10-K 1 a10k123117.htm 10-K Document


 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period From                          to                         
Commission file number 1-8400
 
 
 
American Airlines Group Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
75-1825172
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
4333 Amon Carter Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76155
(817) 963-1234
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
  
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
NASDAQ
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Commission file number 1-2691
 
 
 
American Airlines, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
13-1502798
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
4333 Amon Carter Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76155
(817) 963-1234
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No




Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
American Airlines Group Inc.
American Airlines, Inc.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
American Airlines Group Inc.
☒ Large Accelerated Filer
☐ Accelerated Filer
☐ Non-accelerated Filer
☐ Smaller Reporting Company
☐ Emerging Growth Company
American Airlines, Inc.
☐ Large Accelerated Filer
☐ Accelerated Filer
☒ Non-accelerated Filer
☐ Smaller Reporting Company
☐ Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
American Airlines Group Inc.
 
American Airlines, Inc.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.
American Airlines Group Inc.
Yes
  
No
American Airlines, Inc.
Yes
  
No
As of February 16, 2018, there were 473,138,683 shares of American Airlines Group Inc. common stock outstanding. The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2017, was approximately $24 billion.
As of February 16, 2018, there were 1,000 shares of American Airlines, Inc. common stock outstanding, all of which were held by American Airlines Group Inc.
OMISSION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION
American Airlines Group Inc. and American Airlines, Inc. meet the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and have therefore omitted the information otherwise called for by Items 10-13 of Form 10-K as allowed under General Instruction I(2)(c).
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the proxy statement related to American Airlines Group Inc.’s 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which proxy statement will be filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 within 120 days of the end of American Airlines Group Inc.’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 




American Airlines Group Inc.
American Airlines, Inc.
Form 10-K
Year Ended December 31, 2017
Table of Contents 
 
 
Page
Item 1.       
Item 1A.    
Item 1B.    
Item 2.       
Item 3.       
Item 4.       
 
Item 5.       
Item 6.       
Item 7.       
Item 7A.    
Item 8A.    
Item 8B.    
Item 9.       
Item 9A.    
 
Item 10.    
Item 11.    
Item 13.    
Item 14.    
 
Item 15.    
Item 16.    



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This report is filed by American Airlines Group Inc. (formerly named AMR Corporation) (AAG) and its wholly-owned subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. (American). References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and similar terms refer to AAG and its consolidated subsidiaries. “AMR” or “AMR Corporation” refers to the Company during the period of time prior to its emergence from Chapter 11 and its acquisition of US Airways Group, Inc. (US Airways Group) on December 9, 2013. References to “US Airways Group” and “US Airways,” a subsidiary of US Airways Group, represent the entities during the period of time prior to the dissolution of those entities in connection with AAG’s internal corporate restructuring on December 30, 2015. References in this report to “mainline” refer to the operations of American only and exclude regional operations.
Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
Certain of the statements contained in this report should be considered forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “continue,” “seek,” “target,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “if current trends continue,” “optimistic,” “forecast” and other similar words. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements about our plans, objectives, expectations, intentions, estimates and strategies for the future, and other statements that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are based on our current objectives, beliefs and expectations, and they are subject to significant risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results and financial position and timing of certain events to differ materially from the information in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described below under Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors, Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and other risks and uncertainties listed from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC).
All of the forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this report. There may be other factors of which we are not currently aware that may affect matters discussed in the forward-looking statements and may also cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed. We do not assume any obligation to publicly update or supplement any forward-looking statement to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting such statements other than as required by law. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or as of the dates indicated in the statements.


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PART I 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
American Airlines Group Inc. (AAG), a Delaware corporation, is a holding company and its principal, wholly-owned subsidiaries are American Airlines, Inc. (American), Envoy Aviation Group Inc. (Envoy), PSA Airlines, Inc. (PSA) and Piedmont Airlines, Inc. (Piedmont). AAG was formed in 1982 under the name AMR Corporation (AMR) as the parent company of American, which was founded in 1934. On December 9, 2013, a subsidiary of AMR merged with and into US Airways Group, Inc. (US Airways Group), a Delaware corporation, which survived as a wholly-owned subsidiary of AAG, and AAG emerged from Chapter 11 (the Merger). Upon closing of the Merger and emergence from Chapter 11, AMR changed its name to American Airlines Group Inc. On December 30, 2015, in order to simplify AAG’s internal corporate structure, US Airways Group merged with and into AAG, with AAG as the surviving corporation and, immediately thereafter, US Airways, Inc. (US Airways), a wholly-owned subsidiary of US Airways Group, merged with and into American, with American as the surviving corporation.
AAG’s and American’s principal executive offices are located at 4333 Amon Carter Boulevard, Fort Worth, Texas 76155 and their telephone number is 817-963-1234.
Airline Operations
Our primary business activity is the operation of a major network carrier, providing scheduled air transportation for passengers and cargo.
Together with our wholly-owned regional airline subsidiaries and third-party regional carriers operating as American Eagle, our airline operates an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. We have hubs in Charlotte, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix and Washington, D.C. In 2017, approximately 200 million passengers boarded our mainline and regional flights. During 2017, we launched new nonstop service to Amsterdam, Netherlands and Rome, Italy from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), to Barcelona, Spain from Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD) and to Beijing, China from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), further expanding our global footprint. We also announced new seasonal nonstop service beginning in Summer 2018 between Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) and Budapest, Hungary and Prague, Czech Republic; between ORD and Venice, Italy; and between DFW and Reykjavik-Keflavik, Iceland.
As of December 31, 2017, we operated 948 mainline aircraft and are supported by our regional airline subsidiaries and third-party regional carriers, which operated an additional 597 regional aircraft. See Part I, Item 2. Properties for further discussion on our mainline and regional aircraft and “Regional” below for further discussion on our regional operations.
American is a founding member of the oneworld® alliance, whose members serve more than 1,000 destinations with approximately 14,250 daily flights to over 150 countries. See below for further discussion on the oneworld alliance and other agreements with domestic and international airlines.
See Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – “Operational Highlights,” “Financial Overview,” “AAG’s Results of Operations” and “American’s Results of Operations” for further discussion of AAG’s and American’s operating results and operating performance. Also, see Note 13 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 11 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B for information regarding our operating segments and operating revenue in principal geographic areas.
Regional
Regional carriers provide scheduled air transportation under the brand name “American Eagle.” The American Eagle carriers include our wholly-owned regional carriers, Envoy, PSA and Piedmont, as well as third-party regional carriers including Republic Airline Inc. (Republic), Mesa Airlines, Inc. (Mesa), Compass Airlines, LLC (Compass), ExpressJet Airlines, Inc. (ExpressJet), SkyWest Airlines, Inc. (SkyWest) and Trans States Airlines, Inc. (Trans States). In addition, Air Wisconsin Airlines Corporation (Air Wisconsin) operated regional jet aircraft for us during 2017; however, this arrangement ended in February 2018. These carriers are an integral component of our operating network. We rely heavily on feeder traffic to our hubs from low-density markets that are not economical for us to serve with larger, mainline aircraft. In addition, regional carriers offer complementary service in our existing mainline markets. During 2017, approximately 55 million passengers boarded our regional carriers’ planes, approximately 44% of whom connected to or from our mainline flights. Of these passengers, approximately 28 million were enplaned by our wholly-owned regional carriers and approximately 27 million

5



were enplaned by third-party regional carriers. All American Eagle carriers use logos, service marks, aircraft paint schemes and uniforms similar to our mainline operations.
Our regional carrier arrangements are principally in the form of capacity purchase agreements. The capacity purchase agreements provide that all revenues, including passenger, in-flight, ancillary, mail and freight revenues, go to us. In return, we agree to pay predetermined fees to these airlines for operating an agreed-upon number of aircraft, without regard to the number of passengers on board. In addition, these agreements provide that we reimburse 100% of certain variable costs, such as airport landing fees and passenger liability insurance. We control marketing, scheduling, ticketing, pricing and seat inventories.
Cargo
Our cargo division provides a wide range of freight and mail services, with facilities and interline connections available across the globe. In 2017, we were named the Cargo Airline of the Year for the third consecutive year and Best Cargo Airline from the Americas for the tenth consecutive year by Air Cargo News.
Ticket Distribution and Marketing Agreements
Passengers can purchase tickets for travel on American through several distribution channels, including our website (www.aa.com), our reservations centers and third-party distribution channels, including those provided by or through global distribution systems (e.g., Amadeus, Sabre and Travelport), conventional travel agents and online travel agents (e.g., Expedia, Orbitz and Travelocity). To remain competitive, we need to successfully manage our distribution costs and rights, increase our distribution flexibility and improve the functionality of third-party distribution channels, while maintaining an industry-competitive cost structure. For more discussion, see Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “We rely on third-party distribution channels and must manage effectively the costs, rights and functionality of these channels.”
In general, beyond nonstop city pairs, carriers that have the greatest ability to seamlessly connect passengers to and from markets have a competitive advantage. In some cases, however, foreign governments limit U.S. air carriers’ rights to transport passengers beyond designated gateway cities in foreign countries. In order to improve access to domestic and foreign markets, we have arrangements with other airlines including the oneworld alliance, other cooperation agreements, joint business agreements (JBAs), and marketing relationships, as further discussed below.
Member of oneworld Alliance
American is a founding member of the oneworld alliance, which includes British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, Finnair, Iberia, Japan Airlines, LATAM Airlines Group, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas Airways, Qatar Airways, Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines and SriLankan Airlines. The oneworld alliance links the networks of the member carriers to enhance customer service and smooth connections to the destinations served by the alliance, including linking the carriers’ loyalty programs and access to the carriers’ airport lounge facilities.
Cooperation and Joint Business Agreements
American has established antitrust-immunized JBAs with British Airways, Iberia and Finnair, and separately with Japan Airlines, that enable the carriers to cooperate on flights between particular destinations and allow pooling and sharing of certain revenues and costs, enhanced loyalty program reciprocity and cooperation in other areas. American and its joint business partners received regulatory approval to enter into these JBAs and cooperation agreements.
In October 2017, American and its transatlantic partners executed an amended and restated JBA which, among other things, extends the term of the agreement. Also, we had previously signed a revised JBA with Qantas Airways and applied for antitrust immunity with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) for the revised relationship, but we withdrew that application in November 2016 after it was tentatively denied by the DOT. We intend to file a new application for antitrust immunity with the DOT this year, which, if granted, would allow us to further expand our relationship with Qantas Airways. In addition, we have signed JBAs with certain air carriers of the LATAM Airlines Group and have applied for antitrust immunity in the relevant jurisdictions affected by such agreements, which applications have been approved in some jurisdictions, but are still pending in other jurisdictions, including the United States and Chile.
In the third quarter of 2017, we acquired 2.7% of the outstanding shares of China Southern Airlines Company Limited (China Southern Airlines) for $203 million in order to begin a strategic relationship with the largest airline in China.

6



Marketing Relationships
To improve access to each other’s markets, various U.S. and foreign air carriers, including American, have established marketing agreements with other airlines. These marketing agreements generally provide enhanced customer choice by means of an expanded network with reciprocal loyalty program participation and joint sales cooperation. American currently has marketing relationships with Air Tahiti Nui, Alaska Airlines, British Airways, Cape Air, Cathay Dragon, Cathay Pacific, China Southern Airlines, EL AL, Etihad Airways, Fiji Airways, Finnair, Gulf Air, Hainan Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, Iberia, Interjet, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Group (includes Jetstar Airways and Jetstar Japan), Korean Air, LATAM (includes LATAM Airlines, LATAM Argentina, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Colombia, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Paraguay, LATAM Peru), Malaysia Airlines, Qantas Airways, Qatar Airways, Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines, Seaborne Airlines, Sri Lankan Airlines and WestJet. Our marketing agreements with Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways are scheduled to end on March 25, 2018.
Loyalty Program
Our loyalty program, AAdvantage® was established to develop passenger loyalty by offering awards to travelers for their continued patronage. AAdvantage was named Best Elite Program in the Americas at the 2017 Freddie Awards, annual awards that recognize the world’s most outstanding frequent travel programs. AAdvantage members earn mileage credits by flying on American, any oneworld airline or other partner airlines, or by using the services of over 1,000 program participants, such as the Citi and Barclaycard US co-branded credit cards, hotels and car rental companies. Our members earn bonus mileage credits when elite status is obtained. For every dollar spent, non-status members earn five mileage credits, but Gold, Platinum, Platinum Pro and Executive Platinum status holders earn bonus mileage credits of seven, eight, nine and eleven mileage credits, respectively.
All travel on eligible tickets counts toward qualification for elite status in the AAdvantage program. Elite members can enjoy additional benefits of the AAdvantage program, including complimentary upgrades, mileage bonuses, complimentary access to Preferred Seats, checked bags at no charge, First and Business Class check-in, priority security, priority boarding and priority baggage delivery.
Mileage credits can be redeemed for free or upgraded travel on American and participating airlines, membership to our Admirals Club® or for other non-travel awards from our program participants. Most travel awards are subject to capacity-controlled seating. A member’s mileage credit does not expire as long as that member has any type of qualifying activity at least once every 18 months. Under our agreements with AAdvantage members and program partners, we reserve the right to change the AAdvantage program at any time without notice, and may end the program with six months’ notice. Program rules, partners, special offers, awards and requisite mileage levels for awards are subject to change.
During 2017, our members redeemed approximately 11 million awards including travel redemptions for flights and upgrades on American and other air carriers, as well as redemption of car and hotel awards, club memberships and merchandise. Approximately 6.1% of our 2017 total revenue passenger miles flown were from award travel.
See Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” for more information on our loyalty program.
Industry Competition
Domestic
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive. On most of our domestic nonstop routes, we currently face competing service from at least one, and sometimes more than one, domestic airline, including: Alaska Airlines, Allegiant Air, Delta Air Lines, Frontier Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines and United Airlines. Competition is even greater between cities that require a connection, where the major airlines compete via their respective hubs. In addition, we face competition on some of our connecting routes from airlines operating point-to-point service on such routes. We also compete with all-cargo and charter airlines and, particularly on shorter segments, ground and rail transportation.
On all of our routes, pricing decisions are affected, in large part, by the need to meet competition from other airlines. Price competition occurs on a market-by-market basis through price discounts, changes in pricing structures, fare matching, targeted promotions and loyalty program initiatives. Airlines typically use discount fares and other promotions to stimulate traffic during normally slack travel periods, when they begin service to new cities or when they have excess capacity, to generate cash flow, to maximize revenue per available seat mile and to establish, increase or preserve market share. We have often elected to match discount or promotional fares initiated by other air carriers in certain markets in order to compete in those markets. Most airlines will quickly match price reductions in a particular market. In addition, low-fare, low-cost carriers, such as

7



Southwest Airlines and JetBlue Airways, and so-called ultra-low-cost carriers, such as Allegiant Air, Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines, compete in many of the markets in which we operate and competition from these carriers is increasing.
In addition to price competition, airlines compete for market share by increasing the size of their route system and the number of markets they serve. The American Eagle regional carriers increase the number of markets we serve by flying to lower demand markets and providing connections at our hubs. Many of our competitors also own or have agreements with regional airlines that provide similar services at their hubs and other locations. We also compete on the basis of scheduling (frequency and flight times), availability of nonstop flights, on-time performance, type of equipment, cabin configuration, amenities provided to passengers, loyalty programs, the automation of travel agent reservation systems, onboard products, markets served and other services. We compete with both major network airlines and low-cost carriers throughout our network.
International
In addition to our extensive domestic service, we provide international service to Canada, Central and South America, Asia, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In providing international air transportation, we compete with U.S. airlines, foreign investor-owned airlines and foreign state-owned or state-affiliated airlines. Competition is increasing from foreign state-owned and state-affiliated airlines in the Gulf region, including Emirates, Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways. These carriers have large numbers of international widebody aircraft in service and on order and are increasing service to the U.S. from locations both in and outside the Middle East. We believe these carriers benefit from significant government subsidies, which has allowed them to grow quickly, reinvest in their product and expand their global presence. Additionally, competition is also increasing from low cost airlines executing international long-haul expansion strategies, including, for example, Icelandair, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Wow Air. In order to increase our ability to compete for international air transportation service, which is subject to extensive government regulation, U.S. and foreign carriers have entered into marketing relationships, alliances, cooperation agreements and JBAs to exchange traffic between each other’s flights and route networks. See “Ticket Distribution and Marketing Agreements” above for further discussion.
Employees and Labor Relations
The airline business is labor intensive. In 2017, salaries, wages and benefits were our largest expense and represented approximately 35% of our total operating expenses. As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately 126,600 active full-time equivalent employees, approximately 85% of whom were represented by various labor unions responsible for negotiating the CBAs covering them.
Labor relations in the air transportation industry are regulated under the Railway Labor Act (RLA), which vests in the National Mediation Board (NMB) certain functions with respect to disputes between airlines and labor unions relating to union representation and collective bargaining agreements (CBAs). When an RLA CBA becomes amendable, if either party to the agreement wishes to modify its terms, it must notify the other party in the manner prescribed under the RLA and as agreed by the parties. Under the RLA, the parties must meet for direct negotiations, and, if no agreement is reached during direct negotiations between the parties, either party may request that the NMB appoint a federal mediator. The RLA prescribes no timetable for the direct negotiation and mediation processes, and it is not unusual for those processes to last for many months or even several years. If no agreement is reached in mediation, the NMB in its discretion may declare that an impasse exists and proffer binding arbitration to the parties. Either party may decline to submit to arbitration, and if arbitration is rejected by either party, a 30-day “cooling off” period commences. During or after that period, a Presidential Emergency Board (PEB) may be established, which examines the parties’ positions and recommends a solution. The PEB process lasts for 30 days and is followed by another 30-day “cooling off” period. At the end of a “cooling off” period, unless an agreement is reached or action is taken by Congress, the labor organization may exercise “self-help,” such as a strike, and the airline may resort to its own “self-help,” including the imposition of any or all of its proposed amendments to the CBA and the hiring of new employees to replace any striking workers.
None of the unions representing our employees presently may lawfully engage in concerted refusals to work, such as strikes, slow-downs, sick-outs or other similar activity, against us. Nonetheless, there is a risk that disgruntled employees, either with or without union involvement, could engage in one or more concerted refusals to work that could individually or collectively harm the operation of our airline and impair our financial performance.
The following table shows our domestic airline employee groups that are represented by unions:

8



Union
 
Class or Craft
 
Employees  (1)
 
Contract
Amendable Date
Mainline: (2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allied Pilots Association (APA)
 
Pilots
 
13,200

 
2020
Association of Professional Flight Attendants (APFA)
 
Flight Attendants
 
24,900

 
2019
Airline Customer Service Employee Association –Communications Workers of America and International Brotherhood of Teamsters (CWA-IBT)
 
Passenger Service
 
16,000

 
2020
Transport Workers Union and International Association of Machinists & Aerospace Workers (TWU-IAM Association)
 
Mechanics and Related
 
12,400

 
2018
TWU-IAM Association
 
Fleet Service
 
16,700

 
2018
TWU-IAM Association
 
Stock Clerks
 
1,900

 
2018
TWU-IAM Association
 
Flight Simulator Engineers
 
150

 
2021
TWU-IAM Association
 
Maintenance Control Technicians
 
200

 
2018
TWU-IAM Association
 
Maintenance Training Instructors
 
50

 
2018
TWU (Transport Workers Union)
 
Dispatchers
 
450

 
2021
TWU
 
Flight Crew Training Instructors
 
300

 
2021
Envoy: (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Air Line Pilots Associations (ALPA)
 
Pilots
 
2,200

 
2024
Association of Flight Attendants-CWA (AFA)
 
Flight Attendants
 
1,300

 
2020
TWU
 
Ground School Instructors
 
10

 
2019
TWU
 
Mechanics and Related
 
1,300

 
2020
TWU
 
Stock Clerks
 
150

 
2020
TWU
 
Fleet Service Clerks
 
3,500

 
2019
TWU
 
Dispatchers
 
60

 
2019
Communications Workers of America (CWA)
 
Passenger Service
 
4,300

 
Initial Contract 
in Negotiation
Piedmont: (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
ALPA
 
Pilots
 
550

 
2024
AFA
 
Flight Attendants
 
300

 
2019
International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT)
 
Mechanics
 
350

 
2021
IBT
 
Stock Clerks
 
50

 
2021
CWA
 
Fleet and Passenger Service
 
3,400

 
2017
IBT
 
Dispatchers
 
20

 
2019
ALPA
 
Flight Crew Training Instructors
 
40

 
2024
PSA: (3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
ALPA
 
Pilots
 
1,500

 
2023
AFA
 
Flight Attendants
 
1,000

 
2017
International Association of Machinists & Aerospace Workers (IAM)
 
Mechanics
 
350

 
2016
TWU
 
Dispatchers
 
50

 
2022
 
(1) 
Approximate number of active full-time equivalent employees as of December 31, 2017.

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(2) 
Our union-represented mainline employees are covered by agreements that are not currently amendable. Joint collective bargaining agreements (JCBAs) have been reached with post-Merger employee groups, except the maintenance, fleet service, stock clerks, maintenance control technicians and maintenance training instructors represented by the TWU-IAM Association who are covered by separate CBAs that become amendable in the third quarter of 2018. Until those agreements become amendable, negotiations for JCBAs will be conducted outside the traditional RLA bargaining process as described above, and, in the meantime, no self-help will be permissible.
(3) 
Among our wholly-owned regional subsidiaries, the PSA mechanics and flight attendants have agreements that are now amendable and are engaged in traditional RLA negotiations. The Envoy passenger service employees are engaged in traditional RLA negotiations for an initial CBA. The Piedmont fleet and passenger service employees have reached a tentative five-year agreement which is subject to membership ratification.
For more discussion, see Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “Union disputes, employee strikes and other labor-related disruptions may adversely affect our operations.”
Aircraft Fuel
Our operations and financial results are significantly affected by the availability and price of jet fuel, which is our second largest expense. Based on our 2018 forecasted mainline and regional fuel consumption, we estimate that a one cent per gallon increase in aviation fuel price would increase our 2018 annual fuel expense by $45 million.
The following table shows annual aircraft fuel consumption and costs, including taxes, for our mainline and regional operations for 2017, 2016 and 2015 (gallons and aircraft fuel expense in millions).
Year
Gallons
 
Average  Price
per Gallon
 
Aircraft  Fuel
Expense
 
Percent of Total
Operating Expenses
2017
4,352
 
$1.73
 
$7,510
 
19.7%
2016
4,347
 
  1.42
 
  6,180
 
17.7%
2015
4,323
 
  1.72
 
  7,456
 
21.4%
As of December 31, 2017, we did not have any fuel hedging contracts outstanding to hedge our fuel consumption. As such, and assuming we do not enter into any future transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, we will continue to be fully exposed to fluctuations in fuel prices. Our current policy is not to enter into transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, although we review that policy from time to time based on market conditions and other factors.
Fuel prices have fluctuated substantially over the past several years. We cannot predict the future availability, price volatility or cost of aircraft fuel. Natural disasters (including hurricanes or similar events in the U.S. Southeast and on the Gulf Coast where a significant portion of domestic refining capacity is located), political disruptions or wars involving oil-producing countries, changes in fuel-related governmental policy, the strength of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies, changes in access to petroleum product pipelines and terminals, speculation in the energy futures markets, changes in aircraft fuel production capacity, environmental concerns and other unpredictable events may result in fuel supply shortages, distribution challenges, additional fuel price volatility and cost increases in the future. See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “Our business is very dependent on the price and availability of aircraft fuel. Continued periods of high volatility in fuel costs, increased fuel prices or significant disruptions in the supply of aircraft fuel could have a significant negative impact on our operating results and liquidity.”
Seasonality and Other Factors
Due to the greater demand for air travel during the summer months, revenues in the airline industry in the second and third quarters of the year tend to be greater than revenues in the first and fourth quarters of the year. General economic conditions, fears of terrorism or war, fare initiatives, fluctuations in fuel prices, labor actions, weather, natural disasters, outbreaks of disease and other factors could impact this seasonal pattern. Therefore, our quarterly results of operations are not necessarily indicative of operating results for the entire year, and historical operating results in a quarterly or annual period are not necessarily indicative of future operating results.

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Domestic and Global Regulatory Landscape
General
Airlines are subject to extensive domestic and international regulatory requirements. Domestically, the DOT and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) exercise significant regulatory authority over air carriers.
The DOT, among other things, oversees domestic and international codeshare agreements, international route authorities, competition and consumer protection matters such as advertising, denied boarding compensation and baggage liability. The Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ), along with the DOT in certain instances, have jurisdiction over airline antitrust matters.
The FAA similarly exercises safety oversight and regulates most operational matters of our business, including how we operate and maintain our aircraft. FAA requirements cover, among other things, required technology and necessary onboard equipment; systems, procedures and training necessary to ensure the continuous airworthiness of our fleet of aircraft; safety measures and equipment; crew scheduling limitations and experience requirements; and many other technical aspects of airline operations. Additionally, the FAA sets pilot qualification standards and imposes complex rest requirements for pilots, as well as stringent duty period requirements for pilots and flight attendants.
The FAA also controls the national airspace system, including operational rules and fees for air traffic control (ATC) services. The efficiency, reliability and capacity of the ATC network has a significant impact on our costs and on the timeliness of our operations.
The U.S. Postal Service has jurisdiction over certain aspects of the transportation of mail and related services.
Airport Access and Operations
Domestically, any U.S. airline authorized by the DOT is generally free to operate scheduled passenger service between any two points within the U.S. and its territories, with the exception of certain airports that require landing and take-off rights and authorizations (slots) and other facilities, and certain airports that impose geographic limitations on operations or curtail operations based on the time of day. Operations at three major domestic airports we serve (John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) and La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) in Washington, D.C.) and many foreign airports we serve (including London Heathrow Airport (LHR)) are regulated by governmental entities through allocations of slots or similar regulatory mechanisms that limit the rights of carriers to conduct operations at those airports. Each slot represents the authorization to land at or take off from the particular airport during a specified time period. In addition to slot restrictions, operations at LGA and DCA are also limited based on the stage length of the flight.
Our ability to provide service can also be impaired at airports, such as ORD and LAX, where the airport gate and other facilities are inadequate to accommodate all of the service that we would like to provide.
Existing law also permits domestic local airport authorities to implement procedures and impose restrictions designed to abate noise, provided such procedures and restrictions do not unreasonably interfere with interstate or foreign commerce or the national transportation system. In some instances, these restrictions have caused curtailments in service or increases in operating costs.
Airline Fares, Taxes and User Fees
Airlines are permitted to establish their own domestic fares without governmental regulation. The DOT maintains authority over certain international fares, rates and charges, but applies this authority on a limited basis. In addition, international fares and rates are sometimes subject to the jurisdiction of the governments of the foreign countries which we serve.
Airlines are obligated to collect a federal excise tax, commonly referred to as the “ticket tax,” on domestic and international air transportation, and to collect other taxes and charge other fees, such as foreign taxes, security fees and passenger facility charges. Although these taxes and fees are not our operating expenses, they represent an additional cost to our customers. These taxes and fees are subject to increase from time to time.

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DOT Passenger Protection Rules
The DOT regulates airline interactions with passengers through the ticketing process, at the airport and on board the aircraft. Among other things, these regulations govern how our fares are displayed online, required customer disclosures, access by disabled passengers, handling of long onboard flight delays and reporting of mishandled bags. In addition, the DOT is likely to issue a regulation in 2018 that would require air carriers to refund checked bag fees in the event of certain delays in delivery.
International
International air transportation is subject to extensive government regulation, including aviation agreements between the U.S. and other countries or governmental authorities, such as the European Union (EU). Moreover, alliances with international carriers may be subject to the jurisdiction and regulations of various foreign agencies. The U.S. government has negotiated “open skies” agreements with over 120 countries, which allow unrestricted route authority access between the U.S. and the foreign markets. While the U.S. has worked to increase the number of countries with which open skies agreements are in effect, a number of markets important to us, including China, do not have open skies agreements.
In addition, foreign countries impose passenger protection rules, which are analogous to, and often meet or exceed the requirements of, the DOT passenger protection rules discussed above. In cases where these foreign requirements exceed the DOT rules, we may bear additional burdens and liabilities. Further, various foreign airport authorities impose noise restrictions at their local airports.
Security
Since shortly after the events of September 11, 2001, substantially all aspects of civil aviation security in the U.S. or affecting U.S. carriers have been controlled or regulated by the federal government through the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Requirements include flight deck security; carriage of federal air marshals at no charge; enhanced security screening of passengers, baggage, cargo, mail, employees and vendors; fingerprint-based background checks of all employees and vendor employees with access to secure areas of airports; and the provision of certain passenger data to the federal government and other international border security authorities, for security and immigration controls. Funding for the TSA is provided by a combination of air carrier fees, passenger fees and taxpayer funds. Customs and Border Protection, which, like the TSA, is part of the Department of Homeland Security, also promulgates requirements, performs services and collects fees that impact our provision of services. Additionally, we have at times found it necessary or desirable to make significant expenditures to comply with security-related requirements while seeking to reduce their impact on our customers, such as expenditures for automated security screening lines at airports.
Environmental Matters
Environmental Regulation
The airline industry is subject to various laws and government regulations concerning environmental matters in the U.S. and other countries. U.S. federal laws that have a particular impact on our operations include the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund Act). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies have been authorized to promulgate regulations that have an impact on our operations. In addition to these federal activities, various states have been delegated certain authorities under the aforementioned federal statutes. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental laws and regulations which are similar to or stricter than federal requirements.
Revised underground storage tank regulations issued by the EPA in 2015 have affected certain airport fuel hydrant systems, with modifications of such systems needed in order to comply with applicable portions of the revised regulations. In addition, related to the EPA and state regulations pertaining to stormwater management, several U.S. airport authorities are actively engaged in efforts to limit discharges of deicing fluid into the environment, often by requiring airlines to participate in the building or reconfiguring of airport deicing facilities.
The environmental laws to which we are subject include those related to responsibility for potential soil and groundwater contamination. We are conducting investigation and remediation activities to address soil and groundwater conditions at several sites, including airports and maintenance bases. We anticipate that the ongoing costs of such activities will not have a material impact on our operations. In addition, we have been named as a potentially responsible party (PRP) at certain Superfund sites. Our alleged volumetric contributions at such sites are relatively small in comparison to total contributions of all PRPs; we anticipate that any future payments of costs at such sites will not have a material impact on our operations.

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Aircraft Emissions and Climate Change Requirements
Many aspects of our operations are subject to increasingly stringent environmental regulations and concerns about climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For example, the EU has established the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) to regulate GHG emissions in the EU. The EU adopted a directive in 2008 under which each EU member state is required to extend the ETS to aviation operations. However, the EU ETS has never fully been imposed, in large part due to the global effort to moderate international aviation emissions solely through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The U.S. enacted legislation in November 2012 intended to encourage an international solution through ICAO, but which also authorizes the U.S. Secretary of Transportation to prohibit U.S. airlines from participating in the ETS.
In October 2016, ICAO passed a resolution adopting the ICAO Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), which is a global, market-based emissions offset program to encourage carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020. The CORSIA applies to international aviation, and does not directly impact domestic U.S. flights. The CORSIA was supported by the board of Airlines for America (the principal U.S. airline trade association), the International Air Transport Association (IATA) (the principal international airline trade association), and by American and many other U.S. and foreign airlines. The CORSIA will increase operating costs for American and most other airlines, including other U.S. airlines that operate internationally, but the implementation of a global program, as compared to regional emission reduction schemes, should ensure that resulting increases in operating costs will be more predictable and more evenly applied to American and its competitors since there will be a common global regulatory regime. The CORSIA is expected to be implemented in phases, beginning in 2021. Certain details still need to be developed and the impact of the CORSIA cannot be fully predicted. The EU has extended its stay on the extra-territorial application of the EU ETS as applied to international flights to/from the European Economic Area (EAA) through year-end 2023, contingent on successful implementation of the ICAO CORSIA. Thereafter, the EU will assess the ICAO CORSIA implementation and decide the future status of the EU ETS as applied to international aviation to/from the EAA.
In 2018, the EPA is expected to finalize a rule implementing aircraft engine GHG emission standards. It is anticipated that the EPA rule will closely align with recent ICAO carbon dioxide emission standards. The new standards, which were supported by the airline industry and manufacturers, would apply to new type aircraft certified beginning in 2020, and would be phased in for newly manufactured existing aircraft type designs starting in 2023.
In addition, several states, have adopted or are considering initiatives to regulate emissions of GHGs, primarily through the planned development of GHG emissions inventories and/or regional GHG cap and trade programs.
We have taken a number of actions that mitigate our GHG emissions and conserve fuel such as:
Retiring older aircraft and replacing them with new, more fuel-efficient aircraft;
Reducing fuel consumption through our Fuel Smart Program, which is an employee-led effort to safely reduce fuel consumption;
Working with the FAA and vendors to facilitate efficient airspace procedures, which also reduces aircraft emissions;
Replacing existing cargo containers with lightweight versions;
Replacing older, inefficient ground support equipment with new, more fuel-efficient ground support equipment, including alternative-fuel and electric powered equipment;
Purchasing renewable energy to reduce indirect emissions;
Seeking certification of certain buildings to the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard; and
Entering into partnerships with certain companies to further explore potential production pathways for sustainable alternative jet fuel.
For further information, see our annual Corporate Responsibility Report, available on our website at www.aa.com. None of the information or contents of our website is incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Impact of Regulatory Requirements on Our Business
Regulatory requirements, including but not limited to those discussed above, affect operations and increase operating costs for the airline industry, including our airline subsidiaries, and future regulatory developments may continue to do the same in the future. See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “Evolving data security and privacy requirements could increase our costs, and any significant data security incident could disrupt our operations, harm our reputation, expose us to legal risks and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition,” “If we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure throughout our system and, at some airports, adequate slots, we may be unable to operate our existing flight schedule and to expand or change our route network in the future, which may have a material adverse impact on our operations,” “Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which may result in increases in our costs, disruptions to our operations, limits on our operating flexibility, reductions in the demand for air travel, and competitive disadvantages,” “The airline industry is heavily taxed,“We are subject to many forms of environmental and noise regulation and may incur substantial costs as a result” and “We are subject to risks associated with climate change, including increased regulation to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases” for additional information.
Available Information
Use of Websites to Disclose Information
Our website is located at www.aa.com. We have made and expect in the future to make public disclosures to investors and the general public of information regarding AAG and its subsidiaries by means of the investor relations section of our website as well as through the use of our social media sites, including Facebook and Twitter. In order to receive notification regarding new postings to our website, investors are encouraged to enroll on our website to receive automatic email alerts (see https://americanairlines.gcs-web.com/email-alerts), “follow” American (@AmericanAir) on Twitter and “like” American on its Facebook page (www.facebook.com/AmericanAirlines). None of the information or contents of our website or social media postings is incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Availability of SEC Reports
A copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The public may also read and copy materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F. Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
Below are certain risk factors that may affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, or the trading price of our common stock or other securities. We caution the reader that these risk factors may not be exhaustive. We operate in a continually changing business environment, and new risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time. Management cannot predict such new risks and uncertainties, nor can it assess the extent to which any of the risk factors below or any such new risks and uncertainties, or any combination thereof, may impact our business.
Downturns in economic conditions could adversely affect our business.
Due to the discretionary nature of business and leisure travel spending and the highly competitive nature of the airline industry, our revenues are heavily influenced by the condition of the U.S. economy and economies in other regions of the world. Unfavorable conditions in these broader economies have resulted, and may result in the future, in decreased passenger demand for air travel, changes in booking practices and related reactions by our competitors, all of which in turn have had, and may have in the future, a strong negative effect on our business. See also “The airline industry is intensely competitive and dynamic” below.
Our business is very dependent on the price and availability of aircraft fuel. Continued periods of high volatility in fuel costs, increased fuel prices or significant disruptions in the supply of aircraft fuel could have a significant negative impact on our operating results and liquidity.
Our operating results are materially impacted by changes in the availability, price volatility and cost of aircraft fuel, which represents one of the largest single cost items in our business. Jet fuel market prices have fluctuated substantially over the past several years and prices continue to be highly volatile.
Because of the amount of fuel needed to operate our business, even a relatively small increase or decrease in the price of fuel can have a material effect on our operating results and liquidity. Due to the competitive nature of the airline industry and unpredictability of the market for air travel, we can offer no assurance that we may be able to increase our fares, impose fuel surcharges or otherwise increase revenues or decrease other operating costs sufficiently to offset fuel price increases. Similarly, we cannot predict the effect or the actions of our competitors if the current relatively low fuel prices remain in place for a significant period of time or fuel prices decrease in the future.
Although we are currently able to obtain adequate supplies of aircraft fuel, we cannot predict the future availability, price volatility or cost of aircraft fuel. Natural disasters (including hurricanes or similar events in the U.S. Southeast and on the Gulf Coast where a significant portion of domestic refining capacity is located), political disruptions or wars involving oil-producing countries, changes in fuel-related governmental policy, the strength of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies, changes in access to petroleum product pipelines and terminals, speculation in the energy futures markets, changes in aircraft fuel production capacity, environmental concerns and other unpredictable events may result in fuel supply shortages, distribution challenges, additional fuel price volatility and cost increases in the future. Any of these factors or events could cause a disruption in oil production, refinery operations or pipeline capacity and possibly result in significant increases in the price of aircraft fuel and diminished availability of aircraft fuel supply.
Our aviation fuel purchase contracts generally do not provide meaningful price protection against increases in fuel costs. Our current policy is not to enter into transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, although we review this policy from time to time based on market conditions and other factors. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2017, we did not have any fuel hedging contracts outstanding. As such, and assuming we do not enter into any future transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, we will continue to be fully exposed to fluctuations in fuel prices. See also the discussion in Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk – “Aircraft Fuel.”
The airline industry is intensely competitive and dynamic.
Our competitors include other major domestic airlines and foreign, regional and new entrant airlines, as well as joint ventures formed by some of these airlines, many of which have more financial or other resources and/or lower cost structures than ours, as well as other forms of transportation, including rail and private automobiles. In many of our markets we compete with at least one low-cost air carrier. Our revenues are sensitive to the actions of other carriers in many areas including pricing, scheduling, capacity, amenities, loyalty benefits and promotions, which can have a substantial adverse impact not only on our revenues, but on overall industry revenues. These factors may become even more significant in periods when the industry experiences large losses, as airlines under financial stress, or in bankruptcy, may institute pricing structures intended to achieve near-term survival rather than long-term viability.

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Low-cost carriers, including so-called ultra-low-cost carriers, have a profound impact on industry revenues. Using the advantage of low unit costs, these carriers offer lower fares in order to shift demand from larger, more established airlines, and represent significant competitors, particularly for customers who fly infrequently and are price sensitive and tend not to be loyal to any one particular carrier. While historically these carriers have provided competition in domestic markets, we have recently experienced new competition from low-cost carriers on international routes. A number of these low-cost carriers have announced growth strategies including commitments to acquire significant numbers of new aircraft for delivery in the next few years. These low-cost carriers are attempting to continue to increase their market share through growth and, potentially, consolidation, and could continue to have an impact on our revenues and overall performance. In addition, we and several other large network carriers have announced “basic economy” fares designed to compete against low-cost carriers and we cannot predict whether these initiatives will be successful or the competitive reaction of the low-cost carriers. Additionally, competition is also increasing from low cost airlines executing international long-haul expansion strategies, including, for example, Icelandair, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Wow Air. The actions of the low-cost carriers, including those described above, could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial performance.
Our presence in international markets, such as Asia, is not as extensive as that of some of our competitors. In providing international air transportation, we compete to provide scheduled passenger and cargo service between the U.S. and various overseas locations with U.S. airlines, foreign investor-owned airlines and foreign state-owned or state-affiliated airlines. Competition is increasing from foreign state-owned and state-affiliated airlines in the Gulf region, including Emirates, Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways. These carriers have large numbers of international widebody aircraft in service and on order and are increasing service to the U.S. from locations both in and outside the Middle East. We believe these carriers benefit from significant government subsidies, which has allowed them to grow quickly, reinvest in their product and expand their global presence. Our international service exposes us to foreign economies and the potential for reduced demand, such as we have recently experienced in Venezuela, when any foreign country we serve suffers adverse local economic conditions. In addition, open skies agreements with an increasing number of countries around the world provide international airlines with open access to U.S. markets. See also “Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which may result in increases in our costs, disruptions to our operations, limits on our operating flexibility, reductions in the demand for air travel, and competitive disadvantages.”
Certain airline alliances, joint ventures and joint businesses have been, or may in the future be, granted immunity from antitrust regulations by governmental authorities for specific areas of cooperation, such as joint pricing decisions. To the extent alliances formed by our competitors can undertake activities that are not available to us, our ability to effectively compete may be hindered. Our ability to attract and retain customers is dependent upon, among other things, our ability to offer our customers convenient access to desired markets. Our business could be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain or obtain alliance and marketing relationships with other air carriers in desired markets.
We have established antitrust-immunized JBAs with British Airways, Iberia and Finnair, and separately with Japan Airlines. In October 2017, American and its transatlantic partners executed an amended and restated JBA which, among other things, extends the term of the agreement. Also, we had previously signed a revised JBA with Qantas Airways and applied for antitrust immunity with the DOT for the revised relationship, but we withdrew that application in November 2016 after it was tentatively denied by the DOT. We intend to file a new application for antitrust immunity with the DOT this year, which, if granted, would allow us to further expand our relationship with Qantas Airways. In addition, we have signed JBAs with certain air carriers of the LATAM Airlines Group and have applied for antitrust immunity in the relevant jurisdictions affected by such agreements, which applications have been approved in some jurisdictions, but are still pending in other jurisdictions, including the United States and Chile. The foregoing arrangements are important aspects of our international network and we are dependent on the performance of the other airlines party to those agreements. No assurances can be given as to any benefits that we may derive from such arrangements or any other arrangements that may ultimately be implemented.
Additional mergers and other forms of industry consolidation, including antitrust immunity grants, may take place and may not involve us as a participant. Depending on which carriers combine and which assets, if any, are sold or otherwise transferred to other carriers in connection with any such combinations, our competitive position relative to the post-combination carriers or other carriers that acquire such assets could be harmed. In addition, as carriers combine through traditional mergers or antitrust immunity grants, their route networks will grow, and that growth will result in greater overlap with our network, which in turn could result in lower overall market share and revenues for us. Such consolidation is not limited to the U.S., but could include further consolidation among international carriers in Europe and elsewhere.
Additionally, our AAdvantage loyalty program, which is an important element of our sales and marketing programs, faces significant and increasing competition from the loyalty programs offered by other travel companies, as well as from similar loyalty benefits offered by banks and other financial services companies. Competition among loyalty programs is intense regarding the rewards, fees, required usage, and other terms and conditions of these programs. These competitive factors

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affect our ability to attract and retain customers, increase usage of our loyalty program and maximize the revenue generated by our loyalty program.
Evolving data security and privacy requirements could increase our costs, and any significant data security incident could disrupt our operations, harm our reputation, expose us to legal risks and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business requires the secure processing and storage of sensitive information relating to our customers, employees, business partners and others. However, like any global enterprise operating in today’s digital business environment, we are subject to threats to the security of our networks and data, including threats potentially involving criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored actors, corporate espionage, employee malfeasance, and human or technological error. These threats continue to increase as the frequency, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions increase around the world. We have been the target of cybersecurity attacks in the past and expect that we will continue to be in the future.
Furthermore, in response to these threats there has been heightened legislative and regulatory focus on data privacy and security in the U.S., the EU and elsewhere, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure providers, including those in the transportation sector. As a result, we must comply with a growing and fast-evolving set of legal requirements in this area, including substantive cybersecurity standards as well as requirements for notifying regulators and affected individuals in the event of a data security incident. This regulatory environment is increasingly challenging and may present material obligations and risks to our business, including significantly expanded compliance burdens, costs and enforcement risks. For example, in May 2018, the EU’s new General Data Protection Regulation, commonly referred to as GPDR, will come into effect, which will impose a host of new data privacy and security requirements, imposing significant costs on us and carrying substantial penalties for non-compliance.
In addition, many of our commercial partners, including credit card companies, have imposed data security standards that we must meet. In particular, we are required by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council, founded by the credit card companies, to comply with their highest level of data security standards. While we continue our efforts to meet these standards, new and revised standards may be imposed that may be difficult for us to meet and could increase our costs.
A significant cybersecurity incident could result in a range of potentially material negative consequences for us, including unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of company systems or data; theft of sensitive, regulated or confidential data, such as personal identifying information or our intellectual property; the loss of functionality of critical systems through ransomware, denial of service or other attacks; and business delays, service or system disruptions, damage to equipment and injury to persons or property. The costs and operational consequences of responding to and remediating an incident may be substantial. Further, we could be exposed to litigation, regulatory enforcement or other legal action as a result of an incident, carrying the potential for damages, fines, sanctions or other penalties, as well injunctive relief requiring costly compliance measures. A cybersecurity incident could also impact our brand, harm our reputation and adversely impact our relationship with our customers, employees and stockholders. Failure to appropriately address these issues could also give rise to potentially material legal risks and liabilities.
Our high level of debt and other obligations may limit our ability to fund general corporate requirements and obtain additional financing, may limit our flexibility in responding to competitive developments and cause our business to be vulnerable to adverse economic and industry conditions.
We have significant amounts of indebtedness and other obligations, including pension obligations, obligations to make future payments on flight equipment and property leases, and substantial non-cancelable obligations under aircraft and related spare engine purchase agreements. Moreover, currently a substantial portion of our assets are pledged to secure our indebtedness. Our substantial indebtedness and other obligations could have important consequences. For example, they:
may make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness;
may limit our ability to obtain additional funding for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, investments, integration costs, and general corporate purposes, and adversely affect the terms on which such funding can be obtained;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness and other obligations, thereby reducing the funds available for other purposes;
make us more vulnerable to economic downturns, industry conditions and catastrophic external events, particularly relative to competitors with lower relative levels of financial leverage;

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contain covenants requiring us to maintain an aggregate of at least $2.0 billion of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and amounts available to be drawn under revolving credit facilities;
contain restrictive covenants that could:
limit our ability to merge, consolidate, sell assets, incur additional indebtedness, issue preferred stock, make investments and pay dividends;
significantly constrain our ability to respond, or respond quickly, to unexpected disruptions in our own operations, the U.S. or global economies, or the businesses in which we operate, or to take advantage of opportunities that would improve our business, operations, or competitive position versus other airlines;
limit our ability to withstand competitive pressures and reduce our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions; and
result in an event of default under our indebtedness.
Further, a substantial portion of our long-term indebtedness bears interest at fluctuating interest rates, primarily based on the London interbank offered rate for deposits of U.S. dollars (LIBOR). LIBOR tends to fluctuate based on general interest rates, rates set by the Federal Reserve and other central banks, the supply of and demand for credit in the London interbank market and general economic conditions. We have not hedged our interest rate exposure with respect to our floating rate debt. Accordingly, our interest expense for any particular period will fluctuate based on LIBOR and other variable interest rates. On July 27, 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a newly created index, calculated with a broad set of short-term repurchase agreements backed by treasury securities. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United Kingdom, the United States or elsewhere. To the extent these interest rates increase, our interest expense will increase, in which event we may have difficulties making interest payments and funding our other fixed costs, and our available cash flow for general corporate requirements may be adversely affected. See also the discussion of interest rate risk in Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk – “Interest.”
These obligations also impact our ability to obtain additional financing, if needed, and our flexibility in the conduct of our business, and could materially adversely affect our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.
We will need to obtain sufficient financing or other capital to operate successfully.
Our business plan contemplates continued significant investments related to modernizing our fleet, improving the experience of our customers and updating our facilities. Significant capital resources will be required to execute this plan. We estimate that, based on our commitments as of December 31, 2017, our planned aggregate expenditures for aircraft purchase commitments and certain engines on a consolidated basis for calendar years 2018-2022 would be approximately $12.3 billion. Accordingly, we will need substantial financing or other capital resources to finance such aircraft and engines. If we are unable to arrange financing for such aircraft at customary advance rates and on terms and conditions acceptable to us, we may need to use cash from operations or cash on hand to purchase such aircraft or may seek to negotiate deferrals for such aircraft with the aircraft manufacturers. Depending on numerous factors, many of which are out of our control, such as the state of the domestic and global economies, the capital and credit markets’ view of our prospects and the airline industry in general, and the general availability of debt and equity capital at the time we seek capital, the financing or other capital resources that we will need may not be available to us, or may be available only on onerous terms and conditions. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining financing or other needed sources of capital to operate successfully. An inability to obtain necessary financing on acceptable terms would have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We have significant pension and other postretirement benefit funding obligations, which may adversely affect our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.
Our pension funding obligations are significant. The amount of these obligations will depend on the performance of investments held in trust by the pension plans, interest rates for determining liabilities and actuarial experience. The minimum funding obligation applicable to our pension plans was subject to favorable temporary funding rules that expired at the end of 2017. Our minimum pension funding obligations are likely to increase materially beginning in 2019, when we will be required to make cash contributions corresponding to determinations made regarding the 2018 fiscal year. In addition, we may have significant obligations for other postretirement benefits, the ultimate amount of which depends on, among other things, the outcome of an adversary proceeding related to retiree medical and other postretirement benefits and life insurance obligations filed in the Chapter 11 Cases.
If our financial condition worsens, provisions in our credit card processing and other commercial agreements may adversely affect our liquidity.
We have agreements with companies that process customer credit card transactions for the sale of air travel and other services. These agreements allow these processing companies, under certain conditions (including, with respect to certain agreements, the failure of American to maintain certain levels of liquidity), to hold an amount of our cash (a holdback) equal to some or all of the advance ticket sales that have been processed by that credit card processor, but for which we have not yet provided the air transportation. We are not currently required to maintain any holdbacks pursuant to these requirements. These holdback requirements can be modified at the discretion of the credit card processing companies upon the occurrence of specific events, including material adverse changes in our financial condition. An increase in the current holdbacks, up to and including 100% of relevant advanced ticket sales, could materially reduce our liquidity. Likewise, other of our commercial agreements contain provisions that allow other entities to impose less-favorable terms, including the acceleration of amounts due, in the event of material adverse changes in our financial condition.
Union disputes, employee strikes and other labor-related disruptions may adversely affect our operations.
Relations between air carriers and labor unions in the U.S. are governed by the RLA. Under the RLA, CBAs generally contain “amendable dates” rather than expiration dates, and the RLA requires that a carrier maintain the existing terms and conditions of employment following the amendable date through a multi-stage and usually lengthy series of bargaining processes overseen by the NMB. For the dates that the CBAs with our major work groups become amendable under the RLA, see Part I, Item 1. Business – “Employees and Labor Relations.”
In the case of a CBA that is amendable under the RLA, if no agreement is reached during direct negotiations between the parties, either party may request that the NMB appoint a federal mediator. The RLA prescribes no timetable for the direct negotiation and mediation processes, and it is not unusual for those processes to last for many months or even several years. If no agreement is reached in mediation, the NMB in its discretion may declare that an impasse exists and proffer binding arbitration to the parties. Either party may decline to submit to arbitration, and if arbitration is rejected by either party, a 30-day “cooling off” period commences. During or after that period, a PEB may be established, which examines the parties’ positions and recommends a solution. The PEB process lasts for 30 days and is followed by another 30-day “cooling off” period. At the end of a “cooling off” period, unless an agreement is reached or action is taken by Congress, the labor organization may exercise “self-help,” such as a strike, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
None of the unions representing our employees presently may lawfully engage in concerted refusals to work, such as strikes, slow-downs, sick-outs or other similar activity, against us. Nonetheless, there is a risk that disgruntled employees, either with or without union involvement, could engage in one or more concerted refusals to work that could individually or collectively harm the operation of our airline and impair our financial performance. See also Part I, Item 1. Business – “Employees and Labor Relations.”

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The inability to maintain labor costs at competitive levels would harm our financial performance.
Currently, we believe our labor costs are competitive relative to the other large network carriers. However, we cannot provide assurance that labor costs going forward will remain competitive because we are in negotiations for some new agreements now and other agreements may become amendable, competitors may significantly reduce their labor costs or we may agree to higher-cost provisions unilaterally or in connection with our current or future labor negotiations, such as the employee profit sharing program we instituted effective January 1, 2016, the mid-contract adjustment we provided to our flight attendants and pilots in 2017 and the $1,000 per employee one-time bonus we announced on January 2, 2018. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 85% of our employees were represented for collective bargaining purposes by labor unions. Some of our unions have brought and may continue to bring grievances to binding arbitration, including those related to wages. Unions may also bring court actions and may seek to compel us to engage in bargaining processes where we believe we have no such obligation. If successful, there is a risk these judicial or arbitral avenues could create material additional costs that we did not anticipate.
Interruptions or disruptions in service at one of our key facilities could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
We operate principally through hubs in Charlotte, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix and Washington, D.C. Substantially all of our flights either originate in or fly into one of these locations. A significant interruption or disruption in service at one of our hubs or other airports where we have a significant presence, such as London Heathrow, resulting from ATC delays, weather conditions, natural disasters, growth constraints, relations with third-party service providers (such as electric utility or telecommunications providers), failure of computer systems, disruptions at airport facilities or other key facilities used by us to manage our operations, labor relations, power supplies, fuel supplies, terrorist activities, or otherwise could result in the cancellation or delay of a significant portion of our flights and, as a result, could have a severe impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We have minimal control over the operation, quality or maintenance of these services or whether vendors will improve or continue to provide services that are essential to our business.
If we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure throughout our system and, at some airports, adequate slots, we may be unable to operate our existing flight schedule and to expand or change our route network in the future, which may have a material adverse impact on our operations.
In order to operate our existing and proposed flight schedule and, where desirable, add service along new or existing routes, we must be able to maintain and/or obtain adequate gates, check-in counters, operations areas, operations control facilities and administrative support space. As airports around the world become more congested, we are not always able to ensure that our plans for new service can be implemented in a commercially viable manner, given operating constraints at airports throughout our network, including due to inadequate facilities at desirable airports. Further, our operating costs at airports at which we operate, including our hubs, may increase significantly because of capital improvements at such airports that we may be required to fund, directly or indirectly. Additionally, there is presently a significant amount of capital spending underway at major airports in the United States that we serve, and that spending is expected to result in increased costs to airlines and the traveling public that use those facilities as the airports seek to recover these investments through increased rental, landing and other facility costs. In some circumstances, such costs could be imposed by the relevant airport authority without our approval.
In addition, operations at three major domestic airports, certain smaller domestic airports and many foreign airports served by us are regulated by governmental entities through the use of slots or similar regulatory mechanisms that limit the rights of carriers to conduct operations at those airports. Each slot represents the authorization to land at or take off from the particular airport during a specified time period and may have other operational restrictions as well. In the U.S., the DOT and the FAA currently regulate the allocation of slots or slot exemptions at DCA and two New York City airports: JFK and LGA. In addition to slot restrictions, operations at LGA and DCA are also limited based on the stage length of the flight. Our operations at these airports generally require the allocation of slots or similar regulatory authority. Similarly, our operations at international airports in Beijing, Frankfurt, London Heathrow, Paris, Tokyo and other airports outside the U.S. are regulated by local slot authorities pursuant to the IATA Worldwide Scheduling Guidelines and/or applicable local law. Termination of slot controls at some or all of the foregoing airports could affect our operational performance and competitive position. We currently have sufficient slots or analogous authorizations to operate our existing flights and we have generally, but not always, been able to obtain the rights to expand our operations and to change our schedules. However, there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain sufficient slots or analogous authorizations in the future or as to the cost of acquiring such rights because, among other reasons, such allocations are often sought after by other airlines and are subject to changes in governmental policies. We cannot provide any assurance that regulatory changes regarding the allocation of slots or similar regulatory authority will not have a material adverse impact on our operations.

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Our ability to provide service can also be impaired at airports, such as ORD and LAX, where the airport gate and other facilities are inadequate to accommodate all of the service that we would like to provide, or airports such as Dallas Love Field Airport where we have no access to gates at all.
Any limitation on our ability to acquire or maintain adequate gates, ticketing facilities, operations areas, operations control facilities, slots (where applicable), or office space could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we encounter problems with any of our third-party regional operators or third-party service providers, our operations could be adversely affected by a resulting decline in revenue or negative public perception about our services.
A significant portion of our regional operations are conducted by third-party operators on our behalf, primarily under capacity purchase agreements. Due to our reliance on third parties to provide these essential services, we are subject to the risks of disruptions to their operations, which may result from many of the same risk factors disclosed in this report, such as the impact of adverse economic conditions, the inability of third parties to hire or retain necessary personnel, including in particular pilots, and other risk factors, such as an out-of-court or bankruptcy restructuring of any of our regional operators. Many of these third-party regional operators provide significant regional capacity that we would be unable to replace in a short period of time should that operator fail to perform its obligations to us. Volatility in fuel prices, disruptions to capital markets and adverse economic conditions in general have subjected certain of these third-party regional operators to significant financial pressures, which have in the past and may in the future lead to bankruptcies among these operators. We may also experience disruption to our regional operations if we terminate the capacity purchase agreement with one or more of our current operators and transition the services to another provider. Any significant disruption to our regional operations would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, our reliance upon others to provide essential services on behalf of our operations may result in our relative inability to control the efficiency and timeliness of contract services. We have entered into agreements with contractors to provide various facilities and services required for our operations, including distribution and sale of airline seat inventory, provision of information technology and services, regional operations, aircraft maintenance, ground services and facilities, reservations and baggage handling. Similar agreements may be entered into in any new markets we decide to serve. These agreements are generally subject to termination after notice by the third-party service provider. We are also at risk should one of these service providers cease operations, and there is no guarantee that we could replace these providers on a timely basis with comparably priced providers, or at all. Any material problems with the efficiency and timeliness of contract services, resulting from financial hardships or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The commercial relationships that we have with airlines, including any related equity investment, may not produce the returns or results we expect.
An important part of our strategy to expand our network has been to expand our commercial relationships with other airlines, such as global alliance, joint business and code share relationships, and, in one recent instance, make a significant equity investment in another airline in connection with initiating such a commercial relationship. We may explore similar non-controlling investments in, and joint ventures and strategic alliances with, other carriers as part of our global business strategy. We face competition in forming these commercial relationships since there are a limited number of potential arrangements and other airlines are looking to enter into similar relationships. Any such existing or future investment could involve significant challenges and risks, including that we may not realize a satisfactory return on our investment or that they may not generate the expected revenue synergies. These events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We rely on third-party distribution channels and must manage effectively the costs, rights and functionality of these channels.
We rely on third-party distribution channels, including those provided by or through global distribution systems (GDSs) (e.g., Amadeus, Sabre and Travelport), conventional travel agents and online travel agents (OTAs) (e.g., Expedia, including its booking sites Orbitz and Travelocity, and The Priceline Group), to distribute a significant portion of our airline tickets, and we expect in the future to continue to rely on these channels and hope to expand their ability to distribute and collect revenues for ancillary products (e.g., fees for selective seating). These distribution channels are more expensive and at present have less functionality in respect of ancillary product offerings than those we operate ourselves, such as our website at www.aa.com. Certain of these distribution channels also effectively restrict the manner in which we distribute our products generally. To remain competitive, we will need to manage successfully our distribution costs and rights, increase our distribution flexibility and improve the functionality of our distribution channels, while maintaining an industry-competitive cost structure. These imperatives may affect our relationships with GDSs and OTAs, including as consolidation of OTAs continues or is proposed to continue. Further, as distribution technology changes we will need to continue to update our technology either by acquiring new technology from third parties, building the functionality ourselves, or a combination, which in any event will likely entail significant technological and commercial risk and involve potentially material investments. Any inability to manage our third-party distribution costs, rights and functionality at a competitive level or any material diminishment or disruption in the distribution of our tickets could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which may result in increases in our costs, disruptions to our operations, limits on our operating flexibility, reductions in the demand for air travel, and competitive disadvantages.
Airlines are subject to extensive domestic and international regulatory requirements. In the last several years, Congress has passed laws, and the DOT, the FAA, the TSA and the Department of Homeland Security have issued a number of directives and other regulations, that affect the airline industry. These requirements impose substantial costs on us and restrict the ways we may conduct our business.
For example, the FAA from time to time issues directives and other regulations relating to the maintenance and operation of aircraft that require significant expenditures or operational restrictions. These requirements can be issued with little or no notice, or can otherwise impact our ability to efficiently or fully utilize our aircraft. The FAA also exercises comprehensive regulatory authority over nearly all technical aspects of our operations. Our failure to comply with such requirements has in the past and may in the future result in fines and other enforcement actions by the FAA or other regulators. In the future, any new regulatory requirements, particularly requirements that limit our ability to operate or price our products, could have a material adverse effect on us and the industry.
The DOT consumer rules that took effect in 2010 require procedures for customer handling during long onboard delays, further regulate airline interactions with passengers through the ticketing process, at the airport, and onboard the aircraft, and require disclosures concerning airline fares and ancillary fees such as baggage fees. Other DOT rules apply to post-ticket purchase price increases and an expansion of tarmac delay regulations to international airlines. Further, Congress has proposed the FAIR Fees Act, which would direct the DOT to prescribe regulations prohibiting an air carrier from imposing change or cancellation fees that are unreasonable or disproportional to the costs incurred by the carrier, as well as establish standards for assessing whether all other fees are reasonable and proportional to the costs incurred by the air carrier.
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act mandates the federalization of certain airport security procedures and imposes additional security requirements on airports and airlines, most of which are funded by a per-ticket tax on passengers and a tax on airlines. Present and potential future security requirements can have the effect of imposing costs and inconvenience on travelers, potentially reducing the demand for air travel.
The results of our operations, demand for air travel, and the manner in which we conduct business each may be affected by changes in law and future actions taken by governmental agencies, including:
changes in law that affect the services that can be offered by airlines in particular markets and at particular airports, or the types of fees that can be charged to passengers;
the granting and timing of certain governmental approvals (including antitrust or foreign government approvals) needed for codesharing alliances, joint businesses and other arrangements with other airlines;
restrictions on competitive practices (for example, court orders, or agency regulations or orders, that would curtail an airline’s ability to respond to a competitor);
the adoption of new passenger security standards or regulations that impact customer service standards;

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restrictions on airport operations, such as restrictions on the use of slots at airports or the auction or reallocation of slot rights currently held by us; and
the adoption of more restrictive locally-imposed noise restrictions.
Each additional regulation or other form of regulatory oversight increases costs and adds greater complexity to airline operations and, in some cases, may reduce the demand for air travel. There can be no assurance that our compliance with new rules, anticipated rules or other forms of regulatory oversight will not have a material adverse effect on us.
Any significant reduction in air traffic capacity at and in the airspace serving key airports in the U.S. or overseas could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the United States National Airspace System (the ATC system) is not successfully modernizing to meet the growing demand for U.S. air travel. Air traffic controllers rely on outdated procedures and technologies that routinely compel airlines to fly inefficient routes or take significant delays on the ground. The ATC system’s inability to manage existing travel demand has led government agencies to implement short-term capacity constraints during peak travel periods or adverse weather conditions in certain markets, resulting in delays and disruptions of air traffic. The outdated technologies also cause the ATC to be less resilient in the event of a failure. For example, an automation failure and an evacuation, in 2015 and 2017, respectively, at the Washington Air Route Control Center resulted in cancellations and delays of hundreds of flights traversing the greater Washington, D.C. airspace.
In the early 2000s, the FAA embarked on a path to modernize the national airspace system, including migration from the current radar-based ATC system to a GPS-based system. This ATC modernization, generally referred to as “NextGen,” has been plagued by delays and cost overruns, and it remains uncertain when the full array of benefits expected from ATC modernization will be available to the public and the airlines. Failure to update the ATC system in a timely manner and the substantial funding requirements that may be imposed on airlines of a modernized ATC system may have a material adverse effect on our business. We support legislative efforts that would establish a nimble not-for-profit entity better suited to manage the long-term investments in technology and provide a governance structure needed to successfully implement NextGen and improve the operation of the ATC system.
Our operating authority in international markets is subject to aviation agreements between the U.S. and the respective countries or governmental authorities, such as the EU, and in some cases, fares and schedules require the approval of the DOT and/or the relevant foreign governments. Moreover, alliances with international carriers may be subject to the jurisdiction and regulations of various foreign agencies. Bilateral and multilateral agreements among the U.S. and various foreign governments of countries we serve are subject to periodic renegotiation. We currently operate a number of international routes under government arrangements that limit the number of airlines permitted to operate on the route, the capacity of the airlines providing services on the route, or the number of airlines allowed access to particular airports. If an open skies policy were to be adopted for any of these routes, such an event could have a material adverse impact on us and could result in the impairment of material amounts of our related tangible and intangible assets. In addition, competition from revenue-sharing joint ventures, JBAs, and other alliance arrangements by and among other airlines could impair the value of our business and assets on the open skies routes. For example, the open skies air services agreement between the U.S. and the EU, which took effect in March 2008, provides airlines from the U.S. and EU member states open access to each other’s markets, with freedom of pricing and unlimited rights to fly from the U.S. to any airport in the EU, including LHR. As a result of the agreement, we face increased competition in these markets, including LHR. The pending withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU, commonly referred to as Brexit, will mandate further modification in the current regulatory regime. Among other things, Brexit will likely require a transition arrangement or new air services agreement involving the U.S. and United Kingdom, and the United Kingdom and EU, to permit our current air services (including those involving our joint business and code share partners) to continue as we currently conduct them. More generally, changes in U.S. or foreign government aviation policies could result in the alteration or termination of such agreements, diminish the value of route authorities, slots or other assets located abroad, or otherwise adversely affect our international operations. The U.S. government has negotiated “open skies” agreements with many countries, which allow unrestricted route authority access between the U.S. and the foreign markets. While the U.S. has worked to increase the number of countries with which open skies agreements are in effect, a number of markets important to us, including China, do not have open skies agreements.

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The airline industry is heavily taxed.
The airline industry is subject to extensive government fees and taxation that negatively impact our revenue and profitability. The U.S. airline industry is one of the most heavily taxed of all industries. These fees and taxes have grown significantly in the past decade for domestic flights, and various U.S. fees and taxes also are assessed on international flights. For example, as permitted by federal legislation, most major U.S. airports impose a passenger facility charge per passenger on us. In addition, the governments of foreign countries in which we operate impose on U.S. airlines, including us, various fees and taxes, and these assessments have been increasing in number and amount in recent years. Moreover, we are obligated to collect a federal excise tax, commonly referred to as the “ticket tax,” on domestic and international air transportation. We collect the excise tax, along with certain other U.S. and foreign taxes and user fees on air transportation (such as passenger security fees), and pass along the collected amounts to the appropriate governmental agencies. Although these taxes and fees are not operating expenses, they represent an additional cost to our customers. There are continuing efforts in Congress and in other countries to raise different portions of the various taxes, fees, and charges imposed on airlines and their passengers, and we may not be able to recover all of these charges from our customers. Increases in such taxes, fees and charges could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Under DOT regulations, all governmental taxes and fees must be included in the prices we quote or advertise to our customers. Due to the competitive revenue environment, many increases in these fees and taxes have been absorbed by the airline industry rather than being passed on to the customer. Further increases in fees and taxes may reduce demand for air travel, and thus our revenues.
Recent U.S. tax legislation may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Recently enacted U.S. tax legislation has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. corporations, including by reducing the U.S. corporate income tax rate, limiting interest deductions, permitting immediate expensing of certain capital expenditures, adopting elements of a territorial tax system, revising the rules governing net operating losses (NOLs) and the rules governing foreign tax credits and introducing new anti-base erosion provisions. Many of these changes are effective immediately, without any transition periods or grandfathering for existing transactions. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, as well as interpretations and implementation regulations by the Treasury and Internal Revenue Service, any of which could materially affect the impacts of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation, which often uses federal taxable income as a starting point for computing state and local tax liabilities. See Note 6 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 4 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B for additional information on income taxes.
While some of the changes made by the tax legislation may adversely affect us in one or more reporting periods and prospectively, other changes may be beneficial on a going forward basis. We continue to work with our tax advisors to determine the full impact of this legislation on us.
Changes to our business model that are designed to increase revenues may not be successful and may cause operational difficulties or decreased demand.
We have recently instituted, and intend to institute in the future, changes to our business model to increase revenues and offset costs. These measures include premium economy service, basic economy service and other low-cost fares, enhancements to our AAdvantage loyalty program, charging separately for services that had previously been included within the price of a ticket and increasing other pre-existing fees. We may introduce additional initiatives in the future; however, as time goes on, we expect that it will be more difficult to identify and implement additional initiatives. We cannot assure you that these measures or any future initiatives will be successful in increasing our revenues. Additionally, the implementation of these initiatives may create logistical challenges that could harm the operational performance of our airline. Also, any new and increased fees might reduce the demand for air travel on our airline or across the industry in general, particularly if weakened economic conditions make our customers more sensitive to increased travel costs or provide a significant competitive advantage to other carriers that determine not to institute similar charges.
The loss of key personnel upon whom we depend to operate our business or the inability to attract additional qualified personnel could adversely affect our business.
We believe that our future success will depend in large part on our ability to retain or attract highly qualified management, technical and other personnel. We may not be successful in retaining key personnel or in attracting other highly qualified personnel. Any inability to retain or attract significant numbers of qualified management and other personnel would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We may be adversely affected by conflicts overseas or terrorist attacks; the travel industry continues to face ongoing security concerns.
Acts of terrorism or fear of such attacks, including elevated national threat warnings, wars or other military conflicts, may depress air travel, particularly on international routes, and cause declines in revenues and increases in costs. The attacks of September 11, 2001 and continuing terrorist threats, attacks and attempted attacks materially impacted and continue to impact air travel. Increased security procedures introduced at airports since the attacks of September 11, 2001 and any other such measures that may be introduced in the future generate higher operating costs for airlines. The Aviation and Transportation Security Act mandated improved flight deck security, deployment of federal air marshals on board flights, improved airport perimeter access security, airline crew security training, enhanced security screening of passengers, baggage, cargo, mail, employees and vendors, enhanced training and qualifications of security screening personnel, additional provision of passenger data to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency and enhanced background checks. A concurrent increase in airport security charges and procedures, such as restrictions on carry-on baggage, has also had and may continue to have a disproportionate impact on short-haul travel, which constitutes a significant portion of our flying and revenue. Implementation of and compliance with increasingly-complex security and customs requirements will continue to result in increased costs for us and our passengers, and have caused and likely will continue to cause periodic service disruptions and delays. We have at times found it necessary or desirable to make significant expenditures to comply with security-related requirements while seeking to reduce their impact on our customers, such as expenditures for automated security screening lines at airports. As a result of competitive pressure, and the need to improve security screening throughput to support the pace of our operations, it is unlikely that we will be able to capture all security-related costs through increased fares. In addition, we cannot forecast what new security requirements may be imposed in the future, or their impact on our business.
We operate a global business with international operations that are subject to economic and political instability and have been, and in the future may continue to be, adversely affected by numerous events, circumstances or government actions beyond our control.
We operate a global business with significant operations outside of the U.S. Our current international activities and prospects have been and in the future could be adversely affected by reversals or delays in the opening of foreign markets, increased competition in international markets, the performance of our alliance, joint business and codeshare partners in a given market, exchange controls or other restrictions on repatriation of funds, currency and political risks (including changes in exchange rates and currency devaluations), environmental regulation, increases in taxes and fees and changes in international government regulation of our operations, including the inability to obtain or retain needed route authorities and/or slots. In particular, fluctuations in foreign currencies, including devaluations, exchange controls and other restrictions on the repatriation of funds, have significantly affected and may continue to significantly affect our operating performance, liquidity and the value of any cash held outside the U.S. in local currency.
Generally, fluctuations in foreign currencies, including devaluations, cannot be predicted by us and can significantly affect the value of our assets located outside the United States. These conditions, as well as any further delays, devaluations or imposition of more stringent repatriation restrictions, may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The United Kingdom held a referendum in June 2016 regarding its membership in the EU in which a majority of the United Kingdom electorate voted in favor of the British government taking the necessary action for the United Kingdom to leave the EU, commonly referred to as Brexit. In March 2017, the United Kingdom served notice of its decision to withdraw to the EU, formally initiating the withdrawal process. Serving this notice began the two-year period for the United Kingdom to negotiate the terms for its withdrawal from the EU. At this time, it is not certain what steps will need to be taken to facilitate the United Kingdom’s exit from the EU. The implications of the United Kingdom withdrawing from the EU are similarly unclear at present because it is unclear what relationship the United Kingdom will have with the EU after withdrawal. We face risks associated with the uncertainty following the referendum and the consequences that may flow from the decision to exit the EU, notably given the extent of our passenger and cargo traffic and that of our joint business partners that flows through LHR in the United Kingdom. Among other things, Brexit will likely require a transition arrangement or new air services agreement involving the U.S. and United Kingdom, and the United Kingdom and EU, to permit our current air services (including those involving our joint business and code share partners) to continue as we currently conduct them. Moreover, the exit of the United Kingdom from the EU could adversely affect European or worldwide economic or market conditions and could contribute to further instability in global financial markets. In addition, the exit of the United Kingdom from the EU has created uncertainty as to the future trade relationship between the EU and the United Kingdom, including as to air traffic services. The exit of the United Kingdom could also lead to legal and regulatory uncertainty and potentially divergent treaties, laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU treaties, laws and regulations to replace or replicate, including those governing

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aviation, labor, environmental, data protection/privacy, competition and other matters applicable to the provision of air transportation services by us or our alliance, joint business or codeshare partners. The impact on our business of any treaties, laws and regulations that replace the existing EU counterparts cannot be predicted. Any of these effects, and others we cannot anticipate, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to many forms of environmental and noise regulation and may incur substantial costs as a result.
We are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations and ordinances relating to the protection of the environment and noise reduction, including those relating to emissions to the air, discharges to surface and subsurface waters, safe drinking water, and the management of hazardous substances, oils and waste materials. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, and violations can lead to significant fines and penalties.
We are also subject to other environmental laws and regulations, including those that require us to investigate and remediate soil or groundwater to meet certain remediation standards. Under federal law, generators of waste materials, and current and former owners or operators of facilities, can be subject to liability for investigation and remediation costs at locations that have been identified as requiring response actions. Liability under these laws may be strict, joint and several, meaning that we could be liable for the costs of cleaning up environmental contamination regardless of fault or the amount of waste directly attributable to us. We have liability for investigation and remediation costs at various sites, although such costs currently are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our business.
We have various leases and agreements with respect to real property, tanks and pipelines with airports and other operators. Under these leases and agreements, we have agreed to indemnify the lessor or operator against environmental liabilities associated with the real property or operations described under the agreement, in some cases even if we are not the party responsible for the initial event that caused the environmental damage. We also participate in leases with other airlines in fuel consortiums and fuel committees at airports, where such indemnities are generally joint and several among the participating airlines.
Governmental authorities in several U.S. and foreign cities are also considering, or have already implemented, aircraft noise reduction programs, including the imposition of nighttime curfews and limitations on daytime take offs and landings. We have been able to accommodate local noise restrictions imposed to date, but our operations could be adversely affected if locally-imposed regulations become more restrictive or widespread.
We are subject to risks associated with climate change, including increased regulation to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
There is increasing global regulatory focus on climate change and GHG emissions. For example, in October 2016, ICAO passed a resolution adopting the ICAO CORSIA, which is a global, market-based emissions offset program to encourage carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020. The CORSIA was supported by the board of Airlines for America (the principal U.S. airline trade association) and IATA (the principal international airline trade association), and by American and many other U.S. and foreign airlines. The CORSIA will increase operating costs for American and most other airlines, including other U.S. airlines that operate internationally, but the implementation of a global program, as compared to regional emission reduction schemes, should ensure that these costs will be more predictable and more evenly applied to American and its competitors since there will be a common global regulatory regime. The CORSIA is expected to be implemented in phases, beginning in 2021. Certain details still need to be developed and the impact of the CORSIA cannot be fully predicted. While we do not anticipate any significant emissions allowance expenditures in 2018, compliance with the CORSIA or similar emissions-related requirements could significantly increase our operating costs beyond 2018. Further, the potential impact of the CORSIA or other emissions-related requirements on our costs will ultimately depend on a number of factors, including baseline emissions, the price of emission allowances or offsets and the number of future flights subject to such emissions-related requirements. These costs have not been completely defined and could fluctuate.
In addition, in December 2015, at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, over 190 countries, including the United States, reached an agreement (the Paris Agreement) to reduce GHG emissions. While the United States has since announced that it will withdraw from the Paris Agreement and there is no express reference to aviation in that agreement, to the extent countries implement that agreement or impose other climate change regulations, either with respect to the aviation industry or with respect to related industries such as the aviation fuel industry, it could have an adverse direct or indirect effect on our business.
In 2018, the EPA is expected to finalize a rule implementing aircraft engine GHG emission standards. It is anticipated that the EPA rule will closely align with recent ICAO carbon dioxide emission standards. The new standards, which were supported

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by the airline industry and manufacturers, would apply to new type aircraft certified beginning in 2020, and would be phased in for newly manufactured existing aircraft type designs starting in 2023.
In addition, several states have adopted or are considering initiatives to regulate emissions of GHGs, primarily through the planned development of GHG emissions inventories and/or regional GHG cap and trade programs. Depending on the scope of such regulation, certain of our facilities and operations, or the operations of our suppliers, may be subject to additional operating and other permit requirements, likely resulting in increased operating costs.
These regulatory efforts, both internationally and in the U.S. at the federal and state levels, are still developing, and we cannot yet determine what the final regulatory programs or their impact will be in the U.S., the EU or in other areas in which we do business. However, such climate change-related regulatory activity in the future may adversely affect our business and financial results by requiring us to reduce our emissions, purchase allowances or otherwise pay for our emissions. Such activity may also impact us indirectly by increasing our operating costs, including fuel costs.
We face challenges in integrating our computer, communications and other technology systems.
Among the principal risks of integrating our businesses and operations are the risks relating to integrating various computer, communications and other technology systems that will be necessary to operate US Airways and American as a single airline and to achieve cost synergies by eliminating redundancies in the businesses. While we have to date successfully integrated several of our systems, including our customer reservations system and our pilot and fleet scheduling system, we still have to complete several additional important system integration projects. The integration of these systems in a number of prior airline mergers has taken longer, been more disruptive and cost more than originally forecast. The implementation process to integrate these various systems will involve a number of risks that could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. New systems will replace multiple legacy systems and the related implementation will be a complex and time-consuming project involving substantial expenditures for implementation consultants, system hardware, software and implementation activities, as well as the transformation of business and financial processes.
We cannot assure you that our security measures, change control procedures or disaster recovery plans will be adequate to prevent disruptions or delays in connection with systems integration or replacement. Disruptions in or changes to these systems could result in a disruption to our business and the loss of important data. Any of the foregoing could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We rely heavily on technology and automated systems to operate our business, and any failure of these technologies or systems could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are highly dependent on existing and emerging technology and automated systems to operate our business. These technologies and systems include our computerized airline reservation system, flight operations systems, financial planning, management and accounting systems, telecommunications systems, website, maintenance systems and check-in kiosks. In order for our operations to work efficiently, our website and reservation system must be able to accommodate a high volume of traffic, maintain secure information and deliver flight information, as well as issue electronic tickets and process critical financial information in a timely manner. Substantially all of our tickets are issued to passengers as electronic tickets. We depend on our reservation system, which is hosted and maintained under a long-term contract by a third-party service provider, to be able to issue, track and accept these electronic tickets. If our technologies or automated systems are not functioning or if our third-party service providers were to fail to adequately provide technical support, system maintenance or timely software upgrades for any one of our key existing systems, we could experience service disruptions or delays, which could harm our business and result in the loss of important data, increase our expenses and decrease our revenues. In the event that one or more of our primary technology or systems vendors goes into bankruptcy, ceases operations or fails to perform as promised, replacement services may not be readily available on a timely basis, at competitive rates or at all, and any transition time to a new system may be significant.
Our technologies and automated systems cannot be completely protected against events that are beyond our control, including natural disasters, power failures, terrorist attacks, cyber-attacks, data theft, equipment and software failures, computer viruses or telecommunications failures. Substantial or sustained system failures could cause service delays or failures and result in our customers purchasing tickets from other airlines. We cannot assure you that our security measures, change control procedures or disaster recovery plans are adequate to prevent disruptions or delays. Disruption in or changes to these technologies or systems could result in a disruption to our business and the loss of important data. Any of the foregoing could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We are at risk of losses and adverse publicity stemming from any public incident involving our company, our people or our brand, including any accident or other public incident involving our personnel or aircraft, or the personnel or aircraft of our regional, codeshare or joint business operators.
In a modern world where news can be captured and travel rapidly, we are at risk of adverse publicity stemming from any public incident involving our company, our people or our brand. Such an incident could involve the alleged behavior of any of our more than 100,000 employees. Further, if our personnel or one of our aircraft, or personnel of, or an aircraft that is operated under our brand by, one of our regional operators or an airline with which we have a marketing alliance, joint business or codeshare relationship, were to be involved in a public incident, accident or catastrophe, we could be exposed to significant reputational harm and potential legal liability. The insurance we carry may be inapplicable or inadequate to cover any such incident, accident or catastrophe. In the event that our insurance is inapplicable or not adequate, we may be forced to bear substantial losses from an incident or accident. In addition, any such incident, accident or catastrophe involving our personnel or one of our aircraft (or personnel and aircraft of our regional operators and our codeshare partners) could create an adverse public perception, which could harm our reputation, result in air travelers being reluctant to fly on our aircraft or those of our regional operators or codeshare partners, and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Delays in scheduled aircraft deliveries or other loss of anticipated fleet capacity, and failure of new aircraft to perform as expected, may adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The success of our business depends on, among other things, effectively managing the number and types of aircraft we operate. In many cases, the aircraft we intend to operate are not yet in our fleet, but we have contractual commitments to purchase or lease them. If for any reason we are unable to accept or secure deliveries of new aircraft on contractually scheduled delivery dates, this could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our failure to integrate newly purchased aircraft into our fleet as planned might require us to seek extensions of the terms for some leased aircraft or otherwise delay the exit of certain aircraft from our fleet. Such unanticipated extensions or delays may require us to operate existing aircraft beyond the point at which it is economically optimal to retire them, resulting in increased maintenance costs. If new aircraft orders are not filled on a timely basis, we could face higher operating costs than planned. In addition, if the aircraft we receive do not meet expected performance or quality standards, including with respect to fuel efficiency and reliability, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
We depend on a limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts.
We depend on a limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and many aircraft and engine parts. These suppliers continue to consolidate as evidenced by the pending United Technologies acquisition of Rockwell Collins, the pending transaction involving Airbus and Bombardier and the public reports of a possible transaction involving Boeing and Embraer. Due to the limited number of these suppliers, we are vulnerable to any problems associated with the performance of their obligation to supply key aircraft, parts and engines, including design defects, mechanical problems, contractual performance by suppliers, or adverse perception by the public that would result in customer avoidance or in actions by the FAA resulting in an inability to operate our aircraft.
Our business has been and will continue to be affected by many changing economic and other conditions beyond our control, including global events that affect travel behavior, and our results of operations could be volatile and fluctuate due to seasonality.
Our business, results of operations and financial condition have been and will continue to be affected by many changing economic and other conditions beyond our control, including, among others:
actual or potential changes in international, national, regional and local economic, business and financial conditions, including recession, inflation, higher interest rates, wars, terrorist attacks and political instability;
changes in consumer preferences, perceptions, spending patterns and demographic trends;
changes in the competitive environment due to industry consolidation, changes in airline alliance affiliations, and other factors;
actual or potential disruptions to the ATC systems;
increases in costs of safety, security, and environmental measures;
outbreaks of diseases that affect travel behavior; and
weather and natural disasters.

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In particular, an outbreak of a contagious disease such as the Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, H1N1 influenza virus, avian flu, Zika virus or any other similar illness, if it were to become associated with air travel or persist for an extended period, could materially affect the airline industry and us by reducing revenues and adversely impacting our operations and passengers’ travel behavior. As a result of these or other conditions beyond our control, our results of operations could be volatile and subject to rapid and unexpected change. In addition, due to generally weaker demand for air travel during the winter, our revenues in the first and fourth quarters of the year could be weaker than revenues in the second and third quarters of the year.
A higher than normal number of pilot retirements, more stringent duty time regulations, increased flight hour requirements for commercial airline pilots, reductions in the number of military pilots entering the commercial workforce and other factors have caused a shortage of pilots that could materially adversely affect our business.
We currently have a higher than normal number of pilots eligible for retirement. Large numbers of pilots in the industry are approaching the FAA’s mandatory retirement age of 65. Further, in July 2013, the FAA issued regulations that increased the flight hours required for pilots working for airlines certificated under Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. In addition, on January 4, 2014, more stringent pilot flight and duty time requirements under Part 117 of the Federal Aviation Regulations took effect. These and other factors, including reductions in the number of military pilots being trained by the U.S. armed forces and available as commercial pilots upon their retirement from military service, have contributed to a shortage of qualified, entry-level pilots and increased compensation costs, particularly for our regional subsidiaries and our other regional partners who are being required by market conditions to pay significantly increased wages and large signing bonuses to their pilots in an attempt to achieve desired staffing levels. The foregoing factors have also led to increased competition from large, mainline carriers attempting to meet their hiring needs. We believe that this industry-wide pilot shortage is becoming an increasing problem for airlines in the United States. Our regional partners have recently been unable to hire adequate numbers of pilots to meet their needs, resulting in a reduction in the number of flights offered, disruptions, increased costs of operations, financial difficulties and other adverse effects, and these circumstances may become more severe in the future and thereby cause a material adverse effect on our business.
Increases in insurance costs or reductions in insurance coverage may adversely impact our operations and financial results.
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 led to a significant increase in insurance premiums and a decrease in the insurance coverage available to commercial air carriers. Accordingly, our insurance costs increased significantly, and our ability to continue to obtain insurance even at current prices remains uncertain. If we are unable to maintain adequate insurance coverage, our business could be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, severe disruptions in the domestic and global financial markets could adversely impact the claims paying ability of some insurers. Future downgrades in the ratings of enough insurers could adversely impact both the availability of appropriate insurance coverage and its cost. Because of competitive pressures in our industry, our ability to pass along additional insurance costs to passengers is limited. As a result, further increases in insurance costs or reductions in available insurance coverage could have an adverse impact on our financial results.
We may be a party to litigation in the normal course of business or otherwise, which could affect our financial position and liquidity.
From time to time, we are a party to or otherwise involved in legal proceedings, claims and government inspections or investigations and other legal matters, both inside and outside the United States, arising in the ordinary course of our business or otherwise. We are currently involved in various legal proceedings and claims that have not yet been fully resolved, and additional claims may arise in the future. Legal proceedings can be complex and take many months, or even years, to reach resolution, with the final outcome depending on a number of variables, some of which are not within our control. Litigation is subject to significant uncertainty and may be expensive, time-consuming, and disruptive to our operations. Although we will vigorously defend ourselves in such legal proceedings, their ultimate resolution and potential financial and other impacts on us are uncertain. For these and other reasons, we may choose to settle legal proceedings and claims, regardless of their actual merit. If a legal proceeding is resolved against us, it could result in significant compensatory damages, and in certain circumstances punitive or trebled damages, disgorgement of revenue or profits, remedial corporate measures or injunctive relief imposed on us. If our existing insurance does not cover the amount or types of damages awarded, or if other resolution or actions taken as a result of the legal proceeding were to restrain our ability to operate or market our services, our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In addition, legal proceedings, and any adverse resolution thereof, can result in adverse publicity and damage to our reputation, which could adversely impact our business. Additional information regarding certain legal matters in which we are involved can be found in Part I, Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

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Our ability to utilize our NOL Carryforwards may be limited.
Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), a corporation is generally allowed a deduction for NOLs carried over from prior taxable years (NOL Carryforwards). As of December 31, 2017, we had available NOL Carryforwards of approximately $10.0 billion for regular federal income tax purposes that will expire, if unused, beginning in 2022, and approximately $3.4 billion for state income tax purposes that will expire, if unused, between 2018 and 2037. Our NOL Carryforwards are subject to adjustment on audit by the Internal Revenue Service and the respective state taxing authorities.
A corporation’s ability to deduct its federal NOL Carryforwards and to utilize certain other available tax attributes can be substantially constrained under the general annual limitation rules of Section 382 of the Code (Section 382) if it undergoes an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 (generally where cumulative stock ownership changes among material stockholders exceed 50 percent during a rolling three-year period). We experienced an ownership change in connection with our emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases and US Airways Group experienced an ownership change in connection with the Merger. The general limitation rules for a debtor in a bankruptcy case are liberalized where the ownership change occurs upon emergence from bankruptcy. We elected to be covered by certain special rules for federal income tax purposes that permitted approximately $9.0 billion (with $8.4 billion of unlimited NOL still remaining at December 31, 2017) of our federal NOL Carryforwards to be utilized without regard to the annual limitation generally imposed by Section 382. If the special rules are determined not to apply, our ability to utilize such federal NOL Carryforwards may be subject to limitation. Substantially all of our remaining federal NOL Carryforwards (attributable to US Airways Group and its subsidiaries) are subject to limitation under Section 382 as a result of the Merger; however, our ability to utilize such NOL Carryforwards is not anticipated to be effectively constrained as a result of such limitation. Similar limitations may apply for state income tax purposes.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, an ownership change subsequent to our emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases may severely limit or effectively eliminate our ability to utilize our NOL Carryforwards and other tax attributes. To reduce the risk of a potential adverse effect on our ability to utilize our NOL Carryforwards, our Restated Certificate of Incorporation (Certificate of Incorporation) contains transfer restrictions applicable to certain substantial stockholders. These restrictions may adversely affect the ability of certain holders of AAG common stock to dispose of or acquire shares of AAG common stock. Although the purpose of these transfer restrictions is to prevent an ownership change from occurring, no assurance can be given that an ownership change will not occur even with these restrictions in place.
Our ability to use our NOL Carryforwards also will depend on the amount of taxable income generated in future periods. The NOL Carryforwards may expire before we can generate sufficient taxable income to use them.
We have a significant amount of goodwill, which is assessed for impairment at least annually. In addition, we may never realize the full value of our intangible assets or long-lived assets, causing us to record material impairment charges.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but are assessed for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if conditions indicate that an impairment may have occurred. In accordance with applicable accounting standards, we first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative impairment test. In addition, we are required to assess certain of our other long-lived assets for impairment if conditions indicate that an impairment may have occurred.
Future impairment of goodwill or other long-lived assets could be recorded in results of operations as a result of changes in assumptions, estimates, or circumstances, some of which are beyond our control. There can be no assurance that a material impairment charge of goodwill or tangible or intangible assets will be avoided. The value of our aircraft could be impacted in future periods by changes in supply and demand for these aircraft. Such changes in supply and demand for certain aircraft types could result from grounding of aircraft by us or other airlines. An impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The price of AAG common stock has recently been and may in the future be volatile.
The market price of AAG common stock may fluctuate substantially due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
AAG’s operating and financial results failing to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors;
changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;
material announcements by us or our competitors;

30



movements in fuel prices;
expectations regarding our capital deployment program, including any existing or potential future share repurchase programs and any future dividend payments that may be declared by our Board of Directors, or any determination to cease repurchasing stock or paying dividends;
new regulatory pronouncements and changes in regulatory guidelines;
general and industry-specific economic conditions;
changes in our key personnel;
distributions of shares of AAG common stock pursuant to the Plan, including distributions from the disputed claims reserve established under the plan of reorganization upon the resolution of the underlying claims;
public sales of a substantial number of shares of AAG common stock or issuances of AAG common stock upon the exercise or conversion of convertible securities, options, warrants, restricted stock unit awards, stock appreciation rights, or similar rights;
increases or decreases in reported holdings by insiders or other significant stockholders;
fluctuations in trading volume; and
changes in market values of airline companies as well as general market conditions.
We cannot guarantee that we will continue to repurchase our common stock or pay dividends on our common stock or that our capital deployment program will enhance long-term stockholder value. Our capital deployment program could increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and diminish our cash reserves.
Since July 2014, as part of our capital deployment program, our Board of Directors has approved six share repurchase programs aggregating $11.0 billion of authority. As of December 31, 2017, $450 million remained unused under a repurchase program that expires on December 31, 2018. Share repurchases under our repurchase programs may be made through a variety of methods, which may include open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, block trades or accelerated share repurchase transactions. These share repurchase programs do not obligate us to acquire any specific number of shares or to repurchase any specific number of shares for any fixed period, and may be suspended at any time at our discretion. The timing and amount of repurchases, if any, will be subject to market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. Our repurchase of common stock may be limited, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice.
Although our Board of Directors commenced declaring quarterly cash dividends in July 2014 as part of our capital deployment program, any future dividends that may be declared and paid from time to time will be subject to market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. We are not obligated to continue a dividend for any fixed period, and the payment of dividends may be suspended at any time at our discretion. We will continue to retain future earnings to develop our business, as opportunities arise, and evaluate on a quarterly basis the amount and timing of future dividends based on our operating results, financial condition, capital requirements and general business conditions. The amount and timing of any future dividends may vary, and the payment of any dividend does not assure that we will be able to pay dividends in the future.
In addition, any future repurchases of AAG common stock or dividends, or any determination to cease repurchasing stock or paying dividends, could affect our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence of a share repurchase program and any future dividends could cause our stock price to be higher than it would otherwise be and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. Additionally, any future repurchases of common stock or dividends will diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic opportunities and acquisitions. Further, our repurchase of common stock may fluctuate such that our cash flow may be insufficient to fully cover our share repurchases. Although our share repurchase programs are intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, there is no assurance that it will do so because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.

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Certain provisions of AAG’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws make it difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our Board of Directors and may discourage takeover attempts that some of our stockholders might consider beneficial.
Certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Second Amended and Restated Bylaws (Bylaws) may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control if our Board of Directors determines that such changes in control are not in our best interest and the best interest of our stockholders. These provisions include, among other things, the following:
advance notice procedures for stockholder proposals to be considered at stockholders’ meetings;
the ability of our Board of Directors to fill vacancies on the board;
a prohibition against stockholders taking action by written consent;
a prohibition against stockholders calling special meetings of stockholders (although our Board of Directors has approved, subject to stockholder approval at the annual meeting, amendments to our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws that contemplate the ability of holders of at least 20% of our outstanding shares to call a special meeting, subject to the procedures to be provided for in the amended Bylaws);
a requirement that holders of at least 80% of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors approve any amendment of our Bylaws submitted to stockholders for approval; and
super-majority voting requirements to modify or amend specified provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation.
These provisions are not intended to prevent a takeover, but are intended to protect and maximize the value of the interests of our stockholders. While these provisions have the effect of encouraging persons seeking to acquire control of our company to negotiate with our Board of Directors, they could enable our Board of Directors to prevent a transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interest and, in that case, may prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors. In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits business combinations with interested stockholders. Interested stockholders do not include stockholders whose acquisition of our securities is approved by the Board of Directors prior to the investment under Section 203.
AAG’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws include provisions that limit voting and acquisition and disposition of our equity interests.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws include certain provisions that limit voting and ownership and disposition of our equity interests. These restrictions may adversely affect the ability of certain holders of AAG common stock and our other equity interests to vote such interests and adversely affect the ability of persons to acquire shares of AAG common stock and our other equity interests.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
We had no unresolved Securities and Exchange Commission staff comments that were issued 180 days or more preceding December 31, 2017.


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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Flight Equipment and Fleet Renewal
As of December 31, 2017, American operated a mainline fleet of 948 aircraft. In 2017, we continued our extensive fleet renewal program, which has provided us with the youngest fleet of the major U.S. network carriers. During 2017, American took delivery of 57 new mainline aircraft and retired 39 mainline aircraft. We are supported by our wholly-owned and third-party regional carriers that fly under capacity purchase agreements operating as American Eagle. As of December 31, 2017, American Eagle operated 597 regional aircraft. During 2017, we reduced our regional fleet by a net of nine aircraft, including the addition of 63 regional aircraft and retirement of 72 regional aircraft.
Mainline
As of December 31, 2017, American’s mainline fleet consisted of the following aircraft:
 
Average  Seating
Capacity
 
Average
Age
(Years)
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Total
Airbus A319
128

 
13.8

 
21

 
104

 
125

Airbus A320
150

 
16.7

 
10

 
38

 
48

Airbus A321
178

 
5.4

 
165

 
54

 
219

Airbus A330-200
251

 
6.0

 
15

 

 
15

Airbus A330-300
291

 
17.4

 
4

 
5

 
9

Boeing 737-800
160

 
8.1

 
132

 
172

 
304

Boeing 737-8 MAX
172

 
0.1

 
4

 

 
4

Boeing 757-200
180

 
18.1

 
31

 
3

 
34

Boeing 767-300ER
209

 
19.1

 
24

 

 
24

Boeing 777-200ER
269

 
17.0

 
44

 
3

 
47

Boeing 777-300ER
310

 
3.8

 
18

 
2

 
20

Boeing 787-8
226

 
2.1

 
20

 

 
20

Boeing 787-9
285

 
0.7

 
14

 

 
14

Embraer 190
99

 
10.2

 
20

 

 
20

McDonnell Douglas MD-80
140

 
21.3

 
13

 
32

 
45

Total
 
 
10.1

 
535

 
413

 
948


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Regional
As of December 31, 2017, the fleet of our wholly-owned and third-party regional carriers operating as American Eagle consisted of the following aircraft:
 
Average  Seating
Capacity
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
Owned or
Leased by
Regional
Carrier
 
Total
 
Operating Regional
Carrier
 
Number of
Aircraft
Operated (1)
Bombardier CRJ 200
50

 
12

 
23

 
33

 
68

 
PSA
 
35

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Air Wisconsin (2)
 
23

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SkyWest
 
10

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
68

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bombardier CRJ 700
66

 
54

 
7

 
49

 
110

 
SkyWest
 
37

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PSA
 
34

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Envoy
 
27

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ExpressJet
 
12

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
110

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bombardier CRJ 900
77

 
54

 

 
64

 
118

 
Mesa
 
64

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PSA
 
54

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
118

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
De Havilland Dash 8-100
37

 
3

 

 

 
3

 
Piedmont
 
3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
De Havilland Dash 8-300
48

 

 
11

 

 
11

 
Piedmont
 
11

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embraer E175
76

 
64

 

 
84

 
148

 
Republic
 
84

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Envoy
 
44

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compass
 
20

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
148

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embraer ERJ 140
44

 
21

 

 

 
21

 
Envoy
 
21

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embraer ERJ 145
50

 
118

 

 

 
118

 
Envoy
 
68

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Piedmont
 
35

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trans States
 
15

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
118

Total
 
 
326

 
41

 
230

 
597

 
 
 
597

 
(1) 
Excluded from the total operating aircraft count above are 38 owned Embraer ERJ 140s that are being held in temporary storage and two Embraer E170s that were operated by Republic under a short-term contract.
(2) 
Air Wisconsin previously operated regional jet aircraft for us; however, this arrangement ended in February 2018.
See Note 11 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 9 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B for additional information on our capacity purchase agreements with third-party regional carriers.

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Aircraft and Engine Purchase Commitments
As of December 31, 2017, we had definitive purchase agreements with Airbus, Boeing and Embraer for the acquisition of the following mainline and regional aircraft:
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023 and
Thereafter
 
Total
Airbus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A320neo Family

 
25

 
25

 
25

 
20

 
5

 
100

A350 XWB

 

 
2

 
5

 
5

 
10

 
22

Boeing
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
737 MAX Family
16

 
20

 
19

 
21

 
20

 

 
96

787 Family
6

 
2

 

 

 

 

 
8

Embraer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
E175 (1)
5

 
5

 

 

 

 

 
10

Total
27

 
52

 
46

 
51

 
45

 
15

 
236

 
(1) 
These aircraft may be operated by wholly-owned regional subsidiaries which would operate the aircraft under capacity purchase arrangements.
We also have agreements for 37 spare engines to be delivered in 2018 and beyond.
As of December 31, 2017, we had financing commitments for all of the aircraft currently on order and scheduled to be delivered through April 2018. We do not have financing commitments for the following aircraft currently on order and scheduled to be delivered through the end of 2018: 11 Boeing 737 MAX Family aircraft, five Boeing 787 Family aircraft and five Embraer E175 regional aircraft. In addition, we do not have financing commitments in place for substantially all aircraft currently on order and scheduled to be delivered in 2019 and beyond. See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors –“We will need to obtain sufficient financing or other capital to operate successfully” for additional discussion.
See Note 11 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 9 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B for additional information on aircraft and engine acquisition commitments.
Other Information
For information concerning the estimated useful lives and residual values for owned aircraft and terms for leased aircraft, see Note 1 and Note 11 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 1 and Note 9 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B.
Ground Properties
At each airport where we conduct flight operations, we lease passenger, operations and baggage handling space, generally from the airport operator, and in some cases on a subleased basis from other airlines. Our agreements with airports also provide for the non-exclusive use of runways, taxiways and other improvements and facilities; landing fees under these agreements typically are based on the number of landings and weight of aircraft. These leases and use agreements generally contain provisions for periodic adjustments of lease rates, landing fees and other charges applicable under that type of agreement. Additionally, our main operational facilities are associated with our hubs. At these locations and in other cities we serve, we maintain administrative offices, catering, cargo, training, maintenance and other facilities, in each case as necessary to support our operations in the particular city.
We own our corporate headquarters buildings in Fort Worth, Texas. We lease or have built on leased property our training facilities in Fort Worth, Texas, our principal overhaul and maintenance base in Tulsa, Oklahoma, our regional reservation offices, and administrative offices throughout the U.S. and abroad. Construction continues on a new, five-building headquarters on the corporate campus in Fort Worth, Texas, which is scheduled for completion and move-in in phases over the second half of 2019.
For information concerning the estimated lives for owned ground properties and terms for lease properties, see Note 1 and Note 11 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 1 and Note 9 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B.

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ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Chapter 11 Cases. On November 29, 2011, AMR, American, and certain of AMR’s other direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries (the Debtors) filed voluntary petitions for relief under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (the Bankruptcy Court). On October 21, 2013, the Bankruptcy Court entered an order approving and confirming the Debtors’ fourth amended joint plan of reorganization (as amended, the Plan). On the Effective Date, December 9, 2013, the Debtors consummated their reorganization pursuant to the Plan and completed the Merger.
Pursuant to rulings of the Bankruptcy Court, the Plan established the Disputed Claims Reserve to hold shares of AAG common stock reserved for issuance to disputed claimholders at the Effective Date that ultimately become holders of allowed claims. As of December 31, 2017, there were approximately 24.5 million shares of AAG common stock remaining in the Disputed Claims Reserve. As disputed claims are resolved, the claimants will receive distributions of shares from the Disputed Claims Reserve on the same basis as if such distributions had been made on or about the Effective Date. However, we are not required to distribute additional shares above the limits contemplated by the Plan, even if the shares remaining for distribution are not sufficient to fully pay any additional allowed unsecured claims. To the extent that any of the reserved shares remain undistributed upon resolution of all remaining disputed claims, such shares will not be returned to us but rather will be distributed to former AMR stockholders.
There is also pending in the Bankruptcy Court an adversary proceeding relating to an action brought by American to seek a determination that certain non-pension, postemployment benefits are not vested benefits and thus may be modified or terminated without liability to American. On April 18, 2014, the Bankruptcy Court granted American’s motion for summary judgment with respect to certain non-union employees, concluding that their benefits were not vested and could be terminated. The summary judgment motion was denied with respect to all other retirees. The Bankruptcy Court has not yet scheduled a trial on the merits concerning whether those retirees’ benefits are vested, and American cannot predict whether it will receive relief from obligations to provide benefits to any of those retirees. Our financial statements presently reflect these retirement programs without giving effect to any modification or termination of benefits that may ultimately be implemented based upon the outcome of this proceeding.
DOJ Antitrust Civil Investigative Demand. In June 2015, we received a Civil Investigative Demand (CID) from the DOJ as part of an investigation into whether there have been illegal agreements or coordination of air passenger capacity. The CID seeks documents and other information from us, and other airlines have announced that they have received similar requests. We are cooperating fully with the DOJ investigation.
Private Party Antitrust Action. Subsequent to announcement of the delivery of CIDs by the DOJ, we, along with Delta Air Lines, Inc., Southwest Airlines Co., United Airlines, Inc. and, in the case of litigation filed in Canada, Air Canada, have been named as defendants in approximately 100 putative class action lawsuits alleging unlawful agreements with respect to air passenger capacity, although Southwest has entered into a settlement with the plaintiffs that is pending approval by the court. The U.S. lawsuits have been consolidated in the Federal District Court for the District of Columbia. On October 28, 2016, the Court denied a motion by the airline defendants to dismiss all claims in the class actions. These lawsuits are in their relatively early stages and we intend to defend these matters vigorously.
Private Party Antitrust Action Related to the Merger. On July 2, 2013, a lawsuit captioned Carolyn Fjord, et al., v. US Airways Group, Inc., et al., was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. The complaint named as defendants US Airways Group and US Airways, alleged that the effect of the Merger may be to create a monopoly in violation of Section 7 of the Clayton Antitrust Act, and sought injunctive relief and/or divestiture. On August 6, 2013, the plaintiffs re-filed their complaint in the Bankruptcy Court, adding AMR and American as defendants. On November 27, 2013, the Bankruptcy Court denied plaintiffs’ motion to preliminarily enjoin the Merger. On May 12, 2017, defendants filed a motion for summary judgment. On June 23, 2017, plaintiffs filed an opposition to defendants’ motion and cross-motion for summary judgment. Briefing of the parties’ respective motions concluded on September 1, 2017; a hearing date has not yet been set. We believe this lawsuit is without merit and intend to vigorously defend against the allegations.
DOJ Investigation Related to the United States Postal Service. In April 2015, the DOJ informed us of an inquiry regarding American’s 2009 and 2011 contracts with the United States Postal Service for the international transportation of mail by air. In October 2015, we received a CID from the DOJ seeking certain information relating to these contracts and the DOJ has also sought information concerning certain of the airlines that transport mail on a codeshare basis. The DOJ has indicated it is investigating potential violations of the False Claims Act or other statutes. We are cooperating fully with the DOJ with regard to its investigation.

36



General. In addition to the specifically identified legal proceedings, we and our subsidiaries are also engaged in other legal proceedings from time to time. Legal proceedings can be complex and take many months, or even years, to reach resolution, with the final outcome depending on a number of variables, some of which are not within our control. Therefore, although we will vigorously defend ourselves in each of the actions described above and such other legal proceedings, their ultimate resolution and potential financial and other impacts on us are uncertain but could be material. See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors –“We may be a party to litigation in the normal course of business or otherwise, which could affect our financial position and liquidity” for additional discussion.
ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.


37



PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR AMERICAN AIRLINES GROUP’S COMMON STOCK, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Stock Exchange Listing
Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol “AAL.” There is no trading market for the common stock of American, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of AAG.
As of February 16, 2018, the closing price of our common stock was $51.58 and there were 10,921 holders of record.
Information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans will be set forth in our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of American Airlines Group Inc. (the Proxy Statement) under the caption “Equity Compensation Plan Information” and is incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Market Prices and Dividends of Common Stock
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices of our common stock on NASDAQ and cash dividends declared by our Board of Directors: 
 
 
 
 
Common Stock Prices
 
 
Year Ended
December 31
 
Period
 
High
 
Low
 
Cash  Dividends
Declared (Per share)
2017
 
First Quarter
 
$
50.00

 
$
39.21

 
$
0.10

 
 
Second Quarter
 
51.95

 
40.82

 
0.10

 
 
Third Quarter
 
54.48

 
42.61

 
0.10

 
 
Fourth Quarter
 
53.74

 
45.27

 
0.10

2016
 
First Quarter
 
43.78

 
34.76

 
0.10

 
 
Second Quarter
 
41.76

 
24.85

 
0.10

 
 
Third Quarter
 
39.52

 
27.12

 
0.10

 
 
Fourth Quarter
 
50.64

 
36.33

 
0.10

In January 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a $0.10 per share dividend for stockholders of record on February 6, 2018, and payable on February 20, 2018.
The total cash payment for dividends during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $198 million and $224 million, respectively. Any future dividends that may be declared and paid from time to time will be subject to market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. We are not obligated to continue a dividend for any fixed period, and the payment of dividends may be suspended at any time at our discretion.
Stock Performance Graph
The following stock performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following stock performance graph compares our cumulative total stockholder returns of our common stock to the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500 Stock Index and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) ARCA Airline Index from December 9, 2013 (the first trading day of our common stock, AAL) through December 31, 2017. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 9, 2013 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and assumes that all dividends were reinvested. The stock performance shown on the following graph represents historical stock performance and is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

38



chart-cad0e2f0c5015363845a05.jpg
 
12/9/2013
 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
American Airlines Group Inc. (AAL)
$
100

 
$
103

 
$
219

 
$
175

 
$
194

 
$
219

NYSE ARCA Airline Index (XAL)
100

 
102

 
152

 
127

 
162

 
170

S&P 500 Index (GSPC)
100

 
102

 
114

 
113

 
124

 
148

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we repurchased 33.9 million shares of AAG common stock for $1.6 billion at a weighted average cost per share of $45.68. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we repurchased 119.8 million shares of AAG common stock for $4.4 billion at a weighted average cost per share of $36.86. Since the inception of our share repurchase programs in July 2014 through December 31, 2017, we have repurchased 262.3 million shares of AAG common stock for $10.6 billion at a weighted average cost per share of $40.22.
The following table displays information with respect to our purchases of shares of AAG common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2017:
Period             
 
Total number of
shares purchased
 
Average price
paid per share
 
Total number of shares
purchased as part of 
publicly announced
plan or program
 
Maximum remaining dollar value of shares
that may be purchased under
the plan or program
(in millions)
October 2017
 
2,497,462

 
$50.37
 
2,497,462

 
$551
November 2017
 
1,236,546

 
$47.59
 
1,236,546

 
$492
December 2017
 
834,577

 
$50.96
 
834,577

 
$450
Share repurchases under our repurchase programs may be made through a variety of methods, which may include open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, block trades or accelerated share repurchase transactions. Any such repurchases will be made from time to time subject to market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. We are not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares and our repurchase of common stock may be limited, suspended or discontinued at any time at our discretion.

39



Ownership Restrictions
AAG’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that, consistent with the requirements of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the United States Code, as amended (the Aviation Act), any persons or entities who are not a “citizen of the United States” (as defined under the Aviation Act and administrative interpretations issued by the DOT, its predecessors and successors, from time to time), including any agent, trustee or representative of such persons or entities (a non-citizen), shall not, in the aggregate, own (beneficially or of record) and/or control more than (a) 24.9% of the aggregate votes of all of our outstanding equity securities or (b) 49.0% of our outstanding equity securities. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws further specify that it is the duty of each stockholder who is a non-citizen to register his, her or its equity securities on our foreign stock record and provide for remedies applicable to stockholders that exceed the voting and ownership caps described above.
In addition, to reduce the risk of a potential adverse effect on our ability to use our NOL Carryforwards and certain other tax attributes for federal income tax purposes, our Certificate of Incorporation contains certain restrictions on the acquisition and disposition of our common stock by substantial stockholders (generally holders of more than 4.75%).
See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “AAG’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws include provisions that limit voting and acquisition and disposition of our equity interests.” Also see AAG’s Certification of Incorporation and Bylaws, which are filed as Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2 hereto, for the full text of the foregoing restrictions.

40



ITEM 6.  SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
Selected Consolidated Financial Data of AAG
The selected consolidated financial data presented below under the captions “Consolidated Statements of Operations data” and “Consolidated Balance Sheet data” for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are derived from AAG’s audited consolidated financial statements. On December 9, 2013, a subsidiary of AMR merged with and into US Airways Group, which survived as a wholly-owned subsidiary of AAG. Therefore, AAG’s consolidated financial data provided in the tables below includes the results of US Airways Group beginning on December 9, 2013, the effective date of the Merger. In addition, AAG emerged from bankruptcy on December 9, 2013. Accordingly, AAG’s consolidated financial information for periods prior to December 9, 2013 is not directly comparable to consolidated financial information for periods subsequent to December 9, 2013.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(In millions, except share and per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total operating revenues
$
42,207

 
$
40,180

 
$
40,990

 
$
42,650

 
$
26,743

Total operating expenses
38,149

 
34,896

 
34,786

 
38,401

 
25,344

Operating income
4,058

 
5,284

 
6,204

 
4,249

 
1,399

Bankruptcy reorganization items, net

 

 

 

 
(2,655
)
Net income (loss)
1,919

 
2,676

 
7,610

 
2,882

 
(1,834
)
Earnings (loss) per common share: (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.92

 
$
4.85

 
$
11.39

 
$
4.02

 
$
(6.54
)
Diluted
3.90

 
4.81

 
11.07

 
3.93

 
(6.54
)
Shares used for computation (in thousands): (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
489,164

 
552,308

 
668,393

 
717,456

 
280,213

Diluted
491,692

 
556,099

 
687,355

 
734,016

 
280,213

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
0.40

 
$
0.40

 
$
0.40

 
$
0.20

 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet data
(at end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
51,396

 
$
51,274

 
$
48,415

 
$
43,225

 
$
41,741

Long-term debt and capital leases, net of current maturities
22,511

 
22,489

 
18,330

 
16,043

 
15,212

Pension and postretirement benefits (2)
7,497

 
7,842

 
7,450

 
7,562

 
5,828

Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
3,926

 
3,785

 
5,635

 
2,021

 
(2,731
)
 
(1) 
Former holders of AMR common stock as of December 9, 2013, the effective date of the plan of reorganization, may in the future receive additional distributions of AAG common stock dependent upon the ultimate distribution of shares of AAG common stock to holders of disputed claims. Thus, the shares and related earnings per share calculations prior to December 9, 2013 may change in the future to reflect these distributions.
(2) 
Substantially all defined benefit pension plans were frozen effective November 1, 2012. See Note 9 to AAG’s consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8A for further information on pension and postretirement benefits.

41



Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We sometimes use financial measures that are derived from the consolidated financial statements but that are not presented in accordance with GAAP to understand and evaluate our current operating performance and to allow for period-to-period comparisons. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures may also provide useful information to investors and others. These non-GAAP measures may not be comparable to similarly titled non-GAAP measures of other companies, and should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, any measure of performance, cash flow or liquidity prepared in accordance with GAAP. We are providing a reconciliation of reported non-GAAP financial measures to their comparable financial measures on a GAAP basis.
The following table presents the components of our total special items and the reconciliation of pre-tax income and net income (GAAP measures) to pre-tax income excluding special items and net income excluding special items (non-GAAP measures). Management uses pre-tax income excluding special items and net income excluding special items to evaluate our current operating performance and to allow for period-to-period comparisons. As special items may vary from period-to-period in nature and amount, the adjustment to exclude special items allows management an additional tool to better understand our core operating performance.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(In millions)
Components of Total Special Items, Net: (1)
 
 
 
 
 
Merger integration costs (2)
$
273

 
$
514

 
$
826

Fleet restructuring costs (3)
232

 
177

 
210

Employee 2017 Tax Act bonus expense (4)
123

 

 

Labor contract expenses (5)
46

 

 

Mark-to-market adjustments for bankruptcy obligations
27

 
25

 
(53
)
Other operating charges (credits), net
11

 
(7
)
 
68

Mainline operating special items, net
712

 
709

 
1,051

Regional operating special items, net
22

 
14

 
29

Operating special items, net
734

 
723

 
1,080

Debt refinancing and extinguishment charges
22

 
49

 
24

Venezuela foreign currency losses

 

 
592

Other nonoperating charges (credits), net

 

 
(22
)
Nonoperating special items, net
22

 
49

 
594

Pre-tax special items, net
756

 
772

 
1,674

Impact of the 2017 Tax Act on deferred tax assets and liabilities
(7
)
 

 

Release of deferred tax valuation allowance

 

 
(3,040
)
Other tax charges

 

 
25

Income tax special items, net
(7
)
 

 
(3,015
)
Total special items, net
$
749

 
$
772

 
$
(1,341
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reconciliation of Pre-Tax Income Excluding Special Items:
 
 
 
 
 
Pre-tax income – GAAP
$
3,084

 
$
4,299

 
$
4,616

Adjusted for: Pre-tax special items, net
756

 
772

 
1,674

Pre-tax income excluding special items
$
3,840

 
$
5,071

 
$
6,290

 
 
 
 
 
 
Reconciliation of Net Income Excluding Special Items:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income – GAAP
$
1,919

 
$
2,676

 
$
7,610

Adjusted for: Total special items, net
749

 
772

 
(1,341
)
Adjusted for: Net tax effect of special items (6)
(269
)
 
(275
)
 

Net income excluding special items
$
2,399

 
$
3,173

 
$
6,269


42



 
(1) 
See Note 2 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A for further information on special items.
(2) 
Merger integration expenses included costs related to information technology, professional fees, re-branding of aircraft and airport facilities and training. Additionally in 2016, Merger integration expenses also included costs related to alignment of labor union contracts, the launch of re-branded uniforms, relocation and severance, and in 2015, also included share-based compensation related to awards granted in connection with the Merger that fully vested in December 2015.
(3) 
Fleet restructuring expenses, driven in part by the Merger, principally included the acceleration of depreciation, impairments, remaining lease payments and lease return costs for aircraft and related equipment grounded or expected to be grounded earlier than planned.
(4) 
Employee bonus expense included costs related to the $1,000 cash bonus and associated payroll taxes granted to mainline employees as of December 31, 2017 in recognition of H.R. 1, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the 2017 Tax Act).
(5) 
Labor contract expenses primarily included one-time charges to adjust the vacation accruals for pilots and flight attendants as a result of the mid-contract pay rate adjustments effective in the second quarter of 2017.
(6) 
In 2015, there was no net tax effect associated with special items. During 2015, our net deferred tax asset, which includes our NOLs, was subject to a full valuation allowance. Accordingly, our NOLs offset our taxable income and resulted in the release of a corresponding portion of valuation allowance, which offset the tax provision dollar for dollar.
Additionally, the table below presents the reconciliation of mainline operating costs (GAAP measure) to mainline operating costs excluding special items and fuel (non-GAAP measure). Management uses mainline operating costs excluding special items and fuel to evaluate our current operating performance and for period-to-period comparisons. The price of fuel, over which we have no control, impacts the comparability of period-to-period financial performance. The adjustment to exclude aircraft fuel and special items allows management an additional tool to better understand and analyze our non-fuel costs and core operating performance. Amounts may not recalculate due to rounding.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Reconciliation of Mainline Operating Costs per Available Seat Mile (CASM) Excluding Special Items and Fuel:
 
 
 
 
 
(In millions)
 
Total operating expenses – GAAP
$
38,149

 
$
34,896

 
$
34,786

Less regional expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Fuel and related taxes
(1,382
)
 
(1,109
)
 
(1,230
)
Other
(5,164
)
 
(4,935
)
 
(4,753
)
Total mainline operating expenses
31,603

 
28,852

 
28,803

Adjusted for: Special items, net (1)
(712
)
 
(709
)
 
(1,051
)
Adjusted for: Aircraft fuel and related taxes
(6,128
)
 
(5,071
)
 
(6,226
)
Mainline operating expenses excluding special items and fuel
$
24,763

 
$
23,072

 
$
21,526

(In millions)
 
 
 
 
 
Available Seat Miles (ASM)
243,806

 
241,734

 
239,375

(In cents)
 
 
 
 
 
Mainline CASM
12.96

 
11.94

 
12.03

Adjusted for: Special items, net per ASM
(0.29
)
 
(0.29
)
 
(0.44
)
Adjusted for: Aircraft fuel and related taxes per ASM
(2.51
)
 
(2.10
)
 
(2.60
)
Mainline CASM excluding special items and fuel
10.16

 
9.54

 
8.99

 
(1) 
See Note 2 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A for further information on special items.

43



Selected Consolidated Financial Data of American
The selected consolidated financial data presented below under the captions “Consolidated Statements of Operations data” and “Consolidated Balance Sheet data” for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are derived from American’s audited consolidated financial statements. On December 30, 2015, US Airways merged with and into American, with American as the surviving corporation. For financial reporting purposes, this transaction constituted a transfer of assets between entities under common control and is reflected in American’s consolidated financial statements as though the transaction had occurred on December 9, 2013, when a subsidiary of AMR merged with and into US Airways Group, which represents the earliest date that American and US Airways were under common control. Therefore, American’s consolidated financial data provided in the tables below includes the results of US Airways beginning on December 9, 2013. In addition, American emerged from bankruptcy on December 9, 2013. Accordingly, American’s consolidated financial information for periods prior to December 9, 2013 is not directly comparable to consolidated financial information for periods subsequent to December 9, 2013.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(In millions)
Consolidated Statements of Operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total operating revenues
$
42,195

 
$
40,163

 
$
40,938

 
$
42,676

 
$
26,701

Total operating expenses
38,163

 
34,859

 
34,749

 
38,410

 
25,341

Operating income
4,032

 
5,304

 
6,189

 
4,266

 
1,360

Bankruptcy reorganization items, net

 

 

 

 
(2,640
)
Net income (loss)
1,922

 
2,781

 
8,120

 
2,948

 
(1,717
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet data
(at end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
60,012

 
$
58,092

 
$
50,439

 
$
42,787

 
$
41,699

Long-term debt and capital leases, net of current maturities
21,236

 
20,718

 
16,592

 
14,804

 
14,718

Pension and postretirement benefits (1)
7,452

 
7,800

 
7,410

 
7,522

 
5,802

Stockholder’s equity (deficit)
14,594

 
12,649

 
9,698

 
1,406

 
(4,398
)
 
(1) 
Substantially all defined benefit pension plans were frozen effective November 1, 2012. See Note 7 to American’s consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8B for further information on pension and postretirement benefits.


44



ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Background
Together with our wholly-owned regional airline subsidiaries and third-party regional carriers operating as American Eagle, we operate an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. We have hubs in Charlotte, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix and Washington, D.C. In 2017, approximately 200 million passengers boarded our flights.
Strategic Objectives
We are focused on four long-term strategic objectives: Create a World-Class Customer Experience, Make Culture a Competitive Advantage, Ensure Long-Term Financial Strength and Think Forward, Lead Forward.
Create a World-Class Customer Experience
We began 2017 by being named Air Transport World’s Airline of the Year in recognition of our successful integration and the significant investments we made in our product and people. Also in 2017, we:
Recorded our best on-time departure and arrival performance since 2003, and our best baggage handling performance since the DOT began reporting this information in 1994.
Operated the youngest fleet among the major U.S. network carriers and invested $4.1 billion in new aircraft.
Introduced new streaming-capable, satellite-based internet access on our Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, which will be rolled out across most of our domestic mainline fleet.
Introduced Basic Economy, a product to compete with ultra low-cost carriers, which is now offered nationwide and to leisure markets in Mexico and most of the Caribbean.
Commenced our roll out of Premium Economy, which offers a wider seat, more legroom, an amenity kit and enhanced meal choices on international flights.
Expanded a number of our lounges by opening Flagship First Dining, a new exclusive experience for customers in First Class on international and A321T transcontinental flights, which we now offer in our Miami, Los Angeles and New York-JFK lounges.
Make Culture a Competitive Advantage
We are creating an environment that cares for frontline team members, provides competitive pay and equips our team with the right tools to support our customers. During 2017, we:
Kept team member pay competitive through initiatives such as a mid-contract salary increase for pilots and flight attendants and continued step increases from a mid-contract pay increase for mechanics and fleet service workers.
Invested more than $300 million in facilities and equipment, including renovations to team member spaces, mobile devices for pilots and flight attendants, and the ongoing One Campus One Team initiative at our global support center in Fort Worth, Texas.
Provided customer service instruction to approximately 35,000 team members through “Elevate the Everyday Experience” training and launched training for leaders that emphasizes supporting team members who directly serve customers.
Announced that work on our CFM56-5B engines, which power much of our Airbus narrowbody fleet, will move in-house to our maintenance facility located in Tulsa, Oklahoma beginning later in 2018.
Shared the benefits of the recent Tax Cuts and Jobs Act by issuing $1,000 payments to all non-officer team members at American and its wholly-owned regional carriers. While we do not yet pay federal cash income taxes, we believe the new tax law will reduce our future tax bill and allow more investments in equipment and facilities.

45



Ensure Long-Term Financial Strength
We are focused on capturing efficiencies created by our merger, delivering on our earnings potential and creating value for our stockholders. During 2017, we:
Returned $1.7 billion to our stockholders, including quarterly dividend payments of $198 million and the repurchase of $1.6 billion of common stock, or 33.9 million shares. Since our capital return program commenced in mid-2014, we have returned $11.4 billion to stockholders, including $835 million in quarterly dividend payments and $10.6 billion in share repurchases, or 262.3 million shares. In January 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a $0.10 per share dividend for stockholders of record on February 6, 2018, and payable on February 20, 2018.
Completed several transactions that provided efficient financing. See discussion within “Liquidity” below for more information.
Announced revenue and cost initiatives to improve the customer experience, drive revenue improvements and deliver cost efficiencies.
Think Forward, Lead Forward
We are committed to re-establishing ourselves as an industry leader by creating an action-oriented culture that moves quickly to bring products to market, embraces technological change and quickly seizes upon new opportunities for our network and our product. During 2017, we:
Acquired 2.7% of the outstanding shares of China Southern Airlines, the largest airline in China.
Executed a new Trans-Atlantic joint business agreement that extends the term of our prior Trans-Atlantic joint business agreement.
Announced a commitment for more than $1.6 billion for improvements of LAX Terminals 4 and 5, setting the stage for us to receive additional gate space and strengthen our Pacific gateway.
Built a five-gate expansion at ORD Terminal 3, which is expected to open in April 2018.
2017 Financial Overview
The U.S. Airline Industry
The industry remained profitable in 2017. Despite an improving economy and strong demand environment, year-over-year revenue results by carrier were varied. This was in part due to competitive pricing actions and the effects of competitive capacity growth in certain markets, as well as the three major hurricanes that negatively impacted commercial flights in Texas, Florida, the Caribbean islands and Puerto Rico. With respect to fuel costs, the price of Brent crude oil per barrel, which jet fuel prices tend to follow, was on average approximately 23% higher in 2017 as compared to 2016. The average daily spot price for Brent crude oil during 2017 was $54 per barrel as compared to an average daily spot price of $44 per barrel during 2016. On a daily basis, Brent crude oil prices fluctuated during 2017 between a high of $67 per barrel to a low of $44 per barrel, and closed the year on December 31, 2017 at $67 per barrel. Brent crude oil prices were higher in 2017 due principally to reductions of global inventories driven by strong demand and continued production restraint. Jet fuel prices during 2017 were also impacted by hurricane disruptions and increased refinery costs.
See Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors – “Downturns in economic conditions could adversely affect our business,” “Our business is very dependent on the price and availability of aircraft fuel. Continued periods of high volatility in fuel costs, increased fuel prices or significant disruptions in the supply of aircraft fuel could have a significant negative impact on our operating results and liquidity” and “Our business has been and will continue to be affected by many changing economic and other conditions beyond our control, including global events that affect travel behavior, and our results of operations could be volatile and fluctuate due to seasonality.”

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AAG’s 2017 Results
The selected financial data presented below is derived from AAG’s audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8A of this report and should be read in conjunction with those financial statements and the related notes thereto.
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
Increase
(Decrease)
 
Percent
Increase
(Decrease)
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(In millions, except percentage changes)
Mainline and regional passenger revenues
$
36,133

 
$
34,579

 
$
1,554

 
4.5

Other operating revenues
5,274

 
4,901

 
373

 
7.6

Total operating revenues
42,207

 
40,180

 
2,027

 
5.0

Mainline and regional aircraft fuel and related taxes
7,510

 
6,180

 
1,330

 
21.5

Salaries, wages and benefits
11,816

 
10,890

 
926

 
8.5

Total operating expenses
38,149

 
34,896

 
3,253

 
9.3

Operating income
4,058

 
5,284

 
(1,226
)
 
(23.2
)
Pre-tax income
3,084

 
4,299

 
(1,215
)
 
(28.3
)
Income tax provision
1,165

 
1,623

 
(458
)
 
(28.2
)
Net income
1,919

 
2,676

 
(757
)
 
(28.3
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pre-tax income – GAAP
$
3,084

 
$
4,299

 
$
(1,215
)
 
(28.3
)
Adjusted for: Pre-tax special items (1)
756

 
772

 
(16
)
 
(2.1
)
Pre-tax income excluding special items
$
3,840

 
$
5,071

 
$
(1,231
)
 
(24.3
)
 
(1) 
See Part II, Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data – “Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures” and Note 2 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A for details on the components of special items.
Pre-Tax Income and Net Income
Pre-tax income and net income were $3.1 billion and $1.9 billion in 2017, respectively. This compares to 2016 pre-tax income and net income of $4.3 billion and $2.7 billion, respectively. Excluding the effects of pre-tax special items, we recognized pre-tax income of $3.8 billion in 2017 as compared to $5.1 billion in 2016. The year-over-year declines in our pre-tax income on both a GAAP basis and excluding pre-tax special items were principally driven by higher fuel costs and wage rates. Fuel costs increased driven by a 21.4% increase in the average price per gallon of fuel. Wage rates were higher primarily due to mid-contract pay increases for pilots and flight attendants effective in the second quarter of 2017, as well as increases for maintenance and fleet service work groups, which became effective in the third quarter of 2016. These increases were offset in part by higher revenues.
Revenue
In 2017, we reported total operating revenues of $42.2 billion, an increase of $2.0 billion, or 5.0%, as compared to 2016. Mainline and regional passenger revenues were $36.1 billion, an increase of $1.6 billion, or 4.5%, as compared to 2016. The increase in mainline and regional passenger revenues was due to a 3.2% year-over-year increase in consolidated yields driven by strong demand. Domestic consolidated yields increased 3.5% and international yields rose 3.2%, due principally to improved performance in Latin America.
Additionally, other revenues increased $373 million primarily due to higher revenues associated with our loyalty program. Our mainline and regional total revenue per available seat mile (TRASM) was 15.27 cents in 2017, a 3.9% increase as compared to 14.70 cents in 2016.
Fuel
Our mainline and regional fuel expense totaled $7.5 billion in 2017, which was $1.3 billion, or 21.5%, higher as compared to 2016. This increase was driven by a 21.4% increase in the average price per gallon of fuel to $1.73 in 2017 from $1.42 in 2016.

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As of December 31, 2017, we did not have any fuel hedging contracts outstanding to hedge our fuel consumption. As such, and assuming we do not enter into any future transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, we will continue to be fully exposed to fluctuations in fuel prices. Our current policy is not to enter into transactions to hedge our fuel consumption, although we review that policy from time to time based on market conditions and other factors.
Other Costs
We remain committed to actively managing our cost structure, which we believe is necessary in an industry whose economic prospects are heavily dependent upon two variables we cannot control: the health of the economy and the price of fuel.
Our 2017 mainline CASM was 12.96 cents, an increase of 8.6%, from 11.94 cents in 2016. The increase was primarily driven by higher fuel costs and higher wage rates due to the mid-contract pay increases described above.
Our 2017 mainline CASM excluding special items and fuel was 10.16 cents, an increase of 6.4%, from 9.54 cents in 2016, which was also driven by higher wage rates as described above.
For a reconciliation of mainline CASM excluding special items and fuel, see Part II, Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data – “Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Income Taxes
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately $10.0 billion of federal NOLs and $3.4 billion of state NOLs, substantially all of which we expect to be available in 2018 to reduce future federal and state taxable income. While we currently do not pay federal cash income taxes, we believe the December 2017 enactment of the 2017 Tax Act represents a significant benefit for us and our stockholders. Commencing in 2018, our effective tax rate has been reduced from approximately 38% to approximately 24%, which will significantly reduce our federal tax liability when we do become a cash tax payer. In addition, we presently expect to receive cash tax refunds of approximately $170 million in both 2019 and 2020 due to the repeal of the corporate Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT).
Liquidity
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately $7.6 billion in total available liquidity, consisting of $5.1 billion in unrestricted cash and short-term investments and $2.5 billion in undrawn revolving credit facilities. We also had restricted cash and short-term investments of $318 million. As described above, in connection with our strategic objective “Ensure Long-Term Financial Strength,” we completed several transactions during 2017 to ensure our long-term competitiveness. During 2017, we:
Repriced $4.9 billion of our term loans at lower rates and extended and increased our revolving credit facilities.
Continued to take advantage of historically low interest rates to finance new aircraft deliveries under our fleet renewal program. We issued an aggregate principal amount of $2.0 billion in Enhanced Equipment Trust Certificate (EETC) equipment notes at an average fixed interest rate of 3.74%, as well as $1.0 billion in other equipment notes, which primarily bear interest at variable rates based on LIBOR plus a margin, averaging 3.08% at December 31, 2017.
Raised approximately $853 million in net proceeds from aircraft sale-leaseback transactions.
See Note 5 to AAG’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8A and Note 3 to American’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8B for additional information on our debt obligations.

48



AAG’s Results of Operations
Operating Statistics
The table below sets forth selected operating data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Increase (Decrease) 2017-2016
 
Increase (Decrease) 2016-2015
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Mainline
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue passenger miles (millions) (a)
201,351

 
199,014

 
199,467

 
1.2%
 
(0.2)%
Available seat miles (millions) (b)
243,806

 
241,734

 
239,375

 
0.9%
 
1.0%
Passenger load factor (percent) (c)
82.6

 
82.3

 
83.3

 
0.3pts
 
(1.0)pts
Yield (cents) (d)
14.52

 
14.02

 
14.56

 
3.5%
 
(3.7)%
Passenger revenue per available seat mile (cents) (e)
11.99

 
11.55

 
12.13

 
3.9%
 
(4.8)%
Operating cost per available seat mile (cents) (f)
12.96

 
11.94

 
12.03

 
8.6%
 
(0.8)%
Aircraft at end of period
948

 
930

 
946

 
1.9%
 
(1.7)%
Fuel consumption (gallons in millions)
3,579

 
3,596

 
3,611

 
(0.5)%
 
(0.4)%
Average aircraft fuel price including related taxes (dollars per gallon)
1.71

 
1.41

 
1.72

 
21.4%
 
(18.2)%
Full-time equivalent employees at end of period
103,100

 
101,500

 
98,900

 
1.6%
 
2.6%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Mainline and Regional