Capital stock, par value $.20 per shareIBMCHX0000051143--12-312020FYfalse0000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMemberibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMemberibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2017-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2017-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2017-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ContractWithCustomerRefundLiabilityMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossNoncurrentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:AllowanceForCreditLossCurrentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143exch:XNYSus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes2.875PercentDue2025Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes2.625PercentDue2022Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.750PercentDue2031Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.750PercentDue2028Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.500PercentDue2029Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.25PercentDue2023Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.250PercentDue2027Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.200PercentDue2040Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes1.125PercentDue2024Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.950PercentDue2025Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.875PercentDue2025Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.650PercentDue2032Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.500PercentDue2021Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.375PercentDue2023Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.300PercentDue2028Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Notes0.300PercentDue2026Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Debentures7.125PercentDue2096Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Debentures7.00PercentDue2045Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Debentures7.00PercentDue2025Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Debentures6.50PercentDue2028Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XNYSibm:Debentures6.22PercentDue2027Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143exch:XCHIus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-3100000511432020-06-3000000511432021-02-1000000511432020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:FinancingForPurchaseAgreementsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ExtendedLinesOfCreditMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:FinancingForPurchaseAgreementsMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ExtendedLinesOfCreditMember2019-12-3100000511432017-01-012017-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ParentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Memberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Memberus-gaap:ParentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberibm:AccountingStandardsUpdates201601And201712And201802Memberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberibm:AccountingStandardsUpdates201601And201712And201802Memberus-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2017-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2017-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2017-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommonStockIncludingAdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansPayableMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansPayableMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberibm:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:BusinessCombinationStockAwardsIssuedAndAssumedMemberibm:RedHatMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberibm:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2017-01-012017-12-310000051143us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2017-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2017-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:StorageMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ServersMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:RemarketingMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:MaintenanceServiceMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:FinancingServicesMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143country:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:StorageMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ServersMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:RemarketingMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:MaintenanceServiceMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:FinancingServicesMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:RestatementAdjustmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SystemsSalesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:StorageMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SoftwareProductMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ServicesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ServersMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:RemarketingMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:MaintenanceServiceMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:FinancingServicesMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:RestatementAdjustmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TransactionProcessingPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TechnologySupportServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsHardwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:OperatingSystemsSoftwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:InfrastructureAndCloudServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalProcessServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ConsultingServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CognitiveApplicationsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndDataPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ApplicationManagementServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TransactionProcessingPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TechnologySupportServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsHardwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:OperatingSystemsSoftwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:InfrastructureAndCloudServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalProcessServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ConsultingServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CognitiveApplicationsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndDataPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ApplicationManagementServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TransactionProcessingPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:TechnologySupportServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsHardwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:OperatingSystemsSoftwareMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:InfrastructureAndCloudServicesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalProcessServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ConsultingServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CognitiveApplicationsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndDataPlatformsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:ApplicationManagementServicesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-10-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:BuildingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherMachineryEquipmentFurnitureAndFixturesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:BuildingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:BuildingImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberibm:OtherMachineryEquipmentFurnitureAndFixturesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SelectStandaloneCloudAndCognitiveSoftwareProductsMember2020-04-012020-06-300000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetUnamortizedGainLossMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetPriorServiceCostCreditMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentCurtailmentsAndSettlementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetUnamortizedGainLossMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetPriorServiceCostCreditMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentCurtailmentsAndSettlementsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetUnamortizedGainLossMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetPriorServiceCostCreditMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentCurtailmentsAndSettlementsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-12-310000051143country:USibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-12-310000051143country:JPibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-12-310000051143country:USibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-12-310000051143country:JPibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2019Memberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2018Memberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2018Memberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:BrazilTaxMattersMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2020Member2020-12-310000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364DaysAndThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2020-07-020000051143ibm:FiveYearCreditAgreementMember2020-07-020000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364Days2020Member2020-07-020000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364Days2019Member2020-06-300000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364DaysAndThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:FiveYearCreditAgreementMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364DaysAndThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:FiveYearCreditAgreementMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364DaysAndThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EquipmentLeasedToOtherPartyMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EquipmentLeasedToOtherPartyMember2020-12-310000051143srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:RealEstateMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EquipmentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EquipmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:US2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143country:US2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:US2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMemberus-gaap:DisposalGroupNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberibm:SystemsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMemberus-gaap:DisposalGroupNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:FixedRateDebtDueIn2021Member2020-01-012020-03-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquiredIntangiblesMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:PatentsAndTrademarksMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:PatentsAndTrademarksMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ThirdPartyInvestorMemberus-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2020-10-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToDRatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToDRatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToDRatingMembersrt:AmericasMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToBaa3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMembersrt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMembersrt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:PropertyPlantEquipmentMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:PropertyPlantEquipmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:DebtNoncurrentMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:DebtCurrentMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:DebtNoncurrentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:DebtCurrentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member2018-12-310000051143ibm:FixedRateDebtDueIn2021Member2020-01-012020-06-300000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:EquityAwardsOtherThanOptionsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:EquityAwardsOtherThanOptionsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:EquityAwardsOtherThanOptionsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:SelectMarketingPlatformAndCommerceOfferingsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SalesPerformanceManagementOfferingsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:EquityContractEmployeeCompensationHedgeMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:EquityContractEmployeeCompensationHedgeMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherCurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherCurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityContractMemberibm:FairValueInputsLevel1AndLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityContractMemberibm:FairValueInputsLevel1AndLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberibm:OtherIncomeExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NotDesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentEconomicHedgeMemberus-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CashFlowHedgingAndNetInvestmentHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CashFlowHedgingAndNetInvestmentHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CashFlowHedgingAndNetInvestmentHedgingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OtherReceivablesMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherReceivablesMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NetInvestmentHedgingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMembercountry:US2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMembercountry:US2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:US2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMembercountry:US2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMembercountry:US2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143country:US2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMembercountry:US2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMembercountry:US2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:Ibm401kPlusPlanAndForeignDefinedContributionPlanMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:US2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherAggregatedInvestmentsMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeInvestmentsMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:EquitySecuritiesAndFundsMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherAggregatedInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:EquitySecuritiesAndFundsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPostretirementHealthCoverageMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberibm:PensionPlanIncludingMultiemployerPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMembercountry:US2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:US2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMembercountry:US2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberibm:UnitedStatesSupplementalExecutiveRetentionPlanDefinedBenefitMembercountry:US2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:US2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMembercountry:US2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:UnderfundedPlanMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OverfundedPlanMember2019-12-310000051143srt:ScenarioForecastMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2021-01-012021-12-310000051143srt:ScenarioForecastMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2021-01-012021-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-3100000511432020-03-310000051143ibm:ExtendedWarrantyMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ExtendedWarrantyMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ExtendedWarrantyMember2018-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member2018-12-310000051143ibm:ThreeYearCreditAgreementMember2020-07-022020-07-020000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364Days2020Member2020-07-022020-07-020000051143ibm:CreditAgreement364Days2019Member2020-01-012020-06-300000051143ibm:UnitedStatesFixedRateNotesMember2020-06-300000051143ibm:EuroFixedRateNotesMember2020-06-300000051143us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMember2019-06-300000051143ibm:UnitedStatesFixedAndFloatingRateNotesMember2019-06-300000051143ibm:EuroFixedRateNotesMember2019-06-300000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2096Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2050Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2049Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2046Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2045Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2042Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2040Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2039Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2038Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2032Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2030Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2029Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2028Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2027Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2026Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2025Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2024Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2023Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2022Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2021Member2020-12-310000051143currency:USD2020-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2096Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2049Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2046Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2045Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2042Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2039Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2038Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2032Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2029Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2028Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2027Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2026Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2025Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2024Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2023Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2022Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2021Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USDibm:NotesPayableMaturing2020Member2019-12-310000051143currency:USD2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ProductMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinancialServiceMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMember2019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:JPibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:JPibm:AssetsUnderLeaseMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:OtherCountriesExcludingUsAndJapanMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMembercountry:JPus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2021-01-262021-01-260000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:InterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:FairValueHedgingMemberibm:CostOfFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CurrencySwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ForwardStartingInterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-01-012020-12-3100000511432017-12-310000051143us-gaap:USGovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:BankTimeDepositsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherDeferredFulfillmentCostsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:DeferredSetUpCostsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CostsToObtainContractMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherDeferredFulfillmentCostsMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:DeferredSetUpCostsMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CostsToObtainContractMember2019-12-310000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member2017-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2019-07-090000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2019Member2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2018Member2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CurrencySwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ForwardStartingInterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CurrencySwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ForwardStartingInterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfRevenueMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfRevenueMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:CostOfRevenueMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Memberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Member2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2019-07-092019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2019-07-092019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2019-07-092019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMember2019-07-092019-07-090000051143srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberibm:VariousOtherAcquisitionsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareAndGlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2018-01-012018-12-3100000511432023-01-012020-12-3100000511432021-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:OperatingSegmentsExcludingIntersegmentEliminationMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherMachineryEquipmentFurnitureAndFixturesMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:BuildingsAndImprovementsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherMachineryEquipmentFurnitureAndFixturesMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:BuildingsAndImprovementsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:NonUsMemberus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2018-12-3100000511432018-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:MinistryOfFinanceIndiaMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:SelectStandaloneCloudAndCognitiveSoftwareProductsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:OpenSourceSoftwareMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OpenSourceSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:AwardsGrantedIn2016Memberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2016-01-012016-12-310000051143ibm:LitigationCaseRelatedToViolationsOfEmployeeRetirementIncomeSecurityActInUnitedStatesDistrictCourtRegardingDivestingMicroelectronicsBusinessMember2015-05-012015-05-310000051143us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143ibm:ScoVsIbmMember2017-10-300000051143ibm:FiveYearCreditAgreementMember2020-01-012020-12-3100000511432020-01-012020-03-3100000511432020-10-012020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ThirdPartyInvestorMembersrt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2020-12-240000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysCaaToDRatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBaa1ToBaa3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa3ToB1RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysBa1ToBa2RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysB2ToB3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysAaaToAa3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMemberus-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMembersrt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:MoodysA1ToA3RatingMembersrt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CommercialLoanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2020-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2020-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EMEAMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AsiaPacificMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:LoansReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143srt:AmericasMemberus-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:LoansReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:ClientFinancingReceivablesPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:SelectStandaloneCloudAndCognitiveSoftwareProductsMember2019-06-302019-06-300000051143ibm:SelectStandaloneCloudAndCognitiveSoftwareProductsMember2019-06-300000051143ibm:SelectStandaloneCloudAndCognitiveSoftwareProductsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:USibm:SelectMarketingPlatformAndCommerceOfferingsMember2019-06-302019-06-300000051143country:USibm:SelectMarketingPlatformAndCommerceOfferingsMember2019-06-300000051143ibm:ForwardStartingInterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2019-06-300000051143ibm:IBMExcess401kPlusPlanMemberus-gaap:NonqualifiedPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:IBM401kPlusPlanMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:IBM401kPlusPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPostretirementHealthCoverageMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:LloydsPensionGroupTrusteesVLloydsBankMembercountry:GBus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCommingledOrMutualFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:InsuranceContractsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeFundsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCommingledOrMutualFundsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:InsuranceContractsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCommingledOrMutualFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCommingledOrMutualFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:InsuranceContractsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FixedIncomeFundsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:EquityFundsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanRealEstateMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanDerivativeMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCommingledOrMutualFundsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:InsuranceContractsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:GovernmentDebtSecuritiesMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143ibm:CashAndShortTermInvestmentsMembercountry:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:MultiEmployerPlansMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ForeignPlanAndDefinedBenefitPlansMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:DirectBenefitPaymentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:DefinedContributionPlansMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:MultiEmployerPlansMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ForeignPlanAndDefinedBenefitPlansMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:DirectBenefitPaymentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:DefinedContributionPlansMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:ForeignPlanAndDefinedBenefitPlansMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ForeignPlanAndDefinedBenefitPlansMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:PrivateEquityFundsAndRealEstateMemberibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143country:USus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:ForeignPlanMemberus-gaap:OtherPostretirementBenefitPlansDefinedBenefitMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:PersonalPensionPlanMembercountry:USus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2018-01-012018-12-310000051143us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:FiveYearCreditAgreementMember2020-07-022020-07-020000051143ibm:OtherCurrencyMember2020-12-310000051143currency:JPY2020-12-310000051143currency:GBP2020-12-310000051143currency:EUR2020-12-310000051143ibm:OtherCurrencyMember2019-12-310000051143currency:JPY2019-12-310000051143currency:GBP2019-12-310000051143currency:EUR2019-12-310000051143ibm:BusinessCombinationStockAwardsIssuedAndAssumedMemberibm:RedHatMember2019-07-092019-07-090000051143ibm:ExtendedWarrantyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:ExtendedWarrantyMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMembersrt:MaximumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:TechnologyServiceMembersrt:MinimumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143ibm:TermLicenseSoftwareMember2020-01-012020-12-310000051143us-gaap:FinanceLeasesPortfolioSegmentMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2020-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2019-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:SystemsMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalTechnologyServicesMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalFinancingMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:GlobalBusinessServicesMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberibm:CloudAndCognitiveSoftwareMember2018-12-310000051143us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2018-12-310000051143ibm:SelectGlobalFinancingGlobalBusinessServicesAndOtherDisposalGroupsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000051143ibm:AcquisitionsCompletedIn2020Member2020-12-310000051143ibm:RedHatMember2019-07-090000051143ibm:RedHatMember2020-01-012020-12-3100000511432019-01-012019-12-3100000511432018-01-012018-12-3100000511432020-12-3100000511432019-12-31ibm:countryxbrli:pureibm:entityibm:itemibm:segmentibm:claimibm:defendantiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesxbrli:sharesiso4217:USD

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT

pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

1-2360

(Commission file number)

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

New York
(State of Incorporation)

One New Orchard Road

13-0871985

(IRS Employer Identification Number)

Armonk, New York
(Address of principal executive offices)

10504
(Zip Code)

914-499-1900

(Registrant’s telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    


Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange
on which registered

Capital stock, par value $.20 per share

IBM

New York Stock Exchange

NYSE Chicago

0.500% Notes due 2021

IBM 21B

New York Stock Exchange

2.625% Notes due 2022

IBM 22A

New York Stock Exchange

1.250% Notes due 2023

IBM 23A

New York Stock Exchange

0.375% Notes due 2023

IBM 23B

New York Stock Exchange

1.125% Notes due 2024

IBM 24A

New York Stock Exchange

2.875% Notes due 2025

IBM 25A

New York Stock Exchange

0.950% Notes due 2025

IBM 25B

New York Stock Exchange

0.875% Notes due 2025

IBM 25C

New York Stock Exchange

0.300% Notes due 2026

IBM 26B

New York Stock Exchange

1.250% Notes due 2027

IBM 27B

New York Stock Exchange

0.300% Notes due 2028

IBM 28B

New York Stock Exchange

1.750% Notes due 2028

IBM 28A

New York Stock Exchange

1.500% Notes due 2029

IBM 29

New York Stock Exchange

1.750% Notes due 2031

IBM 31

New York Stock Exchange

0.650% Notes due 2032

IBM 32A

New York Stock Exchange

1.200% Notes due 2040

IBM 40

New York Stock Exchange

7.00% Debentures due 2025

IBM 25

New York Stock Exchange

6.22% Debentures due 2027

IBM 27

New York Stock Exchange

6.50% Debentures due 2028

IBM 28

New York Stock Exchange

7.00% Debentures due 2045

IBM 45

New York Stock Exchange

7.125% Debentures due 2096

IBM 96

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the eectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2). Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $107.5 billion.

The registrant had 893,594,090 shares of common stock outstanding at February 10, 2021.

Documents incorporated by reference:

Portions of IBM’s Annual Report to Stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Parts I, II and IV of this Form 10-K.

Portions of IBM’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and delivered to stockholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held April 27, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

PART I

1

Item 1. Business

1

Item 1A. Risk Factors

4

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

10

Item 2. Properties

10

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

11

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

11

PART II

12

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

12

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

12

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

12

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

12

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

13

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

13

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

13

Item 9B. Other Information

13

PART III

14

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

14

Item 11. Executive Compensation

14

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

14

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

16

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

17

PART IV

18

Item 15. Exhibits

18

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

25

SIGNATURES

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE

SCHEDULE II

S-1

i

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business:

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM or the company) was incorporated in the State of New York on June 16, 1911, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. (C-T-R), a consolidation of the Computing Scale Co. of America, the Tabulating Machine Co. and The International Time Recording Co. of New York. Since that time, IBM has focused on the intersection of business insight and technological innovation, and its operations and aims have been international in nature. This was signaled almost 100 years ago, in 1924, when C-T-R changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. And it continues today—we create value for clients by providing integrated solutions and products that leverage: data, information technology, deep expertise in industries and business processes, with trust and security and a broad ecosystem of partners and alliances. Our hybrid cloud platform and AI technology and services capabilities support clients’ digital transformations and help them engage with their customers and employees in new ways. These solutions draw from an industry-leading portfolio of consulting and IT implementation services, cloud, digital and cognitive offerings, and enterprise systems and software which are all bolstered by one of the world’s leading research organizations.

The following information is included in IBM’s 2020 Annual Report to Stockholders and is incorporated by reference:

IBM Strategy—pages 23 to 25.

Business Segments and Capabilities—pages 25 to 28.

IBM Worldwide Organizations—page 28.

Human Capital—page 29.

Competition

IBM is a globally integrated enterprise that participates in a highly competitive environment, where our competitors vary by industry segment, and range from large multinational enterprises to smaller, more narrowly focused entities. Overall, across our business segments, we recognize hundreds of competitors worldwide.

Our principal methods of competition are: technology innovation; performance; price; quality; brand; our broad range of capabilities, products and services; talent; client relationships and trust; the ability to deliver business value to clients; and service and support. In order to maintain leadership, we must continue to invest, innovate and integrate. We are redefining our future as a hybrid cloud and AI company and have been making investments, both organic and inorganic, as well as shifting resources, embedding AI and cloud into our offerings while building new solutions and modernizing our existing platforms. These investments not only drive current performance, but will extend our innovation leadership into the future. Our key differentiators are built around three pillars–innovative technology, industry expertise and trust and security, uniquely delivered through an integrated model. As we execute our strategy as a hybrid cloud and AI company, deploy new delivery and go-to-market models and expand our ecosystem, we are regularly exposed to new competitors. Overall, the company is the leader or among the leaders in each of our business segments.

A summary of the competitive environment for each business segment is included below:

Cloud & Cognitive Software:

The depth and breadth of our software offerings, coupled with our global markets, deep industry expertise and technical support infrastructure help differentiate our offerings from our competitors. IBM’s research and development capabilities and IP patent portfolio also contribute to differentiation. We have built a hybrid cloud platform based on open technologies that allows clients to realize their digital and AI transformations across the applications, data and

1

Table of Contents

environments in which they operate. The principal competitors in this segment include Alphabet Inc. (Google), Amazon.com, Inc. (Amazon), BMC, Broadcom, Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco), FireEye, Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft), Oracle Corporation (Oracle), Salesforce, SAP, Splunk and VMware. We also compete with smaller, niche competitors in specific geographic or product markets.

Global Business Services:

GBS competes in consulting, systems integration, application management and business process outsourcing services. We compete with broad-based competitors including: Accenture, Capgemini, DXC Technology (DXC), Fujitsu; cloud services providers; India-based service providers; the consulting practices of public accounting firms; and many companies that primarily focus on local markets or niche service areas.

Global Technology Services:

GTS competes in project, managed and outsourcing services, cloud-delivered services, and technical and IT support services. The market contains a diverse set of competitors, with GTS the share leader. In Infrastructure & Cloud Services, our competitors include: Atos, DXC, Fujitsu, HCL, Infosys,Tata Consulting Services, Wipro and many companies that primarily focus on local markets or niche service areas. We also compete with the ecosystems of cloud platform vendors such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Oracle. In Technology Support Services, we compete with several hardware and software vendors who offer support services for their own products, as well as independent support services providers.

Systems:

The enterprise server and storage markets are characterized by competition in technology and service innovation focused on value, function, reliability, price and cost performance and as-a-Service delivery. Our principal competitors include Dell Technologies, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise (HPE), Intel and original device manufacturer systems that are often re-branded. Also, alternative as-a-Service providers are leveraging innovation in technology and service delivery both to compete with traditional providers and to offer new routes to market for server and storage systems. These alternative providers include Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and IBM’s own cloud-based services.

We gain advantage and differentiation through investments in higher value capabilities—from semiconductor through software stack innovation—that increase efficiency, lower cost and improve performance. Our research and development capabilities and IP patent portfolio contribute significantly to this segment’s leadership across areas as diverse as high-end and high-performance computing, virtualization technologies, software optimization, power management, security and resiliency, multi-operating system capabilities and open technologies like interconnect standards to be leveraged by broad ecosystems.

Global Financing:

Global Financing provides client financing, commercial financing and participates in the remanufacturing and remarketing of used equipment. Global Financing’s ability to manage credit and residual value risk generates a competitive advantage for the company. The key competitive factors include interest rates charged, IT product experience, client service, contract flexibility, ease of doing business, global capabilities and residual values. In client and commercial financing, Global Financing primarily competes with non-captive financing entities and financial institutions. In remanufacturing and remarketing, we compete with local and regional brokers plus original manufacturers in the fragmented worldwide used IT equipment market.

2

Table of Contents

Forward-looking and Cautionary Statements

Certain statements contained in this Form 10-K may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“Reform Act”). Forward-looking statements are based on the company’s current assumptions regarding future business and financial performance. These statements by their nature address matters that are uncertain to different degrees. The company may also make forward-looking statements in other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), in materials delivered to stockholders and in press releases. In addition, the company’s representatives may from time to time make oral forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical or current fact. Words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” and similar expressions, may identify such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement in this Form 10-K speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as required by law, the company assumes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements. In accordance with the Reform Act, set forth under Item 1A. “Risk Factors” on pages 4 to 10 are cautionary statements that accompany those forward-looking statements. Readers should carefully review such cautionary statements as they identify certain important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements and from historical trends. Those cautionary statements are not exclusive and are in addition to other factors discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K, in the company’s filings with the SEC or in materials incorporated therein by reference.

The following information is included in IBM’s 2020 Annual Report to Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference:

Segment information and revenue by classes of similar products or services—pages 91 to 96.

Financial information regarding environmental activities—page 117.

The number of persons employed by the registrant—page 29.

The management discussion overview—pages 19 to 22.

Website information and company reporting—page 142.

Executive Officers of the Registrant (at February 23, 2021):

    

Age

    

Officer since

Arvind Krishna, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer*

58

2020

Michelle H. Browdy, Senior Vice President, Legal and Regulatory Affairs, and General Counsel

56

2015

Gary D. Cohn, Vice Chairman

60

2021

Robert F. Del Bene, Vice President and Controller

61

2017

Nickle J. LaMoreaux, Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer

41

2020

James J. Kavanaugh, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Finance and Operations

54

2008

James M. Whitehurst, President

53

2020

*     Member of the Board of Directors.

All executive officers are elected by the Board of Directors annually as provided in the Company’s By-laws. Each executive officer named above, with the exception of Gary D. Cohn and James M. Whitehurst, has been an executive of IBM or its subsidiaries during the past five years. Mr. Cohn is Co-Chairman of Cohn Robbins Holding Corp, a special-purpose acquisition company. Mr. Cohn previously served as Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Director of the National Economic Council from January 2017 until April 2018. Before serving in the White House, Mr. Cohn was President and Chief Operating Officer of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. from 2006-2016. Mr. Whitehurst served as Chief Executive Officer of Red Hat, Inc., a multinational software company, from 2007 until it was acquired by IBM in 2019.

3

Table of Contents

Item 1A. Risk Factors:

Risks Related to Our Business

Downturn in Economic Environment and Client Spending Budgets Could Impact the Company’s Business: If overall demand for IBM’s products and solutions decreases, whether due to general economic conditions, including those associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, or a shift in client buying patterns, the company’s revenue and profit could be impacted.

Failure of Innovation Initiatives Could Impact the Long-Term Success of the Company: IBM has been moving into areas, including those that incorporate or utilize hybrid cloud, artificial intelligence, blockchain, IoT, quantum and other disruptive technologies, in which it can differentiate itself through responsible innovation, by leveraging its investments in R&D and attracting a successful developer ecosystem. If IBM is unable to continue its cutting-edge innovation in a highly competitive and rapidly evolving environment or is unable to commercialize such innovations, expand and scale them with sufficient speed and versatility or is unable to attract a successful developer ecosystem, the company could fail in its ongoing efforts to maintain and increase its market share and its profit margins.

Damage to IBM’s Reputation Could Impact the Company’s Business: IBM has one of the strongest brand names in the world, and its brand and overall reputation could be negatively impacted by many factors, including if the company does not continue to be recognized for its industry leading technology and solutions and as a hybrid cloud and AI leader. IBM’s reputation is potentially susceptible to damage by events such as significant disputes with clients, product defects, internal control deficiencies, delivery failures, cybersecurity incidents, government investigations or legal proceedings or actions of current or former clients, directors, employees, competitors, vendors, alliance partners or joint venture partners. If the company’s brand image is tarnished by negative perceptions, its ability to attract and retain customers, talent and ecosystem partners could be impacted.

Risks from Investing in Growth Opportunities Could Impact the Company’s Business: The company continues to invest significantly in key strategic areas to drive revenue growth and market share gains. Client adoption rates and viable economic models are less certain in the high-value, highly competitive, and rapidly-growing segments. Additionally, emerging business and delivery models may unfavorably impact demand and profitability for our other products or services. If the company does not adequately and timely anticipate and respond to changes in customer and market preferences, competitive actions, emerging business models and ecosystems, the client demand for our products or services may decline or IBM’s costs may increase.

IBM’s Intellectual Property Portfolio May Not Prevent Competitive Offerings, and IBM May Not Be Able to Obtain Necessary Licenses: The company’s patents and other intellectual property may not prevent competitors from independently developing products and services similar to or duplicative to the company’s, nor can there be any assurance that the resources invested by the company to protect its intellectual property will be sufficient or that the company’s intellectual property portfolio will adequately deter misappropriation or improper use of the company’s technology. In addition, the company may be the target of aggressive and opportunistic enforcement of patents by third parties, including non-practicing entities. Also, there can be no assurances that IBM will be able to obtain from third parties the licenses it needs in the future. The company’s ability to protect its intellectual property could also be impacted by changes to existing laws, legal principles and regulations governing intellectual property, including the ownership and protection of patents.

Certain of the company’s offerings incorporate or utilize open source and other third-party software licensed with limited or no warranties, indemnification, or other contractual protections for IBM. Further, if open source code that IBM utilizes is no longer maintained, developed or enhanced by the relevant community of independent open source software programmers, most of whom we do not employ, we may be unable to develop new technologies, adequately enhance our existing technologies or meet customer requirements for innovation, quality and price.

4

Table of Contents

The Announced Spin-Off of the Company’s Managed Infrastructure Services Unit into a Standalone, Publicly-Traded Company is Contingent upon the Satisfaction of a Number of Conditions, May Not Be Completed on the Currently Contemplated Timeline, or at All, and May Not Achieve the Intended Benefits: On October 8, 2020, the company announced its intention to separate the Managed Infrastructure Services unit of its Global Technology Services segment into a new, independent public company (currently referred to as NewCo). Completion of the announced spin-off, as well as the timing of completion, is subject to the readiness of NewCo to operate as an independent public company, finalization of the financial statements of NewCo, assurance that the separation will be tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, finalization of the capital structure of the company and NewCo, the effectiveness of appropriate filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, final approval of the IBM Board of Directors, and other customary items. The announced spin-off is complex in nature and may be affected by unanticipated developments or changes in market conditions. There is the potential for business disruption and, as previously disclosed, the company expects significant separation costs. These or other unanticipated developments or costs could delay or prevent the announced spin-off or cause the announced spin-off to occur on terms or conditions that are less favorable than anticipated. Furthermore, if the spin-off is completed, there is no guarantee that it will be successful in meeting its objectives or achieving its intended benefits. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Risks to the Company from Acquisitions, Alliances and Dispositions Include Integration Challenges, Failure to Achieve Objectives, the Assumption of Liabilities and Higher Debt Levels: The company has made and expects to continue to make acquisitions, alliances and dispositions. Such transactions present significant challenges and risks and there can be no assurances that the company will manage such transactions successfully or that strategic opportunities will be available to the company on acceptable terms or at all. The related risks include the company failing to achieve strategic objectives, including the company’s intention to separate the Managed Infrastructure Services unit of its Global Technology Services segment into a new and independent public company, anticipated revenue improvements and cost savings, the failure to retain key strategic relationships of acquired companies, the failure to retain key personnel and the assumption of liabilities related to litigation or other legal proceedings involving the businesses in such transactions, as well as the failure to close planned transactions. Such transactions may require the company to secure financing and any significant disruption or turmoil in the capital markets could have an adverse effect on IBM’s ability to access the capital markets at favorable terms. From time to time, the company disposes or attempts to dispose of assets that are no longer central to its strategic objectives. Any such disposition or attempted disposition is subject to risks, including risks related to the terms and timing of such disposition, risks related to obtaining necessary governmental or regulatory approvals and risks related to retained liabilities not subject to the company’s control.

The Company’s Financial Results for Particular Periods Are Difficult to Predict: IBM’s revenues and profitability are affected by such factors as the introduction of new products and services, the ability to compete effectively in increasingly competitive marketplaces, the length of the sales cycles and the seasonality of technology purchases. In addition, certain of the company’s growth areas involve new products, new customers, new and evolving competitors, and new markets, all of which contribute to the difficulty of predicting the company’s financial results. The company’s financial results may also be impacted by the structure of products and services contracts and the nature of its customers’ businesses; for example, certain of the company’s services contracts with commercial customers in regulated industries are subject to periodic review by regulators with respect to controls and processes. Further, general economic conditions, including sudden shifts in regional or global economic activity such as those associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the company’s financial results in any particular period. As a result of the above-mentioned factors, the company’s financial results are difficult to predict. Historically, the company has had lower revenue in the first quarter than in the immediately preceding fourth quarter. In addition, the high volume of products typically ordered at the end of each quarter, especially at the end of the fourth quarter, make financial results for a given period difficult to predict.

Due to the Company’s Global Presence, Its Business and Operations Could Be Impacted by Local Legal, Economic, Political, Health and Other Conditions, including the COVID-19 Pandemic: The company is a globally integrated entity, operating in over 175 countries worldwide and deriving more than fifty percent of its revenues from sales outside the United States. Changes in the laws or policies of the countries in which the company operates, or inadequate development or enforcement of such laws or policies, could affect the company’s business and the company’s overall results of operations. Further, the company may be impacted directly or indirectly by the development and enforcement of laws and regulations in the U.S. and globally that are specifically targeted at the technology industry. The company’s

5

Table of Contents

results of operations also could be affected by economic and political changes in those countries and by macroeconomic changes, including recessions, inflation, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and non-U.S. currencies and adverse changes in trade relationships amongst those countries. Further, as the company expands its customer base and the scope of its offerings, both within the U.S. and globally, it may be impacted by additional regulatory or other risks, including compliance with U.S. and foreign data privacy requirements, data localization requirements, labor relations laws, enforcement of IP protection laws, laws relating to anti-corruption, anti-competition regulations, and import, export and trade restrictions. Further, international trade disputes could create uncertainty. Tariffs and international trade sanctions resulting from these disputes could affect the company’s ability to move goods and services across borders, or could impose added costs to those activities. Measures taken to date by the company to mitigate these impacts could be made less effective should trade sanctions or tariffs change. In addition, any widespread outbreak of an illness, pandemic or other local or global health issue, natural disasters, climate change impacts, or uncertain political climates, international hostilities, or any terrorist activities, could adversely affect customer demand, the company’s operations and supply chain, and its ability to source and deliver products and services to its customers. For example, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption. In the current macroeconomic environment, clients continue to balance short-term challenges and opportunities for transformation. Their short-term priorities continue to be focused on operational stability, flexibility and cash preservation, and as such, we may experience some disruptions in transactional performance. Additionally, clients’ short-term priorities, as well as quarantines, limitations on travel and other factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may result in delays in some services projects. Another example, the U.K.’s withdrawal from the E.U., commonly referred to as “Brexit,” has caused global economic, trade and regulatory uncertainty. The company is actively monitoring and planning for possible impacts from Brexit.

The Company May Not Meet Its Growth and Productivity Objectives under Its Internal Business Transformation and Global Integration Initiatives: On an ongoing basis, IBM seeks to drive greater agility, productivity, flexibility and cost savings by continuously transforming with the use of automation, artificial intelligence, agile processes and changes to the ways of working, while also enabling the scaling of resources, offerings and investments through the company’s globally integrated model across both emerging and more established markets. These various initiatives may not yield their intended gains in speed, quality, productivity and enablement of rapid scaling, which may impact the company’s competitiveness and its ability to meet its growth and productivity objectives.

Ineffective Internal Controls Could Impact the Company’s Business and Operating Results: The company’s internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If the company fails to maintain the adequacy of its internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if the company experiences difficulties in their implementation, the company’s business and operating results could be harmed and the company could fail to meet its financial reporting obligations.

The Company’s Use of Accounting Estimates Involves Judgment and Could Impact the Company’s Financial Results: The application of accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (GAAP) requires the company to make estimates and assumptions about certain items and future events that directly affect its reported financial condition, including considering financial implications of the macroeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The company’s most critical accounting estimates are described in the Management Discussion in IBM’s 2020 Annual Report to Stockholders, under “Critical Accounting Estimates.” In addition, as discussed in note R, “Commitments & Contingencies,” in IBM’s 2020 Annual Report to Stockholders, the company makes certain estimates including decisions related to legal proceedings and reserves. These estimates and assumptions involve the use of judgment. As a result, actual financial results may differ.

The Company’s Goodwill or Amortizable Intangible Assets May Become Impaired: The company acquires other companies, including the intangible assets of those companies. The company may not realize all the economic benefit from those acquisitions, which could cause an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets. If our goodwill or net intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a charge to the Consolidated Income Statement.

6

Table of Contents

The Company Depends on Skilled Employees and Could Be Impacted by a Shortage of Critical Skills: Much of the future success of the company depends on the continued service, availability and integrity of skilled employees, including technical, marketing and staff resources. Skilled and experienced personnel in the areas where the company competes are in high demand, and competition for their talents is intense. Changing demographics and labor work force trends may result in a shortage of or insufficient knowledge and skills. In addition, as global opportunities and industry demand shifts, realignment, training and scaling of skilled resources may not be sufficiently rapid or successful. Further, many of IBM’s key employees receive a total compensation package that includes equity awards. Any new regulations, volatility in the stock market and other factors could diminish the company’s use or the value of the company’s equity awards, putting the company at a competitive disadvantage.

The Company’s Business Could Be Impacted by Its Relationships with Critical Suppliers: IBM’s business employs a wide variety of components (hardware and software), supplies, services and raw materials from a substantial number of suppliers around the world. Certain of the company’s businesses rely on a single or a limited number of suppliers, including for server processor technology for certain semiconductors. Changes in the business condition (financial or otherwise) of these suppliers could subject the company to losses and affect its ability to bring products to market. Further, the failure of the company’s suppliers to deliver components, supplies, services and raw materials in sufficient quantities, in a timely manner, and in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations could adversely affect the company’s business. In addition, any defective components, supplies or materials, or inadequate services received from suppliers could reduce the reliability of the company’s products and services and harm the company’s reputation.

Product and Service Quality Issues Could Impact the Company’s Business and Operating Results: The company has rigorous quality control standards and processes intended to prevent, detect and correct errors, malfunctions and other defects in its products and services. If errors, malfunctions, defects or disruptions in service are experienced by customers or in the company’s operations there could be negative consequences that could impact customers’ business operations and harm the company’s business’s operating results.

The Company Could Be Impacted by Its Business with Government Clients: The company’s customers include numerous governmental entities within and outside the U.S., including the U.S. Federal Government and state and local entities. Some of the company’s agreements with these customers may be subject to periodic funding approval. Funding reductions or delays could adversely impact public sector demand for our products and services. Also, some agreements may contain provisions allowing the customer to terminate without cause and providing for higher liability limits for certain losses. In addition, the company could be suspended or debarred as a governmental contractor and could incur civil and criminal fines and pena