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Table of Contents

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021  

or

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from              to

Commission File Number: 1-6887

 

BANK OF HAWAII CORP

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

99-0148992

(State of incorporation)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

130 Merchant Street

 

Honolulu

 

Hawaii

 

96813

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(City)

 

(State)

 

(Zip Code)

 

1-888-643-3888

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

 

 

BOH

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Depository Shares, Each Representing 1/40th Interest in a Share of 4.375% Fixed Rate Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series A

 

BOH.PRA

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes     No 

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding voting common stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2021 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), determined using the per share closing price on that date on the New York Stock Exchange of $84.22, was approximately $3,343,790,618. There was no non-voting common equity of the registrant outstanding on that date.

 

As of February 15, 2022, there were 40,287,629 shares of common stock outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.  Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year end ended December 31, 2021.

      

 


Table of Contents

 

 

Bank of Hawaii Corporation

2021 Form 10-K Annual Report

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Item

Number

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

9

 

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

17

 

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

17

 

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

17

 

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

18

 

 

Item 6.

 

[Reserved]

 

19

 

 

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

20

 

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

52

 

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

53

 

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

123

 

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

123

 

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

125

 

 

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

125

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

126

 

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

126

 

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

126

 

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

126

 

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

126

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

127

 

 

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

131

Signatures

 

132

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

 

 

Part I

Item 1.  Business

General

Bank of Hawaii Corporation (the “Parent”) is a Delaware corporation and a bank holding company (“BHC”) headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii.  The Parent’s principal operating subsidiary, Bank of Hawaii (the “Bank”), was organized on December 17, 1897, and is chartered by the State of Hawaii.  The Bank’s deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and the Bank is a member of the Federal Reserve System.

The Bank, directly and through its subsidiaries, provides a broad range of financial products and services primarily to customers in Hawaii, Guam, and other Pacific Islands.  References to “we,” “our,” “us,” or “the Company” refer to the Parent and its subsidiaries and are consolidated for financial reporting purposes.  The Bank’s subsidiaries are identified in Exhibit 21.1 to this Form 10-K and include, among others, Bank of Hawaii Leasing, Inc., Bankoh Investment Services, Inc., and Pacific Century Life Insurance Corporation.  The Bank’s subsidiaries are engaged in equipment leasing, securities brokerage, investment advisory services, and providing credit insurance.

We are organized into three business segments for management reporting purposes: Consumer Banking, Commercial Banking, and Treasury and Other.  See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) and Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports can be found free of charge on our website at www.boh.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).  The SEC maintains a website, www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.  Our Corporate Governance Guidelines; charters of the Audit and Risk Committee, the Human Resources and Compensation Committee, and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee; and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are available on our website at www.boh.com.  Printed copies of this information may be obtained, without charge, by written request to the Corporate Secretary at 130 Merchant Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96813.

Competition

The Company operates in a highly competitive environment subject to intense competition from traditional financial service providers including banks, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage companies, finance companies, mutual funds, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and other non-traditional providers of financial services including financial service subsidiaries of commercial and manufacturing companies.  Some of our competitors are not subject to the same level of regulation and oversight that is required of banks and BHCs, and receive favorable tax treatment.  As a result, some of our competitors may have lower cost structures.  Also, some of our competitors, through delivery channels such as the Internet, may be based outside of the markets that we serve.  By emphasizing our extensive branch network, exceptional service levels, and knowledge of local trends and conditions, the Company believes it has developed a competitive advantage in its market.

Supervision and Regulation

Our operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal and state governmental authorities.  The regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors, customers, and the integrity of the U.S. banking system and capital markets.  The following information describes some of the more significant laws and regulations applicable to us.  The descriptions below are qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable laws and regulations.  Proposals to change the laws and regulations governing the banking industry are frequently raised in Congress, in state legislatures, and with the various bank regulatory agencies.  Changes in applicable laws or regulations, or a change in the way such laws or regulations are interpreted by regulatory agencies or courts, may have a material impact on our business, operations, and earnings.

The Parent

The Parent is registered as a BHC under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHC Act”), and is subject to the supervision of and to examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (the “FRB”).  The Parent is also registered as a financial institution holding company under the Hawaii Code of Financial Institutions (the “Code”) and is subject to the registration, reporting, and examination requirements of the Code.

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The BHC Act prohibits, with certain exceptions, a BHC from acquiring direct or indirect beneficial ownership or control of either a company that is not a bank, or more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank, without the FRB’s prior approval.  A BHC is generally prohibited from engaging in any activity other than banking, managing or controlling banks or other subsidiaries authorized under the BHC Act, or an activity that the FRB has determined to be so closely related to those activities as to be a proper incident to one of them.

Under FRB policy, a BHC is expected to serve as a source of financial and management strength to its subsidiary bank(s).  A BHC is also expected to commit resources to support its subsidiary bank(s) in circumstances where it might not do so absent such a policy.  Under this policy, a BHC is expected to maintain reliable funding and contingency plans to stand ready to provide adequate capital funds to its subsidiary bank(s) during periods of financial adversity and to maintain the financial flexibility and capital-raising capacity to obtain additional resources for assisting its subsidiary bank(s).

Under the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (the “Riegle-Neal Act”) banks and BHCs from any state are permitted to acquire banks located in any other state, subject to certain conditions, including certain nationwide and state-imposed deposit concentration limits.  Banks also have the ability, subject to certain restrictions, to acquire branches outside their home states by acquisition or merger under the Riegle-Neal Act.  The establishment of new interstate branches is also possible in those states with laws that expressly permit de novo branching.  Because the Code permits de novo branching by out-of-state banks, those banks may establish new branches in Hawaii.

Bank of Hawaii

The Bank is subject to extensive federal, state, territorial and foreign regulations that significantly affect its business and activities.  The Bank is subject to supervision of the FRB and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), and the State of Hawaii Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs’ (“DCCA”) Division of Financial Institutions.  These regulatory bodies have broad authority to implement standards and to initiate proceedings designed to prohibit depository institutions from engaging in activities that may represent “unsafe” or “unsound” banking practices or constitute violations of applicable laws, rules, regulations, administrative orders, or written agreements with regulators.  The standards relate to, among other compliance matters, operations and management, asset quality, interest rate exposure, capital, executive compensation, and consumer protection.  The regulatory bodies are authorized to take action against institutions that fail to meet such standards, including the assessment of civil monetary penalties and restitution, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders, and other actions, up to and including revocation of a bank’s charter for the most severe infractions, or putting such a bank into receivership if it is not financially viable.

Bankoh Investment Services, Inc., the broker-dealer and investment adviser subsidiary of the Bank, is incorporated in Hawaii and is regulated by the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, and the DCCA’s Insurance Division.  Pacific Century Life Insurance Corporation is incorporated in Arizona and is primarily regulated by the State of Arizona Department of Insurance.  

The Dodd Frank Act

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and its regulations, among other things, mandated capital and liquidity requirements, established standards for mortgage lenders, regulated executive and incentive-based compensation, imposed various consumer protections and numerous other provisions.  Provisions also limit or place significant burdens and costs on activities traditionally conducted by banking organizations, such as arranging and participating in swap and derivative transactions, proprietary trading and investing in private equity and other funds.

Several provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act were significantly changed by enactment of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act in May 2018, notably by eliminating the requirement for institutions like the Company to perform and publicly disclose periodic stress tests.  The Company continues to monitor and implement rules, regulations, and interpretations of the Dodd-Frank Act as they are adopted and modified, and to evaluate their application to our current and future operations.

Capital Requirements

In July 2013, the FRB, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) and the FDIC adopted new capital rules (the “Rules”).  These Rules were designed to help ensure that banks maintain strong capital positions by increasing both the quantity and quality of capital held by U.S. banking organizations.  The Rules reflect, in part, certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2010 (which are commonly called “Basel III” standards) as well as requirements by the Dodd-Frank Act.

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The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”) identifies five capital categories for insured depository institutions: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.”

The federal banking agencies are authorized by FDICIA to impose progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions, depending on the capital category in which an institution is classified.  These “prompt corrective actions” can include: requiring an insured depository institution to adopt a capital restoration plan guaranteed by the institution’s parent company; placing limits on asset growth and restrictions on activities, including restrictions on transactions with affiliates; restricting the interest rates the institution may pay on deposits; prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; prohibiting the holding company from making capital distribution without prior regulatory approval; and ultimately appointing a receiver for the institution.

A “well capitalized” institution must have a Common Equity Tier 1 Capital Ratio of at least 6.5%, a Tier 1 Capital Ratio of at least 8%, a Total Capital Ratio of at least 10%, a Tier 1 Leverage Ratio of at least 5%, and not be subject to a capital directive order.  As of December 31, 2021, the Bank was classified as “well capitalized.”  The classification of a depository institution under one of the categories set out above is primarily for the purpose of applying the prompt corrective actions, and is not intended to be, nor should it be interpreted as, a representation of the overall financial condition or the prospects of that financial institution.  See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

Dividend Restrictions

The Parent is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank.  The Parent’s principal source of funds to pay dividends on its common stock and to service its liabilities is dividends from the Bank.  Various federal and state laws and regulations limit the amount of dividends the Bank may pay to the Parent without regulatory approval.  The FRB is authorized to determine the circumstances when the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit such payments.  The right of the Parent, its shareholders, and creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of its subsidiaries is also subject to the prior claims of creditors of those subsidiaries.  For information regarding the limitations on the Bank’s ability to pay dividends to the Parent, see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders

Transactions between the Bank and any affiliate are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act.  An affiliate of the Bank is any company or entity which controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the Bank which is not a subsidiary of the Bank.  Under federal law, the Bank is subject to restrictions that limit the transfer of funds or other items of value to the Parent, and any other non-bank affiliates in “covered transactions.”  In general, covered transactions include making loans to an affiliate, the purchase of or investment in the securities issued by an affiliate, the purchase of assets from an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral security for a loan or extensions of credit to any person or company, the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate, or certain transactions with an affiliate that involve the borrowing or lending of securities and certain derivative transactions with an affiliate.

Unless an exemption applies, covered transactions by the Bank with a single affiliate are limited to 10% of the Bank’s capital and surplus, and with respect to all covered transactions with affiliates in the aggregate, they are limited to 20% of the Bank’s capital and surplus.  Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Federal Reserve Regulation W also require that certain transactions between the Bank and its affiliates be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with or involving other non-affiliated persons.

The Federal Reserve Act and Federal Reserve Regulation O place restrictions and certain reporting requirements on any extension of credit made by a member bank to (a) an executive officer, director, or principal shareholder of the bank, or any company of which the bank is a subsidiary, and of any other subsidiary of that company, and (b) a company controlled by such a person, or to a political or campaign committee that benefits or is controlled by such a person (collectively referred to as “insiders”).  These restrictions include limits on loans to one borrower and conditions that must be met before such loans can be made.  There is also an aggregate limitation on all loans to insiders and their related interests.  Certain restrictions also extend to extensions of credit made to an executive officer, directors, or principal shareholder of a bank (or to a related interest of such person) by a correspondent bank.

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The Volcker Rule

In December 2013, the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the SEC, and the Commodities Futures Trading Commission issued final rules to implement certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act commonly known as the “Volker Rule.”  The Volcker Rule, as amended on August 20, 2019, generally prohibits U.S. banks from engaging in proprietary trading and restricts those banking entities from sponsoring, investing in, or having certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds.  The prohibitions under the Volcker Rule are subject to a number of statutory exemptions, restrictions, and definitions.  The Volcker Rule has not had a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, but we continue to evaluate its application to our current and future operations.

FDIC Insurance

The FDIC provides insurance coverage for certain deposits held by the Bank through the Deposit Insurance Fund, which the FDIC maintains by assessing depository institutions an insurance premium.  The Bank is assessed deposit insurance premiums by the FDIC using a risk-based assessment rate and an adjusted average total assets.  The Bank’s FDIC insurance assessment was $6.5 million in 2021, $5.8 million in 2020, and $5.2 million in 2019.

A depository institution’s deposit insurance may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution’s financial condition is unsafe or unsound, or that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, or has violated any applicable rule, regulation, or order or condition enacted or imposed by a regulatory agency.  Termination of the Bank’s deposit insurance would end its ability to function as a commercial bank in Hawaii.

Depositor Preference

In the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, claims of insured and uninsured depositors for deposits payable in the United States (including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors), plus certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured creditors including, in the case of the Bank, the Parent.

Other Safety and Soundness Regulations

The federal banking agencies also have adopted guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards.  These guidelines establish general standards for internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings standards, compensation, fees and benefits.  In general, the guidelines require appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines before capital becomes impaired.

Community Reinvestment and Consumer Protection Laws

Community Reinvestment.  The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”) requires the appropriate federal banking agency, in connection with its examination of a bank, to assess the bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by the bank, including low and moderate income neighborhoods.  Under the CRA, institutions are assigned a rating of “outstanding,” “satisfactory,” “needs to improve,” or “substantial non-compliance.”  The regulatory assessment of the bank’s record is made available to the public.  Further, these assessments are considered by regulators when evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open, close, or relocate a branch or facility.  The Bank’s current CRA rating is “outstanding”.

Consumer Protection Laws.  In addition to the CRA, the Bank is subject to a number of federal laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population in connection with its lending activities.  These include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.

Federal banking regulators, pursuant to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, have enacted regulations limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic consumer information to non-affiliated third parties.  The regulations require disclosure of privacy policies and allow consumers to prevent certain personal information from being shared with non-affiliated third parties.  The Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act (“FACT Act”) requires financial institutions to develop and implement an identity theft prevention program to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft “red flags” to reduce the risk that customer information will be misused to conduct fraudulent financial transactions.

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A number of other federal and state consumer protection laws extensively govern the Bank’s relationship with its customers.  These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Telephone Consumer Protection Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act and these laws’ respective state-law counterparts, as well as state and territorial usury laws and laws regarding unfair and deceptive acts and practices. These and other laws subject the Bank to substantial regulatory oversight and, among other things, require disclosures of the cost of credit and terms of deposit accounts, provide substantive consumer rights, prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, regulate the use of credit report information, provide financial privacy protections, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive practices, and restrict the Bank’s ability to raise interest rates.

The CFPB was created under the Dodd-Frank Act as an agency responsible for promulgating and enforcing regulations designed to protect consumers including adding prohibitions on unfair, deceptive and abusive acts and practices.  The CFPB, along with other prudential regulators and the Department of Justice, have also expanded the focus of their regulatory examinations and investigations to include “fair and responsible banking.”  Fair and responsible banking strives to provide equal credit opportunities to all applicants of a community, to prohibit discrimination by lenders on the basis of certain borrower characteristics, and to ensure that a bank’s practices are not deceptive, unfair, or take unreasonable advantage of consumers or businesses.  The enhanced focus encompasses the entire loan life cycle, including post-closing activities such as collections and servicing, and pre-application activities such as marketing and loan solicitation and origination.

Violations of applicable consumer protection laws and regulations can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorneys’ fees.  Federal bank regulators, state attorneys general and state and local consumer protection agencies may also seek to enforce consumer protection requirements and obtain these and other remedies, including regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, and civil money penalties.  Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in our failure to obtain required bank regulatory approvals for transactions the Bank may wish to pursue, or prohibit us from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.

Bank Secrecy Act / Anti-Money Laundering Laws

The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001.  The USA PATRIOT Act created new laws, regulations, and penalties, imposed significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, and expanded the application of those laws outside the U.S.  Additionally, like all U.S. companies and individuals, the Company is prohibited from transacting business with certain individuals and entities named on the Office of Foreign Asset Control’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons.

The Bank has been required to implement policies, procedures, and controls to detect, prevent, and report potential money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of its customers.  The Company maintains procedures and systems to identify its customers, and to monitor and block transactions related to prohibited persons and entities.  Violations of these requirements can result in substantial civil and criminal sanctions.  In addition, the federal financial institution regulatory agencies consider the effectiveness of a financial institution’s anti-money laundering activities when reviewing bank mergers and BHC acquisitions.

Human Capital Management

 

As of December 31, 2021, we employed 2,056 full-time equivalent employees, of which 1,952 are located in the State of Hawaii, with the remainder located in Guam and other Pacific Islands.  None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement.  

 

The Company values the contributions of all of its employees and is committed to building an active and connected employee community within the Company.  Key areas of focus for the Company include:

 

Diversity and Inclusion: The Company believes that a diverse and inclusive workforce fosters an environment where everyone can thrive and be successful.  As of December 31, 2021, approximately 87% of our workforce are minorities (non-Caucasian) and approximately 63% of our workforce are female, which accounts for 45% and 56% of our senior leaders and managers, respectively.  We conduct an external pay equity study periodically to evaluate that a gender pay gap does not exist.  

 


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Employee Development and Training: The Company is committed to providing all employees with the opportunity to grow, connect and thrive within the Company.  We foster a seamlessly collaborative, digitally connected workplace to support changing needs. We enhance people leadership capability to deliver exceptional employee experience and develop our workforce of tomorrow.  Skills and professional development training is provided to employees at all levels, with additional development sessions specifically targeted to managers and leaders.  Key initiatives included the launch of an enhanced Advanced Leaders program to elevate leadership capabilities, the development of a new and competitive Leadership Development Program, the first all virtual Pathways to Professional Excellence cohort with the largest enrollment of 35 employees and an improved online performance management process that allows the employee to own the first step of the performance review process.

 

To help maintain Hawaii’s special culture of ‘ohana and working together toward common goals, renewed attention was paid to engaging teammates during the pandemic, especially those working remotely.  Based on employee feedback from surveys, special online sessions were created in 2021 to connect with employees and encourage collaboration.  “Exec Connect” launched in April 2021, giving employees opportunities to interact with members of the Executive Committee.  Employees hear about high level strategies and share their own concerns and observations.  “Exec Connect” was a hit, and proved especially valuable in welcoming new employees, allowing them to familiarize themselves with key executives and other employees.  “Recruit Connect” launched in July 2021 to help teammates identify job opportunities within the Company and find out more about them. In some cases, sessions led to referred candidates joining the Bank, and to current employees finding a new career path.  “Manager Excellence Forums” launched in January 2021 as a platform connecting managers so that they can learn from and support one another when facing real management issues, and discuss practical solutions.  Manager engagement has been key to navigating the pandemic environment, and these forums help managers stay connected and improve their management skills while moving forward with their teams.  Forum topics are suggested by the participants, who meet every other month, and have included increasing employee morale, resilience, managing hybrid teams, self-care, and employee retention.

 

Employee Benefits: The Company believes in enabling a healthy workforce and providing a benefits program that is designed to attract, retain, and motivate employees.  In addition to competitive insurance, healthcare, and retirement offerings, examples of more innovative and workforce-specific benefits offerings include: mortgage discount program, student loan assistance program, fitness classes, well-being sessions, and personal finance education.  During the pandemic, the Company enhanced their benefit offerings to include changes to the Retirement Savings Plan and medical benefits, and increased mental wellness resources.  

 

Health and Safety: The health and safety of our employees is a priority. In 2021, our commitment to workplace safety and workforce health enabled the Company to maintain business and operational continuity without diminishing our focus on both employee and customer safety during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Examples of specific initiatives to enhance on-site safety include daily employee health screening as well as temperature scanning and social distancing protocols in both office and branch locations. We also invested in ventilation system upgrades and installed physical health guards/barriers.  Employees who chose not to get COVID vaccinated, were required to complete COVID testing weekly.  The Company paid for the testing, provided paid time off to complete the weekly testing, and secured on site testing arrangements for our employees.

 

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Information about our Executive Officers

Listed below are executive officers of the Parent.

Peter S. Ho, 56

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since July 2010 and President since April 2008.

Dean Y. Shigemura, 58

Vice Chair since December 2017; Chief Financial Officer since March 2017; Senior Executive Vice President from May 2008 to November 2017; Controller from August 2014 to February 2017.

Sharon M. Crofts, 56

Vice Chair, Client Solutions Group since April 2016; Vice Chair, Operations and Technology from October 2012 to March 2016.

James C. Polk, 55

Chief Banking Officer since January 2022; Chief Commercial Officer from April 2020 to December 2021; Vice Chair since June 2016.

Mary E. Sellers, 65

Vice Chair and Chief Risk Officer since July 2005.

Andrea Wilson Ignacio, 49

Principal Accounting Officer since April 2020; Senior Vice President and Controller since August 2019; Vice President, Finance and Accounting Operations from August 2017 to July 2019.

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Item 1A.  Risk Factors

There are a number of risks and uncertainties that could negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.  We are subject to various risks resulting from changing economic, environmental, political, industry, business, financial and regulatory conditions.  The risks and uncertainties described below are what management believes are the material risk factors that could affect our business and operations, although they are not the only risks that may have a material adverse effect on the Company.

Risks Related to Macroeconomic and Political Conditions

 

Adverse changes in business and economic conditions, in particular those of Hawaii, Guam and other Pacific Islands, could lead to lower revenue, lower asset quality, and lower earnings.

Our business and earnings are closely tied to the economies of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. These local economies rely heavily on tourism, the U.S. military, real estate, construction, government, and other service-based industries. Lower visitor arrivals or spending, real or threatened acts of war or terrorism, public unrest, increases in energy costs, the availability of affordable air transportation, climate change, natural disasters and adverse weather, public health issues including Asian air pollution and the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and Federal, State of Hawaii and local government budget issues may impact consumer and corporate spending.  Additionally, financial markets may be adversely affected by the current or anticipated impact of military conflict, including escalating military tension between Russia and Ukraine, terrorism or other geopolitical events.

The impacts of various travel restrictions and quarantine requirements for visitors to Hawaii has had a dramatic negative impact on tourism.  These events have contributed to a significant deterioration in general economic conditions in our markets which has impacted and will continue to adversely impact us and our customers’ operations.  Though there has been an increase in tourism and economic recovery recently, many of the impacts in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands still linger.

Deterioration of economic conditions, locally, nationally, and internationally could adversely affect the quality of our assets, credit losses, and the demand for our products and services, which could lead to lower revenues, higher expenses, and lower earnings. The level of international visitor arrivals and spending, housing prices, and unemployment rates are some of the metrics that we continually monitor. We also monitor the value of collateral, such as real estate, that secures the loans we have made. The borrowing power of our customers could also be negatively impacted by a decline in the value of collateral.

Climate change and the governmental responses to it could have a material adverse impact on the Bank and its customers

The impacts of climate change, such as extreme weather conditions, natural disasters and rising sea levels, could impact the Bank’s operations as well as those of its customers and third party vendors upon which it relies.  Such events could also result in market volatility or negatively impact our customers’ ability to pay outstanding loans, or result in the deterioration of the value of our collateral causing a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operation.  Furthermore, increasing regulation related to climate change could have an adverse effect on the business and financial condition of the Bank and its customers, including our credit portfolio.  Further legislation and regulatory requirements could increase the operating expenses of, or otherwise adversely impact, the Bank or its customers.  To the extent that the Bank or its customers experience increases in costs, reductions in the value of assets, constraints on operations or similar concerns driven by changes in regulation relating to climate change, the Bank’s business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the Hawaii economy and our business, the extent of the impact on our business and our financial results remains uncertain.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material adverse effect on our operations and financial performance.  The duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects still cannot be determined with a reasonable level of certainty.  We have experienced unprecedented levels of government stimulus in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and have seen certain economic activities recovering since 2020, however, the lasting impacts of which are unknown.

Novel viruses such as COVID-19 increase concerns related to illness when traveling and gathering in large numbers.  In response, the majority of the nation’s state and local jurisdictions imposed various restrictions in order to control the spread of COVID-19.  Though most of these restrictions have now been lifted there is the possibility that they could be imposed again in the future.

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Even as more and more individuals become fully vaccinated against COVID-19, prior travel restrictions and mandatory quarantines related to the COVID-19 pandemic may have a lasting impact on tourism spending in Hawaii.  Because many of our customers, both commercial and consumer, derive at least some of their income from tourism, this dramatic drop in tourism spending affects them directly, as well as the Hawaii economy as a whole.  A downturn in the Hawaii economy and widespread reduction to our customers’ income will have a negative impact on our operations.  We are unable to predict the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related impacts will continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, regulatory capital, and liquidity ratios.

The COVID-19 pandemic, the institution of physical distancing, and shelter-in-place requirements resulted in both temporary and permanent closures of many businesses. As a result, the demand for our products and services has been and may continue to be significantly impacted.  Our operations may also be disrupted if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, due to illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic.  We have already temporarily or permanently closed certain of our branches and offices and many employees are now working remotely.  Though we have re-opened most of our branches, others remain closed.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily suspended residential property foreclosure sales, evictions, and involuntary automobile repossessions.  Foreclosures and evictions remain suspended.  We continue to work with our customers as many of the initial assistance programs have now expired.  The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations, financial condition, regulatory capital, and liquidity ratios will depend on the scope and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, actions taken by governmental authorities, actions taken by other third parties in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the pace of recovery when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, all of which are highly uncertain.

Any reduction in defense spending by the federal government could adversely impact the economy in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands.

The U.S. military has a major presence in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands.  As a result, the U.S. military is an important aspect of the economies in which we operate.  The funding of the U.S. military is subject to the overall U.S. Government budget and appropriation decisions and processes which are driven by numerous factors, including geo-political events, macroeconomic conditions, and the ability and willingness of the U.S. Government to enact legislation.  U.S. Government appropriations have been and likely will continue to be affected by larger U.S. Government budgetary issues and related legislation.  Cuts in defense and other security spending could have an adverse impact on the economies in which we operate, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Changes in interest rates could adversely impact our results of operations and capital.

Our earnings are highly dependent on the spread between the interest earned on loans, leases, and investment securities and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings.  We primarily rely on customer deposits as a sizable source of relatively stable and low-cost funds.  Changes in market interest rates impact the rates earned on loans, leases, and investment securities and the rates paid on deposits and borrowings.  In addition, changes to market interest rates could impact the level of loans, leases, investment securities, deposits, and borrowings, and the credit profile of our current borrowers.  Interest rates are affected by many factors beyond our control, and fluctuate in response to general economic conditions, currency fluctuations, and the monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities.

Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence the origination of loans and leases, the purchase of investments, the generation of deposits, and the rates received on loans and investment securities and paid on deposits.  Any substantial prolonged change in market interest rates may negatively impact our ability to attract deposits, originate loans and leases, and achieve satisfactory interest rate spreads.  If we are unable to continue to fund loans and other assets through customer deposits or access capital markets on favorable terms or if we otherwise fail to manage our liquidity effectively, our liquidity, net interest margin, financial results and conditions may be adversely affected.

Credit losses could increase if economic conditions stagnate or deteriorate further.

Increased credit losses for the Bank could result if economic conditions stagnate or deteriorate further.  The risk of nonpayment on loans and leases is inherent in all lending activities.  We maintain a reserve for credit losses to absorb estimated expected credit losses over the life of the loan, lease, and commitment portfolios as of the balance sheet date.  Management makes various assumptions and judgments about the loan and lease portfolios in determining the level of the reserve for credit losses.  Many of these assumptions are based on current economic conditions.  Should economic conditions stagnate or deteriorate further nationally or in Hawaii, we may experience higher credit losses in future periods.

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Inability of our borrowers to make timely repayments on their loans, or decreases in real estate collateral values may result in increased delinquencies, foreclosures, and customer bankruptcies, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Consumer protection initiatives and court decisions related to the foreclosure process affect our remedies as a creditor.

Proposed consumer protection initiatives related to the foreclosure process, including voluntary and/or mandatory programs intended to permit or require lenders to consider loan modifications or other alternatives to foreclosure, could increase our credit losses or increase our expense in pursuing our remedies as a creditor.

In addition, Hawaii’s appellate courts have made rulings that increase the complexity and risk of nonjudicial, or out-of-court, foreclosures.  At the same time, a chronic backlog of cases in the Hawaii courts has slowed the judicial foreclosure process, which delays the Bank’s ability to take over, preserve, and sell the mortgaged property.  The manner in which these issues are ultimately resolved could impact our foreclosure procedures and costs, which in turn could affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in the capital markets could materially affect the level of assets under management and the demand for our other fee-based services.

Changes in the capital markets could affect the volume of income from and demand for our fee-based services.  Our investment management revenues depend in large part on the level of assets under management.  Market volatility that leads customers to liquidate investments or move investments to other institutions or asset classes, as well as lower asset values can reduce our level of assets under management, thereby decreasing our investment management revenues.

The Parent’s liquidity is dependent on dividends from the Bank.

The Parent is a separate and distinct legal entity from the Bank. The Parent receives substantially all of its cash in the form of dividends from the Bank. These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay, dividends on the Parent’s common stock or to repurchase common stock under the Parent’s share repurchase program. Various federal and state laws and regulations limit the amount of dividends that the Bank may pay to the Parent.  The Parent’s ability to meet its obligations, pay dividends to shareholders, or repurchase stock, may be further limited if federal and state laws and regulations further limit the amount of dividends the Bank is permitted to pay the Parent.

There can be no assurance that the Parent will continue to declare cash dividends or repurchase stock.

During 2021, the Parent repurchased 328,832 shares of common stock at a total cost of $27.3 million under its share repurchase program.  We suspended share repurchases from March 2020 to July 2021 in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The actual amount and timing of future share repurchases, if any, will depend on market conditions, applicable SEC rules, and various other factors.  The Parent also paid cash dividends of $110.6 million on common shares during 2021.  In January 2022, the Parent’s Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.70 per share on the Parent’s outstanding common shares.  

Our dividend payments and/or stock repurchases may change from time-to-time, and we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to declare dividends and/or repurchase stock in any particular amounts or at all.  Dividends and/or stock repurchases are subject to capital availability and periodic determinations by our Board of Directors.  We continue to evaluate the potential impact that regulatory proposals may have on our liquidity and capital management strategies, including Basel III and those required under the Dodd-Frank Act.  The actual amount and timing of future dividends and share repurchases, if any, will depend on market and economic conditions, applicable SEC rules, federal and state regulatory restrictions, and various other factors.  In addition, the amount we spend and the number of shares we are able to repurchase under our stock repurchase program may further be affected by a number of other factors, including the stock price and blackout periods in which we are restricted from repurchasing shares.  A reduction in or elimination of our dividend payments and/or stock repurchases could have a negative effect on our stock price.

 

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Risks Related to Regulatory Changes

The end of LIBOR may adversely affect our financial instruments that are directly or indirectly tied to LIBOR.

On March 5, 2021, the UK Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, confirmed that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or will no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021 for 1-week and 2-month US dollar LIBOR and immediately after June 30, 2023 for all remaining US dollar LIBOR settings.  In addition, U.S. banking regulatory agencies issued guidance encouraging banks to cease entering into new contracts that use U.S. dollar LIBOR as a reference rate by December 31, 2021.  At the same time, various alternative rates, including the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), have begun to be used more widely in both loan and derivative products.  

 

We have loans, derivative contracts, and other financial instruments with rates that are either directly or indirectly tied to LIBOR.  As the transition progresses, the interest rates on these instruments, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with the same, may be adversely affected.  Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers, could adversely impact our reputation.

 

The Company formed an enterprise-wide, cross-functional project team to oversee the transition.  The project team reports to a steering committee as well as Management and the Board on a periodic basis.  The project team is organized around key work streams, which cover the products, systems, and operational processes impacted by the transition as well as client communication.  Since its formation, the project team has completed an inventory of existing LIBOR-indexed products, which is monitored on an ongoing basis, added LIBOR fallback language to new loans, and overseen the transition to non-LIBOR based adjustable rate mortgages and floating rate commercial loans.  

Fiscal and Monetary Policy changes may significantly impact our profitability and liquidity

The Company’s business and earnings are significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary policies of the Federal Government and its agencies.  The Bank is particularly affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve, which regulates the supply of money and credit in the United States.  Among the instruments of monetary policy available to the Federal Reserve are (a) conducting open market operations in U.S. government securities, (b) changing the discount rates of borrowings of depository institutions, (c) imposing or changing reserve requirements against depository institutions’ deposits, and (d) imposing or changing reserve requirements against certain borrowings by banks and their affiliates.  These methods are used in varying degrees and combinations to directly affect the availability of bank loans and deposits, as well as the interest rates charged on loans and paid on deposits.  Changes to these policies of the Federal Reserve may have a material effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Legislation and regulatory initiatives affecting the financial services industry, including new interpretations, restrictions and requirements, could detrimentally affect the Company’s business.

The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted in July 2010, triggered sweeping reforms to the financial services industry.  The Dodd-Frank Act, other consumer protection laws, and their implementing rules and regulations are likely to continue to result in increased compliance costs, along with possible restrictions on our products, services and manner of operations, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

The CFPB has exercised its broad rule-making, supervisory, and examination authority of consumer financial products, as well as expanded data collection and enforcement powers, over depository institutions with more than $10.0 billion in assets.  Staff changes to key positions within the CFPB by the Biden administration may result in the CFPB pursuing more strict enforcement policies, similar to that experienced under the Obama administration.  Regulation of overall safety and soundness, the CRA, federal housing and flood insurance, as they pertain to consumer financial products and services, remains with the FRB.  As a result of greater regulatory scrutiny of consumer financial products as a whole, the Company has become subject to more and expanded regulatory examinations, which also could result in increased costs as well as harm to our reputation in the event of a finding that we have not complied with the increased regulatory requirements.

New laws, regulations, and changes, and the uncertainty surrounding whether such laws, regulations and changes will be implemented, interpreted, repealed or reinstated, in the current regulatory and political climate, may continue to increase our costs of regulatory compliance.  They may significantly affect the markets in which we do business, the markets for and value of our investments, and our ongoing operations, costs, and profitability.

 

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Bank of Hawaii and its nonbank subsidiaries are subject to extensive federal and applicable state regulation and supervision. The bank regulatory scheme is primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds, and the banking system as a whole, not shareholders. This regulatory framework affects our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations, and policies for possible changes, and proposed changes can be expected from the new federal administration that took office in January 2021.  With Democratic control of the White House and both chambers of Congress there may be greater oversight of the banking industry.

 

Further, leadership and staff changes in regulatory agencies such as the CFPB, CFTC, SEC, and the Treasury Department could lead to changes in the rulemaking, supervision, examination and enforcement priorities and policies of the agencies. The potential impact of any changes within these agencies cannot be predicted at this time.

Changes in the capital, leverage, liquidity requirements for financial institutions could materially affect future requirements of the Company.

Under Basel III, financial institutions are required to have more capital and a higher quality of capital.  Under the final rules issued by the banking regulators, minimum requirements increased for both the quantity and quality of capital held by the Company.

Compliance with Basel III resulted in increased capital, liquidity, and disclosure requirements.  See the “Regulatory Initiatives Affecting the Banking Industry” section in MD&A for more information.

Changes in income tax laws and interpretations, or in accounting standards, could materially affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Further changes in income tax laws could be enacted, or interpretations of existing income tax laws could change, causing an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.  Similarly, our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we report our financial condition and results of operations.  Some of these policies require use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the value of our assets, liabilities, and financial results.  Periodically, new accounting standards are issued or existing standards are revised, changing the methods for preparing our financial statements.  These changes are not within our control and may significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks Related to Business Operations

A failure in or breach of our operational systems, information systems, or infrastructure, or those of our third party vendors and other service providers, may result in financial losses, loss of customers, or damage to our reputation.

We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business.  In addition, we rely on third parties to provide key components of our infrastructure, including loan, deposit and general ledger processing, internet connections, and network access.  These types of information and related systems are critical to the operation of our business and essential to our ability to perform day-to-day operations, and, in some cases, are critical to the operations of certain of our customers.  These third parties with which we do business or that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing firms, financial intermediaries or vendors that provide services or security solutions for our operations, could also be sources of operational and information security risk to us, including breakdowns or failures of their own systems or capacity constraints.  In addition, our communications and information systems and operations (including those of third parties that facilitate our business activities) could be damaged or interrupted due to events such as natural or human-caused disasters (including public health crises) or extreme weather (including as a result of climate change), geopolitical events and security issues, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, operational failures, and similar events or disruptions. Although we have safeguards and business continuity plans in place, our business operations may be adversely affected by significant and widespread disruption to our physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our business and our customers, resulting in financial losses, loss of customers, or damage to our reputation.

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An interruption or breach in security of our information systems or those related to merchants and third party vendors, including as a result of cyber attacks, could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, or result in financial losses.

Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of customer data, including payment card numbers and other personally identifiable information in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third parties with whom we contract to provide data services.  We also maintain important internal company data such as personally identifiable information about our employees and information relating to our operations.  The integrity and protection of that customer and company data is important to us.  As customer, public, legislative and regulatory expectations and requirements regarding operational and information security have increased, our operating systems and infrastructure must continue to be safeguarded and monitored for potential failures, disruptions and breakdowns.

Our technologies, systems, networks and software, and those of other financial institutions have been, and are likely to continue to be, the target of cybersecurity threats and attacks, which may range from uncoordinated individual attempts to sophisticated and targeted measures directed at us.  These cybersecurity threats and attacks may include, but are not limited to, attempts to access information, including customer and company information, malicious code, computer viruses and denial of service attacks that could result in unauthorized access, misuse, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service or other events.  These types of threats may result from human error, fraud or malice on the part of external or internal parties, intelligence-gathering by foreign governments, or from accidental technological failure internally or by our vendors.  Further, to access our products and services our customers may use computers and mobile devices that are beyond our security control systems.  The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, has increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions around the world have increased.

Our customers and employees have been, and will continue to be, targeted by parties using fraudulent emails and other communications in attempts to misappropriate passwords, payment card numbers, bank account information or other personal information or to introduce viruses or other malware through “trojan horse” programs to our customers’ devices.  These communications may appear to be legitimate messages sent by the Bank or other businesses, but direct recipients to fake websites operated by the sender of the email or request that the recipient send a password or other confidential information via email or download a program.  Despite our efforts to mitigate these threats through product improvements, use of encryption and authentication technology to secure online transmission of confidential consumer information, and customer and employee education, such attempted frauds against us or our merchants and our third party service providers remain a serious issue.  The pervasiveness of cyber security incidents in general and the risks of cyber-crime are complex and continue to evolve.  In light of several recent high-profile data breaches involving other companies’ losses of customer personal and financial information, we believe this risk could cause customer and/or Bank losses, damage to our brand, and increase our costs through the ongoing cost of technology investments to improve security, as well as the potential financial and reputational impact of a cyber security incident involving the Company.

Although we make significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our information systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging.  Even the most well-protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because attempted security breaches, particularly cyber-attacks and intrusions, or disruptions will occur in the future, and because the techniques used in such attempts are constantly evolving and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected.  Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus making it virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.  A security breach or other significant disruption could: 1) disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of certain of our customers; 2) result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or our customers, including account numbers and other financial information; 3) result in a violation of applicable privacy, data breach and other laws, subjecting the Bank to additional regulatory scrutiny and exposing the Bank to civil litigation, governmental fines and possible financial liability; 4) require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result; or 5) harm our reputation or cause a decrease in the number of customers that choose to do business with us or reduce the level of business that our customers do with us.  The occurrence of any such failures, disruptions or security breaches could have a negative impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows as well as damage our brand and reputation.

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Our mortgage banking income may experience significant volatility.

Our mortgage banking income is highly influenced by the level and direction of mortgage interest rates, real estate activity, and refinancing activity.  Interest rates can affect the amount of mortgage banking activity and impact fee income and the fair value of our derivative financial instruments and mortgage servicing rights.  Mortgage banking income may also be impacted by changes in our strategy to manage our residential mortgage portfolio.  For example, we may occasionally decide to add more conforming saleable loans to our portfolio (as opposed to selling the loans in the secondary market) which would reduce our gains on sales of residential mortgage loans.  These variables could adversely affect mortgage banking income.

Our mortgage loan servicing business may be impacted if we do not meet our obligations, or if servicing standards change.

We act as servicer for mortgage loans sold into the secondary market, primarily to government sponsored entities (“GSEs”) such as Fannie Mae.  As a seller and servicer for those loans, we make warranties about their origination and are required to perform servicing according to complex contractual and handbook requirements.  We maintain systems and procedures intended to ensure that we comply with these requirements. We may be penalized and, in limited instances required to repurchase certain mortgages, due to alleged failures to adhere to these requirements.  Should GSEs change the requirements in their servicing handbooks, we may sustain higher compliance costs.

Risks related to representation and warranty provisions may impact our mortgage loan servicing business

The Company sells residential mortgage loans in the secondary market primarily to the Fannie Mae.  The Company also pools FHA insured and VA guaranteed residential mortgage loans for sale to Ginnie Mae.  These pools of FHA-insured and VA-guaranteed residential mortgage loans are securitized by Ginnie Mae.  The agreements under which the Company sells residential mortgage loans to Fannie Mae or Ginnie Mae and the insurance or guaranty agreements with FHA and VA contain provisions that include various representations and warranties regarding the origination and characteristics of the residential mortgage loans.  Although the specific representations and warranties vary among investors, insurance or guarantee agreements, they typically cover ownership of the loan, validity of the lien securing the loan, the absence of delinquent taxes or liens against the property securing the loan, compliance with loan criteria set forth in the applicable agreement, compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws, and other matters.  As of December 31, 2021, the unpaid principal balance of residential mortgage loans sold by the Company was $2.3 billion.  The agreements under which the Company sells residential mortgage loans require delivery of various documents to the investor or its document custodian.  Although these loans are primarily sold on a non-recourse basis, the Company may be obligated to repurchase residential mortgage loans or reimburse investors for losses incurred if a loan review reveals that underwriting and documentation standards were potentially not met.  Some agreements may require the Company to repurchase delinquent loans.  Upon receipt of a repurchase request, the Company works with investors or insurers to arrive at a mutually agreeable resolution.  Repurchase demands are typically reviewed on an individual loan by loan basis to validate the claims made by the investor or insurer and to determine if a contractually required repurchase event has occurred.  The Company manages the risk associated with potential repurchases or other forms of settlement through its underwriting and quality assurance practices and by servicing mortgage loans to meet investor and secondary market standards.  For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company repurchased seven residential mortgage loans with an aggregate unpaid principal balance totaling $0.9 million as a result of the representation and warranty provisions contained in these contracts.  The loans were delinquent as to principal and interest at the time of repurchase, however, no material losses were incurred related to these repurchases.

Risks relating to residential mortgage loan servicing activities may adversely affect our results.

In addition to servicing loans in the Company’s portfolio, substantially all of the loans the Company sells to investors are sold with servicing rights retained.  The Company also services loans originated by other mortgage loan originators.  As servicer, the Company’s primary duties are to: (1) collect payments due from borrowers; (2) advance certain delinquent payments of principal and interest; (3) maintain and administer any hazard, title, or primary mortgage insurance policies relating to the mortgage loans; (4) maintain any required escrow accounts for payment of taxes and insurance and administer escrow payments; and (5) foreclose on defaulted mortgage loans or, to the extent consistent with the documents governing a securitization, consider alternatives to foreclosure, such as loan modifications or short sales.  Each agreement under which the Company acts as servicer generally specifies a standard of responsibility for actions taken by the Company in such capacity and provides protection against expenses and liabilities incurred by the Company when acting in compliance with the respective servicing agreements.  However, if the Company commits a material breach of obligations as servicer, the Company may be subject to termination if the breach is not cured within a specified period following notice.  The standards governing servicing and the possible remedies for violations of such standards vary by investor.  These standards and remedies are determined by servicing guides issued by the investors as well as the contract provisions established between the investors and the Company.  Remedies could include repurchase of an affected loan.

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The requirement to record certain assets and liabilities at fair value may adversely affect our financial results.

We report certain assets, including available-for-sale investment securities, at fair value.  Generally, for assets that are reported at fair value we use quoted market prices or valuation models that utilize market data inputs to estimate fair value.  Because we record these assets at their estimated fair value, we may incur losses even if the asset in question presents minimal credit risk.  The level of interest rates can impact the estimated fair value of investment securities.  Disruptions in the capital markets may require us to reserve for credit losses in future periods with respect to investment securities in our portfolio.  The amount and timing of any credit allowance recognized will be measured as the difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and the amount expected to be collected over the security’s lifetime.

Natural disasters and adverse weather could negatively affect real estate property values and bank operations.

Real estate and real estate property values play an important role for the Bank in several ways.  The Bank owns or leases many real estate properties in connection with its operations, primarily located in Hawaii with its unique weather and geology.  Our business operations could suffer to the extent the Bank cannot utilize its branch network due to damage from weather or other natural disasters.  Real estate is also utilized as collateral for many of our loans.  A natural disaster in Hawaii or the Pacific Islands could cause property values in the affected areas to fall, which could require the Bank to record an impairment on its financial statements.  A natural disaster could also impact borrowers’ ability to pay their financial obligations, which would increase our exposure to loan defaults.

 

General Risk Factors

Competition may adversely affect our business.

Our future depends on our ability to compete effectively.  We compete for deposits, loans, leases, and other financial services with a variety of competitors, including banks, thrifts, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage companies, finance companies, mutual funds, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and other non-traditional providers of financial services, including financial technology companies and financial service subsidiaries of commercial and manufacturing companies.  Some of our competitors are not subject to the same level of regulation and oversight that is required of banks and BHCs, and may benefit from tax exemptions or lower tax rates.  As a result, some of these competitors may have lower cost structures.

We expect competitive conditions to intensify as consolidation in the financial services industry continues.  The financial services industry is also likely to become more competitive as further technological advances enable more companies, including non-depository institutions, to provide financial services.  Also, some of our competitors, through delivery channels such as the Internet, may be based outside of the markets that we serve.

Both federal and local laws provide mechanisms for out-of-state banks and their holding companies to acquire or open branches in our service territories.  Failure to effectively address this competitive risk by competing, innovating and making effective use of new and existing channels to deliver our products and services could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Negative public opinion could damage our reputation and adversely impact our earnings and liquidity.

Reputational risk, or the risk to our business, earnings, liquidity, and capital from negative public opinion, could result from our actual or alleged conduct in a variety of areas, including legal and regulatory compliance, lending practices, corporate governance, litigation, ethical issues, or inadequate protection of customer information.  We expend significant resources to comply with regulatory requirements.  Failure to comply could result in reputational harm or significant legal or remedial costs.  Damage to our reputation could adversely affect our ability to retain and attract new customers, and adversely impact our earnings and liquidity.

We are subject to certain litigation, and our expenses related to this litigation may adversely affect our results.

We are, from time-to-time, involved in various legal proceedings arising from our normal business activities.  These claims and legal actions, including supervisory actions by our regulators, could involve large monetary claims and significant defense costs.  The outcome of these cases is uncertain.  Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against us could have material financial effects or cause significant reputational harm to us, which in turn could seriously harm our business prospects.  We may

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be exposed to substantial uninsured liabilities, which could materially affect our results of operations and financial condition.  Based on information currently available, we believe that the eventual outcome of known actions against us will not be materially in excess of such amounts accrued by us.  However, in the event of unexpected future developments, it is possible that the ultimate resolution of those matters may be material to our financial results for any particular period.  See the Contingencies section of Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

Our performance depends on attracting and retaining key employees and skilled personnel to operate our business effectively.

Our success is dependent on our ability to recruit qualified and skilled personnel to operate our business effectively.  Competition for these qualified and skilled people is intense.  There are a limited number of qualified personnel in the markets we serve, so our success depends in part on the continued services of many of our current management and other key employees.  Failure to retain our key employees and maintain adequate staffing of qualified personnel could adversely impact our operations and our ability to compete.

We continue to experience higher turnover, consistent with others in the industry.  That said, the financial industry has been more resilient with signs of leveling toward the end of 2021.  Overall, sourcing and hiring of new employees has continued to keep pace with terminations.  Employee retention efforts, to include a one-time inflation adjustment in conjunction with annual merit increases to help employees with the rapid rate of inflation, continue as well.

The soundness of other financial institutions may adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions.  Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, lending, counterparty, or other relationships.  As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions or the financial services industry in general have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions.  We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual funds, and other institutional clients.  Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client.  In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us.  Such losses could materially affect our financial condition or results of operations.

 

 

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.  Properties

Our principal offices are located in the Financial Plaza of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii.  We own and lease other branch offices and operating facilities located throughout Hawaii and the Pacific Islands.  Additional information with respect to premises and equipment is presented in Notes 6 and 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

We are from time to time subject to lawsuits, investigations and claims arising out of the conduct of our business.  Management believes that the ultimate resolution of these matters is not likely to materially affect our financial position and results of operations.  For additional information, see Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, under the discussion related to Contingencies.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.

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Part II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information, Shareholders, and Dividends

Information regarding the historical market prices of the Parent’s common stock, book value, and dividends declared on that stock are shown below.

Market Prices, Book Values, and Common Stock Dividends Per Share

 

 

 

Market Price Range

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends

 

Year/Period

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Close

 

 

Book Value

 

 

Declared

 

2021

 

$

99.10

 

 

$

75.65

 

 

$

83.76

 

 

$

35.57

 

 

$

2.74

 

First Quarter

 

 

99.10

 

 

 

75.65

 

 

 

89.49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

Second Quarter

 

 

95.95

 

 

 

81.23

 

 

 

84.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

Third Quarter

 

 

87.12

 

 

 

75.68

 

 

 

82.17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.70

 

Fourth Quarter

 

 

88.96

 

 

 

78.73

 

 

 

83.76

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

$

95.53

 

 

$

46.70

 

 

$

76.62

 

 

$

34.26

 

 

$

2.68

 

First Quarter

 

 

95.53

 

 

 

46.70

 

 

 

54.91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

Second Quarter

 

 

72.74

 

 

 

51.15

 

 

 

61.41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

Third Quarter

 

 

61.94

 

 

 

48.77

 

 

 

50.52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

Fourth Quarter

 

 

80.38

 

 

 

49.25

 

 

 

76.62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.67

 

 

The common stock of the Parent is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE Symbol: BOH) and quoted daily in leading financial publications.  As of February 15, 2022, there were 5,469 common shareholders of record.

The Parent’s Board of Directors considers on a quarterly basis the feasibility of paying a cash dividend to its shareholders and the level and feasibility of repurchasing shares of the Parent’s common stock.  Under the Parent’s historical practice, dividends declared are paid within the quarter.  See “Dividend Restrictions” under “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1 of this report and Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Period

 

Total Number of

Shares Purchased 1

 

 

Average Price

Paid Per Share

 

 

Total Number of

Shares Purchased

as Part of Publicly

Announced Plans or

Programs

 

 

Approximate Dollar

Value of Shares

that May Yet Be

Purchased Under

the Plans or

Programs 2

 

October 1 - 31, 2021

 

 

91,239

 

 

$

83.89

 

 

 

87,500

 

 

$

85,734,885

 

November 1 - 30, 2021

 

 

2,225

 

 

 

86.40

 

 

 

 

 

 

85,734,885

 

December 1 - 31, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

85,734,885

 

Total

 

 

93,464

 

 

$

83.95

 

 

 

87,500

 

 

 

 

 

1

During the fourth quarter of 2021, 5,964 shares were acquired from employees in connection with income tax withholdings related to the vesting of restricted stock and acquired by the trustee of a trust established pursuant to the Bank of Hawaii Corporation Director Deferred Compensation Plan (the “DDCP”) directly from the Parent in satisfaction of the Company’s obligations to participants under the DDCP.  The issuance of these shares was made in reliance upon the exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) by Section 4(a) (2) thereof.  The trustee under the trust and the participants under the DDCP are accredited investors, as defined in Rule 501(a) under the Securities Act.  The transaction did not involve a public offering and occurred without general solicitation or advertising. The shares were purchased at the closing price of the Parent’s common stock on the dates of purchase.

2

The share repurchase program was first announced in July 2001.  The program has no set expiration or termination date.  The actual amount and timing of future share repurchases, if any, will depend on market and economic conditions, regulatory rules, applicable SEC rules, and various other factors.

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Performance Graph

The following graph shows the cumulative total return for the Parent’s common stock compared to the cumulative total returns for the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index and the S&P Banks Index.  The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2016, in the Parent’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Banks Index.  The cumulative total return on each investment is as of December 31 of each of the subsequent five years and assumes reinvestment of dividends.

 

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

 

Bank of Hawaii Corporation

 

$

100

 

$

99

 

$

80

 

$

169

 

$

98

 

$

110

 

S&P 500 Index

 

$

100

 

$

122

 

$

116

 

$

171

 

$

181

 

$

233

 

S&P Banks Index

 

$

100

 

$

122

 

$

102

 

$

178

 

$

123

 

$

167

 

 

 

Item 6.  [Reserved]

 

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Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following MD&A is intended to help the reader understand the Company and its operations and is focused on our fiscal 2021 and 2020 financial results, including comparisons of year-to-year performance between these years. Discussion and analysis of our 2019 fiscal year, as well as the year-to-year comparison between fiscal 2020 and 2019, are included "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2021.

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts and may include statements concerning, among other things, the anticipated economic and business environment in our service area and elsewhere, credit quality and other financial and business matters in future periods, our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans and our objectives and future operations.  We also may make forward-looking statements in our other documents filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).  In addition, our senior management may make forward-looking statements orally to analysts, investors, representatives of the media and others.  Our forward-looking statements are based on numerous assumptions, any of which could prove to be inaccurate, and actual results may differ materially from those projected because of a variety of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to: 1) general economic conditions either nationally, internationally, or locally may be different than expected, and particularly, any event that negatively impacts the tourism industry in Hawaii; 2) the compounding effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including reduced tourism in Hawaii, the duration and scope of government mandates or other limitations of or restrictions on travel, volatility in the international and national economy and credit markets, inflation, worker absenteeism, quarantines or other travel or health-related restrictions, the length and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the pace of recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic, and the effect of government, business and individual actions intended to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic; 3) changes in market interest rates that may affect credit markets and our ability to maintain our net interest margin; 4) changes in our credit quality or risk profile that may increase or decrease the required level of our reserve for credit losses; 5) the impact of legislative and regulatory initiatives, particularly the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018; 6) changes to the amount and timing of proposed common stock repurchases; 7) unanticipated changes in the securities markets, public debt markets, and other capital markets in the U.S. and internationally, including, without limitation, the anticipated elimination of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a benchmark interest rate; 8) changes in fiscal and monetary policies of the markets in which we operate; 9) the increased cost of maintaining or the Company’s ability to maintain adequate liquidity and capital, based on the requirements adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and U.S. regulators; 10) changes in accounting standards; 11) changes in tax laws or regulations, including Public Law 115-97, commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the interpretation of such laws and regulations; 12) any failure in or breach of our operational systems, information systems or infrastructure, or those of our merchants, third party vendors and other service providers; 13) any interruption or breach of security of our information systems resulting in failures or disruptions in customer account management, general ledger processing, and loan or deposit systems; 14) natural disasters, public unrest or adverse weather, public health, disease outbreaks, and other conditions impacting us and our customers’ operations or negatively impacting the tourism industry in Hawaii; 15) competitive pressures in the markets for financial services and products; 16) actual or alleged conduct which could harm our reputation; and 17) the impact of litigation and regulatory investigations of the Company, including costs, expenses, settlements, and judgments. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement as a prediction of our actual results.  A detailed discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part I of this report.  Words such as “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “targeted,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.  We undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect later events or circumstances, except as may be required by law.

 

For the reasons described above, we caution you against relying on any forward-looking statements. You should not consider any list of such factors to be an exhaustive statement of all of the risks, uncertainties, or potentially inaccurate assumptions that could cause our current expectations or beliefs to change. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as otherwise may be required by the federal securities laws.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our Consolidated Financial Statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and follow general practices within the industries in which we operate.  The most significant accounting policies we follow are presented in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.  Application of these principles requires us to make estimates, assumptions, and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes.  Most accounting policies are not considered by management to be critical accounting policies.  Several factors are considered in determining whether or not a policy is critical in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements.  These factors include among other things, whether the policy requires management to make difficult, subjective, and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because it is likely that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions.  The accounting policies which we believe to be most critical in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements are those that are related to the determination of the reserve for credit losses, fair value estimates, leased asset residual values, and income taxes.

 

Reserve for Credit Losses

 

A consequence of lending activities is that we may incur credit losses.  The amount of such losses will vary depending upon the risk characteristics of the loan and lease portfolio as affected by economic conditions such as rising interest rates and the financial performance of borrowers.

 

The reserve for credit losses consists of the allowance for credit losses (the “Allowance”) and the reserve for unfunded commitments (the “Unfunded Reserve”). The reserve for credit losses also included a reserve for accrued interest receivable related to loans in which interest payment forbearances were granted to borrowers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.  As a result of our January 1, 2020, adoption of ASU No. 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” and its related amendments, our methodology for estimating the reserve for credit losses changed significantly from December 31, 2019.  The standard replaced the “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” approach known as current expected credit loss (“CECL”).  The CECL approach requires an estimate of the credit losses expected over the life of an exposure (or pool of exposures).  It removes the incurred loss approach’s threshold that delayed the recognition of a credit loss until it was “probable” a loss event was “incurred.”

 

The estimate of expected credit losses under the CECL approach is based on relevant information about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amounts.  Historical loss experience is generally the starting point for estimating expected credit losses.  We then consider whether the historical loss experience should be adjusted for asset-specific risk characteristics or current conditions at the reporting date that did not exist over the period from which historical experience was used.  Finally, we consider forecasts about future economic conditions that are reasonable and supportable.  The Unfunded Reserve represents the expected credit losses on off-balance sheet commitments such as unfunded commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit.  The Unfunded Reserve is determined by estimating future draws and applying the expected loss rates on those draws. However, a liability is not recognized for commitments unconditionally cancellable by the Company.

 

Management’s evaluation of the appropriateness of the reserve for credit losses is often the most critical of accounting estimates for a financial institution.  Our determination of the amount of the reserve for credit losses requires significant reliance on the credit risk rating we assign to individual borrowers, the use of estimates and significant judgment as to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on criticized loans, significant reliance on historical loss rates on homogenous portfolios, consideration of our quantitative and qualitative evaluation of economic factors, and the reliance on our reasonable and supportable forecasts.  While our methodology in establishing the reserve for credit losses attributes portions of the Allowance and Unfunded Reserve to the commercial and consumer portfolio segments, the entire Allowance and Unfunded Reserve is available to absorb credit losses inherent in the total loan and lease portfolio and total amount of unfunded credit commitments, respectively.  The provision for credit losses reflects our internal calculation and judgment of the appropriate amount of the reserve for credit losses.

 

The reserve for credit losses related to our commercial portfolio segment is generally most sensitive to the credit risk rating assigned to each borrower.  Commercial loan risk ratings are evaluated based on each situation by experienced senior credit officers and are subject to periodic review by an independent internal team of credit specialists.  The reserve for credit losses related to our consumer portfolio segment is generally most sensitive to economic assumptions and delinquency trends.  The reserve for credit losses attributable to each portfolio segment also includes an amount for inherent risks not reflected in the historical analyses.  Relevant factors include, but are not limited to, concentrations of credit risk (geographic, large borrower, and industry), economic trends and conditions, changes in underwriting standards, experience and depth of lending staff, trends in delinquencies, and the level of criticized loans.

 

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The impact of utilizing the CECL approach to calculate the reserve for credit losses is significantly influenced by the composition, characteristics and quality of our loan portfolio, as well as the prevailing economic conditions and forecasts utilized.  Material changes to these and other relevant factors may result in greater volatility to the reserve for credit losses, and therefore, greater volatility to our reported earnings.  See Notes 1 and 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and the “Corporate Risk Profile - Credit Risk” section in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) for more information on the Allowance and the Unfunded Reserve.

Fair Value Measurements

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for an asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.  The degree of management judgment involved in determining the fair value of a financial instrument is dependent upon the availability of quoted market prices or observable market inputs.  For financial instruments that are traded actively and have quoted market prices or observable market inputs, there is minimal subjectivity involved in measuring fair value.  However, when quoted market prices or observable market inputs are not fully available, significant management judgment may be necessary to estimate fair value.  In developing our fair value measurements, we maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.

The fair value hierarchy defines Level 1 valuations as those based on quoted prices, unadjusted, for identical instruments traded in active markets.  Level 2 valuations are those based on quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, or model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market.  Level 3 valuations are based on model-based techniques that use at least one significant assumption not observable in the market, or significant management judgment or estimation, some of which may be internally developed.

Financial assets that are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis include available-for-sale investment securities, loans held for sale, mortgage servicing rights, investments related to deferred compensation arrangements, and derivative financial instruments.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, $4.0 billion or 20% and $2.7 billion or 15%, respectively, of our total assets consisted of financial assets recorded at fair value on a recurring basis and most of these financial assets consisted of available-for-sale investment securities measured using information from a third party pricing service.  These investments in debt securities and mortgage-backed securities were all classified in either Levels 1 or 2 of the fair value hierarchy.  Financial liabilities that are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis are comprised of derivative financial instruments.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, $17.4 million and $6.4 million, respectively, or less than 1% of our total liabilities consisted of financial liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, Level 3 financial assets recorded at fair value on a recurring basis were $96.2 million and $29.7 million, respectively, or less than 1% of our total assets, and were comprised of mortgage servicing rights and derivative financial instruments.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, Level 3 financial liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis were $17.4 million and $6.1 million, respectively, or less than 1% of our total liabilities, and were comprised of derivative financial instruments.

Our third party pricing service makes no representations or warranties that the pricing data provided to us is complete or free from errors, omissions, or defects.  As a result, we have processes in place to monitor and periodically review the information provided to us by our third party pricing service such as: 1) Our third party pricing service provides us with documentation by asset class of inputs and methodologies used to value securities.  We review this documentation to evaluate the inputs and valuation methodologies used to place securities into the appropriate level of the fair value hierarchy.  This documentation is periodically updated by our third party pricing service.  Accordingly, transfers of securities within the fair value hierarchy are made if deemed necessary.  2) On a quarterly basis, management also selects a sample of securities priced by the Company’s third party pricing service and reviews the significant assumptions and valuation methodologies used by the pricing service with respect to those securities.  The information provided is comprised of market reference data, which may include reported trades; bids, offers, or broker-dealer dealer quotes; benchmark yields and spreads; as well as other reference data as appropriate. Periodically, based on these reviews, management determines whether the current placement of the security in the fair value hierarchy is appropriate or whether transfers may be warranted.  3) On a quarterly basis, management reviews the pricing information received from our third party pricing service.  This review process includes a comparison to a second source.  4) Our third party pricing service has also established processes for us to submit inquiries regarding quoted prices.  Periodically, we will challenge the quoted prices provided by our third party pricing service.  Our third party pricing service will review the inputs to the evaluation in light of the new market data presented by us.  Our third party pricing service may then affirm the original quoted price or may update the evaluation on a going forward basis.  Generally, we do not adjust the price from the third party service provider.  5) On an annual basis, we obtain and review the third party’s most recently issued Service Organization Controls report related to controls placed in operation and tests of operating effectiveness, to update our understanding of the third party pricing service’s control environment.  

See Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on our fair value measurements.

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Income Taxes

We determine our liabilities for income taxes based on current tax regulations and interpretations in tax jurisdictions where our income is subject to taxation.  Currently, we file tax returns for federal, six state and local domestic jurisdictions, and three foreign jurisdictions.  In estimating income taxes payable or receivable, we assess the relative merits and risks of the appropriate tax treatment considering statutory, judicial, and regulatory guidance in the context of each tax position.  Accordingly, previously estimated liabilities are regularly reevaluated and adjusted through the provision for income taxes.  Changes in the estimate of income taxes payable or receivable occur periodically due to changes in tax rates, interpretations of tax law, the status of examinations being conducted by various taxing authorities, and newly enacted statutory, judicial and regulatory guidance that impact the relative merits and risks of each tax position.  These changes, when they occur, may affect the provision for income taxes as well as current and deferred income taxes, and may be significant to our statements of income and condition.

Management's determination of the realization of net deferred tax assets is based upon management's judgment of various future events and uncertainties, including the timing, character and amount of future income, as well as the implementation of various tax planning strategies to maximize realization of the deferred tax assets.  A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, we carried a valuation allowance of $3.2 million and $3.6 million, respectively, related to our deferred tax assets established in connection with our low-income housing investments.

We are also required to record a liability, referred to as an unrecognized tax benefit ("UTB"), for the entire amount of benefit taken in a prior or future income tax return when we determine that a tax position has a less than 50% likelihood of being accepted by the taxing authority.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, our liabilities for UTBs were $4.0 million and $5.4 million, respectively.

In 2021, the Company recognized federal and State of Hawaii investment tax credits from energy investments.  The Company uses the deferral method of accounting for its investment tax credit with the benefit recognized in the provision for income taxes.  These credits reduced the Company's provision for income taxes by $2.1 million, $3.1 million, and $4.1 million in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.

Overview

We are a regional financial services company serving businesses, consumers, and governments in Hawaii, Guam, and other Pacific Islands.  Our principal operating subsidiary, the Bank, was founded in 1897.

Our business strategy is to use our unique market knowledge, prudent management discipline and brand strength to deliver exceptional value to our stakeholders.  Our business plan is balanced between growth and risk management while maintaining flexibility to adjust to economic changes.  We will continue to focus on providing customers with best-in-class service and an innovative mix of products and services.  We will also remain focused on continuing to deliver strong financial results while maintaining prudent risk and capital management strategies as well as our commitment to support our local communities.

Hawaii Economy

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has had and is continuing to have an impact on the Hawaii economy.  Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, at risk industries of leisure and hospitality represented 19% of jobs and 10% of Hawaii’s GDP.  Hawaii benefits from a wide range of industries that help to provide stability in the case of economic shocks.  Federal government jobs, primarily military, have historically been a stabilizing part of Hawaii’s economy, supplying about 20% of GDP.  Construction activity, including the Honolulu Rail Project, and other non-visitor-related activities have continued despite the COVID-19 pandemic.  Hawaii’s large retiree population also contributes to a stable economic base.  Hawaii’s unemployment rate was 5.7% in December 2021, while still above the pre-pandemic level, it has fallen substantially since its peak in April and May of 2020.

 

The volume of single-family home sales on Oahu increased 17.9% in 2021 compared to 2020, while the volume of condominium sales on Oahu increased 53.1% in 2021 compared to 2020. The median price of single-family home sales on Oahu increased by 19.3% in 2021 compared to 2020, while the condominium sales price on Oahu increased by 9.2% in 2021 compared to 2020. As of December 31, 2021, months of inventory of single-family homes and condominiums on Oahu was 0.8 months and 1.6 months, respectively.

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Earnings Summary

Net income for 2021 was $253.3 million, an increase of $99.6 million or 65% compared to 2020.  Diluted earnings per common share were $6.25 in 2021, an increase of $2.39 or 62% compared to 2020.  Our return on average assets was 1.14% in 2021, an increase of 35 basis points from 2020, and our return on average shareholders’ equity was 16.94% in 2021, compared to 11.38% in 2020.

Our higher net income in 2021 was primarily due to the following:

The provision for credit losses in 2021 was a net benefit of $50.5 million compared to a net expense of $117.8 million in 2020.

Net occupancy expense was $26.2 million in 2021, a decrease of $13.3 million or 34% compared to 2020.  This decrease was primarily due $9.5 million gain on sales of real estate property on the island of Oahu and Guam, and an impairment charge related to the closures of 12 branches and write down of cash-only ATMs in the fourth quarter of 2020.

Fees, exchange, and other service charges was $55.5 million in 2021, an increase of $8.4 million or 18% compared to 2020.  This increase was primarily due to higher fees from ATMs, merchant income, and debit and credit card transaction volume.

These items were partially offset by the following:

The provision for income taxes was $72.2 million in 2021, an increase of $36.9 million or 104% compared to 2020.  The effective tax rate was 22.17% in 2021 compared to 18.68% in 2020.  This increase was primarily due to a higher pretax income.

Salaries and benefits expense was $228.3 million in 2021, an increase of $21.0 million or 10% compared to 2020.  This increase was primarily due to a $13.6 million increase in incentive compensation coupled with a $5.7 million increase in share-based compensation due to a higher number of restricted stock units being amortized.  These increases were partially offset by a $3.0 million decrease in separation expense.

Net losses on sales of investment securities was $1.3 million in 2021, a decrease of $11.2 million compared to 2020.  This decrease was primarily due to gains on sale of 80,214 Visa Class B Shares during the second quarter of 2020.  

Other noninterest expense was $63.6 million in 2021, an increase of $8.6 million or 16% compared to 2020.  These increase was primarily due to a total of $7.0 million early termination costs incurred in 2021 related to the prepayment of $150.0 million of repurchase agreements and $50.0 million of FHLB advances.

Mortgage banking income was $15.0 million in 2021, a decrease of $2.9 million or 16% compared to 2020.  This decrease was primarily due to decreased sales and margins on sales of conforming saleable loans from current production.  This decrease was offset by valuation allowance recovery to our mortgage serving rights.

Other noninterest income was $19.6 million in 2021, a decrease of $10.8 million or 36% compared to 2020.  This decrease was primarily due to a $9.3 million decrease in fees related to our customer interest rate swap derivatives.

We maintained a strong balance sheet throughout 2021, with what we believe are adequate reserves for credit losses, and high levels of liquidity and capital.

Total assets were $22.8 billion as of December 31, 2021, an increase of $2.2 billion or 11% from December 31, 2020.

Total loans and leases were $12.3 billion as of December 31, 2021, an increase of $0.3 billion or 3% from December 31, 2020, primarily due to growth in our consumer portfolio, partially offset by a decrease of $0.4 billion in PPP loans.

The allowance for credit losses (the “Allowance”) was $157.8 million as of December 31, 2021, a decrease of $58.4 million or 27% from December 31, 2020.  The ratio of our Allowance to total loans and leases outstanding was 1.29% as of December 31, 2021, compared to 1.81% as of December 31, 2020.  The level of our Allowance was commensurate with the Company’s credit risk profile, future economic outlook, and forecasts utilized.

The total carrying value of our investment securities portfolio was $9.0 billion as of December 31, 2021, an increase of $1.9 billion or 27% from December 31, 2020.  Mortgage-backed securities issued by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac are the largest concentration in our portfolio.

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Total deposits were $20.4 billion as of December 31, 2021, an increase of $2.1 billion or 12% from December 31, 2020, primarily due to an increase in consumer and commercial deposits.

On June 15, 2021, the Company issued and sold 7,200,000 depositary shares, each representing a 1/40th ownership interest in a share of 4.375% Fixed Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, par value $0.01 per share.  Net proceeds after underwriting discounts and expenses were $175.5 million.

Total shareholders’ equity was $1.6 billion as of December 31, 2021, an increase of $237.1 million or 17% from December 31, 2020.  While we continued to return capital to our shareholders in the form of dividends, we suspended share repurchases from March 2020 to July 2021 in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. During 2021, we repurchased 373,240 shares of common stock at a total cost of $31.3 million.  We also paid cash dividends of $110.6 million on common shares during 2021.

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Analysis of Statements of Income

Average balances, related income and expenses, and resulting yields and rates, on a taxable-equivalent basis, are presented in Table 1.  An analysis of the change in net interest income, on a taxable-equivalent basis, is presented in Table 2.

 

Average Balances and Interest Rates – Taxable-Equivalent Basis

 

Table 1

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

(dollars in millions)

 

Average

Balance

 

 

Income/

Expense

 

 

Yield/

Rate

 

 

Average

Balance

 

 

Income/

Expense

 

 

Yield/

Rate

 

Earning Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-Bearing Deposits in Other Banks

 

$

2.7

 

 

$

 

 

 

0.36

%

 

$

2.2

 

 

$

 

 

 

0.61

%

Funds Sold

 

 

692.4

 

 

 

0.9

 

 

 

0.13

 

 

 

434.1

 

 

 

0.9

 

 

 

0.21

 

Investment Securities