10-K 1 hghthc201610-k.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC.
THE HERTZ CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


DELAWARE
 
001-37665
 
61-1770902
DELAWARE
 
001-07541
 
13-1938568
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 
(Commission File Number)
 
(I.R.S Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8501 Williams Road
 
 
 
 
Estero, Florida 33928
 
 
 
 
8501 Williams Road
 
 
 
 
Estero, Florida 33928
 
 
 
 
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(239) 301-7000
 
 
 
 
(239) 301-7000
 
 
 
 
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock, Par Value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
None
 
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
None
 
None
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes x No o
The Hertz Corporation    Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    o
The Hertz Corporation    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
Large accelerated filer 
o
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer 
x
Smaller reporting company 
o
The Hertz Corporation
Large accelerated filer 
o
Accelerated filer 
o
Non-accelerated filer 
x
Smaller reporting company 
o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.    Yes o No x
The Hertz Corporation    Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the former Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. as of June 30, 2016, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date was $4.7 billion, which amount does not reflect the spin-off described herein. There is no market for The Hertz Corporation stock.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding as of the latest practicable date.
 
 
Class
 
Shares Outstanding at
March 1, 2017
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
83,034,166
The Hertz Corporation
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
100 (100% owned by
Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC)

OMISSION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION

The Hertz Corporation meets the conditions as set forth in General Instructions I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this Form with the reduced disclosure format as permitted.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.
 
Information required by Items 10, 11, 12 and 13 of Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference for Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. from its definitive proxy statement for its 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
The Hertz Corporation
 
None
 


HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
 
 
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
 
 
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
 
 
ITEM 15.


HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Unless the context otherwise requires in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 we use the following defined terms:
(i)
"2016 Annual Report" or "Combined Form 10-K" means this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 which combines the annual reports for Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation into a single filing;

(ii)
"the Company", "we", "our" and "us" means Hertz Global and Hertz interchangeably;

(iii)
"company-operated" rental locations are those through which we, or an agent of ours, rent vehicles that we own or lease;

(iv)
"concessions" mean licensing or permitting agreements or arrangements granting us the right to conduct a vehicle rental business at respective airports;

(v)
"Corporate" means corporate operations which include general corporate assets and expenses and certain interest expense (including net interest on non-vehicle debt);

(vi)
"Dollar Thrifty" means Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group, Inc., a consolidated subsidiary of the Company;

(vii)
"Donlen" means Donlen Corporation, a consolidated subsidiary of the Company. Donlen conducts our fleet leasing and fleet management services;

(viii)
"Hertz Gold Choice" means allowing Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members to choose a different model and color from those vehicles available at the Hertz Gold Choice area, when booking a midsize class vehicle or higher;

(ix)
"Hertz Gold Plus Rewards" means our customer loyalty program and our global expedited rental program;

(x)
"Hertz" means The Hertz Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, our primary operating company and a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by Hertz Holdings;

(xi)
"Hertz Global" means Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., our top-level holding company (and the accounting successor to Old Hertz Holdings, as defined below) and its consolidated subsidiaries, including The Hertz Corporation;

(xii)
"Hertz Holdings" refers to the Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. excluding its subsidiaries;

(xiii)
"International RAC" means the international rental car reportable segment;

(xiv)
"New Hertz" means Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., subsequent to the June 30, 2016 Spin-Off;

(xv)
“non-program vehicles” means vehicles not purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs for which we are exposed to residual risk;

(xvi)
"Old Hertz Holdings" for periods on or prior to June 30, 2016, and "Herc Holdings" for periods after June 30, 2016, refer to the former Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.;

(xvii)
"program vehicles" means vehicles purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs with vehicle manufacturers;

(xviii)
"replacement renters" means renters who need vehicles while their vehicle is being repaired or is temporarily unavailable for other reasons;

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES


(xix)
"SEC" means United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

(xx)
"Spin-Off" means the spin-off by Old Hertz Holdings of its global vehicle rental business through a dividend to stockholders of record of Old Hertz Holdings as of the close of business on June 22, 2016, the record date for the distribution, of all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hertz Rental Car Holding Company, Inc., which was re-named Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. in connection with the Spin-Off, on a one-to-five basis. As a result of the Spin-Off, each of Hertz Holdings and Herc Holdings are independent public companies trading on the New York Stock Exchange, with Hertz Holdings trading under the symbol "HTZ" and Herc Holdings, which changed its name to Herc Holdings Inc. on June 30, 2016, trading under the symbol “HRI”.

(xxi)
"Hertz Ultimate Choice" means an expansion of our Hertz Gold Choice program where a Hertz Gold Plus Rewards member can choose the exact vehicle they drive, when booking a midsize class vehicle or higher;

(xxii)
"U.S." means the United States of America

(xxiii)
"U.S. RAC" means the U.S. rental car reportable segment;

(xxiv)
"vehicle utilization" means the portion of our vehicles that are being utilized to generate revenue; and

(xxv)
"vehicles” means cars, crossovers and light trucks (and internationally, vans).


We have proprietary rights to a number of trademarks used in this 2016 Annual Report that are important to our business, including, without limitation, Hertz, Dollar, Thrifty, Firefly, Donlen, Carfirmations, Hertz Gold Plus Rewards, Hertz Gold Choice, Hertz Ultimate Choice and Hertz 24/7. Solely for convenience, we have omitted the ® and ™ trademark designations for such trademarks named in this 2016 Annual Report, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE

COMBINED FORM 10-K

This 2016 Annual Report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 of Hertz Global and Hertz.

Hertz Global owns all shares of the common stock of Hertz through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC.

Below are diagrams depicting the basic organizational structure of Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation before and subsequent to the Spin-Off:

Prior to the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off
prespinstructurea01.jpg
*Prior to the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off, New Hertz conducted no operations.

Following the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off
postspinstructure.jpg
*Newly formed entities for purposes of effecting the internal reorganization and the Spin-Off.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE (Continued)

Management operates Hertz Global and Hertz as one enterprise. The management of Hertz Global consists of the same members as the management of Hertz. These individuals are officers of Hertz Global and employees of Hertz. The individuals that comprise Hertz Global's Board of Directors are also the same individuals that make up Hertz's Board of Directors.

We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of Hertz Global and Hertz into this single report results in the following benefits:

enhancing investors' understanding of Hertz Global and Hertz by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;

eliminating duplicative disclosure and providing a more streamlined and readable presentation since a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both Hertz Global and Hertz; and

creating time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined annual report instead of two separate annual reports.

Hertz holds all of the revenue earning vehicles, property, plant and equipment and all other assets, including the ownership interests in consolidated and unconsolidated joint ventures. Hertz conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a corporation with no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from public equity issuances by Hertz Global, which are contributed to Hertz, Hertz generates required capital through its operations or through its incurrence of indebtedness.

Hertz Global does not conduct business itself, other than issuing public equity or debt obligations from time to time, and incurring expenses required to operate as a public company. Hertz Global and Hertz have entered into a master loan agreement whereby Hertz Global may borrow from Hertz up to $425 million. Transactions recorded under the master loan agreement are eliminated upon consolidation of Hertz Global but not upon consolidation of Hertz. Differences between the financial statements of Hertz Global and Hertz are limited to the activity described above and the remaining assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of Hertz Global and Hertz are the same on their respective financial statements.

Although Hertz is generally the entity that enters into contracts and holds assets and debt, Hertz Global consolidates Hertz for financial statement purposes, therefore, disclosures that relate to activities of Hertz also apply to Hertz Global. In the sections that combine disclosure of Hertz Global and Hertz, this report refers to actions as being actions of the Company, or Hertz Global, which is appropriate because the business is one enterprise and Hertz Global operates the business through Hertz. When appropriate, Hertz Global and Hertz are named specifically for their individual disclosures and any significant differences between the operations and results of Hertz Global and Hertz are separately disclosed and explained.

This report also includes separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of Hertz Global and Hertz in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that Hertz Global and Hertz are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

This Combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. and The Hertz Corporation. Each registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this 2016 Annual Report that relates to such registrant. Each registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information.

DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS

On June 30, 2016, Old Hertz Holdings completed the Spin-Off. Despite the fact that this was a reverse spin off and Hertz Global was spun off from Old Hertz Holdings and was the legal spinnee in the transaction, for accounting purposes, due to the relative significance of New Hertz to Old Hertz Holdings, Hertz Global is considered the spinnor or divesting entity and Herc Holdings is considered the spinnee or divested entity. As a result, New Hertz, or Hertz Global, is the

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXPLANATORY NOTE (Continued)

“accounting successor” to Old Hertz Holdings. As such, the historical financial information of Hertz reflects the equipment rental business as a discontinued operation and the historical financial information of Hertz Global reflects the equipment rental business and certain parent legal entities as discontinued operations. See Note 3, "Discontinued Operations," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Unless noted otherwise, information disclosed in this 2016 Annual Report pertain to Hertz Global's and Hertz's continuing operations.






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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained or incorporated by reference in this 2016 Annual Report and in reports we subsequently file with the SEC on Forms 10-K and 10-Q and file or furnish on Form 8-K, and in related comments by our management, include "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements include information concerning our liquidity and our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategies. These statements often include words such as "believe," "expect," "project," "potential," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "estimate," "seek," "will," "may," "would," "should," "could," "forecasts" or similar expressions. These statements are based on certain assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate in these circumstances. We believe these judgments are reasonable, but you should understand that these statements are not guarantees of performance or results, and our actual results could differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to a variety of important factors, both positive and negative, that may be revised or supplemented in subsequent reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K.

Important factors that could affect our actual results and cause them to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements include, among others, those that may be disclosed from time to time in subsequent reports filed with the SEC, those described under “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of this 2016 Annual Report, and the following, which were derived in part from the risks set forth in Item 1A of this 2016 Annual Report:

any claims, investigations or proceedings arising as a result of the restatement in 2015 of our previously issued financial results;
our ability to remediate the material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting;
levels of travel demand, particularly with respect to airline passenger traffic in the United States and in global markets;
the effect of our separation of our vehicle and equipment rental businesses, any failure by Herc Holdings Inc. to comply with the agreements entered into in connection with the separation and our ability to obtain the expected benefits of the separation;
significant changes in the competitive environment, including as a result of industry consolidation, and the effect of competition in our markets on rental volume and pricing, including on our pricing policies or use of incentives;
increased vehicle costs due to declines in the value of our non-program vehicles;
occurrences that disrupt rental activity during our peak periods;
our ability to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and risks relating to increases in the cost of the vehicles we purchase;
our ability to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly;
our ability to maintain sufficient liquidity and the availability to us of additional or continued sources of financing for our revenue earning vehicles and to refinance our existing indebtedness;
our ability to adequately respond to changes in technology and customer demands;
our ability to maintain access to third-party distribution channels, including current or favorable prices, commission structures and transaction volumes;
an increase in our vehicle costs or disruption to our rental activity, particularly during our peak periods, due to safety recalls by the manufacturers of our vehicles;
a major disruption in our communication or centralized information networks;
financial instability of the manufacturers of our vehicles;
any impact on us from the actions of our franchisees, dealers and independent contractors;

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS (Continued)

our ability to sustain operations during adverse economic cycles and unfavorable external events (including war, terrorist acts, natural disasters and epidemic disease);
shortages of fuel and increases or volatility in fuel costs;
our ability to successfully integrate acquisitions and complete dispositions;
our ability to maintain favorable brand recognition;
costs and risks associated with litigation and investigations;
risks related to our indebtedness, including our substantial amount of debt, our ability to incur substantially more debt, the fact that substantially all of our consolidated assets secure certain of our outstanding indebtedness and increases in interest rates or in our borrowing margins;
our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in our Senior Facilities, our outstanding unsecured Senior Notes and certain asset-backed and asset-based arrangements;
changes in accounting principles, or their application or interpretation, and our ability to make accurate estimates and the assumptions underlying the estimates, which could have an effect on operating results;
risks associated with operating in many different countries, including the risk of a violation or alleged violation of applicable anticorruption or antibribery laws and our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences;
our ability to successfully outsource a significant portion of our information technology services or other activities;
our ability to successfully implement our finance and information technology transformation programs;
changes in the existing, or the adoption of new laws, regulations, policies or other activities of governments, agencies and similar organizations where such actions may affect our operations, the cost thereof or applicable tax rates;
changes to our senior management team and the dependence of our business operations on our senior management team;
the effect of tangible and intangible asset impairment charges;
our exposure to uninsured claims in excess of historical levels;
fluctuations in interest rates and commodity prices;
our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and
other risks described from time to time in periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC.
You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. All such statements speak only as of the date made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

OUR COMPANY

Hertz Holdings was incorporated in Delaware in 2015 to serve as the top-level holding company for Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC which wholly owns Hertz, Hertz Global's primary operating company. Hertz was incorporated in Delaware in 1967 and is a successor to corporations that have been engaged in the vehicle rental and leasing business since 1918.

We operate our vehicle rental business globally through the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands from approximately 9,700 corporate and franchisee locations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, Australia, The Caribbean, the Middle East and New Zealand. We are one of the largest worldwide airport general use vehicle rental companies and our Hertz brand name is one of the most recognized in the world, signifying leadership in quality rental services and products. We have an extensive network of rental locations in the U.S. and in all major European markets. We believe that we maintain one of the leading airport vehicle rental brand market shares, by overall reported revenues, in the U.S. and at major airports in Europe where data regarding vehicle rental concessionaire activity is available. We are a leading provider of comprehensive, integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions through our Donlen subsidiary.

OUR BUSINESS SEGMENTS

We have identified three reportable segments, which are organized based on the products and services provided by our operating segments and the geographic areas in which our operating segments conduct business, as follows:

U.S. RAC - Rental of vehicles, as well as sales of ancillary products and services, in the U.S. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated car rental locations in the U.S., enabling us to provide consistent quality and service. We also have franchisees and associates that operate rental locations under our brands throughout the U.S;

International RAC - Rental and leasing of vehicles, as well as sales of ancillary products and services, internationally. We maintain a substantial network of company-operated car rental locations internationally, a majority of which are in Europe. Our franchisees and partners also operate rental locations in approximately 150 countries and jurisdictions, including many of the countries in which we also have company-operated rental locations; and

All Other Operations - Comprised of our Donlen business, which provides vehicle leasing and fleet management services, and other business activities. Donlen is a leading provider of vehicle leasing and fleet management services for corporate fleets. Donlen's fleet management programs provide outsourcing solutions to reduce fleet operating costs and improve driver productivity. These programs include administration of preventive maintenance, advisory services, and fuel and accident management along with other complementary services. Additionally, Donlen provides a specialized consulting and technology expertise that allows us to model, measure and manage fleet performance more effectively and efficiently.

In addition to the above reportable segments, we have Corporate operations. We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the financial information for our operating segments.


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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Set forth below are charts showing revenues and revenue earning vehicles by reportable segment and geographic area:        
hgh2015form_chart-56789a01.jpghgh2015form_chart-58270a01.jpghgh2015form_chart-59129a01.jpghgh2015form_chart-00214a01.jpg
For further financial information on our segments, see (i) Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment" and (ii) Note 20, "Segment Information," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in this 2016 Annual Report.

U.S. and International Rental Car Segments

Our U.S. and International RAC segments generated $6,114 million and $2,097 million, respectively, in revenues during the year ended December 31, 2016.

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)


Markets and Competition

Competition among vehicle rental industry participants is intense and is primarily based on price, vehicle availability and quality, service, reliability, rental locations, product innovation, competition from online travel agents and vehicle rental brokers. We believe that the prominence and service reputation of the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands, our extensive worldwide ownership of vehicle rental operations and our commitment to innovation and service provide us with a strong competitive foundation.

U.S.

The U.S. represents approximately $28 billion in estimated annual industry revenues for 2016. The average number of vehicles in the U.S. vehicle rental industry grew 5% in 2016 to a high of over 2 million vehicles. U.S. industry revenue per unit of approximately $1,024 was slightly lower than the past three years. Rentals by airline travelers at or near airports (‘‘airport rentals’’) are influenced by developments in the travel industry and particularly in airline passenger traffic (‘‘enplanements’’) as well as the Gross Domestic Product (‘‘GDP’’). Off airport rental volume is primarily driven by local business use, such as vehicle repair shops, leisure travel and insurance replacements.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the U.S. are Avis Budget Group, Inc. (“ABG”) which currently operates the Avis, Budget, ZipCar and Payless brands and Enterprise Holdings, which operates the Enterprise Rent-A-Car Company ("Enterprise"), National Car Rental and Alamo Rent A Car brands. There are also local and regional vehicle rental companies, and ride sharing companies that have some overlap in customer use cases, largely for short length trips in urban areas, which we do not deem principal competitors in the industry.

Europe

Europe represents approximately $15 billion in annual industry revenues. Europe has generally demonstrated a lower historical reliance on air travel. The European off airport vehicle rental market has been significantly more developed than it is in the U.S. Within Europe, the largest markets are France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Throughout Europe we do business through company-operated rental locations as well as through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Our principal pan-European competitors in the vehicle rental industry are Europcar, Enterprise and ABG operating the Avis, Budget and Zipcar brands and the Maggiore brand in Italy. In certain European countries, there are also other companies and brands with substantial market shares, including Sixt AG (operating the Sixt brand) in Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom; and local providers, including GoldCar in southern Europe.

Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific, including Australia and New Zealand, represents approximately $13 billion in annual industry revenues. Within this region, the largest markets in which we do business are Australia, China, Japan and South Korea. In each of these markets we have company-operated rental locations or our Hertz brand is present through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed the Hertz brand.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the Asia Pacific market place are ABG, operating the Avis, Budget and Zipcar brands, and Europcar, operating the Europcar and Keddy brands.

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Middle East

The Middle East and Africa represent approximately $4 billion in annual industry revenues. Within these regions, the largest markets in which we do business are the United Arab Emirates and South Africa. In each of these markets we do business through our franchisees to whom we have licensed use of our brands.

Our principal vehicle rental industry competitors in the Middle East market are Fast Rent a Car, and ABG, operating the Avis and Budget brands.

Latin America

The Latin America markets represent approximately $3 billion in annual industry revenues. Within Latin America the largest markets in which we do business are Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Mexico and Aruba. In each of these markets we have company-operated rental locations or our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands are present through our partners or franchisees to whom we have licensed use of the respective brand.

In Latin America, the principal vehicle rental industry competitors are ABG, operating the Avis, Budget and Zipcar brands, and Enterprise Holdings, which operates the Alamo Rent A Car brand in the region. Other key players in the region are Localiza, Unidas and Movida.

During the fourth quarter of 2016, we entered into a definitive agreement to form a strategic partnership with Localiza encompassing co-branding in Brazil and use of the Localiza brand in other select markets, customer referrals and the exchange of technology and information. As part of the agreement, Localiza will purchase our operations in Brazil. The sale is expected to close in the first half of 2017, subject to regulatory approval and customary closing conditions. See Note 4, "Acquisitions and Divestitures," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Brands

Our U.S. and International vehicle rental businesses are primarily operated through three brands - Hertz, Dollar, and Thrifty. We offer multiple brands in order to provide customers a full range of rental services at different price points, levels of service, offerings and products. Each of our brands generally maintains separate airport counters, reservations, marketing and other customer contact activities. We achieve synergies across our brands by utilizing a single fleet management team and combined maintenance, cleaning and back office functions, where applicable.

Our top tier brand, Hertz, is one of the most recognized brands in the world, offering premium services that redefined the industry. This is consistent with numerous published best-in-class vehicle rental awards that we have won, both in the U.S. and internationally, over many years. We have sought to support our reputation for quality and customer service in vehicle rental through a variety of innovative service offerings, such as Hertz Gold Plus Rewards; and new in 2016, Hertz Ultimate Choice; our one-way rental program (“Rent-it-Here/Leave-it-There”); our national-scale luxury rental program (“Prestige Collection”); our sports vehicle rental program (“Adrenaline Collection”); our environmentally friendly rental program (“Green Traveler Collection”); and, our elite sports and luxury vehicle rental program (“Dream Cars”). We intend to maintain our position as a premier provider of vehicle rental services through an intense focus on service, quality and product innovation.

Our smart value brand, Dollar, is the choice for the discerning value seeker with elevated expectations. The Dollar brand's main focus is serving the airport vehicle rental market, which is comprised of business and leisure travelers. The majority of its locations are at or near airport facilities. Dollar operates primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada, and also globally licenses to independent franchisees which operate as a part of the Dollar brand system.

Our experiential value brand, Thrifty, is the brand for vacationers, tourists and those who see life as the ultimate adventure. Thrifty serves both the airport and off airport markets primarily through company-owned locations in the U.S. and Canada, and also globally licenses to independent franchisees which operate as part of the Thrifty brand system.

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THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)


Internationally, we also offer our Firefly brand which is a deep value brand for price conscious leisure travelers, providing everything the shopper is seeking with a focus on low price. We have Firefly locations servicing local area airports in select international leisure markets where other deep value brands have a significant presence.

Operations

Locations

We operate both airport and off airport locations which utilize common vehicle fleets, are supervised by common country, regional and local area management, use many common systems and rely on common maintenance and administrative centers. Additionally, our airport and off airport locations utilize common marketing activities and have many of the same customers. We regard both types of locations as aspects of a single, unitary, vehicle rental business. Off airport revenues comprised approximately 32% of our worldwide rental vehicle revenues in 2016 and approximately 30% in 2015.

Airport

We have approximately 1,600 airport rental locations in the U.S. and approximately 1,400 airport rental locations internationally. Our international vehicle rental operations have company-operated locations in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Slovakia, Spain, the United Kingdom and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We believe that our extensive U.S. and international network of company-operated locations contributes to the consistency of our service, cost control, vehicle utilization, yield management, competitive pricing and our ability to offer one-way rentals.

For our airport company-operated rental locations, we have obtained concessions or similar leasing agreements or arrangements, granting us the right to conduct a vehicle rental business at the respective airport. Our concessions were obtained from the airports' operators, which are typically governmental bodies or authorities, following either negotiation or bidding for the right to operate a vehicle rental business. The terms of an airport concession typically require us to pay the airport's operator concession fees based upon a specified percentage of the revenues we generate at the airport, subject to a minimum annual guarantee. Under most concessions, we must also pay fixed rent for terminal counters or other leased properties and facilities. Most concessions are for a fixed length of time, while others create operating rights and payment obligations that are terminable at any time.

The terms of our concessions typically do not forbid us from seeking, and in a few instances actually require us to seek, reimbursement from customers for concession fees we pay; however, in certain jurisdictions the law limits or forbids our doing so. Where we are required or permitted to seek such reimbursement, it is our general practice to do so. Certain of our concession agreements may require the consent of the airport's operator in connection with material changes in our ownership. A growing number of larger airports are building consolidated airport vehicle rental facilities to alleviate congestion at the airport. These consolidated rental facilities provide a more common customer experience and may eliminate certain competitive advantages among the brands as competitors operate out of one centralized facility for both customer rental and return operations, share consolidated busing operations and maintain image standards mandated by the airports. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors in this 2016 Annual Report.

Off Airport

We have approximately 2,600 off airport locations in the U.S. and approximately 4,100 off airport rental locations internationally. Our off airport rental customers include people who prefer to rent vehicles closer to their home or place of work for business or leisure purposes, as well as those needing to travel to or from airports. Our off airport customers also include people who have been referred by, or whose rental costs are being wholly or partially reimbursed by, insurance companies following accidents in which their vehicles were damaged, those expecting to lease vehicles that are not yet available from their leasing companies and replacement renters.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

When compared to our airport rental locations, an off airport rental location typically uses smaller rental facilities with fewer employees, conducts pick-up and delivery services and serves replacement renters using specialized systems and processes. On average, off airport locations generate fewer transactions per period than airport locations.

Our off airport locations offer us the following benefits:

Provide customers a more convenient and geographically extensive network of rental locations, thereby creating revenue opportunities from replacement renters, non-airline travel renters and airline travelers with local rental needs;

Provide a more balanced revenue mix by reducing our reliance on air travel and therefore reducing our exposure to external events that may disrupt airline travel trends;

Contribute to higher vehicle utilization as a result of the longer average rental periods associated with off airport business, compared to those of airport rentals;

Insurance replacement rental volume is less seasonal than that of other business and leisure rentals, which permits efficiencies in both vehicle and labor planning; and

Cross-selling opportunities exist for us to promote off airport rentals among frequent airport Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program renters and, conversely, to promote airport rentals to off airport renters.

Rates

We rent a wide variety of makes and models of vehicles. We rent vehicles on an hourly (in select markets), daily, weekend, weekly, monthly or multi-month basis, with rental charges computed on a limited or unlimited mileage rate, or on a time rate plus a mileage charge. Our rates vary by brand and at different locations depending on local market conditions and other competitive and cost factors. While vehicles are usually returned to the locations from which they are rented, we also allow one-way rentals from and to certain locations. In addition to vehicle rentals and franchisee fees, we generate revenues from reimbursements by customers of airport concession fees and vehicle licensing costs, fueling charges, and charges for ancillary customer products and services such as supplemental equipment (child seats and ski racks), loss or collision damage waiver, theft protection, liability and personal accident/effects insurance coverage, premium emergency roadside service, navigation systems and satellite radio services.

Reservations

We accept reservations for our vehicles on a brand-by-brand basis, with each of our brands maintaining, and accepting reservations through, an independent internet site. Our brands generally accept reservations only for a class of vehicles, although Hertz accepts reservations for specific makes and models of vehicles in our Prestige Collection, our Adrenaline Collection, our Green Traveler Collection and our Dream Cars collection with a limited number of models in high-volume, leisure-oriented destinations.

When customers reserve vehicles for rental from us and our franchisees, they may seek to do so through travel agents or third-party travel websites. In many of those cases, the travel agent or website will utilize a third-party operated computerized reservation system, also known as a Global Distribution System (“GDS”) to contact us and make the reservation.

In major countries, including the U.S. and all other countries with company-operated locations, customers may also reserve vehicles for rental from us and our franchisees worldwide through local, national or toll-free telephone calls to our reservations center, directly through our rental locations or, in the case of replacement rentals, through proprietary automated systems serving the insurance industry. Additionally, we accept reservations for rentals worldwide through our websites, for us and our franchisees. We also offer the ability to reserve vehicles through our smartphone apps for the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Customer Service Offerings

At our major airport rental locations, as well as at some smaller airport and off airport locations, customers participating in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are able to rent vehicles in an expedited manner. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program often bypass the rental counter entirely and proceed directly to their vehicle upon arrival at our facility. Participants in our Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program are also eligible to earn Hertz Gold Plus Rewards points that may be redeemed for free rental days or converted to awards of other companies' loyalty programs. For the year ended December 31, 2016, rentals by Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members accounted for approximately 34% of our worldwide rental transactions. We believe the Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program provides a significant competitive advantage to us, particularly among frequent travelers, and we have targeted such travelers for participation in the program. Additionally, in 2016 we began offering electronic rental agreements and returns for our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty customers. Simplifying the rental transaction saves customers time and provides greater convenience through access to digitally available rental contracts. This capability is expected to be available globally by early 2017.

Hertz Gold Choice offers Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members an option to choose the vehicle they drive. Members' vehicles are preassigned but Hertz Gold Choice allows the member the option to choose a different model and color from those vehicles available at the new Hertz Gold Choice area. This service is free of charge to Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members who book a midsize class or above. The Hertz Gold Choice program is offered at 58 U.S. airport locations and 9 locations in Europe.

Hertz Ultimate Choice is an expansion of Hertz Gold Choice; when a Hertz Gold Plus Rewards member books a midsize class vehicle or higher, they can choose the vehicle they drive from within the class reserved at no additional cost. Members may also upgrade to a different car category based on their selection. Additionally, members will also have access to exclusive Hertz Ultimate Choice lots that feature a wider selection of vehicles when they make a reservation for a midsize car or above. The Hertz Ultimate Choice program is offered at 7 U.S. airport locations as of December 31, 2016. The Company plans to expand the Hertz Ultimate Choice program to additional locations in 2017.

Hertz also offers a Mobile Gold Alerts service, also known as Carfirmations, through which an SMS text message and/or email is sent with the vehicle information and location, with the option to choose another vehicle from their smart phone prior to arrival. It is available to participating Hertz Gold Plus Rewards customers approximately 30 minutes prior to their arrival. We also offer Hertz e-Return, which allows customers to drop off their vehicle and go at the time of rental return. Additionally, in select locations customers can bypass the rental line through our ExpressRent Kiosks.

Car-Sharing

We offer a car-sharing membership service, referred to as Hertz 24/7, which rents vehicles by the hour and/or by the day, at various locations internationally, primarily in Europe and Australia. Members reserve vehicles online, then pick up the vehicles at various locations, such as a university, corporate campus or a retailer, without the need to visit a Hertz rental office. Members are charged an hourly or daily vehicle-rental fee which includes fuel, insurance, 24/7 roadside assistance and in-vehicle customer service.

Customers and Business Mix

We conduct active sales and marketing programs to attract and retain customers. Our sales force calls on companies and other organizations whose employees and associates need to rent vehicles for business purposes. In addition, our sales force works with membership associations, tour operators, travel companies and other groups whose members, participants and customers rent vehicles for either business or leisure purposes. Our specialized sales force calls on companies with replacement rental needs, including insurance and leasing companies, automobile repair companies, and vehicle dealers. We also advertise our vehicle rental offerings through a variety of traditional media channels, such as newspapers, direct mail and the internet. In addition to advertising, we conduct a variety of other forms of marketing and promotion, including travel industry business partnerships and press and public relations activities.

We categorize our vehicle rental business based on (i) the purpose for which customers rent from us (business or leisure) and (ii) the type of location from which they rent (airport or off airport). The following charts set forth the

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

percentages of rental revenues and rental transactions in our U.S. and international operations based on these categories.
VEHICLE RENTALS BY CUSTOMER
Year Ended December 31, 2016
    
U.S.

Revenues    Transactions
hghthc2016_chart-51278.jpghghthc2016_chart-51973.jpg


International

Revenues    Transactions

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Business
 
 
Leisure



Customers who rent from us for “business” purposes include those who require vehicles in connection with commercial activities, the activities of governments and other organizations or for temporary vehicle replacement purposes. Most business customers rent vehicles from us on terms that we have negotiated with their employers or other entities with which they are associated, and those terms can differ substantially from the terms on which we rent vehicles to the general public. We have negotiated arrangements relating to vehicle rental with many large businesses, governments and other organizations, including most Fortune 500 companies.

Customers who rent from us for “leisure” purposes include not only individual travelers booking vacation travel rentals with us but also people renting to meet other personal needs. Leisure rentals, generally, are longer in duration and generate more revenue per transaction than business rentals. Leisure rentals also include rentals by customers of U.S. and international tour operators, which are usually a part of tour packages that can include air travel and hotel accommodations.



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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

VEHICLE RENTALS BY LOCATION
Year Ended December 31, 2016


U.S.

Revenues    Transactions

hghthc2016_chart-54096.jpghghthc2016_chart-54777.jpg
International

Revenues    Transactions

hghthc2016_chart-55408.jpghghthc2016_chart-56076.jpg

 
 
Airport
 
 
Off airport

Our business and leisure customers rent from both our airport and off airport locations. Demand for airport rentals is correlated with airline travel patterns, and transaction volumes generally follow enplanement and GDP trends on a global basis. Customers often make reservations for airport rentals when they book their flight plans, which make our strong relationships with travel agents, associations and other partners (e.g., airlines) a key competitive strategy in generating consistent and recurring revenue streams.

Off airport rentals include insurance replacements, therefore, we must establish agreements with the referring insurers establishing the relevant rental terms, including the arrangements made for billing and payment. We have identified approximately 192 insurance companies, ranging from local or regional vehicle carriers to large, national companies, as our target insurance replacement market. As of December 31, 2016, we were a preferred or recognized supplier for 119 of these insurance companies and a co-primary for 39 of them.

Fleet

We believe we are one of the largest private sector purchasers of new vehicles in the world. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we operated a peak rental fleet in the U.S. of approximately 515,900 vehicles and a peak rental fleet in our international operations of approximately 196,600 vehicles, and in each case exclusive of our franchisees'

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

fleet and Donlen's leasing fleet. During the year ended December 31, 2016, our approximate average holding period for a rental vehicle was 16 months in the U.S. and 14 months in our international operations.

Our fleet composition at December 31, 2016 is as follows:

Fleet Composition by Vehicle Manufacturer
As of December 31, 2016
hghthc2016_chart-56848.jpg
U.S.     International*

hghthc2016_chart-58203.jpghghthc2016_chart-58971.jpg
*Vehicle manufacturers Groupe PSA (Peugeot and Citroen), Volvo, Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen, Skoda, Audi and Seat), Daimler AG (Mercedes Benz) and BMW together comprise another 25% of the international fleet and are included as "Other" in the overall and international charts above.

Purchases of vehicles are financed through cash from operations and by active and ongoing global borrowing programs. See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources,” in this 2016 Annual Report.

The vehicles we purchase are either program vehicles or non-program vehicles. We periodically review the efficiencies of an optimal mix between program and non-program vehicles in our fleet and adjust the ratio of program and non-program vehicles in our fleet as needed based on contract negotiations and the economic environment pertaining to our industry.

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)


For program vehicles, under our repurchase programs, the manufacturers agree to repurchase vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during established repurchase or auction periods, subject to, among other things, certain vehicle condition, mileage and holding period requirements. Repurchase prices under repurchase programs are based on the original cost less a set daily depreciation amount. Guaranteed depreciation programs guarantee on an aggregate basis the residual value of the vehicles covered by the programs upon sale according to certain parameters which include the holding period, mileage and condition of the vehicles. These repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs limit our residual risk with respect to vehicles purchased under the programs and allow us to reduce the variability of depreciation expense for each vehicle, however, typically the acquisition cost is higher. Program vehicles generally provide us with flexibility to increase or reduce the size of our fleet based on economic demand. When we increase the percentage of program vehicles, the average age of our fleet decreases since the average holding period for program vehicles is shorter than for non-program vehicles.

Program vehicles as a percentage of all vehicles purchased within each of our U.S. and International vehicle rental segments were as follows:

hghthc2016_chart-59658.jpg

Non-program vehicles are not purchased under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs. Rather, we dispose of non-program vehicles, as well as program vehicles that become ineligible for manufacturer repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs, through a variety of disposition channels, including auctions, brokered sales, sales to wholesalers and sales to dealers. We also dispose of vehicles at our own Hertz retail sales outlets, primarily in the U.S. which consists of a network of 80 company-operated vehicle sales locations dedicated to the sale of used vehicles from our rental fleet. Vehicles disposed of through our retail outlets allow us the opportunity for ancillary revenue, such as warranty and financing and title fees.

We also offer Rent2Buy in 35 states and several European countries, an innovative program designed to sell used rental vehicles. Customers have an opportunity for a test rental of a vehicle from our rental fleet. If the customer purchases the vehicle, he or she is credited with a portion of their rental charges. The purchase transaction is completed through the internet and by mail in those states where permitted.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

During the year ended December 31, 2016, of the vehicles sold in our U.S. vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 34% at auction, 36% through dealer direct and 30% through our Rent2Buy program or at retail locations. During the year ended December 31, 2016, of the vehicles sold in our international vehicle rental operations that were not repurchased by manufacturers, we sold approximately 13% at auction, 79% through dealer direct and 8% through our Rent2Buy program or at retail locations.

We maintain automobile maintenance centers at or near certain airports and in certain urban and off airport areas, which provide maintenance facilities for our vehicles. Many of these facilities include sophisticated vehicle diagnostic and repair equipment and are accepted by automobile manufacturers as eligible to perform and receive reimbursement for warranty work. Collision damage and major repairs are generally performed by independent contractors.

Franchisees

In certain U.S. and international markets, we have found it efficient to utilize independent franchisees, which rent vehicles that they own, under our Hertz, Dollar, or Thrifty brands. In certain markets and under certain circumstances, franchisees are given the opportunity to acquire franchises for multiple brands.

We believe that our franchisee arrangements are important to our business because they enable us to offer expanded national and international service and a broader one-way rental program. Licenses are issued principally by our wholly-owned subsidiaries, under franchise arrangements to independent franchisees and affiliates who are engaged in the vehicle rental business in the U.S. and in many other countries.

Franchisees generally pay fees based on a percentage of their revenues or the number of vehicles they operate. The operations of all franchisees, including the purchase and ownership of vehicles, are financed independently by the franchisees, and we do not have any investment interest in the franchisees or their fleets. Fees from franchisees, including initial franchise fees, are used to, among other things, generally support the cost of our brand awareness programs, reservations system, sales and marketing efforts and certain other services and are less than 2% of our consolidated revenues each period. In return, franchisees are provided the use of the applicable brand name, certain operational support and training, reservations through our reservations channels, and other services. In addition to vehicle rental, certain franchisees outside the U.S. engage in vehicle leasing, chauffeur-driven rentals and renting camper vans.

U.S. franchisees ordinarily are limited as to transferability without our consent and are terminable by us only for cause or after a fixed term. Franchisees in the U.S. may generally terminate for any reason on 90 days' notice. In Europe and certain other international jurisdictions, franchisees typically do not have early termination rights. Initial license fees or the price for the sale to a franchisee of a company-owned location may be payable over a term of several years. We continue to issue new licenses and, from time to time, purchase franchisee businesses.

Seasonality

Our vehicle rental operations are a seasonal business, with decreased levels of business in the winter months and heightened activity during spring and summer peak ("our peak season") for the majority of countries where we generate our revenues. To accommodate increased demand, we increase our available fleet and staff during the second and third quarters of the year. As business demand declines, vehicles and staff are decreased accordingly. Certain operating expenses, including real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, maintenance and other facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs, remain fixed and cannot be adjusted for seasonal demand.

The following chart sets forth this seasonal effect of our vehicle rental operations by presenting quarterly revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014. Amounts are computed independently each quarter, therefore, the sum of the quarterly amounts may not equal the total amount for the respective year due to rounding.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

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All Other Operations

Through our Donlen subsidiary, we are a leading provider of comprehensive, integrated fleet leasing and fleet management solutions for corporate fleets. Our All Other Operations segment generated $592 million in revenues during the year ended December 31, 2016, substantially all of which was attributable to Donlen.

Donlen

Donlen provides a comprehensive array of fleet leasing, financing, telematics, and fleet management services to commercial fleets in the U.S. and Canada. Products offered by Donlen include:

Vehicle financing, acquisition and remarketing;
License, title and registration;
Maintenance consultation;
Fuel management;
Accident management;
Toll management;
Telematics-based location, driver performance and scorecard reporting; and
Lease financing.

Donlen’s leased fleet consists primarily of passenger vehicles, cargo vans and light trucks. Vehicles are acquired directly from domestic and foreign manufacturers, as well as dealers. As of December 31, 2016, more than half of Donlen’s leased fleet is 2015 model year or newer.

Donlen’s primary product for vehicle and light to medium truck fleets is an open-ended terminal rental adjustment clause ("TRAC") lease. For most customers, the vehicle must be leased for a minimum of 12 months, after which the lease converts to a month-to-month lease allowing the vehicle to be surrendered any time thereafter. Our sale of the vehicle following the termination of the lease may result in a TRAC adjustment, through which the customer is credited or charged with the surplus or loss on the vehicle. Approximately 80% of Donlen’s lease portfolio consists of floating-rate leases which allow lease charges to be adjusted based on benchmark indices.

Donlen offers financing solutions for heavier-duty trucks and equipment. Lease financing is provided through syndication arrangements with lending institutions. Donlen originates the leases, acquires the assets, and services the lease throughout the term.

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)


Donlen provides services to leased and non-leased fleets consisting of fuel purchasing and management, preventive maintenance, repair consultation, toll management and accident management. Additionally, Donlen manages license and title, vehicle registration, and regulatory compliance. Donlen’s telematics products provide enhanced visibility and reporting over driver and vehicle performance.

The commercial fleet market is one of the largest segments of the U.S. automotive industry, primarily consisting of vehicles utilized in a sales, service, or delivery application. The fleet management industry has experienced significant consolidation over the years and today our principal fleet management competitors in the U.S. and Canada are Enterprise, Automotive Resources International, Element Financial Corporation, Wheels, Inc. and LeasePlan Corporation N.V.

EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2016, we employed approximately 36,000 persons, consisting of approximately 27,000 persons in our U.S. operations and approximately 9,000 persons in our international operations. International employees are covered by a wide variety of union contracts and governmental regulations affecting, among other things, compensation, job retention rights and pensions. Labor contracts covering the terms of employment of approximately 23% of our workforce in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. Labor contracts covering almost one-third of these employees will expire during 2017. We have had no material work stoppage as a result of labor problems during the last ten years, and we believe our labor relations to be good. Nevertheless, we may be unable to negotiate new labor contracts on terms advantageous to us, or without labor interruption.

In addition to the employees referred to above, we employ a substantial number of temporary workers, and engage outside services, as is customary in the industry, principally for the non-revenue movement of rental vehicles between rental locations.

INSURANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT

There are three types of generally insurable risks that arise in our operations:

legal liability arising from the operation of our vehicles and on-road equipment (vehicle liability);

legal liability to members of the public and employees from other causes (general liability/workers' compensation); and

risk of property damage and/or business interruption and/or increased cost of operating as a consequence of property damage.

In addition, we offer optional liability insurance and other products providing insurance coverage, which create additional risk exposures for us. Our risk of property damage is also increased when we waive the provisions in our rental contracts that hold a renter responsible for damage or loss under an optional loss or damage waiver that we offer. We bear these and other risks, except to the extent the risks are transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

In many cases we self-insure our risks or insure risks through wholly-owned insurance subsidiaries. We mitigate our exposure to large liability losses by maintaining excess insurance coverage, subject to deductibles and caps, through unaffiliated carriers. For our international operations outside of Europe, and for our long-term vehicle leasing operations, we maintain some liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Third-Party Liability

In our U.S. operations, we are required by applicable financial responsibility laws to maintain insurance against legal liability for bodily injury (including death) or property damage to third parties arising from the operation of our vehicles and on-road equipment, sometimes called “vehicle liability,” in stipulated amounts. In most places, we satisfy those requirements by qualifying as a self-insurer, a process that typically involves governmental filings and demonstration of financial responsibility, which sometimes requires the posting of a bond or other security. In the remaining places, we obtain an insurance policy from an unaffiliated insurance carrier and indemnify the carrier for any amounts paid under the policy. As a result of such arrangements, we bear economic responsibility for U.S. vehicle liability, except to the extent we successfully transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements.

For our vehicle rental operations in Europe, we have established a wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, Probus Insurance Company Europe Limited (“Probus”), a direct writer of insurance domiciled in Ireland. In European countries with company-operated locations, we have purchased from Probus the vehicle liability insurance required by law, and Probus reinsured the risks under such insurance with Hertz International RE, a wholly-owned reinsurer organized in Ireland (“HIRE”) and / or HIRE Bermuda Limited, a wholly-owned reinsurance company domiciled in Bermuda. This coverage is purchased from unaffiliated carriers for Spain. Thus, as with our U.S. operations, we bear economic responsibility for vehicle liability in our European vehicle rental operations, except to the extent that we transfer such liability to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. For our international operations outside of Europe, we maintain some form of vehicle liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated carriers. The nature of such coverage, and our economic responsibility for covered losses, varies considerably. In all cases, though, we believe the amounts and nature of the coverage we obtain is adequate in light of the respective potential hazards.

In our U.S. and international operations, from time to time in the course of our business, we become legally responsible to members of the public for bodily injury (including death) or property damage arising from causes other than the operation of our vehicles, sometimes known as “general liability.” As with vehicle liability, we bear economic responsibility for general liability losses, except to the extent we transfer such losses to others through insurance or contractual arrangements. In addition, to mitigate these exposures, we maintain excess liability insurance coverage with unaffiliated insurance carriers.

In our U.S. vehicle rental operations, we offer an optional liability insurance product, Liability Insurance Supplement (“LIS”) that provides vehicle liability insurance coverage substantially higher than state minimum levels to the renter and other authorized operators of a rented vehicle. LIS coverage is primarily provided under excess liability insurance policies issued by an unaffiliated insurance carrier, the risks under which are reinsured with a wholly-owned subsidiary, HIRE Bermuda Limited.

In our U.S. vehicle rental operations and our company-operated international vehicle rental operations in many countries, we offer optional products providing Personal Accident Insurance / Personal Effects Coverage (“PAI/PEC”) and Emergency Sickness Protection ("ESP") insurance coverage to the renter and the renter's immediate family members traveling with the renter for accidental death or accidental medical expenses arising during the rental period or for damage or loss of their property during the rental period. PAI/PEC and ESP coverage is provided under insurance policies issued by unaffiliated carriers or, in Europe, by Probus, and the risks under such policies either are reinsured with HIRE Bermuda Limited or are the subject of indemnification arrangements between us and the carriers.

Our offering of LIS, PAI/PEC and ESP coverage in our U.S. vehicle rental operations is conducted pursuant to limited licenses or exemptions under state laws governing the licensing of insurance producers.

Provisions on our books for self-insured public liability and property damage vehicle liability losses are made by charges to expense based upon evaluations of estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims. As of December 31, 2016, this liability was estimated at $407 million for our combined U.S. and international operations.


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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

Damage to Our Property

We bear the risk of damage to our property, unless such risk is transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

To mitigate our risk of large, single-site property damage losses globally, we maintain property insurance with unaffiliated insurance carriers in such amounts as we deem adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such insurance is available on commercially reasonable terms.

Our rental contracts typically provide that the renter is responsible for damage to or loss (including loss through theft) of rented vehicles. We generally offer an optional rental product, known in various countries as “loss damage waiver,” “collision damage waiver” or “theft protection,” under which we waive or limit our right to make a claim for such damage or loss.

Collision damage costs and the costs of stolen or unaccounted-for vehicles, along with other damage to our property, are charged to expense as incurred.

Other Risks

To manage other risks associated with our businesses, or to comply with applicable law, we purchase other types of insurance carried by business organizations, such as worker's compensation and employer's liability, commercial crime and fidelity, performance bonds, directors' and officers' liability insurance and cyber security coverage from unaffiliated insurance companies in amounts deemed by us to be adequate in light of the respective hazards, where such coverage is obtainable on commercially reasonable terms.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

Throughout the world, we are subject to numerous types of governmental controls, including those relating to prices and advertising, privacy and data protection, currency controls, labor matters, credit and charge card operations, insurance, environmental protection, used vehicle sales and licensing.

Environmental

We are subject to extensive federal, state, local, and foreign environmental and safety laws, regulations, directives, rules and ordinances concerning, among other things, the operation and maintenance of vehicles, trucks and other vehicles, buses and vans; the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel and oil; and the generation, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials, including oil, vehicle wash sludge and waste water.

As of December 31, 2016, we have accrued approximately $2 million for environmental remediation. The accrual generally represents the estimated cost to study potential environmental issues at sites deemed to require investigation or clean-up activities, and the estimated cost to implement remediation actions, including ongoing maintenance, as required. Based on information currently available, we believe that the ultimate resolution of existing environmental remediation actions and our compliance in general with environmental laws and regulations will not have a material effect on our operating results or financial condition. However, it is difficult to predict with certainty the potential impact of future compliance efforts and environmental remedial actions and thus future costs associated with such matters may exceed the amount of the current accrual.

Dealings with Renters

In the U.S., vehicle rental transactions are generally subject to Article 2A of the Uniform Commercial Code, which governs “leases” of tangible personal property. Vehicle rental is also specifically regulated in more than half of the states of the U.S. and many other international jurisdictions. The subjects of these regulations include the methods by which we advertise, quote and charge prices, the consequences of failing to honor reservations, the terms on which we deal with vehicle loss or damage (including the protections we provide to renters purchasing loss or damage waivers)

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS (Continued)

and the terms and method of sale of the optional insurance coverage that we offer. Some states (including California, New York, Nevada and Illinois) regulate the price at which we may sell loss or damage waivers, and many state insurance regulators have authority over the prices and terms of the optional insurance coverage we offer. See “Insurance and Risk Management-Damage to Our Property” above for further discussion regarding the loss or damage waivers and optional insurance coverages that we offer renters. In addition, various consumer protection laws and regulations may generally apply to our business operations. Internationally, regulatory regimes vary greatly by jurisdiction, but they do not generally prevent us from dealing with customers in a manner similar to that employed in the U.S.

Both in the U.S. and internationally, we are subject to increasing regulation relating to customer privacy and data protection. In general, we are limited in the uses to which we may put data that we collect about renters, including the circumstances in which we may communicate with them. In addition, we are generally obligated to take reasonable steps to protect customer data while it is in our possession. Our failure to do so could subject us to substantial legal liability, require us to bear significant remediation costs, or seriously damage our reputation.

Changes in Regulation

Changes in government regulation of our businesses have the potential to materially alter our business practices, or our profitability. Depending on the jurisdiction, those changes may come about through new legislation, the issuance of new laws and regulations or changes in the interpretation of existing laws and regulations by a court, regulatory body or governmental official. Sometimes those changes may have not just prospective but also retroactive effect; this is particularly true when a change is made through reinterpretation of laws or regulations that have been in effect for some time. Moreover, changes in regulation that may seem neutral on their face may have either more or less impact on us than on our competitors, depending on the circumstances. Several U.S. State Attorneys General have taken the position that vehicle rental companies either may not pass through to customers, by means of separate charges, expenses such as vehicle licensing and concession fees or may do so only in certain limited circumstances. Recent or potential changes in law or regulation that affect us relate to insurance intermediaries, customer privacy, data security and rate regulation and our retail vehicle sales operations.

In addition, our operations, as well as those of our competitors, also could be affected by any limitation in the fuel supply or by any imposition of mandatory allocation or rationing regulations. We are not aware of any current proposal to impose such a regime in the U.S. or internationally. Such a regime could, however, be quickly imposed if there was a serious disruption in supply for any reason, including an act of war, terrorist incident or other problem affecting petroleum supply, refining, distribution or pricing.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Hertz Global and Hertz each file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any documents that are filed at the SEC's public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 to obtain further information about the public reference room. In addition, the SEC maintains an internet website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Hertz Global and Hertz. You may also access, free of charge, Hertz Global and Hertz's reports filed with the SEC (for example, the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those forms) indirectly through our internet website (www.hertz.com). Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to a number of important risks and uncertainties, some of which are described below. The risks and uncertainties described below, however, are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also significantly impact us. Any of these risks and uncertainties may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, liquidity and cash flows. In such a case, you may lose all or part of your investment in Hertz Global's

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

common stock or The Hertz Corporation's debt securities. You should carefully consider each of the following risks and uncertainties. Any of the following risks and uncertainties could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow and we believe that the following information identifies the material risks and uncertainties affecting Hertz and Hertz Global; however, the following risks and uncertainties are not the only risks and uncertainties facing us and it is possible that other risks and uncertainties might significantly impact us.

Our vehicle rental business is particularly sensitive to reductions in the levels of airline passenger travel, and reductions in air travel could materially adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

The vehicle rental industry is particularly affected by reductions in business and leisure travel, especially with respect to levels of airline passenger traffic. Reductions in levels of air travel, whether caused by general economic conditions, airfare increases (such as due to capacity reductions or increases in fuel costs borne by commercial airlines) or other events (such as work stoppages, military conflicts, terrorist incidents, natural disasters, epidemic diseases, or the response of governments to any of these events) could materially adversely affect us. In particular, we derive a substantial proportion of our revenues from key leisure destinations, including Florida, Hawaii, California, New York and Texas in the U.S. and Europe internationally and the level of travel to these destinations is dependent upon the ability and willingness of consumers to travel on vacation and the effect of economic cycles on consumers’ discretionary travel. To the extent travel to these destinations is adversely affected, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition that may lead to downward pricing or an inability to increase prices.

The markets in which we operate are highly competitive and are increasingly subject to substitution. We believe that price is one of the primary competitive factors in the vehicle rental market and that the internet has enabled cost‑conscious customers, including business travelers, to more easily compare rates available from rental companies. If we try to increase our pricing, our competitors, some of whom may have greater resources and better access to capital than us, may seek to compete aggressively on the basis of pricing. In addition, our competitors may reduce prices in order to attempt to gain a competitive advantage, capture market share, or to compensate for declines in rental activity. To the extent we do not match or remain within a reasonable competitive margin of our competitors’ pricing, our revenues and results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. If competitive pressures lead us to match any of our competitors’ downward pricing and we are not able to reduce our operating costs, then our margins, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted. See Item 1, “Business - U.S. and International Rental Car Segments - Markets and Competition” in this 2016 Annual Report.

Our business is highly seasonal and any occurrence that disrupts rental activity during our peak periods could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain significant components of our expenses are fixed in the short‑term, including minimum concession fees, real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, maintenance and other facility‑related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs. Seasonal changes in our revenues do not alter those fixed expenses, typically resulting in higher profitability in periods when our revenues are higher. The second and third quarters of the year have historically been the strongest quarters for our vehicle rental business due to increased levels of leisure travel. Any occurrence that disrupts rental activity during these periods could have a disproportionately material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

If our management is unable to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and adjust the number and mix of vehicles used in our rental operations accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could suffer.

Because vehicle costs typically represent our single largest expense and vehicle purchases are typically made weeks or months in advance of the expected use of the vehicle, our business is dependent upon the ability of our management to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and consumer preferences with respect to the mix of vehicles used in our rental operations. To the extent we do not purchase sufficient numbers of vehicles, or the right types of vehicles,

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

to meet consumer demand, we may lose revenue to our competitors. If we purchase too many vehicles, our vehicle utilization could be adversely affected and we may not be able to dispose of excess vehicles in a timely and cost effective manner. While purchasing program vehicles is useful in managing our seasonal peak demand for vehicles, program vehicles typically cost more than non-program vehicles. As a result, if our management is unable to accurately estimate future levels of rental activity and determine the appropriate mix of vehicles used in our rental operations, including because of changes in the competitive environment or economic factors outside of our control, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could suffer.

Increased vehicle cost due to declines in the value of the non-program vehicles in our operations could materially adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturers agree to repurchase program vehicles at a specified price or guarantee the depreciation rate on the vehicles during a specified time period. To the extent the vehicles in our rental operations are non-program vehicles, we have an increased risk that the net amount realized upon disposition of the vehicle will be less than its estimated residual value at such time. Any decrease in residual values with respect to our non-program vehicles could also materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

While program vehicles cost more than comparable non-program vehicles, the use of program vehicles enables us to determine our depreciation expense in advance and this is useful to us because depreciation is a significant cost factor in our operations. Using program vehicles is also useful in managing our seasonal peak demand for vehicles, because in certain cases we can sell certain program vehicles shortly after having acquired them at a higher value than what we could for a similar non-program vehicle at that time. If there were fewer program vehicles in our rental operations, these benefits would diminish and we would bear increased risk related to residual value. In addition, the related depreciation on our vehicles and our flexibility to reduce the number of vehicles used in our rental operations by returning vehicles sooner than originally expected without the risk of loss in the event of an economic downturn or to respond to changes in rental demand would be reduced.

We may fail to respond adequately to changes in technology and customer demands.

In recent years our industry has been characterized by rapid changes in technology and customer demands. For example, in recent years, industry participants have taken advantage of new technologies to improve vehicle utilization, decrease customer wait times and improve customer satisfaction. Our industry has also seen the entry of new competitors whose businesses are based on emerging mobile platforms and efforts continue to introduce various types of self-driving vehicles. Our ability to continually improve our current processes and products in response to changes in technology is essential in maintaining our competitive position and maintaining current levels of customer satisfaction. We may experience technical or other difficulties that could delay or prevent the development, introduction or marketing of new products or enhanced product offerings.

If we are unable to purchase adequate supplies of competitively priced vehicles and the cost of the vehicles we purchase increases, our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

The price and other terms at which we can acquire vehicles vary based on market and other conditions. For example, certain vehicle manufacturers have in the past, and may in the future, utilize strategies to de-emphasize sales to the vehicle rental industry, which can negatively impact our ability to obtain vehicles on competitive terms and conditions. Consequently, there is no guarantee that we can purchase a sufficient number of vehicles at competitive prices and on competitive terms and conditions. If we are unable to obtain an adequate supply of vehicles, or if we obtain less favorable pricing and other terms when we acquire vehicles and are unable to pass on any increased costs to our customers, then our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

A material downsizing in the number of revenue earning vehicles we own or a change in U.S. tax laws could require us to make additional cash payments for tax liabilities, which could be material.

We have maintained like-kind exchange programs for our U.S. vehicle rental business and Donlen for a number of years (the "LKE Program"). Our LKE Program allows tax gains on the disposition of our revenue earning vehicles to be deferred and have resulted in deferrals of federal and state income taxes for prior years. If a qualified replacement vehicle is not purchased within a specific time period after vehicle disposal, then taxable gain is recognized. Furthermore, we benefit from accelerated depreciation permitted under the Internal Revenue Code. A material reduction in the combined net book value of our revenue earning vehicles, a material and extended reduction in vehicle purchases and/or a material downsizing in the number of revenue earning vehicles, for any reason, could result in reduced tax deferrals in the future, which in turn could require us to make material cash payments for U.S. federal and state income tax liabilities. We cannot offer assurance that the expected tax deferral will continue.
Similarly, there is significant uncertainty as to whether the U.S. federal and state income tax laws, legislation or regulations governing like-kind exchange and accelerated depreciation deductions will remain intact in their current form. If the laws, regulations or administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations change, there could be an adverse impact on our ability to defer gains on the sales of our U.S. revenue earning vehicles and/or recognize accelerated depreciation on said vehicles. This could result in the company being required to make material cash payments resulting from the inability to defer U.S. federal and state gains on the sales of the revenue earning vehicles. We cannot predict when or if any changes will be adopted and in what manner.

The failure of a manufacturer of our program vehicles to fulfill its obligations under a repurchase or guaranteed depreciation program could expose us to loss on those program vehicles and materially adversely affect certain of our financing arrangements, which could in turn materially adversely affect our liquidity, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

If any manufacturer of our program vehicles does not fulfill its obligations under its repurchase or guaranteed depreciation agreement with us, whether due to default, reorganization, bankruptcy or otherwise, then we would have to dispose of those program vehicles without receiving the benefits of the associated programs and we would also be exposed to residual risk with respect to these vehicles. In addition, we could be left with a substantial unpaid claim against the manufacturer with respect to program vehicles that were sold and returned to the manufacturer but not paid for, or that were sold for less than their agreed repurchase price or guaranteed value.

The failure by a manufacturer to pay such amounts could cause a credit enhancement deficiency with respect to our asset‑backed and asset‑based financing arrangements, requiring us to either reduce the outstanding principal amount of debt or provide more collateral (in the form of cash, vehicles and/or certain other contractual rights) to the creditors under any such affected arrangement.

If one or more manufacturers were to adversely modify or eliminate repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs in the future, our access to and the terms of asset‑backed and asset‑based debt financing could be adversely affected, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party distribution channels for a significant amount of our revenues.

Third-party distribution channels account for a significant amount of our vehicle rental reservations. These third-party distribution channels include traditional and online travel agencies, third-party internet sites, airlines and hotel companies, marketing partners such as credit card companies and membership organizations and global distribution systems that allow travel agents, travel service providers and customers to connect directly to our reservations systems. Loss of access to any of these channels, changes in pricing or commission structures or a reduction in transaction volume could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, particularly if our customers are unable to access our reservation systems through alternate channels.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

We may not be successful in implementing our strategy of further reducing operating costs and our cost reduction initiatives may have adverse consequences.

We are continuing to implement initiatives to reduce our operating expenses. These initiatives may include headcount reductions, business process and information technology outsourcing, business process re‑engineering, internal reorganization and other expense controls. We cannot assure you that our cost reduction initiatives will achieve any further success. If we are unsuccessful in taking advantage of these opportunities, our margins could decrease, which could negatively impact our ability to effectively compete. Whether or not successful, our cost reduction initiatives involve significant expenses and we expect to incur further expenses associated with these initiatives, some of which may be material in the period in which they are incurred.

Even if we achieve further success with our cost reduction initiatives, we face risks associated with our initiatives, including declines in employee morale or the level of customer service we provide, the efficiency of our operations or the effectiveness of our internal controls. Any of these risks could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

If our customers develop loyalty to travel intermediaries rather than our brands, our financial results may suffer.

Some internet travel intermediaries use generic indicators of the type of vehicle (such as “standard” or “compact”) at the expense of brand identification and some intermediaries have launched their own loyalty programs to develop loyalties to their reservation system rather than to our brands. If the volume of sales made through internet travel intermediaries increases significantly and consumers develop stronger loyalties to these intermediaries rather than to our brands, our business and revenues could be harmed. If our market share suffers due to lower levels of customer loyalty, our financial results could suffer.

An impairment of our goodwill or our indefinite-lived intangible assets could have a material noncash adverse impact on our results of operations.

We review our goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable and at least annually. If economic deterioration occurs, then we may be required to record charges for goodwill or indefinite lived intangible asset impairments in the future, which could have a material adverse non‑cash impact on our results of operations. For further discussion of impairment charges related to goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, see Note 6, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets" to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Our foreign operations expose us to risks that may materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

A significant portion of our annual revenues are generated outside the U.S. Operating in many different countries exposes us to varying risks, which include: (i) multiple, and sometimes conflicting, foreign regulatory requirements and laws that are subject to change and are often much different than the domestic laws in the U.S., including laws relating to taxes, automobile‑related liability, insurance rates, insurance products, consumer privacy, data security, employment matters, cost and fee recovery, and the protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property; (ii) the effect of foreign currency translation risk, as well as limitations on our ability to repatriate income; (iii) varying tax regimes, including consequences from changes in applicable tax laws and our ability to repatriate cash from non-U.S. affiliates without adverse tax consequences; (iv) local ownership or investment requirements, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing in foreign countries for local operations; and (v) political and economic instability, natural calamities, war, and terrorism. The effects of these risks may, individually or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows and ability to diversify internationally.

Our international operations are based in Uxbridge, England and we have significant vehicle rental operations in the United Kingdom and the Eurozone. The United Kingdom held a referendum on June 23, 2016 in which a majority voted for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (the “Brexit”). In order to effect the Brexit, a process of

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

negotiation will determine the future terms of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Union. Depending on the terms of Brexit, if any, the United Kingdom could lose access to the single European Union market and to the global trade deals negotiated by the European Union on behalf of its members. The effects of the Brexit vote and the perceptions as to the impact of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union may adversely affect business activity and economic and market conditions in the United Kingdom, the Eurozone and globally, could make it more difficult for us to manage our international operations out of the United Kingdom and could contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets. In addition, Brexit could lead to additional political, legal and economic instability in the European Union.

Additionally, operating in many different countries also increases the risk of a violation, or alleged violation, of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, other applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations, the economic sanction programs administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and the anti-boycott regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Office of Anti-boycott Compliance. Any failure to comply with these laws, even if inadvertent, could result in significant penalties or otherwise harm the Company’s reputation and business. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Violations of these laws could be costly and disrupt the Company’s business, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

Manufacturer safety recalls could create risks to our business.

Our vehicles may be subject to safety recalls by their manufacturers. The Raechel and Jacqueline Houck Safe Rental Car Act of 2015 prohibits us from renting vehicles with open federal safety recalls and to repair or address these recalls prior to renting or selling the vehicle. Any federal safety recall with respect to our vehicles would require us to decline to rent recalled vehicles until we can arrange for the steps described in the recall to be taken. If a large number of vehicles are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, we may not be able to rent recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. Those types of disruptions could jeopardize our ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for our vehicles, and could also result in the loss of business to our competitors. Depending on the severity of any recall, it could materially adversely affect our revenues, create customer service problems, reduce the residual value of the recalled vehicles and harm our general reputation.

Our business is heavily reliant upon communications networks and centralized information technology systems and the concentration of our systems creates risks for us.

We rely heavily on communication networks and information technology systems to accept reservations, process rental and sales transactions, manage our pricing, manage our revenue earning vehicles, manage our financing arrangements, account for our activities and otherwise conduct our business. Our reliance on these networks and systems exposes us to various risks that could cause a loss of reservations, interfere with our ability to manage our vehicles, slow rental and sales processes, adversely affect our ability to comply with our financing arrangements and otherwise materially adversely affect our ability to manage our business effectively. Our major information technology systems, reservations and accounting functions are centralized in a few locations worldwide. Any disruption, termination or substandard provision of these services, whether as the result of localized conditions (such as a fire, explosion or hacking), failure of our systems to function as designed, or as the result of events or circumstances of broader geographic impact (such as an earthquake, storm, flood, epidemic, strike, act of war, civil unrest or terrorist act), could materially adversely affect our business by disrupting normal reservations, customer service, accounting and information technology functions or by eliminating access to financing arrangements. Any disruption or poor performance of our systems could lead to lower revenues, increased costs or other material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows.

Failure to maintain, upgrade and consolidate our information technology networks could adversely affect us.

We are continuously upgrading and consolidating our systems, including making changes to legacy systems, replacing legacy systems with successor systems with new functionality and acquiring new systems with new functionality. In particular, we currently have material weaknesses in our internal controls and in certain instances enhancements to our accounting systems may assist in the remediation of these material weaknesses. In addition, we have decided to

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

outsource a significant portion of our information technology services. These types of activities subject us to additional costs and inherent risks associated with outsourcing, replacing and changing these systems, including impairment of our ability to manage our business, potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, additional administration and operating expenses, retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the new systems, demands on management time, and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to outsourcing alternatives, new systems or of integrating new systems into our current systems. Our outsourcing initiatives and system implementations may not result in productivity improvements at a level that outweighs the costs of implementation, or at all. In addition, the implementation of our outsourcing initiatives and new technology systems may cause disruptions in our business operations and have an adverse effect on our business and operations, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated and our competitive position may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain systems that allow us to manage our business in a competitive manner.

The misuse or theft of information we possess, including as a result of cyber security breaches, could harm our brand, reputation or competitive position and give rise to material liabilities.

We regularly possess, store and handle non‑public information about millions of individuals and businesses, including both credit and debit card information and other sensitive and confidential personal information. In addition, our customers regularly transmit confidential information to us via the internet and through other electronic means. Despite the security measures we currently have in place, our facilities and systems and those of our third‑party service providers may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, trickery, or other forms of deception of our employees or contractors. Many of the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, including viruses, worms and other malicious software programs, are difficult to anticipate until launched against a target and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures. Our failure to maintain the security of that data, whether as the result of our own error or the malfeasance or errors of others, could harm our reputation, interrupt our operations, result in governmental investigations and give rise to a host of civil or criminal liabilities. Any such failure could lead to lower revenues, increased remediation, prevention and other costs and other material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our leases and vehicle rental concessions expose us to risks.

We maintain a substantial network of vehicle rental locations at a number of airports in the U.S. and internationally. Many of these locations are leased and, in the case of airport vehicle rental locations, the subject of vehicle rental concessions where vehicle rental companies are frequently required to bid periodically for the available locations. If we are unable to continue operating these facilities at their current locations due to the termination of leases or vehicle rental concessions, particularly at airports, which comprise a majority of our revenues, our operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, if the costs of these leases increases and we are unable to increase our prices to offset the increased costs, our financial results could suffer.

Maintaining favorable brand recognition is essential to our success, and failure to do so could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Our business is heavily dependent upon the favorable brand recognition that our “Hertz”, “Dollar” and “Thrifty” brand names have in the markets in which they participate. Factors affecting brand recognition are often outside our control, and our efforts to maintain or enhance favorable brand recognition, such as marketing and advertising campaigns, may not have their desired effects. In addition, although our licensing partners are subject to contractual requirements to protect our brands, it may be difficult to monitor or enforce such requirements, particularly in foreign jurisdictions and various laws may limit our ability to enforce the terms of these agreements or to terminate the agreements. Any decline in perceived favorable recognition of our brands could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

Our business operations are dependent upon the ability of our new employees to learn their new roles.

Beginning in 2013, we transitioned our corporate headquarters from Park Ridge, New Jersey to Estero, Florida. In connection with the transition, we have replaced many employees in key functions. As new employees gain experience in their roles, we could experience inefficiencies or a lack of business continuity due to loss of historical knowledge and a lack of familiarity of new employees with business processes, operating requirements, policies and procedures, some of which are new, and key information technologies and related infrastructure used in our day‑to‑day operations and financial reporting and we may experience additional costs as new employees learn their roles and gain necessary experience. It is important to our success that these new employees quickly adapt to and excel in their new roles. If they are unable to do so, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if we were to lose the services of any one or more key employees, whether due to death, disability or termination of employment, our ability to successfully implement our business strategy, financial plans, marketing and other objectives, could be significantly impaired.

We may face issues with our union employees.

Labor contracts covering the terms of employment for the Company's union employees in the U.S. (including those in the U.S. territories) are presently in effect under active contracts with local unions, affiliated primarily with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the International Association of Machinists. These contracts are renegotiated periodically. Failure to negotiate a new labor agreement when required could result in a work stoppage. Although we believe that our labor relations have generally been good, it is possible that we could become subject to additional work rules imposed by agreements with labor unions, or that work stoppages or other labor disturbances could occur in the future. In addition, our non-union workforce has been subject to unionization efforts in the past, and we could be subject to future unionization, which could lead to increases in our operating costs and/or constraints on our operating flexibility.

The restatement in 2015 of our previously issued financial statements has been time consuming and expensive and could expose us to additional risks that could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

We have incurred significant expenses, including audit, legal, consulting and other professional fees and lender and noteholder consent fees, in connection with the restatement of our previously issued financial statements and the ongoing remediation of weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. We have taken a number of steps, including adding significant internal resources and implementing a number of additional procedures, in order to strengthen our accounting function and attempt to reduce the risk of additional misstatements in our financial statements. To the extent these steps are not successful, we could be forced to incur additional time and expense. Our management’s attention has also been diverted from the operation of our business in connection with the restatements and ongoing remediation of material weaknesses in our internal controls.

We are also subject to a number of claims, investigations and proceedings arising out of the misstatements in our financial statements, including an investigation by the New York Regional Office of the SEC. In addition, in December 2014 a state securities regulator requested information and starting in June 2016 the Company has had communications with the United States Attorney's Office for the District of New Jersey regarding the same or similar events. See below under “The restatement of our previously issued financial results has resulted in government investigations and could result in government enforcement actions and private litigation that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.”


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting which could, if not remediated, adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. In Item 9A, "Controls and Procedures” of this 2016 Annual Report, management identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.

As a result of the material weaknesses, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2016. The assessment was based on criteria established in Internal Control‑Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. We are actively engaged in remediation activities designed to address the material weaknesses, but our remediation efforts are not complete and are ongoing. If our remedial measures are insufficient to address the material weaknesses, or if additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control are discovered or occur in the future, it may materially adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner. If we are unable to report our results in a timely and accurate manner, we may not be able to comply with the applicable covenants in our financing arrangements, and may be required to seek additional waivers or repay amounts under these financing arrangements earlier than anticipated, which could adversely impact our liquidity and financial condition. Although we continually review and evaluate internal control systems to allow management to report on the sufficiency of our internal controls, we cannot assure you that we will not discover additional weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. The next time we evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, if we identify one or more new material weaknesses or are unable to timely remediate our existing weaknesses, we may be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock and possibly impact our ability to obtain future financing on acceptable terms. We may also lose assets if we do not maintain adequate internal controls.

The restatement in 2015 of our previously issued financial results has resulted in government investigations and could result in government enforcement actions and private litigation that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We are subject to securities class action litigation relating to our previous public disclosures. In addition, the New York Regional Office of the SEC is currently investigating the events disclosed in certain of our filings with the SEC. A state securities regulator has also requested information and starting in June 2016 we have had communications with the United States Attorney’s Office for the District of New Jersey regarding the same or similar events. For additional discussion of these matters, see Note 17, "Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Commitments," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” We could also become subject to private litigation or investigations, or one or more government enforcement actions, arising out of the misstatements in our previously issued financial statements. Our management may be required to devote significant time and attention to these matters, and these and any additional matters that arise could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. While we cannot estimate our potential exposure in these matters at this time, we have already expended significant amounts investigating the claims underlying and defending this litigation and expect to continue to need to expend significant amounts to defend this litigation.

We may pursue strategic transactions which could be difficult to implement, disrupt our business or change our business profile significantly.

Any future strategic acquisition or disposition of assets or a business could involve numerous risks, including: (i) potential disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of management; (ii) difficulty integrating the acquired business or segregating assets and operations to be disposed of; (iii) exposure to unknown, contingent or other liabilities, including litigation arising in connection with the acquisition or disposition or against any business we may acquire; (iv) changing

25

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

our business profile in ways that could have unintended negative consequences; and (v) the failure to achieve anticipated synergies.

If we enter into significant strategic transactions, the related accounting charges may affect our financial condition and results of operations, particularly in the case of an acquisition. The financing of any significant acquisition may result in changes in our capital structure, including the incurrence of additional indebtedness. A material disposition could require the amendment or refinancing of our outstanding indebtedness or a portion thereof.

The agreements we entered into in connection with the Spin-Off may distract our management and expose us to claims and liabilities.

The Company and Herc Holdings entered into a separation and distribution agreement and various other agreements to govern the separation Herc Holdings and the relationship between the two companies going forward. Certain of these agreements provide for the performance of services by the Company for the benefit of Herc Holdings and its subsidiaries for up to three years following the date of the Spin-Off, including with respect to the preparation of financial reports filed with the SEC. Certain of these agreements also impose certain obligations, including indemnification obligations, on Herc Holdings for the benefit of the Company. If Herc Holdings is unable to satisfy its obligations under these agreements, the Company could incur losses. These arrangements could also distract management and lead to disputes between the Company and Herc Holdings over the allocation of assets and liabilities between the Company and Herc Holdings.

If, following the completion of the Spin-Off, there is a determination that any of the Spin-Off or the internal spin-off transactions completed in connection with the Spin-Off (collectively with the Spin-Off, the “Spin-Offs”) is taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes because the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings underlying the IRS private letter ruling or tax opinions are incorrect or for any other reason, then Herc Holdings and its stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities and Hertz Global could incur significant liabilities.

In connection with the Spin-Offs, Herc Holdings received a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") to the effect that, subject to the accuracy of and compliance with certain representations, assumptions and covenants, (i) the Spin-Off will qualify as a tax-free transaction under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and (ii) the internal spin-off transactions will qualify as tax free under Section 355 of the Code. A private letter ruling from the IRS generally is binding on the IRS. However, the IRS ruling did not rule that the Spin-Offs satisfied every requirement for a tax-free spin-off, and Herc Holdings and Hertz Global relied solely on opinions of professional advisors to determine that such additional requirements were satisfied. The ruling and the opinions relied on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from Herc Holdings and Hertz Holdings regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings were incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, Herc Holdings and Hertz Global, and their affiliates may not be able to rely on the ruling or the opinions of tax advisors and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the private letter ruling and opinions of tax advisors, the IRS could determine on audit that the Spin-Offs and related transactions are taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinions that are not covered by the private letter ruling, or for any other reason, including as a result of certain significant changes in the stock ownership of Herc Holdings or Hertz Global after the Spin-Off. If the Spin-Offs or related transactions are determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Herc Holdings and Hertz Global and, in certain cases, their stockholders (at the time of the Spin-Off) could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities, including taxation on the value of the Hertz Global stock distributed in the Spin-Off and the value of other companies distributed in the internal Spin-Off transactions, and Hertz Global could incur significant liabilities, either directly to the tax authorities or under a Tax Matters Agreement entered into with Herc Holdings.

Some or all of our deferred tax assets could expire if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the Code.

An “ownership change” could limit our ability to utilize tax attributes, including net operating losses, capital loss carryovers, excess foreign tax carry forwards, and credit carryforwards, to offset future taxable income. Our ability to

26

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

use such tax attributes to offset future taxable income and tax liabilities may be significantly limited if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382(g) of the Code. In general, an ownership change will occur when the percentage of Hertz Global's ownership (by value) of one or more “5-percent shareholders” (as defined in the Code) has increased by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of stock owned by such shareholders at any time during the prior three years (calculated on a rolling basis). An entity that experiences an ownership change generally should be subject to an annual limitation on its pre-ownership change tax loss carryforward equal to the equity value of the corporation immediately before the ownership change, multiplied by the long-term, tax-exempt rate posted monthly by the IRS (subject to certain adjustments). The annual limitation accumulates each year to the extent that there is any unused limitation from a prior year. The limitation on our ability to utilize tax losses and credit carryforwards arising from an ownership change under Section 382 depends on the value of our equity at the time of any ownership change. If we were to experience an “ownership change”, it is possible that a significant portion of our tax loss carryforwards could expire before we would be able to use them to offset future taxable income. Many states adopt the federal section 382 rules and therefore have similar limitations with respect to state tax attributes.

We face risks related to liabilities and insurance.

Our businesses expose us to claims for personal injury, death and property damage resulting from the use of the vehicles rented or sold by us, and for employment‑related injury claims by our employees. The Company is currently a defendant in numerous actions and has received numerous claims on which actions have not yet been commenced for public liability and property damage arising from the operation of motor vehicles rented from the Company. Currently, we generally self‑insure up to $10 million per occurrence in the U.S. and $5 million in Europe for vehicle and general liability exposures, $5 million for employment‑related injury claims, and we also maintain insurance with unaffiliated carriers in excess of such levels up to $200 million per occurrence for the current policy year, or in the case of international operations outside of Europe, in such lower amounts as we deem adequate given the risks. We cannot assure you that we will not be exposed to uninsured liability at levels in excess of our historical levels resulting from multiple payouts or otherwise, that liabilities in respect of existing or future claims will not exceed the level of our insurance, that we will have sufficient capital available to pay any uninsured claims or that insurance with unaffiliated carriers will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms or at all. See Item 1, “Business - Insurance and Risk Management” and Note 17, "Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Commitments," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, ‘‘Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

We could face a significant withdrawal liability if we withdraw from participation in multiemployer pension plans or in the event other employers in such plans become insolvent and certain multiemployer plans in which we participate are reported to have underfunded liabilities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows.

We could face a significant withdrawal liability if we withdraw from participation in one or more multiemployer pension plans in which we participate or in the event other employers in such plans become insolvent, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows.

We participate in various “multiemployer” pension plans. In the event that we withdraw from participation in one of these plans, then applicable law could require us to make an additional lump‑sum contribution to the plan, and we would have to reflect that as an expense in our consolidated statement of operations and as a liability on our consolidated balance sheet. Our withdrawal liability for any multiemployer plan would depend on the extent of the plan’s funding of vested benefits. Our multiemployer plans could have significant underfunded liabilities. Such underfunding may increase in the event other employers become insolvent or withdraw from the applicable plan or upon the inability or failure of withdrawing employers to pay their withdrawal liability. In addition, such underfunding may increase as a result of lower than expected returns on pension fund assets or other funding deficiencies. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows. See Note 8, "Employee Retirement Benefits," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, ‘‘Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."


27

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

Environmental laws and regulations and the costs of complying with them, or any liability or obligation imposed under them, could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows.

We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations in connection with our operations, including with respect to the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and motor and waste oils. We cannot assure you that our tanks will at all times remain free from leaks or that the use of these tanks will not result in significant spills or leakage. If leakage or a spill occurs, it is possible that the resulting costs of cleanup, investigation and remediation, as well as any resulting fines, could be significant. We cannot assure you that compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations will not require material expenditures by us or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows. See Item 1, ‘‘Business—Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters’’ in this 2016 Annual Report.

The U.S. Congress and other legislative and regulatory authorities in the U.S. and internationally have considered, and will likely continue to consider, numerous measures related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Should rules establishing limitations on greenhouse gas emissions or rules imposing fees on entities deemed to be responsible for greenhouse gas emissions become effective, demand for our services could be affected, our vehicle, and/or other, costs could increase, and our business could be adversely affected.

Changes in the U.S. legal and regulatory environment that affect our operations, including laws and regulations relating to taxes, automobile related liability, insurance rates, insurance products, consumer privacy, data security, employment matters, licensing and franchising, automotive retail sales, cost and fee recovery and the banking and financing industry could disrupt our business, increase our expenses or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

We are subject to a wide variety of U.S. laws and regulations and changes in the level of government regulation of our business have the potential to materially alter our business practices and materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, including our profitability. Those changes may come about through new laws and regulations or changes in the interpretation of existing laws and regulations.

Any new, or change in existing, U.S. law and regulation with respect to optional insurance products or policies could increase our costs of compliance or make it uneconomical to offer such products, which would lead to a reduction in revenue and profitability. For further discussion regarding how changes in the regulation of insurance intermediaries may affect us, see Item 1, ‘‘Business—Insurance and Risk Management’’ in this 2016 Annual Report. If customers decline to purchase supplemental liability insurance products from us as a result of any changes in these laws or otherwise, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Changes in the U.S. and E.U. legal and regulatory environments in the areas of customer and employee privacy, data security, and cross‑border data flows could have a material adverse effect on our business, primarily through the impairment of our marketing and transaction processing activities, and the resulting costs of complying with such legal and regulatory requirements. It is also possible that we could face significant liability for failing to comply with any such requirements.

We derive revenue through rental activities of the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands under franchise and license arrangements. These arrangements are subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations that impose limitations on our interactions with counterparties. In addition, the automotive retail industry, including our network of company‑operated vehicle sales locations, is subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws and regulations, such as those relating to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales and related finance and insurance matters, advertising, licensing, consumer protection and consumer privacy. Changes in these laws and regulations that impact our franchising and licensing arrangements or our automotive retail sales could adversely impact our results.

In most places where we operate, we pass through various expenses, including the recovery of vehicle licensing costs and airport concession fees, to our rental customers as separate charges. We believe that our expense pass throughs, where imposed, are properly disclosed and are lawful.  However, in the event of incorrect calculations or disclosures

28

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

with respect to expense pass throughs, or a successful challenge to the methodology we have used for determining our expense pass through treatment, we could be subject to fines or other liabilities.  In addition, we may in the future be subject to potential legislative, regulatory or administrative changes or actions which could limit, restrict or prohibit our ability to separately state, charge and recover vehicle licensing costs and airport concession fees, which could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

Certain proposed or enacted laws and regulations with respect to the banking and finance industries, including the Dodd‑Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (including risk retention requirements) and amendments to the SEC's rules relating to asset-backed securities, could restrict our access to certain financing arrangements and increase our financing costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR SUBSTANTIAL INDEBTEDNESS

Our substantial level of indebtedness could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity and ability to compete in our industry.

Our substantial indebtedness could materially adversely affect us. For example, it could: (i) make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations to the holders of our outstanding debt securities and to the lenders under our various credit facilities, resulting in possible defaults on, and acceleration or early amortization of, such indebtedness; (ii) be difficult to refinance or borrow additional funds in the future; (iii) require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations and investing activities to make payments on our debt, which would reduce our ability to fund working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate purposes; (iv) increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions (such as credit‑related disruptions), including interest rate fluctuations, because a portion of our borrowings are at floating rates of interest and are not hedged against rising interest rates, and the risk that one or more of the financial institutions providing commitments under our revolving credit facilities fails to fund an extension of credit under any such facility, due to insolvency or otherwise, leaving us with less liquidity than expected; (v) place us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors that have proportionately less debt or comparable debt at more favorable interest rates or on better terms; and (vi) limit our ability to react to competitive pressures, or make it difficult for us to carry out capital spending that is necessary or important to our growth strategy and our efforts to improve operating margins. While the terms of the agreements and instruments governing our outstanding indebtedness contain certain restrictions upon our ability to incur additional indebtedness, they do not fully prohibit us from incurring substantial additional indebtedness and do not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. If new debt or other obligations are added to our current liability levels without a corresponding refinancing or redemption of our existing indebtedness and obligations, these risks would increase. For a description of the amounts we have available under certain of our debt facilities, see Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources—Borrowing Capacity and Availability” included in this 2016 Annual Report and Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Our ability to manage these risks depends on financial market conditions as well as our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, is subject to a wide range of risks, including those described under “Risks Related to Our Business.”

Our Senior Facilities (as defined in “Description of Certain Indebtedness” below) contain customary events of default, subject to customary cure periods for certain defaults, that include, among others, non-payment defaults, covenant defaults, material judgment defaults, bankruptcy and insolvency defaults, cross-acceleration of certain other material indebtedness, and inaccuracy of representations and warranties. Upon an event of default thereunder, if not waived by our lenders, our lenders may declare all amounts outstanding as due and payable, which may cause further defaults and/or amortization events under our other debt obligations. The credit agreement governing our Senior Facilities requires us upon a change of control, as defined therein, to make an offer to repay in full all amounts outstanding thereunder upon such a change of control. Our failure to make such an offer would result in an event of default thereunder. In addition, the indentures governing our Senior Notes require us upon a change of control, as defined therein, to make an offer to repurchase all of such outstanding Senior Notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount, together with any accrued and unpaid interest. If we failed to repurchase the Senior Notes, we would be in

29

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

default under the related indenture. Certain of our other indebtedness also could result in defaults and/or amortization events upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, as defined therein. If our current lenders accelerate the maturity of their related indebtedness, we may not have sufficient capital available at that time to pay the amounts due to our lenders on a timely basis, and there is no guarantee that we would be able to repay, refinance, or restructure the payments on such debt.

If our capital resources (including borrowings under our revolving credit facilities and access to other refinancing indebtedness) and operating cash flows are not sufficient to pay our obligations as they mature or to fund our liquidity needs, we may be forced to do, among other things, one or more of the following: (i) sell certain of our assets; (ii) reduce the number of our revenue earning vehicles; (iii) reduce or delay capital expenditures; (iv) obtain additional equity capital; (v) forgo business opportunities, including acquisitions and joint ventures; or (vi) restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity.

We cannot assure you that we would be able to accomplish any of these alternatives on a timely basis or on satisfactory terms, if at all. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that we will maintain financing activities and cash flows sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. If we cannot refinance or otherwise pay our obligations as they mature and fund our liquidity needs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity, ability to obtain financing and ability to compete in our industry could be materially adversely affected.

Our reliance on asset‑backed and asset‑based financing arrangements to purchase vehicles subjects us to a number of risks, many of which are beyond our control.

We rely significantly on asset‑backed and asset‑based financing to purchase vehicles. If we are unable to refinance or replace our existing asset‑backed and asset‑based financing or continue to finance new vehicle acquisitions through asset‑backed or asset‑based financing on favorable terms, on a timely basis, or at all, then our costs of financing could increase significantly and have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, interest costs, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our asset‑backed and asset‑based financing capacity could be decreased, our financing costs and interest rates could be increased, or our future access to the financial markets could be limited, as a result of risks and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, including: (i) the acceptance by credit markets of the structures and structural risks associated with our asset‑backed and asset‑based financing arrangements; (ii) the credit ratings provided by credit rating agencies for our asset‑backed indebtedness; (iii) third parties requiring changes in the terms and structure of our asset‑backed or asset‑based financing arrangements, including increased credit enhancement or required cash collateral and/or other liquid reserves; (iv) the insolvency or deterioration of the financial condition of one or more of our principal vehicle manufacturers; or (v) changes in laws or regulations, including judicial review of issues of first impression, that negatively impact any of our asset‑backed or asset‑based financing arrangements.

Any reduction in the value of certain revenue earning vehicles could effectively increase our vehicle costs, adversely impact our profitability and potentially lead to decreased borrowing base availability in our asset‑backed and certain asset‑based vehicle financing facilities due to the credit enhancement requirements for such facilities, which could increase if market values for vehicles decrease below net book values for those vehicles. In addition, if disposal of vehicles in the used vehicle marketplace were to become severely limited at a time when required collateral levels were rising and as a result we failed to meet the minimum required collateral levels, the principal under our asset‑backed and certain asset‑based financing arrangements may be required to be repaid sooner than anticipated with vehicle disposition proceeds and lease payments we make to our special purpose financing subsidiaries. If that were to occur, the holders of our asset‑backed and certain asset‑based debt may have the ability to exercise their right to direct the trustee or other secured party to foreclose on and sell vehicles to generate proceeds sufficient to repay such debt.

The occurrence of certain events, including those described in the paragraph above, could result in the occurrence of an amortization event pursuant to which the proceeds of sales of vehicles that collateralize the affected asset‑backed financing arrangement would be required to be applied to the payment of principal and interest on the affected facility or series, rather than being reinvested in our revenue earning vehicles. In the case of our asset‑backed financing arrangements, certain other events, including defaults by us and our affiliates in the performance of covenants set

30

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

forth in the agreements governing certain vehicle debt, could result in the occurrence of a liquidation event with the passing of time or immediately pursuant to which the trustee or holders of the affected asset‑backed financing arrangement would be permitted to require the sale of the assets collateralizing that series. Any of these consequences could affect our liquidity and our ability to maintain sufficient levels of revenue earning vehicles to meet customer demands and could trigger cross‑defaults under certain of our other financing arrangements.

Substantially all of our consolidated assets secure certain of our outstanding indebtedness, which could materially adversely affect our debt and equity holders and our business.

Substantially all of our consolidated assets, including our revenue earning vehicles and Donlen’s lease portfolio, are subject to security interests or are otherwise encumbered for the lenders under our senior credit facilities, asset‑backed and asset‑based financing arrangements. As a result, the lenders under those facilities would have a prior claim on such assets in the event of our bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation or reorganization, and we may not have sufficient funds to pay in full, or at all, all of our creditors or make any amount available to holders of our equity. The same is true with respect to structurally senior obligations: in general, all liabilities and other obligations of a subsidiary must be satisfied before the assets of such subsidiary can be made available to the creditors (or equity holders) of the parent entity.

Because substantially all of our assets are encumbered under financing arrangements, our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness or to sell or dispose of assets to raise capital may be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial flexibility and force us to attempt to incur additional unsecured indebtedness, which may not be available to us.

Restrictive covenants in certain of the agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness may materially adversely affect our financial flexibility or may have other material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.

Certain of our credit facilities and other assetbased and assetbacked financing arrangements contain covenants that, among other things, restrict Hertz and its subsidiaries’ ability to: (i) dispose of assets; (ii) incur additional indebtedness; (iii) incur guarantee obligations; (iv) prepay other indebtedness or amend other financing arrangements; (v) pay dividends; (vi) create liens on assets; (vii) sell assets; (viii) make investments, loans, advances or capital expenditures; (ix) make acquisitions; (x) engage in mergers or consolidations; (xi) change the business conducted by us; and (xii) engage in certain transactions with affiliates.

Our Senior RCF (as defined in “Description of Certain Indebtedness” below) subjects us to a financial maintenance covenant. Our ability to comply with this covenant will depend on our ongoing financial and operating performance, which in turn are subject to, among other things, the risks identified in “Risks Related to Our Business.”

The agreements governing our financing arrangements contain numerous covenants. The breach of any of these covenants or restrictions could result in a default under the relevant agreement, which could, in turn, cause crossdefaults under our other financing arrangements. In such event, we may be unable to borrow under the Senior RCF (as defined in “Description of Certain Indebtedness” below) and certain of our other financing arrangements and may not be able to repay the amounts due under such arrangements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.

An increase in interest rates or in our borrowing margin would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could reduce our profitability.

A significant portion of our outstanding debt bears interest at floating rates. As a result, to the extent we have not hedged against rising interest rates, an increase in the applicable benchmark interest rates would increase our cost of servicing our debt and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

In addition, we regularly refinance our indebtedness. If interest rates or our borrowing margins increase between the time an existing financing arrangement was consummated and the time such financing arrangement is refinanced, the

31

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)

cost of servicing our debt would increase and our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

RISKS RELATING TO HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. COMMON STOCK

Hertz Holdings is a holding company with no operations of its own and depends on its subsidiaries for cash.
The operations of Hertz Holdings are conducted nearly entirely through its subsidiaries and its ability to generate cash to meet its debt service obligations or to pay dividends on its common stock is dependent on the earnings and the receipt of funds from its subsidiaries via dividends or intercompany loans. However, none of the subsidiaries of Hertz Holdings are obligated to make funds available to Hertz Holdings for the payment of dividends or the service of its debt. In addition, certain states' laws and the terms of certain of our debt agreements significantly restrict, or prohibit, the ability of Hertz and its subsidiaries to pay dividends, make loans or otherwise transfer assets to Hertz Holdings, including state laws that require dividends to be paid only from surplus. If Hertz Holdings does not receive cash from its subsidiaries, then Hertz Holdings' financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Hertz Holdings' share price may decline if it issues a large number of new shares or if a holder of a substantial number of shares sells their stock.
Hertz Holdings has a significant number of authorized but unissued shares, including shares available for issuance pursuant to various equity plans. In addition, in recent years, several shareholders, most notably affiliates of Carl Icahn, have accumulated significant amounts of Hertz Holdings common stock. A sale of a substantial number of shares or other equity-related securities in the public market pursuant to new issuances or by these significant shareholders could depress the market price of Hertz Holdings' stock and impair its ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Any such sale or issuance would dilute the ownership interests of the then-existing stockholders, and could have material adverse effect on the market price of Hertz Holdings' common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We operate vehicle rental locations at or near airports and in central business districts and suburban areas of major cities in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands), Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom, as well as retail used vehicle sales locations in the U.S. and Australia. We also operate headquarters, sales offices and service facilities in the foregoing countries in support of our vehicle rental operations, as well as small vehicle rental sales offices and service facilities in a select number of other countries in Europe and Asia.

We own approximately 3% of the locations from which we operate our vehicle rental businesses and in some cases own real property that we lease to franchisees or other third parties. The remaining locations from which we operate our vehicle rental businesses are leased or operated under concessions from governmental authorities and private entities. Those leases and concession agreements typically require the payment of minimum rents or minimum concession fees and often also require us to pay or reimburse operating expenses; to pay additional rent, or concession fees above guaranteed minimums, based on a percentage of revenues or sales arising at the relevant premises; or to do both. See Note 11, "Lease and Concession Agreements," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

Donlen's headquarters is in a leased facility in Bannockburn, Illinois. Donlen also leases office space in Darien, Illinois for its fleet management services, consultation call center staff and certain financial systems functions. Donlen has other sales offices located throughout the U.S.

In November 2015, the Company completed the relocation of its worldwide headquarters from Park Ridge, New Jersey, to our newly constructed facility in Estero, Florida which we own. We also own two facilities and lease one facility in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma at which reservations for our vehicle rental operations are processed, global

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HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES (Continued)


information technology systems are serviced and finance and accounting functions are performed. Additionally, we own a reservation and financial center near Dublin, Ireland, at which we have centralized our European vehicle rental reservation, customer relations, accounting and human resource functions. We lease a European headquarters office in Uxbridge, England.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 17, "Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Commitments," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

33

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS

Set forth below are the names, ages, number of years employed by the Company as of March 1, 2017 and positions of our executive officers.

Name
 
Age
 
Number of Years Employed
 
Position
Kathryn V. Marinello
 
60
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Michel Taride
 
59
 
30
 
Group President, Rent A Car International
Thomas C. Kennedy
 
51
 
3
 
Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Eliana Zem
 
54
 
2
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Alexandria Marren
 
56
 
2
 
Executive Vice President, North American Rental Car Operations
Richard J. Frecker
 
47
 
8
 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Tyler A. Best
 
49
 
2
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer
Robin C. Kramer
 
51
 
2
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer

Ms. Marinello has served as the President and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Boards of Directors of the Company since January 3, 2017. Ms. Marinello previously served as a Senior Advisor of Ares Management LLC since March 2014. Ms. Marinello served as the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Stream Global Services, Inc. from 2010 to March 2014. Ms. Marinello served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of Ceridian Corporation from 2006 to 2010. She served in a wide variety of senior roles over 10 years at General Electric, leading global, multi-billion dollar financial and services businesses. She served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of GE Fleet Services at GE Commercial Finance from October 2002 to October 2006 and GE Insurance Solutions from 1999 to 2002. She served as President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Financial Assurance Partnership Marketing Group, a diverse organization that includes GE's affinity marketing business, Auto & Home Insurance business, and Auto Warranty Service business from December 2000 to October 2002. Prior to this role, Ms. Marinello served as President of GE Capital Consumer Financial Services and also served as an Executive Vice President of GE Card Services, where she began her GE career in 1997. Prior to GE Capital, she served as President of the Electronic Payments Group at First Data Corporation, where she provided electronic banking and commerce, debit and commercial processing to the financial services industry. She has also served in senior leadership positions at US Bank, Chemical Bank, Citibank and Barclays. Ms. Marinello is an independent director of AB Volvo and RealPage, Inc. and a member of the Supervisory Board at The Nielsen Company B.V. She previously served as an independent director of General Motors from July 2009 to December 2016.
Mr. Taride has served as the Group President, Hertz Rent A Car International since January 2010. In this role Mr. Taride is currently responsible for our International Rental Car operations, other than in Canada and Puerto Rico and had global responsibility for our Global Customer Care Organization from October 2013 to March 2015. Mr. Taride previously served as Executive Vice President of the Company and President, Hertz Europe Limited from January 2004 and as Executive Vice President of the Company and President, Hertz Europe Limited, from June 2006 until December 2009. From January 2003 until December 2003, he served as Vice President and President, Hertz Europe Limited. From April 2000 until December 2002, he served as Vice President and General Manager, Rent A Car, Hertz Europe Limited. From July 1998 to March 2000, he was General Manager, Rent A Car France and HERC Europe. Previously, he served in various other operating positions in Europe from 1980 to 1983 and from 1985 to 1998.

Mr. Kennedy has served as the Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company since December 2013. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Kennedy served as Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. (formerly, Hilton Worldwide, Inc.) from 2008 to 2013.  Between 2003 and 2007, Mr. Kennedy served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Vanguard Car Rental (parent to Alamo Car Rental and National Car Rental brands).  Prior to joining Vanguard, Mr. Kennedy served in various positions at Northwest Airlines, Inc., including as Senior Vice President and Controller in 2003; Vice President, Financial Planning and Analysis from 2000 to 2002; Managing Director, Corporate Planning in 1999; and Director, Finance and Information Services, Pacific Division, Tokyo, Japan from 1997 to 1999.  Mr. Kennedy held various other financial positions with

34

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT (Continued)

Northwest from 1992 to 1997.  He received his Masters in Business Administration from Harvard University and his Bachelors of Arts in Economics, summa cum laude, from Tulane University.

Ms. Zem has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of the Company since June 2015. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Zem served as Senior Vice President, Human Resources, at Diageo North America, a producer and marketer of beverages, from 2006 to June 2015. From 1998 until 2006, Ms. Zem served in human resources roles of increasing responsibility for Diageo in Brazil and the United Kingdom.  From 1996 to 1998, she worked as a human resources consultant in Brazil.  Ms. Zem started her career in Brazil's banking industry where she had human resources roles of increasing responsibility at Unibanco, Citibank and Banco Nacional.

Ms. Marren has served as Executive Vice President, North American Rental Car Operations since August 2015.  Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Marren was Chief Operating Officer of ExpressJet Airlines, Inc., part of SkyWest, Inc., from 2014 to 2015.  Prior to ExpressJet, she was Senior Vice President at United Airlines and United Express from 2008 to 2013. Ms. Marren served in a number of executive roles at United, in all facets of the operations, including airports, inflight services, and the operations center during her more than 25-year career there. She graduated from Harvard University and the Advanced Management Program from Northwestern Kellogg, and has also served on the boards of the Alliant Credit Union and the American Red Cross.

Mr. Frecker has served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of the Company since July 2016. Mr. Frecker previously served as Senior Vice President and Acting General Counsel from April 2016 to July 2016, Vice President, Deputy General Counsel from March 2013 to April 2016, Associate General Counsel from March 2011 to March 2013 and Assistant General Counsel from July 2008 to March 2011. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Frecker was Corporate Counsel at The Children’s Place, Inc., a NASDAQ-listed children’s apparel company from February 2006 to July 2008. Previous to The Children’s Place, Mr. Frecker was in private practice at the law firm of Dorsey and Whitney LLP.

Mr. Best has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer of the Company since January 2015. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Best served at YP (formerly Yellow Pages) as Chief Information Officer from November 2012 through December 2014. From March 2012 to November 2012, Mr. Best was an independent consultant providing Cerberus Capital Management (a New York-based private equity firm) with information technology support services. From 2008 to 2012, Mr. Best served as Chief Technology Officer at Ally Financial, Inc. (formerly, GMAC). From June 2003 through December 2007, Mr. Best served as Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer at Vanguard Car Rental (parent to Alamo Car Rental and National Car Rental brands).

Ms. Kramer has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company since May 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Kramer was an audit partner at Deloitte & Touche LLP from 2007 to 2014, including serving in Deloitte’s National Office Accounting Standards and Communications Group from 2007 to 2010. From 2005 to 2007, Ms. Kramer served as Chief Accounting Officer of Fisher Scientific International, Inc., and from 2004 to 2005 Ms. Kramer served as Director, External Reporting, Accounting and Control for the Gillette Company. Ms. Kramer also held partner positions in the public accounting firms of Ernst & Young LLP and Arthur Andersen LLP. Ms. Kramer earned a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting from Salem State College in Massachusetts. Ms. Kramer is a licensed CPA and is a member of the Massachusetts Society of CPAs, the AICPA, and served as a Board Member for the Massachusetts State Board of Accountancy from September 2011 to December 2015.

35

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

HERTZ GLOBAL

Market Price of Common Stock

Prior to the Spin-Off, Old Hertz Holdings common stock traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "HTZ". In connection with the Spin-Off on June 30, 2016, Old Hertz Holdings stockholders of record as of the close of business on June 22, 2016 received one share of Hertz Holdings common stock for every five shares of Old Hertz Holdings common stock held as of the record date. As a result of the Spin-Off, each of Hertz Holdings and Old Hertz Holdings (aka: Herc Holdings, Inc.) are independent public companies trading on the New York Stock Exchange, trading under the symbol "HTZ" and “HRI”, respectively.

The following table sets forth the high and low sales price per share of common stock as reported by the NYSE for Old Hertz Holdings for periods prior to the Spin-Off, as adjusted for the one-to-five distribution ratio, and Hertz Holdings for periods subsequent to the Spin-Off:

2015
 
High
Low
1st Quarter
$
125.60

$
100.60

2nd Quarter
113.15

90.25

3rd Quarter
102.50

74.25

4th Quarter
100.25

68.15

2016
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
71.50

$
34.75

2nd Quarter
59.40

37.80

3rd Quarter
53.14

38.43

4th Quarter
40.70

17.20


On March 1, 2017, there were 1,636 registered holders of Hertz Holdings common stock.

Share Repurchase Program

In connection with the Spin-Off on June 30, 2016, Hertz Holdings' Board approved a share repurchase program that authorizes Hertz Holdings to repurchase approximately $395 million worth of shares of its common stock (the "2016 share repurchase program"), which represents the amount remaining under the Old Hertz Holdings share repurchase programs as of the Spin-Off. The 2016 share repurchase program permits Hertz Holdings to purchase shares through a variety of methods, including in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, in accordance with applicable securities laws. It does not obligate Hertz Holdings to make any repurchases at any specific time or situation. As of December 31, 2016, Hertz Holdings repurchased two million shares for $100 million under this program.

Since Hertz Holdings does not conduct business itself, it primarily funds repurchases of its common stock using dividends from Hertz or amounts borrowed under the master loan agreement. In February 2017, as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", Hertz amended its credit agreement governing its Senior Facilities which restricts its ability to make dividends and certain restricted payments, including payments to Hertz Holdings for share repurchases.


36

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (Continued)

Dividends

Hertz Holdings paid no cash dividends on its common stock in 2016 or 2015, and it does not expect to pay dividends on its common stock for the foreseeable future. Since Hertz Holdings does not conduct business itself, it primarily funds dividends on its common stock using dividends from Hertz or amounts borrowed under the master loan agreement. In February 2017, as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", Hertz amended its credit agreement governing its Senior Facilities which restricts its ability to make dividends and certain restricted payments, including payments to Hertz Holdings for dividends on Hertz Holdings' common stock.

Recent Performance

The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on Hertz Holdings common stock with the Russell 1000 Index and the Morningstar Rental & Leasing Services Industry Group. Consistent with the "Market Price of Common Stock" section above, the periods depicted in the chart below prior to the Spin-Off reflect the performance of Old Hertz Holdings common stock and the periods subsequent to the Spin-Off depict the Hertz Holdings common stock performance. The Russell 1000 Index is included because it is comprised of the 1,000 largest publicly traded issuers. The Morningstar Rental & Leasing Services Industry Group is a published, market capitalization-weighted index representing stocks of companies that rent or lease various durable goods to the commercial and consumer market including vehicles and trucks, medical and industrial equipment, appliances, tools and other miscellaneous goods, including Hertz Holdings. The results are based on an assumed $100 invested on December 31, 2011, at the market close, through December 31, 2016.

COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN AMONG HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC.,
RUSSELL 1000 INDEX AND MORNINGSTAR RENTAL & LEASING SERVICES
INDUSTRY GROUP
ASSUMES DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT
hgh2014form_chart-25214a02.jpg


37

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (Continued)

Equity Compensation Information

The following table summarizes the securities authorized for issuance pursuant to our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2016:
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
Number of securities to
be issued upon exercise
of outstanding options,
warrants and rights
(a)
 
Weighted average exercise price of outstanding options and RSU's / PSU's
(b)
 
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation
plans (excluding
securities reflected in
column (a))
(c)
Stock Options
 
886,364

 
$
66.24

 
6,710,697

Performance Stock Units
 
592,931

 
N/A

 

Restricted Stock Units
 
346,984

 
N/A

 

Total
 
1,826,279

 
 
 
6,710,697



HERTZ

There is no established public trading market for the common stock of Hertz. Rental Car Intermediate Holdings, LLC, which is wholly-owned by Hertz Global, owns all of the outstanding common stock of Hertz. Hertz has not sold or repurchased any equity securities in the last three fiscal years.

Hertz paid dividends to Hertz Holdings of $334 million and $365 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. In February 2017, as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", Hertz amended its credit agreement governing its Senior Facilities which restricts its ability to make dividends and certain restricted payments to Hertz Holdings.


38

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES


ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

HERTZ GLOBAL

The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz Global included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The selected statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was derived from audited consolidated financial statements of Old Hertz Holdings not included in this 2016 Annual Report as updated to reflect the equipment rental business and certain parent legal entities as discontinued operations.

The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto of Hertz Global included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz Global.
(In millions, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
Statement of Operations Data
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
   2012 (c)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Worldwide vehicle rental(a)
$
8,211

 
$
8,434

 
$
8,907

 
$
8,709

 
$
7,153

All other operations
592

 
583

 
568

 
527

 
478

Total revenues
8,803

 
9,017

 
9,475

 
9,236

 
7,631

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct vehicle and operating
4,932

 
5,055

 
5,458

 
4,965

 
4,093

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,601

 
2,433

 
2,705

 
2,234

 
1,856

Selling, general and administrative
899

 
873

 
936

 
931

 
853

Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
280

 
253

 
277

 
302

 
297

Non-vehicle
344

 
346

 
340

 
342

 
282

Total interest expense, net
624

 
599

 
617

 
644

 
579

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments
292

 
40

 

 

 

Other (income) expense, net
(75
)
 
(115
)
 
(10
)
 
68

 
35

Total expenses
9,273

 
8,885

 
9,706

 
8,842

 
7,416

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
(470
)
 
132


(231
)
 
394

 
215

Income tax (provision) benefit
(4
)
 
(17
)
 
17

 
(223
)
 
(128
)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(474
)
 
115

 
(214
)
 
171

 
87

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations
(17
)
 
158

 
132

 
131

 
97

Net income (loss)
$
(491
)
 
$
273

 
$
(82
)
 
$
302

 
$
184

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding(b)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
84

 
90

 
91

 
84

 
84

Diluted
84

 
91

 
91

 
91

 
90

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) per share - basic and diluted:(b)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations
$
(5.65
)
 
$
1.28

 
$
(2.35
)
 
$
2.04

 
$
1.04

Basic earnings (loss) per share from discontinued operations
(0.20
)
 
1.75

 
1.45

 
1.56

 
1.15

Basic earnings (loss) per share
$
(5.85
)
 
$
3.03

 
$
(0.90
)
 
$
3.60

 
$
2.19

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations
$
(5.65
)
 
$
1.26

 
$
(2.35
)
 
$
1.88

 
$
0.97

Diluted earnings (loss) per share from discontinued operations
(0.20
)
 
1.74

 
1.45

 
1.44

 
1.07

Diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
(5.85
)
 
$
3.00

 
$
(0.90
)
 
$
3.32

 
$
2.04


39

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)



(In millions)
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2016
 
2015
 
   2014(e)
 
   2013(e)
 
   2012(e)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
816

 
$
474

 
$
474

 
$
396

 
$
519

Total assets (d)
19,155

 
23,514

 
23,904

 
24,318

 
23,015

Total debt
13,541

 
15,770

 
15,720

 
15,916

 
14,848

Total equity
1,075

 
2,019

 
2,464

 
2,567

 
2,331


(a)
Includes U.S. Rental Car and International Rental Car segments.

(b)
Weighted average shares outstanding used to calculate basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share presented in the above table has been adjusted for the one-to-five distribution ratio in connection with the Spin-Off. See Note 19, "Equity and Earnings (Loss) Per Share - Hertz Global," for additional information.

(c)
Results for the period from January 1, 2012 through November 18, 2012 exclude the results of Dollar Thrifty which were acquired in 2012.

(d)
The balance of total assets as of December 31, 2016 reflect the impact of discontinuing the equipment rental operations and certain parent legal entities, goodwill and intangible asset impairments, and a reduction in vehicle receivables as compared to the historical periods presented.

(e)
Balance sheet data in this table for 2014, 2013 and 2012 includes reclassification of certain debt issuance costs from assets to liabilities in conformity with recently adopted accounting pronouncements, see Note 2, "Significant Accounting Policies " for additional information.


40

THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)


HERTZ

The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The selected statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was derived from audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz not included in this 2016 Annual Report as updated to reflect the equipment rental business as discontinued operations.

The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto of Hertz included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the audited consolidated financial statements of Hertz.

(In millions, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
Statement of Operations Data
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
   2012 (b)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Worldwide vehicle rental(a)
$
8,211

 
$
8,434

 
$
8,907

 
$
8,709

 
$
7,153

All other operations
592

 
583

 
568

 
527

 
478

Total revenues
8,803

 
9,017

 
9,475

 
9,236

 
7,631

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct vehicle and operating
4,932

 
5,055

 
5,458

 
4,965

 
4,093

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,601

 
2,433

 
2,705

 
2,234

 
1,856

Selling, general and administrative
899

 
873

 
936

 
931

 
853

Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
280

 
253

 
277

 
302

 
297

Non-vehicle
343

 
346

 
340

 
342

 
282

Total interest expense, net
623

 
599

 
617

 
644

 
579

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments
292

 
40

 

 

 

Other (income) expense, net
(75
)
 
(115
)
 
(10
)
 
68

 
35

Total expenses
9,272

 
8,885

 
9,706

 
8,842

 
7,416

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
(469
)
 
132

 
(231
)
 
394

 
215

Income tax (provision) benefit
(4
)
 
(17
)
 
17

 
(223
)
 
(128
)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(473
)
 
115

 
(214
)
 
171

 
87

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations
(15
)
 
161

 
136

 
179

 
130

Net income (loss)
$
(488
)
 
$
276

 
$
(78
)
 
$
350

 
$
217


41

THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (Continued)



(In millions)
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2016
 
2015
 
   2014 (d)
 
   2013 (d)
 
   2012 (d)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
816

 
$
474

 
$
474

 
$
396

 
$
519

Total assets (c)
19,155

 
23,509

 
23,999

 
24,411

 
23,019

Total debt
13,541

 
15,770

 
15,720

 
15,917

 
14,848

Total equity
1,075

 
1,948

 
2,495

 
2,680

 
2,742


(a)
Includes U.S. Rental Car and International Rental Car segments.

(b)
Results for the period from January 1, 2012 through November 18, 2012 exclude the results of Dollar Thrifty which were acquired in 2012.

(c)
The balance of total assets as of December 31, 2016 reflect the impact of discontinuing the equipment rental operations, goodwill and intangible asset impairments, and a reduction in vehicle receivables as compared to the historical periods presented.

(d)
Balance sheet data in this table for 2014, 2013 and 2012 includes reclassification of certain debt issuance costs from assets to liabilities in conformity with recently adopted accounting pronouncements, see Note 2, "Significant Accounting Policies " for additional information.


42

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “Hertz Global” or the “Company”) is a holding company and its principal, wholly-owned subsidiary is The Hertz Corporation Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, "Hertz"). As Hertz Global consolidates Hertz for financial statement purposes, disclosures that relate to activities of Hertz also apply to Hertz Global, unless otherwise noted. Hertz comprises approximately the entire balance of Hertz Global’s assets, liabilities and operating cash flows. In addition, Hertz’s operating revenues and operating expenses comprise nearly 100% of Hertz Global’s revenues and operating expenses. As such, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") that follows for Hertz also applies to Hertz Global in all material respects and differences between the operations and results of Hertz and Hertz Global are separately disclosed and explained. We sometimes use the words “we,” “our,” “us,” and the “Company” in this MD&A for disclosures that relate to all of Hertz and Hertz Global.

The statements in MD&A regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding the performance of our business and the other non-historical statements are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors.” The following MD&A provides information that we believe to be relevant to an understanding of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements. You should read the following MD&A together with the sections entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” Item 1A, "Risk Factors,” Item 6, "Selected Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

In this MD&A we refer to certain key metrics and Non-GAAP measures, including the following:
Adjusted Pre-Tax Income - important to management because it allows management to assess the operational performance of our business, exclusive of certain items and allows management to assess the performance of the entire business on the same basis as the segment measure of profitability. Management believes that it is important to investors for the same reasons it is important to management and because it allows them to assess our operational performance on the same basis that management uses internally.
Total Revenue Per Transaction Day ("Total RPD", also referred to as "pricing") - important to management and investors as it represents a measurement of the changes in underlying pricing in the vehicle rental business and encompasses the elements in vehicle rental pricing that management has the ability to control.
Total Revenue Per Unit Per Month ("Total RPU") - important to management and investors as it provides a measure of revenue productivity relative to the total number of vehicles in our fleet whether owned or leased ("average vehicles" or "fleet capacity").
Transaction Days - important to management and investors as it represents the number of revenue generating days ("volume"). It is used as a component to measure Total RPD and vehicle utilization. Transaction days represent the total number of 24-hour periods, with any partial period counted as one transaction day, that vehicles were on rent (the period between when a rental contract is opened and closed) in a given period. Thus, it is possible for a vehicle to attain more than one transaction day in a 24-hour period. Late in the third quarter of 2015 we fully integrated the Dollar Thrifty and Hertz counter systems and as a result aligned the transaction day calculation in the Hertz system. As a result of this alignment, we determined that there was an impact to the calculation and we estimate that transaction days for the U.S. Rental Car segment were increased by approximately 1% relative to historical calculations through the third quarter of 2016. This also impacts key metrics calculations that utilize transaction days, although to a lesser extent.
Vehicle Utilization - important to management and investors because it is the measurement of the proportion of our vehicles that are being used to generate revenues relative to fleet capacity. Higher vehicle utilization means more vehicles are being utilized to generate revenue.
Net Depreciation Per Unit Per Month - important to management and investors as depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, is one of our largest expenses for the vehicle rental business and is driven by the number of vehicles, expected residual values at the time of disposal and expected hold period of the

43

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

vehicles. Net depreciation per unit per month is reflective of how we are managing the costs of our vehicles and facilitates a comparison with other participants in the vehicle rental industry.
Key metrics and Non-GAAP measures should not be considered in isolation and should not be considered superior to, or a substitute for, financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The above key metrics and Non-GAAP measures are defined, and the Non-GAAP measures are reconciled to their most comparable U.S. GAAP measure, in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" section of this MD&A.

OVERVIEW OF OUR OPERATING ENVIRONMENT

We are engaged principally in the business of renting and leasing vehicles primarily through our Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands. In addition to vehicle rental, we provide comprehensive, integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions through our Donlen subsidiary. We have a diversified revenue base and a highly variable cost structure and are able to adjust fleet capacity, the most significant determinant of our costs, over time to meet expectations of market demand. Our profitability is primarily a function of the volume, mix and pricing of rental transactions and the utilization of vehicles, the related ownership cost of vehicles and other operating costs. Significant changes in the purchase price or residual values of vehicles or interest rates can have a significant effect on our profitability depending on our ability to adjust pricing for these changes. We continue to balance our mix of non-program and program vehicles based on market conditions. Our business requires significant expenditures for vehicles, and consequently we require substantial liquidity to finance such expenditures. See "Liquidity and Capital Resources" below.

Our strategy includes optimization of our vehicle rental operations, disciplined performance management and evaluation of all locations and the pursuit of same-store sales growth.

Our total revenues primarily are derived from rental and related charges and consist of:

Vehicle rental revenues - revenues from all company-operated vehicle rental operations, including charges to customers for the reimbursement of costs incurred relating to airport concession fees and vehicle license fees, the fueling of vehicles and revenues associated with ancillary products associated with vehicle rentals, including the sale of loss or collision damage waivers, liability insurance coverage, parking and other products and fees, ancillary products associated with the retail vehicle sales channel and certain royalty fees from our franchisees (such fees, including initial franchise fees, are less than 2% of total revenues each period);

All other operations revenues - revenues from vehicle leasing and fleet management services and other business activities.

Our expenses primarily consist of:

Direct vehicle and operating expenses (primarily wages and related benefits; commissions and concession fees paid to airport authorities, travel agents and others; facility, self-insurance and reservation costs; and other costs relating to the operation and rental of revenue earning vehicles, such as damage, maintenance and fuel costs);

Depreciation expense and lease charges, net relating to revenue earning vehicles (including net gains or losses on the disposal of such vehicles);

Selling, general and administrative expenses; and

Interest expense, net.

Generally, between 70 % and 75% of our annual operating costs represent variable costs, while the remaining costs are fixed or semi-fixed. To accommodate increased demand, we increase our available fleet and staff. As demand declines, fleet and staff are decreased accordingly. A number of our other major operating costs, including airport concession fees, commissions and vehicle liability expenses, are directly related to revenues or transaction volumes.

44

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

In addition, our management expects to utilize enhanced process improvements, including utilization initiatives and the use of our information technology systems, to help manage our variable costs. We also maintain a flexible workforce, with a significant number of part-time and seasonal workers. Certain operating expenses, including real estate taxes, rent, insurance, utilities, maintenance and other facility-related expenses, the costs of operating our information technology systems and minimum staffing costs, remain fixed and cannot be adjusted for demand.

Our Business Segments

We have identified three reportable segments, which are organized based on the products and services provided by our operating segments and the geographic areas in which our operating segments conduct business, as follows:
U.S. RAC - Rental of vehicles, as well as sales of ancillary products and services, in the U.S.;
International RAC - Rental and leasing of vehicles, as well as sales of ancillary products and services, internationally; and
All Other Operations - Comprised of our Donlen business, which provides vehicle leasing and fleet management services, and other business activities.
In addition to the above reportable segments, we have Corporate operations. We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the financial information for our operating segments.

Fleet

We periodically review the efficiencies of an optimal mix between program and non-program vehicles in our fleet. Program vehicles generally provide us with flexibility to increase or reduce the size of our fleet based on economic demand. When we increase the percentage of program vehicles, the average age of our fleet decreases since the average holding period for program vehicles is shorter than for non-program vehicles. We dispose of our non-program vehicles via auction, dealer-direct and our retail locations. Non-program vehicles disposed of through our retail outlets allow us the opportunity for ancillary revenue, such as warranty and financing and title fees. We adjust the ratio of program and non-program vehicles in our fleet as needed based on contract negotiations and the economic environment pertaining to our industry.

2016 Operating Overview

The following provides an overview of our business and financial performance and key factors influencing our results:

We successfully completed the previously announced separation of the Old Hertz Holdings vehicle rental business and equipment rental business on June 30, 2016, receiving approximately $2.0 billion pursuant to the Separation Agreement, which was used to repay outstanding non-vehicle debt;

In an effort to focus resources on continuing to grow the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands, we substantially transitioned our Firefly operations to our Thrifty brand in the U.S. market in 2016;

In 2016, we entered into a definitive agreement to form a strategic partnership with Localiza encompassing co-branding in Brazil and use of the Localiza brand in other select markets, customer referrals and the exchange of technology and information. As part of the agreement, Localiza will purchase our operations in Brazil. The sale is expected to close in the first half of 2017, subject to regulatory approval and customary closing conditions;

Total revenues for U.S. RAC in 2016 decreased by 3% compared to 2015 driven by a 6% decline in Total RPD, partially offset by a 3% increase in transaction days;

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for U.S. RAC increased 12% to $1,753 million from $1,572 million in 2016 compared to 2015. Net depreciation per unit per month in the U.S. RAC segment increased 13% to $301 from $267 in 2016 compared to 2015. The increases are the result of declining residual values on non-program vehicles and higher vehicle acquisition costs;

45

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


Total revenues for International RAC decreased 2% in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, total revenues for International RAC were virtually flat as a 2% increase in transaction days was offset by a 2% decrease in Total RPD;

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for International RAC decreased 2% to $389 million from $398 million in 2016 compared to 2015, and excluding the $12 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, was virtually flat. Net depreciation per unit per month for International RAC decreased 2% to $187 from $191 in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net was virtually flat for International RAC as a decline in residual values was partially offset by improved vehicle procurement, vehicle mix changes and optimized remarketing channels;

We realized cost savings of approximately $350 million in 2016. In addition to vehicle related initiatives, consolidated unit costs, defined as consolidated direct vehicle and operating and selling, general and administrative expenses per transaction day, decreased $1.25, or 4%, in 2016 compared to 2015;

Recorded $340 million of net goodwill, intangible and tangible asset impairments and write-downs in 2016 compared to $70 million in 2015, primarily resulting from the 2016 impairments of $172 million of goodwill related to our European vehicle rental operations and the $120 million impairment of the Dollar Thrifty tradename;

Recorded $53 million in expenses associated with our finance and information technology transformation programs, both of which are multi-year initiatives to upgrade and modernize the Company’s systems and processes. There were no comparable costs in 2015;

International RAC's public liability and property damage (“PLPD”) expense increased $11 million in 2016 compared to 2015 due to case development and adverse experience on claims primarily in the United Kingdom. While the company cannot be assured that additional exposure may not materialize in the future periods, the company has proactively addressed the root cause of the impact from claims in the United Kingdom and changed its business practices accordingly;

Recorded $53 million in restructuring and restructuring related expenses in 2016 compared to $84 million in 2015. Included in these amounts were $8 million in consulting, audit and legal costs associated with the restatement and investigation activities in 2016 compared to $38 million in 2015;

In 2016, we sold approximately 236 million shares of common stock of CAR Inc., a publicly traded company on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, for net proceeds of approximately $267 million, recognizing a pre-tax gain of $84 million. In 2015, we sold approximately 138 million shares of common stock of CAR Inc. for net proceeds of approximately $236 million, recognizing a pre-tax gain of $133 million;

Using proceeds from the Spin-Off, together with available cash, we repaid and terminated our Senior Credit Facilities which reduced non-vehicle debt by approximately $2.1 billion. We also undertook various refinancings of non-vehicle debt in 2016 wherein durations of maturities were extended such that maturities of non-vehicle debt in 2017 were reduced to $8 million; and
 
In 2016, we recognized $55 million of losses on extinguishment of debt. This amount is comprised of $27 million in early redemption premiums associated with the redemption of all of the 7.50% Senior Notes due October 2018 and a portion of the 6.75% Senior Notes due April 2019 and $28 million in write-offs of deferred financing costs and debt discount as a result of the above redemptions, paying off and terminating our Senior Credit Facilities and refinancing various vehicle debt. Additionally, in February 2017, we amended certain agreements to extend maturities, as further described in Note 7, "Debt," to the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 2016 Annual Report under the caption Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."


46

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - HERTZ
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
($ In millions)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Total revenues
$
8,803

 
$
9,017

 
$
9,475

 
(2
)%
 
(5
)%
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
4,932

 
5,055

 
5,458

 
(2
)
 
(7
)
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
2,601

 
2,433

 
2,705

 
7

 
(10
)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
899

 
873

 
936

 
3

 
(7
)
Interest expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vehicle
280

 
253

 
277

 
11

 
(9
)
Non-vehicle
343

 
346

 
340

 
(1
)
 
2

Interest expense, net
623

 
599

 
617

 
4

 
(3
)
Goodwill and intangible asset impairments
292

 
40

 

 
630

 

Other (income) expense, net
(75
)
 
(115
)
 
(10
)
 
(35
)
 
1,050

Income (loss) from continuing operations, before income taxes
(469
)
 
132

 
(231
)
 
NM

 
NM

Income tax (provision) benefit
(4
)
 
(17
)
 
17

 
(76
)
 
NM

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
(473
)
 
115

 
(214
)
 
NM

 
NM

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations
(15
)
 
161

 
136

 
NM

 
18

Net income (loss)
$
(488
)
 
$
276

 
$
(78
)
 
NM

 
NM

Adjusted pre-tax income (loss) (a)
$
66

 
$
325

 
$
93

 
(80
)
 
249

Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.
NM - Not meaningful

Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015
Total revenues decreased $214 million, or 2%, due primarily to decreases in our U.S. RAC and International RAC revenues of $172 million and $51 million, respectively, partially offset by a $9 million increase in our All Other Operations segment revenues due to the performance of the Donlen business. Total RPD in our U.S. RAC segment declined 6% driven predominantly by lower rental rates, lower ancillary revenues for some products and a change in customer mix from higher yielding corporate contracted rentals to lower yielding tour and leisure rentals, primarily due to a loss in market share among corporate contracted rental accounts, partially offset by a 3% increase in volume. Volume for U.S. RAC increased 1% for our airport business and increased 7% for our off airport business versus 2015, due primarily to increases in the number of insurance replacement rentals, due in part to vehicle damage as a result of severe weather conditions and manufacturers' recalls during 2016. The impact of transaction days counting methodology related to the integration of Dollar and Thrifty to the Hertz counter system and non-rental related declines in areas such as fuel-related and other ancillary revenue had an approximately 2% unfavorable impact on pricing year over year. Excluding a $53 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, International RAC revenues were virtually flat, driven by a 2% increase in transaction days offset by a 2% decrease in Total RPD for the segment.

The decrease in direct vehicle and operating expenses of $123 million, or 2%, was primarily due to a decrease in our U.S. RAC segment of $113 million comprised of a $43 million decrease in transaction variable expense, a $36 million decrease in vehicle related expenses, a $25 million decrease in personnel related expenses and a decrease in other direct vehicle expenses of $9 million in 2016 compared to 2015. Direct vehicle and operating expenses for International RAC were virtually flat in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $43 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, direct vehicle and operating expenses increased $48 million, or 4%, due to an increase in 2016 in PLPD expense of $22 million as a result of adverse experience and case development, a $17 million increase in 2016 in vehicle damage expense and a $16 million non-recurring credit recorded in 2015. The increases were partially offset by an $11 million

47

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

decrease in bad debt, technology and reservation expenses and a $9 million decrease in fuel related expense in 2016 compared to 2015.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net increased $168 million, or 7%, due to a $181 million increase in our U.S. RAC segment due to declining residual values on non-program vehicles and higher vehicle acquisition costs year over year, partially offset by a decrease of $9 million in our International RAC segment primarily driven by the impact of foreign currency exchange rates. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net was virtually flat for International RAC as a decline in residual values was partially offset by improved vehicle procurement, vehicle mix changes and optimized remarketing channels.

Selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”) increased $26 million, or 3%, in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to a $53 million increase in costs in U.S. RAC and Corporate attributable to our finance and information technology transformation programs and $32 million in other information technology investments by Corporate in 2016 compared to 2015. Offsetting the above are decreases in Corporate of approximately $38 million due to decreases in incentive compensation, consulting costs and relocation costs. Additionally, in our International RAC segment, there was a $22 million decrease in SG&A, primarily resulting from a $8 million decrease in advertising expense and $9 million of expenses recorded in the second quarter of 2015 in connection with the termination of a contract that did not recur in 2016. We completed initial phases of upgrades to our customer relationship platform and reservation system in 2016 and are evaluating the requirements for upgrading our fleet management systems, global budgeting and forecasting solutions and accounting systems. We expect to continue to see increases in SG&A expenses for information technology investments in 2017 and 2018.

Vehicle interest expense, net increased $27 million, or 11%, in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to a $37 million increase, primarily due to higher rates associated with increasing the mix of medium term funding versus draws under our floating rate revolving credit facilities, and $6 million of write-offs of deferred financing costs associated with the termination and refinancing of various vehicle debt, partially offset by an $18 million reduction in amortization of deferred financing costs and other debt related charges.

Although non-vehicle interest was virtually flat in 2016 compared to 2015, interest expense associated with non-vehicle debt decreased $50 million reflecting lower average debt balances primarily as a result of the termination of the $2.1 billion of Senior Credit Facilities at the time of the Spin-Off and a decrease in overall non-vehicle debt levels. This decrease reflects the refinancing of the 7.50% Senior Notes due October 2018 and a portion of the 6.75% Senior Notes due April 2019 with the lower rate Senior Term Loan and 5.50% Senior Notes due 2024, respectively.  These interest savings were offset by $49 million of early redemption premiums and write-offs of deferred financing costs and debt discount associated with the above transactions.

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments of $292 million in 2016 are comprised of a $172 million impairment of goodwill related to our European vehicle rental operations and a $120 million impairment of the Dollar Thrifty tradename. In 2015, the $40 million impairment related to an international tradename associated with the Company's former equipment rental business.

Other income of $75 million for 2016 is primarily comprised of an $84 million gain on the sale of common stock of CAR Inc. and a $9 million settlement gain from an eminent domain case at one of our U.S. airport locations, partially offset by an $18 million impairment of the net assets held for sale related to our Brazil operations. Other income of $115 million for 2015 is primarily comprised of a $133 million gain on the sale of common stock of CAR Inc., partially offset by a $23 million charge related to a French road tax matter.

The effective tax rate in 2016 was (1)% compared to 13% in 2015, with an income tax provision of $4 million and $17 million, respectively. The $13 million decrease in the tax provision is due to a decrease in pretax operating results, the composition of operating results by jurisdiction, an increase in the valuation allowance relating to losses in certain U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions, as well as changes in statutory effective tax rates. The year ended December 31, 2016 also includes the non-deductible impairment of goodwill on Europe vehicle rental operations.


48

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

The results for discontinued operations are associated with the activities of the Old Hertz Holdings equipment rental business which was spun-off on June 30, 2016.

Adjusted pre-tax income was $66 million in 2016 compared to $325 million in 2015. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2014
Total revenues decreased $458 million, or 5%, due primarily to decreases in our U.S. and International RAC segments of $185 million and $288 million, respectively, partially offset by a $15 million increase in our All Other Operations segment due to the performance of the Donlen business. Lower revenue in our U.S. RAC segment was driven by lower rental rates due to competitive pressure and lower ancillary fuel sales, as well as a decline in transaction days, which were driven by lower off airport volume due in part to the impact of off airport store closures in the second quarter of 2015. Lower revenues for our International RAC segment were driven by the $367 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, revenues for our International RAC segment increased $79 million, or 4% in 2015, driven by a 2% increase in transaction days resulting from the multi-brand expansion.

The decrease in direct vehicle and operating expenses of $403 million, or 7%, was primarily comprised of decreases in our U.S. and International RAC segments of $162 million and $240 million, respectively. The decrease in our U.S. RAC segment is primarily comprised of $84 million in decreased fleet related expenses and a $71 million decrease in other direct vehicle and operating costs, partially offset by the impact of $9 million related to certain adjustments recorded in 2015 that relate to prior periods. The decrease in our International RAC segment is primarily attributable to the $219 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rates and the remainder was attributable to lower commissions, lower fuel costs and lower restructuring charges in 2015 compared to 2014.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net decreased $272 million, or 10%, primarily due to (i) a $186 million decrease in our U.S. RAC segment due to higher residual values on certain vehicles and the mix between program and non-program cars year over year, and (ii) a decrease of $94 million in our International RAC segment driven by the impact of foreign currency exchange rates of $65 million, and improved fleet procurement and higher residual values on certain vehicles.

SG&A decreased $63 million, or 7%, in 2015 compared to 2014, primarily due to the $48 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates and decreased restructuring and restructuring related costs. These decreases were partially offset by an $8 million increase in costs associated with the previously disclosed accounting restatement, investigation and remediation activities. Additionally, in 2015 there were impairment charges of $6 million related to our former Dollar Thrifty headquarters in Tulsa, Oklahoma, compared to 2014 impairment charges of $13 million related to the former corporate headquarters in New Jersey.

Interest expense, net decreased $18 million, or 3%, primarily due to lower interest rates and the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, partially offset by higher average vehicle debt balances driven by increased levels of revenue earning equipment, as well as increased amortization of deferred debt costs, including waiver fees.

Goodwill and intangible asset impairments in 2015 is comprised of a $40 million impairment related to an international tradename associated with the Company's former equipment rental business. There were no impairments of goodwill and intangible assets in 2014.

Other income of $115 million in 2015 was primarily comprised of a $133 million gain on the sale of common stock of CAR Inc., partially offset by a $23 million charge related to a French road tax matter. Other income of $10 million in 2014 was primarily comprised of a $19 million economic loss settlement we received related to a class action lawsuit filed against a vehicle manufacturer stemming from recalls of their vehicles in previous years.

The effective tax rate in 2015 was 13% compared to 7% in 2014, with an income tax provision of $17 million and a benefit of $17 million, respectively. The $34 million increase in the tax provision is primarily due to an increase in pretax

49

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

operating results, the composition of operating results by jurisdiction, a decrease in the valuation allowance relating to losses in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, U.S. income inclusion on the sale of CAR Inc. common stock, and a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits accrued during the year. The year ended December 31, 2015 also includes an income tax benefit of net realized losses on sale of operations in France resulting from the excess book gain over tax gain recognized.

Net income from discontinued operations represents the results of the Old Hertz Holdings equipment rental business which increased $25 million, or 18%, in 2015 compared to 2014 due to an increase in other income and a decrease in the tax provision, partially offset by a decrease in revenues.

Adjusted pre-tax income was $325 million in 2015 compared to $93 million in 2014. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - HERTZ GLOBAL

The above discussion for Hertz also applies to Hertz Global.

Hertz Global has net losses from discontinued operations of $2 million, $3 million and $4 million in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, that are incremental to the amounts shown for Hertz. These amounts represent the net losses of the parent legal entities of Old Hertz Holdings which are deemed discontinued operations of Hertz Global but not Hertz.

In 2016, interest expense, net for Hertz Global is $1 million greater than for Hertz. This amount represents interest associated with amounts outstanding under the master loan agreement between the companies. Hertz includes this amount as interest income in its statement of operations but this amount is eliminated in consolidation for purposes of Hertz Global.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND SELECTED OPERATING DATA BY SEGMENT

U.S. Rental Car

As of December 31, 2016, our U.S. Rental Car operations had a total of approximately 4,200 corporate and franchisee locations, comprised of 1,600 airport and 2,600 off airport locations.

Depreciation rates are reviewed on a quarterly basis based on management's routine review of present and estimated future market conditions and their effect on residual values at the time of disposal. Depreciation rates being used to compute the provision for depreciation of revenue earning vehicles are adjusted on certain vehicles in our vehicle rental operations to reflect changes in the estimated residual values to be realized when revenue earning vehicles are sold. Based on the reviews completed during 2016, 2015 and 2014, depreciation rate changes in our U.S. RAC operations resulted in a net increase in depreciation expense of $141 million, $101 million and $167 million, respectively. The rate changes reflect declining residual values and a reduction in the planned hold period of the vehicles as compared to our initial estimates.

U.S. Rental Car operations sold approximately 232,000, 274,000 and 187,000 non-program vehicles during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2015, we implemented a significant fleet refresh, resulting in a larger number of disposals as we moved to transition out of the pre-existing fleet. In 2016, our fleet rotation was at more normalized levels, however, we did accelerate the disposal of a portion of the compact vehicle category that we acquired as part of the 2015 fleet refresh in order to reduce their percentage of the fleet mix.


50

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Results of operations and our discussion and analysis for our U.S. RAC Car segment are as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
($ In millions, except as noted)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Total revenues
$
6,114

 
$
6,286

 
$
6,471

 
(3
)%
 
(3
)%
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
$
3,646

 
$
3,759

 
$
3,921

 
(3
)
 
(4
)
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
$
1,753

 
$
1,572

 
$
1,758

 
12

 
(11
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
$
56

 
$
413

 
$
258

 
(86
)
 
60

Adjusted pre-tax income (loss) (a)
$
298

 
$
551

 
$
387

 
(46
)
 
42

Transaction days (in thousands) (b)
142,268

 
138,590

 
139,752

 
3

 
(1
)
Average vehicles (c)
484,800

 
489,800

 
499,100

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
Vehicle utilization (c)
80
%
 
78
%
 
77
%
 
N/A

 
N/A

Total RPD (in whole dollars) (d)
$
42.44

 
$
44.95

 
$
46.07

 
(6
)
 
(2
)
Total RPU (in whole dollars) (e)
$
1,038

 
$
1,060

 
$
1,075

 
(2
)
 
(1
)
Net depreciation per unit per month (in whole dollars) (f)
$
301

 
$
267

 
$
294

 
13

 
(9
)
Program vehicles as a percentage of average vehicles at period end
6
%
 
17
%
 
21
%
 
N/A

 
N/A

Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.
N/A - Not applicable

Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015

Total U.S. RAC revenues were $6.1 billion in 2016, a decrease of $172 million, or 3%, from 2015. Total RPD decreased 6% driven predominantly by lower rental rates, lower ancillary revenues for some products and a change in customer mix from higher yielding corporate contracted rentals to lower yielding tour and leisure rentals, primarily due to a loss in market share among corporate contracted rental accounts, partially offset by a 3% increase in volume. Volume for U.S. RAC increased 1% for our airport business and increased 7% for our off airport business versus 2015, due primarily to increases in the number of insurance replacement rentals, due in part to vehicle damage as a result of severe weather conditions and manufacturers' recalls during 2016. The impact of transaction days counting methodology related to the integration of Dollar and Thrifty to the Hertz counter system and non-rental related declines in areas such as fuel-related and other ancillary revenue had an approximately 2% unfavorable impact on pricing year over year. Off airport revenues comprised 27% of total revenues for the segment in 2016 and 25% for 2015.

Direct vehicle and operating expenses for U.S. RAC decreased $113 million, or 3%, primarily due to the following:

Vehicle related expenses decreased $36 million year over year primarily due to:

Decreased collision and short term maintenance expense of $23 million driven primarily by a $12 million decrease in net collision expense resulting from improved customer collections on damage claims resulting from process improvements and a $10 million decrease in the costs to prepare vehicles for turn-back due to a reduction in the number of program vehicles returned to the manufacturer year over year;

Decreased maintenance costs of $12 million primarily due to a reduction in the average age of our revenue earning vehicles, which requires less maintenance compared to 2015 and improved pricing through parts and supplier sourcing;

Severe weather also drove a slight increase in transportation expense as an abnormal level of fleet activity was required to rebalance fleet levels in those affected markets.

51

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


Personnel related expenses decreased $25 million compared to 2015, primarily due to a $13 million improvement in benefits expense, resulting from a decrease in worker's compensation reserves based on favorable loss experience, and an $8 million decrease in variable incentive compensation.

Transaction variable expenses decreased $43 million year over year due to decreased concessions and credit card expense of $29 million as a result of lower revenues and rental mix, and lower fuel expense of $32 million in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to lower fuel prices, partially offset by an increase in optional insurance liability expense of $21 million due to an increase in transaction days.

Other direct vehicle and operating expenses decreased $9 million year over year primarily due to a net $41 million of information technology cost savings resulting from the previously announced initiatives, offset by a $16 million increase in restructuring expenses and a $5 million increase in bad debt expense.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for U.S. RAC increased by $181 million, or 12%, in 2016 compared to 2015. The increase year over year is primarily the result of declining residual values on non-program vehicles and higher vehicle acquisition costs year over year. Net depreciation per unit per month increased to $301 in 2016 compared to $267 in 2015, partially offset by a 200 basis point improvement in vehicle utilization driven primarily by disciplined capacity and vehicle management that enabled a 1% year over year decline in U.S. RAC average vehicles for the year.

Income before income taxes for U.S. RAC decreased $357 million, or 86%, in 2016 compared to 2015 due primarily to the impact of lower revenues, increased depreciation expense on our revenue earning vehicles and a $120 million impairment of the Dollar Thrifty tradename. Additionally, there was a $23 million increase in SG&A for the segment, primarily due to costs associated with our finance and information technology transformation programs. The above were partially offset by the decrease in direct vehicle and operating expenses as discussed above, an $11 million decrease in interest expense, net, and a $9 million settlement gain from an eminent domain case related to one of our U.S. airport locations.

Adjusted pre-tax income for U.S. RAC was $298 million in 2016 compared to $551 million in 2015. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2014

Total U.S. RAC revenue was $6.3 billion in 2015, a decrease of $185 million, or 3%, from 2014 primarily as a result of declines in rate and volume. Total RPD decreased 2% predominantly driven by lower rental rates resulting from competitive pressure in the industry and lower ancillary fuel sales due to lower fuel prices. There was a 1% overall decrease in transaction days due to decreases in airport rental volume and a decrease in off airport volume due in part to the closure of approximately 200 stores in the second quarter of 2015 based on the results of a location-by-location assessment of our U.S. off airport retail store profitability. Off airport revenues comprised 25% of total revenues for the segment in both 2015 and 2014. Off airport transaction days comprised 33% of the total segment in both 2015 and 2014. Ancillary retail car sales revenues increased approximately $25 million primarily due to an increase in the number of vehicles sold year over year.

Direct vehicle and operating expenses for U.S. RAC decreased $162 million, or 4%, primarily comprised of the following:

Fleet related expenses decreased $84 million year over year primarily due to:

Decreased fuel costs of $77 million due to lower fuel prices;

Decreased insurance costs of $21 million due to improved loss experience;

Decreased maintenance costs of $27 million due to our fleet refresh activities which have reduced the average age of the fleet, thus requiring less maintenance in 2015 compared to 2014;

52

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)


Increased collision and short term maintenance expense of $21 million due primarily to a larger number of program cars returned to the original equipment manufacturer in the current year; and

Increased other vehicle operating costs of $25 million due primarily to higher amortization expense on vehicle tags and licenses.

Personnel related expenses decreased $7 million in 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to the discontinuation of future benefit accruals and participation under certain of our pension plans as well as a reduction in other employee incentives period over period.

Other direct vehicle and operating expenses decreased $71 million in 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to:

Decreased restructuring and restructuring related costs of $39 million related to reduced expenses for business transformation and integration initiatives; and

Decreased commissions expense of $10 million driven by lower revenue period over period, and field administration decreased year over year due to lower shared services costs and fewer charges related to headquarters relocation in 2015 compared to 2014.

Partially offsetting the overall decrease in direct vehicle and operating expenses was the impact of $9 million related to certain adjustments recorded during 2015 that relate to prior years.

Depreciation of revenue earning equipment and lease charges, net decreased by $186 million, or 11%, in 2015 compared to 2014 due to higher residual values on certain vehicles and the mix between program and non-program cars year over year. Net depreciation per unit per month decreased to $267 in 2015 compared to $294 in 2014.

Income before income taxes increased $155 million, or 60%, in 2015 compared to 2014 due primarily to the impact of lower direct vehicle and operating expenses and depreciation of revenue earning equipment and lease charges, net. Partially offsetting the reduced expenses were lower revenues and the impact of the $13 million related to certain adjustments recorded during 2015 that relate to prior years. Additionally, in 2014, we recorded other income of $19 million resulting from an economic loss settlement we received related to a class action lawsuit filed against a vehicle manufacturer stemming from recalls of their vehicles in previous years with no comparable other income in 2015.

Adjusted pre-tax income for U.S. RAC was $551 million in 2015 compared to $387 million in 2014. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.


International Rental Car

Our international vehicle rental operations have approximately 5,500 corporate and franchisee locations in approximately 150 countries and regions including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and in the regions of Africa, Asia, The Caribbean, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East.


53

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

Results of operations and our discussion and analysis for our International RAC segment are as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
($ In millions, except as noted)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Total revenues
$
2,097

 
$
2,148

 
$
2,436

 
(2
)%
 
(12
)%
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
$
1,256

 
$
1,251

 
$
1,491

 

 
(16
)
Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net
$
389

 
$
398

 
$
492

 
(2
)
 
(19
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
$
(20
)
 
$
171

 
$
95

 
NM

 
80

Adjusted pre-tax income (loss) (a)
$
194

 
$
215

 
$
144

 
(10
)
 
49

Transaction days (in thousands) (b)
48,627

 
47,860

 
46,917

 
2

 
2

Average vehicles (c)
173,400

 
168,700

 
166,900

 
3

 
1

Vehicle utilization (c)
77
%
 
78
%
 
77
%
 
N/A

 
N/A

Total RPD (in whole dollars) (d)
$
42.86

 
$
43.54

 
$
42.84

 
(2
)
 
2

Total RPU (in whole dollars) (e)
$
1,002

 
$
1,029

 
$
1,004

 
(3
)
 
2

Net depreciation per unit per month (in whole dollars) (f)
$
187

 
$
191

 
$
202

 
(2
)
 
(5
)
Program vehicles as a percentage of average vehicles at period end
31
%
 
33
%
 
30
%
 
N/A

 
N/A

Footnotes to the table above are shown at the end of the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment section of this MD&A.
N/A - Not applicable
NM - Not Meaningful

Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015

Total revenues for International RAC decreased $51 million, or 2%, in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding a $53 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, revenues were virtually flat, driven by a 2% increase in transaction days offset by a 2% decrease in Total RPD for the segment. Overall, 2016 revenues were negatively impacted by the terror attacks in Europe, and the decision to exit certain accounts and lines of business. We estimate the negative impact from the terrorist attacks on our full year 2016 operating results for Europe at approximately $10 million to $15 million, on a constant currency basis.

Direct vehicle and operating expenses for International RAC were virtually flat in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $43 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, direct vehicle and operating expenses increased $48 million, or 4%, due to an increase in 2016 in PLPD expense of $22 million as a result of adverse experience and case development, a $17 million increase in 2016 in vehicle damage expense and a $16 million non-recurring credit recorded in 2015. The increases were partially offset by an $11 million decrease in bad debt, technology and reservation expenses and a $9 million decrease in fuel related expense in 2016 compared to 2015.

Depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net for International RAC decreased $9 million, or 2%, in 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $12 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, depreciation of revenue earning vehicles and lease charges, net was virtually flat as a decline in residual values was partially offset by improved vehicle procurement, vehicle mix changes and optimized remarketing channels. Net depreciation per unit per month decreased 2% to $187 from $191 year over year, due to optimized fleet rotation and purchasing channels.

There was a loss before income taxes for International RAC of $20 million in 2016 compared to income before income taxes of $171 million in 2015. The $191 million decrease year-over-year is primarily due to a $172 million goodwill impairment charge related to our operations in Europe, a $18 million impairment of the net assets held for sale related to our Brazil operations and lower revenues. The above are partially offset by lower depreciation, a $23 million non-recurring charge to other expense in 2015 related to a French road tax matter and a $22 million decrease in SG&A,

54

HERTZ GLOBAL HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE HERTZ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (Continued)

primarily resulting from $9 million of non-recurring expenses recorded in 2015 and an $8 million decrease in advertising expense.

Adjusted pre-tax income for International RAC was $194 million in 2016 compared to $215 million in 2015. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2014

Total revenues for International RAC decreased $288 million, or 12%, in 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding a $367 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, revenues increased $79 million, or 4% in 2015, driven by a 2% increase in transaction days resulting from the multi-brand expansion, particularly across Europe. Revenues in 2015 were negatively impacted by lower fuel revenues driven by lower market prices, a decline in ancillary fuel sales and a change in fuel purchase plans sold in the Europe market that took effect in 2014. Total RPD for the segment rose 2%.

Direct vehicle and operating expenses for International RAC decreased $240 million, or 16%, in 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $219 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates, direct vehicle and operating expenses decreased approximately $21 million, or 2%, due to lower commissions, lower fuel costs and lower restructuring charges as compared to 2014, partially offset by an increase in fleet-related self-insurance expenses.

Depreciation of revenue earning equipment and lease charges, net for International RAC segment decreased $94 million, or 19%, mainly driven by the impact of foreign currency exchange rates of $65 million, improved fleet procurement and higher residual values on certain vehicles. Net depreciation per unit per month decreased 5% to $191 from $202 year over year.

Income before income taxes for International RAC was $171 million in 2015 compared to $95 million in 2014. The change was due mainly to the reduction in direct vehicle and operating expenses and depreciation of revenue earning equipment and lease charges, net mentioned above. Additionally, there was a $25 million decline in interest expense, net, due to the $15 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates and lower interest rates. Also, there was a $22 million decrease in SG&A due to the $48 million impact of foreign currency exchange rates which was partially offset by $9 million of expenses recorded in the second quarter of 2015 in connection with the termination of a contract. The above decreases were partially offset by lower revenues and $23 million in charges recorded in relation to a French road tax matter. Excluding the overall impact of foreign currency exchange rates, income before income taxes increased $114 million driven by higher revenues and lower expenses as discussed above.

Adjusted pre-tax income for International RAC was $215 million in 2015 compared to $144 million in 2014. See footnote (a) in the "Footnotes to the Results of Operations and Selected Operating Data by Segment Tables" for a summary and description of reconciling adjustments on a consolidated basis.


All Other Operations

Results of operations and our discussion and analysis for our All Other Operations segment are as follows (which is substantially attributable to Donlen):
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Increase/(Decrease)
($ In millions)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Total revenues
$
592

 
$
583

 
$
568

 
2
 %
 
3
 %
Direct vehicle and operating expenses
$
22