10-K 1 hghthc201810-k.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC.
THE HERTZ CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


DELAWARE
 
001-37665
 
61-1770902
DELAWARE
 
001-07541
 
13-1938568
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 
(Commission File Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8501 Williams Road
 
 
 
 
Estero, Florida 33928
 
 
 
 
(239) 301-7000
 
 
 
 
(Address, including Zip Code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)
 
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock, Par Value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
None
 
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
None
 
None
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    o
The Hertz Corporation    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
Large accelerated filer 
x
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer


o
 
Smaller reporting company 
o
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has not elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
o
 
 
The Hertz Corporation
Large accelerated filer 
o
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer


x
 
Smaller reporting company 
o
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
o
 
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. as of June 29, 2018, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date was $838 million. There is no market for The Hertz Corporation stock.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding as of the latest practicable date.
 
 
Class
 
Shares Outstanding as of
February 18, 2019
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
83,923,665
The Hertz Corporation
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
100 (100% owned by
Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC)

OMISSION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION

The Hertz Corporation meets the conditions as set forth in General Instructions I.(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this Form with the reduced disclosure format as permitted.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Information required by Items 10, 11, 12 and 13 of Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference for Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. from its definitive proxy statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 





HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
 
 
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
 
 
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
 
 
ITEM 15.


HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Unless the context otherwise requires in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 we use the following defined terms:
(i)
"2018 Annual Report" or "Combined Form 10-K" means this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which combines the annual reports for Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation into a single filing;

(ii)
"All Other Operations" means the reportable segment comprised primarily of the Company's Donlen business and the Company's other business activities which comprise less than 1% of revenues and expenses of the segment;

(iii)
"the Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

(iv)
"the Company", "we", "our" and "us" mean Hertz Global and Hertz interchangeably;

(v)
"company-operated" or "company-owned" rental locations are those through which we, or an agent of ours, rent vehicles that we own or lease;

(vi)
"concessions" mean licensing or permitting agreements or arrangements granting us the right to conduct our vehicle rental business at airports;

(vii)
"Corporate" means corporate operations, which include general corporate assets and expenses and certain interest expense (including net interest on non-vehicle debt);

(viii)
"Dollar Thrifty" means Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group, Inc., a consolidated subsidiary of the Company;

(ix)
"Donlen" means Donlen Corporation, a consolidated subsidiary of the Company. Donlen conducts our vehicle leasing and fleet management services;

(x)
"Hertz Gold Plus Rewards" means our customer loyalty program and our global expedited rental program;

(xi)
"Hertz" means The Hertz Corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, our primary operating company and a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by Hertz Holdings;

(xii)
"Hertz Global" means Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., our top-level holding company (and the accounting successor to Old Hertz Holdings), its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, including The Hertz Corporation;

(xiii)
"Hertz Ultimate Choice" is an offering at select airport locations in the U.S. that allows customers to choose their vehicle from a range of makes, models and colors available within the zone indicated on their reservation;

(xiv)
"Hertz Holdings" refers to Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. excluding its subsidiaries;

(xv)
"International RAC" means the international rental car reportable segment;

(xvi)
"Letter of Credit Facility" means the standalone $400 million letter of credit facility that the Company entered into in 2017 as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2018 Annual Report;

(xvii)
"New Hertz" means Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., subsequent to the June 30, 2016 Spin-Off;


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

(xviii)
“non-program vehicles” means vehicles not purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs for which we are exposed to residual risk;

(xix)
"Old Hertz Holdings" for periods on or prior to June 30, 2016, and "Herc Holdings" for periods after June 30, 2016, refer to the former Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.;

(xx)
"program vehicles" means vehicles purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs with vehicle manufacturers;

(xxi)
"replacement renters" means renters who need vehicles while their vehicle is being repaired or is temporarily unavailable for other reasons;

(xxii)
"SEC" means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

(xxiii)
"Senior Facilities" means the Company's senior secured term facility and senior secured revolving credit facility as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2018 Annual Report;

(xxiv)
"Spin-Off" means the spin-off by Old Hertz Holdings of its global vehicle rental business through a dividend to stockholders of record of Old Hertz Holdings as of the close of business on June 22, 2016, the record date for the distribution, of all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hertz Rental Car Holding Company, Inc., which was re-named Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. in connection with the Spin-Off, on a one-to-five basis. As a result of the Spin-Off, each of Hertz Holdings and Herc Holdings are independent public companies trading on the New York Stock Exchange, with Hertz Holdings trading under the symbol "HTZ" and Herc Holdings, which changed its name to Herc Holdings Inc. on June 30, 2016, trading under the symbol “HRI”;

(xxv)
"Tax Reform" means legislation signed into law on December 22, 2017 which amends the U.S. Internal Revenue Code to reduce tax rates and modify policies, credits, and deductions for individuals and businesses, commonly known as the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act";

(xxvi)
"TNC" means transportation network companies that provide ride-hailing services that pair passengers with drivers via websites and mobile applications;

(xxvii)
"TNC Partners" means certain transportation network companies where we provide rental vehicles to their drivers under agreements that specify the relevant terms;

(xxviii)
"U.S." means the United States of America;

(xxix)
"U.S. RAC" means the U.S. rental car reportable segment;

(xxx)
"Vehicle Utilization" means the portion of our vehicles that are being utilized to generate revenue; and

(xxxi)
"vehicles” means cars, vans, crossovers and light trucks.

We have proprietary rights to a number of trademarks used in this 2018 Annual Report that are important to our business, including, without limitation, Hertz, Dollar, Thrifty, Donlen, Carfirmations, Hertz Gold Plus Rewards, Hertz Ultimate Choice and Hertz 24/7. Solely for convenience, we have omitted the ® and ™ trademark designations for such trademarks named in this 2018 Annual Report, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE

COMBINED FORM 10-K

This 2018 Annual Report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 of Hertz Global and Hertz.

Hertz Global owns all shares of the common stock of Hertz through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC.

Below are diagrams depicting the basic organizational structure of Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation before and subsequent to the Spin-Off:

Prior to the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off
prespinstructurea02.jpg
*Prior to the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off, New Hertz conducted no operations.

Following the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off
postspinstructurea01.jpg
*Entities formed for purposes of effecting the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off completed on June 30, 2016.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE (Continued)

Management operates Hertz Global and Hertz as one enterprise. The management of Hertz Global consists of the same members as the management of Hertz. These individuals are officers of Hertz Global and Hertz and employees of Hertz. The individuals that comprise Hertz Global's board of directors are also the same individuals that make up Hertz's board of directors.

We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of Hertz Global and Hertz into this single report results in the following benefits:

enhancing investors' understanding of Hertz Global and Hertz by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;

eliminating duplicative disclosure and providing a more streamlined and readable presentation since a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both Hertz Global and Hertz; and

creating time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined annual report instead of two separate annual reports.

Hertz holds all of the revenue earning vehicles, property, plant and equipment and all other assets, including the ownership interests in consolidated and unconsolidated joint ventures. Hertz conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a corporation with no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from public equity issuances by Hertz Global, which are contributed to Hertz, Hertz generates required capital through its operations or through its incurrence of indebtedness.

Hertz Global does not conduct business itself, other than issuing public equity or debt obligations from time to time, and incurring expenses required to operate as a public company. Hertz Global and Hertz have entered into a master loan agreement whereby Hertz Global may borrow from Hertz up to $425 million. Transactions recorded under the master loan agreement are eliminated upon consolidation at the Hertz Global level but not upon consolidation at the Hertz level. Differences between the financial statements of Hertz Global and Hertz are limited to the activity described above and the remaining assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of Hertz Global and Hertz are the same on their respective financial statements.

Although Hertz is generally the entity that enters into contracts and holds assets and debt, Hertz Global consolidates Hertz for financial statement purposes, therefore, disclosures that relate to activities of Hertz also apply to Hertz Global. In the sections that combine disclosures of Hertz Global and Hertz, this report refers to actions as being actions of the Company, or Hertz Global, which is appropriate because the business is one enterprise and Hertz Global operates the business through Hertz. When appropriate, Hertz Global and Hertz are named specifically for their individual disclosures and any significant differences between the operations and results of Hertz Global and Hertz are separately disclosed and explained.

This report also includes separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of Hertz Global and Hertz in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that Hertz Global and Hertz are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

This Combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation. Each registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this 2018 Annual Report that relates to such registrant. Each registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information.

DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS

On June 30, 2016, Old Hertz Holdings completed the Spin-Off. Despite the fact that this was a reverse spin off and Hertz Global was spun off from Old Hertz Holdings and was the legal spinnee in the transaction, for accounting purposes, due to the relative significance of New Hertz to Old Hertz Holdings, Hertz Global is considered the spinnor or divesting entity and Herc Holdings is considered the spinnee or divested entity. As a result, New Hertz, or Hertz Global, is the

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE (Continued)

“accounting successor” to Old Hertz Holdings. As such, the historical financial information of Hertz prior to the Spin-Off reflects the equipment rental business as a discontinued operation and the historical financial information of Hertz Global reflects the equipment rental business and certain parent legal entities as discontinued operations. See Note 3, "Discontinued Operations," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Unless noted otherwise, information disclosed for 2016 in this 2018 Annual Report pertain to Hertz Global's and Hertz's continuing operations.






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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained or incorporated by reference in this 2018 Annual Report and in reports we subsequently file with the SEC on Forms 10-K and 10-Q and file or furnish on Form 8-K, and in related comments by our management, include "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements include information concerning our liquidity and our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategies. These statements often include words such as "believe," "expect," "project," "potential," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "estimate," "seek," "will," "may," "would," "should," "could," "forecasts" or similar expressions. These statements are based on certain assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate in these circumstances. We believe these judgments are reasonable, but you should understand that these statements are not guarantees of performance or results, and our actual results could differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to a variety of important factors, both positive and negative, that may be revised or supplemented in subsequent reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K.

Important factors that could affect our actual results and cause them to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements include, among others, those that may be disclosed from time to time in subsequent reports filed with the SEC, those described under “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of this 2018 Annual Report, and the following, which were derived in part from the risks set forth in Item 1A of this 2018 Annual Report:

levels of travel demand, particularly with respect to airline passenger traffic in the United States and in global markets;
the effect of our separation of our vehicle and equipment rental businesses, any failure by Herc Holdings Inc. to comply with the agreements entered into in connection with the separation and our ability to obtain the expected benefits of the separation;
significant changes in the competitive environment and the effect of competition in our markets on rental volume and pricing, including on our pricing policies or use of incentives;
occurrences that disrupt rental activity during our peak periods;
our ability to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly;
increased vehicle costs due to declines in the value of our non-program vehicles;
our ability to maintain sufficient liquidity and the availability to us of additional or continued sources of financing for our revenue earning vehicles and to refinance our existing indebtedness;
our ability to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and risks relating to increases in the cost of the vehicles we purchase;
our ability to adequately respond to changes in technology and customer demands;
our ability to retain customer loyalty and market share;
our recognition of previously deferred tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles;
an increase in our vehicle costs or disruption to our rental activity, particularly during our peak periods, due to safety recalls by the manufacturers of our vehicles;
our access to third-party distribution channels and related prices, commission structures and transaction volumes;
our ability to execute a business continuity plan;
a major disruption in our communication or centralized information networks;
a failure to maintain, upgrade and consolidate our information technology networks;
financial instability of the manufacturers of our vehicles;

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS (Continued)

any impact on us from the actions of our franchisees, dealers and independent contractors;
our ability to sustain operations during adverse economic cycles and unfavorable external events (including war, terrorist acts, natural disasters and epidemic disease);
shortages of fuel and increases or volatility in fuel costs;
our ability to maintain favorable brand recognition and a coordinated branding and portfolio strategy;
our ability to maintain an effective employee retention and talent management strategy and resulting changes in personnel and employee relations;
costs and risks associated with litigation and investigations;
risks related to our indebtedness, including our substantial amount of debt, our ability to incur substantially more debt, the fact that substantially all of our consolidated assets secure certain of our outstanding indebtedness and increases in interest rates or in our borrowing margins;
our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in our senior credit facilities and letter of credit facility, our outstanding unsecured senior notes, our outstanding senior second priority secured notes and certain asset-backed and asset-based arrangements;
changes in accounting principles, or their application or interpretation, and our ability to make accurate estimates and the assumptions underlying the estimates, which could have an effect on operating results;
risks associated with operating in many different countries, including the risk of a violation or alleged violation of applicable anticorruption or antibribery laws and our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences;
our ability to prevent the misuse or theft of information we possess, including as a result of cyber security breaches and other security threats;
changes in the existing, or the adoption of new laws, regulations, policies or other activities of governments, agencies and similar organizations, such as the adoption of new regulations under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, where such actions may affect our operations, the cost thereof or applicable tax rates;
risks relating to our deferred tax assets, including the risk of an "ownership change" under the Code;
our exposure to uninsured claims in excess of historical levels;
fluctuations in interest rates and commodity prices;
our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and
other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. All such statements speak only as of the date made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

OUR COMPANY

Hertz Holdings was incorporated in Delaware in 2015 to serve as the top-level holding company for Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which wholly owns Hertz, our primary operating company. Hertz was incorporated in Delaware in 1967 and is a successor to corporations that have been engaged in the vehicle rental and leasing business since 1918.

We operate our vehicle rental business globally primarily through the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands from approximately 10,200 corporate and franchisee locations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, the Middle East and New Zealand. We are one of the largest worldwide vehicle rental companies and our Hertz brand name is one of the most recognized globally, signifying leadership in quality rental services and products. We have an extensive network of airport and off airport rental locations in the U.S. and in all major European markets. We are also a provider of integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions through our Donlen subsidiary.

OUR BUSINESS SEGMENTS

We have identified three reportable segments, which are organized based on the products and services provided by our operating segments and the geographic areas in which our operating segments conduct business, as follows:

U.S. RAC - Rental of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, in the U.S. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated rental locations in the U.S., enabling us to provide consistent quality and service. We also have franchisees and partners that operate rental locations under our brands throughout the U.S;

International RAC - Rental and leasing of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, internationally. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated rental locations internationally, a majority of which are in Europe. Our franchisees and partners also operate rental locations in approximately 150 countries and jurisdictions, including many of the countries in which we also have company-operated rental locations; and

All Other Operations - Primarily comprised of our Donlen business, which provides integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions in the U.S. and Canada. Donlen is a provider of these services for commercial fleets and Donlen's fleet management programs provide solutions to reduce fleet operating costs and improve driver productivity and safety. These programs include administration of preventive vehicle maintenance, advisory services and fuel and accident management along with other complementary services. Additionally, Donlen provides specialized consulting and technology expertise that allows us and our customers to model, measure and manage fleet performance more effectively and efficiently. Also included are our other business activities which comprise less than 1% of revenues and expenses of the segment.

In addition to the above reportable segments, we have Corporate operations. We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the financial information for our operating segments.

For further financial information on our segments, see (i) Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment" and (ii) Note 19, "Segment Information," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2018 Annual Report.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

U.S. and International Rental Car Segments

Brands
hertzdollarthriftyfireflya07.jpg
Our U.S. and International vehicle rental businesses are primarily operated through three brands - Hertz, Dollar, and Thrifty. We offer multiple brands in order to provide customers a full range of rental services at different price points, levels of service, offerings and products. Each of our brands generally maintains separate airport counters, reservations, marketing and other customer contact activities. We achieve synergies across our brands by, among other things, utilizing a single fleet and fleet management team and combined vehicle maintenance, vehicle cleaning and back office functions, where applicable.

Our top tier brand, Hertz, is one of the most recognized brands in the world, offering premium services that define the industry. This is consistent with numerous published best-in-class vehicle rental awards that we have won, both in the U.S. and internationally, over many years. We go to market under the tagline of “Hertz. We’re here to get you there” which is true to our promise and reputation for quality and customer service. We have a number of innovative offerings, such as Hertz Gold Plus Rewards, Hertz Ultimate Choice and unique vehicles offered through our specialty collections. We continue to maintain our position as a premier provider of vehicle rental services through an intense focus on service, loyalty, quality and product innovation.

Our smart value brand, Dollar, is the choice for financially-focused travelers looking for a dependable car at a price they can afford. The Dollar brand’s main focus is serving the airport vehicle rental market, comprised of family, leisure and small business travelers. Dollar’s tagline of “We never forget whose dollar it is” indicates the brand’s mission to provide a reliable rental experience at a price that works. Dollar operates primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada. We also globally license to independent franchisees which operate as a part of the Dollar brand system and have company-owned Dollar locations in certain countries.

Our deep value brand, Thrifty, is the brand for savvy travelers who enjoy the “thrill of the hunt” to find a good deal. The Thrifty brand’s main focus is serving the airport vehicle rental market, comprised of leisure travelers. Thrifty’s tagline “As Thrifty As You Are” indicates the brand’s focus on being the rental company that puts you in control of where you splurge and where you save. Thrifty operates primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada. We also globally license to independent franchisees which operate as part of the Thrifty brand system and have company-owned Thrifty locations in certain countries.

Internationally, we also offer our Firefly brand which is a deep value brand for price conscious leisure travelers. We have Firefly locations servicing local area airports in select international leisure markets where other deep value brands have a significant presence.

Operations

Locations

We operate both airport and off airport locations which utilize common vehicle fleets, are supervised by common country, regional and local area management, use many common systems and rely on common vehicle maintenance and administrative centers. Additionally, our airport and off airport locations utilize common marketing activities and have many of the same customers. We regard both types of locations as aspects of a single, unitary, vehicle rental business. Off airport revenues comprised approximately 34% of our worldwide vehicle rental revenues in 2018 and approximately 33% in 2017.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Airport

We have approximately 1,600 airport rental locations in the U.S. and approximately 1,500 airport rental locations internationally. Our international vehicle rental operations have company-operated locations in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Slovakia, Spain, the United Kingdom and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We believe that our extensive U.S. and international network of company-operated locations contributes to the consistency of our service, cost control, Vehicle Utilization, yield management, competitive pricing and our ability to offer one-way rentals.

For our airport company-operated rental locations, we have obtained concessions or similar leasing agreements or arrangements, granting us the right to conduct a vehicle rental business at the respective airport. Our concessions were obtained from the airports' operators, which are typically governmental bodies or authorities, following either negotiation or bidding for the right to operate a vehicle rental business. The terms of an airport concession typically require us to pay the airport's operator concession fees based upon a specified percentage of the revenues we generate at the airport, subject to a minimum annual guarantee. Under most concessions, we must also pay fixed rent for terminal counters or other leased properties and facilities. Most concessions are for a fixed length of time, while others create operating rights and payment obligations that are terminable at any time.

The terms of our concessions typically do not forbid us from seeking, and in a few instances actually require us to seek, reimbursement from customers for concession fees we pay; however, in certain jurisdictions the law limits or forbids our doing so. Where we are required or permitted to seek such reimbursement, it is our general practice to do so. Certain of our concession agreements may require the consent of the airport's operator in connection with material changes in our ownership. A growing number of larger airports are building consolidated airport vehicle rental facilities to alleviate congestion at the airport. These consolidated rental facilities provide a more common customer experience and may eliminate certain competitive advantages among the brands as competitors operate out of one centralized facility for both customer rental and return operations, share consolidated busing operations and maintain image standards mandated by the airports. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors” in this 2018 Annual Report.

Off Airport

We have approximately 2,600 off airport locations in the U.S. and approximately 4,500 off airport rental locations internationally. Our off airport rental customers include people who prefer to rent vehicles closer to their home or place of work for business or leisure purposes, as well as those needing to travel to or from airports. Our off airport customers also include people who have been referred by, or whose rental costs are being wholly or partially reimbursed by, insurance companies following accidents in which their vehicles were damaged, those expecting to lease vehicles that are not yet available from their leasing companies and replacement renters. In addition, our off airport customers include drivers for our TNC partners, which is further described in “TNC Rentals” below.

When compared to our airport rental locations, an off airport rental location typically uses smaller rental facilities with fewer employees, conducts pick-up and delivery services and serves replacement renters using specialized systems and processes. On average, off airport locations generate fewer transactions per period than airport locations.

Our off airport locations offer us the following benefits:

Provide customers a more convenient and geographically extensive network of rental locations, thereby creating revenue opportunities from replacement renters, non-airline travel renters and airline travelers with local rental needs;

Provide a more balanced revenue mix by reducing our reliance on air travel and therefore reducing our exposure to external events that may disrupt airline travel trends;

Contribute to higher Vehicle Utilization as a result of the longer average rental periods associated with off airport business, compared to those of airport rentals;


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Insurance replacement rental volume is less seasonal than that of other business and leisure rentals, which permits efficiencies in both vehicle and labor planning; and

Cross-selling opportunities exist for us to promote off airport rentals among frequent airport Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program renters and, conversely, to promote airport rentals to off airport renters.

Customers and Business Mix

We conduct active sales and marketing programs to attract and retain customers. Our sales force calls on companies and other organizations whose employees and associates need to rent vehicles for business purposes. In addition, our sales force works with membership associations, tour operators, travel companies and other groups whose members, participants and customers rent vehicles for either business or leisure purposes. Our specialized sales force calls on companies with replacement rental needs, including insurance and leasing companies, automobile repair companies and vehicle dealers. We also advertise our vehicle rental offerings through a variety of traditional media channels, such as partner publications, direct mail and digital marketing. In addition to advertising, we conduct a variety of other forms of marketing and promotion, including travel industry business partnerships and press and public relations activities.

We categorize our vehicle rental business based on the purpose and type of location from which customers rent from us. The following charts set forth the percentages of rental revenues and rental transactions in our U.S. and international operations based on these categories.

VEHICLE RENTALS BY CUSTOMER
Year Ended December 31, 2018

U.S.
chart-83509db1c4085b749ff.jpgchart-a1c513dca5645c88b9f.jpg
 
 
Business
 
 
Leisure
















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VEHICLE RENTALS BY CUSTOMER (Continued)
Year Ended December 31, 2018

International
chart-e8d9996b00955926be6.jpgchart-fcb08a452a2a50cf85a.jpg
 
 
Business
 
 
Leisure

Customers who rent from us for “business” purposes include those who require vehicles in connection with commercial activities, including drivers for our TNC Partners, the activities of governments and other organizations or for temporary vehicle replacement purposes. Most business customers rent vehicles from us on terms that we have negotiated with their employers or other entities with which they are associated, and those terms can differ substantially from the terms on which we rent vehicles to the general public. We have negotiated arrangements relating to vehicle rental with many businesses, governments and other organizations, including most Fortune 500 companies.

Customers who rent from us for “leisure” purposes include not only individual travelers booking vacation travel rentals with us but also people renting to meet other personal needs. Leisure rentals, generally, are longer in duration and generate more revenue per transaction than business rentals. Leisure rentals also include rentals by customers of U.S. and international tour operators, which are usually a part of tour packages that can include air travel and hotel accommodations.

VEHICLE RENTALS BY LOCATION
Year Ended December 31, 2018

U.S.
chart-b5250f78aa5d5318a11.jpgchart-757466303edf531ab1e.jpg
 
 
Airport
 
 
Off airport




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VEHICLE RENTALS BY LOCATION (Continued)
Year Ended December 31, 2018

International
chart-312ae1b77df65bd0a75.jpgchart-3e6c60918efa5be7b44.jpg
 
 
Airport
 
 
Off airport

Demand for airport rentals is correlated with airline travel patterns, and transaction volumes generally follow airline passenger traffic ("enplanement") and Gross Domestic Product ("GDP") trends on a global basis. Customers often make reservations for airport rentals when they book their flight plans, which make our strong relationships with travel agents, associations and other partners (e.g., airlines) a key competitive strategy in generating consistent and recurring revenue streams.

Off airport rentals include insurance replacements, therefore, we have established agreements with the referring insurers establishing the relevant rental terms, including the arrangements made for billing and payment. We have identified 188 insurance companies, ranging from local or regional vehicle carriers to large, national companies, as our target insurance replacement market. As of December 31, 2018, we were a preferred or recognized supplier for 124 of these insurance companies and a co-primary for 39 of them.

Customer Service Offerings

At our major airport rental locations, as well as at some smaller airport and off airport locations, customers participating in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are able to rent vehicles in an expedited manner. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program often bypass the rental counter entirely and proceed directly to their vehicle upon arrival at our facility. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are also eligible to earn Hertz Gold Plus Rewards points that may be redeemed for free rental days or converted to awards of other companies' loyalty programs. Hertz's Gold Plus Rewards program offers two elite membership tiers which provide more frequent renters the opportunity to earn additional rewards points and vehicle upgrades. For the year ended December 31, 2018, rentals by Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members accounted for approximately 35% of our worldwide rental transactions. We believe the Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program provides a significant competitive advantage to us, particularly among frequent travelers, and we have targeted such travelers for participation in the program. We offer electronic rental agreements and returns for our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty customers in the U.S. Simplifying the rental transaction saves customers time and provides greater convenience through access to digitally available rental contracts.

Our Hertz Ultimate Choice program allows customers to choose their vehicle from a range of makes, models and colors available within the zone indicated on their reservation, or they may upgrade at pick-up for a fee by choosing a vehicle from the Premium Upgrade zone. Also, when Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members make a reservation for a midsize car or above, they have access to exclusive vehicles based on their membership tier. The Hertz Ultimate Choice program is offered at 59 U.S. airport locations as of December 31, 2018.

We also offer a Mobile Gold Alerts service, known as Carfirmations, through which an SMS text message and/or email is sent with the vehicle information and location, with the option to choose another vehicle from their smart phone prior to arrival. It is available to participating Hertz Gold Plus Rewards customers approximately 30 minutes prior to their

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arrival. We also offer Hertz e-Return, which allows customers to drop off their vehicle and go at the time of rental return. Additionally, in select locations customers can bypass the rental line through our ExpressRent Kiosks, and customers can use cashless toll lanes with our PlatePass offering where the license plate acts as a transponder.

TNC Rentals

We have partnered with certain companies in the TNC market in the U.S. to offer vehicle rentals to their drivers. Our participation in this market has more than doubled in 2018 and we now offer rentals to TNC drivers in approximately 90 locations in select U.S. cities across 18 states. During 2018, we dedicated approximately 30,000 average vehicles for use by our TNC Partners. TNC rentals provide for an additional selection of higher mileage, and thus more economical used vehicles in our retail sales outlets. Drivers for our TNC Partners reserve vehicles online through TNC Partner websites and pick up vehicles from select locations. TNC drivers can extend the vehicle rental on a weekly basis.

Hertz 24/7

We offer a car and van-sharing membership service, referred to as Hertz 24/7, which rents vehicles by the hour and/or by the day, at various locations internationally, primarily in Europe and in Australia under the Flexicar brand. Members reserve vehicles online, then pick up the vehicles at convenient locations using keyless entry, without the need to visit a Hertz rental office. Members are charged an hourly or daily vehicle-rental fee which includes fuel, insurance, 24/7 roadside assistance and in-vehicle customer service. Hertz 24/7 specializes in Business-to-Business-to-Consumer (B2B2C) services working with retail partners to provide vans at their locations, and with corporations providing pool fleets for use by their employees.

Rates

We rent a wide variety of makes and models of vehicles. We rent vehicles on an hourly (in select International markets), daily, weekend, weekly, monthly or multi-month basis, with rental charges computed on a limited or unlimited mileage rate, or on a time rate plus a mileage charge. Our rates vary by brand and at different locations depending on local market conditions and other competitive and cost factors. While vehicles are usually returned to the locations from which they are rented, we also allow one-way rentals from and to certain locations. In addition to vehicle rentals and franchise fees, we generate revenues from reimbursements by customers of airport concession fees, unless the law limits or forbids us from doing so, and vehicle licensing costs, fueling charges, and charges for value-added services such as supplemental equipment (e.g., child seats and ski racks), loss or collision damage waiver, theft protection, liability and personal accident/effects insurance coverage, premium emergency roadside service and satellite radio.

Reservations

We price and accept reservations for our vehicles on a brand-by-brand basis. Reservations are generally for a class of vehicles, although Hertz accepts reservations for specific makes and models of vehicles in our Premium, Prestige and specialty collections.

We distribute pricing and content and accept reservations via multiple channels. Direct reservations are accepted at Hertz.com, which has global and local versions in multiple languages. Hertz.com offers a range of products, prices and additional services as well as Hertz Gold Plus Rewards benefits, serving both company-operated and franchise locations. In addition to our website, direct reservations are enabled via our smartphone app, which includes additional connected products and services.

Customers may also seek reservations via travel agents or third-party travel websites. In many of those cases, the travel agent or website will utilize an Application Programming Interface (“API”) connection to Hertz or a third-party operated computerized reservation system, also known as a Global Distribution System (“GDS”) to contact us and make the reservation.

In major countries, including the U.S. and all other countries with company-operated locations, customers may also reserve vehicles for rental from us and our franchisees worldwide through local, national or toll-free telephone calls to

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

our reservations center, directly through our rental locations or, in the case of replacement rentals, through proprietary automated systems serving the insurance industry.

Franchisees

In certain U.S. and international markets, we have found it efficient to issue licenses under franchise arrangements to independent franchisees who are engaged in the vehicle rental business, to rent vehicles that they own or lease to customers, primarily under our Hertz, Dollar or Thrifty brand. In certain markets and under certain circumstances, franchisees are given the opportunity to acquire franchises for multiple brands.

Franchisees generally pay fees based on a percentage of their revenues and in return are provided the use of the applicable brand name, certain operational support and training, reservations through our reservation channels, and other services. Franchisee arrangements enable us to offer expanded national and international service and a broader one-way rental program. In addition to vehicle rental, certain international franchisees engage in vehicle leasing, and the rental of chauffeur-driven vehicles, camper vans and motorcycles.

Franchisees ordinarily are limited as to transferability without our consent and are generally terminable by us only for cause or after a fixed term. Many of these agreements also include a right of first refusal on the part of the Company should a franchisee receive a bona fide offer to sell. Franchisees in the U.S. typically may terminate on prior notice, generally between 90 and 180 days. In Europe and certain other international jurisdictions, franchisees typically do not have early termination rights. Initial license fees or the price for the sale to a franchisee of a company-owned location may be payable over a term of several years. We continue to issue new licenses and, from time to time, purchase franchised businesses.

Franchise operations, including the purchase and ownership of vehicles, are generally financed independently by the franchisees, and we do not have an investment interest in the franchisees. Fees from franchisees, including initial franchise fees, are used to, among other things, generally support the cost of our brand awareness programs, reservations system, sales and marketing efforts and certain other services and are approximately 2% of our worldwide vehicle rental revenues each period.

Seasonality

Our vehicle rental operations are a seasonal business, with decreased levels of business in the winter months and heightened activity during spring and summer peak ("our peak season") for the majority of countries where we generate our revenues. To accommodate increased demand, we increase our available fleet and staff during the second and third quarters of the year. As business demand declines, vehicles and staff are decreased accordingly. Certain operating expenses, including real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs, remain fixed and cannot be adjusted for seasonal demand.

The following chart sets forth this seasonal effect of our vehicle rental operations by presenting quarterly revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
chart-7ad0c9a42e41504dc34.jpg

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Fleet

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we operated a peak rental fleet in the U.S. and International segments of approximately 535,100 vehicles and 207,100 vehicles, respectively. Purchases of vehicles are financed by active and ongoing global borrowing programs and through cash from operations. The vehicles we purchase are either program vehicles or non-program vehicles. We periodically review the efficiencies of an optimal mix between program and non-program vehicles in our fleet and adjust the ratio of program and non-program vehicles as needed based on contract negotiations, vehicle economics and availability. During the year ended December 31, 2018, our approximate average holding period for a rental vehicle was 17 months in the U.S. and 14 months in our international operations.

Our fleet composition is as follows:

Fleet Composition by Vehicle Manufacturer
As of December 31, 2018 chart-4c3dbd8941635ce992f.jpg

U.S.                      International*

chart-4949c62137fe5a7faf9.jpgchart-205731ddabd253d382d.jpg

*Vehicle manufacturers Groupe PSA (Peugeot and Citroen), Volvo, Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen, Skoda, Audi and Seat), Daimler AG (Mercedes Benz) and BMW together comprise another 25% of the international fleet and are included as "Other" in the overall and international charts above.

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We maintain vehicle maintenance centers at or near certain airports and in certain urban and off airport areas, which provide maintenance for our fleet. Many of these facilities include sophisticated vehicle diagnostic and repair equipment and are accepted by automobile manufacturers as eligible to perform and receive reimbursement for warranty work. Collision damage and major repairs are generally performed by independent contractors.

Repurchase Programs

For program vehicles, the manufacturers agree to repurchase vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during established repurchase or auction periods, subject to, among other things, certain vehicle condition, mileage and holding period requirements. Repurchase prices under repurchase programs are based on the original cost less a set daily depreciation amount. Guaranteed depreciation programs guarantee on an aggregate basis the residual value of the vehicles covered by the programs upon sale according to certain parameters which include the holding period, mileage and condition of the vehicles. These repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs limit our residual risk with respect to vehicles purchased under the programs and allow us to reduce the variability of depreciation expense for each vehicle, however, typically the acquisition cost is higher. Program vehicles generally provide us with flexibility to increase or reduce the size of our fleet based on market demand. When we increase the percentage of program vehicles, the average age of our fleet decreases since the average holding period for program vehicles is shorter than for non-program vehicles.

Program vehicles as a percentage of all vehicles purchased within each of our U.S. and International vehicle rental segments were as follows:

chart-890b0b395d1b99e139e.jpg

Hertz Car Sales and Rent2Buy

Hertz Car Sales consists of a network of 80 company-operated vehicle sales locations throughout the U.S. dedicated to the sale of used vehicles from our rental fleet consisting of non-program vehicles, as well as program vehicles that become ineligible for manufacturer repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs. Vehicles disposed of through our retail outlets allow us the opportunity for ancillary vehicle sales revenue, such as warranty and financing and title fees.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

We also offer Rent2Buy in 35 states and several European countries, an innovative program designed to sell used rental vehicles. Customers have an opportunity to rent a vehicle from our rental fleet and if the customer purchases the vehicle, he or she is credited with a portion of their rental charges. The purchase transaction is completed through the internet and by mail in those states where permitted.

We also dispose of vehicles through non-retail disposition channels such as auctions, brokered sales, sales to wholesalers and sales to dealers.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, of the vehicles sold in our U.S. vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 24% at auction, 40% through dealer direct and 36% at retail locations or through our Rent2Buy program. During the year ended December 31, 2018, of the vehicles sold in our international vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 8% at auction, 83% through dealer direct and 9% at retail locations or through our Rent2Buy program.

Markets and Competition

Competition among vehicle rental industry participants is intense and is primarily based on price, vehicle availability and quality, service, reliability, rental locations, product innovation and competition from online travel agents and vehicle rental brokers. We believe that the prominence and service reputation of the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands, our extensive worldwide ownership of vehicle rental operations and our commitment to innovation and service provide us with a strong competitive advantage.

U.S.

The U.S. represents approximately $30 billion in estimated annual industry revenues for 2018. The average number of vehicles in the U.S. vehicle rental industry increased 1% in 2018 to about 2.2 million vehicles. U.S. industry Revenue Per Unit Per Month was approximately $1,131 which was an improvement of 3.7% over 2017. Rentals by airline travelers at or near airports (‘‘airport rentals’’) are influenced by developments in the travel industry and particularly in enplanements as well as the GDP. Off airport rental volume is primarily driven by local business use, such as vehicle repair shops, leisure travel and insurance replacements.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the U.S. are Avis Budget Group, Inc. (“ABG”) which currently operates the Avis, Budget, ZipCar and Payless brands, and Enterprise Holdings, which operates the Enterprise Rent-A-Car Company ("Enterprise"), National Car Rental and Alamo Rent A Car brands. There are also local and regional vehicle rental companies and transportation network companies which provide ride-hailing services that have some overlap in customer use cases, largely with respect to short length trips in urban areas.

Europe

Europe represents approximately $18 billion in annual industry revenues. Europe has generally demonstrated a lower historical reliance on air travel. The European off airport vehicle rental market has been significantly more developed than it is in the U.S. Within Europe, the largest markets in which we do business are France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Throughout Europe, we do business through company-operated rental locations as well as through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Our principal pan-European competitors in the vehicle rental industry are Europcar Mobility Services, operating the Europcar, Interrent, Goldcar and Ubeeqo brands; ABG operating the Avis, Budget, Payless and Zipcar brands, and the Maggiore brand in Italy; Sixt SE; and, Enterprise Holdings, operating the Enterprise, Alamo and National brands, and the Dooley brand in Ireland. Each European country includes numerous other regional and local operators serving both leisure and commercial customers.

Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific, which includes Australia and New Zealand, represents approximately $17 billion in annual industry revenues. Within this region, the largest markets in which we do business are Australia, China, Japan and South Korea.

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In each of these markets we have company-operated rental locations or do business through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the Asia Pacific market place are ABG, operating the Avis, Budget, Apex and Zipcar brands, Europcar, and Enterprise Holdings, operating the Enterprise, National and Alamo brands and the Redspot brand in Australia and New Zealand.

Middle East and Africa

The Middle East and Africa represent approximately $4 billion in annual industry revenues. Within these regions, the largest markets in which we do business are Saudi Arabia, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates. In each of these markets we do business through our franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the Middle East market are ABG, operating the Avis, Budget, Payless and Zipcar brands, Europcar, Enterprise Holdings, operating the Enterprise, National and Alamo brands, and Sixt SE, operating the Sixt brand.

Latin America

The Latin America markets represent approximately $4 billion in annual industry revenues. Within Latin America the largest markets in which we do business are Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. In each of these markets our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands are present through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of the respective brand.

In Latin America, the principal vehicle rental industry competitors are ABG, operating the Avis, Budget and Payless brands, and Enterprise Holdings, which operates the Enterprise, National and Alamo brands. Other key players in the region are Localiza, JSL, operating the Movida brand, and Soluçônes Automôvel Globais, operating the Unidas brand.

In 2017, we completed the sale of Car Rental Systems do Brasil Locação de Veiculos Ltd., our wholly owned subsidiary located in Brazil (the "Brazil Operations"), to Localiza Fleet S.A. (“Localiza”). As part of the sale, both companies entered into referral and brand cooperation agreements to govern their ongoing relationship which have an initial term of twenty years with an option to extend for another twenty years. The alliance also involves the exchange of knowledge in areas of technology, customer service and operational excellence.

All Other Operations

Through our Donlen subsidiary, we provide integrated fleet leasing and fleet management solutions for commercial fleets. Our All Other Operations segment generated $748 million in revenues during the year ended December 31, 2018, substantially all of which was attributable to Donlen.

Donlen
donlen.jpg
Donlen provides an array of vehicle leasing, financing, telematics, and fleet management services to commercial fleets in the U.S. and Canada. Products offered by Donlen include:

Vehicle financing, acquisition and remarketing;
License, title and registration;
Vehicle maintenance consultation;
Fuel management;
Accident management;

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Toll management;
Telematics-based location, driver performance and scorecard reporting; and
Lease financing.

Donlen’s leased fleet consists primarily of passenger vehicles, cargo vans and light trucks. Vehicles are acquired directly from domestic and foreign manufacturers, as well as dealers. As of December 31, 2018, approximately half of Donlen’s leased fleet is 2017 model year or newer.

Donlen’s primary product for vehicle and light to medium truck fleets is an open-ended terminal rental adjustment clause ("TRAC") lease. For most customers, the vehicle must be leased for a minimum of twelve months, after which the lease converts to a month-to-month lease allowing the vehicle to be surrendered any time thereafter. Our sale of the vehicle following the termination of the lease may result in a TRAC adjustment, through which the customer is credited or charged with the surplus or loss on the vehicle. Approximately 80% of Donlen’s lease portfolio consists of floating-rate leases which allow lease charges to be adjusted based on benchmark indices.

Donlen offers financing solutions for heavier-duty trucks and equipment. Lease financing is provided through syndication arrangements with lending institutions. Donlen originates the leases, acquires the assets, and services the lease throughout the term.

Donlen provides services to leased and non-leased fleets consisting of fuel purchasing and management, preventive vehicle maintenance, repair consultation, toll management and accident management. Additionally, Donlen manages license and title, vehicle registration, and regulatory compliance. Donlen’s telematics products provide enhanced visibility and reporting over driver and vehicle performance.

The commercial fleet market is one of the largest segments of the U.S. automotive industry, primarily consisting of vehicles utilized in a sales, service, or delivery application. The fleet management industry has experienced significant consolidation over the years and today our principal fleet management competitors in the U.S. and Canada are Enterprise, Automotive Resources International, Element Financial Corporation, Wheels, Inc. and LeasePlan Corporation N.V.

EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 38,000 persons, consisting of approximately 29,000 persons in our U.S. operations and approximately 9,000 persons in our international operations. International employees are covered by a wide variety of union contracts and governmental regulations affecting, among other things, compensation, job retention rights and pensions. Labor contracts covering the terms of employment of approximately 26% of our workforce in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. Labor contracts covering almost 20% of these employees will expire during 2019. We have had no material work stoppage as a result of labor problems during the last ten years, and we believe our labor relations to be good. Nevertheless, we may be unable to negotiate new labor contracts on terms advantageous to us, or without labor interruption.

In addition to the employees referred to above, we engage outside services, as is customary in the industry, principally for the non-revenue movement of rental vehicles between rental locations.

CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY

We believe that managing our businesses ethically and responsibly is critical to our success as well as the right thing to do. As such, we are committed to continuous improvement that encourages sustainable innovation and enhances our business performance in three key areas: People, Planet and Product.

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Our People and Customers
Our employees help drive our progress, innovation and success. As a global company, we have a responsibility to ensure our people are taken care of and thrive in their environment. We are growing our business in a way that is inclusive and supportive to all. Attracting and retaining top talent is more than a measure of our business success; it’s a measure of who we are and what we value.
Diversity
We foster a diverse and inclusive work environment. Maintaining this diversity begins with a firm commitment to equal opportunity, non-discrimination and anti-harassment. In addition, we adhere to all relevant laws and mandatory reporting requirements.
Employee Benefits
We offer competitive pay and a comprehensive benefits package to permanent employees, including medical and dental plans, paid leave, retirement plans with company contributions and life insurance coverage. In addition, we provide free health screenings and wellness coaching. Our employees also enjoy discounts on car rentals and used car purchases.
Communities
We believe community involvement is critical to operating as a responsible business and we have a long-standing commitment to our communities. That’s why we are committed to creating stronger, healthier places to live and work, whether through corporate philanthropy, employee giving or volunteerism.
The Environment
We are committed to reducing the impact our operations have on the environment and the communities we operate in through sustainable business practices, strategic decision-making, community partnerships and smart investments in future technologies.
Waste Reduction and Recycling
We work to integrate environmental sustainability across our operations, from our car washes to the way we build our rental locations. Resource conservation and waste reduction is at the forefront of that integration. We are committed to waste reduction across our global footprint. Recycling efforts include, but are not limited to, recycling used oils and solvents, tires, batteries, IT equipment, and general mixed materials.
Green Construction
We incorporate sustainable design and construction practices across the company, based on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ("LEED") standards. LEED is a green building rating system administered by the U.S. Green Building Council. Following LEED standards ensures our rental and corporate locations are built in an environmentally sustainable manner, including our world headquarters in Estero, Florida, which is LEED Gold®. These standards also aim to enhance the health and comfort of building occupants, improve overall building performance and deliver cost savings.
Fuel Efficient Fleet
We partner with our corporate customers to create personalized green travel programs aimed at reducing carbon emissions and fuel costs associated with their vehicle rentals. Additionally, we offer customization of green fleet goals to help our corporate customers reduce fuel costs and expand their employees’ use of alternative-fuel vehicles. We work to make sustainable mobility a viable, global reality by providing customers and communities with access to fuel-efficient, low-emission and alternative-fuel travel solutions.


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Our Business
Ethics
We are committed to operating in compliance with all applicable laws and maintaining the highest standards of ethical conduct. Our expectations may be high, but they are clear. Integrity is essential to every aspect of our business, both in policy and practice. Our Standards of Business Conduct informs when we should ask for further direction to support a policy or procedure and provides information, guidance and references covering a range of topics.
Supplier Diversity
Our objective is to provide certified small, disadvantaged, minority, and women-owned business enterprises with the opportunity to compete to deliver products and services that support our brands. We are a member of the National Minority Supplier Development Council and many of its local affiliate councils throughout the U.S. In support of our extensive presence at airports, we are also members of the Airport Minority Advisory Council.
Data Protection
Hertz is committed to operating in compliance with all applicable privacy and data security laws. We have standards and policies in place to ensure the proper handling, use and storage of customer and employee information, including privacy protection, maintenance of data integrity and security. In addition, our employees participate in mandatory training and ongoing engagement that ensures our entire team is on the same page regarding compliance with our policies and practices.

Our most recent Corporate Responsibility Report is available on our internet website (www.hertz.com).

INSURANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT

There are three types of generally insurable risks that arise in our operations:

legal liability arising from the operation of our vehicles (i.e., vehicle liability);

legal liability to members of the public and employees from other causes (i.e., general liability/workers' compensation); and

risk of property damage and/or business interruption and/or increased cost of operating as a consequence of property damage.

In addition, we offer optional liability insurance and other products providing insurance coverage, which create additional risk exposures for us. Our risk of property damage is also increased when we waive the provisions in our rental contracts that hold a renter responsible for damage or loss under an optional loss or damage waiver that we offer. We bear these and other risks, except to the extent the risks are transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

In many cases we self-insure our risks or insure risks through wholly-owned insurance subsidiaries. We mitigate our exposure to large liability losses by maintaining excess insurance coverage, subject to deductibles and caps, through unaffiliated carriers. For our international operations outside of Europe, and for our long-term vehicle leasing operations, we maintain some liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers.

Third-Party Liability

In our U.S. operations, we are required by applicable financial responsibility laws to maintain insurance against legal liability for bodily injury (including death) or property damage to third parties arising from the operation of our vehicles and on-road equipment, sometimes called “vehicle liability,” in stipulated amounts. In most jurisdictions, we satisfy those requirements by qualifying as a self-insurer, a process that typically involves governmental filings and demonstration of financial responsibility, which sometimes requires the posting of a bond or other security. In the remaining jurisdictions, we obtain an insurance policy from an unaffiliated insurance carrier and indemnify the carrier for any amounts paid under the policy. As a result of such arrangements, we bear economic responsibility for U.S.

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

vehicle liability, except to the extent we successfully transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements.

For our vehicle rental operations in Europe, we have established a wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, Probus Insurance Company Europe Limited (“Probus”), a direct writer of insurance domiciled in Ireland. In European countries with company-operated locations, we have purchased from Probus the vehicle liability insurance required by law, and Probus reinsures the risks under such insurance with HIRE Bermuda Limited, a wholly-owned reinsurance company domiciled in Bermuda. This coverage is purchased from unaffiliated carriers for Spain and Italy. Accordingly, as with our U.S. operations, we bear economic responsibility for vehicle liability in our European vehicle rental operations, except to the extent that we transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. For our international operations outside of Europe, we maintain some form of vehicle liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers. The nature of such coverage, and our economic responsibility for covered losses, varies considerably. Nonetheless, we believe the amounts and nature of the coverage we obtain is adequate in light of the respective potential hazards.

In our U.S. and international operations, from time to time in the course of our business, we become legally responsible to members of the public for bodily injury (including death) or property damage arising from causes other than the operation of our vehicles, sometimes known as “general liability.” As with vehicle liability, we bear economic responsibility for general liability losses, except to the extent we transfer such losses to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. In addition, to mitigate these exposures, we maintain excess liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated insurance carriers.

In our U.S. vehicle rental operations, we offer an optional liability insurance product, Liability Insurance Supplement (“LIS”) that provides vehicle liability insurance coverage substantially higher than state minimum levels to the renter and other authorized operators of a rented vehicle. LIS coverage is primarily provided under excess liability insurance policies issued by an unaffiliated insurance carrier, the risks under which are reinsured with a wholly-owned subsidiary, HIRE Bermuda Limited.

In our U.S. vehicle rental operations and our company-operated international vehicle rental operations in many countries, we offer optional products providing Personal Accident Insurance / Personal Effects Coverage (“PAI/PEC”) and Emergency Sickness Protection ("ESP") insurance coverage to the renter and the renter's immediate family members traveling with the renter for accidental death or accidental medical expenses arising during the rental period or for damage or loss of their property during the rental period. PAI/PEC and ESP coverage is provided under insurance policies issued by unaffiliated carriers or, in Europe, by Probus, and the risks under such policies either are reinsured with HIRE Bermuda Limited or are the subject of indemnification arrangements between us and the carriers.

Our offering of LIS, PAI/PEC and ESP coverage in our U.S. vehicle rental operations is conducted pursuant to limited licenses or exemptions under state laws governing the licensing of insurance producers.

Provisions on our books for self-insured public liability and property damage vehicle liability losses are made by charges to expense based upon evaluations of estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims.

Damage to Our Property

We bear the risk of damage to our property, unless such risk is transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

To mitigate our risk of large, single-site property damage losses globally, we maintain property insurance with unaffiliated insurance carriers in such amounts as we deem adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such insurance is available on commercially reasonable terms.

Our rental contracts typically provide that the renter is responsible for damage to or loss (including loss through theft) of rented vehicles. We generally offer an optional rental product, known in various countries as “loss damage waiver,” “collision damage waiver” or “theft protection,” under which we waive or limit our right to make a claim for such damage or loss.

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)


Collision damage costs and the costs of stolen or unaccounted-for vehicles, along with other damage to our property, are charged to expense as incurred, net of reimbursements.

Other Risks

To manage other risks associated with our businesses, or to comply with applicable law, we purchase other types of insurance carried by business organizations, such as worker's compensation and employer's liability, commercial crime and fidelity, performance bonds, directors' and officers' liability insurance and cyber security coverage from unaffiliated insurance companies in amounts deemed by us to be adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such coverage is obtainable on commercially reasonable terms.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

Throughout the world, we are subject to numerous types of governmental controls, including those relating to prices and advertising, privacy and data protection, currency controls, labor matters, credit and charge card operations, insurance, environmental protection, used vehicle sales and licensing.

Environmental

We are subject to extensive federal, state, local, and foreign environmental and safety laws, regulations, directives, rules and ordinances concerning, among other things, the operation and maintenance of vehicles; the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel and oil; and the generation, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials, including oil, vehicle wash sludge and waste water.

When applicable, we estimate and accrue for costs, among other things, to study potential environmental issues at sites deemed to require investigation or clean-up activities, and for costs to implement remediation actions, including ongoing maintenance, as required. Based on information currently available, we believe that the ultimate resolution of existing environmental remediation actions and our compliance in general with environmental laws and regulations will not have a material effect on our operating results or financial condition. However, it is difficult to predict with certainty the potential impact of future compliance efforts and environmental remedial actions and thus future costs associated with such matters may exceed the amount of the estimated accrued amount.

Dealings with Renters

In the U.S., vehicle rental transactions are generally subject to Article 2A of the Uniform Commercial Code, which governs “leases” of tangible personal property. Vehicle rental is also specifically regulated in more than half of the states of the U.S. and many other international jurisdictions. The subjects of these regulations include the methods by which we advertise, quote and charge prices, the consequences of failing to honor reservations, the terms on which we deal with vehicle loss or damage (including the protections we provide to renters purchasing loss or damage waivers) and the terms and method of sale of the optional insurance coverage that we offer. Some states (including California, Nevada and New York) regulate the price at which we may sell loss or damage waivers, and many state insurance regulators have authority over the prices and terms of the optional insurance coverage we offer. See “Insurance and Risk Management-Damage to Our Property” above for further discussion regarding the loss or damage waivers and optional insurance coverages that we offer renters. In addition, various consumer protection laws and regulations may generally apply to our business operations. Internationally, regulatory regimes vary greatly by jurisdiction, but they do not generally prevent us from dealing with customers in a manner similar to that employed in the U.S.

Both in the U.S. and internationally, we are subject to increasing regulation relating to customer privacy and data protection. In general, we are limited in the uses to which we may put data that we collect about renters, including the circumstances in which we may communicate with them. In addition, we are generally obligated to take reasonable steps to protect customer data while it is in our possession. Our failure to do so could subject us to substantial legal liability, require us to bear significant remediation costs, or seriously damage our reputation.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Changes in Regulation

Changes in government regulation of our businesses have the potential to materially alter our business practices, or our profitability. Depending on the jurisdiction, those changes may come about through new legislation, the issuance of new laws and regulations or changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations and treaties by a court, regulatory body or governmental official. Those changes may have prospective and/or retroactive effect, particularly when a change is made through reinterpretation of laws or regulations that have been in effect for some time. Moreover, changes in regulation that may seem neutral on their face may have a more significant effect on us than on our competitors, depending on the circumstances. Several U.S. State Attorneys General have taken the position that vehicle rental companies either may not pass through costs and fees to customers, by means of separate charges, expenses such as vehicle licensing and concession fees or may do so only in certain limited circumstances. Recent or potential changes in law or regulation that affect us relate to insurance intermediaries, customer privacy, like-kind exchange programs, data security and rate regulation and our retail vehicle sales operations.

In addition, our operations, as well as those of our competitors, could also be affected by any limitation in the fuel supply or by any imposition of mandatory allocation or rationing regulations. We are not aware of any current proposal to impose such a regime in the U.S. or internationally. Such a regime could, however, be quickly imposed if there was a serious disruption in supply for any reason, including an act of war, terrorist incident or other problem affecting petroleum supply, refining, distribution or pricing.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

You may access, free of charge, Hertz Global and Hertz's reports filed with the SEC (including the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those forms) directly through the SEC or indirectly through our internet website (www.hertz.com). Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to a number of significant risks and uncertainties, some of which are described below and should be carefully considered along with all of the information in this 2018 Annual Report. These risks and uncertainties, however, are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face in our operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. In such a case, you may lose all or part of your investment in Hertz Global's common stock or The Hertz Corporation's debt securities. You should carefully consider each of the following risks and uncertainties. Any of the following risks and uncertainties could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow and we believe that the following information identifies the material risks and uncertainties affecting Hertz Global and Hertz; however, the following risks and uncertainties are not the only risks and uncertainties facing us and it is possible that other risks and uncertainties might significantly impact us.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Our vehicle rental business is particularly sensitive to reductions in the levels of airline passenger travel, and reductions in air travel could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

The vehicle rental industry is particularly affected by reductions in business and leisure travel, especially with respect to levels of airline passenger traffic. Reductions in levels of air travel, whether caused by general economic conditions, airfare increases (e.g., capacity reductions or increases in fuel costs borne by commercial airlines) or other events (e.g., work stoppages, military conflicts, terrorist incidents, natural disasters, epidemic diseases, or the response of governments to any of these events) could materially adversely affect us. In particular, we derive a substantial proportion of our revenues from key leisure destinations, including Florida, Hawaii, California, New York and Texas in the U.S. and Europe internationally and the level of travel to these destinations is dependent upon the ability and willingness

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


of consumers to travel on vacation and the effect of economic cycles on consumers’ discretionary travel. To the extent travel to these destinations is adversely affected, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition that may lead to downward pricing or an inability to increase prices.

We believe that price is one of the primary competitive factors in the vehicle rental market and that technology has enabled cost-conscious customers, including business travelers, to more easily compare rates available from rental companies. We utilize a revenue and pricing optimization strategy that is designed to leverage analytical techniques to maximize total contribution margin across our pricing and fleet decisions, continuously evaluate whether the pricing models are yielding the desired outcomes and provide the right balance between strategic growth goals and achieving desired margins. If we try to increase our pricing, our competitors, some of whom may have greater resources and better access to capital than us, may seek to compete aggressively on the basis of pricing. In addition, our competitors may reduce prices in order to, among other things, attempt to gain a competitive advantage, capture market share or compensate for declines in rental activity. To the extent we do not react appropriately to our competition, our revenues and results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. See Item 1, “Business - U.S. and International Rental Car Segments - Markets and Competition” in this 2018 Annual Report.

Our business is highly seasonal and any occurrence that disrupts rental activity during our peak periods could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain significant components of our expenses are fixed in the short-term, including minimum concession fees, real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs. Seasonal changes in our revenues do not affect those fixed expenses, typically resulting in higher profitability in periods when our revenues are higher. The second and third quarters of the year have historically been the strongest quarters for our vehicle rental business due to increased levels of leisure travel. We control certain of our costs, including fleet arrangements and availability, to manage seasonal variations in demand. Any circumstance, occurrence or situation that disrupts rental activity during these critical periods could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows due to a significant change in revenue.

If our management is unable to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number, location and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could suffer.

Vehicle costs typically represent our largest expense and vehicle purchases are typically made weeks or months in advance of the expected use of the vehicle. Accordingly, our business is dependent upon the ability of our management to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and consumer preferences with respect to the mix of vehicles used in our rental operations and the location of those vehicles. To the extent we do not purchase a sufficient number of vehicles, or the right types of vehicles, to meet consumer demand, we may lose revenue or market share to our competitors. If we purchase too many vehicles, our Vehicle Utilization could be adversely affected and we may not be able to dispose of excess vehicles in a timely and cost-effective manner. Our failure to utilize a flexible and systematic process for fleet management that accurately estimates future levels of rental activity and determines the appropriate mix of vehicles used in our rental operations may result in obsolescence and excessive aging of fleet, the inability to sell fleet at adequate prices, inefficient fleet utilization, increased fleet costs, lower customer satisfaction, and other unfavorable consequences which may materially affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Increased vehicle cost due to declines in the value of the non-program vehicles in our operations could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturers agree to repurchase program vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during a specified time period. For non-program vehicles in our rental operations, we have an increased risk that the net amount realized upon the disposition of the vehicle will be less than its estimated residual value at such time. Any decrease in residual values of our non-program vehicles could result in a substantial loss on the sale of such

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


vehicles or accelerated depreciation while we own the vehicles, which can materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

While program vehicles cost more than comparable non-program vehicles, the use of program vehicles enables us to forecast our depreciation expense with more precision, which is useful because depreciation is a significant cost in our operations. Using program vehicles is also useful in managing our seasonal peak demand for vehicles, because in certain cases we can sell certain program vehicles shortly after having acquired them at a higher value than what we could for a similar non-program vehicle at that time. If there were fewer program vehicles in our rental operations, these benefits would diminish and we would bear increased risk related to residual value. In addition, the related depreciation on our vehicles and our flexibility to reduce the number of vehicles used in our rental operations by returning vehicles sooner than originally expected without the risk of loss in the event of an economic downturn or to respond to changes in rental demand would be reduced.

We may fail to respond adequately to changes in technology and customer demands.

Our industry has recently been characterized by rapid changes in technology and customer demands. For example, industry participants have taken advantage of new technologies to improve Vehicle Utilization, decrease customer wait times and improve customer satisfaction. Our industry has also seen the entry of new competitors, including TNCs, whose businesses are based on emerging mobile platforms and efforts to introduce various types of autonomous vehicles. Our ability to continually improve our current processes and products in response to changes in technology is essential in maintaining our competitive position and current levels of customer satisfaction. We may experience technical or other difficulties that could delay or prevent the development, introduction or marketing of new products or enhanced product offerings. A failure to have a systematic and comprehensive process related to emerging or disruptive competitors or technology may result in loss of competitive differentiation, margin erosion, departure of key partners, declining market share, inability to achieve growth targets, and other unfavorable consequences which may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

If we are unable to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and the cost of the vehicles we purchase increases, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

Our vehicle purchase strategies can be affected by commercial, economic, market and other conditions. For example, certain vehicle manufacturers have from time to time utilized strategies to reduce sales to the vehicle rental industry, which can negatively affect our ability to obtain vehicles on competitive terms and conditions. Consequently, there is no guarantee that we can purchase a sufficient number of vehicles at competitive prices and on competitive terms and conditions. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of vehicles, or if we obtain less favorable pricing and other terms during the acquisition of vehicles and are unable to recover from the increased costs, then our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

The recognition of previously-deferred tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles may not be fully offset by full expensing of newly-purchased revenue earning vehicles.

The recognition of previously-deferred tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles may not be fully offset by full expensing of newly-purchased revenue earning vehicles. A material and extended reduction in vehicle purchases by our U.S. vehicle rental business and Donlen, for any reason, could require us to make material cash payments for U.S. federal and state income tax liabilities. We cannot offer assurance that allowances for the full expensing of purchased revenue earning vehicles in the future will exceed previously deferred tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under the like-kind exchange ("LKE") program.    

Beginning in 2018, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA") eliminated the deferral of tax gains on the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under our LKE program. While we expect that additional deductions provided by the TCJA for 100% expensing of vehicles purchased after September 27, 2017 and placed in service before December 31, 2022 could offset the previously-deferred tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles maintained under the LKE program, we can offer no assurance that these deductions will fully offset tax gains realized upon the disposition of revenue earning vehicles. 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)



In addition, the TCJA lowers the 100% expensing by 20% per year beginning in 2023, fully eliminating the expensing by 2027. This change could result in the Company being required to make future material cash tax payments on the sales of revenue earning vehicles. We cannot predict if or when legislation would be enacted in the future to allow full or partial expensing of purchased revenue earning vehicles or to allow deferral of tax gains on the dispositions of revenue earning vehicles. If such legislation is not adopted, then our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

The failure of a manufacturer of our program vehicles to fulfill its obligations under a repurchase or guaranteed depreciation program could expose us to losses on those program vehicles.

If any manufacturer of our program vehicles does not fulfill its obligations under its repurchase or guaranteed depreciation agreement with us, whether due to default, reorganization, bankruptcy or otherwise, then we would have to dispose of those program vehicles without receiving the benefits of the associated repurchase programs. In addition, we could be left with a substantial unpaid claim against the manufacturer with respect to program vehicles that were sold and returned to the manufacturer but not paid for, or that were sold for less than their agreed repurchase price or guaranteed value.

The failure by a manufacturer to pay such amounts could cause a credit enhancement deficiency under our asset-backed and asset-based financing arrangements, requiring us to either reduce the outstanding principal amount of debt or provide more collateral (in the form of cash, vehicles and/or certain other contractual rights) to the creditors under any such affected arrangement.

If one or more manufacturers were to adversely modify or eliminate repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs in the future, our access to and the terms of asset-backed and asset-based debt financing could be adversely affected, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturer safety recalls could create risks to our business.

The Raechel and Jacqueline Houck Safe Rental Car Act of 2015 prohibits us from renting vehicles with open federal safety recalls and requires us to repair or address these recalls prior to renting or selling the vehicle. Any federal safety recall would require us to cease renting recalled vehicles until we can react to the recall. If a large number of vehicles are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, we may not be able to rent recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. These types of disruptions could jeopardize our ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for our vehicles, and could also result in the loss of business to our competitors. Depending on the severity of any recall, it could materially adversely affect, among other things, our revenues, create customer service problems, present liability claims, reduce the residual value of the recalled vehicles and harm our general reputation.

A business continuity plan is necessary for our global business.

We have a business continuity plan designed to (i) identify key assets, operations and underlying threats, (ii) define and assess relevant threats (e.g., natural disasters, pandemics, terrorism, etc.) on business operations, (iii) develop and categorize action plans to minimize the impact of the identified threats and (iv) test the adequacy of our action plans. If our business continuity plan fails to operate as intended, we may experience significant business disruptions, increased litigation and liabilities, product and service quality failures, irreparable harm to customer relationships and other unfavorable consequences which may affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We rely on third-party distribution channels for a significant amount of our revenues.

Third-party distribution channels account for a significant amount of our vehicle rental reservations. These third-party distribution channels include traditional and online travel agencies, third-party internet sites, airlines and hotel companies, marketing partners such as credit card companies and membership organizations and global distribution

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


systems that allow travel agents, travel service providers and customers to connect directly to our reservations systems. Loss of access to any of these channels, changes in pricing or commission structures or a reduction in transaction volume could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, particularly if our customers are unable to access our reservation systems through alternate channels.

If our customers develop loyalty to travel intermediaries rather than our brands, our financial results may suffer.

Certain internet travel intermediaries use generic indicators of the type of vehicle (such as “standard” or “compact”) at the expense of brand identification and some intermediaries have launched their own loyalty programs to develop loyalties to their reservation system rather than to our brands. If the volume of sales made through internet travel intermediaries increases significantly and consumers develop stronger loyalties to these intermediaries rather than to our brands, our business and revenues could be affected. Additionally, if our market share suffers due to lower levels of customer loyalty, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our foreign operations expose us to risks that may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

A significant portion of our annual revenues are generated outside the U.S. Operating in many different countries exposes us to varying risks, which include: (i) multiple, and sometimes conflicting, foreign regulatory requirements and laws that are subject to change and are often much different than the domestic laws in the U.S., including laws relating to taxes, automobile-related liability, insurance rates, insurance products, consumer privacy, data security, employment matters, cost and fee recovery, and the protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property; (ii) the effect of foreign currency translation risk, as well as limitations on our ability to repatriate income; (iii) varying tax regimes, including consequences from changes in applicable tax laws and our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences; (iv) local ownership or investment requirements, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing in foreign countries for local operations; and (v) political and economic instability, natural calamities, war, and terrorism. The effects of these risks may, individually or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our international operations are based in Uxbridge, England and we have significant vehicle rental operations in the United Kingdom and the Eurozone. The United Kingdom held a referendum on June 23, 2016 in which a majority voted for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (the “Brexit”). In order to facilitate the Brexit, a process of negotiation will determine the future terms of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Union. Depending on the terms of Brexit, if any, the United Kingdom could lose access to the single European Union market and to the global trade deals negotiated by the European Union on behalf of its members. The effects of the Brexit vote and the perceptions as to the impact of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union may adversely affect business activity and economic and market conditions in the United Kingdom, the Eurozone and globally, could make it more difficult for us to manage our international operations out of the United Kingdom and could contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets. In addition, Brexit could lead to additional political, legal and economic instability in the European Union.

Our global business requires a compliance program to promote organizational adherence to applicable laws and regulations.

We have a compliance program designed to (i) identify applicable anti-bribery requirements (e.g., laws limiting commercial bribery and corruption), (ii) identify applicable anti-trust requirements (e.g., laws to prevent price fixing, contract rigging, market or customer allocations, etc.), (iii) interpret the application of such requirements, (iv) educate target audiences and (v) provide independent, ongoing compliance monitoring.

Additionally, our operations in many different countries increases the risk of a violation, or alleged violation, of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act, other applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations, the economic sanction programs administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and the anti-boycott regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Office of Anti-Boycott Compliance. The failure of our program to operate as designed, can result in a failure to comply with applicable laws,

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


which could result in significant penalties or otherwise harm the Company’s reputation and business. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Violations of these laws could result in legal and regulatory sanctions, increased litigation and fines and legal expense, prolonged negative publicity, diminished investor confidence, declining employee morale and other unfavorable consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our business is heavily reliant upon communications networks and centralized information technology systems and the concentration of our systems creates risks for us.

We rely heavily on communication networks and information technology systems to, among other things, accept reservations, process rental and sales transactions, manage our pricing, manage our revenue earning vehicles, manage our financing arrangements, account for our activities and otherwise conduct our business. Our reliance on these networks and systems exposes us to various risks that could cause a loss of reservations, interfere with our ability to manage our vehicles, delay or disrupt rental and sales processes, adversely affect our ability to comply with our financing arrangements and otherwise materially adversely affect our ability to manage our business effectively. Our major information technology systems, reservations and accounting functions are centralized in a few locations worldwide. Any disruption, termination or substandard provision of these services, whether as the result of localized conditions (such as a fire, explosion or hacking), failure of our systems to function as designed, or as the result of events or circumstances of broader geographic impact (such as an earthquake, storm, flood, epidemic, strike, act of war, civil unrest or terrorist act), could materially adversely affect our business by disrupting normal reservations, customer service, accounting and information technology functions or by eliminating access to financing arrangements. Any disruption or poor performance of our systems could lead to lower revenues, increased costs or other material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Failure to maintain, upgrade and consolidate our information technology networks could adversely affect us.

We are continuously evaluating, upgrading and consolidating our systems, including making changes to legacy systems, replacing legacy systems with successor systems with new functionality and acquiring new systems with new functionality. In addition, we outsource a significant portion of our information technology services. These types of activities subject us to additional costs and inherent risks associated with outsourcing, replacing and changing these systems, including impairment of our ability to manage our business, potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, additional administration and operating expenses, retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the new systems, demands on management time, potential delays or disruptions from upgrading and consolidating our systems and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to outsourcing alternatives, new systems or integrating new systems into our current systems. We are also considering alternatives regarding one of our two U.S.-based data centers as part of the upgrade to our information technology network in response to the expiration of the applicable lease. One alternative may be locating substantially all of our data center operations in a single location, where any loss or damage to that facility could result in operation disruption and data loss. Further, failure to have a comprehensive technology plan and effective process may result in an inability to support business growth expectations and successfully execute information technology business programs and initiatives, cost overruns and excessive write-offs, missed business objectives, program delays and business disruptions, service quality issues, regulatory violations, potential litigation, loss of key talent and other unfavorable consequences. In addition, the implementation of our technology initiatives and systems may cause disruptions in our business operations by severely degrading performance or a complete loss of service and have an adverse effect on our business and operations, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated and our competitive position may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain systems that allow us to manage our business in a competitive manner.

The misuse or theft of information we possess, including as a result of cyber security breaches, could harm our brand, reputation or competitive position and give rise to material liabilities.

We regularly possess, process, store and handle non-public information about millions of individuals and businesses, including both credit and debit card information and other sensitive and confidential personal information in the normal course of our business. In addition, our customers regularly transmit sensitive and confidential information to us via the internet and through other electronic means. Despite the security measures and compliance programs we currently

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


maintain and continuously monitor, our facilities and systems and those of our third-party service providers may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our facilities or systems, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, misrepresentation, or other forms of deception of our employees or contractors. Many of the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, including viruses, worms and other malicious software programs, are difficult to anticipate until launched against a target and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures. The failure of our information facilities and systems to perform as designed, or the failure to maintain and protect the security of data, whether as the result of our own error or the malfeasance or errors of others, could substantially harm our reputation, diminish customer confidence, loss of key customers, interrupt our operations, result in governmental investigations and give rise to civil or criminal liabilities. For example, in recent years many companies have been subject to high-profile security breaches that involved sophisticated and targeted attacks on the company’s infrastructure and the compromise of non-public sensitive and confidential information. These attacks were often not recognized or detected until after the disclosure of sensitive information notwithstanding the preventive and anticipative measures the companies had maintained. To date, cyber security attacks directed at us have not had a material impact on our financial results.

Cyber security threats in our business environment expose us to risks.

Due to our continuous exposure to cyber-attacks and other security threats, we regularly, and at least quarterly, assess and review our information infrastructure and cyber security framework to assess security threats that could compromise the integrity of our information technology assets and supported business operations. We also regularly define information security objectives and standards and define and monitor identity management and access control. Although we have implemented policies, procedures and controls to protect against, detect and mitigate these threats, we face advanced and persistent attacks on our information infrastructure and attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our information technology assets are becoming more sophisticated. We actively monitor compliance, including with the European Union's Global Data Protection Regulations, and respond to security breaches and violations by utilizing procedures that provide for controls on detecting and preventing cyber breaches and communicating information to senior personnel and security representatives that we retain. We also address cyber security threats at third-parties that possess, process, store and handle Hertz data and information to mitigate the risk to us. However, because of the evolving nature and sophistication of these security threats, which can be difficult to detect, there can be no assurance that our policies, procedures and controls have or will detect or prevent all of these threats and we cannot predict the full impact of any such past or future incident. Any such failure by us to effectively address, enforce and maintain our information infrastructure and cyber security framework may result in substantial harm to our business, including major disruptions to business operations, loss of intellectual property, release of confidential information, malicious corruption of date, regulatory intervention and sanctions or fines and possible prolonged negative publicity.

Our leases and vehicle rental concessions expose us to risks.

We maintain a substantial network of vehicle rental locations at airports in the U.S. and internationally. Many of these locations are leased and subject to vehicle rental concessions where vehicle rental companies are frequently required to bid periodically for the available locations. If we are unable to continue operating these facilities at their current locations due to the termination of leases or vehicle rental concessions at airports, which comprise a majority of our revenues, our operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, if the costs of these leases increase and we are unable to increase our prices to offset the increased costs, our financial results could suffer.

Maintaining favorable brand recognition is essential to our success, and failure to do so could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our business is heavily dependent upon the favorable brand recognition that our “Hertz”, “Dollar” and “Thrifty” brand names have in the markets in which they participate. Factors affecting brand recognition are often outside our control, and our efforts to maintain or enhance favorable brand recognition, such as marketing and advertising campaigns, may not have their desired effects. In addition, although our licensing partners are subject to contractual requirements to protect our brands, it may be difficult to monitor or enforce such requirements, particularly in foreign jurisdictions and various laws may limit our ability to enforce the terms of these agreements or to terminate the agreements. Any

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


decline in perceived favorable recognition of our brands could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Maintaining effective employee retention and talent management is critical to our success.

We develop and maintain a talent management strategy that defines current and future talent requirements (e.g., skills, location needs, timing, etc.) based on our strategic direction, outlines coordinated recruiting and development plans across businesses and regions and considers employee mobility, centers of excellence and shared service concepts to optimize resource plans and leverage labor arbitrage. The consequences that may result from a failure of our employee retention and talent management can include an inability to sustain growth strategies due to the lack of required talent, non-competitive cost structures, an inability to encourage innovation and sustain competitive differentiation, declining employee morale and increased attrition.

We may face issues with our union employees.

Labor contracts covering the terms of employment for the Company's union employees in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. These contracts are renegotiated periodically. Failure to negotiate a new labor agreement when required could result in a work stoppage. Although we believe that our labor relations have generally been good, it is possible that we could become subject to additional work rules imposed by agreements with labor unions, or that work stoppages or other labor disturbances could occur in the future. In addition, our non-union workforce has been subject to unionization efforts in the past, and we could be subject to future unionization, which could lead to increases in our operating costs and/or constraints on our operating flexibility.

If there is a determination that any of the Spin-Off or the internal spin-off transactions completed in connection with the Spin-Off (collectively with the Spin-Off, the “Spin-Offs”) is taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes because the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings underlying the IRS private letter ruling or tax opinions are incorrect or for any other reason, then Herc Holdings and its stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities and Hertz Global could incur significant liabilities.

In connection with the Spin-Offs, Herc Holdings received a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") to the effect that, subject to the accuracy of and compliance with certain representations, assumptions and covenants, (i) the Spin-Off will qualify as a tax-free transaction under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and (ii) the internal spin-off transactions will qualify as tax free under Section 355 of the Code. A private letter ruling from the IRS generally is binding on the IRS. However, the IRS ruling did not rule that the Spin-Offs satisfied every requirement for a tax-free spin-off, and Herc Holdings and Hertz Global relied solely on opinions of professional advisors to determine that such additional requirements were satisfied. The ruling and the opinions relied on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from Herc Holdings and Hertz Holdings regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings were incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, Herc Holdings and Hertz Global, and their affiliates may not be able to rely on the ruling or the opinions of tax advisors and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the private letter ruling and opinions of tax advisors, the IRS could determine on audit that the Spin-Offs and related transactions are taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinions that are not covered by the private letter ruling, or for any other reason, including as a result of certain significant changes in the stock ownership of Herc Holdings or Hertz Global after the Spin-Off. If the Spin-Offs or related transactions are determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Herc Holdings and Hertz Global and, in certain cases, their stockholders (at the time of the Spin-Off) could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities, including taxation on the value of the Hertz Global stock distributed in the Spin-Off and the value of other companies distributed in the internal Spin-Off transactions, and Hertz Global could incur significant liabilities, either directly to the tax authorities or under a Tax Matters Agreement entered into with Herc Holdings.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


Some or all of our deferred tax assets could expire if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the Code.

An “ownership change” could limit our ability to utilize tax attributes, including net operating losses, capital loss carryovers, excess foreign tax carry forwards, and credit carryforwards, to offset future taxable income. Our ability to use such tax attributes to offset future taxable income and tax liabilities may be significantly limited if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382(g) of the Code. In general, an ownership change will occur when the percentage of Hertz Global's ownership of one or more “five-percent shareholders” (as defined in the Code) has increased by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of stock owned by such shareholders at any time during the prior three years (calculated on a rolling basis). An entity that experiences an ownership change generally should be subject to an annual limitation on its pre-ownership change tax loss carryforward equal to the equity value of the corporation immediately before the ownership change, multiplied by the long-term, tax-exempt rate posted monthly by the IRS (subject to certain adjustments). The annual limitation accumulates each year to the extent that there is any unused limitation from a prior year. The limitation on our ability to utilize tax losses and credit carryforwards arising from an ownership change under Section 382 depends on the value of our equity at the time of any ownership change. If we were to experience an “ownership change”, it is possible that a significant portion of our tax attributes could expire before we would be able to use them to offset future taxable income. Many states adopt the federal section 382 rules and therefore have similar limitations with respect to state tax attributes.

We face risks related to liabilities and insurance.

Our businesses expose us to claims for personal injury, death and property damage resulting from the use of the vehicles rented or sold by us, and for employment-related injury claims by our employees. The Company is currently a defendant in numerous actions and has received numerous claims on which actions have not yet been commenced for public liability and property damage arising from the operation of motor vehicles rented from the Company. We self-insure up to $10 million per occurrence globally, except $5 million Self Insured Retention for Europe Automobile Liability. In addition, the Company has $200 million insurance coverage excess of retentions. We cannot assure you that we will not be exposed to uninsured liability at levels in excess of our historical levels resulting from multiple payouts or otherwise, that liabilities in respect of existing or future claims will not exceed the level of our insurance, that we will have sufficient capital available to pay any uninsured claims or that insurance with unaffiliated carriers will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms or at all. See Item 1, “Business - Insurance and Risk Management” and Note 16, "Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Commitments," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, ‘‘Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

We could face a significant withdrawal liability if we withdraw from participation in multiemployer pension plans or in the event other employers in such plans become insolvent and certain multiemployer plans in which we participate are reported to have underfunded liabilities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows.

We could face a significant withdrawal liability if we withdraw from participation in one or more multiemployer pension plans or in the event other employers in such plans become insolvent, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. financial condition, liquidity or cash flows.

We participate in various “multiemployer” pension plans. In the event that we withdraw from participation in one of these plans, then applicable law could require us to make an additional lump-sum contribution to the plan, and we would have to reflect that as an expense in our consolidated statement of operations and as a liability on our consolidated balance sheet. Our withdrawal liability for any multiemployer plan would depend on the extent of the plan’s funding of vested benefits. Our multiemployer plans could have significant underfunded liabilities. Such underfunding may increase in the event other employers become insolvent or withdraw from the applicable plan or upon the inability or failure of withdrawing employers to pay their withdrawal liability. In addition, such underfunding may increase as a result of lower than expected returns on pension fund assets or other funding deficiencies. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows. See Note 9, "Employee Retirement Benefits," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, ‘‘Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)



Environmental laws and regulations and the costs of complying with them, or any liability or obligation imposed under them, could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations in connection with our operations, including with respect to the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and motor and waste oils. We cannot assure you that our tanks will at all times remain free from leaks or that the use of these tanks will not result in significant spills or leakage. If leakage or a spill occurs, it is possible that the resulting costs of cleanup, investigation and remediation, as well as any resulting fines, could be significant. We cannot assure you that compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations will not require material expenditures by us or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows. See Item 1, ‘‘Business—Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters’’ in this 2018 Annual Report.

The U.S. Congress and other legislative and regulatory authorities in the U.S. and internationally have considered, and will likely continue to consider, numerous measures related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Should rules establishing limitations on greenhouse gas emissions or rules imposing fees on entities deemed to be responsible for greenhouse gas emissions become effective, demand for our services could be affected, our vehicle, and/or other, costs could increase, and our business could be adversely affected.

Changes in the U.S. legal and regulatory environment that affect our operations, including laws and regulations relating to taxes, automobile related liability, insurance rates, insurance products, consumer privacy, data security, employment matters, licensing and franchising, used-car sales (including retail sales), cost and fee recovery and the banking and financing industry could disrupt our business, increase our expenses or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We are subject to a wide variety of U.S. laws and regulations and changes in the level of government regulation of our business have the potential to materially alter our business practices and materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows, including our profitability. Those changes may occur through new laws and regulations or changes in the interpretation of existing laws and regulations.

Any new, or change in existing, U.S. law and regulation with respect to optional insurance products or policies could increase our costs of compliance or make it uneconomical to offer such products, which would lead to a reduction in revenue and profitability. For further discussion regarding how changes in the regulation of insurance intermediaries may affect us, see Item 1, ‘‘Business—Insurance and Risk Management’’ in this 2018 Annual Report. If customers decline to purchase supplemental liability insurance products from us as a result of any changes in these laws or otherwise, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Changes in the U.S. legal and regulatory environments in the areas of customer and employee privacy, data security, and cross-border data flows could have a material adverse effect on our business, primarily through the impairment of our marketing and transaction processing activities, and the resulting costs of complying with such legal and regulatory requirements. It is also possible that we could encounter significant liability for failing to comply with any such requirements.

We derive revenue through rental activities of the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands under franchise and license arrangements. These arrangements are subject to various international, federal and state laws and regulations that impose limitations on our interactions with counterparties. In addition, the used-vehicle sale industry, including our network of company-operated retail vehicle sales locations, is subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws and regulations, such as those relating to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales and related finance and insurance matters, advertising, licensing, consumer protection and consumer privacy. Changes in these laws and regulations that impact our franchising and licensing agreements or our used-vehicle sales could adversely affect our results.

In most jurisdictions where we operate, we pass-through various expenses, including the recovery of vehicle licensing

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


costs and airport concession fees, to our rental customers as separate charges. We believe that our expense pass-throughs, where imposed, are properly disclosed and are lawful. However, in the event of incorrect calculations or disclosures with respect to expense pass-throughs, or a successful challenge to the methodology we have used for determining our expense pass-through treatment, we could be subject to fines or other liabilities. In addition, we may in the future be subject to potential legislative, regulatory or administrative changes or actions which could limit, restrict or prohibit our ability to separately state, charge and recover vehicle licensing costs and airport concession fees, which could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain proposed or enacted laws and regulations with respect to the banking and finance industries, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (including risk retention requirements) and amendments to the SEC's rules relating to asset-backed securities, could restrict our access to certain financing arrangements and increase our financing costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR SUBSTANTIAL INDEBTEDNESS

Our substantial level of indebtedness could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows and ability to compete in our industry.

Our substantial indebtedness could materially adversely affect our business by, among other situations: (i) making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations to the holders of our outstanding debt securities and to the lenders under our various credit facilities, resulting in possible defaults on, and acceleration or early amortization of, such indebtedness; (ii) being difficult to refinance or borrow additional funds in the future; (iii) requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations and investing activities to make payments on our debt, which would reduce our ability to fund working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate purposes; (iv) increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions (such as credit-related disruptions), including interest rate fluctuations, because a portion of our borrowings are at floating rates of interest and are not hedged against rising interest rates, and the risk that one or more of the financial institutions providing commitments under our revolving credit facilities fails to fund an extension of credit under any such facility, due to insolvency or otherwise, leaving us with less liquidity than expected; (v) placing us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors that have proportionately less debt or comparable debt at more favorable interest rates or on better terms; and (vi) limiting our ability to react to competitive pressures, or make it difficult for us to carry out capital program spending that is necessary or important to our growth strategy and our efforts to improve operating margins. While the terms of the agreements and instruments governing our outstanding indebtedness contain certain restrictions upon our ability to incur additional indebtedness, they do not fully prohibit us from incurring substantial additional indebtedness and do not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. If new debt or other obligations are added to our current liability levels without a corresponding refinancing or redemption of our existing indebtedness and obligations, these risks would increase. For a description of the amounts we have available under certain of our debt facilities, see Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources—Borrowing Capacity and Availability” included in this 2018 Annual Report and Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Our ability to manage these risks depends on financial market conditions as well as our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, is subject to a wide range of risks, including those described under “Risks Related to Our Business and Industry.”

Our Senior Facilities and our Letter of Credit Facility contain customary events of default, subject to customary cure periods for certain defaults, that include, among others, non-payment defaults, covenant defaults, material judgment defaults, bankruptcy and insolvency defaults, cross-acceleration of certain other material indebtedness, and inaccuracy of representations and warranties. Upon an event of default thereunder, if not waived by our lenders, our lenders may declare all amounts outstanding as due and payable, which may cause further defaults and/or amortization events under our other debt obligations. The credit agreement governing our Senior Facilities and the credit agreement governing our Letter of Credit Facility require us upon a change of control, as defined therein, to make an offer to repay in full all amounts outstanding thereunder upon such a change of control. Our failure to make such an offer would result

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


in an event of default thereunder. In addition, the indentures governing our Senior Notes and our Senior Second Priority Secured Notes require us upon a change of control, as defined therein, to make an offer to repurchase all of such outstanding Senior Notes and Senior Second Priority Secured Notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount, together with any accrued and unpaid interest. If we failed to repurchase the Senior Notes and Senior Second Priority Secured Notes, we would be in default under the related indenture. Certain of our other indebtedness also could result in defaults and/or amortization events upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, as defined therein. If our current lenders accelerate the maturity of their related indebtedness, we may not have sufficient capital available at that time to pay the amounts due to our lenders on a timely basis, and there is no guarantee that we would be able to repay, refinance, or restructure the payments on such debt.

If our capital resources (including borrowings under our revolving credit facilities and access to other refinancing indebtedness) and operating cash flows are not sufficient to pay our obligations as they mature or to fund our liquidity requirements, we may be forced to do, among other things, one or more of the following: (i) sell certain of our assets; (ii) reduce the number of our revenue earning vehicles; (iii) reduce or delay capital expenditures; (iv) obtain additional equity capital; (v) forgo business opportunities, including acquisitions and joint ventures; or (vi) restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity.

We cannot assure you that we would be able to accomplish any of these alternatives on a timely basis or on satisfactory terms, if at all. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that we will maintain financing activities and cash flows sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. If we cannot refinance or otherwise pay our obligations as they mature and fund our liquidity requirements, our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows, ability to obtain financing and ability to compete in our industry could be materially adversely affected.

Our reliance on asset-backed and asset-based financing arrangements to purchase vehicles subjects us to a number of risks, many of which are beyond our control.

We rely significantly on asset-backed and asset-based financing to purchase vehicles. If we are unable to refinance or replace our existing asset-backed and asset-based financing or continue to finance new vehicle acquisitions through asset-backed or asset-based financing on favorable terms, on a timely basis, or at all, then our costs of financing could increase significantly and have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, interest costs, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our asset-backed and asset-based financing capacity could be decreased, our financing costs and interest rates could be increased, or our future access to the financial markets could be limited, as a result of risks and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, including: (i) the acceptance by credit markets of the structures and structural risks associated with our asset-backed and asset-based financing arrangements; (ii) the credit ratings provided by credit rating agencies for our asset-backed indebtedness; (iii) third parties requiring changes in the terms and structure of our asset-backed or asset-based financing arrangements, including increased credit enhancement or required cash collateral and/or other liquid reserves; (iv) the insolvency or deterioration of the financial condition of one or more of our principal vehicle manufacturers; or (v) changes in laws or regulations, including judicial review of issues of first impression, that negatively affect any of our asset-backed or asset-based financing arrangements.

Any reduction in the value of certain revenue earning vehicles could effectively increase our vehicle costs, adversely affect our profitability and potentially lead to decreased borrowing base availability in our asset-backed and certain asset-based vehicle financing facilities due to the credit enhancement requirements for such facilities, which could increase if market values for vehicles decrease below net book values for those vehicles. In addition, if disposal of vehicles in the used vehicle marketplace were to become severely limited at a time when required collateral levels were rising and as a result we failed to meet the minimum required collateral levels, the principal under our asset-backed and certain asset-based financing arrangements may be required to be repaid sooner than anticipated with vehicle disposition proceeds and lease payments we make to our special purpose financing subsidiaries. If that were to occur, the holders of our asset-backed and certain asset-based debt may have the ability to exercise their right to direct the trustee or other secured party to foreclose on and sell vehicles to generate proceeds sufficient to repay such debt.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


The occurrence of certain events, including those described above, could result in the occurrence of an amortization event pursuant to which the proceeds of sales of vehicles that collateralize the affected asset-backed financing arrangement would be required to be applied to the payment of principal and interest on the affected facility or series, rather than being reinvested in our revenue earning vehicles. In the case of our asset-backed financing arrangements, certain other events, including defaults by us and our affiliates in the performance of covenants set forth in the agreements governing certain vehicle debt, could result in the occurrence of a liquidation event with the passing of time or immediately pursuant to which the trustee or holders of the affected asset-backed financing arrangement would be permitted to require the sale of the assets collateralizing that series. Failure by us to have proper financing and debt management processes may result in cash shortfalls and liquidity problems, emergency financing at high interest rates, violations of debt covenants, an inability to execute strategic initiatives, which may affect our liquidity and our ability to maintain sufficient levels of revenue earning vehicles to meet customer demands and could trigger cross-defaults under certain of our other financing arrangements.

Substantially all of our consolidated assets secure certain of our outstanding indebtedness, which could materially adversely affect our debt and equity holders and our business.

Substantially all of our consolidated assets, including our revenue earning vehicles and Donlen’s lease portfolio, are subject to security interests or are otherwise encumbered for the lenders under our senior credit facilities, asset-backed and asset-based financing arrangements. As a result, the lenders under those facilities would have a prior claim on such assets in the event of our bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation or reorganization, and we may not have sufficient funds to pay in full, or at all, all of our creditors or make any amount available to holders of our equity. The same is true with respect to structurally senior obligations: in general, all liabilities and other obligations of a subsidiary must be satisfied before the assets of such subsidiary can be made available to the creditors (or equity holders) of the parent entity.

Because substantially all of our assets are encumbered under financing arrangements, our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness or to sell or dispose of assets to raise capital may be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial flexibility and force us to attempt to incur additional unsecured indebtedness, which may not be available to us.

Restrictive covenants in certain of the agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness may materially adversely affect our financial flexibility or may have other material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain of our credit facilities, our indentures and other asset-based and asset-backed financing arrangements contain covenants that, among other things, restrict Hertz and its subsidiaries’ ability to: (i) dispose of assets; (ii) incur additional indebtedness; (iii) incur guarantee obligations; (iv) prepay other indebtedness or amend other financing arrangements; (v) pay dividends; (vi) create liens on assets; (vii) sell assets; (viii) make investments, loans, advances or capital expenditures; (ix) make acquisitions; (x) engage in mergers or consolidations; (xi) change the business conducted by us; and (xii) engage in certain transactions with affiliates.

Our Senior RCF and our Letter of Credit Facility subject us to a financial maintenance covenant. Our ability to comply with this covenant will depend on our ongoing financial and operating performance, which in turn are subject to, among other things, the risks identified in “Risks Related to Our Business.”

The agreements governing our financing arrangements contain numerous covenants. The breach of any of these covenants or restrictions could result in a default under the relevant agreement, which could, in turn, cause cross-defaults under our other financing arrangements. In such event, we may be unable to borrow under the Senior RCF and certain of our other financing arrangements and may not be able to repay the amounts due under such arrangements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


An increase in interest rates or in our borrowing margin would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could reduce our profitability.

A significant portion of our outstanding debt bears interest at floating rates. As a result, to the extent we have not hedged against rising interest rates, an increase in the applicable benchmark interest rates would increase our cost of servicing our debt and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

In addition, we regularly refinance our indebtedness. If interest rates or our borrowing margins increase between the time an existing financing arrangement was consummated and the time such financing arrangement is refinanced, the cost of servicing our debt would increase and our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

The interest rates of certain of our financing instruments are priced using a spread over LIBOR.

The London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”), is the basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on the London interbank market and is widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. We typically use LIBOR as a reference rate in various of our financing transactions such that the interest due to the creditors pursuant to such financing transactions is calculated using LIBOR. Our term loan agreement also contains a stated minimum floor value for LIBOR.

On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear if at that time whether or not LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities (“SOFR”). SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Given that SOFR is a secured rate backed by government securities, it will be a rate that does not take into account bank credit risk (as is the case with LIBOR). Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question. As such, the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. At this time, due to a lack of consensus as to what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on our liquidity. However, if LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to renegotiate certain of our financing agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established. Additionally, these changes may have an impact on the value of any LIBOR-based marketable securities, fleet leases, loans and derivatives that are included in our financial assets and liabilities.

RISKS RELATING TO HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. COMMON STOCK

Hertz Holdings is a holding company with no operations of its own and depends on its subsidiaries for cash.
The operations of Hertz Holdings are conducted nearly entirely through its subsidiaries and its ability to generate cash to meet its debt service obligations or to pay dividends on its common stock is dependent on the earnings and the receipt of funds from its subsidiaries via dividends or intercompany loans. However, none of the subsidiaries of Hertz Holdings are obligated to make funds available to Hertz Holdings for the payment of dividends or the service of its debt. In addition, certain states' laws and the terms of certain of our debt agreements significantly restrict, or prohibit, the ability of Hertz and its subsidiaries to pay dividends, make loans or otherwise transfer assets to Hertz Holdings, including state laws that require dividends to be paid only from surplus. If Hertz Holdings does not receive cash from its subsidiaries, then Hertz Holdings' financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Hertz Holdings' share price may decline if it issues a large number of new shares or if a holder of a substantial number of shares sells their stock.
Hertz Holdings has a significant number of authorized but unissued shares, including shares available for issuance pursuant to various equity plans. In addition, in recent years, several shareholders, most notably affiliates of Carl Icahn,

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)


have accumulated significant amounts of Hertz Holdings common stock and may have the ability to exert substantial influence over actions to be taken or approved by our stockholders, including the election of directors. A sale of a substantial number of shares or other equity-related securities in the public market pursuant to new issuances or by these significant shareholders could depress the market price of Hertz Holdings' stock and impair its ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Any such sale or issuance would dilute the ownership interests of the then-existing stockholders and could have material adverse effect on the market price of Hertz Holdings' common stock. In addition, in the normal course of business, the Company purchases goods and services and leases property from entities controlled by Carl Icahn and his affiliates, including The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack. It is possible that these entities could cancel, choose not to renew or renegotiate the terms of their arrangements with the Company following the sale of shares by affiliates of Carl Icahn, which could adversely impact our business. See Note 17, "Related Party Transactions," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data".

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We operate vehicle rental locations at or near airports and in central business districts and suburban areas of major cities in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands), Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom, as well as retail used vehicle sales locations primarily in the U.S. We also operate headquarters, sales offices and service facilities in the foregoing countries in support of our vehicle rental operations, as well as small vehicle rental sales offices and service facilities in a select number of other countries in Europe and Asia.

We own less than 5% of the locations from which we operate our vehicle rental businesses and, in some cases own real property that we lease to franchisees or other third parties. The remaining locations from which we operate our vehicle rental businesses are leased or operated under concessions from governmental authorities and private entities. Those leases and concession agreements typically require minimum lease payments or minimum concession fees and often require us to pay or reimburse operating expenses, pay additional lease payments above guaranteed minimums, which are based on a percentage of revenues or sales at the relevant premises, or to do both. See Note 11, "Leases," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Donlen's headquarters is in a leased facility in Bannockburn, Illinois. Donlen also has leased sales offices located throughout the U.S. and Canada.

We own our worldwide headquarters facility in Estero, Florida. We also own two facilities and lease one facility near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma at which reservations for our vehicle rental operations are processed, global information technology systems are serviced and finance and accounting functions are performed. Additionally, we own a reservation and financial center near Dublin, Ireland, at which we have centralized our European vehicle rental reservation, customer relations, accounting and human resource functions and lease a European headquarters office in Uxbridge, England.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 16, "Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Commitments," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."


32

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS (Continued)

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS

Set forth below are the names, ages, number of years employed by the Company as of February 18, 2019 and positions of our executive officers.
Name
 
Age
 
Number of Years Employed
 
Position
Kathryn V. Marinello
 
62
 
2
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Jamere Jackson
 
49
 
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Murali Kuppuswamy
 
57
 
1
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Jodi J. Allen
 
53
 
1
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer
Richard J. Frecker
 
50
 
10
 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Opal G. Perry
 
47
 
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer
Paul E. Stone
 
48
 
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Retail Operations Officer
Richard E. Esper
 
38
 
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer

Ms. Marinello has served as the President and Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company since January 2017. Ms. Marinello previously served as a Senior Advisor of Ares Management LLC, a global alternative investment manager, from March 2014 to December 2016, and as Chair, President and Chief Executive Officer of Stream Global Services, Inc., a business process outsourcing service provider, from 2010 to March 2014. Ms. Marinello served as Chair, Chief Executive Officer and President of Ceridian Corporation, a provider of human resources software and services, from 2006 to 2010 (promoted to Chair in 2007). She served in a broad range of senior roles from 1997 to 2006 at General Electric Co. ("GE"), an international industrial and technology company, including leading global, multi-billion dollar financial and services businesses and subsidiaries. During that period, she served as Chief Executive Officer and President of GE Fleet Services at GE Commercial Finance from October 2002 to October 2006 and GE Insurance Solutions from 1999 to 2002. She served as President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Financial Assurance Partnership Marketing Group, a diverse organization that includes GE’s affinity marketing business, Auto & Home Insurance business and Auto Warranty Service business, from December 2000 to October 2002. Prior to GE, Ms. Marinello served as President of the Electronic Payments Group at First Data Corporation, which provides electronic banking and commerce, debit and commercial processing to the financial services industry. She has also served in senior leadership positions at several financial institutions, including US Bank (previously First Bank Systems), Chemical Bank, Citibank and Barclays.  Ms. Marinello has served as a director of Volvo Group, a multinational manufacturing company, since April 2014. Ms. Marinello served as a member of the Supervisory Board at The Nielsen Company B.V., a global information and measurement company, from July 2009 to May 2017, as a director of General Motors, a global automotive company, from July 2009 to December 2016, and as a director of RealPage, Inc., a provider of property management software and solutions, from 2015 to March 2017.

Mr. Jackson has served as the Chief Financial Officer of the Company since September 2018. From March 2014 to August 2018, Mr. Jackson served as Chief Financial Officer of Nielsen Holdings plc, an information, data and measurement company. From 2004 to February 2014, Mr. Jackson held a variety of leadership roles at General Electric Company, an international industrial and technology company, most recently as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of a division of GE Oil & Gas, an equipment supplier for the global oil and gas industry. Mr. Jackson has served on the board of directors for Eli Lilly & Co, a global pharmaceutical company, since October 2016 where he serves on the audit and finance committees.

Mr. Kuppuswamy has been Chief Human Resources Officer and Executive Vice President of the Company since September 2017. Mr. Kuppuswamy served as the Chief Human Resources Officer at Baker Hughes, LLC, an industrial service company, from May 27, 2016 to September 2017. He has more than 30 years of human resources management experience, serving in Vice President roles for Baker Hughes, LLC since 2011 in Europe, Africa and Russia. From 1993 to 2011, he worked at General Electric Co., an international industrial and technology company, where he held various human resources leadership positions including at GE Global Research, GE Capital and GE Lighting divisions in the U.S and India.


33

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS (Continued)

Ms. Allen has been an Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of the Company since October 2017. Ms. Allen has more than 30 years of consumer experience in various leadership roles at The Procter & Gamble Company ("Proctor & Gamble"), a consumer products company. She served as Vice President and General Manager of North America Hair Care at Procter & Gamble, where she managed a cross-functional team responsible for developing portfolio strategy across six brands. Prior to that, Ms. Allen spent eight years in Baby Care and General Management and 19 years in various other key positions at Procter & Gamble.

Mr. Frecker has served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of the Company since July 2016. Mr. Frecker previously served as Senior Vice President and Acting General Counsel from April 2016 to July 2016, Vice President, Deputy General Counsel from March 2013 to April 2016, Associate General Counsel from March 2011 to March 2013 and Assistant General Counsel from July 2008 to March 2011. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Frecker was Corporate Counsel at The Children’s Place, Inc., a NASDAQ-listed children’s apparel company from February 2006 to July 2008. Previous to The Children’s Place, Mr. Frecker was in private practice at the law firm of Dorsey and Whitney LLP.

Ms. Perry has served as the Chief Information Officer of the Company since August 2018.  Ms. Perry has over 20 years of expertise in building and growing global technology organizations, leading change initiatives and managing integration activities.  Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Perry served in various leadership positions at Allstate Corporation, a major insurance provider, from November 2011 to July 2018, including as Vice President of Technology and Strategic Ventures and Divisional Chief Information Officer, Claims Division, from 2016 to 2018, Interim Managing Director of Allstate Northern Ireland from 2015 to 2016, Chief Operating Officer of Allstate Technology and Strategic Ventures International from 2014 to 2016 and Vice President of Testing and Release Management from 2011 to 2014. Prior to joining Allstate, Ms. Perry served at Wells Fargo and Company, a multinational financial services company, as Vice President and Technology Area Manager of the Internet Services Group from March 2008 to November 2011 and as Technology Manager for the Home and Consumer Finance Group from February 2004 to March 2008.

Mr. Stone has been Executive Vice President and Chief Retail Operations Officer North America of the Company since March 2018. Mr. Stone most recently served as the Chief Retail Officer at Cabela’s Inc., an outdoor outfitter retail company, from November 2015 to December 2017. Prior to joining Cabela’s Inc., Mr. Stone spent 28 years growing his career with Sam’s Club, a retail warehouse subsidiary of Walmart Inc., a multinational retail corporation, most-recently as Senior Vice President - West Division from 2007 to 2015, where he led operations upwards of 200 locations with more than 30,000 employees.

Mr. Esper has been Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company since November 2018. He previously served as Vice President and Controller of the Company beginning March 2018. From July 2010 to March 2018, Mr. Esper held a variety of financial leadership roles with Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd., a worldwide cruise line company, most recently as Vice President, Brand Finance & Strategy, and Vice President and Controller.

34

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

HERTZ GLOBAL

Hertz Holdings' common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "HTZ". As of February 18, 2019, there were 1,432 registered holders of Hertz Holdings common stock.

Hertz Holdings paid no cash dividends on its common stock in 2018 or 2017, and it does not expect to pay dividends on its common stock for the foreseeable future.

Hertz Holdings has a Board-approved share repurchase program that authorizes it to repurchase shares of its common stock through a variety of methods, including in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, in accordance with applicable securities laws. It does not obligate Hertz Holdings to make any repurchases at any specific time or situation. There were no shares repurchased under this program in 2018 or 2017. As of December 31, 2018, there was $295 million available for use for repurchases under this program.

Since Hertz Holdings does not conduct business itself, it primarily funds dividends on, and repurchases of, its common stock using dividends from Hertz or amounts borrowed under the master loan agreement. The credit agreements governing Hertz's Senior Facilities and Letter of Credit Facility restrict Hertz's ability to make dividends and certain payments, including payments to Hertz Holdings for dividends on Hertz Holdings' common stock or for share repurchases.

Recent Performance

The graph that follows compares the cumulative total stockholder return on Hertz Holdings common stock with the Russell 1000 Index and the Morningstar Rental & Leasing Services Industry Group. The periods depicted in the chart below prior to the Spin-Off reflect the performance of Old Hertz Holdings common stock and the periods subsequent to the Spin-Off depict the Hertz Holdings common stock performance. The Russell 1000 Index is included because it is comprised of the 1,000 largest publicly traded issuers. The Morningstar Rental & Leasing Services Industry Group is a published, market capitalization-weighted index representing stocks of companies that rent or lease various durable goods to the commercial and consumer market including vehicles and trucks, medical and industrial equipment, appliances, tools and other miscellaneous goods, including Hertz Holdings. The results are based on an assumed $100 invested on December 31, 2013, at the market close, through December 31, 2018.


35

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (Continued)



COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN AMONG HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC.,
RUSSELL 1000 INDEX AND MORNINGSTAR RENTAL & LEASING SERVICES
INDUSTRY GROUP
ASSUMES DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT
chart-a8f74f9b3ce55151995.jpg

Equity Compensation Information

The following table summarizes the securities authorized for issuance pursuant to our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2018:

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
Number of securities to
be issued upon exercise
of outstanding options,
warrants and rights
(a)
 
Weighted average exercise price of outstanding options and RSU's / PSU's
(b)
 
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation
plans (excluding
securities reflected in
column (a))
(c)
Stock Options
 
1,170,318

 
$
30.44

 
4,068,027

Performance Stock Shares/Units
 
1,567,126

 
N/A

 

Restricted Stock Shares/Units
 
1,122,233

 
N/A

 

Total
 
3,859,677

 
 
 
4,068,027


HERTZ

There is no established public trading market for the common stock of Hertz. Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by Hertz Holdings, owns all of the outstanding common stock of Hertz.

Hertz did not pay dividends to Hertz Holdings in 2018 or 2017. The credit agreements governing Hertz's Senior Facilities and Letter of Credit Facility restrict Hertz's ability to make dividends and certain payments to Hertz Holdings.

36


HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES


ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA


HERTZ GLOBAL

The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz Global included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were derived from audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz Global and Old Hertz Holdings, not included in this 2018 Annual Report, as updated to reflect the equipment rental business and certain parent legal entities as discontinued operations.

The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto of Hertz Global included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz Global.
(In millions, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
Statement of Operations Data
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Worldwide vehicle rental(a)
$
8,756

 
$
8,163

 
$
8,211

 
$
8,434

 
$
8,907

All other operations
748

 
640

 
592

 
583

 
568

Total revenues
9,504

 
8,803

 
8,803

 
9,017

 
9,475

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct vehicle and operating
5,355

 
4,958

 
4,932

 
5,055

 
5,458

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,690

 
2,798

 
2,601

 
2,433

 
2,705

Selling, general and administrative
1,017

 
880

 
899

 
873

 
936

Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
448

 
331

 
280

 
253

 
277

Non-vehicle
291

 
306

 
344

 
346

 
340

Total interest expense, net
739

 
637

 
624

 
599

 
617

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments

 
86

 
292

 
40

 

Other (income) expense, net
(40
)
 
19

 
(75
)
 
(115
)
 
(10
)
Total expenses
9,761

 
9,378

 
9,273

 
8,885

 
9,706

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
(257
)
 
(575
)
 
(470
)

132

 
(231
)
Income tax (provision) benefit(b)
30

 
902

 
(4
)
 
(17
)
 
17

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(227
)
 
327

 
(474
)
 
115

 
(214
)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
(17
)
 
158

 
132

Net income (loss)
(227
)
 
327

 
(491
)
 
273

 
(82
)
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
2

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Hertz Global
$
(225
)
 
$
327

 
$
(491
)
 
$
273

 
$
(82
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:(c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
84

 
83

 
84

 
90

 
91

Diluted
84

 
83

 
84

 
91

 
91

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Basic earnings (loss) per share
$
(2.68
)
 
$
3.94

 
$
(5.85
)
 
$
3.03

 
$
(0.90
)
Diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
(2.68
)
 
$
3.94

 
$
(5.85
)
 
$
3.00

 
$
(0.90
)

37

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)



(In millions)
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
   2014(e)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,127

 
$
1,072

 
$
816

 
$
474

 
$
474

Total assets(d)
21,382

 
20,058

 
19,155

 
23,514

 
23,904

Total debt
16,324

 
14,865

 
13,541

 
15,770

 
15,720

Total equity attributable to Hertz Global(f)
1,061

 
1,520

 
1,075

 
2,019

 
2,464


(a)
Includes U.S. Rental Car and International Rental Car segments.
(b)
Income tax (provision) benefit for 2018 and 2017 includes the effects of the TCJA, which contained wide-ranging changes to the U.S. tax structure, as further disclosed in Note 13, "Income Tax (Provision) Benefit," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
(c)
Weighted average shares outstanding used to calculate basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share has been adjusted for the one-to-five distribution ratio in connection with the Spin-Off for the period in 2016 prior to the Spin-Off and for the years ended December 31, 2015, and 2014. See Note 18, "Equity and Earnings (Loss) Per Share - Hertz Global," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
(d)
The balance of total assets as of December 31, 2015, and 2014 include the assets of the equipment rental operations and certain parent legal entities that were spun-off on June 30, 2016.
(e)
Balance sheet data in this table for 2014 includes the reclassification of certain debt issuance costs from assets to liabilities in conformity with other periods presented.
(f)
Total equity as of December 31, 2018 includes the net adjustment recorded to accumulated deficit of $178 million upon adoption of guidance impacting revenue recognition and reporting comprehensive income as further disclosed in Note 2, "Significant Accounting Policies" to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

HERTZ

The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were derived from audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz, not included in this 2018 Annual Report, as updated to reflect the equipment rental business as discontinued operations.

The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto of Hertz included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz.


38

THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)


(In millions)
Years Ended December 31,
Statement of Operations Data
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Worldwide vehicle rental(a)
$
8,756

 
$
8,163

 
$
8,211

 
$
8,434

 
$
8,907

All other operations
748

 
640

 
592

 
583

 
568

Total revenues
9,504

 
8,803

 
8,803

 
9,017

 
9,475

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct vehicle and operating
5,355

 
4,958

 
4,932

 
5,055

 
5,458

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,690

 
2,798

 
2,601

 
2,433

 
2,705

Selling, general and administrative
1,017

 
880

 
899

 
873

 
936

Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
448

 
331

 
280

 
253

 
277

Non-vehicle
284

 
301

 
343

 
346

 
340

Total interest expense, net
732

 
632

 
623

 
599

 
617

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments

 
86

 
292

 
40

 

Other (income) expense, net
(40
)
 
19

 
(75
)
 
(115
)
 
(10
)
Total expenses
9,754

 
9,373

 
9,272

 
8,885

 
9,706

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
(250
)
 
(570
)
 
(469
)
 
132

 
(231
)
Income tax (provision) benefit(b)
28

 
902

 
(4
)
 
(17
)
 
17

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(222
)
 
332

 
(473
)
 
115

 
(214
)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
(15
)
 
161

 
136

Net income (loss)
(222
)
 
332

 
(488
)
 
276

 
(78
)
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
2

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Hertz
$
(220
)
 
$
332

 
$
(488
)
 
$
276

 
$
(78
)

(In millions)
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
   2014(d)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,127

 
$
1,072

 
$
816

 
$
474

 
$
474

Total assets(c)
21,382

 
20,058

 
19,155

 
23,509

 
23,999

Total debt
16,324

 
14,865

 
13,541

 
15,770

 
15,720

Total equity attributable to Hertz(f)
1,059

 
1,520

 
1,075

 
1,948

 
2,495


(a)
Includes U.S. Rental Car and International Rental Car segments.
(b)
Income tax (provision) benefit for 2018 and 2017 includes the effects of the TCJA, which contained wide-ranging changes to the U.S. tax structure, as further disclosed in Note 13, "Income Tax (Provision) Benefit," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
(c)
The balance of total assets as of December 31, 2015, and 2014 include the assets of the equipment rental operations that were spun-off on June 30, 2016.
(d)
Balance sheet data in this table for 2014 includes the reclassification of certain debt issuance costs from assets to liabilities in conformity with other periods presented.
(f)
Total equity as of December 31, 2018 includes the net adjustment recorded to accumulated deficit of $178 million upon adoption of guidance impacting revenue recognition and reporting comprehensive income as further disclosed in Note 2, "Significant Accounting Policies" to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

39

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, “Hertz Global”) is a holding company and its principal, wholly-owned subsidiary is The Hertz Corporation (together with its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities, "Hertz"). Hertz Global consolidates Hertz for financial statement purposes, and Hertz comprises approximately the entire balance of Hertz Global’s assets, liabilities and operating cash flows. In addition, Hertz’s operating revenues and operating expenses comprise nearly 100% of Hertz Global’s revenues and operating expenses. As such, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") that follows herein is for Hertz and also applies to Hertz Global in all material respects, unless noted. Differences between the operations and results of Hertz and Hertz Global are separately disclosed and explained. We sometimes use the words “we,” “our,” “us,” and the “Company” in this MD&A for disclosures that relate to all of Hertz and Hertz Global.

The statements in MD&A regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding the performance of our business and the other non-historical statements are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors.” The following MD&A provides information that we believe to be relevant to an understanding of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements. You should read the following MD&A together with the sections entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” Item 1A, "Risk Factors,” Item 6, "Selected Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

In this MD&A we refer to certain key metrics and non-GAAP measures, including the following:
Adjusted Pre-tax Income (Loss) - important to management because it allows management to assess the operational performance of our business, exclusive of certain items and allows management to assess the performance of the entire business on the same basis as the segment measure of profitability. Management believes that it is important to investors for the same reasons it is important to management and because it allows them to assess our operational performance on the same basis that management uses internally.
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month - important to management and investors as depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges is one of our largest expenses for the vehicle rental business and is driven by the number of vehicles, expected residual values at the expected time of disposal and expected hold period of the vehicles. Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month is reflective of how we are managing the costs of our vehicles and facilitates a comparison with other participants in the vehicle rental industry.
Total Revenue Per Transaction Day ("Total RPD," also referred to as "pricing") - important to management and investors as it represents a measurement of the changes in underlying pricing in the vehicle rental business and encompasses the elements in vehicle rental pricing that management has the ability to control.
Total Revenue Per Unit Per Month ("Total RPU") - important to management and investors as it provides a measure of revenue productivity relative to the total number of vehicles in our fleet whether owned or leased ("Average Vehicles" or "fleet capacity").
Transaction Days - important to management and investors as it represents the number of revenue generating days ("volume"). It is used as a component to measure Total RPD and Vehicle Utilization. Transaction Days represent the total number of 24-hour periods, with any partial period counted as one Transaction Day, that vehicles were on rent (the period between when a rental contract is opened and closed) in a given period. Thus, it is possible for a vehicle to attain more than one Transaction Day in a 24-hour period.
Vehicle Utilization - important to management and investors because it is the measurement of the proportion of our vehicles that are being used to generate revenues relative to fleet capacity. Higher Vehicle Utilization means more vehicles are being utilized to generate revenue.
Key metrics and non-GAAP measures should not be considered in isolation and should not be considered superior to, or a substitute for, financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The above key metrics and non-GAAP

40

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

measures are defined, and the non-GAAP measures are reconciled to their most comparable U.S. GAAP measure, in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" section of this MD&A.

OVERVIEW OF OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATING ENVIRONMENT

We are engaged principally in the business of renting vehicles primarily through our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands. In addition to vehicle rental, we provide integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions through our Donlen subsidiary. We have a diversified revenue base and a highly variable cost structure and are able to adjust fleet capacity, the most significant determinant of our costs, over time to meet expectations of market demand. Our profitability is primarily a function of the volume, mix and pricing of rental transactions and the utilization of vehicles, the related ownership cost of vehicles and other operating costs. Significant changes in the purchase price or residual values of vehicles or interest rates can have a significant effect on our profitability depending on our ability to adjust pricing for these changes. We continue to balance our mix of non-program and program vehicles based on market conditions, including residual values. Our business requires significant expenditures for vehicles, and consequently we require substantial liquidity to finance such expenditures. See "Liquidity and Capital Resources" below.

Our strategy includes optimization of our vehicle rental operations, disciplined performance management and evaluation of all locations and the pursuit of same-store sales growth.

Our total revenues primarily are derived from rental and related charges and consist of:

Worldwide vehicle rental revenues - revenues from all company-operated vehicle rental operations, including charges to customers for the reimbursement of costs incurred relating to airport concession fees and vehicle license fees, the fueling of vehicles and revenues associated with value-added services, including the sale of loss or collision damage waivers, liability insurance coverage, parking and other products and fees. Also included are ancillary revenues associated with retail vehicle sales and certain royalty fees from our franchisees (such fees are less than 2% of total revenues each period); and

All other operations revenues - revenues from vehicle leasing and fleet management services by our Donlen business and other business activities.

Our expenses primarily consist of:

Direct vehicle and operating expense ("DOE") (primarily wages and related benefits; commissions and concession fees paid to airport authorities, travel agents and others; facility, self-insurance and reservation costs; and other costs relating to the operation and rental of revenue earning vehicles, such as damage, maintenance and fuel costs);

Depreciation expense and lease charges, net relating to revenue earning vehicles (including net gains or losses on the disposal of such vehicles);

Selling, general and administrative expense ("SG&A") which includes costs for information technology and finance transformation programs; and

Interest expense, net.

Generally, between 70% and 75% of our annual operating costs represent variable costs, while the remaining costs are fixed or semi-fixed. To accommodate increased demand, we increase our available fleet and staff. As demand declines, fleet and staff are decreased accordingly. A number of our other major operating costs, including airport concession fees, commissions and vehicle liability expenses, are directly related to revenues or transaction volumes. In addition, our management expects to utilize enhanced process improvements, including utilization initiatives and the use of our information technology systems, to help manage our variable costs. We also maintain a flexible workforce, with a significant number of part-time and seasonal workers. Certain operating expenses, including real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs, remain fixed and cannot be adjusted for demand.

41

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


In addition to our typical expenses, we have been incurring costs associated with our multi-year initiatives to upgrade and modernize our information technology and finance systems and processes which have been a tailwind for the Company. These investments will enable new product and service offerings and drive future productivity of the Company. We intend to continue these investments through 2019 as we near the end of our transformation.

Our Business Segments

We have identified three reportable segments, which are organized based on the products and services provided by our operating segments and the geographic areas in which our operating segments conduct business, as follows:

U.S. RAC - Rental of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, in the U.S.;

International RAC - Rental and leasing of vehicles, as well as sales of value-added services, internationally; and

All Other Operations - Comprised primarily of our Donlen business, which provides vehicle leasing and fleet management services, and other business activities.

In addition to the above reportable segments, we have Corporate operations. We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the financial information for our operating segments.

Fleet

We periodically review and adjust the mix between program and non-program vehicles in our fleet in an effort to optimize the mix of vehicles. Program vehicles generally provide us with flexibility to increase or reduce the size of our fleet based on market demand. When we increase the percentage of program vehicles, the average age of our fleet decreases since the average holding period for program vehicles is shorter than for non-program vehicles. We dispose of our non-program vehicles via auction, dealer-direct and our retail locations. Non-program vehicles disposed of through our retail outlets allow us the opportunity for ancillary retail vehicle sales revenue, such as warranty, financing and title fees. We adjust the ratio of program and non-program vehicles in our fleet as needed based on contract negotiations and the economic environment pertaining to our industry.

2018 Operating Overview

The following provides an overview of our business and financial performance and key factors influencing our results for the year ended December 31, 2018 versus 2017.

U.S. RAC
Total revenues increased $486 million, or 8%
Total RPD increased 1%, and Total RPU increased 3%
Transaction Days increased 6%
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net decreased 12% to $1.7 billion
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month decreased 16% to $276
Vehicle Utilization increased 140 basis points ("bps") (81% versus 79%)
DOE as a percentage of total revenues increased 100 bps (62% versus 61%)
SG&A as a percentage of total revenues was flat at 7%


42

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


International RAC
Total revenues increased $107 million, or 5%, and increased $58 million, or 3%, excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange at average rates ("fx")
Total RPD increased 3%, and Total RPU increased 2%
Transaction Days were flat
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net increased 8% to $448 million, and increased $20 million, or 5%, excluding fx
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month increased 3% to $209
Vehicle Utilization was 77%, a decrease of 80 bps
DOE as a percentage of total revenues decreased 130 bps (57% versus 59%)
SG&A as a percentage of total revenues increased 60 bps (11% versus 10%)
Recorded $98 million in expenses during 2018 associated with our information technology and finance transformation programs compared to $68 million during 2017.

For more information on the above, see the discussion of our results on a consolidated basis and by segment that follows herein.

Adoption of the new Revenue Standard

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted the new revenue standard, Topic 606, which resulted in a net increase to beginning accumulated deficit in the amount of $189 million related to the cumulative effect of our loyalty program. The adoption of Topic 606 did not have a significant impact to our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018. See the Revenue from Contracts with Customers section in the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" Note 2, "Significant Accounting Policies" for further information.

Tax Reform

As discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized the income tax effects of the TCJA in our 2017 financial statements and recorded a provisional estimate of a discrete net tax benefit of $679 million. As of December 31, 2018, we have finalized our accounting for the tax effects of the TCJA and, as a result, recorded net tax expense of $22 million in 2018. We have elected a policy to account for taxes on global intangible low-taxed income ("GILTI") as incurred and continue to assert indefinite reinvestment on certain of our foreign earnings.

See Note 13, "Income Tax (Provision) Benefit," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2018 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for more information.


43

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - HERTZ

 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
($ In millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total revenues
$
9,504

 
$
8,803

 
$
8,803

 
8
 %
 
 %
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
5,355

 
4,958

 
4,932

 
8

 
1

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,690

 
2,798

 
2,601

 
(4
)
 
8

Selling, general and administrative expenses
1,017

 
880

 
899

 
16

 
(2
)
Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
448

 
331

 
280

 
35

 
18

Non-vehicle
284

 
301

 
343

 
(6
)
 
(12
)
Interest expense, net
732

 
632

 
623

 
16

 
1

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments

 
86

 
292

 
(100
)
 
(71
)
Other (income) expense, net
(40
)
 
19

 
(75
)
 
NM

 
NM

Income (loss) from continuing operations, before income taxes
(250
)
 
(570
)
 
(469
)
 
(56
)
 
22

Income tax (provision) benefit
28

 
902

 
(4
)
 
(97
)
 
NM

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(222
)
 
332

 
(473
)
 
NM

 
NM

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
(15
)
 

 
NM

Net income (loss)
(222
)
 
332

 
(488
)
 
NM

 
NM

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
2

 

 

 
NM

 
NM

Net income (loss) attributable to Hertz
$
(220
)
 
$
332

 
$
(488
)
 
NM

 
NM

Adjusted Pre-tax Income (Loss)(a)
$
(12
)
 
$
(205
)
 
$
66

 
(94
)
 
NM

Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.
NM - Not meaningful

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2017

Total revenues increased $701 million, or 8%, due to an increase of $486 million, $108 million and $107 million in our U.S. RAC, All Other Operations and International RAC segments, respectively. U.S. RAC revenues increased due to a 6% increase in volume and a 1% increase in Total RPD. Total revenues in our All Other Operations segment was largely driven by an increase in the number of vehicles leased under sales-type leases. International RAC revenues increased due to a 3% increase in Total RPD and a $49 million fx impact.

DOE increased $397 million, or 8%, primarily due to increases of $363 million and $33 million in our U.S. and International RAC segments, respectively. The increase in our U.S. RAC segment was primarily due to increased core rental volumes (those excluding TNC rentals) and TNC rental volumes and investments in additional personnel related to our transformation initiatives. DOE for International RAC increased due to a $31 million fx impact.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net decreased $108 million, or 4%, primarily due to a $226 million decrease in our U.S. RAC segment resulting from stronger residual values and an increase in dispositions through higher-yielding dealer direct and retail sales channels. The decrease was partially offset by an increase of $86 million and $32 million in our All Other Operations and International RAC segments, respectively. The increase in All Other Operations was largely driven by an increase in the number of vehicles leased under sales-type leases. Excluding a $12 million fx impact, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for our International RAC

44

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

segment increased $20 million driven by declining residual values on diesel vehicles in Europe and an increase in average vehicles.

SG&A increased $137 million, or 16%, in 2018 compared to 2017, due to increases of $74 million and $36 million in our U.S. RAC segment and our Corporate operations, respectively. The increase in our U.S. RAC segment was primarily due to incremental marketing investments, additional advertising charges and increased marketing personnel, partially offset by decreased charges for labor-related matters. The increase in our Corporate operations was primarily due to information technology and finance transformation program costs, litigation charges and incentive compensation, partially offset by decreased legal fees.

Vehicle interest expense, net increased $117 million, or 35%, in 2018 compared to 2017 primarily due to higher market interest rates, an increase in margins on bank funded facilities, an increase in debt levels due to higher average fleet and an increase in loss on extinguishment of debt.

Non-vehicle interest expense, net decreased $17 million, or 6%, in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily due to decreased outstanding non-vehicle debt balances during 2018 and a decrease in loss on extinguishment of debt, partially offset by the impact of higher interest rates largely attributable to a higher LIBOR and the issuance of our Senior Second Priority Secured Notes in June 2017.

We recorded goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges of $86 million related to the Dollar Thrifty tradename in 2017 with no comparable charges recorded in 2018.

Other income of $40 million in 2018 was primarily comprised of a $20 million gain on marketable securities, $10 million of net pension benefit income and a $6 million legal settlement related to an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Other expense of $19 million in 2017 was primarily comprised of a $30 million impairment of an equity method investment, partially offset by a $6 million gain on the sale of our Brazil Operations.

There was loss before income taxes of $250 million in 2018 compared to $570 million in 2017. The $320 million year over year favorable variance was primarily due to the impact of increased revenues, decreased depreciation expense on our revenue earning vehicles, the impact of an $86 million impairment charge recorded in 2017 and the increase in other income. The favorable variance was partially offset by increases in DOE, SG&A and interest expense, net.

The effective tax rate in 2018 was 11% compared to 158% in 2017. We recorded a tax benefit of $28 million in 2018 compared to $902 million in 2017. The effective income tax rate and related tax benefit in 2018 are less than 2017 due to deferred tax liabilities being remeasured from a federal rate of 35% to 21% in 2017, and the impact in 2018 of the lower federal tax rate.

Adjusted Pre-tax Loss was $12 million in 2018 compared to $205 million in 2017. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2016

Total revenues were flat year over year. U.S. RAC revenues decreased $120 million, which was offset by a $72 million increase in our International RAC segment and a $48 million increase in our All Other Operations segment. Volume and Total RPD for U.S. RAC each decreased 1%. Excluding a $33 million fx impact, International RAC revenues increased $39 million, or 2%, driven by a 3% increase in Transaction Days offset by a 1% decrease in pricing for the segment. Total revenues in our All Other Operations segment increased primarily due to an increase in Donlen's leasing and services volume.

DOE increased $26 million year over year, or 1%. DOE in our All Other Operations segment and our International RAC segment increased $18 million and $17 million, respectively, while DOE in U.S. RAC was comparable year over year. The increase in our All Other Operations segment was due to charges associated with leases that commenced in 2017. Excluding the $17 million fx impact, DOE for our International RAC segment was virtually flat due to a $18 million

45

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

decrease in public liability and property damage ("PLPD") expense, offset by an increase of $22 million in transaction variable expenses.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net increased $197 million, or 8%, primarily due to a $151 million increase in our U.S. RAC segment resulting from higher per vehicle depreciation rates due in part to a richer vehicle mix and lower residual values and a $27 million increase in our International RAC segment. Excluding the $6 million fx impact, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net increased $21 million, or 5%, primarily due to an increase in Average Vehicles and higher per vehicle depreciation rates. There was a $19 million increase in our All Other Operations segment due to charges related to leases that commenced in 2017.

SG&A decreased $19 million, or 2%, in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to a decrease of approximately $81 million in restructuring related expenses, litigation charges and other expenses, partially offset by a $47 million increase in advertising and other expenses and a $15 million increase in information technology and finance transformation program costs.

Vehicle interest expense, net increased $51 million, or 18%, in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily due to a combination of higher market interest rates, higher margins on bank funded facilities, and higher rates associated with increasing the mix of medium term funding as well as interest related to the European Vehicle Notes that were issued in the second half of 2016. The above were partially offset by a decrease of $6 million year over year in loss on extinguishment of debt.

Non-vehicle interest expense, net decreased $42 million, or 12%, in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to the termination of the $2.1 billion of Senior Credit Facilities in 2016, the 2016 refinancings of certain Senior Notes with the lower rate Senior Term Loan, and lower losses on the extinguishment of debt in 2017 versus 2016, partially offset by the issuance of the Senior Second Priority Secured Notes in 2017.

We recorded goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges of $86 million in 2017, compared to charges of $292 million in 2016. The 2017 impairment charges were comprised of the impairment of the Dollar Thrifty tradename in U.S. RAC. The 2016 impairment charges were comprised of a $172 million impairment of goodwill related to our European vehicle rental operations and a $120 million impairment of the Dollar Thrifty tradename in U.S. RAC.

Other expense of $19 million for 2017 was primarily comprised of a $30 million impairment of an equity method investment, partially offset by a $6 million gain on the sale of our Brazil Operations. Other income of $75 million for 2016 was primarily comprised of an $84 million gain on the sale of common stock of CAR Inc. and a $9 million settlement gain from an eminent domain case at one of our U.S. airport locations, partially offset by an $18 million impairment of the net assets held for sale related to our Brazil Operations.

There was loss before income taxes of $570 million in 2017 compared to $469 million in 2016. The $101 million year over year unfavorable variance was primarily due to the impact of increased depreciation expense on our revenue earning vehicles, the decrease in other income and increases in DOE. The unfavorable variance was partially offset by decreased goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and decreases in SG&A.

The effective tax rate in 2017 was 158% compared to (1.0)% in 2016. The Company recorded a tax benefit of $902 million in 2017 and a provision of $4 million in 2016. The change is largely due to the benefit from the TCJA of $679 million in 2017 and the provision of goodwill impairment in 2016. In addition, contributing factors to the reduced tax expense include a decrease in pretax operating results, the composition of operating results by jurisdiction, a change in the state statutory effective tax rates, and an increase in the valuation allowance relating to losses in certain U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions.

The results for discontinued operations are associated with the activities of the Old Hertz Holdings equipment rental business which was spun-off on June 30, 2016.

Adjusted Pre-tax Loss was $205 million in 2017 compared to Adjusted Pre-tax Income of $66 million in 2016. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

46

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - HERTZ GLOBAL

The above discussion for Hertz also applies to Hertz Global.

Hertz Global had $7 million, $5 million and $1 million of interest expense, net, during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, that was incremental to the amounts shown for Hertz. These amounts represent interest associated with amounts outstanding under a master loan agreement between the companies. Hertz includes this amount as interest income in its statement of operations but this amount is eliminated in consolidation for purposes of Hertz Global. Hertz Global had $2 million of income tax benefit for 2018 that was incremental to the amounts shown for Hertz.

Hertz Global had a net loss from discontinued operations of $2 million in 2016 that was incremental to the amount shown for Hertz. This amount represents the net loss of the parent legal entities of Old Hertz Holdings which are deemed discontinued operations of Hertz Global but not Hertz.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND SELECTED OPERATING DATA BY SEGMENT

U.S. Rental Car

As of December 31, 2018, our U.S. Rental Car operations had a total of approximately 4,200 corporate and franchisee locations, comprised of 1,600 airport and 2,600 off airport locations.

Depreciation rates are reviewed on a quarterly basis based on management's routine review of present and estimated future market conditions and their effect on residual values at the expected time of disposal. Depreciation rates being used to compute the provision for depreciation of revenue earning vehicles are adjusted on certain vehicles in our vehicle rental operations to reflect changes in the estimated residual values to be realized when revenue earning vehicles are sold based on the expected hold period of the vehicles. The changes in estimate, based on the reviews completed for U.S. RAC during 2018, resulted in a reduction to depreciation expense of $60 million. The 2018 rate changes reflected favorable residual values, particularly on mid and full-size sedans, partially offset by the impact of unfavorable residual values on large sport utility vehicles. The changes in estimate, based on the reviews completed for U.S. RAC during 2017 and 2016, resulted in net increases of $77 million and $141 million, respectively. The 2017 rate changes reflected shortened hold periods on certain non-program vehicles as we rebalanced the fleet and declining residual values primarily experienced in the first half of the year. The 2016 rate changes reflected declining residual values and a reduction in the planned hold period of the vehicles as compared to our initial estimates.

U.S. Rental Car operations sold approximately 263,000, 280,000 and 232,000 non-program vehicles during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In 2018, the decrease in units sold was due to fewer non-program vehicle acquisitions during the year. In 2016, our fleet rotation was at more normalized levels, however, we did accelerate the disposal of a portion of the compact vehicle category that we acquired as part of an earlier fleet refresh in order to reduce their percentage of the fleet mix.


47

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Results of operations and our discussion and analysis for our U.S. RAC segment are as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
 
($ In millions, except as noted)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
Total revenues
$
6,480

 
$
5,994

 
$
6,114

 
8
 %
 
 
(2
)%
 
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
$
1,678

 
$
1,904

 
$
1,753

 
(12
)
 
 
9

 
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
$
4,014

 
$
3,651

 
$
3,646

 
10

 
 

 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$
466

 
$
392

 
$
397

 
19

 
 
(1
)
 
Income (loss) from continuing operations, before income taxes
$
185

 
$
(171
)
 
$
56

 
NM

 
 
NM

 
Adjusted Pre-tax Income (Loss)(a)
$
262

 
$
13

 
$
298

 
NM

 
 
(96
)
 
Transaction Days (in thousands)(b)
149,463

 
140,382

 
142,268

 
6

 
 
(1
)
 
Average Vehicles(c)
506,900

 
484,700

 
484,800

 
5

 
 

 
Vehicle Utilization(c)
81
%
 
79
%
 
80
%
 
140

bps
 
(80
)
bps
Total RPD (in whole dollars)(d)
$
42.67

 
$
42.06

 
$
42.44

 
1

 
 
(1
)
 
Total RPU (in whole dollars)(e)
$
1,049

 
$
1,015

 
$
1,038

 
3

 
 
(2
)
 
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month (in whole dollars)(f)
$
276

 
$
327

 
$
301

 
(16
)
 
 
9

 
Percentage of program vehicles as of period end
9
%
 
7
%
 
6
%
 
200

bps
 
10

bps
Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.
NM - Not meaningful

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2017

Total U.S. RAC revenues increased $486 million, or 8%, from 2017 due to higher volume and pricing. Off airport revenues comprised 31% of total revenues for the segment in 2018 as compared to 29% for 2017. Off airport volume increased 14% largely driven by demand in TNC and insurance replacement rentals and airport volume was 2% higher on increased corporate demand and volume growth in our most profitable leisure rental categories. TNC and retail rentals led the 1% increase in Total RPD.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for U.S. RAC decreased by $226 million, or 12%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The decrease year over year was primarily the result of improved residual values and an increase in dispositions through higher-yielding dealer direct and retail sales channels. Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month decreased to $276 in 2018 compared to $327 in 2017.

DOE for U.S. RAC increased $363 million, or 10%, of which $118 million was driven by core rental volume, $65 million was driven by growth in TNC rentals and $63 million was driven by incremental investments in additional personnel related to our transformation initiatives. Also contributing to the increase were the following:

Increased transportation expense of $31 million driven by higher rates from third-party transportation providers, increased usage and additional trucking for fleet optimization.
Increased facility expenses of $20 million primarily driven by increased rent and facility services.
Increased other vehicle expense of $16 million primarily driven by increased licensing fees in certain states.
Increased fuel expense of $16 million due to higher market fuel prices compared to 2017.


48

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

SG&A increased $74 million primarily due to incremental marketing investments, additional advertising charges and increased marketing personnel, partially offset by decreased charges for labor-related matters.

DOE as a percentage of total revenues for U.S. RAC was 62% for 2018 compared to 61% for 2017, an increase of 100 bps. SG&A as a percentage of total revenues for U.S. RAC was 7% for both 2018 and 2017.

There was income before income taxes for U.S. RAC of $185 million in 2018 compared to loss before income taxes of $171 million in 2017. The $356 million year over year favorable variance was primarily due to the impact of increased revenues, decreased depreciation expense on our revenue earning vehicles and the impact of an $86 million impairment charge recorded in 2017. The favorable variance was partially offset by increases in DOE and SG&A.

Adjusted Pre-tax Income for U.S. RAC was $262 million in 2018 compared to $13 million in 2017. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2016

Total U.S. RAC revenues were $6.0 billion in 2017, a decrease of $120 million, or 2%, from 2016. Transaction Days decreased 1% driven by a 3% decline in our airport business offset by a 2% increase in our off airport business. Airport Transaction Days were down due to fewer retail customer rentals and due to our decision to focus on customer mix to improve the quality of our revenue. The increase in our off airport volume primarily reflects the growth in our TNC vehicle rentals. Total RPD decreased 1% primarily due to a decline in value-added revenues and customer mix, driven by a change from higher yielding corporate contracted rentals to lower yielding TNC vehicle rentals. Off airport revenues comprised 29% of total revenues for the segment in 2017 as compared to 27% for 2016.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for U.S. RAC increased by $151 million, or 9%, in 2017 compared to 2016. The increase year over year was primarily the result of higher per vehicle depreciation rates due in part to declining residual values, a richer vehicle mix and the shortened hold periods on certain non-program vehicles as we rebalanced the fleet in 2017, partially offset by a slightly smaller average fleet. Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month increased to $327 in 2017 compared to $301 in 2016.

DOE for U.S. RAC was comparable in 2017 and 2016 primarily due to the following:

Vehicle related expenses increased $27 million year over year primarily due to:
Increased transportation expense of $21 million primarily due to repositioning the fleet in response to the hurricanes and other weather events in 2017.
Increased maintenance and other vehicle operating expense of $25 million primarily for the reconditioning of certain vehicles dedicated for use by our TNC partners.
Decreased damage and short term maintenance expense of $19 million resulting from an $18 million improvement in customer collections for damage claims resulting from process improvements and a $6 million decrease in the costs to prepare program vehicles for turn-back due to a reduction in the number of program vehicles returned to the manufacturer year over year. The improvements were partially offset by $6 million of damage charges related to the hurricanes in 2017.
Personnel related expenses increased $45 million compared to 2016, primarily due to a $43 million increase in field wages, overtime and outsourced labor due in part to new customer-oriented initiatives and an $8 million increase in benefits expense, primarily resulting from an increase in the workers compensation reserve, partially offset by a $6 million decrease in variable incentive compensation.
Transaction variable expenses decreased $39 million primarily due to decreases in optional insurance liability expense of $38 million due to favorable adjustments based on historical experience and the decrease in Transaction Days and decreased concessions of $8 million due in part to lower revenues, partially offset by higher fuel expense of $9 million due to higher market fuel prices compared to 2016.

49

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Other DOE decreased $28 million year over year primarily due to a decrease of $31 million of restructuring charges mostly comprised of an impairment of certain assets recorded in 2016 and a $12 million decrease in facility costs due in part to lower accelerated depreciation in 2017 compared to 2016 at certain of our airport locations as a result of the Hertz Ultimate Choice program rollout. The above were partially offset by $8 million of increased commissions primarily due to growth in certain airline channels and a $9 million increase in other DOE primarily due to charges associated with site improvement initiatives.

DOE as a percentage of total revenues for U.S. RAC was 61% for 2017 compared to 60% for 2016, an increase of 130 bps. SG&A as a percentage of total revenues for U.S. RAC was 7% for 2017 compared to 6% for 2016, an increase of 10 bps.

There was a loss before income taxes for U.S. RAC of $171 million in 2017 compared to income before income taxes of $56 million in 2016. The $227 million change year over year was primarily due to the impact of increased depreciation expense on our revenue earning vehicles and lower revenues, partially offset by a $34 million reduction in impairment charges recorded in 2017 compared to 2016 and a decrease of $22 million in interest expense, net. Additionally, in 2016 we had other income of $12 million primarily related to a $9 million settlement gain from an eminent domain case at one of our airport locations with no comparable income in 2017.

Adjusted Pre-tax Income for U.S. RAC was $13 million in 2017 compared to $298 million in 2016. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

International Rental Car

As of December 31, 2018, our international vehicle rental operations had approximately 6,000 corporate and franchisee locations, comprised of 1,500 airport and 4,500 off airport locations in approximately 150 countries and regions including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and in the regions of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East.

Results of operations and our discussion and analysis for our International RAC segment are as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
 
($ In millions, except as noted)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
Total revenues
$
2,276

 
$
2,169

 
$
2,097

 
5
 %
 
 
3
 %
 
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
$
448

 
$
416

 
$
389

 
8

 
 
7

 
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
$
1,306

 
$
1,273

 
$
1,256

 
3

 
 
1

 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$
248

 
$
223

 
$
215

 
11

 
 
4

 
Income (loss) from continuing operations, before income taxes
$
166

 
$
185

 
$
(20
)
 
(10
)
 
 
NM

 
Adjusted Pre-tax Income (Loss)(a)
$
204

 
$
203

 
$
194

 

 
 
5

 
Transaction Days (in thousands)(b)
50,417

 
50,301

 
48,627

 

 
 
3

 
Average Vehicles(c)
180,400

 
178,100

 
173,400

 
1

 
 
3

 
Vehicle Utilization(c)
77
%
 
77
%
 
77
%
 
(80
)
bps
 
80

bps
Total RPD (in whole dollars)(d)
$
45.76

 
$
44.63

 
$
45.28

 
3

 
 
(1
)
 
Total RPU (in whole dollars)(e)
$
1,066

 
$
1,050

 
$
1,058

 
2

 
 
(1
)
 
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month (in whole dollars)(f)
$
209

 
$
202

 
$
196

 
3

 
 
3

 
Percentage of program vehicles as of period end
37
%
 
34
%
 
31
%
 
290

bps
 
310

bps
Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.

50

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

NM - Not meaningful

Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2017

Total revenues for International RAC increased $107 million, or 5%, in 2018 compared to 2017. Excluding a $49 million fx impact, revenues increased $58 million, or 3%, driven by an increase in pricing. Total RPD for International RAC increased 3% due to improved pricing in our leisure markets and the sale of our lower RPD operations in Brazil in the third quarter of 2017. Transaction Days were flat mostly due to the sale of our Brazil Operations. Excluding the impact of the sale of our Brazil Operations, total revenues for International RAC increased $140 million, or 7%, Total RPD increased 1%, and Transaction Days increased 4%.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for International RAC increased $32 million, or 8%, in 2018 compared to 2017. Excluding a $12 million fx impact, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net increased $20 million or 5% primarily due to declining residual values on diesel vehicles in Europe and an increase in average vehicles. Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month for International RAC increased 3% to $209 from $202 for 2018 versus 2017.

DOE for International RAC increased $33 million in 2018 compared to 2017. Excluding a $