10-K 1 ip10-k123116.htm 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 _____________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ý
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
or
¨
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from                         to                        
Commission File No. 1-3157
INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New York
 
13-0872805
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
6400 Poplar Avenue
Memphis, Tennessee
(Address of principal executive offices)
38197
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (901) 419-9000
_____________________________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
  
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 per share par value
  
New York Stock Exchange
_____________________________________________________ 
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ¨    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (section 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  ¨   No ý
The aggregate market value of the Company’s outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2016) was approximately $17,330,052,160.
The number of shares outstanding of the Company’s common stock as of February 17, 2017 was 411,255,197.
Documents incorporated by reference:
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement filed within 120 days of the close of the registrant’s fiscal year in connection with registrant’s 2017 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

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INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2016
 
PART I.
 
 
 
 
ITEM 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
 
 
 
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
 
 
 
PART II.
 
 
 
 
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 








INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2016

ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
 
 
 
PART III.
 
 
 
 
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
 
 
 
PART IV.
 
 
 
 
ITEM 15.
 
 
 
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II



International Paper Company (the “Company” or “International Paper,” which may also be referred to as “we” or “us”) is a global producer of renewable fiber-based packaging, pulp and paper products with manufacturing operations in North America, Latin America, Europe, North Africa, Asia and Russia. We are a New York corporation, incorporated in 1941 as the successor to the New York corporation of the same name organized in 1898. Our home page on the Internet is www.internationalpaper.com. You can learn more about us by visiting that site.
In the United States, at December 31, 2016, the Company operated 29 pulp, paper and packaging mills, 170 converting and packaging plants, 16 recycling plants and three bag facilities. Production facilities at December 31, 2016 in Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa, India, Latin America included 17 pulp, paper and packaging mills, 68 converting and packaging plants, and two recycling plants. We operate a printing and packaging products distribution business principally through 12 branches in Asia. At December 31, 2016, we owned or managed approximately 329,000 acres of forestland in Brazil and had, through licenses and forest management agreements, harvesting rights on government-owned forestlands in Russia. Substantially all of our businesses have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, cycles relating to industry capacity and general economic conditions.
For management and financial reporting purposes, our businesses are separated into four segments: Industrial Packaging; Global Cellulose Fibers; Printing Papers; and Consumer Packaging. Subsequent to the acquisition of the Weyerhaeuser pulp business in December 2016, the Company began reporting the Global Cellulose Fibers business as a separate busines segment due to the increased materiality of the results of this business. This segment includes the Company's legacy pulp business and the newly acquired pulp business. As such, amounts related to the legacy pulp business have been reclassified out of the Printing Papers business segment and into the new Global Cellulose Fibers business segment for all prior periods.
A description of these business segments can be found on pages 24 and 25 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. The Company’s 50% equity interest in Ilim Holding S.A. ("Ilim") is also a separate reportable industry segment.
From 2012 through 2016, International Paper’s capital expenditures approximated $6.8 billion, excluding mergers and acquisitions. These expenditures reflect
 
our continuing efforts to improve product quality and environmental performance, as well as lower costs and maintain reliability of operations. Capital spending in 2016 was approximately $1.3 billion and is expected to be approximately $1.5 billion in 2017. You can find more information about capital expenditures on pages 30 and 31 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
You can find discussions of restructuring charges and other special items on pages 23 and 24 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we “incorporate by reference” certain information in parts of other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC permits us to disclose important information by referring to it in that manner. Please refer to such information. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, along with all other reports and any amendments thereto filed with or furnished to the SEC, are publicly available free of charge on the Investor Relations section of our Internet Web site at www.internationalpaper.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information contained on or connected to our Web site is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we filed with or furnished to the SEC.
The financial information concerning segments is set forth in Note 19 Financial Information by Industry Segment and Geographic Area on pages 79 through 81 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The financial information concerning international and U.S. operations and export sales is set forth in Note 19 Financial Information by Industry Segment and Geographic Area on page 81 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The markets in the pulp, paper and packaging product lines are large and fragmented. The major markets, both U.S. and non-U.S., in which the Company sells its principal products are very competitive. Our products


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compete with similar products produced by other forest products companies. We also compete, in some instances, with companies in other industries and against substitutes for wood-fiber products.
Many factors influence the Company’s competitive position, including price, cost, product quality and services. You can find more information about the impact of these factors on operating profits on pages 18 through 30 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. You can find information about the Company’s manufacturing capacities on page A-4 of Appendix II.
 
The Company sells products directly to end users and converters, as well as through agents, resellers and paper distributors.
The Company’s principal products are described on pages 24 and 25 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Sales volumes of major products for 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
Sales Volumes by Product (1)
 
In thousands of short tons (except as noted)
2016
2015
2014
Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
North American Corrugated Packaging (3)
10,392

10,284

10,355

North American Containerboard
3,091

3,110

3,035

North American Recycling
2,402

2,379

2,459

North American Saturated Kraft
182

156

186

North American Gypsum/Release Kraft
200

171

168

North American Bleached Kraft
24

23

26

EMEA Industrial Packaging (3) (4)
1,477

1,417

1,379

Asian Box (3) (5)
208

426

407

Brazilian Packaging
371

348

362

Industrial Packaging
18,347

18,314

18,377

Cellulose Fibers (in thousands of metric tons) (2)
1,870

1,575

1,612

Printing Papers
 
 
 
U.S. Uncoated Papers
1,872

1,879

1,968

European and Russian Uncoated Papers
1,536

1,493

1,531

Brazilian Uncoated Papers
1,114

1,125

1,141

Indian Uncoated Papers
241

241

231

Uncoated Papers
4,763

4,738

4,871

Consumer Packaging
 
 
 
North American Consumer Packaging
1,189

1,425

1,486

European and Russian Coated Paperboard
393

381

354

Asian Coated Paperboard (6)

958

1,358

Consumer Packaging
1,582

2,764

3,198


(1)
Includes third-party and inter-segment sales and excludes sales of equity investees.
(2)
Includes North American, European and Brazilian volumes and internal sales to mills. Includes sales volumes from the newly acquired pulp business beginning December 1, 2016.
(3)
Volumes for corrugated box sales reflect consumed tons sold (CTS). Board sales by these businesses reflect invoiced tons.
(4)
Excludes newsprint sales volumes at Madrid, Spain mill.
(5)
Includes sales volumes through the date of sale on June 30, 2016.
(6)
Includes sales volumes through the date of sale in October 2015.

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The Company operates its primary research and development center in Loveland, Ohio, as well as several other product development facilities, including the Global Cellulose Fibers technology center in Federal Way, Washington that was acquired in 2016. Additionally, the Company has an interest in ArborGen, Inc., a joint venture with certain other forest products companies.
We direct research and development activities to short-term, long-term and technical assistance needs of customers and operating divisions, and to process, equipment and product innovations. Activities include product development within the operating divisions; studies on innovation and improvement of pulping, bleaching, chemical recovery, papermaking, converting and coating processes; packaging design and materials development; mechanical packaging systems, environmentally sensitive printing inks and reduction of environmental discharges; re-use of raw materials in manufacturing processes; recycling of consumer and packaging paper products; energy conservation; applications of computer controls to manufacturing operations; innovations and improvement of products; and development of various new products. Our development efforts specifically address product safety as well as the minimization of solid waste. The cost to the Company of its research and development operations was $20 million in 2016, $27 million in 2015, and $16 million in 2014.
We own numerous patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights relating to our products and to the processes for their production. We also license intellectual property rights to and from others where advantageous or necessary. Many of the manufacturing processes are among our trade secrets. Some of our products are covered by U.S. and non-U.S. patents and are sold under well known trademarks. We derive a competitive advantage by protecting our trade secrets, patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights, and by using them as required to support our businesses.

International Paper is subject to extensive federal and state environmental regulation as well as similar regulations internationally. Our continuing objectives include: (1) controlling emissions and discharges from our facilities into the air, water and groundwater to avoid adverse impacts on the environment, and (2) maintaining compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The Company spent $83 million in 2016 for capital projects to control environmental releases into the air and water, and to assure environmentally sound management and disposal of waste. The 2016 spend
 
included costs associated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Boiler MACT (maximum achievable control technology) regulations. We expect to spend $111 million in 2017 for environmental capital projects. Capital expenditures for 2018 environmental projects are anticipated to be approximately $54 million. Capital expenditures for 2019 environmental projects are estimated to be $51 million. On January 31, 2013, EPA issued the final suite of Boiler MACT regulations. These regulations require owners of specified boilers to meet revised air emissions standards for certain substances. Several lawsuits have been filed to challenge all or portions of the Boiler MACT regulations. On December 23, 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit remanded the Boiler MACT regulations to EPA requiring the agency to revise emission standards for boiler subcategories that had been affected by flawed calculations. The Court determined that the existing MACT standards should remain in place while the revised standards are being developed, but did not establish a deadline for EPA to complete the rulemaking. As such, the projected capital expenditures for environmental projects represent our current best estimate of future expenditures with the recognition that the Boiler MACT regulations could change as a result of new, revised standards.

Amendments lowering National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate (PM2.5), and ozone have been finalized in recent years but to date have not had a material impact on the Company.


Climate change refers to any significant change in the measure of the earth’s climatic conditions such as temperature, precipitation, or winds that persist for decades or longer. Climate change can be caused by natural factors, such as changes in the sun’s intensity and ocean circulation, and human activities can also affect the composition of the earth’s atmosphere, such as from the burning of fossil fuels. In an effort to mitigate the potential of climate change impacts from human activities, various international, national and sub-national (regional, state and local) governmental actions have been undertaken. Presently, these efforts have not materially impacted International Paper, but such efforts may have a material impact on the Company in the future.

International Efforts

A successor program to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement went into effect in November 2016 which continued international efforts and voluntary commitments toward reducing Greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Consistent with this objective, participating


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countries aim to balance GHG emissions generation and removal in the second half of this century, or in effect achieve a net-zero global GHG emissions. As part of the Paris agreement, many countries, including the U.S. and EU member states, established non-binding emissions reduction targets. The U.S non-binding commitment is for GHG emissions to be 7% below 2005 GHG emissions levels by 2020 and 26% to 28% below by 2025. Other countries in which we do business made similar non-binding commitments. The Company’s voluntary GHG reductions, which are set out in the annual Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) report, are roughly in line with the percentages of the U.S. target reductions. It is not clear at this time what, if any, further reductions by the Company might be required by the countries in which we operate. Due to this uncertainty, it is not possible at this time to estimate the potential impacts of agreements on the Company.
To assist member countries in meeting obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, the EU established and continues to operate an Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Currently, we have two sites directly subject to regulation under Phase III of the EU ETS, one in Poland and one in France. Other sites that we operate in the EU experience indirect impacts of the EU ETS through purchased power pricing. Neither the direct nor indirect impacts of the EU ETS have been material to the Company, but they could be material to the Company in the future depending on how the Paris Agreement non-binding commitments or allocation of and market prices for GHG credits under existing rules evolve over the coming years.
National Efforts
In the U.S., the 1997 Kyoto Protocol was not ratified and Congress has not passed GHG legislation. EPA however has enacted regulations to: (i) control GHGs from mobile sources by adopting transportation fuel efficiency standards; (ii) control GHG emissions from new Electric Generating Units (EGUs), (iii) require reporting of GHGs from sources of GHGs greater than 25,000 tons per year, (iv) in 2015, require states to develop plans to reduce GHGs from utility electric generating units (EGUs) and (v) in 2016 EPA took the first steps in the process of developing emissions standards for existing sources in the oil and gas sector. The EPA has not yet identified the pulp and paper industry in the sectors to be covered by new standards. However, we anticipate that at some future time pulp and paper sources may be subject to new GHG NSPS rules. It is unclear what impacts, if any, future GHG NSPS rules will have on the Company’s operations.

In 2015, EPA promulgated the Clean Power Plan (CPP) rule to address climate change by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other designated greenhouse gas pollutant emissions from utility EGUs. In response,
 
states are to develop and begin implementing programs to reduce GHGs from EGUs by about 32 percent by the 2022 to 2033 timeframe as compared to 2005 baseline levels. These plans, if implemented could pose potential cost increases for electricity purchased by the Company. The magnitude of cost increases to the Company, if any, are not possible to estimate reliably at this time. Adding to the uncertainty, states and some industry parties have filed lawsuits challenging the rule, and on February 9, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted a stay of the Clean Power Plan.  The stay will remain in effect until final disposition of the case, and as such, the rule’s potential impact on the Company remains unclear.
State, Regional and Local Measures

A few U.S. states have enacted or are considering legal measures to require the reduction of emissions of GHGs by companies and public utilities, primarily through the development of GHG emission inventories or regional GHG cap-and-trade programs. California has already enacted such a program and similar actions are being considered by Oregon. The Company does not have any sites currently subject to California's GHG regulatory plan and since the Oregon program is still being developed, it is too early to know how or if Company owned sites in Oregon may be affected. There may be indirect impacts from changing input costs (such as electricity) at some of our California converting operations but these have yet to manifest themselves in material impacts. Although we are monitoring proposed programs in other states, it is unclear what impacts, if any, state-level GHG rules will have on the Company’s operations. Further state measures are under substantive review as they respond to EPA’s 2015 Clean Power Plan and develop an implementation plan over the next 1 to 3 years. The CPP allows significant flexibility in how states develop their plans, so the uncertainty regarding potential impacts will remain high until more specificity is reached and individual power companies develop their compliance strategies.

Summary

Regulation of GHGs continues to evolve in various countries in which we do business. While it is likely that there will be increased governmental action regarding GHGs and climate change, any material impact to the company is not likely to occur before 2020 and at this time it is not reasonably possible to estimate Company costs of compliance with rules that have not yet been adopted or implemented and may not be adopted or implemented in the future. In addition to possible direct impacts, future legislation and regulation could have indirect impacts on International Paper, such as higher prices for transportation, energy and other inputs, as well as more protracted air permitting processes,


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causing delays and higher costs to implement capital projects. International Paper has controls and procedures in place to stay informed about developments concerning possible climate change legislation and regulation in the U.S. and in other countries where we operate. We regularly assess whether such legislation or regulation may have a material effect on the Company, its operations or financial condition, and whether we have any related disclosure obligations.

Additional information regarding climate change and International Paper is available in our 2015 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) report found at http://www.internationalpaper.com/docs/default-source/english/sustainability/2015-gri-report.pdf?sfvrsn=26 though this information is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC.

As of December 31, 2016, we have approximately 55,000 employees, nearly 36,000 of whom are located in the United States. Of the U.S. employees, approximately 25,000 are hourly, with unions representing approximately 15,000 employees. Approximately 11,500 of this number are represented by the United Steelworkers union (USW).
International Paper, the USW, and several other unions have entered into two master agreements covering various mills and converting facilities. These master agreements cover several specific items, including wages, select benefit programs, successorship, employment security, and health and safety. Individual facilities continue to have local agreements for other subjects not covered by the master agreements. If local facility agreements are not successfully negotiated at the time of expiration, under the terms of the master agreements the local contracts will automatically renew with the same terms in effect. The mill master agreement covers 19 of our U.S. pulp, paper, and packaging mills; the converting agreement includes 61 of our converting facilities. In addition, International Paper is party to a master agreement with District Council 2, International Brotherhood of Teamsters, covering 13 additional converting facilities.
During 2016, local labor agreements were negotiated at four mills and 13 converting facilities. Two of these were locations not covered by a master agreement. In 2017, local labor agreements are scheduled to be negotiated at 24 facilities, including seven mills and 17 converting facilities. 23 of these agreements will automatically renew under the terms of the applicable master agreement if new agreements are not reached.

 

Mark S. Sutton, 55, chairman (since January 1, 2015) & chief executive officer (since November 1, 2014). Mr. Sutton previously served as president & chief operating officer from June 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014, senior vice president - industrial packaging from November 2011 to May 31, 2014, senior vice president - printing and communications papers of the Americas from 2010 until 2011, senior vice president - supply chain from 2008 to 2009, vice president - supply chain from 2007 until 2008, and vice president - strategic planning from 2005 until 2007. Mr. Sutton joined International Paper in 1984. Mr. Sutton serves on the board of directors of The Kroger Company. He is a member of The Business Council and the Business Roundtable and serves on the American Forest & Paper Association board of directors and the international advisory board of the Moscow School of Management - Skolkovo. He was appointed chairman of the U.S. Russian Business Council and was also appointed to the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. He also serves on the board of directors of Memphis Tomorrow and board of governors for New Memphis Institute. Mr. Sutton has been a director since June 1, 2014.

W. Michael Amick, Jr., 53, senior vice president - paper the Americas since January 1, 2017. Mr. Amick previously served as senior vice president - North American papers & consumer packaging from July 2016 until December 2016, senior vice president - North American papers, pulp & consumer packaging from November 2014 until June 2016, vice president - president, IP India, from August 2012 to October 2014, and vice president and general manager for the coated paperboard business from 2010 to 2012. Mr. Amick joined International Paper in 1990.

C. Cato Ealy, 60, senior vice president - corporate development since 2003. Mr. Ealy is a director of Ilim Holding S.A., a Swiss holding company in which International Paper holds a 50% interest, and of its subsidiary, Ilim Group. Mr. Ealy joined International Paper in 1992.

William P. Hoel, 60, senior vice president since January 2017. Mr. Hoel previously served as senior vice president - Container The Americas from February 2012 until December 2016, vice president, Container The Americas, from 2005 until 2012, senior vice president, corporate sales and marketing, from 2004 until 2005, and vice president, Wood Products, from 2000 until 2004. Mr. Hoel joined International Paper in 1983.

Tommy S. Joseph, 57, senior vice president - manufacturing, technology, EH&S and global sourcing since January 2010. Mr. Joseph previously


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served as senior vice president - manufacturing, technology, EH&S from February 2009 until December 2009, and vice president - technology from 2005 until February 2009. Mr. Joseph is a director of Ilim Holding S.A., a Swiss Holding Company in which International Paper holds a 50% interest, and of its subsidiary, Ilim Group. Mr. Joseph joined International Paper in 1983.

Thomas G. Kadien, 60, senior vice president - human resources, government relations & global citizenship since November 1, 2014. Mr. Kadien previously served as senior vice president - consumer packaging and IP Asia from January 2010 to October 31, 2014, and senior vice president and president - xpedx from 2005 until 2009. Mr. Kadien serves on the board of directors of The Sherwin-Williams Company. Mr. Kadien joined International Paper in 1978.

Glenn R. Landau, 48, senior vice president - finance since January 1, 2017. Mr. Landau previously served as senior vice president - president, IP Latin America from November 2014 through December 2016, vice president - president IP Latin America from 2013 to October 2014, vice president - investor relations from 2011 to 2013, and vice president and general manager, containerboard and recycling from 2007 to 2011. Mr. Landau joined International Paper in 1991.

Timothy S. Nicholls, 55, senior vice president - industrial packaging the Americas since January 1, 2017. Mr. Nicholls previously served as senior vice president - industrial packaging from November 2014 through December 2016, senior vice president - printing and communications papers of the Americas from November 2011 through October 2014, senior vice president and chief financial officer from 2007 until 2011, vice president and executive project leader of IP Europe during 2007, and vice president and chief financial officer - IP Europe from 2005 until 2007. Mr. Nicholls joined International Paper in 1991.

Jean-Michel Ribieras, 54, senior vice president - global cellulose fibers since July 2016. Mr. Ribieras previously served as senior vice president - president, IP Europe, Middle East, Africa & Russia from 2013 until June 2016, and president - IP Latin America from 2009 until 2013. Mr. Ribieras is a director of Ilim Holding S.A., a Swiss holding company in which International Paper holds a 50% interest, and of its subsidiary, Ilim Group. Mr. Ribieras joined International Paper in 1993.

Carol L. Roberts, 57, senior vice president & chief financial officer since November 2011. Ms. Roberts previously served as senior vice president - industrial packaging from 2008 until 2011 and senior vice president - IP packaging solutions from 2005 until 2008. Ms. Roberts serves on the board of directors of
 
Alcoa Corp., VF Corporation, the Yale University Presidents Advisory Council, and the local governing board of the University of Memphis. Ms. Roberts joined International Paper in 1981.

Sharon R. Ryan, 57, senior vice president, general counsel & corporate secretary since November 2011. Ms. Ryan previously served as vice president, acting general counsel & corporate secretary from May 2011 until November 2011, vice president from March 2011 until May 2011, associate general counsel, chief ethics and compliance officer from 2009 until 2011, and associate general counsel from 2006 until 2009. Ms. Ryan joined International Paper in 1988.

John V. Sims, 54, senior vice president - president, IP Europe, Middle East, Africa & Russia since July 2016. Mr. Sims previously served as vice president and general manager, European papers from March 2016 until June 2016, vice president & general manager, North American papers from 2013 until February 2016, and vice president, finance and strategy, industrial packaging, from 2009 until 2013. Mr. Sims is a director of Ilim Holding S.A., a Swiss Holding Company in which International Paper holds a 50% interest, and of its subsidiary, Ilim Group. Mr. Sims joined International Paper in 1994.

Catherine I. Slater, 53, senior vice president - consumer packaging since December 2016. Ms. Slater joined International Paper from Weyerhaeuser Company in December 2016, effective with the completion of the acquisition of Weyerhaeuser’s cellulose fibers business, which she previously led. Ms. Slater’s 24-year career with Weyerhaeuser included leadership roles in manufacturing, printing papers, consumer products, wood products, distribution and the cellulose fibers business.

Gregory T. Wanta, 51, senior vice president - North American container since December 2016. Mr. Wanta has served in a variety of roles of increasing responsibility in manufacturing and commercial leadership roles in specialty papers, coated paperboard, printing papers, foodservice and industrial packaging, including vice president, central region, Container the Americas, from January 2012 through November 2016. Mr. Wanta joined International Paper in 1991.

Raw materials essential to our businesses include wood fiber, purchased in the form of pulpwood, wood chips and old corrugated containers (OCC), and certain chemicals, including caustic soda and starch. Information concerning fiber supply purchase agreements that were entered into in connection with the Company’s 2006 Transformation Plan, the 2008


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acquisition of Weyerhaeuser Company’s Containerboard, Packaging and Recycling business and the 2016 acquisition of Weyerhaeuser's pulp business is presented in Note 11 Commitments and Contingent Liabilities on page 61 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (including the exhibits hereto) that are not historical in nature may be considered “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are often identified by the words, “will,” “may,” “should,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “plan,” “appear,” “project,” “estimate,” “intend,” and words of a similar nature. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and reflect management’s current views with respect to future events, which are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Factors which could cause actual results to differ include but are not limited to: (i) the level of our indebtedness and changes in interest rates; (ii) industry conditions, including but not limited to changes in the cost or availability of raw materials, energy and transportation costs, competition we face, cyclicality and changes in consumer preferences, demand and pricing for our products; (iii) global economic conditions and political changes, including but not limited to the impairment of financial institutions, changes in currency exchange rates, credit ratings issued by recognized credit rating organizations, the amount of our future pension funding obligation, changes in tax laws and pension and health care costs; (iv) unanticipated expenditures related to the cost of compliance with existing and new environmental and other governmental regulations and to actual or potential litigation; (v) changes in our estimates for the costs and insurance coverage associated with the recent incident at our Pensacola, Florida mill and for the time required to resume full operations at the mill; (vi) whether we experience a material disruption at one of our other manufacturing facilities; (vii) risks inherent in conducting business through a joint venture; (viii) the failure to realize the expected synergies and cost-savings from our purchase of the cellulose fibers business of Weyerhaeuser Company; and (ix) our ability to achieve the benefits we expect from all other acquisitions, divestitures and restructurings. These and other factors that could cause or contribute to actual results differing materially from such forward looking statements are discussed in greater detail below in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 
In addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (particularly in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations), or in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the following are some important factors that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statement.
RISKS RELATING TO INDUSTRY CONDITIONS
CHANGES IN THE COST OR AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIALS, ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION COULD AFFECT OUR PROFITABILITY. We rely heavily on the use of certain raw materials (principally virgin wood fiber, recycled fiber, caustic soda and starch), energy sources (principally natural gas, coal and fuel oil) and third-party companies that transport our goods. The market price of virgin wood fiber varies based upon availability and source. In addition, the increase in demand of products manufactured, in whole or in part, from recycled fiber, on a global basis, may cause an occasional tightening in the supply of recycled fiber. Energy prices, in particular prices for oil and natural gas, have fluctuated dramatically in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future. Our profitability has been, and will continue to be, affected by changes in the costs and availability of such raw materials, energy sources and transportation sources.
THE INDUSTRIES IN WHICH WE OPERATE EXPERIENCE BOTH ECONOMIC CYCLICALITY AND CHANGES IN CONSUMER PREFERENCES. FLUCTUATIONS IN THE PRICES OF, AND THE DEMAND FOR, OUR PRODUCTS COULD MATERIALLY AFFECT OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION, RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND CASH FLOWS. Substantially all of our businesses have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, cycles relating to industry capacity and general economic conditions. The length and magnitude of these cycles have varied over time and by product. In addition, changes in consumer preferences may increase or decrease the demand for our fiber-based products and non-fiber substitutes. These consumer preferences affect the prices of our products. Consequently, our operating cash flow is sensitive to changes in the pricing and demand for our products.
COMPETITION IN THE UNITED STATES AND INTERNATIONALLY COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS. We operate in a competitive environment, both in the United States and internationally, in all of our operating segments. Product innovations, manufacturing and operating efficiencies, and marketing, distribution and pricing strategies


7


pursued or achieved by competitors could negatively impact our financial results.
RISKS RELATING TO MARKET AND ECONOMIC FACTORS
ADVERSE DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS COULD HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON THE DEMAND FOR OUR PRODUCTS AND OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS. General economic conditions may adversely affect industrial non-durable goods production, consumer spending, commercial printing and advertising activity, white-collar employment levels and consumer confidence, all of which impact demand for our products. In addition, volatility in the capital and credit markets, which impacts interest rates, currency exchange rates and the availability of credit, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and our results of operations.
THE LEVEL OF OUR INDEBTEDNESS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND IMPAIR OUR ABILITY TO OPERATE OUR BUSINESS. As of December 31, 2016, International Paper had approximately $11.3 billion of outstanding indebtedness. The level of our indebtedness could have important consequences to our financial condition, operating results and business, including the following:
it may limit our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, dividends, share repurchases, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;
a portion of our cash flows from operations will be dedicated to payments on indebtedness and will not be available for other purposes, including operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities;
the debt service requirements of our indebtedness could make it more difficult for us to satisfy other obligations;
our indebtedness that is subject to variable rates of interest exposes us to increased debt service obligations in the event of increased interest rates;
it may limit our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
it may increase our vulnerability to a downturn in general economic conditions or in our business, and may make us unable to carry out capital spending that is important to our growth.
 
In addition, we are subject to agreements that require meeting and maintaining certain financial ratios and covenants. A significant or prolonged downturn in general business and economic conditions may affect our ability to comply with these covenants or meet those financial ratios and tests and could require us to take action to reduce our debt or to act in a manner contrary to our current business objectives.
CHANGES IN CREDIT RATINGS ISSUED BY NATIONALLY RECOGNIZED STATISTICAL RATING ORGANIZATIONS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR COST OF FINANCING AND HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON THE MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES. Maintaining an investment-grade credit rating is an important element of our financial strategy, and a downgrade of the Company’s ratings below investment grade may limit our access to the capital markets, have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities, increase our cost of borrowing and require us to post collateral for derivatives in a net liability position. The Company’s desire to maintain its investment grade rating may cause the Company to take certain actions designed to improve its cash flow, including sale of assets, suspension or reduction of our dividend and reductions in capital expenditures and working capital.
Under the terms of the agreements governing approximately $2.3 billion of our debt as of December 31, 2016, the applicable interest rate on such debt may increase upon each downgrade in our credit rating below investment grade. As a result, a downgrade in our credit rating below investment grade may lead to an increase in our interest expense. There can be no assurance that such credit ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that such ratings will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by the rating agencies, if, in each rating agency’s judgment, circumstances so warrant. Any such downgrade of our credit ratings could adversely affect our cost of borrowing, limit our access to the capital markets or result in more restrictive covenants in agreements governing the terms of any future indebtedness that we may incur.
DOWNGRADES IN THE CREDIT RATINGS OF BANKS ISSUING CERTAIN LETTERS OF CREDIT WILL INCREASE OUR COST OF MAINTAINING CERTAIN INDEBTEDNESS AND MAY RESULT IN THE ACCELERATION OF DEFERRED TAXES. We are subject to the risk that a bank with currently issued irrevocable letters of credit supporting installment notes delivered to Temple-Inland in connection with Temple-Inland's 2007 sales of forestlands may be downgraded below a required rating. Since 2007, certain banks have fallen below the required ratings threshold and were successfully replaced, or waivers were obtained regarding their replacement. As a result of continuing uncertainty in the banking environment, a number of


8


the letter-of-credit banks currently in place remain subject to risk of downgrade and the number of qualified replacement banks remains limited. The downgrade of one or more of these banks may subject the Company to additional costs of securing a replacement letter-of-credit bank or could result in an acceleration of payments of up to $831 million in deferred income taxes if replacement banks cannot be obtained. The deferred taxes are currently recorded in the Company's consolidated financial statements. See Note 12, Variable Interest Entities, on pages 64 through 66, and Note 10, Income Taxes, on pages 59 through 61, in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
OUR PENSION AND HEALTH CARE COSTS ARE SUBJECT TO NUMEROUS FACTORS WHICH COULD CAUSE THESE COSTS TO CHANGE. We have defined benefit pension plans covering substantially all U.S. salaried employees hired prior to July 1, 2004 and substantially all hourly and union employees regardless of hire date. We provide retiree health care benefits to certain former U.S. hourly employees, as well as financial assistance towards the cost of individual retiree medical coverage for certain former U.S. salaried employees. Our pension costs are dependent upon numerous factors resulting from actual plan experience and assumptions of future experience. Pension plan assets are primarily made up of equity and fixed income investments. Fluctuations in actual equity market returns, changes in general interest rates and changes in the number of retirees may result in increased pension costs in future periods. Likewise, changes in assumptions regarding current discount rates and expected rates of return on plan assets could increase pension costs.  Health care reform under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, and modifications thereto, could also increase costs with respect to medical coverage of the Company’s full-time employees. Significant changes in any of these factors may adversely impact our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
OUR PENSION PLANS ARE CURRENTLY UNDERFUNDED, AND OVER TIME WE MAY BE REQUIRED TO MAKE CASH PAYMENTS TO THE PLANS, REDUCING THE CASH AVAILABLE FOR OUR BUSINESS. We record a liability associated with our pension plans equal to the excess of the benefit obligation over the fair value of plan assets. The benefit liability recorded under the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 715, “Compensation – Retirement Benefits,” at December 31, 2016 was $3.4 billion. The amount and timing of future contributions will depend upon a number of factors, including the actual earnings and changes in values of plan assets and changes in interest rates.
 
CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL CONDITIONS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR BUSINESS AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS. Our operating results and business prospects could be substantially affected by risks related to the countries outside the United States in which we have manufacturing facilities or sell our products. Specifically, Russia, Brazil, Poland, India, and Turkey, where we have substantial manufacturing facilities, are countries that are exposed to economic and political instability in their respective regions of the world. Fluctuations in the value of local currency versus the U.S. dollar, downturns in economic activity, adverse tax consequences, nationalization or any change in social, political or labor conditions in any of these countries or regions could negatively affect our financial results. Trade protection measures in favor of local producers of competing products, including governmental subsidies, tax benefits and other measures giving local producers a competitive advantage over International Paper, may also adversely impact our operating results and business prospects in these countries. In addition, our international operations are subject to regulation under U.S. law and other laws related to operations in foreign jurisdictions. For example, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits U.S. companies and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad. Failure to comply with domestic or foreign laws could result in various adverse consequences, including the imposition of civil or criminal sanctions and the prosecution of executives overseeing our international operations.
RISKS RELATING TO LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AND COMPLIANCE COSTS

WE ARE SUBJECT TO A WIDE VARIETY OF LAWS, REGULATIONS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS THAT MAY CHANGE IN SIGNIFICANT WAYS, AND THE COST OF COMPLIANCE WITH SUCH REQUIREMENTS COULD IMPACT OUR BUSINESS AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS. Our operations are subject to regulation under a wide variety of U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. laws, regulations and other government requirements -- including, among others, those relating to the environment, health and safety, labor and employment, data privacy, and health care. There can be no assurance that laws, regulations and government requirements will not be changed, applied or interpreted in ways that will require us to modify our operations and objectives or affect our returns on investments by restricting existing activities and products, subjecting them to escalating costs. For example, we have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, significant capital, operating and other expenditures complying with applicable environmental laws and


9


regulations. There can be no assurance that future remediation requirements and compliance with existing and new laws and requirements, including with global climate change laws and regulations, Boiler MACT and NAAQSs, will not require significant expenditures, or that existing reserves for specific matters will be adequate to cover future costs. We could also incur substantial fines or sanctions, enforcement actions (including orders limiting our operations or requiring corrective measures), natural resource damages claims, cleanup and closure costs, and third-party claims for property damage and personal injury as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws, regulations, codes and common law. The amount and timing of environmental expenditures is difficult to predict, and, in some cases, liability may be imposed without regard to contribution or to whether we knew of, or caused, the release of hazardous substances. As another example, we are subject to a number of labor and employment laws and regulations that could significantly increase our operating costs and reduce our operational flexibility.

RESULTS OF LEGAL PROCEEDINGS COULD HAVE A MATERIAL EFFECT ON OUR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. The costs and other effects of pending litigation against us cannot be determined with certainty. Although we do not believe that the outcome of any pending or threatened lawsuits or claims will have a material effect on our business or consolidated financial statements, there can be no assurance that the outcome of any lawsuit or claim will be as expected.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR OPERATIONS
MATERIAL DISRUPTIONS AT ONE OF OUR MANUFACTURING FACILITIES COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS. We operate our facilities in compliance with applicable rules and regulations and take measures to minimize the risks of disruption at our facilities. A material disruption at our corporate headquarters or one of our manufacturing facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand, reduce our sales and/or negatively impact our financial condition. Any of our manufacturing facilities, or any of our machines within an otherwise operational facility, could cease operations unexpectedly due to a number of events, including:
fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes or other catastrophes;
the effect of a drought or reduced rainfall on its water supply;
the effect of other severe weather conditions on equipment and facilities;
terrorism or threats of terrorism;
 
domestic and international laws and regulations applicable to our Company and our business partners, including joint venture partners, around the world;
unscheduled maintenance outages;
prolonged power failures;
an equipment failure;
a chemical spill or release;
explosion of a boiler or other equipment;
damage or disruptions caused by third parties operating on or adjacent to one of our manufacturing facilities;
disruptions in the transportation infrastructure, including roads, bridges, railroad tracks and tunnels;
widespread outbreak of an illness or any other communicable disease, or any other public health crisis;
labor difficulties; and
other operational problems.
Any such downtime or facility damage could prevent us from meeting customer demand for our products and/or require us to make unplanned expenditures. If one of these machines or facilities were to incur significant downtime, our ability to meet our production targets and satisfy customer requirements could be impaired, resulting in lower sales and having a negative effect on our business and financial results.

For example, on January 22, 2017, we experienced significant structural damage to the largest pulp digester as well as the power house at our Pensacola pulp and paper mill in Cantonment, Florida. We restarted the power house and resumed partial operations producing fluff pulp at the mill using a series of small batch digesters within a couple weeks. Repairing the damaged digester will take more time, however, and we know that we will not be able to resume full operations producing containerboard at the mill during the first quarter of 2017.
WE ARE SUBJECT TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RISKS RELATED TO BREACHES OF SECURITY PERTAINING TO SENSITIVE COMPANY, CUSTOMER, EMPLOYEE AND VENDOR INFORMATION AS WELL AS BREACHES IN THE TECHNOLOGY USED TO MANAGE OPERATIONS AND OTHER BUSINESS PROCESSES. Our business operations rely upon secure information technology systems for data capture, processing, storage and reporting. Despite careful security and controls design,


10


implementation, updating and independent third party verification, our information technology systems, and those of our third party providers, could become subject to employee error or malfeasance, cyber attacks, or natural disasters. Network, system, application and data breaches could result in operational disruptions or information misappropriation including, but not limited to, interruption to systems availability, denial of access to and misuse of applications required by our customers to conduct business with International Paper. Access to internal applications required to plan our operations, source materials, manufacture and ship finished goods and account for orders could be denied or misused. Theft of intellectual property or trade secrets, and inappropriate disclosure of confidential company, employee, customer or vendor information, could stem from such incidents. Any of these operational disruptions and/or misappropriation of information could result in lost sales, business delays, negative publicity and could have a material effect on our business.
CERTAIN OPERATIONS ARE CONDUCTED BY JOINT VENTURES THAT WE CANNOT OPERATE SOLELY FOR OUR BENEFIT. Certain operations in Russia are carried on by a joint venture, Ilim. In joint ventures, we share ownership and management of a company with one or more parties who may or may not have the same goals, strategies, priorities or resources as we do. In general, joint ventures are intended to be operated for the benefit of all co-owners, rather than for our exclusive benefit. Operating a business as a joint venture often requires additional organizational formalities as well as time-consuming procedures for sharing information and making decisions. In joint ventures, we are required to pay more attention to our relationship with our co-owners as well as with the joint venture, and if a co-owner changes, our relationship may be adversely affected. In addition, the benefits from a successful joint venture are shared among the co-owners, so we receive only our portion of those benefits.
WE MAY NOT ACHIEVE THE EXPECTED BENEFITS FROM ACQUISITIONS, JOINT VENTURES, DIVESTITURES AND OTHER CORPORATE TRANSACTIONS. Our strategy for long-term growth, productivity and profitability depends, in part, on our ability to accomplish prudent acquisitions, joint ventures, divestitures and other corporate transactions and to realize the benefits we expect from such transactions, and we are subject to the risk that we may not achieve the expected benefits. Among the benefits we expect from potential as well as completed acquisitions and joint ventures are synergies, cost savings, growth opportunities or access to new markets (or a combination thereof), and in the case of divestitures, the realization of proceeds from the sale of businesses and assets to purchasers who place higher strategic value on such businesses and assets
 
than does International Paper.
On December 1, 2016, for example, we completed our acquisition of Weyerhaeuser's pulp business. The success of the acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated synergies, cost savings and growth opportunities from integrating the acquired business with our existing businesses. The integration process may be complex, costly and time-consuming, and we may not accomplish the integration of the business smoothly, successfully or within the anticipated costs or timeframe. Potential integration risks include, among other things, our ability to successfully implement our business plan for the combined business and retain key customers, suppliers and employees.


None.

As of December 31, 2016, the Company owned or managed approximately 329,000 acres of forestlands in Brazil, and had, through licenses and forest management agreements, harvesting rights on government-owned forestlands in Russia. All owned lands in Brazil are independently third-party certified for sustainable forestry under the Brazilian National Forest Certification Program (CERFLOR) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).
A listing of our production facilities by segment, the vast majority of which we own, can be found in Appendix I hereto, which is incorporated herein by reference.
The Company’s facilities are in good operating condition and are suited for the purposes for which they are presently being used. We continue to study the economics of modernization or adopting other alternatives for higher cost facilities.
Given the size, scope and complexity of our business interests, we continually examine and evaluate a wide variety of business opportunities and planning alternatives, including possible acquisitions and sales or other dispositions of properties. You can find a discussion about the level of planned capital investments for 2017 on page 31 and 32, and dispositions and restructuring activities as of December 31, 2016, on pages 23 and 24 of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial


11


Information concerning the Company’s legal proceedings is set forth in Note 11 Commitments and Contingencies on pages 61 through 63 of Item  8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Not applicable.









 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Dividend per share data on the Company’s common stock and the high and low sales prices for the Company’s common stock for each of the four quarters in 2016 and 2015 are set forth on page 83 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. As of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company’s common shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. As of February 17, 2017, there were approximately 12,311 record holders of common stock of the Company.
The table below presents information regarding the Company’s purchase of its equity securities for the time periods presented.




PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS.
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased (a)
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (in billions)
October 1, 2016 - October 31, 2016


$—


$0.933
November 1, 2016 - November 30, 2016
9,096

45.03


0.933

December 1, 2016 - December 31, 2016
2,642

52.29


0.933

Total
11,738

 
 
 

(a)
11,738 shares were acquired from employees from share withholdings to pay income taxes under the Company’s restricted stock programs. During these periods, no shares were purchased under our share repurchase program, which was was approved by our Board of Directors and announced on July 8, 2014. Through this program, which does not have an expiration date, we were authorized to purchase, in open market transactions (including block trades), privately negotiated transactions or otherwise, up to $1.5 billion of shares of our common stock.  As of February 17, 2017, approximately $933 million of shares of our common stock remained authorized for purchase under this program.














 















12


PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Commission or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 
The following graph compares a $100 investment in Company stock on December 31, 2011 with a $100 investment in our Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) Peer Group and the S&P 500 also made at market close on December 31, 2011. The graph portrays total return, 2011–2016, assuming reinvestment of dividends.



performancegrapha06.jpg

Note 1: The companies included in the ROIC Peer Group are Domtar Inc., Fibria Celulose S.A., Graphic Packaging Holding Company, Klabin S.A., Metsa Board Corporation, Mondi Group, Packaging Corporation of America, Smurfit Kappa Group, Stora Enso Group, and UPM-Kymmene Corp. MeadWestvaco Corp. and Rock-Tenn Company are included in the ROIC Peer Group results through 2014 and subsequently, after the merger of those companies, WestRock was added to the Peer group beginning in 2015.
Note 2: Returns are calculated in $USD.

13


FIVE-YEAR FINANCIAL SUMMARY (a)
Dollar amounts in millions, except per share amounts and stock prices
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
21,079

  
$
22,365

  
$
23,617

  
$
23,483

  
$
21,852

  
Costs and expenses, excluding interest
19,603

  
20,544

  
22,138

  
21,643

  
20,214

  
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity earnings
956

(b)  
1,266

(e) 
872

(g)  
1,228

(j) 
967

(m)  
Equity earnings (loss), net of taxes
198

  
117

  
(200
)
 
(39
)
  
61

  
Discontinued operations, net of taxes
(5
)
(c)  


(13
)
(h) 
(309
)
(k) 
77

(n) 
Net earnings (loss)
902

(b-d)  
917

(e-f)  
536

(g-i) 
1,378

(j-l)  
799

(m-o)  
Noncontrolling interests, net of taxes
(2
)
  
(21
)
  
(19
)
  
(17
)
  
5

  
Net earnings (loss) attributable to International Paper Company
904

(b-d)  
938

(e-f) 
555

(g-i) 
1,395

(j-l)  
794

(m-o)  
FINANCIAL POSITION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets less current liabilities
$
2,897

  
$
2,553

  
$
3,050

  
$
3,898

  
$
3,907

  
Plants, properties and equipment, net
13,990

  
11,980

  
12,728

  
13,672

  
13,949

  
Forestlands
456

  
366

  
507

  
557

  
622

  
Total assets
33,345

  
30,531

  
28,637

  
31,488

  
32,106

  
Notes payable and current maturities of long-term debt
239

  
426

  
742

  
661

  
444

  
Long-term debt
11,075

  
8,844

  
8,584

  
8,787

  
9,649

  
Total shareholders’ equity
4,341

  
3,884

  
5,115

  
8,105

  
6,304

  
BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY COMMON SHAREHOLDERS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations
$
2.21

  
$
2.25

  
$
1.33

  
$
3.85

 
$
1.65

  
Discontinued operations
(0.01
)
  

  
(0.03
)
  
(0.70
)
 
0.17

 
Net earnings (loss)
2.20

  
2.25

  
1.30

  
3.15

 
1.82

 
DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY COMMON SHAREHOLDERS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations
$
2.19

  
$
2.23

  
$
1.31

  
$
3.80

 
$
1.63

  
Discontinued operations
(0.01
)
  

  
(0.02
)
  
(0.69
)
 
0.17

 
Net earnings (loss)
2.18

  
2.23

  
1.29

  
3.11

 
1.80

  
Cash dividends
1.783

  
1.640

  
1.450

  
1.250

  
1.088

  
Total shareholders’ equity
10.56

  
9.43

  
12.18

  
18.57

  
14.33

  
COMMON STOCK PRICES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High
$
54.68

  
$
57.90

  
$
55.73

  
$
50.33

  
$
39.88

  
Low
32.50

  
36.76

  
44.24

  
39.47

  
27.29

  
Year-end
53.06

  
37.70

  
53.58

  
49.03

  
39.84

  
FINANCIAL RATIOS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current ratio
1.7

  
1.7

  
1.6

  
1.8

  
1.8

  
Total debt to capital ratio
0.72

  
0.70

  
0.65

  
0.54

  
0.62

  
Return on shareholders’ equity
22.1
%
(b-d)  
20.0
%
(e-f)  
7.7
%
(g-i) 
20.2
%
(j-l) 
11.6
%
(m-o)  
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
$
1,348

  
$
1,487

  
$
1,366

  

$1,198

  

$1,383

  
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
55,000

  
56,000

  
58,000

  
64,000

  
65,000

  







 









14


FINANCIAL GLOSSARY
Current ratio—
current assets divided by current liabilities.
Total debt to capital ratio—
long-term debt plus notes payable and current maturities of long-term debt divided by long-term debt, notes payable and current maturities of long-term debt and total shareholders’ equity.
Return on shareholders’ equity—
net earnings attributable to International Paper Company divided by average shareholders’ equity (computed monthly).
FOOTNOTES TO FIVE-YEAR FINANCIAL SUMMARY
 
(a)
All periods presented have been restated to reflect the xpedx business and the Temple-Inland Building Products business as discontinued operations and prior period amounts have been adjusted to conform with current year presentation, if applicable.

2016:

(b) Includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2016
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Riegelwood mill conversion costs
 
$
9

 
$
6

India Packaging evaluation write-off
 
17

 
11

Write-off of certain regulatory pre-engineering costs
 
8

 
5

Early debt extinguishment costs
 
29

 
18

Costs associated with the newly acquired pulp business
 
31

 
21

Asia Box impairment / restructuring
 
70

 
58

Gain on sale of investment in Arizona Chemical
 
(8
)
 
(5
)
Turkey mill closure
 
7

 
6

Amortization of Weyerhaeuser inventory fair value step-up
 
19

 
11

Total special items
 
$
182

 
$
131

Non-operating pension expense
 
610

 
375

Total
 
$
792

 
$
506

(c) Includes a pre-tax charge of $8 million ($5 million after taxes) for a legal settlement associated with the xpedx business.




 
(d) Includes the following tax expenses (benefits):
In millions
 
2016
Cash pension contribution
 
$
23

U.S. Federal audit
 
(14
)
Brazil goodwill
 
(57
)
International legal entity restructuring
 
(6
)
Luxembourg tax rate change
 
31

Total
 
$
(23
)

2015:

(e) Includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2015
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Riegelwood mill conversion costs, net of proceeds from sale of the Carolina Coated Bristols brand
 
$
8

 
$
4

Timber monetization restructuring
 
16

 
10

Early debt extinguishment costs
 
207

 
133

IP-Sun JV impairment
 
174

 
180

Legal reserve adjustment
 
15

 
9

Refund and state tax credits
 
(4
)
 
(2
)
Impairment of Orsa goodwill and trade name intangible
 
137

 
137

Other items
 
6

 
5

Total special items
 
$
559

 
$
476

Non-operating pension expense
 
258

 
157

Total
 
$
817

 
$
633


(f) Includes the following tax expenses (benefits):
In millions
 
2015
IP-Sun JV impairment
 
$
(67
)
Cash pension contribution
 
23

Other items
 
7

Total
 
$
(37
)




















15


2014:
(g) Includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2014
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Temple-Inland integration
 
$
16

 
$
10

Courtland mill shutdown
 
554

 
338

Early debt extinguishment costs
 
276

 
169

India legal contingency resolution
 
(20
)
 
(20
)
Multi-employer pension plan withdrawal liability
 
35

 
21

Foreign tax amnesty program
 
32

 
17

Asia Industrial Packaging goodwill impairment
 
100

 
100

Loss on sale by investee and impairment of investment
 
47

 
36

Other items
 
12

 
9

Total special items
 
$
1,052

 
$
680

Non-operating pension expense
 
212

 
129

Total
 
$
1,264

 
$
809

(h) Includes the operating earnings of the xpedx business prior to the spin-off and the following charges (gains):
 
 
2014
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
xpedx spinoff
 
$
24

 
$
16

Building Products divestiture
 
16

 
9

xpedx restructuring
 
1

 
(1
)
Total
 
$
41

 
$
24

(i) Includes the following tax expenses (benefits):
In millions
 
2014
State legislative tax change
 
$
10

Internal restructuring
 
(90
)
Other items
 
(1
)
Total
 
$
(81
)















 
2013:

(j) Includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2013
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Temple-Inland integration
 
$
62

 
$
38

Courtland mill shutdown
 
118

 
72

Early debt extinguishment costs
 
25

 
16

Insurance reimbursement related to legal settlement
 
(30
)
 
(19
)
Shut down of paper machine at Augusta mill
 
45

 
28

India Papers tradename and goodwill impairment
 
127

 
122

Fair value adjustment of company airplanes
 
9

 
5

Cass Lake environmental reserve
 
6

 
4

Bargain purchase adjustment - Turkey
 
(13
)
 
(13
)
Other items
 
(5
)
 
2

Total
 
$
344

 
$
255

Non-operating pension expense
 
323

 
197

Total
 
$
667

 
$
452

(k) Includes the operating earnings of the xpedx business for the full year and the Temple-Inland Building Products business through the date of sale in July 2013. Also includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2013
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
xpedx spinoff
 
$
22

 
$
14

xpedx goodwill impairment
 
400

 
366

Building Products divestiture
 
23

 
19

xpedx restructuring
 
32

 
19

Total
 
$
477

 
$
418

(l) Includes the following tax expenses (benefits):
In millions
 
2013
Settlement of U.S. federal tax audits
 
$
(744
)
Income tax reserve release
 
(31
)
Other items
 
1

Total
 
$
(774
)











16


2012:

(m) Includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2012
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Temple-Inland integration
 
$
164

 
$
105

Early debt extinguishment costs
 
48

 
30

EMEA packaging business restructuring
 
17

 
12

Temple-Inland inventory fair value adjustment
 
20

 
12

Hueneme mill long-lived asset fair value adjustment
 
62

 
38

Containerboard mill divestitures
 
29

 
55

Other
 
(5
)
 
(5
)
Total
 
$
335

 
$
247

Non-operating pension expense
 
159

 
113

Total
 
$
494

 
$
360























 
(n) Includes the operating earnings of the xpedx business and the Temple-Inland Building Products business for the full year. Also includes the following charges (gains):
 
 
2012
In millions
 
Before Tax
 
After Tax
Building Products divestiture
 
$
15

 
$
9

xpedx restructuring
 
44

 
28

Total
 
$
59

 
$
37


(o) Includes the following tax expenses (benefits):
In millions
 
2012
Internal restructuring
 
$
14

Deferred tax asset adjustment related to Medicare Part D reimbursement
 
5

Other
 
6

Total
 
$
25



17



Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to common shareholders were $904 million ($2.18 per share) in 2016, compared with $938 million ($2.23 per share) in 2015 and $555 million ($1.29 per share) in 2014. Adjusted Operating Earnings is a non-GAAP measure and is defined as net earnings from continuing operations (a GAAP measure) excluding special items and non-operating pension expense. International Paper generated Adjusted Operating Earnings Attributable to Common Shareholders of $1.4 billion ($3.35 per share) in 2016, compared with $1.5 billion ($3.65 per share) in 2015, and $1.3 billion ($3.00 per share) in 2014 (see reconciliation on page 19).

Despite a tough global environment, International Paper delivered another year of solid performance, with continued strong cash flow generation and a return on invested capital in excess of our cost of capital. During 2016, we took steps to further strengthen our portfolio. We completed the acquisition of Weyerhaeuser’s pulp business, which we have combined with IP’s legacy pulp business to form our new Global Cellulose Fibers business. We also completed the conversion of a machine at the Riegelwood, North Carolina mill to produce fluff pulp, which coupled with the newly acquired pulp business, gives the Company the capacity to grow both fluff and high-value specialty pulp products. In addition, we also acquired a top-quartile mill asset in Madrid, which we will convert in the second half of 2017 to produce recycled containerboard to support our EMEA Industrial Packaging business. Finally, we were able to return cash to our shareholders in the form of a 5% increase in the annual dividend, making it the fifth consecutive year of a dividend increase.
Our 2016 results reflect margin pressure across most of our businesses throughout the year along with escalating input costs, primarily natural gas and OCC, in the later portion of the year. Full-year 2016 earnings were impacted by price erosion and weaker mix across many of our businesses, in particular, our North American Industrial Packaging business which experienced lower export pricing and the impact of early 2016 pricing index changes to boxes. Volume was positive compared to 2015, primarily driven by increased North American box demand. Manufacturing operations, despite solid performance across our mill systems, were negatively impacted by the Riegelwood conversion and ramp up, Hurricane Matthew, and inventory valuation charges associated with the October containerboard price increase. We did see signs of strengthening in some of our key markets in the second half of the year, which enabled us to announce and implement price increases
 
across various businesses that will benefit us in 2017. Our Ilim joint venture had another solid year in 2016, experiencing strong demand which led to record full-year production.
Looking ahead to the 2017 first quarter, we expect sales volumes for North American Industrial Packaging to be slightly higher despite seasonally lower daily shipments due to four more shipping days. Sales volumes for Global Cellulose Fibers will be higher due to the full-quarter impact of the newly acquired pulp business. In addition, sales volumes for EMEA Industrial Packaging, North American Printing Papers and North American Consumer Packaging are also expected to be seasonally higher. Pricing is expected to increase for both North American Industrial Packaging and Brazilian Industrial Packaging, reflecting the continuing implementation of box price increases announced in 2016. Pricing for both North American Printing Papers and North American Consumer Packaging is expected to be lower due to market pressures. Planned maintenance outages are expected to increase due to a heavy outage quarter, including a significant outage currently underway at the Global Cellulose Fibers Port Wentworth mill. Input costs are expected to increase primarily for our North American operations, largely driven by natural gas, wood and OCC. Additionally, we expect the results of Ilim to be sequentially lower, primarily due to seasonally lower volumes and seasonally higher input costs.
Looking to full year 2017, we are encouraged by an improving economic climate and are eager to begin the integration of our newly acquired pulp business, driving the anticipated synergies to the bottom line. We expect higher earnings in our North American Industrial Packaging business through benefits from the previously announced price increase, growing demand from our customers and improvement initiatives. We also expect to improve margins with continued strong operations and extensive cost reduction efforts across many of our other businesses. Additionally, we are on track for our planned conversion of the Madrid mill in the second half of the year, which will enable a better offering for our customers and earnings improvement for our EMEA Industrial Packaging business. Finally, with the strong cash flow that we expect from all of these initiatives, we will continue to allocate capital to create value with a near-term focus on debt reduction and returning value to our shareholders.
Adjusted Operating Earnings and Adjusted Operating Earnings Per Share are non-GAAP measures. Diluted earnings (loss) and Diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to common shareholders are the most direct comparable GAAP measures. The Company calculates Adjusted Operating Earnings by excluding the after-tax effect of items considered by management to be unusual, from the earnings reported under GAAP, non-operating pension expense (includes all U.S. pension costs, excluding service costs and prior service costs), and


18


discontinued operations. Adjusted Operating Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing Adjusted Operating Earnings by diluted average shares of common stock outstanding. Management uses this measure to focus on on-going operations, and believes that it is useful to investors because it enables them to perform meaningful comparisons of past and present operating results. The Company believes that using this information, along with the most direct comparable GAAP measure, provides for a more complete analysis of the results of operations.
Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to common shareholders were $0.53 in the 2016 fourth quarter, compared with $0.75 in the 2016 third quarter and $0.43 in the 2015 fourth quarter. Adjusted Operating Earnings attributable to common shareholders of $303 million ($0.73 per share) in the 2016 fourth quarter were lower than both the $380 million ($0.91 per share) in the 2016 third quarter and the $361 million ($0.87 per share) in the 2015 fourth quarter.
The following are reconciliations of Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to common shareholders to Adjusted operating earnings attributable to common shareholders. 
 
2016
2015
2014
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Attributable to Shareholders
$
904

$
938

$
555

Add back - Discontinued operations (gain) loss
5


13

Diluted Earnings (Loss) from Continuing Operations
909

938

568

Add back - Non-operating pension (income) expense
610

258

212

Add back - Net special items expense (income)
182

559

1,052

Income tax effect - Non-operating pension and special items expense
(309
)
(221
)
(536
)
Adjusted Operating Earnings (Loss) Attributable to Shareholders
$
1,392

$
1,534

$
1,296


 
2016
2015
2014
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to Shareholders
$
2.18

$
2.23

$
1.29

Add back - Discontinued operations (gain) loss per share
0.01


0.02

Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share from Continuing Operations
2.19

2.23

1.31

Add back - Non-operating pension (income) expense
1.47

0.61

0.49

Add back - Net special items expense (income)
0.44

1.33

2.44

Income tax effect - Non-operating pension and special items expense
(0.75
)
(0.52
)
(1.24
)
Adjusted Operating Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to Shareholders
$
3.35

$
3.65

$
3.00


 
 
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2016
 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2016
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2015
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Attributable to Shareholders
 
$
218

 
$
312

 
$
178

Add back - Discontinued operations (gain) loss
 

 

 

Diluted Earnings (Loss) from Continuing Operations
 
218

 
312

 
178

Add back - Non-operating pension (income) expense
 
37

 
42

 
60

Add back - Net special items expense (income)
 
45

 
66

 
158

Income tax effect - Non-operating pension and special items expense
 
3

 
(40
)
 
(35
)
Adjusted Operating Earnings (Loss) Attributable to Shareholders
 
$
303

 
$
380

 
$
361


 
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2016
 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2016
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2015
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to Shareholders
 
$
0.53

 
$
0.75

 
$
0.43

Add back - Discontinued operations (gain) loss per share
 

 

 

Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share from Continuing Operations
 
0.53

 
0.75

 
0.43

Add back - Non-operating pension (income) expense per share
 
0.09

 
0.10

 
0.14

Add back - Net special items expense (income) per share
 
0.11

 
0.16

 
0.38

Income tax effect per share - Non-operating pension and special items expense
 

 
(0.10
)
 
(0.08
)
Adjusted Operating Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to Shareholders
 
$
0.73

 
$
0.91

 
$
0.87

Free Cash Flow is a non-GAAP measure and the most directly comparable GAAP measure is cash provided by operations. Management believes that Free Cash Flow is useful to investors as a liquidity measure because it measures the amount of cash generated that is available, after reinvesting in the business, to maintain a strong balance sheet, pay dividends, repurchase stock, repay debt and make investments for future growth. It should not be inferred that the entire free cash flow amount is available for discretionary expenditures. By adjusting for certain items that are not indicative of the Company's ongoing performance, free cash flow also enables investors to perform meaningful comparisons between


19


past and present periods. Free Cash Flow of $1.9 billion generated in 2016 was higher than the $1.8 billion generated in 2015, but lower than the $2.1 billion generated in 2014 (see reconciliation on page 30).
Free Cash Flow of $467 million generated in the 2016 fourth quarter was lower than the $575 million generated in the 2016 third quarter and the $501 million generated in the 2015 fourth quarter (see reconciliation on page 30).
Results of Operations
Business Segment Operating Profits are used by International Paper’s management to measure the earnings performance of its businesses. Management believes that this measure allows a better understanding of trends in costs, operating efficiencies, prices and volumes. Business Segment Operating Profits are defined as earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity earnings, but including the impact of equity earnings and noncontrolling interests, excluding corporate items and corporate special items. Business Segment Operating Profits are defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission as a non-GAAP financial measure, and are not GAAP alternatives to net income or any other operating measure prescribed by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
International Paper operates in four segments: Industrial Packaging, Global Cellulose Fibers, Printing Papers and Consumer Packaging.

 
The following table presents a reconciliation of net earnings (loss) from continuing operations attributable to International Paper Company to its total Business Segment Operating Profit:
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Earnings (Loss) From Continuing Operations Attributable to International Paper Company
$
909

$
938

$
568

Add back (deduct)
 
 
 
Income tax provision (benefit)
247

466

123

Equity (earnings) loss, net of taxes
(198
)
(117
)
200

Noncontrolling interests, net of taxes
(2
)
(21
)
(19
)
Earnings (Loss) From Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes and Equity Earnings
956

1,266

872

Interest expense, net
520

555

601

Noncontrolling interests/equity earnings included in operations
1

8

2

Corporate items
69

36

51

Corporate special items (income) expense
46

238

320

Non-operating pension expense
610

258

212

Earnings (Loss) From Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes and Equity Earnings
$
2,202

$
2,361

$
2,058

Business Segment Operating Profit
 
 
 
Industrial Packaging
$
1,651

$
1,853

$
1,896

Global Cellulose Fibers
(180
)
68

61

Printing Papers
540

465

(77
)
Consumer Packaging
191

(25
)
178

Total Business Segment Operating Profit
$
2,202

$
2,361

$
2,058

Business Segment Operating Profits in 2016 included a net loss from special items of $136 million compared with $321 million in 2015 and $732 million in 2014. Operationally, compared with 2015, the benefits from higher sales volumes ($62 million), lower maintenance outage costs ($14 million), lower input costs ($82 million) and the incremental operating earnings from the newly acquired pulp business ($17 million) were offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix ($443 million), higher operating costs ($62 million) and higher other costs ($14 million).


20


segmentopsgrapha31.jpg
The principal changes in operating profit by segment were as follows:
 
Industrial Packaging’s profits of $1.7 billion were $202 million lower than in 2015 as the benefits of higher sales volumes, lower maintenance outage costs and lower input costs were more than offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix, higher operating costs and higher other costs. In addition, operating profits in 2016 included a charge of $70 million for impairment and other costs associated with the sale of our corrugated packaging business in Asia and a charge of $7 million related to the closure of a mill in Turkey. In 2015, operating profits included a goodwill and trade name impairment charge of $137 million related to our Brazil Packaging business.
Global Cellulose Fibers' operating loss of $180 million was $248 million unfavorable versus 2015 as the benefits of higher sales volumes, lower input costs, lower other costs and the earnings from the newly acquired business were more than offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix, higher operating costs and higher maintenance outage costs. The operating loss in 2016 included $31 million of costs associated with the acquisition of the pulp business and a charge of $19 million to amortize the newly acquired pulp business inventory fair value adjustment.

Printing Papers’ profits of $540 million represented a $75 million increase in operating profits from 2015. The benefits from higher sales volumes, higher average sales price realizations and mix, lower operating costs, lower maintenance outage costs and lower input costs were partially offset by higher other costs.

Consumer Packaging’s operating profit of $191 million represented a $216 million increase in operating profits from 2015. The benefits from lower operating costs, lower maintenance outage costs,
 
and lower input costs were partially offset by lower sales volumes, lower average sales price realizations and mix and higher other costs. In addition, operating profits in 2016 included a charge of $9 million related to the conversion of our Riegelwood mill to 100% pulp production. In 2015, operating losses included an asset impairment charge of $174 million related to the sale of our 55% equity share of the IP-Sun JV in Asia, a net cost of $8 million related to costs for our Riegelwood mill conversion, net of proceeds from the sale of the Carolina Coated Bristols brand, and $2 million of sheet plant closure costs.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
For the year ended December 31, 2016, International Paper generated $2.5 billion of cash flow from operations compared with $2.6 billion in 2015 and $3.1 billion in 2014. Cash flow from operations included $750 million, $750 million and $353 million of cash pension contributions in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Capital spending for 2016 totaled $1.3 billion, or 110% of depreciation and amortization expense. Net increases in debt totaled $1.9 billion, the proceeds from which were primarily used to fund the acquisition of the Weyerhaeuser pulp business. Our liquidity position remains strong, supported by approximately $2.1 billion of credit facilities that we believe are adequate to meet future liquidity requirements. Maintaining an investment-grade credit rating for our long-term debt continues to be an important element in our overall financial strategy.
We expect strong cash generation again in 2017 and will continue our balanced use of cash through the payment of dividends, reducing total debt and making investments for future growth.
Capital spending for 2017 is targeted at $1.5 billion, or about 107% of depreciation and amortization.
Legal
See Note 11 Commitments and Contingent Liabilities on pages 61 through 63 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for a discussion of legal matters.
While the operating results for International Paper’s various business segments are driven by a number of business-specific factors, changes in International Paper’s operating results are closely tied to changes in general economic conditions in North America, Europe, Russia, Latin America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Factors that impact the demand for our products include industrial non-durable goods production, consumer spending, commercial printing and advertising activity, white-collar employment levels, and movements in currency exchange rates.


21


Product prices are affected by general economic trends, inventory levels, currency exchange rate movements and worldwide capacity utilization. In addition to these revenue-related factors, net earnings are impacted by various cost drivers, the more significant of which include changes in raw material costs, principally wood, recycled fiber and chemical costs; energy costs; freight costs; salary and benefits costs, including pensions; and manufacturing conversion costs.
The following is a discussion of International Paper’s results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the major factors affecting these results compared to 2015 and 2014.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, International Paper reported net sales of $21.1 billion, compared with $22.4 billion in 2015 and $23.6 billion in 2014. International net sales (including U.S. exports) totaled $7.2 billion or 34% of total sales in 2016. This compares with international net sales of $7.8 billion in 2015 and $9.3 billion in 2014.
Full year 2016 net earnings attributable to International Paper Company totaled $904 million ($2.18 per share), compared with net earnings of $938 million ($2.23 per share) in 2015 and $555 million ($1.29 per share) in 2014. Amounts in 2016 and 2014 include the results of discontinued operations.
Earnings from continuing operations attributable to International Paper Company after taxes in 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
In millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Earnings from continuing operations attributable to International Paper Company
$
909

(a)
$
938

(b)
$
568

(c)
(a) Includes $108 million of net special items charges and $375 million of non-operating pension expense which included a pre-tax charge of $439 million ($270 million after taxes) for a settlement accounting charge associated with payments under a term-vested lump sum buyout.
(b) Includes $439 million of net special items charges and $157 million of non-operating pension expense.
(c) Includes $599 million of net special items gains and $129 million of non-operating pension expense in 2014.
Compared with 2015, the benefits from higher sales volumes, lower maintenance outage costs, lower input costs, incremental earnings from the acquisition of Weyerhaeuser's pulp business, lower interest expense and lower tax expense were offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix, higher operating costs and higher corporate and other costs. In addition, 2016 results included higher equity earnings, net of taxes,
 
relating to the Company’s investment in Ilim Holding, SA.
continuingopsgrapha39.jpg
See Business Segment Results on pages 25 through 30 for a discussion of the impact of these factors by segment.
Discontinued Operations
2016:

In 2016, there was $5 million of discontinued operations expense associated with a legal settlement related to the xpedx business.
2015:
There were no discontinued operations in 2015.
2014:
In 2014, $24 million of net income adjustments were recorded relating to discontinued businesses, including $16 million of costs associated with the spin-off of the xpedx business and $9 million of costs associated with the divestiture of the Temple-Inland Building Products business. Also included are the operating earnings of the xpedx business prior to the spin-off on July 1, 2014.
Income Taxes
A net income tax provision of $247 million was recorded for 2016 including tax benefits of $63 million related to legal entity restructurings, a tax expense of $31 million associated with a tax rate change in Luxembourg, a tax expense of $23 million associated with the $750 million of 2016 cash pension contributions, and a tax benefit of $14 million related to the closure of a federal tax audit. Excluding these items, a $51 million tax benefit for other special items and a $235 million tax benefit related to non-operating pension expense, the tax provision was $556 million, or 32% of pre-tax earnings before equity earnings.
A net income tax provision of $466 million was recorded for 2015 including a tax benefit of $62 million related to internal restructurings, a tax expense of $23 million for the tax impact of the 2015 cash pension contribution of $750 million and a $2 million tax expense for other


22


items. Excluding these items, an $83 million net tax benefit for other special items and a $101 million tax benefit related to non-operating pension expense, the tax provision was $687 million, or 33% of pre-tax earnings before equity earnings.
A net income tax provision of $123 million was recorded for 2014 including a tax benefit of $90 million related to internal restructurings and a net $9 million tax expense for other items. Excluding these items, a $372 million net tax benefit for other special items and a $83 million tax benefit related to non-operating pension expense, the tax provision was $659 million, or 31% of pre-tax earnings before equity earnings.
Equity Earnings, Net of Taxes
Equity earnings, net of taxes in 2016, 2015 and 2014 consisted principally of the Company’s share of earnings from its 50% investment in Ilim Holding S.A. in Russia (see page 29 and 30).
Interest Expense and Noncontrolling Interest
Net corporate interest expense totaled $520 million in 2016, $555 million in 2015 and $601 million in 2014. The decrease in 2016 compared with 2015 is due to lower average interest rates. The decrease in 2015 compared with 2014 also reflects lower average interest rates.
Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests totaled a loss of $2 million in 2016 compared with a loss of $21 million in 2015 and a loss of $19 million in 2014. The decrease in 2016 reflects the sale of our equity share of the IP-Sun JV in 2015. The decrease in 2015 compared with 2014 also reflects the sale of our interest in the IP-Sun JV and lower earnings for the joint venture in China prior to its divestiture.

Special Items
Restructuring and Other Charges
International Paper continually evaluates its operations for improvement opportunities targeted to (a) focus our portfolio on our core businesses, (b) realign capacity to operate fewer facilities with the same revenue capability and close high cost facilities, and (c) reduce costs. Annually, strategic operating plans are developed by each of our businesses. If it subsequently becomes apparent that a facility’s plan will not be achieved, a decision is then made to, among other outcomes, (a) invest additional capital to upgrade the facility, (b) shut down the facility and record the corresponding charge, or (c) evaluate the expected recovery of the carrying value of the facility to determine if an impairment of the assets have occurred. In recent years, this policy has led to the shutdown of a number of facilities and the recording of significant asset impairment charges and severance costs. It is possible
 
that additional charges and costs will be incurred in future periods in our core businesses should such triggering events occur.
During 2016, 2015 and 2014, pre-tax restructuring and other charges totaling $54 million, $252 million and $846 million were recorded in the business segments. Details of these charges are as follows:
Restructuring and Other
 
 
 
 
 
 
In millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Business Segments
 
 
 
 
 
 
Riegelwood mill conversion costs net of proceeds from the sale of Carolina Coated Bristols brand
$
9

(a)
$
8

(a)
$

 
Turkey mill closure
7

(b)

 

 
Courtland mill shutdown

 

 
554

(c)
Other items

 
2

(a)
15

(d)
 
16

 
10

 
569

 
Corporate
 
 
 
 
 
 
Early debt extinguishment costs (see Note 13)
$
29

 
207

 
276

 
India Packaging business evaluation write-off
17

 

 

 
Gain on sale of investment in Arizona Chemical
(8
)
 

 

 
Timber monetization restructuring

 
16

 

 
Legal liability reserve adjustment

 
15

 

 
Other Items

 
4

 
1

 
 
38

 
242

 
277

 
Total
$
54

 
$
252

 
$
846

 

(a) Recorded in the Consumer Packaging business segment.
(b) Recorded in the Industrial Packaging business segment.
(c) Recorded in the Printing Papers business segment.
(d) Recorded in the Industrial Packaging business segment ($7 million) and Consumer Packaging business segment ($8 million).











23


Other Corporate Special Items
In addition, other corporate special items totaling $8 million, $4 million and $43 million were recorded in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Details of these charges were as follows:
Other Corporate Items
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Write-off of certain regulatory pre-engineering costs
$
8

$

$

Sale of investment by ASG and impairment of that investment


47

Other

(4
)
(4
)
Total
$
8

$
(4
)
$
43

Impairments of Goodwill

No goodwill impairment charges were recorded in 2016.

In the fourth quarter of 2015, in conjunction with the annual testing of its reporting units for possible goodwill impairments, the Company calculated the estimated fair value of its Brazil Packaging business and determined that all of the goodwill in the business, totaling $137 million, should be written off. The decline in the fair value of the Brazil Packaging business and resulting impairment charge was due to the negative impacts on the cash flows of the business caused by the continued decline of the overall Brazilian economy.

In the fourth quarter of 2014, in conjunction with the annual testing of its reporting units for possible goodwill impairments, the Company calculated the estimated fair value of its Asia Industrial Packaging business using expected discounted future cash flows and determined that due to a change in the strategic outlook, all of the goodwill of this business, totaling $100 million, should be written off. The decline in the fair value of the Asia Industrial Packaging business and resulting impairment charge was due to a change in the strategic outlook for the business.
Net Losses on Sales and Impairments of Businesses
Net losses on sales and impairments of businesses included in special items totaled a pre-tax loss of $70 million in 2016, a pre-tax loss of $174 million in 2015 and a pre-tax loss of $38 million in 2014. See Note 7 Divestitures / Spinoff on pages 56 and 57 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data) for further discussion.
Business Segment Operating Profits
Business segment operating profits of $2.2 billion in 2016 decreased from $2.4 billion in 2015. The benefits from higher sales volumes ($62 million), higher maintenance outage costs ($14 million), lower input costs ($82 million) and the incremental operating
 
earnings from the newly acquired pulp business ($17 million) were more than offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix ($443 million), higher operating costs ($62 million) and higher other costs ($14 million). Special items were a $136 million net loss in 2016 compared with a net loss of $321 million in 2015.
Market-related downtime in 2016 increased to approximately 448,000 tons from approximately 440,000 tons in 2015.

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS SEGMENTS

International Paper’s business segments discussed below are consistent with the internal structure used to manage these businesses. All segments are differentiated on a common product, common customer basis consistent with the business segmentation generally used in the forest products industry.

Industrial Packaging

International Paper is the largest manufacturer of containerboard in the United States. Our U.S. production capacity is over 13 million tons annually. Our products include linerboard, medium, whitetop, recycled linerboard, recycled medium and saturating kraft. About 80% of our production is converted domestically into corrugated boxes and other packaging by our 166 U.S. container plants. Additionally, we recycle approximately one million tons of OCC and mixed and white paper through our 18 recycling plants. In EMEA, our operations include two recycled fiber containerboard mills in Morocco and Turkey and 26 container plants in France, Italy, Spain, Morocco and Turkey. During 2016 we acquired a newsprint mill in Spain which we intend to convert to a recycled containerboard mill during 2017. In Brazil our operations include three containerboard mills and four box plants. Our container plants are supported by regional design centers, which offer total packaging solutions and supply chain initiatives.

Global Cellulose Fibers

Our cellulose fibers product portfolio includes fluff, market and specialty pulps. Our fluff pulp is used to make absorbent hygiene products like baby diapers, feminine care, adult incontinence and other non-woven products, and our market pulp is used for tissue and paper products. We continue to invest in exploring new innovative uses for our products, such as our specialty pulps, which are used for non-absorbent end uses including textiles, filtration, construction material, paints and coatings, reinforced plastics and more. Our products are made in the United States, Canada, France, Poland, and Russia and are sold around the world. International Paper facilities have annual dried pulp capacity of about 4 million metric tonnes.


24


Printing Papers

International Paper is one of the world’s largest producers of printing and writing papers. The primary product in this segment is uncoated papers. This business produces papers for use in copiers, desktop and laser printers and digital imaging. End use applications include advertising and promotional materials such as brochures, pamphlets, greeting cards, books, annual reports and direct mail. Uncoated papers also produces a variety of grades that are converted by our customers into envelopes, tablets, business forms and file folders. Uncoated papers are sold under private label and International Paper brand names that include Hammermill, Springhill, Williamsburg, Postmark, Accent, Great White, Chamex, Ballet, Rey, Pol, and Svetocopy. The mills producing uncoated papers are located in the United States, France, Poland, Russia, Brazil and India. The mills have uncoated paper production capacity of approximately 4 million tons annually. Brazilian operations function through International Paper do Brasil, Ltda, which owns or manages approximately 329,000 acres of forestlands in Brazil.

Consumer Packaging

International Paper is one of the world’s largest producers of solid bleached sulfate board with annual U.S. production capacity of about 1.2 million tons . Our coated paperboard business produces high quality coated paperboard for a variety of packaging and foodservice end uses. Our Everest®, Fortress®, and Starcote® brands are used in packaging applications for everyday products such as food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and tobacco products. Our U.S. capacity is supplemented by about 395,000 tons of capacity at our mills producing coated board in Poland and Russia.

Our Foodservice business produces cups, lids, food containers and plates through three domestic plants and four international facilities.

Ilim Holding S.A.

In October 2007, International Paper and Ilim Holding S.A. (Ilim) completed a 50:50 joint venture to operate a pulp and paper business located in Russia. Ilim’s facilities include three paper mills located in Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, and Koryazhma, Russia, with combined total pulp and paper capacity of over 3.4 million tons. Ilim has exclusive harvesting rights on timberland and forest areas exceeding 14.9 million acres (6.0 million hectares).

Products and brand designations appearing in italics are trademarks of International Paper or a related company.
 
BUSINESS SEGMENT RESULTS
The following tables present net sales and operating profit (loss) which is the Company's measure of segment profitability. The tables include a detail of special items in each year, where applicable, in order to show operating profit before special items.
Industrial Packaging
Demand for Industrial Packaging products is closely correlated with non-durable industrial goods production, as well as with demand for processed foods, poultry, meat and agricultural products. In addition to prices and volumes, major factors affecting the profitability of Industrial Packaging are raw material and energy costs, freight costs, manufacturing efficiency and product mix.
Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
14,191

$
14,484

$
14,944

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
1,651

$
1,853

$
1,896

Turkey mill closure
7



Asia Packaging restructuring and impairment
70


7

Brazil Packaging goodwill and trade name impairment

137


Temple-Inland acquisition


16

Multi-employer pension withdrawal liability


35

Box plant closures


(5
)
EMEA Packaging restructuring


5

Turkey acquisition


1

Brazil Packaging integration costs


(1
)
Asia Packaging goodwill impairment


100

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
1,728

$
1,990

$
2,054

Industrial Packaging net sales for 2016 decreased 2% to $14.2 billion compared with $14.5 billion in 2015, and 5% compared with $14.9 billion in 2014. Operating profits in 2016 were 11% lower than in 2015 and 13% lower than in 2014. Comparing 2016 with 2015, benefits from higher sales volumes ($61 million), lower maintenance outage costs ($15 million) and lower input costs ($42 million) were offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix ($278 million), higher operating costs ($101 million) and higher other costs ($1 million). In addition, special items were an expense of $77 million in 2016 compared with $137 million in 2015.


25


North American Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
12,227

$
12,541

$
12,663

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
1,757

$
2,009

$
1,986

Temple-Inland acquisition


16

Multi-employer pension withdrawal liability


35

Box plant closures


(5
)
Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
1,757

$
2,009

$
2,032

North American Industrial Packaging's sales volumes increased in 2016 compared with 2015 reflecting higher box shipments and higher shipments of containerboard to export markets. In 2016, the business took about 914,000 tons of total downtime of which about 445,000 were economic downtime and 469,000 were maintenance downtime. The business took about 814,000 tons of total downtime in 2015 of which 363,000 were economic downtime and 451,000 were maintenance downtime. Average sales price realizations were significantly lower for containerboard due to pricing pressures in export markets. Average sales prices for boxes were lower primarily due to contract de-escalators that were triggered in the first quarter by a decrease in a key containerboard price index. Input costs for wood, energy and freight fuel surcharges were lower, but for recycled fiber were higher. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $16 million lower in 2016 than in 2015.
Looking ahead to the first quarter of 2017, compared with the fourth quarter of 2016, sales volumes for boxes are expected to be slightly higher despite seasonally lower daily shipments due to four more shipping days. Shipments of containerboard to export markets are expected to decrease. Average sales price realizations should increase, reflecting the continuing implementation of the box price increase announced in the fourth quarter of 2016. Input costs are expected to be higher for recycled fiber, energy and wood. Planned maintenance downtime spending is expected to be about $57 million higher. Operating costs are expected to improve. In addition, the Company is evaluating the financial impact of the digester incident that occurred on January 22, 2017 at the Pensacola mill. It is currently estimated that the total impact will be in excess of $50 million, but that property damage and business interruption insurance will cover a significant portion of the costs. The timing of these costs and potential insurance recoveries is unknown.
 
EMEA Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,227

$
1,114

$
1,307

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
15

$
13

$
25

Turkey Mill Closure
7



EMEA Packaging restructuring


5

Turkey acquisition


1

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
22

$
13

$
31

EMEA Industrial Packaging's sales volumes in 2016 were higher than in 2015 reflecting improved market demand in the Eurozone and recovery from the prior year labor strikes in Turkey. Average sales margins improved due to sales price increases and material cost decreases. Input costs for energy were lower, but operations were negatively impacted by foreign exchange rates, primarily in Turkey. Operating earnings in 2015 included a gain of $4 million related to the change in ownership of our OCC collection operations in Turkey.
Entering the first quarter of 2017, compared with the fourth quarter of 2016 sales volumes are expected to be slightly lower. Average sales margins are expected to be slightly lower. Input costs for energy should be flat, but operating costs are expected to be lower.
On June 30, 2016 the Company completed the acquisition of Holmen Paper's newsprint mill in Madrid, Spain. Under the terms of the agreement, International Paper purchased the Madrid newsprint mill as well as associated recycling operations and a 50% ownership interest in a cogeneration facility. The Company intends to convert the mill to produce recycled containerboard in 2017 with an expected capacity of 419,000 tons. Once completed, the converted mill will support the Company's corrugated packaging business in EMEA.
Brazilian Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
232

$
228

$
349

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
(43
)
$
(163
)
$
(3
)
Brazil Packaging goodwill and trade name impairment

137


Brazil Packaging integration costs


(1
)
Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
(43
)
$
(26
)
$
(4
)
Brazilian Industrial Packaging's 2016 sales volumes decreased compared with 2015 for boxes and sheets due to overall weak economic conditions, but increased for containerboard. Average sales price realizations were higher. Input costs increased, primarily for recycled fiber. Operating costs were higher largely due to the effects of inflation. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $1 million higher in 2016 compared with 2015.


26


Looking ahead to the first quarter of 2017, compared with the fourth quarter of 2016 sales volumes are expected to be lower for containerboard and sheets, but higher for boxes. Average sales margins should improve reflecting a sales price increase for boxes. Input costs are expected to be slightly lower, but offset by higher operating costs. Planned maintenance downtime costs are expected to be $1 million higher.
Asian Industrial Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
505

$
601

$
625

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
(78
)
$
(6
)
$
(112
)
Asia Packaging restructuring and impairment
70


7

Asia Packaging goodwill impairment


100

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
(8
)
$
(6
)
$
(5
)
Asian Industrial Packaging's sales volumes in the first half of 2016 for boxes were higher than the comparable period in 2015, but average sales margins were lower due to competitive pressures and weak economic conditions.
On June 30, 2016, the Company completed the sale of its corrugated packaging business in China and Southeast Asia to Xiamen Bridge Hexing Equity Investment Partnership Enterprise. See Note 7 Divestitures / Spinoff on pages 56 and 57 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further discussion of the sale of this business. Net sales and operating profits beginning with the third quarter of 2016 reflect the results of the distribution operations of the business.
Global Cellulose Fibers
Demand for Cellulose Fibers products is closely correlated with changes in demand for absorbent hygiene products and is further affected by changes in currency rates that can benefit or hurt producers in different geographic regions. Principal cost drivers include manufacturing efficiency, raw material and energy costs and freight costs.
Global Cellulose Fibers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,092

$
975

$
1,046

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
(180
)
$
68

$
61

Acquisition costs
31



Inventory fair value step-up amortization
19



Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
(130
)
$
68

$
61

Global Cellulose Fibers results for 2016 include net sales of $111 million and an operating loss of $(21) million (including $38 million of special items) associated with
 
the newly acquired pulp business from the date of acquisition on December 1, 2016. See Note 6 Acquisitions and Joint Ventures on pages 54 through 56 of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional information about the acquisition. Net sales for 2016 increased 12% to $1.1 billion compared with $975 million in 2015 and 4% compared with $1.0 billion in 2014. Operating profits in 2016 were significantly lower than in both 2015 and 2014. Comparing 2016 with 2015, benefits from higher sales volumes ($10 million), lower input costs ($6 million), and lower other costs ($1 million) were offset by lower average sales price realizations and mix ($36 million), higher operating costs ($59 million) and higher planned maintenance downtime costs ($38 million). In addition, special items expense in 2016 was $50 million.
Sales volumes for the legacy business were higher for both fluff and market pulp. Average sales margins decreased, reflecting lower sales price realizations for both fluff pulp and softwood market pulp and an unfavorable mix resulting from the Riegelwood conversion and ramp-up. In Europe and Russia, average sales margins decreased due to competitive pressures. Input costs were slightly lower. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $38 million higher in 2016 primarily related to the Riegelwood mill. Operating costs were higher due to costs associated with the Riegelwood mill conversion.
Entering the first quarter of 2017, sales volumes will be higher due to the full-quarter impact of the acquisition. Average sales price realizations are expected to be stable and mix will continue to be challenged due to the ramp-up of the Riegelwood mill. Input costs are expected to increase primarily for wood. Planned maintenance downtime costs should be $47 million higher than in the fourth quarter of 2016 due to a large outage and capital investment project to upgrade the recovery boiler, turbine and power system at our Port Wentworth mill.
Printing Papers
Demand for Printing Papers products is closely correlated with changes in commercial printing and advertising activity, direct mail volumes and, for uncoated cut-size products, with changes in white-collar employment levels that affect the usage of copy and laser printer paper. Principal cost drivers include manufacturing efficiency, raw material and energy costs and freight costs.


27


Printing Papers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
4,058

$
4,056

$
4,674

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
540

$
465

$
(77
)
Courtland mill closure


554

Brazil tax amnesty


32

India legal contingency


(20
)
Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
540

$
465

$
489

Printing Papers net sales for 2016 of $4.1 billion were even with $4.1 billion in 2015, but decreased 13% compared with $4.7 billion in 2014. Operating profits in 2016 were 16% higher than in 2015 and significantly higher than in 2014. Comparing 2016 with 2015, benefits from higher sales volumes ($11 million), higher average sales price realizations and mix ($25 million), lower operating costs ($20 million), lower planned maintenance downtime costs ($23 million) and lower input costs ($4 million) were partly offset by higher other costs ($8 million).
North American Printing Papers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,890

$
1,942

$
2,055

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
236

$
179

$
(398
)
Courtland mill closure


554

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
236

$
179

$
156

North American Printing Papers' sales volumes for 2016 were unchanged from 2015. Average sales price realizations decreased for both cutsize paper and rolls. Average sales margins were also impacted by an unfavorable mix. Input costs were lower, mainly for wood. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $24 million lower in 2016. Manufacturing operating costs also improved.
Entering the first quarter of 2017, sales volumes are expected to be seasonally higher. Average sales margins should decrease reflecting lower average sales price realizations partially offset by a more favorable geographic mix. Input costs are expected to be higher, primarily for energy. Planned maintenance downtime costs are expected to be about $23 million higher with outages scheduled in the 2017 first quarter.
Brazilian Papers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
897

$
878

$
1,061

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
173

$
186

$
177

Brazil tax amnesty


32

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
173

$
186

$
209

Brazilian Papers' sales volumes for in 2016 were lower compared with 2015 under weak economic conditions. Average sales price realizations improved for domestic
 
uncoated freesheet paper due to the realization of price increases implemented in the first half of 2016. Sales prices to export markets decreased. Raw material costs increased for energy, wood, chemicals and virgin fiber. Operating costs were higher than in 2015, largely due to inflation. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $1 million lower.
Looking ahead to 2017, compared with the fourth quarter of 2016 sales volumes for uncoated freesheet paper in the first quarter are expected to be seasonally weaker in both domestic and export markets. Average sales price realizations should increase due to the implementation of a domestic sales price increase for both cutsize and offset paper. Input costs are expected to be slightly higher for chemicals and energy.
European Papers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,109

$
1,064

$
1,321

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
142

$
111

$
136

European Papers' sales volumes for uncoated freesheet paper in 2016 were higher in both Russia and Europe compared with 2015. Average sales price realizations improved for uncoated freesheet paper following price increases implemented in 2015 in Europe and in the first quarter of 2016 in Russia. Input costs were lower for wood, energy and chemicals in Europe, but were higher in Russia. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $4 million lower in 2016 than in 2015.
Entering 2017, sales volumes for uncoated freesheet paper in the first quarter are expected to be seasonally weaker in Russia but higher in Europe. Average sales price realizations are expected to be stable with price increases implemented in certain markets. Input costs should be slightly lower. Planned maintenance downtime costs should be $15 million lower than in the fourth quarter of 2016.
Indian Papers
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
167

$
172

$
178

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
(11
)
$
(11
)
$
8

India legal contingency


(20
)
Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
(11
)
$
(11
)
$
(12
)
Indian Papers' average sales price realizations in 2016 were slightly higher than in 2015. Sales volumes were flat. Input costs were lower for wood and chemicals. Operating costs were higher in 2016, while planned maintenance downtime costs were even with 2015. Looking ahead to the first quarter of 2017, sales volumes are expected to be slightly lower, but seasonally strong. Average sales price realizations are expected to be stable.



28


Consumer Packaging
Demand and pricing for Consumer Packaging products correlate closely with consumer spending and general economic activity. In addition to prices and volumes, major factors affecting the profitability of Consumer Packaging are raw material and energy costs, freight costs, manufacturing efficiency and product mix.
Consumer Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,955

$
2,940

$
3,403

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
191

$
(25
)
$
178

Riegelwood conversion costs net of proceeds from the sale of the Carolina coated bristols brand
9

8


Asia Coated Paperboard goodwill and PP&E impairment

174


NA Coated Paperboard sheet plant closures

2

8

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
200

$
159

$
186

Consumer Packaging net sales in 2016 decreased 34% to $2.0 billion from $2.9 billion in 2015, and decreased 43% from $3.4 billion in 2014. Operating profits increased significantly from 2015 and increased 7% from 2014. Comparing 2016 with 2015, benefits from lower operating costs ($78 million), lower planned maintenance downtime costs ($13 million) and lower input costs ($30 million) were partially offset by lower sales volumes ($20 million), lower average sales price realizations and mix ($56 million), and higher other costs ($4 million). In addition, special items expense was $9 million in 2016 and $184 million in 2015.
North American Consumer Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
1,628

$
1,939

$
1,993

Operating Profit (Loss)
$
98

$
81

$
92

Riegelwood conversion costs net of proceeds from the sale of the Carolina coated bristols brand
9

8


NA Coated Paperboard sheet plant closures

2

8

Operating Profit Before Special Items
$
107

$
91

$
100

North American Consumer Packaging coated paperboard sales volumes in 2016 were lower than in 2015 primarily due to our exit from the coated bristols market. Average sales price realizations decreased year over year due to competitive pressures. Input costs decreased for wood, chemicals and energy. Planned maintenance downtime costs were $11 million lower in 2016. Operating costs decreased, reflecting the impact of cost savings initiatives and lower depreciation expense.
Foodservice sales volumes decreased slightly in 2016 compared with 2015. Average sales margins
 
decreased due to lower sales price realizations partially offset by lower resin costs and a more favorable mix. Operating costs were higher, while distribution costs were lower.
Looking ahead to the first quarter of 2017, Coated Paperboard sales volumes are expected to be seasonally higher than in the fourth quarter of 2016. Average sales price realizations are expected to be lower due to market pressures. Input costs are expected to be higher for energy and chemicals, partially offset by lower wood costs. Planned maintenance downtime costs should be $11 million lower with no maintenance outages scheduled in the first quarter. Foodservice sales volumes are expected to be seasonally lower. Sales margins are expected to continue under pressure, partially offset by lower operating costs.
European Consumer Packaging
 
 
 
In millions
2016
2015
2014
Net Sales
$
327

$
319