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Table of Contents


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC.
THE HERTZ CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware
 
001-37665
 
61-1770902
Delaware
 
001-07541
 
13-1938568
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Commission File Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8501 Williams Road
 
 
 
 
Estero,
Florida
33928
 
 
 
 
239
301-7000
 
 
 
 
(Address, including Zip Code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)
 
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock
par value $0.01 per share
 
HTZ
 
New York Stock Exchange
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
None
 
None
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
None
 
 
 
 
 
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer


o
 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
o
 
 
The Hertz Corporation
Large accelerated filer 
o
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer
x
 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
o
 
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes  No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes  No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. as of June 28, 2019, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date was $897 million. There is no market for The Hertz Corporation stock.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrants' classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
 
 
Class
 
Shares Outstanding as of
February 13, 2020
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
142,125,191
The Hertz Corporation
(1) 
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
100
 
 
 
 
 
(1)(100% owned by
Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC)

OMISSION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION

The Hertz Corporation meets the conditions as set forth in General Instructions I.(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this Form with the reduced disclosure format as permitted.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Information required by Items 10, 11, 12 and 13 of Part III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.'s definitive proxy statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 





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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Unless the context otherwise requires in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 we use the following defined terms:
(i)
"2019 Annual Report" or "Combined Form 10-K" means this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which combines the annual reports for Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation into a single filing;

(ii)
"All Other Operations" means the reportable segment comprised primarily of the Company's Donlen business and the Company's other business activities which comprise less than 1% of revenues and expenses of the segment;

(iii)
"Alternative Letter of Credit Facility" means the standalone $250 million letter of credit facility that the Company entered into in 2019 as further described in Note 5, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2019 Annual Report;

(iv)
"the Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

(v)
"the Company", "we", "our" and "us" mean Hertz Global and Hertz interchangeably;

(vi)
"company-operated" or "company-owned" rental locations are those through which we, or an agent of ours, rent vehicles that we own or lease;

(vii)
"concessions" mean licensing or permitting agreements or arrangements granting us the right to conduct our vehicle rental business at airports;

(viii)
"Corporate" means corporate operations, which include general corporate assets and expenses and certain interest expense (including net interest on non-vehicle debt);

(ix)
"Dollar Thrifty" means Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group, Inc., a consolidated subsidiary of the Company;

(x)
"Donlen" means Donlen Corporation, a consolidated subsidiary of the Company. Donlen conducts our vehicle leasing and fleet management services;

(xi)
"Hertz Gold Plus Rewards" means our customer loyalty program and our global expedited rental program;

(xii)
"Hertz" means The Hertz Corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, our primary operating company and a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by Hertz Holdings;

(xiii)
"Hertz Global" means Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., our top-level holding company, its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, including The Hertz Corporation;

(xiv)
"Hertz Ultimate Choice" is an offering at select airport locations in the U.S. that allows customers to choose their vehicle from a range of makes, models and colors available within the zone indicated on their reservation;

(xv)
"Hertz Holdings" refers to Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. excluding its subsidiaries;

(xvi)
"International RAC" means the international rental car reportable segment;

(xvii)
"Letter of Credit Facility" means the standalone $400 million letter of credit facility that the Company entered into in 2017 as further described in Note 5, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements

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under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2019 Annual Report;

(xviii)
“non-program vehicles” means vehicles not purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs for which we are exposed to residual risk;

(xix)
"Old Hertz Holdings" for periods on or prior to June 30, 2016, and "Herc Holdings" for periods after June 30, 2016, refer to the former Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.;

(xx)
"program vehicles" means vehicles purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs with vehicle manufacturers;

(xxi)
"replacement renters" means renters who need vehicles while their vehicle is being repaired or is temporarily unavailable for other reasons;

(xxii)
"Rights Offering" means the Company's rights offering providing for the issuance of new shares of Hertz Global common stock that closed in July 2019 as further described in Note 16, "Equity and Earnings (Loss) Per Share - Hertz Global," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" included in this 2019 Annual Report;

(xxiii)
"SEC" means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

(xxiv)
"Senior Facilities" means the Company's senior secured term facility and senior secured revolving credit facility ("Senior RCF") as further described in Note 5, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2019 Annual Report;

(xxv)
"Spin-Off" means the spin-off by Old Hertz Holdings of its global vehicle rental business through a dividend to stockholders of record of Old Hertz Holdings as of the close of business on June 22, 2016, the record date for the distribution, of all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hertz Rental Car Holding Company, Inc., which was re-named Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. in connection with the Spin-Off, on a one-to-five basis.

(xxvi)
"Tax Reform" means legislation signed into law on December 22, 2017 which amends the U.S. Internal Revenue Code to reduce tax rates and modify policies, credits, and deductions for individuals and businesses, commonly known as the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" ("TCJA");

(xxvii)
"TNC" means transportation network companies that provide ride-hailing services that pair passengers with drivers via websites and mobile applications;

(xxviii)
"TNC Partners" means certain transportation network companies where we provide rental vehicles to their drivers under agreements that specify the relevant terms;

(xxix)
"U.S." means the United States of America;

(xxx)
"U.S. RAC" means the U.S. rental car reportable segment;

(xxxi)
"Vehicle Utilization" means the portion of our vehicles that are being utilized to generate revenue; and

(xxxii)
"vehicles” means cars, vans, crossovers and light trucks.

We have proprietary rights to a number of trademarks used in this 2019 Annual Report that are important to our business, including, without limitation, Hertz, Dollar, Thrifty, Donlen, Hertz Gold Plus Rewards, Hertz Ultimate Choice, Hertz 24/7, Hertz Fast Lane, Hertz My Car and ExpressRent. Solely for convenience, we have omitted the ® and ™

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trademark designations for trademarks named in this 2019 Annual Report, but references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE

COMBINED FORM 10-K

This 2019 Annual Report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 of Hertz Global and Hertz.

Hertz Global owns all shares of the common stock of Hertz through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC.

Management operates Hertz Global and Hertz as one enterprise. The management of Hertz Global consists of the same members as the management of Hertz. These individuals are officers of Hertz Global and Hertz and employees of Hertz. The individuals that comprise Hertz Global's board of directors are also the same individuals that make up Hertz's board of directors.

We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of Hertz Global and Hertz into this single report results in the following benefits:

enhancing investors' understanding of Hertz Global and Hertz by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;

eliminating duplicative disclosure and providing a more streamlined and readable presentation since a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both Hertz Global and Hertz; and

creating time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined annual report instead of two separate annual reports.

Hertz holds all of the revenue earning vehicles, property, plant and equipment and all other assets, including the ownership interests in consolidated and unconsolidated joint ventures and variable interest entities ("VIEs"). Hertz conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a corporation with no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from public equity issuances by Hertz Global, which are contributed to Hertz, Hertz generates required capital through its operations or through its incurrence of indebtedness.

Hertz Global does not conduct business itself, other than issuing public equity or debt obligations from time to time, and incurring expenses required to operate as a public company. Hertz Global and Hertz have entered into a master loan agreement whereby Hertz Global may borrow from Hertz up to $425 million. Transactions recorded under the master loan agreement are eliminated upon consolidation at the Hertz Global level but not upon consolidation at the Hertz level. Differences between the financial statements of Hertz Global and Hertz are limited to the activity described above and the remaining assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of Hertz Global and Hertz are the same on their respective financial statements.

Although Hertz is generally the entity that enters into contracts and holds assets and debt, Hertz Global consolidates Hertz for financial statement purposes, therefore, disclosures that relate to activities of Hertz also apply to Hertz Global. In the sections that combine disclosures of Hertz Global and Hertz, this report refers to actions as being actions of the Company, or Hertz Global, which is appropriate because the business is one enterprise and Hertz Global operates the business through Hertz. When appropriate, Hertz Global and Hertz are named specifically for their individual disclosures and any significant differences between the operations and results of Hertz Global and Hertz are separately disclosed and explained.

This report also includes separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of Hertz Global and Hertz in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that Hertz Global and Hertz are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and 18 U.S.C. §1350.


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EXPLANATORY NOTE (Continued)

This Combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation. Each registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this 2019 Annual Report that relates to such registrant. Each registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information.








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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained or incorporated by reference in this 2019 Annual Report include "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements include information concerning our liquidity and our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategies. These statements often include words such as "believe," "expect," "project," "potential," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "estimate," "seek," "will," "may," "would," "should," "could," "forecasts" or similar expressions. These statements are based on certain assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate in these circumstances. We believe these judgments are reasonable, but you should understand that these statements are not guarantees of performance or results, and our actual results could differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to a variety of important factors, both positive and negative.

Important factors that could affect our actual results and cause them to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements include, among others, those that may be disclosed from time to time in subsequent reports filed with or furnished to the SEC, those described under “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of this 2019 Annual Report, and the following, which were derived in part from the risks set forth in Item 1A of this 2019 Annual Report:

levels of travel demand, particularly with respect to business and leisure travel in the United States and in global markets;
significant changes in the competitive environment and the effect of competition in our markets on rental volume and pricing, including on our pricing policies or use of incentives;
occurrences that disrupt rental activity during our peak periods;
our ability to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly;
increased vehicle costs due to declining value of our non-program vehicles;
our ability to maintain sufficient liquidity and the availability to us of additional or continued sources of financing for our revenue earning vehicles and to refinance our existing indebtedness;
our ability to adequately respond to changes in technology, customer demands and market competition;
our ability to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and risks relating to increases in the cost of the vehicles we purchase;
our recognition of previously deferred tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles;
financial instability of the manufacturers of our vehicles, which could impact their ability to fulfill obligations under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs;
an increase in our vehicle costs or disruption to our rental activity, particularly during our peak periods, due to safety recalls by the manufacturers of our vehicles;
our ability to execute a business continuity plan;
our access to third-party distribution channels and related prices, commission structures and transaction volumes;
our ability to retain customer loyalty and market share;
risks associated with operating in many different countries, including the risk of a violation or alleged violation of applicable anticorruption or antibribery laws, our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences, our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and our ability to effectively manage our international operations after the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union;
a major disruption in our communication or centralized information networks;

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS (Continued)

a failure to maintain, upgrade and consolidate our information technology systems;
our ability to prevent the misuse or theft of information we possess, including as a result of cyber security breaches and other security threats;
costs and risks associated with litigation and investigations or any failure or inability to comply with laws and regulations or any changes in the legal and regulatory environment, including laws and regulations relating to environmental matters and consumer privacy and data security;
our ability to maintain our network of leases and vehicle rental concessions at airports in the U.S. and internationally;
our ability to maintain favorable brand recognition and a coordinated branding and portfolio strategy;
our ability to maintain an effective employee retention and talent management strategy and resulting changes in personnel and employee relations;
changes in the existing, or the adoption of new laws, regulations, policies or other activities of governments, agencies and similar organizations, where such actions may affect our operations, the cost thereof or applicable tax rates;
risks relating to our deferred tax assets, including the risk of an "ownership change" under the Code;
our exposure to uninsured claims in excess of historical levels;
risks relating to our participation in multiemployer pension plans;
risks related to our indebtedness, including our substantial amount of debt, our ability to incur substantially more debt, the fact that substantially all of our consolidated assets secure certain of our outstanding indebtedness and increases in interest rates or in our borrowing margins;
our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in our senior credit facilities and letter of credit facility, our outstanding unsecured senior notes, our outstanding senior second priority secured notes and certain asset-backed and asset-based arrangements;
our ability to access financial markets, including the financing of our vehicle fleet through the issuance of asset-backed securities;
fluctuations in interest rates and commodity prices;
our ability to sustain operations during adverse economic cycles and unfavorable external events (including war, terrorist acts, natural disasters and epidemic disease);
shortages of fuel and increases or volatility in fuel costs;
changes in accounting principles, or their application or interpretation, and our ability to make accurate estimates and the assumptions underlying the estimates, which could have an effect on operating results; and
other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. All such statements speak only as of the date hereof, and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

OUR COMPANY

Hertz Holdings was incorporated in Delaware in 2015 to serve as the top-level holding company for Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which wholly owns Hertz, our primary operating company. Hertz was incorporated in Delaware in 1967 and is a successor to corporations that have been engaged in the vehicle rental and leasing business since 1918.

We operate our vehicle rental business globally primarily through the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands from approximately 12,400 corporate and franchisee locations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, the Middle East and New Zealand. We are one of the largest worldwide vehicle rental companies and our Hertz brand name is one of the most recognized globally, signifying leadership in quality rental services and products. We have an extensive network of airport and off airport rental locations in the U.S. and in all major European markets. We are also a provider of integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions through our Donlen subsidiary.

OUR BUSINESS SEGMENTS

We have identified three reportable segments, which are organized based on the products and services provided by our operating segments and the geographic areas in which our operating segments conduct business, as follows:

U.S. RAC - Rental of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, in the U.S. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated rental locations in the U.S., enabling us to provide consistent quality and service. We also have franchisees and partners that operate rental locations under our brands throughout the U.S;

International RAC - Rental and leasing of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, internationally. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated rental locations internationally, a majority of which are in Europe. Our franchisees and partners also operate rental locations in approximately 160 countries and jurisdictions, including many of the countries in which we also have company-operated rental locations; and

All Other Operations - Primarily comprised of our Donlen business, which provides integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions in the U.S. and Canada. Donlen is a provider of these services for commercial fleets and Donlen's fleet management programs provide solutions to reduce fleet operating costs and improve driver productivity and safety. These programs include administration of preventive vehicle maintenance, advisory services and fuel and accident management along with other complementary services. Additionally, Donlen provides specialized consulting and technology expertise that allows us and our customers to model, measure and manage fleet performance more effectively and efficiently. Also included are our other business activities which comprise less than 1% of revenues and expenses of the segment.

In addition to the above reportable segments, we have Corporate operations. We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the financial information for our operating segments.

For further financial information on our segments, see (i) Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment" and (ii) Note 17, "Segment Information," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2019 Annual Report.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

U.S. and International Rental Car Segments

Brands
hertzdollarthriftyfireflya09.jpg
Our U.S. and International vehicle rental businesses are primarily operated through three brands — Hertz, Dollar, and Thrifty. We offer multiple brands in order to provide customers a full range of rental services at different price points, levels of service, offerings and products. Each of our brands generally maintains separate airport counters, reservations, marketing and other customer contact activities. We achieve synergies across our brands by, among other things, utilizing a single fleet and fleet management team and combined vehicle maintenance, vehicle cleaning and back office functions, where applicable.

Our top tier brand, Hertz, is one of the most recognized brands in the world offering premium services that define the industry. This is consistent with numerous published best-in-class vehicle rental awards that we have won, including our current ranking of #1 in Customer Satisfaction by J.D. Power, both in the U.S. and internationally, over many years. We go to market under the tagline of “Hertz. We’re here to get you there” which is true to our promise and reputation for quality and customer service. We have a number of innovative offerings, such as Hertz Gold Plus Rewards, Hertz Ultimate Choice and unique vehicles offered through our specialty collections. We continue to maintain our position as a premier provider of vehicle rental services through an intense focus on service, loyalty, quality and product innovation.

Our smart value brand, Dollar, is the choice for financially-focused travelers looking for a dependable car at a price they can afford. The Dollar brand’s main focus is serving the airport vehicle rental market, comprised of family, leisure and small business travelers. Dollar’s tagline of “We never forget whose dollar it is” indicates the brand’s mission to provide a reliable rental experience at a price that works. Dollar operates primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada. We also globally license to independent franchisees which operate as a part of the Dollar brand system and have company-owned Dollar locations in certain countries.

Our deep value brand, Thrifty, is the brand for savvy travelers who enjoy the “thrill of the hunt” to find a good deal. The Thrifty brand’s main focus is serving the airport vehicle rental market, comprised of leisure travelers. Thrifty’s tagline “The Absolute Best Car for the Money” indicates the brand’s focus on being the rental company that puts you in control of where you splurge and where you save. Thrifty operates primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada. We also globally license to independent franchisees which operate as part of the Thrifty brand system and have company-owned Thrifty locations in certain countries.

Internationally, we also offer our Firefly brand which is a deep value brand for price conscious leisure travelers. We have Firefly locations servicing local area airports in select international leisure markets where other deep value brands have a significant presence.

Operations

Locations

We operate both airport and off airport locations which utilize common vehicle fleets, are supervised by common country, regional and local area management, use many common systems and rely on common vehicle maintenance and administrative centers. Additionally, our airport and off airport locations utilize common marketing activities and have many of the same customers. We regard both types of locations as aspects of a single, unitary, vehicle rental business. Off airport revenues comprised approximately 35% of our worldwide vehicle rental revenues in 2019 and approximately 34% in 2018.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Airport

We have approximately 1,600 airport rental locations in the U.S. and approximately 2,000 airport rental locations internationally. Our international vehicle rental operations have company-operated locations in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Slovakia, Spain, the United Kingdom and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We believe that our extensive U.S. and international network of company-operated locations contributes to the consistency of our service, cost control, Vehicle Utilization, competitive pricing and our ability to offer one-way rentals.

For our airport company-operated rental locations, we have obtained concessions or similar leasing agreements or arrangements, granting us the right to conduct a vehicle rental business at the respective airport. Our concessions were obtained from the airports' operators, which are typically governmental bodies or authorities, following either negotiation or bidding for the right to operate a vehicle rental business. The terms of an airport concession typically require us to pay the airport's operator concession fees based upon a specified percentage of the revenues we generate at the airport, subject to a minimum annual guarantee. Under most concessions, we must also pay fixed rent for terminal counters or other leased properties and facilities. Most concessions are for a fixed length of time, while others create operating rights and payment obligations that are terminable at any time.

The terms of our concessions typically do not forbid us from seeking, and in a few instances actually require us to seek, reimbursement from customers for concession fees we pay; however, in certain jurisdictions the law limits or forbids our doing so. Where we are required or permitted to seek such reimbursement, it is our general practice to do so. Certain of our concession agreements may require the consent of the airport's operator in connection with material changes in our ownership. A growing number of larger airports are building consolidated airport vehicle rental facilities to alleviate congestion at the airport. These consolidated rental facilities provide a more common customer experience and may eliminate certain competitive advantages among the brands as competitors operate out of one centralized facility for both customer rental and return operations, share consolidated busing operations and maintain image standards mandated by the airports.

Off Airport

We have approximately 2,600 off airport locations in the U.S. and approximately 6,200 off airport rental locations internationally. Our off airport rental customers include people who prefer to rent vehicles closer to their home or place of work for business or leisure purposes, as well as those needing to travel to or from airports. Our off airport customers also include people who have been referred by, or whose rental costs are being wholly or partially reimbursed by, insurance companies following accidents in which their vehicles were damaged, those expecting to lease vehicles that are not yet available from their leasing companies and replacement renters. In addition, our off airport customers include drivers for our TNC partners, which is further described in “TNC Rentals” below.

When compared to our airport rental locations, an off airport rental location typically uses smaller rental facilities with fewer employees, conducts pick-up and delivery services and serves replacement renters using specialized systems and processes. On average, off airport locations generate fewer transactions per period than airport locations.

Our off airport locations offer us the following benefits:

Provide customers a more convenient and geographically extensive network of rental locations, thereby creating revenue opportunities from replacement renters, non-airline travel renters and airline travelers with local rental needs;

Provide a more balanced revenue mix by reducing our reliance on air travel and therefore reducing our exposure to external events that may disrupt airline travel trends;

Contribute to higher Vehicle Utilization as a result of the longer average rental periods associated with off airport business, compared to those of airport rentals;


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Insurance replacement rental volume is less seasonal than that of other business and leisure rentals, which permits efficiencies in both vehicle and labor planning; and

Cross-selling opportunities exist for us to promote off airport rentals among frequent airport Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program renters and, conversely, to promote airport rentals to off airport renters.

Customers and Business Mix

We conduct active sales and marketing programs to attract and retain customers. Our sales force calls on companies and other organizations whose employees and associates need to rent vehicles for business purposes or for replacement rental needs, including insurance and leasing companies, automobile repair companies and vehicle dealers. In addition, our sales force works with membership associations, tour operators, travel companies and other groups whose members, participants and customers rent vehicles for either business or leisure purposes. We advertise our vehicle rental offerings through a variety of traditional media channels, partner publications (e.g. affinity clubs and airline and hotel partners), direct mail and digital marketing. In addition to advertising, we conduct a variety of other forms of marketing and promotion, including travel industry business partnerships and press and public relations activities.

We categorize our vehicle rental business based on the purpose and type of location from which customers rent from us. The following charts set forth the percentages of rental revenues and rental transactions in our U.S. and international operations based on these categories.

VEHICLE RENTALS BY CUSTOMER
Year Ended December 31, 2019

U.S.
chart-cdf17ce28d7f5a50a1b.jpgchart-0cb245bd137954f9b9f.jpg
 
 
Business
 
 
Leisure












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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

VEHICLE RENTALS BY CUSTOMER (Continued)
Year Ended December 31, 2019

International
chart-5b0ab2f01092522abdf.jpgchart-a1c70343e4125811a5e.jpg
 
 
Business
 
 
Leisure

Customers who rent from us for “business” purposes include those who require vehicles in connection with commercial activities, including drivers for our TNC Partners and delivery service providers, the activities of governments and other organizations or for temporary vehicle replacement purposes. Most business customers rent vehicles from us on terms that we have negotiated with their employers or other entities with which they are associated, and those terms can differ from the terms on which we rent vehicles to the general public. We have negotiated arrangements relating to vehicle rental with many businesses, governments and other organizations, including most Fortune 500 companies.

Customers who rent from us for “leisure” purposes include not only individual travelers booking vacation travel rentals with us but also people renting to meet other personal needs. Leisure rentals, generally, are longer in duration and generate more revenue per transaction than business rentals. Leisure rentals also include rentals by customers of U.S. and international tour operators, which are usually a part of tour packages that can include air travel and hotel accommodations.

VEHICLE RENTALS BY LOCATION
Year Ended December 31, 2019

U.S.
chart-492aab2821f75af49b6.jpgchart-0528bd00b1035fe5b2b.jpg
 
 
Airport
 
 
Off airport


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

VEHICLE RENTALS BY LOCATION (Continued)
Year Ended December 31, 2019

International
chart-4275826cd3b2537b94c.jpgchart-87cd12c9368c5d729e3.jpg
 
 
Airport
 
 
Off airport

Demand for airport rentals is correlated with airline travel patterns, and transaction volumes generally follow global airline passenger traffic ("enplanement") and Gross Domestic Product ("GDP") trends. Customers often make reservations for airport rentals when they book their flight plans, which make our relationships with travel agents, associations and other partners (e.g., airlines and hotels) a key competitive strategy in generating consistent and recurring revenue streams.

Off airport rentals include insurance replacements, and we have agreements with the referring insurers establishing the relevant rental terms, including the arrangements made for billing and payment. We have identified 188 insurance companies, ranging from local or regional vehicle carriers to large, national companies, as our target insurance replacement market. As of December 31, 2019, we were a preferred or recognized supplier for 124 of these insurance companies and a co-primary for 39 of them.

Customer Service Offerings

At our major airport rental locations, as well as at some smaller airport and off airport locations, customers participating in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are able to rent vehicles in an expedited manner. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program often bypass the rental counter entirely and proceed directly to their vehicle upon arrival at our facility. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are also eligible to earn Hertz Gold Plus Rewards points that may be redeemed for free rental days or converted to awards of other companies' loyalty programs. Hertz's Gold Plus Rewards program offers three elite membership tiers which provide more frequent renters the opportunity to earn additional reward points and vehicle upgrades. For the year ended December 31, 2019, rentals by Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members accounted for approximately 36% of our worldwide rental transactions. We believe the Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program provides a significant competitive advantage to us, particularly among frequent travelers, and we have targeted such travelers for participation in the program. We offer electronic rental agreements and returns for our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty customers in the U.S. Simplifying the rental transaction saves customers time and provides greater convenience through access to digitally available rental contracts.

Our Hertz Ultimate Choice program allows customers to choose their vehicle from a range of makes, models and colors available within the zone indicated on their reservation, or they may upgrade at pick-up for a fee by choosing a vehicle from the Premium Upgrade zone. Also, when Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members make a reservation for a midsize car or above, they have access to exclusive vehicles based on their membership tier. The Hertz Ultimate Choice program is offered at 60 U.S. airport locations as of December 31, 2019.


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TNC Rentals

We have partnered with certain companies in the TNC market in the U.S. to offer vehicle rentals to their drivers in select U.S. cities. During 2019, we dedicated an average of 43,000 vehicles for use by our TNC Partners. TNC rentals provide for an additional selection of higher mileage, and thus more economical, used vehicles in our retail sales outlets. Drivers for our TNC Partners reserve vehicles online through TNC Partner websites and pick up vehicles from select locations. TNC drivers can extend the vehicle rental on a weekly basis.

Hertz 24/7

We offer a car and van-sharing membership service, referred to as Hertz 24/7, which rents vehicles by the hour and/or by the day, at various locations internationally, primarily in Europe and in Australia under the Flexicar brand. Members reserve vehicles online, then pick up the vehicles at convenient locations using keyless entry, without the need to visit a Hertz rental office. Members are charged an hourly or daily vehicle-rental fee which includes fuel, insurance, 24/7 roadside assistance and in-vehicle customer service. Hertz 24/7 specializes in Business-to-Business-to-Consumer (B2B2C) services working with retail partners to provide vans at their locations, and with corporations providing pool fleets for use by their employees.

Other Customer Service Initiatives

We offer Hertz Fast Lane powered by CLEAR that provides participating Hertz Gold Plus Rewards customers the ability to skip the rental counter and exit the gate by utilizing expedited ID verification using biometrics. We also offer a Mobile Gold Alerts service, available to participating Hertz Gold Plus Rewards customers, through which an SMS text message and/or email with the vehicle information and location is sent approximately 30 minutes prior to arrival, providing the option to choose another vehicle. We offer Hertz e-Return, which allows customers to drop off their vehicle and go at the time of rental return. Additionally, in select locations, customers can bypass the rental line through our ExpressRent Kiosks. Customers can also use cashless toll lanes with our PlatePass offering where the license plate acts as a transponder, and we offer a vehicle-subscription service on a monthly or weekend basis in select locations that provides a flexible, cost-effective alternative to vehicle ownership, with no long-term commitment required, referred to as Hertz My Car and My Hertz Weekend.

Rates

We rent a wide variety of makes and models of vehicles. We rent vehicles on an hourly (in select international markets), daily, weekend, weekly, monthly or multi-month basis, with rental charges computed on a limited or unlimited mileage rate, or on a time rate plus a mileage charge. Our rates vary by brand and at different locations depending on local market conditions and other competitive and cost factors. While vehicles are usually returned to the locations from which they are rented, we also allow one-way rentals from and to certain locations. In addition to vehicle rentals and franchise fees, we generate revenues from reimbursements by customers of airport concession fees, unless the law limits or forbids us from doing so, and vehicle licensing costs, fueling charges, and charges for value-added services such as supplemental equipment (e.g., child seats and ski racks), loss or collision damage waiver, theft protection, liability and personal accident/effects insurance coverage, premium emergency roadside service and satellite radio.

Reservations

We price and accept reservations for our vehicles on a brand-by-brand basis. Reservations are generally for a class of vehicles, although Hertz accepts reservations for specific makes and models of vehicles in our Premium, Prestige and specialty collections.

We distribute pricing and content and accept reservations via multiple channels. Direct reservations are accepted at Hertz.com, which has global and local versions in multiple languages. Hertz.com offers a range of products, prices and additional services as well as Hertz Gold Plus Rewards benefits, serving both company-operated and franchise locations. In addition to our website, direct reservations are enabled via our smartphone app, which includes additional connected products and services.


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Customers may also seek reservations via travel agents or third-party travel websites. In many of those cases, the travel agent or website will utilize an Application Programming Interface (“API”) connection to Hertz or a third-party operated computerized reservation system, also known as a Global Distribution System (“GDS”) to contact us and make the reservation.

In major countries, including the U.S. and all other countries with company-operated locations, customers may also reserve vehicles for rental from us and our franchisees worldwide through local, national or toll-free telephone calls to our reservations center, directly through our rental locations or, in the case of replacement rentals, through proprietary automated systems serving the insurance industry.

Franchisees

In certain U.S. and international markets, we have found it efficient to issue licenses under franchise arrangements to independent franchisees who are engaged in the vehicle rental business, to rent vehicles that they own or lease to customers, primarily under our Hertz, Dollar or Thrifty brand. In certain markets and under certain circumstances, franchisees are given the opportunity to acquire franchises for multiple brands.

Franchisees generally pay royalties based on a percentage of their revenues as well as other fees, and in return are provided the use of the applicable brand name, certain operational support and training, reservations through our reservation channels, and other services. Franchisee arrangements enable us to offer expanded national and international service and a broader one-way rental program. In addition to vehicle rental, certain international franchisees engage in vehicle leasing, and the rental of chauffeur-driven vehicles, camper vans and motorcycles.

Franchisees ordinarily are limited as to transferability without our consent and are generally terminable by us only for cause or after a fixed term. Many of these agreements also include a right of first refusal on the part of the Company should a franchisee receive a bona fide offer to sell. Franchisees in the U.S. typically may terminate on prior notice, generally between 90 and 180 days. In Europe and certain other international jurisdictions, franchisees typically do not have early termination rights. Initial license fees or the price for the sale to a franchisee of a company-owned location may be payable over a term of several years. We continue to issue new licenses and, from time to time, purchase franchised businesses.

Franchise operations, including the purchase and ownership of vehicles, are generally financed independently by the franchisees, and we do not have an investment interest in the franchisees. Fees from franchisees, including initial franchise fees, are used to, among other things, generally support the cost of our brand awareness programs, reservations system, sales and marketing efforts and certain other services and are approximately 2% of our worldwide vehicle rental revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Seasonality

Our vehicle rental operations are a seasonal business, with decreased levels of business in the winter months and heightened activity during spring and summer peak ("our peak season") for the majority of countries where we generate our revenues. To accommodate increased demand, we increase our available fleet and staff during the second and third quarters of the year. As business demand declines, vehicles and staff are decreased accordingly. Certain operating expenses, including real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs, remain fixed and cannot be adjusted for seasonal demand.


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The following chart sets forth this seasonal effect of our vehicle rental operations by presenting quarterly revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
chart-7384ceac70555a1ba2a.jpg
Fleet

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we operated a peak rental fleet in our U.S. and International Rental Car segments of approximately 567,600 vehicles and 204,000 vehicles, respectively. Purchases of vehicles are financed by active and ongoing global borrowing programs and through cash from operations. The vehicles we purchase are either program vehicles or non-program vehicles. We periodically review the efficiencies of an optimal mix between program and non-program vehicles in our fleet and adjust the ratio of program and non-program vehicles as needed based on contract negotiations, vehicle economics and availability. During the year ended December 31, 2019, our approximate average holding period for a rental vehicle was 18 months in the U.S. and 12 months in our international operations.

Our fleet composition is as follows:

Fleet Composition by Vehicle Manufacturer*
As of December 31, 2019 chart-28ee1e09b9645133bbb.jpg

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U.S.                      International*

chart-5c6ec38199d85b76824.jpgchart-00dbfb205b7451dc86b.jpg

*Vehicle manufacturers Groupe PSA (Peugeot and Citroen), Volvo, Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen, Skoda, Audi and Seat), Daimler AG (Mercedes Benz) and BMW together comprise another 28% of the international fleet and are included as "Other" in the overall and international charts above.

We maintain vehicle maintenance centers at or near certain airports and in certain urban and off airport areas, which provide maintenance for our fleet. Many of these facilities include sophisticated vehicle diagnostic and repair equipment and are accepted by automobile manufacturers as eligible to perform and receive reimbursement for warranty work. Collision damage and major repairs are generally performed by independent contractors.

Repurchase Programs

Program vehicles are purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs with vehicle manufacturers wherein the manufacturers agree to repurchase vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during established repurchase or auction periods, subject to, among other things, certain vehicle condition, mileage and holding period requirements. Repurchase prices under repurchase programs are based on the original cost less a set daily depreciation amount. These repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs limit our residual risk with respect to vehicles purchased under the programs and allow us to reduce the variability of depreciation expense for each vehicle, however, typically the acquisition cost is higher. Program vehicles generally provide us with flexibility to increase or reduce the size of our fleet based on market demand. When we increase the percentage of program vehicles, the average age of our fleet decreases since the average holding period for program vehicles is shorter than for non-program vehicles.


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Program vehicles as a percentage of all vehicles purchased within each of our U.S. and International Rental Car segments were as follows:

chart-8a3c4824e8665efc80f.jpg

Hertz Car Sales and Rent2Buy

Hertz Car Sales consists of a network of 87 company-operated vehicle sales locations throughout the U.S. dedicated to the sale of used vehicles from our rental fleet consisting of non-program vehicles, as well as program vehicles that become ineligible for manufacturer repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs. Vehicles disposed of through our retail outlets allow us the opportunity for ancillary vehicle sales revenue, such as warranty, financing and title fees.

We also offer Rent2Buy in 35 states and several European countries, an innovative program designed to sell used rental vehicles. Customers have an opportunity to rent a vehicle from our rental fleet and if the customer purchases the vehicle, the customer is credited with a portion of their rental charges. The purchase transaction is completed through the internet and by mail in those states where permitted.

We also dispose of vehicles through non-retail disposition channels such as auctions, brokered sales, sales to wholesalers and sales to dealers.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, of the vehicles sold in our U.S. vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 26% at auction, 38% through dealer direct and 36% at retail locations or through our Rent2Buy program. During the year ended December 31, 2019, of the vehicles sold in our international vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 6% at auction, 85% through dealer direct and 9% at retail locations or through our Rent2Buy program.

Markets and Competition

Competition among vehicle rental industry participants is intense and is primarily based on price, vehicle availability and quality, service, reliability, rental locations, product innovation and competition from online travel agents and vehicle rental brokers. We believe that the prominence and service reputation of the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands, including our current ranking as #1 in Customer Satisfaction by J.D. Power, our extensive worldwide ownership of vehicle rental

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operations and our commitment to innovation and service provide us with a strong competitive advantage. Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors are Avis Budget Group, Inc. (“ABG”), which currently operates the Avis, Budget, ZipCar and Payless brands, and Enterprise Holdings, which operates the Enterprise Rent-A-Car Company ("Enterprise"), National Car Rental and Alamo Rent A Car brands. There are also local and regional vehicle rental companies and transportation network companies which provide ride-hailing services that have some overlap in customer use cases, largely with respect to short length trips in urban areas.

U.S.

The U.S. represents approximately $32 billion in estimated annual industry revenues for 2019. The average number of vehicles in the U.S. vehicle rental industry increased 2% in 2019 to about 2.3 million vehicles. U.S. industry Revenue Per Unit Per Month was approximately $1,174 which was an improvement of 3.8% over 2018. Rentals by airline travelers at or near airports (‘‘airport rentals’’) are influenced by developments in the travel industry and particularly in enplanements as well as the GDP. Off airport rental volume is primarily driven by local business use, such as vehicle repair shops, leisure travel and insurance replacements.

Europe

Europe represents approximately $17 billion in annual industry revenues for 2019. Europe has generally demonstrated a lower historical reliance on air travel. The European off airport vehicle rental market has been significantly more developed than it is in the U.S. Within Europe, the largest markets in which we do business are France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Throughout Europe, we do business through company-operated rental locations and through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific, which includes Australia and New Zealand, represents approximately $17 billion in annual industry revenues for 2019. Within this region, the largest markets in which we do business are Australia, China, Japan and South Korea. In each of these markets we have company-operated rental locations or do business through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Middle East and Africa

The Middle East and Africa represent approximately $4 billion in annual industry revenues for 2019. Within these regions, the largest markets in which we do business are Saudi Arabia, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates. In each of these markets we do business through our franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Latin America

The Latin America markets represent approximately $4 billion in annual industry revenues for 2019. Within Latin America the largest markets in which we do business are Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Panama and Mexico. In each of these markets our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands are present through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of the respective brand.

In 2017, we completed the sale of Car Rental Systems do Brasil Locação de Veiculos Ltd., our wholly owned subsidiary located in Brazil (the "Brazil Operations"), to Localiza Fleet S.A. (“Localiza”). As part of the sale, both companies entered into referral and brand cooperation agreements to govern their ongoing relationship which have an initial term of twenty years with an option to extend for another twenty years. The alliance also involves the exchange of knowledge in areas of technology, customer service and operational excellence.


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All Other Operations

Primarily consists of our Donlen business which provides integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions for commercial fleets. Our All Other Operations segment generated $672 million in revenues during the year ended December 31, 2019, substantially all of which was attributable to Donlen.

Donlen
donlena01.jpg
Donlen provides an array of vehicle leasing, financing, telematics, and fleet management services to commercial fleets in the U.S. and Canada. Products offered by Donlen include:

Vehicle financing, acquisition and remarketing;
License, title and registration;
Vehicle maintenance consultation;
Fuel management;
Accident management;
Toll management;
Telematics-based location, driver performance and scorecard reporting; and
Lease financing.

Donlen’s leased fleet consists primarily of passenger vehicles, cargo vans and light trucks. Vehicles are acquired directly from domestic and foreign manufacturers, as well as dealers. As of December 31, 2019, approximately half of Donlen’s leased fleet is 2018 model year or newer.

Donlen’s primary product for vehicle and light to medium truck fleets is an open-ended terminal rental adjustment clause ("TRAC") lease. For most customers, the vehicle must be leased for a minimum of twelve months, after which the lease converts to a month-to-month lease allowing the vehicle to be surrendered any time thereafter. Our sale of the vehicle following the termination of the lease may result in a TRAC adjustment, through which the customer is credited or charged with the surplus or loss on the vehicle. Approximately 80% of Donlen’s lease portfolio consists of floating-rate leases which allow lease charges to be adjusted based on benchmark indices.

Donlen offers financing solutions for heavier-duty trucks and equipment. Lease financing is provided through syndication arrangements with lending institutions. Donlen originates the leases, acquires the assets, and services the lease throughout the term.

Donlen provides services to leased and non-leased fleets consisting of fuel purchasing and management, preventive vehicle maintenance, repair consultation, toll management and accident management. Additionally, Donlen manages license and title, vehicle registration, and regulatory compliance. Donlen’s telematics products provide enhanced visibility and reporting over driver and vehicle performance.

The commercial fleet market is one of the largest segments of the U.S. automotive industry, primarily consisting of vehicles utilized in a sales, service or delivery application. The fleet management industry has experienced significant consolidation over the years and today our principal fleet management competitors in the U.S. and Canada are Element Financial Corporation, Enterprise, Automotive Resources International, LeasePlan Corporation N.V. and Wheels, Inc.

EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2019, we employed approximately 38,000 persons, consisting of approximately 29,000 persons in our U.S. operations and approximately 9,000 persons in our international operations. International employees are

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covered by a wide variety of union contracts and governmental regulations affecting, among other things, compensation, job retention rights and pensions. Labor contracts covering the terms of employment of approximately 26% of our workforce in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. Labor contracts covering almost 55% of these employees will expire during 2020. We have had no material work stoppage as a result of labor problems during the last ten years, and we believe our labor relations to be good. Nevertheless, we may be unable to negotiate new labor contracts on terms advantageous to us, or without labor interruption.

In addition to the employees referred to above, we engage outside services, as is customary in the industry, principally for the non-revenue movement of rental vehicles between rental locations.

CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY

We believe that managing our businesses ethically and responsibly is critical to our success as well as the right thing to do. As such, our board reviews our corporate social responsibility initiatives and we enacted an executive steering council, comprised of members of our senior management group and leaders within our key functional areas, to enhance our long-term strategy and to assess annual performance against key indicators. We are committed to continuous improvement that encourages sustainable innovation and enhances our business performance in three key areas: people, planet and product.
Our People and Communities
Our employees help drive our progress, innovation and success. As a global company, we have a responsibility to ensure our people are taken care of and thrive in their environment. We are growing our business in a way that is inclusive and supportive to all. Attracting and retaining top talent is more than a measure of our business success; it’s a measure of who we are and what we value. In addition, we engage with our communities, and through our global charitable giving and volunteer program, we are committed to making a positive difference in the areas where we work, live and serve.
Diversity
We foster a diverse and inclusive work environment. Maintaining this diversity begins with a firm commitment to equal opportunity, non-discrimination and anti-harassment. In addition, we adhere to all relevant laws and mandatory reporting requirements.
Employee Benefits
We offer competitive pay and a comprehensive benefits package to permanent employees, including medical and dental plans, paid leave, retirement plans with company contributions and life insurance coverage. In addition, we provide free health screenings and wellness coaching. Our employees also enjoy discounts on car rentals and used car purchases.
Communities
We believe community involvement is critical to operating as a responsible business and we have a long-standing commitment to our communities. That’s why we are committed to creating stronger, healthier places to live and work, whether through corporate philanthropy, employee giving or volunteerism.
The Environment
We are committed to reducing the impact our operations have on the environment and the communities we operate in through sustainable business practices, strategic decision-making, community partnerships and smart investments in future technologies.
Fuel Efficient Fleet
We work to make sustainable mobility a viable, global reality by providing customers and communities with access to fuel-efficient and lower emission vehicles. As car manufacturers offer more electric vehicles ("EVs") and the charging

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infrastructure matures, we are well positioned to offer EVs as influenced by customer demand and other economic factors.  During the year ended December 31, 2019, our approximate average holding period for a rental vehicle is 18 months in the U.S. and 12 months in our international operations, which allows us to respond to changing customer preference on an ongoing basis.   

We also partner with our corporate customers to create personalized, green travel programs which are aimed at reducing carbon emissions and fuel costs associated with their vehicle rentals, including a program through a leading third party administrator, for related carbon offsets. Additionally, we offer customization of green fleet goals to help our corporate customers reduce fuel costs and expand their employees’ use of alternative-fuel vehicles.

Waste Reduction and Recycling
We work to integrate environmental sustainability across our operations, from our car washes to the way we build our rental locations. Resource conservation and waste reduction is at the forefront of that integration. We are committed to waste reduction across our global footprint. Recycling efforts include, but are not limited to, recycling used oils and solvents, tires, batteries, IT equipment and general mixed materials.
Green Construction
We incorporate sustainable design and construction practices across the company, based on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ("LEED") standards. LEED is a green building rating system administered by the U.S. Green Building Council. Following LEED standards ensures our rental and corporate locations are built in an environmentally sustainable manner, including our world headquarters in Estero, Florida, which is LEED Gold®. These standards also aim to enhance the health and comfort of building occupants, improve overall building performance and deliver cost savings.
Our Business
Ethics
We are committed to operating in compliance with all applicable laws and maintaining the highest standards of ethical conduct. Our expectations may be high, but they are clear. Integrity is essential to every aspect of our business, both in policy and practice. Our Standards of Business Conduct informs when we should ask for further direction to support a policy or procedure and provides information, guidance and references covering a range of topics.
Supplier Diversity
Our objective is to provide certified small, disadvantaged, minority, and women-owned business enterprises with the opportunity to compete to deliver products and services that support our brands. We are a member of the National Minority Supplier Development Council and many of its local affiliate councils throughout the U.S. In support of our extensive presence at airports, we are also members of the Airport Minority Advisory Council.
Data Protection
Hertz is committed to operating in compliance with all applicable privacy and data security laws. We have standards and policies in place to ensure the proper handling, use and storage of customer and employee information, including privacy protection, maintenance of data integrity and security. In addition, our employees participate in mandatory training and ongoing engagement that ensures our entire team is on the same page regarding compliance with our policies and practices.

Our most recent Corporate Responsibility Report is available on our website (www.hertz.com).

INSURANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT

There are three types of generally insurable risks that arise in our operations:

legal liability arising from the operation of our vehicles (i.e., vehicle liability);


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legal liability to members of the public and employees from other causes (i.e., general liability/workers' compensation); and

risk of property damage and/or business interruption and/or increased cost of operating as a consequence of property damage.

In addition, we offer optional liability insurance and other products providing insurance coverage, which create additional risk exposures for us. Our risk of property damage is also increased when we waive the provisions in our rental contracts that hold a renter responsible for damage or loss under an optional loss or damage waiver that we offer. We bear these and other risks, except to the extent the risks are transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

In many cases we self-insure our risks or insure risks through wholly-owned insurance subsidiaries. We mitigate our exposure to large liability losses by maintaining excess insurance coverage, subject to deductibles and caps, through unaffiliated carriers. For our international operations outside of Europe, and for our long-term vehicle leasing operations, we maintain some liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers.

Third-Party Liability

In our U.S. operations, we are required by applicable financial responsibility laws to maintain insurance against legal liability for bodily injury (including death) or property damage to third parties arising from the operation of our vehicles, sometimes called “vehicle liability,” in stipulated amounts. In most jurisdictions, we satisfy those requirements by qualifying as a self-insurer, a process that typically involves governmental filings and demonstration of financial responsibility, which sometimes requires the posting of a bond or other security. In the remaining jurisdictions, we obtain an insurance policy from an unaffiliated insurance carrier and indemnify the carrier for any amounts paid under the policy. The regulatory method for protecting against such vehicle liability should be considered in the context of the Graves Amendment, as we generally bear limited economic responsibility for U.S. vehicle liability attributable to the negligence of our drivers, except to the extent that we successfully transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements.

For our vehicle rental operations in Europe, we have established a wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, Probus Insurance Company Europe Limited (“Probus”), a direct writer of insurance domiciled in Ireland. In European countries with company-operated locations, we have purchased from Probus the vehicle liability insurance required by law, and Probus reinsures the risks under such insurance with HIRE Bermuda Limited, a wholly-owned reinsurance company domiciled in Bermuda. This coverage is purchased from unaffiliated carriers for Spain and Italy and is arranged for by a leasing company in Luxembourg. Accordingly, as with our U.S. operations, we bear economic responsibility for vehicle liability in our European vehicle rental operations, except to the extent that we transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. For our international operations outside of Europe, we maintain some form of vehicle liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers. The nature of such coverage, and our economic responsibility for covered losses, varies considerably. Nonetheless, we believe the amounts and nature of the coverage we obtain is adequate in light of the respective potential hazards.

In our U.S. and international operations, from time to time in the course of our business, we become legally responsible to members of the public for bodily injury (including death) or property damage arising from causes other than the operation of our vehicles, sometimes known as “general liability.” As with vehicle liability, we bear economic responsibility for general liability losses, except to the extent we transfer such losses to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. In addition, to mitigate these exposures, we maintain excess liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated insurance carriers.

In our U.S. vehicle rental operations, we offer an optional liability insurance product, Liability Insurance Supplement (“LIS”) that provides vehicle liability insurance coverage substantially higher than state minimum levels to the renter and other authorized operators of a rented vehicle. LIS coverage is primarily provided under excess liability insurance policies issued by an unaffiliated insurance carrier, the risks under which are reinsured with a wholly-owned subsidiary, HIRE Bermuda Limited.


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In our U.S. vehicle rental operations and our company-operated international vehicle rental operations in many countries, we offer optional products providing Personal Accident Insurance / Personal Effects Coverage (“PAI/PEC”) and Emergency Sickness Protection ("ESP") insurance coverage to the renter and the renter's immediate family members traveling with the renter for accidental death or accidental medical expenses arising during the rental period or for damage or loss of their property during the rental period. PAI/PEC and ESP coverages are provided under insurance policies issued by unaffiliated carriers or, in Europe, by Probus, and the risks under such policies either are reinsured with HIRE Bermuda Limited or are the subject of indemnification arrangements between us and the carriers.

Our offering of LIS, PAI/PEC and ESP coverage in our U.S. vehicle rental operations is conducted pursuant to limited licenses or exemptions under state laws governing the licensing of insurance producers.

Provisions on our books for self-insured public liability and property damage vehicle liability losses are made by charges to expense based upon evaluations of estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims.

Damage to Our Property

We bear the risk of damage to our property, unless such risk is transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

To mitigate our risk of large, single-site property damage losses globally, we maintain property insurance with unaffiliated insurance carriers in such amounts as we deem adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such insurance is available on commercially reasonable terms.

Our rental contracts typically provide that the renter is responsible for damage to or loss (including loss through theft) of rented vehicles. We generally offer an optional rental product, known in various countries as “loss damage waiver,” “collision damage waiver” or “theft protection,” under which we waive or limit our right to make a claim for such damage or loss.

Collision damage costs and the costs of stolen or unaccounted-for vehicles, along with other damage to our property, are charged to expense as incurred, net of reimbursements.

Other Risks

To manage other risks associated with our businesses, or to comply with applicable law, we purchase other types of insurance carried by business organizations, such as worker's compensation and employer's liability, commercial crime and fidelity, performance bonds, directors' and officers' liability insurance, terrorism insurance and cyber security insurance from unaffiliated insurance companies in amounts deemed by us to be adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such coverage is obtainable on commercially reasonable terms.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

We are subject to numerous types of governmental controls, including those relating to prices and advertising, privacy and data protection, currency controls, labor matters, credit and charge card operations, insurance, environmental protection, used vehicle sales and licensing.

Dealings with Renters

In the U.S., vehicle rental transactions are generally subject to Article 2A of the Uniform Commercial Code, which governs “leases” of tangible personal property. Vehicle rental is also specifically regulated in more than half of the states of the U.S. and many other international jurisdictions. The subjects of these regulations include the methods by which we advertise, quote and charge prices, the consequences of failing to honor reservations, the terms on which we deal with vehicle loss or damage (including the protections we provide to renters purchasing loss or damage waivers) and the terms and method of sale of the optional insurance coverage that we offer. Some states (including California, Nevada and New York) regulate the price at which we may sell loss or damage waivers, and many state insurance regulators have authority over the prices and terms of the optional insurance coverage we offer. See “Insurance and

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Risk Management-Damage to Our Property” above for further discussion regarding the loss or damage waivers and optional insurance coverages that we offer renters. In addition, various consumer protection laws and regulations may generally apply to our business operations. Internationally, regulatory regimes vary greatly by jurisdiction and include increasing scrutiny from consumer law regulators in Europe and a stronger focus on corporate compliance, but the regimes do not generally prevent us from dealing with customers in a manner similar to that employed in the U.S.

Both in the U.S. and internationally, we are subject to increasing regulation relating to customer privacy and data protection. In general, we are limited in the uses to which we may put data that we collect about renters, including the circumstances in which we may communicate with them. In addition, we are generally obligated to take reasonable steps to protect customer data while it is in our possession. Our failure to do so could subject us to substantial legal liability, require us to bear significant remediation costs, or seriously damage our reputation.

Changes in Regulation

Changes in government regulation of our businesses have the potential to materially alter our business practices, or our profitability. Depending on the jurisdiction, those changes may come about through new legislation, the issuance of new laws and regulations or changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations and treaties by a court, regulatory body or governmental official. Those changes may have prospective and/or retroactive effect, particularly when a change is made through reinterpretation of laws or regulations that have been in effect for some time. Moreover, changes in regulation that may seem neutral on their face may have a more significant effect on us than on our competitors, depending on the circumstances. Several U.S. State Attorneys General have taken the position that vehicle rental companies either may not pass through costs and fees to customers, by means of separate charges, expenses such as vehicle licensing and concession fees or may do so only in certain limited circumstances. Recent or potential changes in law or regulation that affect us relate to insurance intermediaries, customer privacy, like-kind exchange programs, data security and rate regulation and our retail vehicle sales operations.

In addition, our operations, as well as those of our competitors, could also be affected by any limitation in the fuel supply or by any imposition of mandatory allocation or rationing regulations. We are not aware of any current proposal to impose such a regime in the U.S. or internationally. Such a regime could, however, be quickly imposed if there was a serious disruption in supply for any reason, including an act of war, terrorist incident or other problem affecting petroleum supply, refining, distribution or pricing.

Environmental

We are subject to extensive federal, state, local, and foreign environmental and safety laws, regulations, directives, rules and ordinances concerning, among other things, the operation and maintenance of vehicles; the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel and oil; and the generation, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials, including oil, vehicle wash sludge and waste water.

When applicable, we estimate and accrue for costs, among other things, to study potential environmental issues at sites deemed to require investigation or clean-up activities, and for costs to implement remediation actions, including ongoing maintenance, as required. Based on information currently available, we believe that the ultimate resolution of existing environmental remediation actions and our compliance in general with environmental laws and regulations will not have a material effect on our operating results or financial condition. However, it is difficult to predict with certainty the potential impact of future compliance efforts and environmental remedial actions and thus future costs associated with such matters may exceed the amount of the estimated accrued amount.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

You may access, free of charge, Hertz Global and Hertz's reports filed with or furnished to the SEC (including the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those forms) directly through the SEC or indirectly through our website (www.hertz.com). Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
Our business is subject to a number of significant risks and uncertainties, some of which are described below and should be carefully considered along with all of the information in this 2019 Annual Report. These risks and uncertainties, however, are not the only risks and uncertainties that we encounter in our operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. In such a case, you may lose all or part of your investment in Hertz Global's common stock or The Hertz Corporation's debt securities. You should carefully consider each of the following risks and uncertainties. Any of the following risks and uncertainties could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow and may make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. We believe that the following information identifies the material risks and uncertainties affecting Hertz Global and Hertz; however, the following risks and uncertainties are not the only risks and uncertainties facing us and it is possible that other risks and uncertainties might significantly affect us.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Our vehicle rental business is particularly sensitive to reductions in the levels of business and leisure travel, and reductions in business and leisure travel could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

The vehicle rental industry is particularly affected by reductions in business and leisure travel, especially with respect to levels of airline passenger traffic. Reductions in levels of air travel, whether caused by general economic conditions, airfare increases (e.g., capacity reductions or increases in fuel costs borne by commercial airlines) or other events (e.g., work stoppages, military conflicts, terrorist incidents, natural disasters, epidemic diseases, or the response of governments to any of these events) could materially adversely affect us. In particular, we derive a substantial proportion of our revenues from key leisure destinations in the U.S., including Florida, Hawaii, California, New York and Texas, and Europe and the level of travel to these destinations is dependent upon the ability and willingness of consumers to travel on vacation and the effect of economic cycles on consumers’ discretionary travel, including shortages of fuel and increases or volatility in fuel costs. To the extent levels of business and leisure travel are adversely affected, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition that may lead to downward pricing or an inability to increase prices.

We believe that price is one of the primary competitive factors in the vehicle rental market and that technology has enabled cost-conscious customers, including business travelers, to compare rates available from rental companies more easily. If we try to increase our pricing, our competitors, some of whom may have greater resources and better access to capital than us, may seek to compete aggressively on the basis of pricing. In addition, our competitors may reduce prices in order to, among other things, attempt to gain a competitive advantage, capture market share or compensate for declines in rental activity. We also compete with non-traditional companies for vehicle rental market share, including auto manufacturers, ride-hailing and car sharing companies and other competitors in the mobility industry. To the extent we do not react appropriately to our competition or optimize our revenue and pricing strategies, we may experience sub-optimal pricing decisions, sub-optimal asset utilization, poor customer satisfaction, lost revenue and other unfavorable consequences which may materially adversely affect our revenues and results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. See Item 1, “Business - U.S. and International Rental Car Segments - Markets and Competition” in this 2019 Annual Report.

Our business is highly seasonal and any occurrence that disrupts rental activity during our peak periods could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain significant components of our expenses are fixed in the short-term, including minimum concession fees, real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs. Seasonal changes in our revenues do not affect those fixed expenses, typically resulting in higher profitability in periods when our revenues are higher. The second and third quarters of the year have historically been the strongest quarters for our vehicle rental business due to increased levels of leisure travel. We control certain of our costs, including fleet arrangements and availability, to manage seasonal variations in demand.

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Any circumstance, occurrence or situation that disrupts rental activity during these critical periods could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows due to a significant change in revenue.

If our management is unable to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number, location and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could suffer.

Vehicle costs typically represent our largest expense and vehicle purchases are typically made weeks or months in advance of the expected use of the vehicle. Accordingly, our business is dependent upon the ability of our management to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and consumer preferences with respect to the mix of vehicles used in our rental operations and the location of those vehicles. If we are unable to purchase a sufficient number of vehicles, or the right types of vehicles, to meet consumer demand, we may lose revenue or market share to our competitors. If we purchase too many vehicles, our Vehicle Utilization could be adversely affected and we may not be able to dispose of excess vehicles in a timely and cost-effective manner. Our failure to utilize a flexible and systematic process for fleet management that accurately estimates future levels of rental activity and determines the appropriate mix of vehicles used in our rental operations may result in obsolescence and excessive aging of fleet, the inability to sell fleet at adequate prices, inefficient fleet utilization, increased fleet costs, lower customer satisfaction, and other unfavorable consequences which may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Increased vehicle cost due to declining values of our non-program vehicles in our operations could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturers agree to repurchase program vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during a specified time period. We sell our non-program vehicles through various sales channels in the used vehicle market, including auctions, dealer direct sales and retail lots through our car sales program, and have an increased risk that the net amount realized upon the disposition of the vehicle will be less than its estimated residual value at such time. Any decrease in residual values of our non-program vehicles could result in a substantial loss on the sale of such vehicles or accelerated depreciation while we own the vehicles, which can materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

While program vehicles generally cost more than comparable non-program vehicles, the use of program vehicles enables us to forecast our depreciation expense with more precision, which is useful because depreciation is a significant cost in our operations. Using program vehicles is also useful in managing our seasonal peak demand for vehicles because we may be able to sell certain program vehicles shortly after having acquired them at a higher value than what we could for a similar non-program vehicle at that time. If there were fewer program vehicles in our rental operations, these benefits would diminish and we would bear increased risk related to residual value. In addition, the related depreciation on our vehicles and our flexibility to reduce the number of vehicles used in our rental operations by returning vehicles sooner than originally expected without the risk of loss in the event of an economic downturn or to respond to changes in rental demand would be reduced.

The market for used vehicles is subject to economic factors, such as demand, consumer interests, pricing of new car models, fuel costs and other general economic conditions and may not produce stable vehicle prices in the future. A reduction in residual values for vehicles in our rental fleet could cause us to sustain a substantial loss on the sale of vehicles or require us to depreciate those vehicles at a higher rate. Our vehicle costs could increase due to any reduction in the market value of our vehicles, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We may fail to respond adequately to changes in technology, customer demands and market competition.

Our industry has recently been characterized by rapid changes in technology, customer demands and market competition. For example, industry participants have taken advantage of new technologies to improve Vehicle Utilization, decrease customer wait times and improve customer satisfaction. Our industry has also seen the entry of traditional and non-traditional competitors, including TNCs, whose businesses are based on emerging mobile platforms

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and efforts to introduce various types of autonomous vehicles and other potentially disruptive technologies. Our ability to continually improve our current processes and products in response to changes in technology is essential in maintaining our competitive position and current levels of customer satisfaction. We may experience technical or other difficulties that could delay or prevent the development, introduction or marketing of new products or enhanced product offerings. A failure to have a systematic and comprehensive process related to emerging or disruptive competitors or technology may result in loss of competitive differentiation, margin erosion, departure of key partners, declining market share, inability to achieve growth targets, and other unfavorable consequences which may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

If we are unable to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and the cost of the vehicles we purchase increases, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

Our vehicle purchase strategies can be affected by commercial, economic, market and other conditions. For example, certain vehicle manufacturers have occasionally utilized strategies to reduce sales to the vehicle rental industry, which can negatively affect our ability to obtain vehicles on competitive terms and conditions. Consequently, there is no guarantee that we can purchase a sufficient number of vehicles at competitive prices and on competitive terms and conditions. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of vehicles, or if we obtain less favorable pricing and other terms during the acquisition of vehicles and are unable to recover from the increased costs, then our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

The recognition of previously-deferred tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles may not be fully offset by full expensing of newly-purchased revenue earning vehicles.

A material and extended reduction in vehicle purchases by our U.S. vehicle rental business and Donlen, for any reason, could require us to make material cash payments for U.S. federal and state income tax liabilities. We cannot offer assurance that allowances for the full expensing of purchased revenue earning vehicles in the future will exceed previously deferred tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under the like-kind exchange ("LKE") program.    

Beginning in 2018, the TCJA eliminated the deferral of tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under our LKE program. While we expect that additional deductions provided by the TCJA for 100% expensing of vehicles purchased after September 27, 2017 and placed in service before December 31, 2022 could offset the previously-deferred tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under the LKE program, we can offer no assurance that these deductions will fully offset tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles. 

In addition, the TCJA lowers the 100% expensing by 20% per year beginning in 2023, fully eliminating the expensing by 2027. This change could result in the Company being required to make future material cash tax payments on the sales of revenue earning vehicles. We cannot predict if or when legislation would be enacted in the future to allow full or partial expensing of purchased revenue earning vehicles or to allow deferral of tax gains on the dispositions of revenue earning vehicles. If such legislation is not adopted, then our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

The failure of a manufacturer of our program vehicles to fulfill its obligations under a repurchase or guaranteed depreciation program could expose us to losses on those program vehicles.

If any manufacturer of our program vehicles does not fulfill its obligations under its repurchase or guaranteed depreciation agreement with us, whether due to default, reorganization, bankruptcy or otherwise, then we would have to dispose of those program vehicles without receiving the benefits of the associated repurchase programs. In addition, we could be left with a substantial unpaid claim against the manufacturer with respect to program vehicles that were sold and returned to the manufacturer but not paid for, or that were sold for less than their agreed repurchase price or guaranteed value.


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The failure by a manufacturer to pay such amounts could cause a credit enhancement deficiency under our asset-backed and asset-based financing arrangements, requiring us to either reduce the outstanding principal amount of debt or provide more collateral (in the form of cash, vehicles and/or certain other contractual rights) to the creditors under any such affected arrangement.

If one or more manufacturers were to adversely modify or eliminate repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs in the future, our access to and the terms of asset-backed and asset-based debt financing could be adversely affected, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturer safety recalls could create risks to our business.

The Raechel and Jacqueline Houck Safe Rental Car Act of 2015 prohibits us from renting vehicles with open federal safety recalls and requires us to repair or address these recalls prior to renting or selling the vehicle. Any federal safety recall would require us to cease renting recalled vehicles until we can react to the recall. We cannot control the number of vehicles that may be subject to manufacturer recalls. If a large number of vehicles are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, we may not be able to rent recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. These types of disruptions could jeopardize our ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for our vehicles, and could also result in the loss of business to our competitors. Depending on the severity of any recall, it could materially adversely affect, among other things, our revenues, create customer service problems, present liability claims, reduce the residual value of the recalled vehicles and harm our general reputation.

A business continuity plan is necessary for our global business.

We have a business continuity plan designed to (i) identify key assets, operations and underlying threats, (ii) define and assess relevant threats (e.g., natural disasters, pandemics, terrorism, etc.) on business operations, (iii) develop and categorize action plans to minimize the impact of the identified threats and (iv) test the adequacy of our action plans. If our business continuity plan fails to operate as intended, we may experience significant business disruptions, increased litigation and liabilities, product and service quality failures, irreparable harm to customer relationships and other unfavorable consequences which may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We rely on third-party distribution channels for a significant amount of our revenues.

Third-party distribution channels account for a significant amount of our vehicle rental reservations. These third-party distribution channels include traditional and online travel agencies, third-party internet sites, airlines and hotel companies, marketing partners such as credit card companies and membership organizations and global distribution systems that allow travel agents, travel service providers and customers to connect directly to our reservations systems. Loss of access to any of these channels, changes in pricing or commission structures or a reduction in transaction volume could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, particularly if our customers are unable to access our reservation systems through alternate channels.

If our customers develop loyalty to travel intermediaries rather than our brands, our financial results may suffer.

Certain internet travel intermediaries use generic indicators of the type of vehicle (such as “standard” or “compact”) at the expense of brand identification and some intermediaries have launched their own loyalty programs to develop loyalties to their reservation system rather than to our brands. If the volume of sales made through internet travel intermediaries increases significantly and consumers develop stronger loyalties to these intermediaries rather than to our brands, our business and revenues could be affected. Additionally, if our market share suffers due to lower levels of customer loyalty, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.


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Our foreign operations expose us to risks that may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

A significant portion of our annual revenues are generated outside the U.S. Operating in many different countries exposes us to varying risks, which include: (i) multiple, and sometimes conflicting, foreign regulatory requirements and laws that are subject to change and are often much different than the domestic laws in the U.S., including laws relating to taxes, automobile-related liability, insurance rates, insurance products, consumer privacy, data security, employment matters, cost and fee recovery, and the protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property; (ii) the effect of foreign currency translation risk, as well as limitations on our ability to repatriate income; (iii) varying tax regimes, including consequences from changes in applicable tax laws and our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences; (iv) local ownership or investment requirements, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing in foreign countries for local operations; and (v) political and economic instability, natural calamities, war, and terrorism. The effects of these risks may, individually or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our international operations are based in Uxbridge, England and we have significant vehicle rental operations in the United Kingdom and the Eurozone. The United Kingdom held a referendum on June 23, 2016 in which a majority voted for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (the “Brexit”). On October 19, 2019, the European Commission and the United Kingdom government announced a negotiated withdrawal agreement, which provides for a transition period ending on December 31, 2020 (that may be extended for up to 2 years) during which, except as otherwise provided, European Union law will be applicable to and in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom formally left the European Union on January 31, 2020. While the withdrawal agreement includes a non-binding political declaration of the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, there exists significant uncertainty as to the scope, nature and terms of such future relationship. Depending on the terms of Brexit, the United Kingdom could lose access to the single European Union market and to the global trade deals negotiated by the European Union on behalf of its members. Brexit could also lead to potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate. The effects of Brexit and the perceptions as to the impact of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union have and for the foreseeable future may continue to adversely affect business activity and economic and market conditions in the United Kingdom, the Eurozone and globally and contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets. In addition, Brexit could lead to additional political, legal and economic instability in the European Union. Any of the above effects of Brexit, among others, could make it more difficult for us to manage our international operations in the United Kingdom and could adversely affect our financial results.

Our global business requires a compliance program to promote organizational adherence to applicable laws and regulations.

We have a compliance program designed to (i) identify applicable anti-bribery requirements (e.g., laws limiting commercial bribery and corruption), (ii) identify applicable anti-trust requirements (e.g., laws to prevent price fixing, contract rigging, market or customer allocations, etc.), (iii) interpret the application of such requirements, (iv) educate target audiences and (v) provide independent, ongoing compliance monitoring.

Our operations in many different countries increases the risk of a violation, or alleged violation, of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act, other applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations, the economic sanction programs administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and the anti-boycott regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Office of Anti-Boycott Compliance. The failure of our program to operate as designed can result in a failure to comply with applicable laws, which could result in significant penalties or otherwise harm the Company’s reputation and business. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Violations of these laws could result in legal and regulatory sanctions, increased litigation and fines and legal expense, prolonged negative publicity, diminished investor confidence, declining employee morale and other unfavorable consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

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Our business is heavily reliant upon communications networks and centralized information technology systems and the concentration of our systems creates risks for us.

We rely heavily on communication networks and information technology systems to, among other things, accept reservations, process rental and sales transactions, manage our pricing, manage our revenue earning vehicles, manage our financing arrangements, account for our activities and otherwise conduct our business. Our reliance on these networks and systems exposes us to various risks that could cause a loss of reservations, interfere with our ability to manage our vehicles, delay or disrupt rental and sales processes, adversely affect our ability to comply with our financing arrangements and otherwise materially adversely affect our ability to manage our business effectively. Our major information technology systems, reservations and accounting functions are centralized in a few locations worldwide. Any disruption, termination or substandard provision of these services, whether as the result of localized conditions (e.g., fire, explosion or hacking), failure of our systems to function as designed, or as the result of events or circumstances of broader geographic impact (e.g., earthquake, storm, flood, epidemic, strike, act of war, civil unrest or terrorist act), could materially adversely affect our business by disrupting normal reservations, customer service, accounting and information technology functions or by eliminating access to financing arrangements. Any disruption or poor performance of our systems could lead to lower revenues, increased costs or other material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Failure to maintain, upgrade and consolidate our information technology systems could adversely affect us.

We are continuously evaluating, upgrading and consolidating our systems, including making changes to legacy systems, replacing legacy systems with successor systems with new functionality and acquiring new systems with new functionality. In addition, we outsource a significant portion of our information technology services. These types of activities subject us to additional costs and inherent risks associated with outsourcing, replacing and changing these systems, including impairment of our ability to manage our business, potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, additional administration and operating expenses, retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the new systems, demands on management time, potential delays or disruptions from upgrading and consolidating our systems and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to outsourcing alternatives, new systems or integrating new systems into our current systems. Failure to have a comprehensive technology plan and effective processes may result in an inability to support business growth expectations and successfully execute priorities and strategic information technology business programs and initiatives, cost overruns and excessive write-offs, missed business objectives, program delays and business disruptions, service quality issues, regulatory violations, high rates of transaction failures and rework, detrimental impact to customers, potential litigation, loss of key talent and other unfavorable consequences. In addition, the implementation of our technology initiatives and systems may cause disruptions in our business operations by severely degrading performance or a complete loss of service and have an adverse effect on our business and operations if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated and our competitive position may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain systems that allow us to manage our business in a competitive manner.

The misuse or theft of information we possess, including as a result of cyber security breaches, could harm our brand, reputation or competitive position and give rise to material liabilities which may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We regularly possess, process and store non-public information about millions of individuals and businesses, including both credit and debit card information and other sensitive and confidential personal information in the normal course of our business. In addition, our customers regularly transmit sensitive and confidential information to us via the internet and through other electronic means. Despite the security measures and compliance programs we currently maintain and monitor, our facilities and systems and those of our third-party service providers may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our facilities or systems, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, misrepresentation, or other forms of deception. Many of the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, including viruses, worms and other malicious software programs, are difficult to anticipate until launched against a target and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures. The failure of our information facilities and systems to perform as designed, or the failure to maintain and protect the security of data, whether as the result of our own error or the malfeasance or errors of others, could result in regulatory fines and sanctions, increased

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litigation, prolonged negative publicity, data breaches, declining customer confidence, loss of key customers and other unfavorable consequences. For example, in recent years many companies have been subject to high-profile security breaches that involved sophisticated and targeted attacks on the company’s infrastructure and the compromise of non-public sensitive and confidential information. These attacks were often not recognized or detected until after the disclosure of sensitive information notwithstanding the preventive and anticipative measures the companies had maintained. To date, cyber security attacks directed at us have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results.

Cyber security threats in our business environment expose us to risks.

We encounter continuous exposure to cyber-attacks and other security threats to our information networks and systems and the information stored thereon. Although we have implemented policies, procedures and controls designed to protect against, detect and mitigate these threats, at considerable cost, we face evolving and persistent attacks on our information infrastructure. The attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our information technology assets are becoming more diverse and sophisticated. We monitor our obligations under and compliance with global laws requiring information security safeguards and notification in the event of a security breach, including the European Union's Global Data Protection Regulation (the "GDPR") and United States breach notification laws. We respond to potential security issues by utilizing procedures that provide for controls on detecting and addressing cyber security threats and communicating information to senior personnel and security representatives that we retain. We have also taken steps to address cyber security threats at third-parties that possess, process, store and handle our information to mitigate the potential risk to us. Such measures include contractually requiring the third-parties to maintain certain data security controls. However, because of the rapidly changing nature and sophistication of these security threats, which can be difficult to detect, there can be no assurance that our policies, procedures and controls have or will detect or prevent all of these threats, and we cannot predict the full impact of any such past or future incident. Any failure by us to effectively address, enforce and maintain our information technology infrastructure and cyber security framework may result in substantial harm to our business, including major disruptions to business operations, loss of intellectual property, release of confidential information, malicious corruption of data, regulatory intervention and sanctions or fines, investigation and remediation costs and possible prolonged negative publicity. Although we maintain insurance coverage to address cyber security events that we believe is adequate for our business, there can be no assurance that such insurance will cover substantially all of our potential costs and expenses related to cyber security incidents that may happen in the future. In addition, privacy laws in the U.S., including the California Consumer Privacy Act (the "CCPA"), which went into effect on January 1, 2020, increasingly provide for private rights of action, with high statutory damages in the event of certain security breaches, which could increase our potential liability in the event that our information is impacted by a cyber security incident.

We may face particular data protection, data security and privacy risks in connection with the European Union's Global Data Protection Regulation and other privacy regulations.

Strict data privacy laws regulating the collection, transmission, storage and use of employee data and consumers’ personally-identifying information are evolving in the European Union, U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate. The GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018, imposes new compliance obligations for the collection, use, retention, security, processing, transfer and deletion of personally identifiable information of individuals and creates enhanced rights for individuals. In the CCPA, which grants expanded rights to access and delete personal information, and the right to opt out of the sale of personal information, among other things, became effective on January 1, 2020.

These changes in the legal and regulatory environments in the areas of customer and employee privacy, data security, and cross-border data flows could have a material adverse effect on our business, primarily through the impairment of our marketing and transaction processing activities, the limitation on the types of information that we may collect, process and retain, the resulting costs of complying with such legal and regulatory requirements and potential monetary forfeitures and penalties for noncompliance.

We actively monitor compliance with data protection and privacy-related laws, including with the GDPR and CCPA, however, these laws may be interpreted and applied differently from country to country and may create inconsistent or conflicting requirements. Such regulations may increase our compliance and administrative burden significantly and

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may require us to invest resources and management attention in order to update our IT systems to meet the new requirements. It is possible that we could encounter significant liability for failing to comply with any such requirements.

Our leases and vehicle rental concessions expose us to risks.

We maintain a substantial network of vehicle rental locations at airports in the U.S. and internationally. Many of these locations are leased and subject to vehicle rental concessions where vehicle rental companies are typically required to bid periodically for the available locations. If we are unable to continue operating these facilities at their current locations due to the termination of leases or vehicle rental concessions at airports, which comprise a majority of our revenues, our operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, if the costs of these leases increase and we are unable to increase our prices to offset the increased costs, our financial results could suffer.

Maintaining favorable brand recognition is essential to our success, and failure to do so could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our business is heavily dependent upon the favorable brand recognition that our “Hertz”, “Dollar” and “Thrifty” brand names have in the markets in which they participate. Factors affecting brand recognition are often outside our control, and our efforts to maintain or enhance favorable brand recognition, such as marketing and advertising campaigns, may not have their desired effects. In addition, although our licensing partners are subject to contractual requirements to protect our brands, it may be difficult to monitor or enforce such requirements, particularly in foreign jurisdictions and various laws may limit our ability to enforce the terms of these agreements or to terminate the agreements. Any decline in perceived favorable recognition of our brands could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Maintaining effective employee retention and talent management is critical to our success.

We develop and maintain a talent management strategy that defines current and future talent requirements (e.g., experience, skills, location requirements, timing, etc.) based on our strategic direction, outlines coordinated recruiting and development plans across businesses and regions and considers employee mobility, centers of excellence and shared service concepts to optimize resource plans and leverage labor arbitrage. The consequences that may result from a failure of our employee retention and talent management can include an inability to sustain growth strategies due to the lack of required talent, inadequate staffing levels, non-competitive cost structures, an inability to encourage innovation and sustain competitive differentiation, declining employee morale, increased attrition and declining product and service quality.

We may face issues with our union employees.

Labor contracts covering the terms of employment for the Company's union employees in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. These contracts are renegotiated periodically and we anticipate renegotiating labor contracts with approximately 55% of these employees in 2020. Failure to negotiate a new labor agreement when required could result in a work stoppage. Although we believe that our labor relations have generally been good, it is possible that we could become subject to additional work rules imposed by agreements with labor unions, or that work stoppages or other labor disturbances could occur in the future. In addition, our non-union workforce has been subject to unionization efforts in the past, and we could be subject to future unionization, which could lead to increases in our operating costs and/or constraints on our operating flexibility.


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Table of Contents
HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


If there is a determination that any of the Spin-Off or the internal spin-off transactions completed in connection with the Spin-Off (collectively with the Spin-Off, the “Spin-Offs”) is taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes because the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings underlying the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") private letter ruling or tax opinions are incorrect or for any other reason, then Herc Holdings and its stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities and Hertz Global could incur significant liabilities.

In connection with the Spin-Offs, Herc Holdings received a private letter ruling from the IRS to the effect that, subject to the accuracy of and compliance with certain representations, assumptions and covenants, (i) the Spin-Off will qualify as a tax-free transaction under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and (ii) the internal spin-off transactions will qualify as tax free under Section 355 of the Code. A private letter ruling from the IRS generally is binding on the IRS. However, the IRS ruling did not rule that the Spin-Offs satisfied every requirement for a tax-free spin-off, and Herc Holdings and Hertz Global relied solely on opinions of professional advisors to determine that such additional requirements were satisfied. The ruling and the opinions relied on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from Herc Holdings and Hertz Holdings regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings were incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, Herc Holdings and Hertz Global, and their affiliates may not be able to rely on the ruling or the opinions of tax advisors and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the private letter ruling and opinions of tax advisors, the IRS could determine on audit that the Spin-Offs and related transactions are taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinions that are not covered by the private letter ruling, or for any other reason, incl