment and materials used for projects. If we are unable to hire qualified subcontractors or find qualified equipment manufacturers or suppliers, our ability to successfully complete a project will be impaired. If we are not able to locate qualified third-party subcontractors or the amount we are required to pay for subcontractors or equipment and supplies exceeds what we have estimated, especially in a lump sum or a fixed-price contract, we may suffer losses on these contracts. If a subcontractor, supplier, or
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manufacturer fails to provide services, supplies, parts or equipment as required under a contract for any reason, or fails to provide such services, supplies, parts or equipment in accordance with applicable quality standards as required by the contract or regulation, we will be required to source these services, equipment, parts or supplies from other third parties on a delayed basis or on less favorable terms, which could impact contract profitability and/or could result in claims against us for damages. We are subject to disputes with our subcontractors from time to time relating to, among other things, the quality and timeliness of work performed, customer concerns about the subcontractor, or our failure to extend existing task orders or issue new task orders under a contract. In addition, faulty workmanship, equipment or materials would likely impact the overall project, which could result in claims against us for failure to meet required project specifications.
In an uncertain or downturn economic environment, third parties may find it difficult to obtain sufficient financing to help fund their operations. The inability to obtain financing could adversely affect a third party’s ability to provide materials, equipment or services which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, a failure by a third party subcontractor, supplier or manufacturer to comply with applicable laws, regulations or client requirements could negatively impact our business and, for government clients, could result in fines, penalties, suspension or even debarment being imposed on us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct, or our overall failure to comply with laws or regulations, could weaken our ability to win contracts, which could result in reduced revenues and profits.
We are subject to the risk of misconduct, fraud, non-compliance with applicable laws and regulations, or other improper activities by one of our employees, agents or partners, which could have a significant negative impact on our business and reputation. Such misconduct includes the failure to comply with government procurement regulations, regulations regarding the protection of classified information, regulations prohibiting bribery and other corrupt practices, regulations regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts, regulations on lobbying or similar activities, regulations pertaining to the internal controls over financial reporting, regulations pertaining to export control, environmental laws, employee wages, pay and benefits, and any other applicable laws or regulations. For example, we routinely provide services that may be highly sensitive or that relate to critical national security matters; if a security breach were to occur, our ability to procure future government contracts could be severely limited. The precautions we take to prevent and detect these activities may not be effective and we could face unknown risks or losses. Our failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations, or acts of misconduct subjects us to the risk of fines and penalties, cancellation of contracts, loss of security clearance and suspension or debarment from contracting, any of which could damage our reputation, weaken our ability to win contracts and result in reduced revenues and profits and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Cybersecurity or privacy breaches, or systems and information technology interruption or failure could adversely impact our ability to operate or expose us to significant financial losses and reputational harm.
We are subject to certain risks related to interruptions, errors and delays in our information technology systems. In the event we are unable to maintain or improve the efficiency and efficacy of our systems, the operation of such systems could result in the material loss, corruption, or release of data. In addition, our computer and communication systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by natural disasters, force majeure events, telecommunications failures, power loss, acts of war or terrorism, computer viruses, malicious code, physical or electronic security breaches, intentional or inadvertent user misuse or error or similar events or disruptions. Any of these or other events could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, protection of intellectual property and results of operations, as well as those of our clients.
Our information technology systems, which have grown over time, including through acquisitions, have, and will continue to experience threats, including unauthorized access, computer hackers, computer viruses, malicious code, ransomware, phishing, organized cyber-attacks and other security problems and system disruptions, including unauthorized access to and disclosure of our and our clients’ proprietary or classified information. Such tactics have caused, and may also seek to cause in the future, payments due to or from the Company to be misdirected to fraudulent accounts, which may not be recoverable by the Company.
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While we have security measures and technology in place designed to protect our and our clients’ proprietary or classified information, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent all threats to our computer systems. In addition, the rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence technologies may intensify our cybersecurity risks. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently, become more sophisticated and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of system disruptions and security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these disruptions and breaches. Any of these events could damage our reputation, cause us to incur significant liability and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We continuously evaluate the need to upgrade and/or replace our systems and network infrastructure to protect our computing environment, to stay current on vendor supported products and to improve the efficiency of our systems and for other business reasons, including due to the rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies and especially as we continue to operate under a hybrid working model under which employees can work and access the Company’s technology infrastructure remotely. The implementation of new systems and information technology could adversely impact our operations by imposing substantial capital expenditures, demands on management time and risks of delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems. In addition, our systems implementations may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated. Systems implementation disruption and any other information technology disruption, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, laws and regulations governing data privacy and the unauthorized disclosure of personal data, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), the United Kingdom Data Protection Act, the California Consumer Privacy Act, the California Privacy Rights Act, and other emerging U.S. state and global privacy laws pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and potentially elevate costs and may require changes to our business practices resulting from the variation of regulatory requirements and increased enforcement frequency. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations, including related regulatory enforcement and/or private litigation resulting from a potential privacy breach, could result in governmental investigations, significant fines and penalties, damages from private causes of action, or reputational harm. Additionally, we are subject to laws, rules, and regulations regarding cross-border transfers of personal data, including laws relating to transfer of personal data outside the European Economic Area. If we cannot rely on existing mechanisms for transferring personal data, we may be unable to transfer personal data of employees and clients in those regions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property or that of our clients.
Our technology and intellectual property provide us, in certain instances, with a competitive advantage. Although we seek to protect our property through registration, licensing, contractual arrangements, security controls and similar mechanisms, we may not be able to successfully preserve our rights and they could be invalidated, circumvented, challenged or become obsolete. Trade secrets are generally difficult to protect. Our employees and contractors are subject to confidentiality obligations, but this protection may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information and/or infringement of our intellectual property. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries in which we operate do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the U.S. If we are unable to protect and maintain our intellectual property rights or if there are any successful intellectual property challenges or infringement proceedings against us, our ability to differentiate our service offerings could be reduced. Litigation to determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert leadership’s attention away from other aspects of our business.
We also hold licenses from third parties which may be utilized in our business operations. If we are no longer able to license such technology on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected.
If our intellectual property rights or work processes become obsolete, we may not be able to differentiate our service offerings and some of our competitors may be able to offer more attractive services to our customers. Our competitors may independently attempt to develop or obtain access to technologies that are similar or superior to our technologies.
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Our clients or other third parties may also provide us with their technology and intellectual property. There is a risk we may not sufficiently protect our or their information from improper use or dissemination and, as a result, could be subject to claims and litigation and resulting liabilities, loss of contracts or other consequences that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Assertions by third parties of infringement, misappropriation or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business, financial condition and operation results.
In recent years, there has been significant litigation involving intellectual property rights in technology industries. We may face from time to time, allegations that we or a supplier or customer have violated the rights of third parties, including patent, trademark, and other intellectual property rights. If, with respect to any claim against us for violation of third-party intellectual property rights, we are unable to prevail in the litigation or retain or obtain sufficient rights or develop non-infringing intellectual property or otherwise alter our business practices on a timely or cost-efficient basis, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.
Any infringement, misappropriation or related claims, whether or not meritorious, are time consuming, divert technical and management personnel, and are costly to resolve. As a result of any such dispute, we may have to develop non-infringing technology, pay damages, enter into royalty or licensing agreements, cease utilizing products or services, or take other actions to resolve the claims. These actions, if required, may be costly or unavailable on terms acceptable to us.
If we do not have adequate indemnification for our nuclear services, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, commonly called the Price-Anderson Act (“PAA”), is a U.S. federal law, which, among other things, regulates radioactive materials and the nuclear energy industry, including liability and compensation in the event of nuclear related incidents. The PAA provides certain protections and indemnification to nuclear energy plant operators and U.S. Department of Energy (“DoE”) contractors. The PAA protections and indemnification apply to us as part of our services to the U.S. nuclear energy industry and DoE for new facilities, maintenance, modification, decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear energy, weapons and research facilities.
We offer similar services in other jurisdictions outside the U.S. For those jurisdictions, varying levels of nuclear liability protection is provided by international treaties, and/or domestic laws, such as the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act of Canada and the Nuclear Installations Act of the United Kingdom, insurance and/or assets of the nuclear installation operators (some of which are backed by governments) as well as under appropriate enforceable contractual indemnifications and hold-harmless provisions. These protections and indemnifications, however, may not cover all of our liability that could arise in the performance of these services. To the extent the PAA or other protections and indemnifications do not apply to our services, the cost of losses associated with liability not covered by the available protections and indemnifications, or by virtue of our loss of business because of these added costs could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions used to prepare our financial statements.
In preparing our financial statements, our leadership is required under U.S. GAAP to make estimates and assumptions as of the date of the financial statements. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported values of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Areas requiring significant estimates by our leadership include:
Recognition of contract revenue, costs, profit or losses in applying the principles of percentage of completion accounting;
Estimated amounts for expected project losses, warranty costs, contract close-out or other costs;
Recognition of recoveries under contract change orders or claims;
Collectability of billed and unbilled accounts receivable and the need and amount of any allowance for doubtful accounts;
Estimates of other liabilities, including litigation and insurance revenues/reserves and reserves necessary for self-insured risks;
Accruals for estimated liabilities, including litigation reserves;
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Valuation of assets acquired, and liabilities, goodwill, and intangible assets assumed, in acquisitions and ongoing assessment of impairment;
Valuation estimates for redeemable noncontrolling interests calculations;
Valuation of stock-based compensation;
The determination of liabilities under pension and other post-retirement benefit programs; and
Income tax provisions and related valuation allowances.
Our actual business and financial results could differ from our estimates of such results, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Impairment of long-lived assets or restructuring activities may require us to record a significant charge to earnings.
Our long-lived assets, including our lease right-of-use assets, equity investments and others, are subject to periodic testing for impairment. Failure to achieve sufficient levels of cash flow at the asset group level has resulted in, and could result in additional, impairment of our long-lived assets. Further changes in the business environment could lead to changes in the scope of operations of our business. These changes, including the closure of one or more offices, could result in restructuring and/or asset impairment charges.
Our benefit plan expenses and obligations may fluctuate depending on various factors, including inflation, changes in levels of interest rates, and pension plan asset performance.
We have various employee benefit plan obligations that require us to make contributions to satisfy, over time, our underfunded benefit obligations, which are generally determined by calculating the projected benefit obligations minus the fair value of plan assets. For example, as of September 29, 2023 and September 30, 2022, our defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans were underfunded by $61.5 million and $81.2 million, respectively. See Note 13- Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional disclosure. We may have to contribute additional cash to meet any underfunded benefit obligations associated with retirement and post-retirement benefit plans we manage or for which we have contribution or funding obligations. If we are required to contribute a significant amount of the deficit for underfunded benefit plans, our cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Additionally, we provide health care and other benefits to our employees. In recent years, costs for health care have increased more rapidly than general inflation in the U.S. economy. If this trend in health care costs continues, our cost to provide such benefits could increase, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are also a participating employer in various Multi-Employer Pension Plans ("MEPPs") associated with some of the work we perform on a union basis, which MEPPs are managed by third party trusts and over which we have no control, including as to how the MEPPs are managed or financial investment decisions are made. If any of these MEPPs is underfunded, we could face the imposition of underfunded liability or withdrawal liability at a materially adverse level.
Our businesses could be materially and adversely affected by events outside of our control.
Extraordinary or force majeure events beyond our control, such as natural or human caused disasters, could negatively impact our ability to operate. As an example, from time to time we face unexpected severe weather conditions which may result in weather-related delays that are not always reimbursable under a fixed-price contract; evacuation of personnel and curtailment of services; increased labor and material costs in areas resulting from weather-related damage and subsequent increased demand for labor and materials for repairing and rebuilding; inability to deliver materials, equipment and personnel to job sites in accordance with contract schedules; and loss of productivity. We may remain obligated to perform our services after any such natural or human caused event, unless a force majeure clause or other contractual provision provides us with relief from our contractual obligations. If we are not able to react quickly to such events, or if a high concentration of our projects is in a specific geographic region that suffers from a natural or human caused catastrophe, our operations may be significantly affected, which could have a material adverse impact on our operations. In addition, if we cannot complete our contracts on time, we may be subject to potential liability claims by our clients which may reduce our profits.
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Our continued success is dependent upon our ability to hire, retain, and utilize qualified personnel.
The success of our business is dependent upon our ability to hire, retain and utilize qualified personnel, including engineers, architects, designers, craft personnel and corporate leadership professionals who have the required experience and expertise at a reasonable cost. The market for these and other personnel is competitive. From time to time, it may be difficult to attract and retain qualified individuals with the expertise, and in the timeframe, demanded by our clients, or to replace such personnel when needed in a timely manner. In certain geographic areas, for example, we may not be able to satisfy the demand for our services because of our inability to successfully hire and retain qualified personnel. Furthermore, some of our personnel hold government granted clearance that may be required to obtain government projects. If we were to lose some or all of these personnel, they would be difficult to replace. Loss of the services of, or failure to recruit, qualified technical and leadership personnel could limit our ability to successfully complete existing projects and compete for new projects.
In addition, in the event that any of our key personnel retire or otherwise leave the Company, we need to have appropriate succession plans in place and to successfully implement such plans, which requires devoting time and resources toward identifying and integrating new personnel into leadership roles and other key positions. If we cannot attract and retain qualified personnel or effectively implement appropriate succession plans, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Remote working arrangements may increase our costs and adversely impact our culture and ability to effectively train our personnel.
As many of our employees work remotely, we must adopt new techniques and tools to effectively train and integrate new hires and preserve our culture. Failure to effectively train our employees could create challenges for us in maintaining high levels of employee awareness of, and compliance with, our internal procedures and external regulatory compliance requirements, in addition to increasing our recruiting, training and supervisory costs, while failure to preserve our culture for any reason could harm our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel, innovate and operate effectively and execute on our business strategy.
Negotiations with labor unions and possible work actions could disrupt operations and increase labor costs and operating expenses.
A certain portion of our work force has entered into, and additional portions may in the future enter into, collective bargaining agreements, which on occasion may require renegotiation. The outcome of future negotiations relating to union representation or collective bargaining agreements may not be favorable to the Company in that they may increase our operating expenses and lower our net income as a result of higher wages or benefit expenses. In addition, negotiations with unions diverts management attention and could disrupt operations, which may adversely affect our results of operations. If we are unable to negotiate acceptable collective bargaining agreements, we may have to address the threat of union-initiated work actions, including work slowdowns and strikes. Depending on the nature of the threat or the type and duration of any work action, these actions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our professional reputation and relationships with government agencies are critical to our business, and any harm to our reputation or relationships could decrease the amount of business that governments do with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our revenue is earned directly or indirectly from various government agencies. If our reputation or relationships with these agencies were harmed, our future revenue and growth prospects would be materially and adversely affected. Our reputation and relationship with these government agencies is a key factor in maintaining and growing revenue under our government contracts. Negative press reports regarding poor contract performance, employee misconduct, information security breaches, engagements in or perceived connections to politically or socially sensitive activities, or other aspects of our business, or regarding government contractors generally, could harm our reputation. In addition, to the extent our performance under a contract does not meet a government agency’s expectations, the client might seek to terminate the contract prior to its scheduled expiration date, provide a negative assessment of our performance to government-maintained contractor past-performance data repositories, fail to award us additional business under existing contracts or otherwise, and direct future business to our competitors. If our reputation or relationships with these agencies are negatively affected, or if we are suspended or debarred from contracting with government agencies for any reason, such actions would decrease the amount of business that the government agency does with us, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Our focus on new growth areas for our business entails risks, including those associated with new relationships, clients, talent needs, capabilities, service and product offerings, and maintaining our collaborative culture and core values.
We are focused on growing our presence in our addressable markets by: expanding our relationships with existing clients, developing new clients by leveraging our core competencies, further developing our existing capabilities and service offerings, creating new capabilities and solutions offerings to address our clients' emerging needs, and undertaking business development efforts focused on identifying near-term developments and long-term trends that may pose significant challenges for our clients. These efforts entail inherent risks associated with innovation and competition from other participants in those areas, potential failure to help our clients respond to the challenges they face, our ability to comply with uncertain evolving legal standards applicable to certain of our offerings, including those in the cybersecurity area, and, with respect to potential international growth, risks associated with operating in foreign jurisdictions, such as compliance with applicable foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that may impose different and, occasionally, conflicting or contradictory requirements, and the economic, legal, and political conditions in the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. As we attempt to develop new relationships, clients, capabilities, and service and product offerings, these efforts could harm our results of operations due to, among other things, a diversion of our focus and resources and actual costs, opportunity costs of pursuing these opportunities in lieu of others and a failure to reach a profitable return on our investments in new technologies, capabilities, and businesses, including expenses on research and development investments, and these efforts could ultimately be unsuccessful.
The needs of our customers change and evolve regularly. Our success depends upon our ability to identify emerging technological trends; develop technologically advanced, innovative, and cost-effective products and services; and market these products and services to our customers. For example, one of our business strategies is to invest in, develop and promote innovative climate response technologies and solutions in order to meet the demands of our public and private sector clients. A misalignment between the technologies and solutions we identify to invest in, develop and promote and our clients’ needs may adversely impact our results of operations and reputation. Although we have strategies to mitigate this risk, we cannot assure you that we will identify the most effective technologies and solutions to invest in, promote or develop. Additionally, as we diversify and expand our product offerings, there is also an increased risk that one or more of our product offerings could fail to meet specifications in a particular application, or could be perceived by our customers to contain defects, which could result in our being liable for damages and losses that arise from such products. Products with defects, or which are otherwise incompatible with intended end uses, may also result in us having to recall such products, or provide additional services under the product warranty, which may impact our profitability. A failure of our products and solutions to meet specifications may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Our success also depends on our continued access to suppliers of important technologies and components. The possibility exists that our competitors might develop new capabilities or service offerings that might cause our existing capabilities and service offerings to become obsolete. If we fail in our new capabilities development efforts or our capabilities or services fail to achieve market acceptance more rapidly than our competitors, our ability to procure new contracts could be negatively impacted, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, with the growth of our U.S. and international operations, we provide client services and undertake business development efforts in numerous and disparate geographic locations, both domestically and internationally. Our ability to effectively serve our clients is dependent upon our ability to successfully leverage our operating model across all of these and any future locations, maintain effective management controls over all of our locations to ensure, among other things, compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, and instill our core values in all of our personnel at each of these and any future locations. Any inability to ensure any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Fluctuations in commodity prices may affect our customers’ investment decisions and therefore subject us to risks of cancellation, delays in existing work, or changes in the timing and funding of new awards.
Commodity prices can affect our customers in a number of ways. For example, for those customers that produce commodity products such as oil, gas, batteries or fertilizers, fluctuations in price can have a direct effect on their profitability and cash flow and, therefore, their willingness to continue to invest or make new capital investments. Furthermore, declines in commodity prices can negatively impact our business in regions whose economies are substantially dependent on commodity prices, such as the Middle East. To the extent commodity prices decline or fluctuate and our customers defer new investments or cancel or delay existing projects, the demand for our services decreases, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Commodity prices can also strongly affect the costs of projects. Rising commodity prices can negatively impact the potential returns on investments that are planned, as well as those in progress, and result in customers deferring new investments or canceling or delaying existing projects. Cancellations and delays have affected our past results and may continue to do so in significant and unpredictable ways and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we, or any of our subsidiaries or companies in which we have made strategic investments, lose, or experience a significant reduction in, business from one or a few customers, it could have a material adverse impact on us.
A few clients have in the past, and may in the future, account for a significant portion of our revenue and/or backlog, or the revenue and/or backlog for our subsidiaries or companies in which we have made strategic investments, in any one year or over a period of several consecutive years. For example, in fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, approximately 31%, 31% and 33%, respectively, of our revenue was earned directly or indirectly from agencies of the U.S. federal government. Although we have long-standing relationships with many of our significant clients, our clients may unilaterally reduce, delay or cancel their contracts at any time. If we, or any of our subsidiaries or companies in which we have made strategic investments, lose, or experience a significant reduction in business from a significant client could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to International Operations
Our international operations are exposed to additional risks and uncertainties, including unfavorable political developments and weak foreign economies.
For fiscal 2023, approximately 33% of our revenue was earned from clients outside the U.S. Our business is dependent on the continued success of our international operations, and we expect our international operations to continue to account for a significant portion of our total revenues. Our international operations are subject to a variety of risks, including:
Recessions and other economic crises in other regions, such as Europe, Asia or other specific foreign economies and the impact on our costs of doing business in those countries;
Difficulties in staffing and managing foreign personnel and operations, including challenges related to logistics, communications and professional licensure of our international workforce;
Unexpected changes in foreign government policies and regulatory requirements;
Potential non-compliance with a wide variety of laws and regulations, including anti-corruption, export control and anti-boycott laws and similar non-U.S. laws and regulations;
Potential non-compliance with regulations and evolving industry standards regarding consumer protection and data use and security, including the General Data Protection Regulation approved by the European Union and the Data Protection Act approved by the United Kingdom;
Lack of developed legal systems to enforce contractual rights;
Expropriation and nationalization of our assets in a foreign country;
Renegotiation or nullification of our existing contracts;
The adoption of new, and the expansion of existing, trade or other restrictions;
Embargoes, duties, tariffs or other trade restrictions, including sanctions;
Geopolitical developments that impact our or our clients’ ability to operate in a foreign country;
Changes in labor conditions;
Acts of war, aggression between nations, civil unrest, force majeure, and terrorism;
The ability to finance efficiently our foreign operations;
Social, political, and economic instability;
Changes to tax policy;
Currency exchange rate fluctuations;
Limitations on the ability to repatriate foreign earnings; and
U.S. government policy changes in relation to the foreign countries in which we operate.
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The lack of a well-developed legal system in some of these countries may make it difficult to enforce our contractual rights. In addition, military action, geopolitical shifts or continued unrest, particularly in the Middle East, could disrupt our operations in the region and elsewhere and may also impact the supply or pricing of oil, increase our security costs and cost of compliance with local laws, and present risks to our reputation. Additionally, recent events, including changes in U.S. trade policies and responsive changes in policy by foreign jurisdictions and similar geopolitical developments, the U.K.'s exit from the E.U., commonly referred to as “Brexit," and uncertainty in the E.U., Asia and elsewhere, have increased levels of political and economic unpredictability globally, and may increase the volatility of global financial markets and the global and regional economies.
In addition, our globally connected talent force collaborates to deliver solutions for clients, agnostic of geography. This relies upon client procurement models that are open to global professional service provision. Increased nationalization and heightened “buy-local” policies and regulation could reduce the effectiveness and competitive differentiation enabled by our global delivery model and compound the existing talent shortage in key geographies. To the extent our international operations are affected by unexpected or adverse economic, political and other conditions, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Foreign exchange risks may affect our ability to realize a profit from certain projects.
We are a global professional services company, with our international operations accounting for approximately 33% of our annual revenue in fiscal 2023. Fluctuations in exchange rates for foreign currencies have reduced, and could continue to reduce, the U.S. dollar value of sales, earnings and cash flows we receive from non-U.S. markets, negatively impact our competitiveness in those markets or otherwise adversely impact our business results, reported financial condition and the U.S. dollar value of our backlog. Our reported financial condition and results of operations are exposed to the effects (both positive and negative) that fluctuating exchange rates have on the process of translating the financial statements of our international operations, which are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, into the U.S. dollar.
In addition, fluctuations in exchange rates may increase our supply costs (as measured in U.S. dollars) in international markets. While we generally attempt to denominate our contracts in the currencies of our expenditures, we do enter into contracts that expose us to currency risk, particularly to the extent contract revenue is denominated in a currency different than the contract costs. We may attempt to minimize our exposure from currency risks by obtaining escalation provisions for projects in inflationary economies or entering into derivative (hedging) instruments, when there is currency risk exposure that is not naturally mitigated via our contracts. These actions, however, may not always eliminate currency risk exposure. The governments of certain countries have or may in the future impose restrictive exchange controls on local currencies and it may not be possible for us to engage in effective hedging transactions to mitigate the risks associated with fluctuations in a particular currency. We may also be exposed to limitations on our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the financing requirements of our operations in other countries.
Our global presence could give rise to material fluctuations in our income tax rates.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities. Although we believe that our tax estimates and tax positions are reasonable, they could be materially affected by many factors including the final outcome of tax audits and related litigation, the introduction of new tax accounting standards, legislation, regulations and related interpretations, our global mix of earnings, the realizability of deferred tax assets and changes in uncertain tax positions. An increase or decrease in our effective tax rate, or an ultimate determination that the Company owes more taxes than the amounts previously accrued, could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We work in international locations where there are high security risks, which could result in harm to our employees or unanticipated costs.
Some of our services are performed in high-risk locations, where the country or location is subject to political, social or economic risks, or war, terrorism or civil unrest. In those locations where we have employees or operations, we may expend significant efforts and incur substantial security costs to maintain the safety of our personnel. Despite these activities, in these locations, we cannot always guarantee the safety of our personnel. Acts of terrorism, threats of armed conflicts and human rights violations in or around various areas in which we operate could limit or disrupt markets and our operations, including disruptions resulting from the evacuation of personnel or the cancellation of contracts, and in some
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instances, cause damage to our reputation. The loss of key employees or contractors, whether as a result of injury, death or attrition, may adversely impact our business operations.
Risks Related to Acquisitions, Investments, Joint Ventures and Divestitures
Our use of joint ventures, partnerships and strategic investments in entities exposes us to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control.
As is common in our industry, we perform certain contracts as a member of joint ventures, partnerships, and similar arrangements. This situation exposes us to a number of risks, including the risk that our partners may be unable to fulfill their obligations to us or our clients.
Further, we have limited ability to control the actions of our joint venture partners, including with respect to nonperformance, default, bankruptcy or legal or regulatory compliance. Our partners may be unable or unwilling to provide the required levels of financial support to the partnerships. If these circumstances occur, we may be liable for claims and losses attributable to the partner by operation of law or contract. These circumstances could also lead to disputes and litigation with our partners or clients, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the management effectiveness of our joint venture partners. Differences in views among the joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or in failures to agree on major issues, which could materially affect the business and operations of these ventures. In addition, in many of the countries in which we engage in joint ventures, it may be difficult to enforce our contractual rights under the applicable joint venture agreement. If we are not able to enforce our contractual rights, we may not be able to realize the benefits of the joint venture or we may be subject to additional liabilities.
We participate in joint ventures and similar arrangements in which we are not the controlling partner. In these cases, we have limited control over the actions of the joint venture. These joint ventures may not be subject to the same requirements regarding internal controls and internal control over financial reporting that we follow. To the extent the controlling partner makes decisions that negatively impact the joint venture or internal control problems arise within the joint venture, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The failure by a joint venture partner to comply with applicable laws, regulations or client requirements could negatively impact our business and, for government clients, could result in fines, penalties, suspension or even debarment being imposed on us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
An impairment charge on our goodwill or intangible assets could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
Because we have grown in part through acquisitions, goodwill and intangible assets represent a substantial portion of our assets. As of September 29, 2023, we had $7.34 billion of goodwill, representing 50.2% of our total assets of $14.62 billion. Under U.S. GAAP, we are required to test goodwill carried in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for possible impairment on an annual basis, and whenever events occur, or circumstances change, that indicate impairments could exist, based upon a fair value approach. We also assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indications of impairment are present based on expected future probability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to our overall operations. We have chosen to perform our annual impairment reviews of goodwill at the beginning of the fiscal fourth quarter.
If our market capitalization drops significantly below the amount of net equity recorded on our balance sheet, it might indicate a decline in our fair value and would require us to further evaluate whether our goodwill has been impaired. If the fair value of our reporting units is less than their carrying value, we could be required to record an impairment charge. The amount of any impairment could be significant and could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations for the period in which the charge is taken. For a further discussion of goodwill impairment testing, please see Item 7- Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations below.
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Our business strategy relies in part on acquisitions and strategic investments to sustain our growth. These transactions present certain risks and uncertainties.
Our business strategy involves growth through, among other things, the acquisition of, and strategic investments in, other companies, such as our acquisitions of CH2M, KeyW, John Wood Group’s nuclear business, Buffalo Group, BlackLynx and StreetLight and our strategic investment in PA Consulting. These transactions, as well as transactions we may engage in in the future, present a number of risks, including:
Assumption of liabilities of an acquired business, including liabilities that were unknown at the time the transaction was negotiated, such as if the target company failed to comply with U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations and/or contractual requirements with government clients;
Valuation methodologies may not accurately capture the value of the target company's business;
Failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth opportunities within the anticipated time-frame or at all;
The loss of key customers or suppliers, including as a result of any actual or perceived conflicts of interest;
Difficulties or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals, licenses and permits;
Difficulties relating to combining previously separate entities into a single, integrated, and efficient business;
For strategic investments in which we do not acquire 100% of the target company, the other equity holders may have consent rights over certain actions taken by the company, and in the event a target company continues to operate as a standalone company, it may result in additional costs;
The effects of diverting leadership’s attention from day-to-day operations to matters involving the integration of target companies;
Potentially substantial transaction costs associated with business combinations, strategic investments and/or divestitures;
Potential impairment resulting from the overpayment for an acquisition or investment or post-closing deterioration in the target company's business;
Difficulties relating to assimilating the leadership, personnel, benefits, services, and systems of an acquired business and to assimilating marketing and other operational capabilities;
Difficulties retaining key personnel of the target company;
Increased burdens on our staff and on our administrative, internal control and operating systems, which may hinder our legal and regulatory compliance activities;
Increased financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning, treasury management, financial and non-financial (e.g. climate-related) reporting and internal controls;
The potential for claims for damages by the sellers of any business if we enter into an acquisition agreement that we do not ultimately consummate, or if disputes arise post-closing relating to post-closing covenants or payment obligations; and
The risks discussed in this Item 1A. Risk Factors that may relate to the activities of the acquired business prior to the acquisition.
While we may obtain indemnification rights from the sellers of acquired businesses and/or insurance that could mitigate certain of these risks, such rights may be difficult to enforce, the losses may exceed any dedicated escrow funds and the indemnitors may not have the ability to financially support the indemnity, or the insurance coverage may be unavailable or insufficient to cover all losses.
If our leadership is unable to successfully integrate acquired companies or implement our growth strategy with respect to acquisitions and/or strategic investments, our operating results could be harmed. Moreover, we cannot assure that we will continue to successfully expand or that growth or expansion will result in profitability.
In addition, there is no assurance that we will continue to locate suitable acquisition or investment targets or that we will be able to consummate any such transactions on terms and conditions acceptable to us. Existing cash balances and cash flow from operations, together with borrowing capacity under our credit facilities, may be insufficient to make acquisitions and/or strategic investments. Future acquisitions and/or strategic investments may require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on attractive terms, or at all. Acquisitions and/or strategic investments may also bring us into businesses we have not previously conducted and expose us to additional business risks that are different than those we have traditionally experienced.
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Acquisitions, strategic investments and divestitures create various business risks and uncertainties during the pendency of the transaction.
Consummation of any merger, strategic investment or divestiture is subject to the satisfaction of customary conditions, including one or more of the following: (i) due diligence and its associated time and cost commitments, (ii) board and shareholder approval, (iii) regulatory approvals, (iv) the absence of any legal restraint that would prevent the consummation of the transaction, (v) the absence of material adverse conditions which can prevent the consummation of the transaction, and (vi) compliance with covenants and the accuracy of representations and warranties contained in the transaction agreement, among others. One or more of these conditions may not be fulfilled and, accordingly, the transaction may not be consummated or may be significantly delayed. In such case, our ongoing business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected and the market price of our common stock may decline, particularly to the extent that the market price reflects a market assumption that the transaction will be consummated or will be consummated within a particular timeframe.
Furthermore, most transactions require the Company to incur substantial expense associated with closing and if the transaction is not consummated, we will incur these expenses without realizing the expected benefits. The pursuit of the transaction will also require management attention and use of internal resources that would otherwise be focused on general business operations. In addition, customers’ uncertainty about the effect of the transaction may have an adverse effect on the ability to win customer contracts or could cause existing clients to seek to change existing business relationships. Employee morale due to the uncertainties associated with the transaction could also be negatively affected. Any of the foregoing, or other risks arising in connection with a failure or delay in consummating a transaction, including the diversion of management attention or loss of other opportunities during the pendency of the transaction, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may make minority investments that subject us to risks and uncertainties outside of our control.
From time to time, the Company may make minority investments in the equity securities of companies that we do not control. Minority investments inherently involve a lesser degree of control over business operations, thereby potentially increasing the financial, legal, operational and/or compliance risks associated with the minority investment.
To the extent we hold only a minority equity interest in a company, we may lack affirmative control rights, which may diminish our ability to influence the company’s affairs in a manner intended to enhance the value of our investment in the company. We could incur losses if the majority stakeholders or the management of the company takes risks or otherwise acts in a manner that does not serve our interests. In addition, we could be subject to reputational harm if the company in which the investment is made makes business, financial or management decisions with which we do not agree. These circumstances could also lead to disputes and litigation with management or employees of the company in which the investment is made, or its other stockholders.
In most cases, the companies in which we make investments will have indebtedness or equity securities, or may be permitted to incur indebtedness or to issue equity securities, which rank senior to our investment. We also may make investments in early-stage companies that depend on venture funding and are not profitable. In the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a company in which an investment is made, holders of debt instruments and securities ranking senior to our investment would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before distributions could be made in respect of our investment.
We may also enter into separate commercial arrangements with these companies, whether before, concurrently with, or after making a minority investment. In certain cases, the commercial arrangement may be a driving factor behind our investment. We cannot assure you that that the commercial arrangement will further our business strategy as we expected. We may not realize all the economic benefits expected from the commercial agreement or realize the expected return on our investments.
We are pursuing a plan to separate and combine our Critical Mission Services business and a portion of our Divergent Solutions business with Amentum in a tax-efficient Reverse Morris Trust transaction. The proposed transaction may not be completed on the currently contemplated timeline or at all and may not achieve the intended benefits.
On November 20, 2023, we entered into definitive agreements to separate and combine our Critical Mission Services business and a portion of our Divergent Solutions business (the “Separated Business”) with Amentum in a transaction intended to be tax-free to Jacobs’ shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As part of the transaction,
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it is contemplated that immediately prior to the transaction, the Separated Business would enter into third-party financing in an aggregate principal amount of approximately $1.13 billion to finance a $1.0 billion cash payment to Jacobs. The cash payment is subject to adjustment and could be less or more than anticipated primarily due to variances in working capital and net debt. In connection with the transaction, our stockholders will receive up to 51% percent of the outstanding equity of the combined company on a fully diluted basis. Additionally, subject to achievement of certain operating profit targets during fiscal year 2024, Jacobs will receive between 7.5% and 12% of the outstanding equity of the combined company on a fully diluted basis. The actual value of the stock to be received by our stockholders will depend on the value of such shares at the time of closing of the transaction. The distribution will be effected by means of a pro rata dividend in a spin-off transaction. There can be no assurance that the operating profit targets of the Separated Business will be achieved, and if not achieved, Amentum's shareholders may own as much as 41.5% of the combined company.
Although we expect the transaction to be consummated in the second half of our fiscal year 2024, the transaction is subject to closing conditions, including the receipt of regulatory approvals, an I.R.S. private letter ruling, and receipt of opinions of tax counsel. There can be no assurance that the conditions to closing will be satisfied in a timely manner or at all, or that any regulatory approvals will not contain adverse conditions. We also have no assurance that we will be able to realize the intended benefits and tax treatment of the transaction or that the new combined company will perform as expected. The announcement and pendency of the transaction could also cause disruptions in our and Amentum's respective businesses, including potential adverse reactions or changes to business relationships and competitive responses to the transaction. The transaction will also require significant amounts of time and effort which could divert management’s attention from operating and growing our business. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Declines in our sales, earnings and cash flows could also result in future asset impairments (including goodwill).
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance
Past and future environmental, health, and safety laws could impose significant additional costs and liabilities.
We are subject to a variety of environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations governing, among other things, discharges to air and water, the handling, storage and disposal of hazardous or waste materials and the remediation of contamination associated with the releases of hazardous substances, and human health and safety. These laws and regulations and the risk of attendant litigation can cause significant delays to a project and add significantly to its cost. Violations of these regulations could subject us and our management to civil and criminal penalties and other liabilities.
Various U.S. federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations may impose liability for property damage and costs of investigation and cleanup of hazardous or toxic substances on property currently or previously owned by us or arising out of our waste management or environmental remediation activities. These laws may impose responsibility and liability without regard to knowledge of or causation of the presence of contaminants. The liability under these laws may be joint and several. We have potential liabilities associated with our past waste management and other activities and with our current and prior ownership of various properties. The discovery of additional contaminants or the imposition of unforeseen clean-up obligations at these or other sites could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Health, safety, and environmental laws and regulations and policies are reviewed periodically, and any changes thereto could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could, for example, relax or repeal laws and regulations relating to the environment, which could result in a decline in the demand for our environmental services and, in turn, could negatively impact our revenue. Changes in the environmental laws and regulations, remediation obligations, enforcement actions, stricter interpretations of existing requirements, future discovery of contamination or claims for damages to persons, property, natural resources or the environment could result in material costs and liabilities that we currently do not anticipate. Failure to comply with any environmental, health, or safety laws or regulations, whether actual or alleged, exposes us to fines, penalties or potential litigation liabilities, including costs, settlements and judgments, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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If we fail to comply with any governmental requirements, our business may be adversely affected.
We are subject to U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that affect our business, including data privacy and security, employment and labor relations, immigration, taxation, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, import-export controls, trade restrictions, internal and disclosure control obligations, securities regulation and anti-competition. For example, our global operations require importing and exporting goods and technology across international borders which requires compliance with both export regulatory laws and International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”). Although we have policies and procedures to comply with U.S. and foreign international trade laws, the violation of such laws could subject the Company and its employees to civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines, or other adverse actions including denial of import or export privileges or debarment from participation in U.S. government contracts, and could damage our reputation and our ability to do business.
In addition, we and many of our clients operate in highly regulated environments, which requires us or our clients to obtain, and to comply with, federal, state and local government permits and approvals. These permits or approvals are subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with, or the loss or modification of, the conditions of permits or approvals subjects us to the risk of penalties or other liabilities, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and result of operations.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, including the requirements to maintain accurate information and internal controls. We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and in certain circumstances; strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Despite our training and compliance programs, there is no assurance that our internal control policies and procedures will protect us from acts committed by our employees or agents. If we are found to be liable for FCPA or other violations (either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others), we could suffer from civil and criminal penalties or other sanctions, including contract cancellations or debarment and loss of reputation, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Climate Change
Climate change and related environmental issues could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Climate change related events, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods, wildfires, droughts, hurricanes, freezing conditions, and other natural disasters, may have a long-term impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While we seek to mitigate our business risks associated with climate change, we recognize that there are inherent climate related risks regardless of where we conduct our business. For example, a catastrophic natural disaster could negatively impact any of our office locations and the locations of our customers. Access to clean water and reliable energy in the communities where we conduct our business is critical to our operations. Accordingly, a natural disaster has the potential to disrupt our and our customers’ businesses and may cause us to experience work stoppages, project delays, financial losses and additional costs to resume operations, including increased insurance costs or loss of coverage, legal liability and reputational losses.
Further, the risks caused by climate change span across the full spectrum of the industry sectors we serve. Our services and solutions span water, energy, the natural and built environment, transportation, national security, cyber and aerospace. The direct physical risks that climate change poses to infrastructure through chronic environmental changes, such as rising sea levels and temperatures, and acute events, such as hurricanes, droughts and wildfires, is common to each of these sectors. Infrastructure owners could face increased costs to maintain their assets, which could result in reduced profitability and fewer resources for strategic investment. These types of physical risks could in turn lead to transitional risks (i.e., the degree to which society responds to the threat of climate change), such as market and technology shifts, including decreased demand for our services and solutions, reputational risks, such as how our values and practices regarding a low carbon transition are viewed by external and internal stakeholders, and policy and legal risks, such as the extent to which low carbon transitions are driven by the governments in which we operate around the globe, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We may be affected by market or regulatory responses to climate change.
Growing public concern about climate change has resulted in the increased focus of local, state, regional, national and international regulatory bodies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change issues. The Biden Administration has made climate change and the limitation of GHG emissions one of its initial and primary objectives. Policy changes could increase the costs of projects for our clients or, in some cases, prevent a project from going forward, thereby potentially reducing the need for our services, which would in turn have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, climate legislation across all geographies poses a similar risk to us and our clients as we operate globally. However, policy changes and climate legislation could also increase the overall demand for our services as our clients and partners work to comply with such policies, such as by decarbonizing their industries, transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources and developing integrated and sustainable solutions, which could have a positive impact on our business. We cannot predict when or whether any of these various proposals may be enacted or what their effect will be on us or on our customers.
We may also incur additional expenses as a result of U.S. and international regulators requiring additional disclosures regarding GHG emissions, and/or broader environmental, social or governance-related factors. Compliance with such regulation and the associated potential cost is complicated by the fact that various countries and regions are following different approaches to the regulation of climate change.
We may be unable to achieve our climate commitments and targets.
At Jacobs, we have committed to help solve the climate crisis by setting ambitious climate commitments and targets, including our goals to remain carbon neutral for our operations and business travel and reach net-zero for our entire value chain by 2040. However, achievement of our climate commitments and targets is subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: our ability to execute our operational strategies and achieve our goals within the currently projected costs and the expected timeframes; the availability and cost of alternative fuels, global electrical charging infrastructure, off-site renewable energy and other materials and components; unforeseen design, operational and technological difficulties; the outcome of research efforts and future technology developments, including the ability to scale projects and technologies on a commercially competitive basis such as carbon sequestration and/or other related processes; compliance with, and changes or additions to, global and regional regulations, taxes, charges, mandates or requirements relating to GHG emissions, carbon costs or climate-related goals; labor-related regulations and requirements that restrict or prohibit our ability to impose requirements on third party contractors; adapting products to customer preferences and customer acceptance of sustainable supply chain solutions; the actions of competitors and competitive pressures; an acquisition of or merger with another company that has not adopted similar carbon goals or whose progress toward reaching its carbon goals is not as advanced as ours; and the pace of regional and global recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, there is no assurance that we will be able to successfully execute our operational strategies and achieve our climate commitments and targets.

While our climate commitments and targets are ambitious, we believe that they are realistic and achievable. We have also developed a roadmap for implementation of our carbon reduction goals and our global emissions reduction trajectory suggests that we are on the pathway to meet our targets. However, we also recognize that some of our emission reductions over the past few years may have been primarily the result of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Our roadmap recognizes these anomalies, and we are putting measures in place now to establish a similar trajectory. However, we cannot guarantee that such measures will be successful. Failure to achieve our climate commitments and targets could damage our reputation and our customer and other stakeholder relationships. Further, investors have recently increased their focus on environmental, social and governance matters, including practices related to GHGs and climate change. An increasing percentage of the investment community considers sustainability factors in making investment decisions, and an increasing number of entities are considering sustainability factors in awarding business. If we are unable to meet our climate commitments and targets and appropriately address sustainability enhancement, we may lose investors, customers, or partners, our stock price may be negatively impacted, our reputation may be negatively affected, and it may be more difficult for us to compete effectively, all of which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Credit Markets
We rely in part on liquidity from our credit facilities to fund our business. Restrictions in our credit facilities and other indebtedness could adversely affect our business.
We are currently a borrower under several credit facilities and our subsidiary, Jacobs Engineering Inc., has issued notes pursuant to an indenture with respect to which Jacobs has provided a guarantee. These facilities and indenture contain customary covenants restricting, among other things, our ability to incur certain liens and indebtedness. We are also subject to certain financial covenants in our credit facilities, including maintenance of a maximum consolidated leverage ratio. A breach of any covenant or our inability to comply with the required financial ratios could result in a default under one or more of our credit facilities or indentures and limit our ability to do further borrowing. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, we may be prohibited from undertaking actions that are necessary or desirable to maintain or expand our business. Additionally, if it becomes necessary to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms, or if we are unable to refinance at all, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected by increased costs and rates.
Our business may be adversely affected by disruptions or lack of liquidity in the credit markets, including reduced access to credit and higher costs of obtaining credit.
We depend on the availability of credit to grow our business and to help fund business acquisitions. Instability in the credit markets in the U.S. or abroad, and continued inflation and rising interest rates could cause the availability of credit to be relatively difficult or expensive to obtain at competitive rates, on commercially reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts. This situation could make it more difficult or more expensive for us to access funds, refinance our existing indebtedness, enter into agreements for new indebtedness, or obtain funding through the issuance of securities or such additional capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
In addition, market conditions could negatively impact our clients’ ability to fund their projects and, therefore, utilize our services, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We also routinely enter into contracts with counterparties including vendors, suppliers and subcontractors that may be negatively impacted by events in the credit markets. Disruptions of the credit or capital markets could adversely affect our clients’ ability to finance projects and could result in contract cancellations or suspensions, project delays and payment delays or defaults by our clients. In addition, clients may be unable to fund new projects, may choose to make fewer capital expenditures or otherwise slow their spending on our services or to seek contract terms more favorable to them. These circumstances could also lead to disputes and litigation with our partners or clients, which could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, our cash balances and short-term investments are maintained in accounts held by major banks and financial institutions located primarily in North America, Europe, South America, Australia and Asia. Some of our accounts hold deposits in amounts that exceed available insurance. In addition, we are subject to the risk that the counterparties to our credit agreements may go bankrupt if they suffer catastrophic demand on their liquidity that will prevent them from fulfilling their contractual obligations to us. Although none of our lenders or the financial institutions in which we hold our cash and investments have gone into bankruptcy or forced receivership, or have been seized by their governments, there is a risk that such events may occur in the future. If any such events were to occur, we would be at risk of not being able to access cash, which may result in a temporary liquidity crisis that could impede our ability to fund our operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Maintaining adequate bonding and letter of credit capacity is necessary for us to successfully bid on and win some contracts.
In line with industry practice, we are often required to provide performance or payment bonds or letters of credit to our customers. These instruments indemnify the customer should we fail to perform our obligations under the contract. If a bond or a letter of credit is required for a particular project and we are unable to obtain an appropriate bond or letter of credit, we cannot pursue that project. Historically, we have had adequate bonding and letter of credit capacity but, as is typically the case, the issuance of a bond is at the surety’s sole discretion and the issuance of a letter of credit is based on the Company's credit-worthiness. Because of an overall lack of worldwide bonding capacity, we may find it difficult to find sureties who will provide required levels of bonding, or such bonding may only be available at significant additional cost. There can be no assurance that our bonding capacity will continue to be available to us on reasonable terms. In addition, future projects may require us to obtain letters of credit that extend beyond the term of our existing credit facilities. Our inability to obtain adequate bonding and, as a result, to bid on new contracts that require such bonding or letter of credit could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase and our net income and cash flows to correspondingly decrease.
Borrowings under our credit facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. In the past year, inflation and other factors have resulted in an increase in interest rates generally, which has impacted our borrowing costs. If interest rates were to continue to increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness referred to above would increase even if the principal amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows will correspondingly decrease. We are also currently party to, and in the future, we may enter into additional, interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments, in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.
In addition, our credit facilities reference the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the primary benchmark rate for our variable rate indebtedness. SOFR is a relatively new reference rate and with a limited history, and changes in SOFR have, on occasion, been more volatile than changes in other benchmark or market rates. As a result, the amount of interest we may pay on our variable rate indebtedness is difficult to predict.
We have also included sustainability-linked key performance indicators ("KPIs") in our credit facilities and certain of our senior notes, with KPI targets that include improving gender diversity and, in the case of the senior notes, reducing GHG emissions. Failure to achieve such targets could result in an interest rate step up on the debt, which would cause an increase in our debt payment obligations and could negatively impact our reputation.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Corporate Structure
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly, which could have a material negative effect on the price of our common stock.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly or fall below the expectations of securities analysts, which could have a material adverse impact on the price of our common stock. Fluctuations are caused by a number of factors, including:
Legal proceedings, disputes and/or government investigations;
Fluctuations in the spending patterns of our government and commercial customers;
The number and significance of projects executed during a quarter;
Unanticipated changes in contract performance, particularly with contracts that have funding limits;
The timing of resolving change orders, requests for equitable adjustments, and other contract adjustments;
Delays incurred in connection with a project;
Changes in prices of commodities or other supplies;
Changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
Weather conditions that delay work at project sites;
The timing of expenses incurred in connection with acquisitions or other corporate initiatives;
The decision by the Board of Directors to begin or cease paying a dividend, and the expectation that if the Company pays dividends, it will declare dividends at the same or higher levels in the future;
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Natural disasters or other crises;
Staff levels and utilization rates;
Changes in prices of services offered by our competitors; and
General economic and political conditions.
There can be no assurance that we will pay dividends on our common stock.
Our Board of Directors initiated a quarterly cash dividend program in fiscal 2017 under which we have paid, and intend to continue paying, regular quarterly dividends. The declaration, amount and timing of such dividends are subject to capital availability and determinations by our Board of Directors that cash dividends are in the best interest of our stockholders and are in compliance with all respective laws and applicable agreements. Our ability to pay dividends will depend upon, among other factors, our cash balances and potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions, debt service requirements, results of operations, financial condition and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. A reduction in or elimination of our dividend payments and/or our dividend program could have a material negative effect on our stock price.
In the event we issue stock as consideration for certain acquisitions we may make, we could dilute share ownership, and if we receive stock in connection with a divestiture, the value of stock is subject to fluctuation.
One method of acquiring companies or otherwise funding our corporate activities is through the issuance of additional equity securities. If we issue additional equity securities, such issuances could have the effect of diluting our earnings per share as well as our existing shareholders’ individual ownership percentages in the Company.
In addition, if we receive stock or other equity securities in connection with a sale or divestiture of a business, the value of such stock will fluctuate and/or be subject to trading restrictions. Stock price changes may result from, among other things, changes in the business, operations or prospects of the issuer prior to or following the transaction, litigation or regulatory considerations, general business, market, industry or economic conditions, the ability to sell all or a portion of the stock based on current market conditions, and other factors both within and beyond the control of the Company. In addition, if the stock received is valued in a currency other than U.S. dollars, the value of such stock will also fluctuate based on foreign currency rates.
Delaware law and our charter documents may impede or discourage a takeover or change of control.
We are a Delaware corporation. Certain anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware general corporation law impose restrictions on the ability of others to acquire control of us. In addition, certain provisions of our charter documents may impede or discourage a takeover. For example:
Only our Board of Directors can fill vacancies on the board;
There are various restrictions on the ability of a shareholder to nominate a director for election; and
Our Board of Directors can authorize the issuance of preferred shares.
These types of provisions, as well as our ability to adopt a shareholder rights agreement in the future, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our shareholders. Accordingly, shareholders may be limited in the ability to obtain a premium for their shares.
We are a holding company. Substantially all of our business is conducted through our subsidiaries. We depend on the performance of our subsidiaries and their ability to make distributions to us to fund our operations.
We are a holding company. Substantially all of our business is conducted through our subsidiaries, which are separate and distinct legal entities. Therefore, we are reliant on the operations of our subsidiaries to fund (whether by dividend, distribution or loan) holding company operations, including our ability to pay dividends and service any indebtedness of the holding company. In addition, we cannot assure you that the agreements governing the existing and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries will permit our subsidiaries to provide us with sufficient dividends, distributions or loans to fund payments of dividends or other obligations of the holding company. In addition, any payment of dividends, distributions or loans to us by our subsidiaries could be subject to restrictions on dividends or repatriation of earnings under applicable local law and monetary transfer restrictions in the jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries operate. Furthermore, payments to us by our subsidiaries will be contingent upon our subsidiaries’ earnings.
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Item 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
Item 2.    PROPERTIES
Our properties consist primarily of office space within general, commercial office buildings located in major cities primarily in the following countries: United States; Australia; Canada; India; Poland; United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom. We also lease smaller offices located in certain other countries. Such space is used for operations (providing technical, professional, and other home office services), sales and administration. The total amount of space leased by us for all of our operations is approximately 7.0 million square feet. We continue to evaluate our real estate needs in connection with changes in the Company's use of leased space and as part of our overall strategic organizational changes.
Item 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required by this Item 3 is included in Note 18- Contractual Guarantees, Litigation, Investigations and Insurance of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
None.
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PART II
Item 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "J".
Shareholders
According to the records of our transfer agent, there were 2,480 shareholders of record as of November 10, 2023.
Dividend Policy
Our Board of Directors initiated a quarterly cash dividend program in fiscal 2017 under which we have paid, and intend to continue paying, regular quarterly dividends. The declaration, amount and timing of such dividends are subject to capital availability and determinations by our Board of Directors that cash dividends are in the best interest of our stockholders and are in compliance with all respective laws and applicable agreements. Our ability to pay dividends will depend upon, among other factors, our cash balances and potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions, debt service requirements, results of operations, financial condition and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
Share Repurchases
On January 25, 2023, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $1.0 billion of the Company's common stock, to expire on January 25, 2026 (the "2023 Repurchase Authorization").
There was no repurchase activity under the 2023 Repurchase Authorization during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023.
On January 16, 2020, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $1.0 billion of the Company's common stock that expired on January 15, 2023 (the "2020 Repurchase Authorization"). There were no repurchases of the Company's common stock made during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023 under the 2020 Repurchase Authorization.
As of September 29, 2023, the Company has $874.8 million remaining under the 2023 Repurchase Authorization.
Our share repurchase programs do not obligate the Company to purchase any shares. Share repurchases may be executed through various means including, without limitation, accelerated share repurchases, open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions, purchases pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan or otherwise. The authorization for the share repurchase programs may be terminated, increased or decreased by the Company’s Board of Directors in its discretion at any time. The timing, amount and manner of share repurchases may depend upon market conditions and economic circumstances, availability of investment opportunities, the availability and costs of financing, currency fluctuations, the market price of the Company's common stock, other uses of capital and other factors.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
None.
Performance Graph
The following graph and table show the changes over the five-year period ended September 29, 2023 in the value of $100 as of the close of market on September 28, 2018 in (1) the common stock of Jacobs Solutions Inc., (2) the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and (3) the Standard & Poor's 1500 IT Consulting & Other Services Index.
The values of each investment are based on share price appreciation, with reinvestment of all dividends, provided any were paid. The investments are assumed to have occurred at the beginning of the period presented. The stock performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
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Jacobs 10K Performance Graph - JPG 2023.jpg

 201820192020202120222023
Jacobs Solutions Inc.100.00 120.41 123.15 177.15 146.32 185.31 
S&P 500100.00 104.25 120.05 156.07 131.92 160.44 
S&P 1500 IT Consulting & Other Services100.00 98.15 100.84 136.69 111.41 132.10 
Item 6.    [Reserved]
Item 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
In order to better understand the changes that occur to key elements of our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, a reader of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) should be aware of the critical accounting policies we apply in preparing our consolidated financial statements.
The consolidated financial statements contained in this report were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and the financial statements of any business performing long-term professional services, engineering and construction-type contracts requires management to make certain estimates and judgments that affect both the entity’s results of operations and the carrying values of its assets and liabilities. Although our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2- Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following discussion is intended to
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highlight and describe those accounting policies that are especially critical to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Accounting for Contracts
The Company recognizes engineering, procurement, and construction contract revenue over time, as performance obligations are satisfied, due to the continuous transfer of control to the customer in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Contracts that include engineering, procurement and construction services are generally accounted for as a single deliverable (a single performance obligation). In some instances, the Company’s services associated with a construction activity are limited only to specific tasks such as customer support, consulting or supervisory services. In these instances, the services are typically identified as separate performance obligations.
The Company recognizes revenue using the percentage-of-completion method, based primarily on contract costs incurred to date compared to total estimated contract costs. Estimated contract costs include the Company’s latest estimates using judgments with respect to labor hours and costs, materials, and subcontractor costs. The percentage-of-completion method (an input method) is the most representative depiction of the Company’s performance because it directly measures the value of the services transferred to the customer. Subcontractor materials, labor and equipment and, in certain cases, customer-furnished materials and labor and equipment are included in revenue and cost of revenue when management believes that the company is acting as a principal rather than as an agent (e.g., the company integrates the materials, labor and equipment into the deliverables promised to the customer or is otherwise primarily responsible for fulfillment and acceptability of the materials, labor and/or equipment). Under the typical payment terms of our engineering, procurement and construction contracts, amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms at periodic intervals (e.g., biweekly or monthly) and customer payments are typically due within 30 to 60 days of billing, depending on the contract.
For service contracts, the Company recognizes revenue over time using the cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion method. In some instances where the Company is standing ready to provide services, the Company recognizes revenue ratably over the service period. Under the typical payment terms of our service contracts, amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, and customer payments are typically due within 30 to 60 days of billing, depending on the contract.
Direct costs of contracts include all costs incurred in connection with and directly for the benefit of client contracts, including depreciation and amortization relating to assets used in providing the services required by the related projects. The level of direct costs of contracts may fluctuate between reporting periods due to a variety of factors, including the amount of pass-through costs we incur during a period. On those projects where we are acting as principal for subcontract labor or third-party materials and equipment, we reflect the amounts of such items in both revenues and costs (and we refer to such costs as “pass-through costs”).
Accounting for Pension Plans
The accounting for pension plans requires the use of assumptions and estimates in order to calculate periodic pension cost and the value of the plans’ assets and liabilities. These assumptions include discount rates, investment returns, and projected salary increases, among others. The actuarial assumptions used in determining the funded statuses of the plans are provided in Note 13- Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The expected rates of return on plan assets ranged from 3.3% to 7.5% for fiscal 2023 and range from 5.3% to 7.6% for fiscal 2024. We believe the range of rates selected for fiscal 2024 reflects the long-term returns expected on the plans’ assets, considering recent market conditions, projected rates of inflation, the diversification of the plans’ assets, and the expected real rates of market returns. The discount rates used to compute plan liabilities ranged from 2.4% to 7.4% in fiscal 2023 and range from 3.8% to 6.9% in fiscal 2024. These assumptions represent the Company’s best estimate of the rates at which its pension obligations could be effectively settled.
Changes in the actuarial assumptions often have a material effect on the values assigned to plan assets and liabilities, and the associated pension expense. For example, if the discount rate used to value the net pension benefit obligation (“PBO”) at September 29, 2023 was lower or higher by 1.0%, the PBO would have been higher or lower, respectively, at that date by approximately $139.9 million for non-U.S. plans, and by approximately $19.8 million for U.S. plans. If the expected return on plan assets was lower or higher by 1.0%, the net periodic pension cost for fiscal 2023 would be higher or lower, respectively, by approximately $12.4 million for non-U.S. plans, and by approximately $3.2
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million for U.S. plans. Differences between actuarial assumptions and actual performance (i.e., actuarial gains and losses) that are not recognized as a component of net periodic pension cost in the period in which such differences arise are recorded to accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and are recognized as part of net periodic pension cost in future periods in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Management monitors trends in the marketplace within which our pension plans operate in an effort to assure the reasonableness of the actuarial assumptions used.
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
In connection with the PA Consulting investment in March 2021, the Company recorded redeemable noncontrolling interests, representing the interest holders' initial 35% equity interest in the form of preferred and common shares of PA Consulting. The preferred shares are entitled to a cumulative annual compounding 12% dividend based on the outstanding preferred share subscription price. These noncontrolling interest holders have certain option rights to put the preferred and common share interests back to the Company at a value based on the fair value of PA Consulting (the redemption values). The primary inputs and assumptions impacting the fair value of PA Consulting include projections of revenue and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization and discount rates applied thereto. Additionally, the Company has an option to call the interests for certain individual shareholders in certain circumstances. Because the interests are redeemable at the option of the holders and not solely within the control of the Company, the Company classified the interests in redeemable noncontrolling interests within its Consolidated Balance Sheet at their redemption values. The optional redemption features may become exercisable no earlier than five years from the March 2, 2021 closing date, or upon the occurrence of certain other events.
The Company has deemed these interests probable of becoming redeemable in the future and requiring their measurement at the greater of (i) the redemption amount that would be paid if settlement occurred at the balance sheet date, or (ii) the historical value resulting from the original acquisition date fair value plus the impact of any earnings or loss attribution amounts, including dividends. The fair value of the PA Consulting redeemable noncontrolling interest is determined using a combination of the income and market approaches. Under the income approach, fair value is determined by using the projected discounted cash flows of PA Consulting. Under the market approach, the fair value is determined by reference to guideline companies that are reasonably comparable to PA Consulting; the fair value is estimated based on the valuation multiples of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.
Litigation, Investigations, and Insurance
In the normal course of business, we make contractual commitments, and on occasion we are a party in litigation or arbitration proceedings. The litigation in which we are involved primarily includes personal injury claims, professional liability claims, and breach of contract claims. We are also routinely subject to investigations and audits.
We maintain insurance coverage for most insurable aspects of our business and operations. Our insurance programs have varying coverage limits depending upon the type of insurance and include certain conditions and exclusions which insurance companies may raise in response to any claim that the Company brings. We have also elected to retain a portion of certain losses, claims and liabilities that occur through the use of various deductibles, limits, and retentions under our insurance programs and utilize a number of internal financing mechanisms for these self-insurance arrangements including the operation of certain captive insurance entities. As a result, we may be subject to a future liability for which we are only partially insured or completely uninsured. We intend to mitigate any such future liability by continuing to exercise prudent business judgment in negotiating the terms and conditions of the contracts which the Company enters with its clients. Our insurers are also subject to business risk and, as a result, one or more of them may be unable to fulfill their insurance obligations due to insolvency or otherwise.
Our Consolidated Balance Sheets include amounts representing our probable estimated liability relating to such claims, litigation, audits, and investigations. Our estimates of probable liabilities require us to make assumptions related to potential losses regarding our determination of amounts considered probable and estimable.
The Company believes, after consultation with counsel, that such litigation, U.S. government contract-related audits, investigations and claims, and income tax audits and investigations should not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements, beyond amounts currently accrued.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred, plus the fair value of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, over the fair value of the net assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the
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acquisition date. We recognize purchased intangible assets in connection with our business acquisitions at fair value on the acquisition date.
The goodwill carried on our Consolidated Balance Sheets is tested annually for possible impairment, and on an interim basis if indicators of possible impairment exist. For purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is assigned to the applicable reporting units based on the current reporting structure. In performing the annual impairment test, we evaluate our goodwill at the reporting unit level. The Company performs the annual goodwill impairment test for the reporting units at the beginning of the fourth quarter of its fiscal year.
We evaluate impairment of goodwill either by assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, or by performing a quantitative assessment. Qualitative factors include industry and market considerations, overall financial performance, and other relevant events and circumstances affecting the reporting unit. If we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and after considering the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we would perform a quantitative fair value test.
U.S. GAAP does not prescribe a specific valuation method for estimating the fair value of reporting units. Any valuation technique used to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including revenue growth rates, operating margins, discount rates and future market conditions, among others.
We use income and market approaches to test our goodwill for possible impairment which requires us to make estimates and judgments. Under the income approach, fair value is determined by using the discounted cash flows of our reporting units. The Company’s discount rate reflects a weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”) for a peer group of companies representative of the Company’s respective reporting units. Under the market approach, the fair values of our reporting units are determined by reference to guideline companies that are reasonably comparable to our reporting units; the fair values are estimated based on the valuation multiples of the invested capital associated with the guideline companies. In assessing whether there is an indication that the carrying value of goodwill has been impaired, we utilize the results of both valuation techniques and consider the range of fair values indicated.
It is possible that changes in facts and circumstances, judgments and assumptions used in estimating the fair value, including with respect to market conditions and the economy, could change, resulting in possible impairment of goodwill in the future. The fair values resulting from the valuation techniques used are not necessarily representative of the values we might obtain in a sale of the reporting units to willing third parties.
For the 2023 fiscal year, in connection with the separation activities of the CMS business and part of our DVS business, we performed a quantitative impairment test of the CMS and DVS reporting units and determined that the fair value of these reporting units exceeded their respective carrying value. For the remaining reporting units, we determined that the fair values significantly exceeded their carrying values and an analysis beyond the qualitative level was not considered necessary.
Intangible assets with finite lives that arise from business acquisitions are amortized based on the period over which the contractual or economic benefit of the intangible assets are expected to be realized or on a straight-line basis over the useful lives of the underlying assets. These primarily consist of customer relationships, contracts and backlog, developed technology and trade names. We assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indicators of impairment are present based on expected future profitability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to overall operations. Should the review indicate that the carrying value is not fully recoverable, the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the intangible assets would be recognized as an impairment loss.
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JACOBS SOLUTIONS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
For the Fiscal Years Ended September 29, 2023, September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021
(In thousands, except per share information)
September 29, 2023September 30, 2022October 1, 2021
Revenues$16,352,414 $14,922,825 $14,092,632 
Direct cost of contracts(12,879,099)(11,595,785)(11,048,860)
Gross profit3,473,315 3,327,040 3,043,772 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(2,398,078)(2,409,190)(2,355,683)
Operating Profit1,075,237 917,850 688,089 
Other Income (Expense):
Interest income26,013 4,489 3,503 
Interest expense(168,108)(100,246)(72,714)
Miscellaneous (expense) income, net(16,463)54,254 76,724 
Total other (expense) income, net (158,558)(41,503)7,513 
Earnings from Continuing Operations Before Taxes916,679 876,347 695,602 
Income Tax Expense for Continuing Operations(196,181)(160,903)(274,781)
Net Earnings of the Group from Continuing Operations720,498 715,444 420,821 
Net (Loss) Earnings of the Group from Discontinued Operations(842)(32)10,008 
Net Earnings of the Group719,656 715,412 430,829 
Net Earnings Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests from Continuing Operations(32,265)(36,788)(39,213)
Net (Earnings) Loss Attributable to Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests(21,614)(34,585)85,414 
Net Earnings Attributable to Jacobs from Continuing Operations666,619 644,071 467,022 
Net Earnings Attributable to Jacobs$665,777 $644,039 $477,030 
Net Earnings Per Share:
Basic Net Earnings from Continuing Operations Per Share$5.33 $5.01 $3.15 
Basic Net (Loss) Earnings from Discontinued Operations Per Share$(0.01)$— $0.08 
Basic Earnings Per Share$5.32 $5.01 $3.22 
Diluted Net Earnings from Continuing Operations Per Share$5.31 $4.98 $3.12 
Diluted Net (Loss) Earnings from Discontinued Operations Per Share$(0.01)$— $0.08 
Diluted Earnings Per Share$5.30 $4.98 $3.20 
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2023 Overview
Net earnings attributable to the Company from continuing operations for fiscal 2023 were $666.6 million (or $5.31 per diluted share), an increase of $22.5 million, or 3.5%, from $644.1 million (or $4.98 per diluted share) for the prior year. The current year results reflected higher year-over-year operating profit of $157.4 million, which benefited from favorable year-over-year underlying operating results for Jacobs businesses, primarily P&PS, as discussed below in the Segment Financial Information section. These favorable operating profit impacts were partly offset by fiscal 2023 Restructuring and other charges and transaction costs relating to expenses incurred in conjunction with the CMS separation activities, real estate transformation rescaling initiatives and the PA Consulting restructuring program charges (primarily employee separation costs), which are discussed in Note 16- Restructuring and Other Charges. Fiscal 2022 was impacted by the final $91.3 million settlement of a legacy litigation matter involving a subsidiary of CH2M (the "Legacy CH2M Matter"), net of previously recorded reserves, which is further discussed in Note 17- Commitments and Contingencies and Derivative Financial Instruments. Additionally, the 2023 year-to-date period was impacted by approximately $15.0 million in net favorable impacts from cost reductions associated mainly with first quarter 2023 changes in employee benefit programs, which were partly offset by higher spend in company technology platforms and other personnel and corporate cost increases.
Other expense, net was unfavorable by $117.1 million for the current year compared to corresponding fiscal 2022 amounts, due mainly to higher interest expense of $67.9 million in the current year compared to the prior year due to higher interest rates. Additionally, miscellaneous (expense) income was impacted year over year by an increase in pension costs associated with higher interest rate impacts in the current year along with comparatively unfavorable foreign exchange gains and losses in the current year. Also, fiscal 2022 included a $13.9 million pre-tax gain related to a cost method investment sold during the period and a $7.1 million gain related to a lease termination.
Income taxes were higher in the current year by $35.3 million due primarily to reduced total tax benefits in fiscal 2023, consisting of $39.4 million mostly related to uncertain tax positions in the U.S. that were effectively settled, as well as $13.0 million for the release of previously valued foreign tax credits, as compared to prior year favorable impacts of $33.1 million for a change in the realizability of foreign tax credits due to a change in the U.S. foreign tax credit regulations, $26.0 million for a change in judgment on the realizability of domestic deferred tax assets which are capital in nature, and $9.1 million due to the reversal of a withholding tax accrual on certain intercompany loans. In addition, in fiscal 2023, the higher year-over-year pre-tax book income resulted in an additional $10.0 million of tax expense.
Finally, year-over-year net earnings impacts associated with redeemable noncontrolling interests were lower by $(13.0) million and were attributable mainly to lower after-tax earnings results in our PA Consulting investment compared to the prior year which were impacted in fiscal 2023 by the PA severance charges discussed above.
Backlog at September 29, 2023 was $29.1 billion, up $1.2 billion, from $27.9 billion for the prior year. New prospects and new sales remain strong, and the Company continues to have a positive outlook for many of the industry groups and sectors in which our clients operate.
Results of Operations
Fiscal 2023 Compared to Fiscal 2022
Revenues for the year ended September 29, 2023 were $16.35 billion, an increase of $1.43 billion, or 9.6%, from $14.92 billion for the prior year. The increase in revenues was due mainly to improved performance of our P&PS and CMS businesses and in addition, to a smaller degree, other increases in our DVS and PA Consulting businesses. The P&PS business benefited primarily from stronger performance in its Advanced Facilities and U.S. business operations, while our CMS business showed improved performance resulting from increased spending in our U.S. government business sector, which was primarily attributable to fiscal 2022 contract awards for the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as growth from contracts in the United Kingdom. Additionally, the increase in revenues for fiscal 2023 were partially offset by an unfavorable impact of foreign currency translation of $222.3 million in our international businesses, as compared to an unfavorable impact of $346.3 million for the corresponding period last fiscal year.
Gross profit for the year ended September 29, 2023 was $3.47 billion, up $146.3 million, or 4.4%, from $3.33 billion for the prior year. The current year gross profit was affected by net favorable impacts from cost reductions associated mainly with first quarter 2023 changes in employee benefit programs, which were partly offset by higher spend
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in company technology platforms and other personnel and corporate cost increases, as mentioned above, and unfavorable foreign currency translation impacts. Our gross profit margins were 21.2% and 22.3% for the years ended September 29, 2023 and September 30, 2022, respectively. Project mix impacts in our portfolios, higher personnel costs and lower utilization trends primarily in the PA Consulting business impacted our current year margins, partly offset by new program startups won in fiscal 2023.
See Segment Financial Information discussion for further information on the Company’s results of operations at the operating segment level.
Selling, general & administrative expenses for the year ended September 29, 2023 were $2.40 billion, a decrease of $11.1 million, or 0.5%, from $2.41 billion for the prior year. The current year's results were impacted by Restructuring and other charges of $63.4 million in separation activities (mainly professional services and employee separation costs) relating to the CMS separation transaction, approximately $14.3 million in costs associated with the Company's restructuring initiatives relating to its investment in PA Consulting (primarily employee separation costs) and $50.7 million in costs associated with the Company's transformation initiatives relating to real estate (compared to $78.3 million for fiscal 2022). Fiscal 2022 was impacted by the final pre-tax $91.3 million settlement of the Legacy CH2M Matter, net of previously recorded reserves, mentioned above and approximately $27 million in third party recoveries was recorded as receivables reducing SG&A, which is further discussed in Note 18 - Contractual Guarantees, Litigation, Investigations and Insurance. The current year results were also impacted by higher investments in company technology platforms, offset in part by decreases in real estate related costs, as well as other department spend decreases due in part to the Company's transformation initiatives. Lastly, SG&A expenses benefited from favorable foreign exchange impacts of $42.5 million for the year ended September 29, 2023 as compared to favorable impacts of $76.4 million for fiscal 2022.
Net interest expense for the year ended September 29, 2023 was $142.1 million, an increase of $46.3 million from $95.8 million for the prior year. The increase in net interest expense year over year is primarily due to higher interest rates in the current year compared to the prior year periods. The increase was offset in part by $6.3 million net interest benefit during the current year period related to the release of interest accruals associated with the effective settlement of uncertain tax positions.
Miscellaneous (expense) income, net for the year ended September 29, 2023 was expense of $16.5 million, unfavorable by $70.7 million as compared to $54.3 million in income for the prior year. The increase in expense from fiscal 2022 was due primarily to an increase in pension costs associated with higher interest rate impacts in the current year along with comparatively unfavorable foreign exchange gains and losses in the current year periods. Also, fiscal 2022 included a $13.9 million pre-tax gain related to a cost method investment sold during the period and a $7.1 million gain related to a lease termination.
Fiscal 2022 Compared to Fiscal 2021
Revenues for the year ended September 30, 2022 were $14.92 billion, an increase of $830.2 million, or 5.9%, from $14.09 billion from fiscal 2021. The increase in revenues was due mainly to fiscal 2022 incremental revenues from the PA Consulting investment completed in March 2021, the Buffalo Group acquisition in November 2020, and the StreetLight and BlackLynx acquisitions in fiscal 2022, as well as revenue benefits from increased spending in our U.S. government business sector client base. Additionally, fiscal 2022 was unfavorably impacted by (1) certain large contract wind downs in the U.S and (2) foreign currency translation of $346.3 million in our international businesses, as compared to favorable impacts of $238.6 million for the corresponding period in fiscal 2021.
Gross profit for the year ended September 30, 2022 was $3.33 billion, up $283.3 million, or 9.3%, from $3.04 billion for fiscal 2021. Our gross profit margins were 22.3% and 21.6% for the years ended September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021, respectively. The increase in our gross profit and gross profit margins were mainly attributable to the fiscal 2022 impacts of the recent business acquisitions mentioned above and favorable impacts from the business results of our PA Consulting investment on a year-to-date basis along with revenue benefits from increased spending in the U.S. government business sector noted above. The increases in gross profit during fiscal 2022 were partially offset by the impacts from the recent large contract wind downs in the U.S. mentioned above, as well as increases in labor costs associated with moderation of COVID-19 mitigation efforts and a competitive labor market along with inflation impacts and incremental investments to support projected top-line growth.
See Segment Financial Information discussion for further information on the Company’s results of operations at the operating segment level.
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Selling, general & administrative expenses for the year ended September 30, 2022 were $2.41 billion, an increase of $53.5 million, or 2.3%, from $2.36 billion for fiscal 2021. Fiscal 2022's results were impacted by incremental SG&A expenses from the business acquisitions mentioned above (mainly PA Consulting) of $150.0 million (including $48.9 million in additional amortization expense for acquired intangibles and excluding the compensation related charge discussed below) due to fiscal 2021 including activity related to the acquired businesses and investment in PA Consulting only for the partial periods subsequent to the applicable acquisition date. Additionally, Restructuring and other charges for fiscal 2022 included $91.3 million pre-tax attributable to the final settlement of the Legacy CH2M Matter, approximately $27 million in third party recoveries was recorded as receivables reducing SG&A, which is further discussed in Note 18 - Contractual Guarantees, Litigation, Investigations and Insurance and in costs associated in part with the Company's transformation initiatives relating to real estate. Also, fiscal 2022 SG&A expenses were impacted by higher personnel costs associated with investments in advance of expected growth anticipated in late 2022 and 2023. Additionally, fiscal 2021 included Restructuring and other charges of $261 million for pre-tax costs incurred in connection with the investment in PA Consulting, in part classified as compensation costs reported in selling, general and administrative expenses. Lastly, SG&A expenses benefited from favorable foreign exchange impacts of $76.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2022 as compared to unfavorable impacts of $75.9 million for fiscal 2021.
Net interest expense for the year ended September 30, 2022 was $95.8 million, an increase of $26.5 million from $69.2 million for fiscal 2021. The increase in net interest expense from fiscal 2021 to 2022 is primarily due to the higher levels of debt outstanding due to the funding of the StreetLight and BlackLynx acquisitions and increased borrowings associated with the payment of the Legacy CH2M Matter settlement in fiscal 2022, in addition to higher interest rates. Additionally, the increase was also impacted by higher levels of average debt outstanding related to the funding of the PA Consulting investment in March of fiscal 2021.
Miscellaneous income (expense), net for the year ended September 30, 2022 was income of $54.3 million, a decrease of $22.5 million as compared to $76.7 million in income for fiscal 2021. The $22.5 million decrease from fiscal 2021 was due primarily to impacts in fiscal 2021 of pre-tax unrealized gains of $34.7 million associated with our former investment in Worley stock (including the Worley stock dividend) and certain foreign currency revaluations relating to the ECR sale, which was sold during fiscal 2021 and $49.6 million in the Company's investment holding in C3, as further discussed in Note 8 - Joint Ventures, VIEs and Other Investments. Offsetting these favorable items in fiscal 2021 was an other-than-temporary impairment charge on our investment in AWE ML of $38.6 million. Additionally, fiscal 2022 benefited primarily from a $13.9 million pre-tax gain related to a cost method investment sold during the period.
On February 4, 2022, the Company acquired StreetLight Data, Inc. ("StreetLight") and on November 19, 2021, a subsidiary of Jacobs acquired BlackLynx ("BlackLynx"). For further discussion, see Note 15- Other Business Combinations.
The following table reconciles total income tax expense on continuing operations using the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate to the consolidated income tax expense on continuing operations shown in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the years ended September 29, 2023, September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021
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(dollars in thousands):
 For the Years Ended
 September 29, 2023%September 30, 2022%October 1, 2021%
Statutory amount$192,503 21.0 %$184,033 21.0 %$146,078 21.0 %
State taxes, net of the federal benefit23,9012.6 %19,316 2.2 %14,564 2.1 %
Exclusion of tax on non-controlling interests(6,578)(0.7)%(7,533)(0.9)%(7,999)(1.1)%
Foreign:  
Difference in tax rates of foreign operations7,1660.8 %(2,516)(0.3)%3,684 0.5 %
Expense/(benefit) from foreign valuation allowance change(1,305)(0.1)%2,982 0.3 %2,148 0.3 %
Nondeductible compensation— %— — %48,727 7.0 %
U.S. tax cost (benefit) of foreign operations78,216 8.5 %48,843 5.6 %35,228 5.1 %
Tax differential on foreign earnings84,077 9.2 %49,309 5.6 %89,787 12.9 %
Foreign tax credits(46,530)(5.1)%(33,734)(3.8)%(25,230)(3.6)%
Tax Rate Change(9,913)(1.1)%3,210 0.4 %25,588 3.7 %
Valuation allowance(7,169)(0.8)%(59,121)(6.7)%38,928 5.6 %
Uncertain tax positions(38,844)(4.2)%(1,439)(0.2)%978 0.1 %
Other items:
Energy efficient commercial buildings deduction7360.1 %(2,681)(0.3)%(3,760)(0.5)%
Disallowed officer compensation7,0810.8 %6,034 0.7 %6,689 1.0 %
Stock compensation(3,896)(0.4)%(2,168)(0.2)%(9,946)(1.4)%
Other items – net8130.1 %5,677 0.6 %(896)(0.1)%
Total other items4,7340.5 %6,8620.8 %(7,913)(1.1)%
Taxes on income from continuing operations$196,181 21.4 %$160,903 18.4 %$274,781 39.5 %
The Company’s consolidated effective income tax rate for the year ended September 29, 2023 increased to 21.4% from 18.4% for fiscal 2022. The year-over-year increase in the effective tax rate is due to reduced total tax benefits in fiscal 2023, consisting of $39.4 million mostly related to uncertain tax positions in the U.S. that were effectively settled, as well as $13.0 million for the release of previously valued foreign tax credits, as compared to prior year favorable impacts of $33.1 million for a change in the realizability of foreign tax credits due to a change in the U.S. foreign tax credit regulations, $26.0 million for a change in judgment on the realizability of domestic deferred tax assets which are capital in nature, and $9.1 million due to the reversal of a withholding tax accrual on certain intercompany loans. In addition, in fiscal 2023, the higher year-over-year pre-tax book income resulted in an additional $10 million of tax expense.
The Company’s consolidated effective income tax rate for the year ended September 30, 2022 decreased to 18.4% from 39.5% for fiscal 2021. Key drivers for the year-over-year decrease in the effective tax rate include fiscal 2022 benefits of $33.1 million for a change in the realizability of foreign tax credits due to a change in the U.S. foreign tax credit regulations and $26.0 million for a change in judgment on the realizability of domestic deferred tax assets which are capital in nature, as compared to fiscal 2021 unfavorable impacts from valuation allowances of $38.9 million. The fiscal 2021 effective tax rate was also impacted by $261 million in nondeductible compensation relating to the PA investment post-completion compensation expense and $25.6 million related to tax rate changes in the United Kingdom.
Restructuring and Other Charges

During fiscal 2023, the Company implemented restructuring initiatives relating to the formation of the reporting and operating segment, Divergent Solutions, which were substantially completed this year. The Company incurred approximately $7.5 million in pre-tax cash charges in connection with these initiatives during the year ended September 29, 2023. These actions are expected to result in estimated gross annualized pre-tax cash savings of approximately $20 million to $24 million.

During fiscal 2023, the Company implemented restructuring initiatives relating to the announcement of its intention to separate its CMS business. The Company incurred approximately $19.8 million in pre-tax cash charges in
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connection with these initiatives during the year ended September 29, 2023. These actions, which are expected to be substantially completed before the end of fiscal 2024, are expected to result in estimated gross annualized pre-tax cash savings of approximately $43 million to $52 million. We will likely incur additional charges under this program during fiscal 2024, which are expected to result in additional savings.

During fiscal 2020 and continuing into fiscal 2023, the Company implemented further real estate rescaling efforts that were associated with its fiscal 2020 transformation program relating to real estate. These activities were substantially completed before the end of fiscal 2023. In connection with these efforts, the Company has incurred $47.3 million, $72.4 million and $8.7 million for the years ended September 29, 2023, September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021, respectively in pre-tax mainly non-cash charges. These actions resulted in non-cash savings related to the future amortization of lease right-of-use assets over the remaining lease terms. Additionally, the objective of these initiatives was to create a modern, flexible work platform tailored to employees’ needs due to globalization and digital advances and to create total emissions savings that will be realized as we continue to optimize our real estate footprint.

During third quarter fiscal 2023, the Company approved a plan to improve business processes and cost structure of our PA Consulting investment by reorganizing senior management and reducing headcount. In connection with these initiatives, which are expected to be substantially complete before the end of fiscal 2024, the Company incurred approximately $14.3 million in pre-tax cash charges during the year ended September 29, 2023. These activities are expected to result in estimated gross annualized pre-tax cash savings of approximately $40 million to $45 million.

During fiscal 2020, the Company implemented certain transformation initiatives. The Company incurred approximately $1.8 million and $11.9 million in pre-tax cash charges in connection with these initiatives during the years ended September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021, respectively. These actions were substantially complete in fiscal 2022 and resulted in estimated gross annualized pre-tax (primarily cash) savings of approximately $45 million to $55 million.

During fiscal 2020, the Company also implemented certain restructuring initiatives associated with the acquisition of John Wood Group's nuclear business. The Company incurred approximately $3.1 million in pre-tax cash charges in connection with these initiatives during the year ended October 1, 2021. These actions were substantially complete in fiscal 2021 and resulted in estimated gross annualized pre-tax cash savings of approximately $9 million to $10 million.

Refer to Note 16– Restructuring and Other Charges for further information regarding restructuring and integration initiatives.
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Segment Financial Information
The following tables present total revenues and segment operating profit for each reportable segment (in thousands) and includes a reconciliation of segment operating profit to total U.S. GAAP operating profit by including certain corporate-level expenses and expenses relating to the Restructuring other charges (as defined in Note 16 - Restructuring and Other Charges) and transaction costs (in thousands).
For the Years Ended
September 29, 2023September 30, 2022October 1, 2021
Revenues from External Customers:
Critical Mission Solutions$4,693,499 $4,376,562 $4,251,690 
People & Places Solutions9,553,857 8,534,650 8,364,640 
Divergent Solutions946,914 892,317 848,901 
PA Consulting1,158,144 1,119,296 627,401 
              Total$16,352,414 $14,922,825 $14,092,632 
For the Years Ended
September 29, 2023September 30, 2022October 1, 2021
Segment Operating Profit:
Critical Mission Solutions$378,201 $355,563 $359,001 
People & Places Solutions (1)957,714 824,834 780,514 
Divergent Solutions81,768 67,552 88,026 
PA Consulting237,003 232,225 151,071 
Total Segment Operating Profit1,654,686 1,480,174 1,378,612 
Other Corporate Expenses (2)(427,053)(364,440)(340,129)
Restructuring, Transaction and Other Charges (3)(152,396)(197,884)(350,394)
Total U.S. GAAP Operating Profit1,075,237 917,850 688,089 
Total Other (Expense) Income, net (4)(158,558)(41,503)7,513 
Earnings from Continuing Operations Before Taxes$916,679 $876,347 $695,602 
(1)Includes $19.5 million, net, in charges related to a legal settlement for the year ended October 1, 2021.
(2)Other corporate expenses include intangibles amortization of $203.9 million, $198.6 million and $149.8 million for the years ended September 29, 2023, September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021, respectively, with the comparative increase from fiscal 2021 to fiscal 2022 mainly attributable to higher amortization from the PA Consulting investment. Additionally, fiscal 2023 included approximately $15.0 million in net favorable impacts from cost reductions compared to the prior year period, which was associated mainly with net favorable impacts during first quarter from changes in employee benefit programs of $41.0 million offset by approximately $26.0 million in higher spend in company technology platforms and other personnel and corporate cost increases.
(3)Fiscal 2023 includes $63.4 million relating to the activities (mainly professional services and employee separation costs, spread across all segments) around the CMS separation and $14.3 million in restructuring and other charges relating to the Company's investment in PA Consulting (primarily employee separation costs). Included in the years ended September 29, 2023, September 30, 2022 and October 1, 2021 were $48.2 million, $78.3 million and $2.4 million, respectively, in charges associated mainly with real estate impairments. Included in the year ended September 30, 2022 is $91.3 million pre-tax related to the final settlement of the Legacy CH2M Matter and net of previously recorded reserves and approximately $27 million in third party recoveries that was recorded as receivables reducing SG&A. Included in the year ended October 1, 2021 is $297.8 million of costs incurred in connection with the investment in PA Consulting, in part classified as compensation costs.
(4)The year ended September 30, 2022 included a $13.9 million gain related to a cost method investment sold during the period and a gain of $8.7 million related to lease terminations. The year ended October 1, 2021 included $34.7 million in fair value adjustments related to our investment in Worley stock (net of Worley stock dividends) and certain foreign currency revaluations relating to ECR sale proceeds, $(38.5) million related to impairment of our AWE Management Ltd. investment and $49.6 million in fair value adjustments related to our investment in C3 stock. The investments in Worley and C3 were sold in fiscal 2021 and therefore there are no comparable amounts in fiscal 2022 or 2023. Additionally, the increase in net interest expense from fiscal 2021 to fiscal 2022 is primarily due to the higher levels of debt outstanding due to the funding of the StreetLight and BlackLynx acquisitions and increased borrowings associated with the payment of the Legacy CH2M Matter settlement in fiscal 2022, in addition to higher interest rates. The increase in net interest expense from fiscal 2022 to fiscal 2023 is due primarily to higher interest rates.
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In evaluating the Company’s performance by operating segment, the CODM reviews various metrics and statistical data for each Line of Business ("LOB") and PA Consulting