10-K 1 form10k.htm 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
[ x ] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For The Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017
OR
[    ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 1-3610
ARCONIC INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
  
25-0317820
(State of incorporation)
  
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
390 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10022-4608
(Address of principal executive offices)     (Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone numbers:
Investor Relations------------— (212) 836-2758
Office of the Secretary-------—(212) 836-2732
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class 
  
Name of each exchange on which registered 
Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share
  
New York Stock Exchange
$3.75 Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $100.00 per share
 
NYSE American
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes   No     .
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  Yes        No  .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No      .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes   No     .
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. []
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer []        Accelerated filer []    Non-accelerated filer [] (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company []         Emerging growth company []
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange
Act). Yes       No .
The aggregate market value of the outstanding common stock, other than shares held by persons who may be deemed affiliates of the registrant, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $10 billion. As of February 16, 2018, there were 482,772,252 shares of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, of the registrant outstanding.



Documents incorporated by reference.
Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2018 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A (Proxy Statement).



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page(s)
Part I
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
Part II
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
Part III
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
Part IV
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
 
Note on Incorporation by Reference
In this Form 10-K, selected items of information and data are incorporated by reference to portions of the Proxy Statement. Unless otherwise provided herein, any reference in this report to disclosures in the Proxy Statement shall constitute incorporation by reference of only that specific disclosure into this Form 10-K.



PART I

Item 1. Business.
General
Arconic Inc. is a Delaware corporation with its principal office in New York, New York and the successor to Arconic Pennsylvania (as defined below) which was formed in 1888 and formerly known as Alcoa Inc. In this report, unless the context otherwise requires, “Arconic” or the “Company” means Arconic Inc., a Delaware corporation, and all subsidiaries consolidated for the purposes of its financial statements.
The Company’s Internet address is http://www.arconic.com. Arconic makes available free of charge on or through its website its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The information on the Company’s Internet site is not a part of, or incorporated by reference in, this annual report on Form 10-K. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains these reports at http://www.sec.gov.
Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains (and oral communications made by Arconic may contain) statements that relate to future events and expectations and, as such, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include those containing such words as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “forecasts,” “goal,” “guidance,” “intends,” “may,” “outlook,” “plans,” “projects,” “seeks,” “sees,” “should,” “targets,” “will,” “would,” or other words of similar meaning. All statements that reflect Arconic’s expectations, assumptions or projections about the future, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, forecasts relating to the growth of the aerospace, automotive, commercial transportation and other end markets; statements and guidance regarding future financial results or operating performance; statements about Arconic’s strategies, outlook, business and financial prospects; and statements regarding potential share gains. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Although Arconic believes that the expectations reflected in any forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, it can give no assurance that these expectations will be attained and it is possible that actual results may differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements due to a variety of risks and uncertainties.
For a discussion of some of the specific factors that may cause Arconic’s actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements, see the following sections of this report: Part I, Item 1A. (Risk Factors), Part II, Item 7. (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations), including the disclosures under Segment Information and Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates, and Note K and the Derivatives Section of Note U to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data). Market projections are subject to the risks discussed in this report and other risks in the market. Arconic disclaims any intention or obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether in response to new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
Overview
Arconic is a global leader in lightweight metals engineering and manufacturing. Arconic’s innovative, multi-material products, which include aluminum, titanium, and nickel, are used worldwide in aerospace, automotive, commercial transportation, packaging, building and construction, oil and gas, defense, consumer electronics, and industrial applications.
Arconic is a global company operating in 18 countries. Based upon the country where the point of sale occurred, the United States and Europe generated 63% and 26%, respectively, of Arconic’s sales in 2017. In addition, Arconic has operating activities in Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, and Russia, among others. Governmental policies, laws and regulations, and other economic factors, including inflation and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, affect the results of operations in these countries.
Arconic’s operations consist of three worldwide reportable segments: Engineered Products and Solutions, Global Rolled Products and Transportation and Construction Solutions.

1


Background
Arconic Inc. Reincorporation
On December 31, 2017 (the “Effective Date”), Arconic Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation (“Arconic Pennsylvania” or, prior to the Reincorporation (as defined below), the “Company”), effected the change of the Company’s jurisdiction of incorporation from Pennsylvania to Delaware (the “Reincorporation”) by merging (the “Reincorporation Merger”) with a direct wholly owned Delaware subsidiary, Arconic (in this section, “Arconic Delaware” or, following the Reincorporation, the “Company”), pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Reincorporation Merger Agreement”), dated as of October 12, 2017, by and between Arconic Pennsylvania and Arconic Delaware.  Arconic Pennsylvania shareholders approved the Reincorporation Merger to effect the Reincorporation at a Special Meeting of Shareholders held on November 30, 2017. As a result of the Reincorporation, (i) Arconic Pennsylvania has ceased to exist, (ii) Arconic Delaware automatically inherited the reporting obligations of Arconic Pennsylvania under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and (iii) Arconic Delaware is deemed to be the successor issuer to Arconic Pennsylvania.
The common stock, par value $1.00 per share, of Arconic Pennsylvania (the “Arconic Pennsylvania Common Stock”) was listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange and traded under the symbol “ARNC.” As of the Effective Date, this symbol, without interruption, represents shares of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, of Arconic Delaware (the “Arconic Delaware Common Stock”). There was no change in the Exchange Act File Number assigned by the SEC as a result of the Reincorporation.
As of the Effective Date, the rights of the Company’s stockholders began to be governed by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, the Certificate of Incorporation of Arconic Delaware (the “Delaware Certificate”) and the Bylaws of Arconic Delaware (the “Delaware Bylaws”).
Other than the change in corporate domicile, the Reincorporation did not result in any change in the business, physical location, management, financial condition or number of authorized shares of the Company, nor did it result in any change in location of its current employees, including management.  On the Effective Date, (i) the directors and officers of Arconic Pennsylvania prior to the Reincorporation continued as the directors and officers of Arconic Delaware after the Reincorporation, (ii) each outstanding share of Arconic Pennsylvania Common Stock was automatically converted into one share of Arconic Delaware Common Stock, (iii) each outstanding share of Serial Preferred Stock, par value $100 per share, of Arconic Pennsylvania (the “Arconic Pennsylvania Preferred Stock”) was automatically converted into one share of Serial Preferred Stock, par value $100 per share, of Arconic Delaware (the “Arconic Delaware Preferred Stock”) and (iv) all of Arconic Pennsylvania’s employee benefit and compensation plans immediately prior to the Reincorporation were continued by Arconic Delaware, and each outstanding equity award and notional share unit relating to shares of Arconic Pennsylvania Common Stock was converted into an equity award or notional share unit, as applicable, relating to an equivalent number of shares of Arconic Delaware Common Stock on the same terms and subject to the same conditions. Beginning at the effective time of the Reincorporation, each certificate representing Arconic Pennsylvania Common Stock or Arconic Pennsylvania Preferred Stock was deemed for all corporate purposes to evidence ownership of Arconic Delaware Common Stock or Arconic Delaware Preferred Stock, as applicable. The Company’s stockholders may, but are not required to, exchange their stock certificates as a result of the Reincorporation.
The foregoing descriptions of the Arconic Delaware Common Stock, the Arconic Delaware Preferred Stock, the Delaware Certificate and the Delaware Bylaws are qualified in their entirety by the full text of the Delaware Certificate and the Delaware Bylaws, which are filed as Exhibits 3(a) and 3(b), respectively, to this report.
Alcoa Corporation Separation Transaction
On November 1, 2016, Alcoa Inc. completed the separation of its business into two independent, publicly traded companies (the “Separation”) – Alcoa Corporation and Arconic Inc. (the new name for Alcoa Inc.). Following the Separation, Alcoa Corporation holds the Alumina and Primary Metals segments, the rolling mill at the Warrick, Indiana operations and the 25.1% stake in the Ma’aden Rolling Company in Saudi Arabia previously held by the Company. The Company retained the Global Rolled Products (other than the rolling mill at the Warrick, Indiana operations and the 25.1% ownership stake in the Ma’aden Rolling Company), Engineered Products and Solutions and Transportation and Construction Solutions segments.
The Separation was effected by a pro rata distribution of 80.1% of the outstanding shares of Alcoa Corporation common stock to the Company’s shareholders (the “Distribution”). The Company’s shareholders of record as of the close of business on October 20, 2016 (the “Record Date”) received one share of Alcoa Corporation common stock for every three shares of the Company’s common stock held as of the Record Date. The Company did not issue fractional shares of Alcoa Corporation common stock in the Distribution. Instead, each shareholder otherwise entitled to receive a fractional share of Alcoa Corporation common stock received cash in lieu of fractional shares.

2


The Company distributed 146,159,428 shares of common stock of Alcoa Corporation in the Distribution and retained 36,311,767 shares, or approximately 19.9%, of the common stock of Alcoa Corporation immediately following the Distribution. As a result of the Distribution, Alcoa Corporation became an independent public company trading under the symbol “AA” on the New York Stock Exchange, and the Company trades under the symbol “ARNC” on the New York Stock Exchange.
During 2017, the Company disposed of its retained interest in Alcoa Corporation. In February 2017, the Company sold 23,353,000 shares of Alcoa Corporation stock at $38.03 per share, which resulted in cash proceeds of $888 million and a gain of $351 million. In April and May 2017, the Company acquired a portion of its outstanding notes held by two investment banks (the “Investment Banks”) in exchange for cash and the Company’s remaining 12,958,767 shares (valued at $35.91 per share) in Alcoa Corporation stock (the “Debt-for-Equity Exchange”) and recorded a gain of $167 million. The gains of $351 million and $167 million associated with the disposition of the Alcoa Corporation shares were recorded in Other Income, Net in the accompanying Statement of Consolidated Operations in Part II, Item 8 (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data).
On October 31, 2016, in connection with the Separation and the Distribution, Arconic entered into several agreements with Alcoa Corporation or its subsidiaries that govern the relationship of the parties following the Distribution, including the following: Separation and Distribution Agreement, Transition Services Agreement, Tax Matters Agreement, Employee Matters Agreement, certain Patent, Know-How, Trade Secret License and Trademark License Agreements, Toll Processing and Services Agreement, Master Agreement for the Supply of Primary Aluminum, Massena Lease and Operations Agreement, Fusina Lease and Operations Agreement, and Stockholder and Registration Rights Agreement.
Description of the Business
Information describing Arconic’s businesses can be found on the indicated pages of this report: 
Item
Page(s)
Discussion of Recent Business Developments:
 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations:
 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements:
 
Segment Information:
 
Business Descriptions, Principal Products, Principal Markets, Methods of Distribution, Seasonality and Dependence Upon Customers:
 
Financial Information about Segments and Financial Information about Geographic Areas:
 

3


Major Product Revenues
Products that contributed 10% or more to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, were:
 
 
For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
2017
2016
2015
Flat-rolled aluminum
39
%
39
%
42
%
Fastening systems and rings
16
%
17
%
18
%
Investment castings
15
%
15
%
15
%
Other extruded and forged products
12
%
12
%
11
%
See Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data) for operating results of the Company’s reportable segments. Arconic has no customers that account for more than 10% of its consolidated revenues. However, certain of the Company’s businesses are dependent upon a few significant customers. The loss of any such significant customer could have a material adverse effect on such businesses.
Engineered Products and Solutions
Arconic’s Engineered Products and Solutions segment (“EP&S”) develops and manufactures high performance products mainly for the aerospace (commercial and defense), commercial transportation, and power generation end markets. Such products include fastening systems (titanium, steel, and nickel superalloys); seamless rolled rings (mostly nickel superalloys); investment castings (nickel superalloys, titanium, and aluminum), including airfoils and structural components; forged airframe and jet engine components (nickel superalloys, titanium, aluminum), including bulkheads, disks and shafts; extruded airframe components (aluminum); and various other forged and extruded metallic components for the oil and gas, industrial products, automotive, and land and sea defense end markets.
Throughout 2017, EP&S was comprised of four business units: Arconic Power and Propulsion; Arconic Fastening Systems and Rings; Arconic Forgings and Extrusions; and Arconic Titanium and Engineered Products.
Arconic Power and Propulsion (APP). APP produced investment cast airfoils for aero engine and industrial gas turbines and structural aero engine and airframe components. APP also provided additive manufacturing technologies, superalloy and titanium ingots, machining, performance coatings, and hot isostatic pressing for high performance parts.
Arconic Fastening Systems and Rings (AFSR). AFSR produced aerospace fastening systems and seamless rolled rings, as well as commercial transportation fasteners. The business’s high-tech, multi-material fastening systems are found nose to tail on aircraft and aero engines. The business’s products are also critical components of industrial gas turbines, automobiles, commercial transportation vehicles, and construction and industrial equipment.

Arconic Forgings and Extrusions (AFE). AFE produced defense airframe forgings and extrusions, such as forged bulkheads, wing and landing gear components, closed-die aero engine forgings, such as disks, and lightweight drive shafts for commercial transportation industries.
Arconic Titanium and Engineered Products (ATEP). ATEP produced titanium aero ingots and mill products, and provided multi-material airframe subassemblies and solutions related to advanced technologies and materials, such as 3D printing and titanium aluminides.
In January 2018, EP&S announced a change in the organizational structure of the segment, from four business units to three business units, with a focus on aligning its internal structure to core markets and customers and reducing costs. The three new business units are Arconic Engines; Arconic Fastening Systems; and Arconic Engineered Structures.
Arconic Engines (AE). AE will produce investment cast airfoils, seamless rolled rings and closed-die (including isothermal) forged turbine disks for aero engine and industrial gas turbines, as well as other structural aero engine components. AE also will provide additive manufacturing technologies, superalloy ingots, open-die forging, machining, performance coatings, and hot isostatic pressing for high performance parts.
Arconic Fastening Systems (AFS). AFS will produce aerospace fastening systems, as well as commercial transportation fasteners. The business’s high-tech, multi-material fastening systems are found nose to tail on aircraft and aero engines. The

4


business’s products are also critical components of industrial gas turbines, automobiles, commercial transportation vehicles, and construction and industrial equipment.
Arconic Engineered Structures (AES). AES will produce titanium and aluminum ingots and mill products for aerospace and defense applications and is vertically integrated to produce structural investment castings, forgings and extrusions, for airframe, wing, aero-engine, and landing gear components, as well as lightweight drive shafts for the commercial transportation industries. AES will also provide multi-material airframe subassemblies and solutions related to advanced technologies and materials, such as 3D printing and titanium aluminides.
For additional discussion of the EP&S's business, see “Results of Operations—Segment Information” in Part II, Item 7. (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) and Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Segment and Geographic Area Information in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data).
In November 2017, Arconic announced a multi-year cooperative research agreement with Airbus to advance metal 3D printing for aircraft manufacturing. Together, the companies will develop customized processes and parameters to produce and qualify large, structural 3D printed components, such as pylon spars and rib structures, up to approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in length. The arrangement combines Arconic’s expertise in metal additive manufacturing and metallurgy with Airbus’s design and qualification capabilities. In September 2017, the Company announced that Airbus and Arconic achieved a 3D printing first - the installation of a 3D printed titanium bracket on a series production Airbus commercial aircraft, the A350 XWB. Arconic is 3D printing these parts using laser power bed technologies at its additive manufacturing facility in Austin, Texas.
This 3D printed titanium bracket is part of an ongoing arrangement between the Company and Airbus. In 2016, Arconic announced three agreements with Airbus to produce titanium and nickel 3D printed parts for commercial aircraft, including the A320 platform and A350 XWB. These agreements draw on Arconic’s cutting-edge 3D printing technology capabilities, including laser powder bed and electron beam processes.

5


Engineered Products and Solutions Principal Facilities1 
 
Country
 
Facility
 
Products
Australia
 
Oakleigh
 
Fasteners
Canada
 
Georgetown, Ontario2
 
Aerospace Castings
 
 
Laval, Québec
 
Aerospace Castings and Machining
China
 
Suzhou2
 
Fasteners and Rings
France
 
Dives-sur-Mer
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
 
 
Evron
 
Aerospace and Specialty Castings
 
 
Gennevilliers
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
 
 
Montbrison
 
Fasteners
 
 
St. Cosme-en-Vairais2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Toulouse
 
Fasteners
 
 
Us-par-Vigny
 
Fasteners
Germany
 
Bestwig
 
Aerospace Castings
 
 
Erwitte
 
Aerospace Castings
 
 
Hannover2
 
Extrusions
 
 
Hildesheim-Bavenstedt2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Kelkheim2
 
Fasteners
Hungary
 
Eger
 
Forgings
 
 
Nemesvámos
 
Fasteners
 
 
Székesfehérvár
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings and Forgings
Japan
 
Nomi
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
Mexico
 
Ciudad Acuña2
 
Aerospace Castings/Fasteners and Rings
Morocco
 
Casablanca2
 
Fasteners
South Korea
 
Kyoungnam
 
Extrusions
United Kingdom
 
Darley Dale
 
Forgings
 
 
Ecclesfield
 
Ingot Castings
 
 
Exeter2
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings and Alloy
 
 
Glossop
 
Ingot Castings
 
 
Ickles
 
Ingot Castings
 
 
Leicester2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Low Moor
 
Extrusions
 
 
Meadowhall
 
Forgings
 
 
Provincial Park
 
Forgings
 
 
Redditch2
 
Fasteners
 
 
River Don
 
Forgings
 
 
Telford
 
Fasteners
 
 
Welwyn Garden City
 
Aerospace Formed Parts

6


Country
 
Facility
 
Products
United States
 
Chandler, AZ
 
Extrusions
 
 
Tucson, AZ2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Carson, CA2
 
Fasteners
 
 
City of Industry, CA2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Fontana, CA
 
Rings
 
 
Fullerton, CA2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Newbury Park, CA
 
Fasteners
 
 
Rancho Cucamonga, CA
 
Rings
 
 
Sylmar, CA
 
Fasteners
 
 
Torrance, CA
 
Fasteners
 
 
Branford, CT
 
Aerospace Coatings
 
 
Winsted, CT
 
Aerospace Machining
 
 
Savannah, GA
 
Forgings
 
 
Lafayette, IN
 
Extrusions
 
 
La Porte, IN
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
 
 
Burlington, MA2
 
Powdered Metal Parts
 
 
Baltimore, MD2
 
Extrusions
 
 
Whitehall, MI
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings and Coatings, Titanium Alloy and Specialty Products
 
 
Sullivan, MO
 
Titanium Mill Products
 
 
Washington, MO
 
Aerospace Formed Parts
 
 
Big Lake, MN
 
Aerospace Machining
 
 
New Brighton, MN
 
Aerospace Machining
 
 
Dover, NJ
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings and Alloy
 
 
Verdi, NV
 
Rings
 
 
Kingston, NY2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Massena, NY
 
Extrusions
 
 
Rochester, NY
 
Rings
 
 
Canton, OH2
 
Ferro-Titanium Alloys and Titanium Mill Products
 
 
Cleveland, OH
 
Investment Casting Equipment, Aerospace Components, Castings, Forgings and Oil & Gas Drilling Products
 
 
Niles, OH
 
Titanium Mill Products
 
 
Morristown, TN2
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Ceramic Products
 
 
Austin, TX2
 
Additively Manufactured Parts
 
 
Houston, TX2
 
Extrusions
 
 
Spring, TX
 
Deep Water Drilling Machining
 
 
Waco, TX2
 
Fasteners
 
 
Wichita Falls, TX
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
 
 
Hampton, VA2
 
Aerospace and Industrial Gas Turbine Castings
 
 
Martinsville, VA
 
Titanium Mill Products
1 
Principal facilities are listed, and do not include 13 locations that serve as sales and administrative offices, distribution centers or warehouses.
2 
Leased property or partially leased property.


7


Global Rolled Products
Arconic’s Global Rolled Products segment (“GRP”) produces a range of aluminum sheet and plate products for the following markets:
Aerospace and Automotive - GRP provides a wide range of products, including many highly-differentiated sheet and plate products, for the worldwide aerospace and regional automotive markets.
Brazing, Commercial Transportation and Industrial - GRP provides specialty aluminum sheet and plate products for automotive, commercial transportation and industrial applications including proprietary heat exchanger products like multilayer brazing sheet.
Packaging - GRP serves the packaging market in Russia, Asia and Latin America through regional facilities.
In July 2017, GRP announced a new organization, streamlining and consolidating its businesses into a single group organization structure.
For additional discussion of the Global Rolled Products segment’s business, see “Results of Operations—Segment Information” in Part II, Item 7. (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) and Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Segment and Geographic Area Information in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data).
In November 2017, the Company announced plans to install a new horizontal heat treat furnace at its Davenport, Iowa facility. This new furnace will enable Arconic to heat treat longer and thicker plate than ever before, including material for its new state of the art "very thick plate stretcher."
This stretcher, the world’s largest, improves the performance of thick aluminum and aluminum-lithium plate in aerospace and industrial applications, and enables the Company to produce the largest high-strength monolithic wing ribs in the industry. In April 2017, the Company announced the completion of the installation of the stretcher.
Also in April 2017, the Company announced the divestiture of its Fusina, Italy rolling mill to Slim Aluminum. The transaction was part of GRP’s drive to improve portfolio mix.
Global Rolled Products Principal Facilities
 
Country
 
Location
 
Products
Brazil
 
Itapissuma
 
Specialty Foil
China
 
Kunshan
 
Sheet and Plate
 
 
Qinhuangdao1
 
Sheet and Plate
Hungary
 
Székesfehérvár
 
Sheet and Plate/Slabs and Billets
Russia
 
Samara
 
Sheet and Plate/Extrusions and Forgings
United Kingdom
 
Birmingham
 
Plate
United States
 
Davenport, IA
 
Sheet and Plate
 
 
Danville, IL2
 
Sheet and Plate
 
 
Hutchinson, KS2
 
Sheet and Plate
 
 
Lancaster, PA
 
Sheet and Plate
 
 
Alcoa, TN
 
Sheet
 
 
Texarkana, TX3
 
Slabs
 
 
San Antonio, TX4
 
Micromill™

1 
Leased property or partially leased property.
2 
Properties are satellite locations of the Davenport, Iowa facility.

8


3 
The Texarkana rolling mill facility had been idle since September 2009 due to a continued weak outlook in common alloy markets. In January 2016, the Company restarted its Texarkana cast house to meet demand for aluminum slab for the automotive industry. The aluminum slab that is cast at Texarkana is turned into aluminum sheets at Arconic’s expanded automotive facility in Davenport, Iowa and its rolling mill in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
4 
Micromill™ production facility produces sheet for automotive and industrial applications using Arconic innovative production process.
Transportation and Construction Solutions
Arconic’s Transportation and Construction Solutions segment ("TCS") produces products that are used mostly in the commercial transportation and nonresidential building and construction end markets. Such products include integrated aluminum structural systems, architectural extrusions, forged aluminum commercial vehicle wheels, and aluminum products for the industrial products end market.
The Transportation and Construction Solutions segment is comprised of three business units: Arconic Wheel and Transportation Products; Building and Construction Systems; and Latin America Extrusions.
Arconic Wheel and Transportation Products (AWTP). AWTP provides forged aluminum wheels and related products for heavy-duty trucks and the commercial transportation markets.
Building and Construction Systems (BCS). BCS provides building and construction architectural framing products and aluminum curtain wall and front entry systems.
Latin America Extrusions (LAE). LAE serves both the building and construction and the industrial markets in Latin America, with products including aluminum architectural systems for doors, windows and curtain walls, and a wide range of extruded solutions for the automotive, defense and other industrial industries. In December 2017, Arconic announced an agreement to divest its LAE business. Customary regulatory and antitrust reviews are complete, and the ownership of LAE will be transferred to a subsidiary of Hydro Extruded Solutions AS. The deal is expected to close in the first half of 2018.
For additional discussion of the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment’s business, see “Results of Operations—Segment Information” in Part II, Item 7. (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) and Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Segment and Geographic Area Information in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data).
Transportation and Construction Solutions Principal Facilities1 
 
Country
 
Facility
 
Products
Brazil
 
Itapissuma2
 
Forgings
 
 
 Tubarão3
 
Extrusions
 
 
Utinga3
 
Extrusions
Canada
 
Lethbridge, Alberta
 
Architectural Products
China
 
Suzhou2
 
Forgings
France
 
Merxheim2
 
Architectural Products
Hungary
 
Székesfehérvár
 
Forgings
Japan
 
Jôetsu City2
 
Forgings
Mexico
 
Monterrey
 
Forgings
United Kingdom
 
Runcorn
 
Architectural Products
United States
 
Springdale, AR
 
Architectural Products
 
 
Visalia, CA
 
Architectural Products
 
 
Eastman, GA
 
Architectural Products
 
 
Barberton, OH
 
Forgings
 
 
Cleveland, OH
 
Forgings
 
 
Bloomsburg, PA
 
Architectural Products
 
 
Cranberry, PA
 
Architectural Products

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1 
Principal facilities are listed, and do not include 9 locations that serve as sales and administrative offices, distribution centers or warehouses. In addition to the facilities listed above, TCS has 21 service centers. These centers perform light manufacturing, such as assembly and fabrication of certain products.
2 
Leased property or partially leased property.
3 
Location is part of the planned divestiture of LAE, the sale of which is expected to be completed in the first half of 2018.
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
The major raw materials purchased in 2017 for each of the Company’s reportable segments are listed below.
 
Engineered Products and Solutions
 
Global Rolled Products
Alloying materials
 
Alloying materials
Electricity
 
Aluminum scrap
Natural gas
 
Coatings
Nickel alloys
 
Electricity
Primary aluminum (ingot, billet, P1020, high purity)
 
Lube oil
Resin
 
Natural gas
Stainless steel
 
Packaging materials
Steel
 
Primary aluminum (ingot, slab, billet, P1020, high purity)
Titanium alloys
 
Steam
Titanium sponge
 
 
 
 
Transportation and Construction Solutions
 
 
Aluminum coil
 
 
Aluminum scrap
 
 
Electricity
 
 
Natural gas
 
 
Paint/Coating
 
 
Polyethylene
 
 
Primary aluminum
 
 
Resin
 
 
Generally, other materials are purchased from third-party suppliers under competitively priced supply contracts or bidding arrangements. The Company believes that the raw materials necessary to its business are and will continue to be available.
Patents, Trade Secrets and Trademarks
The Company believes that its domestic and international patent, trade secret and trademark assets provide it with a significant competitive advantage. The Company’s rights under its patents, as well as the products made and sold under them, are important to the Company as a whole and, to varying degrees, important to each business segment. The patents owned by Arconic generally concern particular products or manufacturing equipment or techniques. Arconic’s business as a whole is not, however, materially dependent on any single patent, trade secret or trademark. As a result of product development and technological advancement, the Company continues to pursue patent protection in jurisdictions throughout the world. As of the end of 2017, the Company’s worldwide patent portfolio consists of approximately 1,669 granted patents and 807 pending patent applications.
The Company also has a significant number of trade secrets, mostly regarding manufacturing processes and material compositions that give many of its businesses important advantages in their markets. The Company continues to strive to improve those processes and generate new material compositions that provide additional benefits.
With respect to domestic and international registered trademarks, the Company has many that have significant recognition within the markets that are served. Examples include the name “Arconic” and the Arconic symbol for aluminum, nickel, and titanium products, Howmet® metal castings, Huck® fasteners, Kawneer® building panels and Dura-Bright® wheels with easy-

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clean surface treatments. A significant trademark filing campaign for the name “Arconic” was completed in 2016, in support of the corporate launch of Arconic Inc. As of the end of 2017, the Company’s worldwide trademark portfolio consists of approximately 1,793 registered trademarks and 625 pending trademark applications. The Company’s rights under its trademarks are important to the Company as a whole and, to varying degrees, important to each business segment.
Competitive Conditions
Engineered Products and Solutions (EP&S)
EP&S’s business units - AFS (Arconic Fastening Systems), AE (Arconic Engines) and AES (Arconic Engineered Structures) -are subject to substantial and intense competition in the markets they serve. Although Arconic believes its advanced technology, manufacturing processes and experience provide advantages to Arconic’s customers, such as high quality and superior mechanical properties that meet the Company’s customers’ most stringent requirements, many of the products Arconic makes can be produced by competitors using similar types of manufacturing processes as well as alternative forms of manufacturing. Despite intense competition, Arconic continues as a market leader in most of its principal markets. Several factors, including Arconic’s legacy of technical innovation, state-of-the-art capabilities, engaged employees and long-standing customer relationships, enable the Company to maintain its competitive position.
Principal competitors in the EP&S segment include Berkshire Hathaway Inc., through its acquisition of Precision Castparts Corporation and subsidiaries, for titanium and titanium-based alloys, precision forgings, seamless rolled rings, investment castings and aerospace fasteners; VSMPO (Russia) for titanium and titanium-based alloys and precision forgings; the High-Performance Materials & Components segment of Allegheny Technologies, Inc. (ATI) for titanium and titanium-based alloys, precision forgings, and investment castings; Lisi Aerospace (France) for aerospace fasteners; and Aubert & Duval (part of Eramet Group in France) for precision forgings.
Other competitors include:
Kaiser Aluminum - for extruded products
Universal Alloy Corp., part of Montana Tech Components - for extruded products
Doncasters Group Ltd. (UK) - for investment castings
Consolidated Precision Products Corp., part of Warburg Pincus - for investment castings
Weber Metals, part of Otto Fuchs - for precision forgings
Forgital - for seamless rings
Several of Arconic’s largest customers have captive superalloy furnaces for producing airfoil investment castings for their own use. Many other companies around the world also produce superalloy investment castings, and some of these companies currently compete with Arconic in the aerospace and other markets, while others are capable of competing with the Company should they choose to do so.
International competition in the investment casting, fastener, ring and forging markets may also increase in the future as a result of strategic alliances among engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), aero-structure prime contractors, and overseas companies, especially in developing markets, particularly where “offset” or “local content” requirements create purchase obligations with respect to products manufactured in or directed to a particular country.
Global Rolled Products (GRP)
GRP is one of the leaders in many of the aluminum flat rolled products markets in which it participates, including aerospace, automotive, brazing sheet, commercial transportation, industrial markets and packaging. However, much like other Arconic businesses, GRP is subject to substantial and intense competition in all of its markets.
While GRP participates in markets where Arconic believes the Company has a significant competitive advantage due to customer intimacy, advanced manufacturing capability, unique technology and/or differentiated products, in certain cases, the Company’s competitors are capable of making products similar to Arconic’s. The Company continuously works to maintain and enhance its competitive advantage through innovation: new alloys such as Arconic’s new aerospace alloys, new products such as the Company’s 5-layer brazing products and break-through processes such as Arconic Micromill® technology.

Some of GRP’s markets are worldwide and some are more regionally focused. Participation in these segments by GRP’s competitors varies. For example, Novelis is the largest flat rolled products producer competing in automotive, but it does not participate in the aerospace market. On the other hand, Constellium participates in all major market segments including aerospace, brazing, industrial, commercial transportation and packaging. Granges participates only in the brazing sheet market. Other GRP competitors include Aleris, AMAG, Kaiser, Kobe, Nanshan, and UACJ.

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Additionally, there are a number of new competitors emerging, particularly in China and other developing economies. For example, in the brazing business, the number of viable competitors has doubled over a five-year period. Arconic expects that this competitive pressure will continue and increase in the future as customers seek to globalize their supply bases in order to reduce costs. The Company continually monitors and plans for these new emerging players.
Summary of Major Competitors for GRP:
Constellium (The Netherlands)
Novelis
Kaiser Aluminum
UACJ (Japan)
Aleris
Hydro (Norway)
Nanshan (China)
Granges (Sweden)
Kobe (Japan)
Transportation and Construction Solutions (TCS)
In the forged aluminum wheels business, AWTP competes in commercial transportation, under the product brand name Alcoa® Wheels, for the major regions that it serves (Americas, Europe, Japan, China, and Australia). AWTP competes against steel wheels, as well as aluminum. Its larger competitors are Accuride Corporation, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Zhejiang Dicastal Hongxin Technology Co. Ltd, Wheels India Limited and Speedline (member of the Ronal Group). In recent years, AWTP has seen an increase in the number of aluminum wheel suppliers (both forged and cast aluminum wheels) from China, Taiwan, India and South Korea attempting to penetrate the commercial transportation market.
BCS is a manufacturer of aluminum architectural systems and products in North America and with a growing presence in Europe and the Middle East. In North America, BCS primarily competes in the nonresidential building segment. In Europe and the Middle East, it competes in both the residential and the nonresidential building segments. BCS competes with regional and local players in the architectural systems and more global companies in the products markets. BCS’s competitive advantage is the cornerstone to its strong brand, innovative products, customer intimacy and technical services. Over the past decade, the regional competitors, primarily in North America, have narrowed the product portfolio and technical services advantages. However, BCS has maintained its competitive advantage through innovative products like highly energy-efficient high-thermal products and differentiated services. BCS sales are derived mainly from the retail, office, education and healthcare building segments.
BCS is organized into two business segments: architectural systems and architectural products. The primary product categories in architectural systems are storefront, framing and entrances (SEF), curtain walls, and windows. In the SEF and curtain wall businesses, BCS competes with competitors like Apogee, YKK, Oldcastle, Schüco, Hydro/SAPA and Reynaers in their aluminum framing systems business. The architectural products business is more global and is primarily served by subsidiaries of larger companies like Alpolic (Mitsubishi Corporation), Alucobond (Schweiter Technologies) and Novelis (Aditya Birla Group). The primary product categories are aluminum composite material and coil coated sheet. The competitive landscape in the architectural systems market has been relatively stable since the mid-2000s, with the major competitors in North America and Europe still operating in their markets, despite some industry consolidation in North America during the late 2000s.
As noted above, in December 2017, Arconic announced the divestiture of its LAE business which is expected to close in the first half of 2018. LAE has participated in two distinct segments: building and construction and industrial. In the building and construction market, LAE develops and markets aluminum architectural systems for both commercial and residential buildings. In the industrial business market, LAE manufactures and sells soft alloy extruded profiles and solutions, mainly for the automotive, consumer goods, machinery and equipment segments. Overall, LAE has held a strong presence in Brazil, where competition is very fragmented, composed mainly of small local extruders and a few multinationals such as CBA (Votorantim Group) and SAPA.

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Summary of Major Competitors:
AWTP:
Accuride Corporation
Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation (Japan)
Zhejiang Dicastal Hongxin Technology Co. Ltd (China)
Wheels India Limited (India)
Speedline (member of the Ronal Group in Switzerland)
BCS:
Apogee, Oldcastle and YKK
Alpolic, Alucobond and Alucoil
Schüco (Germany), Hydro/SAPA (Norway), Reynaers (Belgium) and Corialis (Belgium)
Alucobond, Alucoil, Euramax and Novelis
LAE:
Belmetal (Brazil)
CBA (Brazil)
SAPA (Norway)
Aluk (Brazil)
Research and Development
Arconic, at its light metals research center, engages in research and development (R&D) programs that include process and product development, and basic and applied research. R&D expenditures were $111 million, $132 million and $169 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Throughout 2017, the Company continued working on new developments in all business segments and leveraging new technologies. The Company has continued investing in additive manufacturing, with a focus on producing metal powder materials tailored for a range of additive process technologies, and furthering its development of advanced 3D printing design and manufacturing techniques-such as Arconic’s Ampliforge process-to improve production speeds, reduce costs, and achieve material properties not possible through other additive flowpaths. The Company’s new powder production facility was completed at the Arconic Technology Center in 2016. This facility will continue its focus on material development in aluminum, nickel and titanium alloys.
The Company is also producing and qualifying additively manufactured aerospace components via laser powder bed printing technology. It also is developing more formable titanium plate based wrought products for customers.
The Arconic Micromill® technology located in San Antonio continues to transition to commercial production, as the Company has invested in further developing Micromill™ technology, including installation of a pilot line at the Arconic Technology Center.
The Company continues to develop differentiated pretreatment technology, continuing to improve on its patented A951 technology, joining methods/fasteners (like RSR™) and highly formable and high strength automotive sheet products for automotive original equipment manufacturer applications in both cosmetic hang on parts and structural body-in-white applications.
The Company continued its differentiation in the commercial transportation market with Dura-Bright® EVO, UltraOne™ and European UltraOne™ wheel products.
The Company also continues to develop and deploy proprietary processing technologies in the manufacture of aerospace components, as well as a continued commitment and commercialization of a portfolio of proprietary aerospace fasteners. One such example is Ergo-Tech® blind fasteners which enable automated assembly operations.

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Environmental Matters
Information relating to environmental matters is included in Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements under the caption “Environmental Matters” on page 84. Approved capital expenditures for new or expanded facilities for environmental control are $19 million for 2018 and estimated expenditures for such purposes are $2 million for 2019.
Employees
Total worldwide employment at the end of 2017 was approximately 41,500 employees in 25 countries. About 20,900 of these employees are represented by labor unions. The Company believes that relations with its employees and any applicable union representatives generally are good.
In the United States, approximately 7,600 employees are represented by various labor unions. The largest collective bargaining agreement is the master collective bargaining agreement between Arconic and the United Steelworkers (USW). The USW master agreement covers approximately 3,300 employees at four U.S. locations; the current labor agreement expires on May 15, 2019. There are 17 other collective bargaining agreements in the United States with varying expiration dates.
On a regional basis, collective bargaining agreements with varying expiration dates cover approximately 9,300 employees in Europe and Russia, 10,000 employees in North America, 600 employees in South America, and 1,000 employees in Asia.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The names, ages, positions and areas of responsibility of the executive officers of the Company as of February 23, 2018 are listed below.
Charles P. “Chip” Blankenship, 51, Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Blankenship was elected Chief Executive Officer of Arconic and a member of the Arconic Board of Directors effective January 15, 2018. Mr. Blankenship was Senior Vice President of Haier Group, and President and Chief Executive Officer of its GE Appliances business from June 2016 to June 2017. GE Appliances was a division of General Electric Company until June 2016, when it was acquired by Qingdao Haier Co., Ltd., and Mr. Blankenship served as its President and Chief Executive Officer from December 2011 until June 2016. Prior to GE Appliances, Mr. Blankenship served as Vice President and General Manager of the Commercial Engines Operation for GE Aviation from July 2008 until December 2011. From April 2006 to July 2008, Mr. Blankenship was the General Manager of Aero Energy, a division of GE Energy.
Ken Giacobbe, 52, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Giacobbe was elected Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Arconic effective November 1, 2016. Mr. Giacobbe joined Arconic in 2004 as Vice President of Finance for Global Extruded Products, part of Alcoa Forgings and Extrusions. He then served as Vice President of Finance for the Company’s Building and Construction Systems business from 2008 until 2011. In 2011, he assumed the role of Group Controller for the Engineered Products and Solutions segment. From January 2013 until October 2016, Mr. Giacobbe served as Chief Financial Officer of the Engineered Products and Solutions segment. Before joining Arconic, Mr. Giacobbe held senior finance roles at Avaya and Lucent Technologies.
Mark J. Krakowiak, 57, Executive Vice President, Strategy and Development. Mr. Krakowiak was elected to his current position effective January 29, 2018. Prior to joining Arconic, Mr. Krakowiak had a 33-year career at General Electric Company, where he held a range of financial and strategy roles, including positions in financial planning, business development and M&A, treasury and commercial. Most recently, Mr. Krakowiak was Chief Financial Officer of GE Appliances, a Haier Company, from June 2016 to January 2017. Previously, Mr. Krakowiak served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of General Electric’s Appliances and Lighting business from September 2011 to June 2016. From July 2009 to September 2011, Mr. Krakowiak was Chief Risk Officer of GE’s global enterprise risk function, and from January 2003 to July 2009, he was Vice President of GE’s Industrial Treasury and Insurance Operations.
Timothy D. Myers, 52, Executive Vice President and Group President, Global Rolled Products and Transportation and Construction Solutions. Mr. Myers was appointed Executive Vice President and Group President, Global Rolled Products and Transportation and Construction Solutions in October 2017. Prior to being appointed to his current role, he was Executive Vice President and Group President, Transportation and Construction Solutions from May 2016 to October 2017. Prior to that assignment, he was President of Alcoa Wheel and Transportation Products, from June 2009 to May 2016. Mr. Myers was Vice President and General Manager, Commercial Vehicle Wheels for the Alcoa Wheel Products business from January 2006 to June 2009. Mr. Myers joined Arconic in 1991 as an automotive applications engineer in the Commercial Rolled Products Division, and held a series of engineering, marketing, sales and management positions with the Company since that time.

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Paul Myron, 51, Vice President and Controller. Mr. Myron was elected Vice President and Controller of Arconic effective November 1, 2016. Mr. Myron joined Arconic as a systems analyst in Pittsburgh and in 1992 relocated to the Company’s Davenport, Iowa facility as a product accountant. He served in numerous financial management positions from 1995 until 2000 when he was named Commercial Manager and Controller for the Atlantic division of the Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals business. In 2002, Mr. Myron was appointed Vice President of Finance, Alcoa Primary Metals and later became Vice President of Finance, Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals. In 2005 Mr. Myron was named Director of Financial Planning and Analysis, accountable for Arconic’s financial planning, analysis, and reporting worldwide. In February 2012, he became Director of Finance Initiatives for the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, overseeing specific financial initiatives and projects within the group. From July 2012 until his most recent appointment, Mr. Myron served as Vice President, Finance and Business Excellence for the Arconic Power and Propulsion business.
Vas Nair, 52, Executive Vice President, Human Resources. Ms. Nair was appointed Executive Vice President, Human Resources in November 2015. Prior to being appointed to her current role, Ms. Nair was Arconic’s Chief Talent and Diversity Officer, with global responsibility for diversity and inclusion from February 2015 to October 2015. Prior to joining Arconic, Ms. Nair was VP of Global Learning and Talent Development at Estee Lauder from November 2010 to January 2015. Ms. Nair was Vice President and Chief Learning Officer at Schering-Plough from November 2003 to October 2009.
Katherine H. Ramundo, 50, Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary. Ms. Ramundo was elected to her current position effective November 1, 2016. Prior to joining Arconic, from January 2013 through August 2015, she was Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of ANN INC., the parent company of ANN TAYLOR and LOFT brands, based in New York. Prior to ANN INC., she served as Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Secretary at Colgate-Palmolive, where she held various legal roles from November 1997 to January 2013. She began her career as a litigator in New York, practicing at major law firms, including Cravath, Swaine & Moore and Sidley & Austin.
Eric V. Roegner, 48, Executive Vice President and Group President, Engineered Products and Solutions, and President, Arconic Defense. Mr. Roegner was elected Executive Vice President and Group President, Engineered Products and Solutions effective October 2017, and President, Arconic Defense effective June 2012. Previously, Mr. Roegner served as Executive Vice President and Group President, Global Rolled Products from May 2017 until October 2017; Chief Operating Officer of Arconic Investment Castings, Titanium and Engineered Products from July 2015 until May 2017; and Chief Operating Officer of Alcoa Investment Castings, Forgings and Extrusions from January 2013 until July 2015. Mr. Roegner joined the Company in 2006 as Chief Operating Officer of Arconic’s Global Engineered Products business.
The Company’s executive officers are elected or appointed to serve until the next annual meeting of the Board of Directors (held in conjunction with the annual meeting of shareholders) except in the case of earlier death, retirement, resignation or removal.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
Arconic’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be impacted by a number of factors. In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this report, the following risks and uncertainties could materially harm its business, financial condition or results of operations, including causing Arconic’s actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements. The following list of significant risk factors is not all-inclusive or necessarily in order of importance. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to Arconic or that Arconic currently deems immaterial also may materially adversely affect the Company in future periods.
The markets for Arconic’s products are highly cyclical and are influenced by a number of factors, including global economic conditions.
Arconic is subject to cyclical fluctuations in global economic conditions and lightweight metals end-use markets. Arconic sells many products to industries that are cyclical, such as the aerospace, automotive, and commercial transportation and construction industries, and the demand for its products is sensitive to, and quickly impacted by, demand for the finished goods manufactured by its customers in these industries, which may change as a result of changes in regional or worldwide economies, currency exchange rates, energy prices or other factors beyond its control.
In particular, Arconic derives a significant portion of its revenue from products sold to the aerospace industry, which can be highly cyclical and reflective of changes in the general economy. The commercial aerospace industry is historically driven by the demand from commercial airlines for new aircraft. The U.S. and international commercial aviation industries may face challenges arising from competitive pressures and fuel costs. Demand for commercial aircraft is influenced by airline industry profitability, trends in airline passenger traffic, the state of U.S., regional and world economies, the ability of aircraft purchasers to obtain required financing and numerous other factors including the effects of terrorism, health and safety concerns, environmental constraints imposed upon aircraft operators, the retirement of older aircraft, and

15


technological improvements to new engines. The military aerospace cycle is highly dependent on U.S. and foreign government funding; however, it is also driven by the effects of terrorism, a changing global political environment, U.S. foreign policy, the retirement of older aircraft, and technological improvements to new engines.
Further, the demand for Arconic’s automotive and ground transportation products is driven by the number of vehicles produced by automotive manufacturers and Arconic content per vehicle. The automotive industry is sensitive to general economic conditions, including credit markets and interest rates, and consumer spending and preferences regarding vehicle ownership and usage, vehicle size, configuration and features. Automotive sales and production can also be affected by other factors including the age of the vehicle fleet and related scrappage rates, labor relations issues, fuel prices, regulatory requirements, government initiatives, trade agreements and levels of competition.
While Arconic believes that the long-term prospects for its products are positive, the Company is unable to predict the future course of industry variables, the strength of the U.S., regional or global economies, or the effects of government intervention. Negative economic conditions, such as a major economic downturn, a prolonged recovery period, or disruptions in the financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
Arconic faces significant competition, which may have an adverse effect on profitability.
As discussed in Part I, Item 1. (Business-Competitive Conditions) of this report, the markets for Arconic’s products are highly competitive. Arconic’s competitors include a variety of both U.S. and non-U.S. companies in all major markets. New product offerings or new technologies in the marketplace may compete with or replace Arconic products. The willingness of customers to accept substitutes for the products sold by Arconic, the ability of large customers to exert leverage in the marketplace to affect the pricing for Arconic’s products, and technological advancements or other developments by or affecting Arconic’s competitors or customers could adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
Arconic may be unable to develop innovative new products or implement technology initiatives successfully.
Arconic’s competitive position and future performance depends, in part, on the Company’s ability to:
identify and evolve with emerging technological and broader industry trends in Arconic’s target end-markets;
identify and successfully execute on a strategy to remain an essential and sustainable element of its customer’s supply chain;
fund, develop, manufacture and bring innovative new products and services to market quickly and cost-effectively;
monitor disruptive technologies and understand customers’ and competitors’ abilities to deploy those disruptive technologies; and
achieve sufficient return on investment for new products based on capital expenditures and research and development spending.
Arconic is working on new developments for a number of strategic projects in all business segments, including additive manufacturing, alloy development, engineered finishes and product design, high speed continuous casting and rolling technology, and other advanced manufacturing technologies. For more information on Arconic’s research and development programs, see “Research and Development” in Part I, Item 1. (Business) of this report.
While Arconic intends to continue committing substantial financial resources and effort to the development of innovative new products and services, it may not be able to successfully differentiate its products or services from those of its competitors or match the level of research and development spending of its competitors, including those developing technology to displace Arconic’s current products. In addition, Arconic may not be able to adapt to evolving markets and technologies or achieve and maintain technological advantages. There can be no assurance that any of Arconic’s new products or services, development programs or technologies will be commercially feasible or beneficial to Arconic.
Arconic could be adversely affected by changes in the business or financial condition or the loss of a significant customer or customers.
A significant downturn or deterioration in the business or financial condition or loss of a key customer or customers supplied by Arconic could affect Arconic’s financial results in a particular period. Arconic’s customers may experience delays in the launch of new products, labor strikes, diminished liquidity or credit unavailability, weak demand for their products, or other

16


difficulties in their businesses. Arconic’s customers may also change their business strategies or modify their business relationships with Arconic, including to reduce the amount of Arconic’s products they purchase or to switch to alternative suppliers. If Arconic is unsuccessful in replacing business lost from such customers, profitability may be adversely affected.
Arconic could encounter manufacturing difficulties or other issues that impact product performance, quality or safety, which could affect Arconic’s reputation, business and financial statements.
The manufacture of many of Arconic’s products is a highly exacting and complex process. Problems may arise during manufacturing for a variety of reasons, including equipment malfunction, failure to follow specific protocols, specifications and procedures, including those related to quality or safety, problems with raw materials, supply chain interruptions, natural disasters, labor unrest and environmental factors. Such problems could have an adverse impact on the Company’s ability to fulfill orders or on product quality or performance. Product manufacturing or performance issues could result in recalls, customer penalties, contract cancellation and product liability exposure, including if any of our products are defective or are used in a manner that results in injuries or other damages. Because of approval and license requirements applicable to manufacturers and/or their suppliers, alternatives to mitigate manufacturing disruptions may not be readily available to the Company or its customers. Accordingly, manufacturing problems, product defects or other risks associated with our products, including their use or application, could result in significant costs to and liability for Arconic that could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition or results of operations, including the payment of potentially substantial monetary damages, fines or penalties, as well as negative publicity and damage to the Company’s reputation, which could adversely impact product demand and customer relationships.
Arconic’s business depends, in part, on its ability to meet increased program demand successfully and to mitigate the impact of program cancellations, reductions and delays.
Arconic is currently under contract to supply components for a number of new and existing commercial, general aviation and military aircraft programs and is the sole supplier of aluminum sheet for a number of aluminum-intensive automotive vehicle programs. Many of these programs are scheduled for production increases over the next several years. If Arconic fails to meet production levels or encounters difficulty or unexpected costs in meeting such levels, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations. Similarly, program cancellations, reductions or delays could also have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s business.
Arconic could be adversely affected by reductions in defense spending.
Arconic’s products are used in a variety of military applications, including military aircraft and armored vehicles. Although many of the programs in which Arconic participates extend several years, they are subject to annual funding through congressional appropriations. Changes in military strategy and priorities, or reductions in defense spending, may affect current and future funding of these programs and could reduce the demand for Arconic’s products, which could adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
Arconic’s global operations expose the Company to risks that could adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Arconic has operations or activities in numerous countries and regions outside the United States, including Europe, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, and Russia. As a result, the Company’s global operations are affected by economic, political and other conditions in the foreign countries in which Arconic does business as well as U.S. laws regulating international trade, including:
economic and commercial instability risks, including those caused by sovereign and private debt default, corruption, and changes in local government laws, regulations and policies, such as those related to tariffs, sanctions and trade barriers, taxation, exchange controls, employment regulations and repatriation of earnings;
geopolitical risks such as political instability, civil unrest, expropriation, nationalization of properties by a government, imposition of sanctions, and renegotiation or nullification of existing agreements;
war or terrorist activities;
major public health issues such as an outbreak of a pandemic or epidemic (such as Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Avian Influenza, H7N9 virus, or the Ebola virus), which could cause disruptions in Arconic’s operations or workforce;
difficulties enforcing intellectual property and contractual rights in certain jurisdictions;

17


changes in trade and tax laws that may result in our customers being subjected to increased taxes, duties and tariffs and reduce their willingness to use our services in countries in which we are currently manufacturing their products;
rising labor costs;
labor unrest, including strikes;
compliance with antitrust and competition regulations;
compliance with foreign labor laws, which generally provide for increased notice, severance and consultation requirements compared to U.S. laws;
aggressive, selective or lax enforcement of laws and regulations by national governmental authorities;
compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other anti-bribery and corruption laws;
compliance with U.S. laws concerning trade, including the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”), and the sanctions, regulations and embargoes administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Controls (“OFAC”);
imposition of currency controls;
adverse tax audit rulings; and
unexpected events, including fires or explosions at facilities, and natural disasters.
Although the effect of any of the foregoing factors is difficult to predict, any one or more of them could adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition, or results of operations. While Arconic believes it has adopted appropriate risk management, compliance programs and insurance arrangements to address and reduce the risks associated with these factors, such measures may provide inadequate protection against costs or liabilities that may arise from such events.
Arconic may face challenges to its intellectual property rights which could adversely affect the Company’s reputation, business and competitive position.
Arconic owns important intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. The Company’s intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining Arconic’s competitive position in a number of the markets that the Company serves. Arconic’s competitors may develop technologies that are similar or superior to Arconic’s proprietary technologies or design around the patents Arconic owns or licenses. The pursuit of remedies for any misappropriation of such intellectual property is expensive and the ultimate remedies may be deemed insufficient. Further, as the Company expands its operations in jurisdictions where the enforcement of intellectual property rights is less robust, the risk of misappropriation of Arconic intellectual property increases, despite efforts the Company undertakes to protect them. Developments or assertions by or against Arconic relating to intellectual property rights, and any inability to protect or enforce these rights sufficiently, could adversely affect Arconic’s business and competitive position.
Arconic may be unable to realize the expected benefits from acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and strategic alliances.
Arconic has made, and may continue to plan and execute, acquisitions and divestitures and take other actions to grow its business or streamline its portfolio. Although management believes that its strategic actions are beneficial to Arconic, there is no assurance that anticipated benefits will be realized. Acquisitions present significant challenges and risks, including the effective integration of the business into the Company, unanticipated costs and liabilities, and the ability to realize anticipated benefits, such as growth in market share, revenue or margins, at the levels or in the timeframe expected. The Company may be unable to manage acquisitions successfully. Additionally, adverse factors may prevent Arconic from realizing the benefits of its growth projects, including unfavorable global economic conditions, currency fluctuations, or unexpected delays in target timelines.
With respect to portfolio optimization actions such as divestitures, curtailments and closures, Arconic may face barriers to exit from unprofitable businesses or operations, including high exit costs or objections from various stakeholders. In addition, Arconic may retain unforeseen liabilities for divested entities if a buyer fails to honor all commitments. Arconic’s business operations are capital intensive, and curtailment or closure of operations or facilities may include significant charges, including employee separation costs, asset impairment charges and other measures.

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In addition, Arconic has participated in, and may continue to participate in, joint ventures, strategic alliances and other similar arrangements from time to time. Although the Company has, in connection with past and existing joint ventures, sought to protect its interests, joint ventures and strategic alliances inherently involve special risks. Whether or not Arconic holds majority interests or maintains operational control in such arrangements, its partners may:
have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with or opposed to those of the Company;
exercise veto rights to block actions that Arconic believes to be in its or the joint venture’s or strategic alliance’s best interests;
take action contrary to Arconic’s policies or objectives with respect to investments; or
as a result of financial or other difficulties, be unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations under the joint venture, strategic alliance or other agreements, such as contributing capital to expansion or maintenance projects.
There can be no assurance that acquisitions, growth investments, divestitures, closures, joint ventures, strategic alliances or similar arrangements will be undertaken or completed in their entirety as planned or that they will be beneficial to Arconic, whether due to the above-described risks, unfavorable global economic conditions, increases in construction costs, currency fluctuations, political risks, or other factors.
Arconic may be unable to realize future targets or goals established for its business segments, at the levels or by the dates targeted.
From time to time, Arconic may announce future targets or goals for its business, which are based on the Company’s then current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the operating environment, economies and markets in which Arconic operates. Future targets and goals reflect the Company’s beliefs and assumptions and its perception of historical trends, then current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors management believes are appropriate in the circumstances. As such, targets and goals are inherently subject to significant business, economic, competitive and other uncertainties and contingencies regarding future events, including the risks discussed in this report. The actual outcome may be materially different. There can be no assurance that any targets or goals established by the Company will be accomplished at the levels or by the dates targeted, if at all. Failure to achieve the targets or goals by the Company may have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or the market price of its securities.
Cyber attacks and security breaches may threaten the integrity of Arconic’s intellectual property and other sensitive information, disrupt its business operations, and result in reputational harm and other negative consequences that could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.
Arconic faces global cybersecurity threats, which may range from uncoordinated individual attempts to sophisticated and targeted measures, known as advanced persistent threats, directed at the Company. Cyber attacks and security breaches may include, but are not limited to, attempts to access information, computer viruses, denial of service and other electronic security breaches.
The Company believes that it faces a heightened threat of cyber attacks due to the industries it serves, the locations of its operations and its technological innovations. The Company has experienced cybersecurity attacks in the past, including breaches of its information technology systems in which information was taken, and may experience them in the future, potentially with more frequency or sophistication. Based on information known to date, past attacks have not had a material impact on Arconic’s financial condition or results of operations. However, due to the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, the scope and impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. While the Company continually works to safeguard its systems and mitigate potential risks, there is no assurance that such actions will be sufficient to prevent cyber attacks or security breaches that manipulate or improperly use its systems or networks, compromise confidential or otherwise protected information, destroy or corrupt data, or otherwise disrupt its operations. The occurrence of such events could negatively impact Arconic’s reputation and its competitive position and could result in litigation with third parties, regulatory action, loss of business, potential liability and increased remediation costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, such attacks or breaches could require significant management attention and resources, and result in the diminution of the value of the Company’s investment in research and development.
A decline in Arconic’s financial performance or outlook could negatively impact the Company’s access to the global capital markets, reduce the Company’s liquidity and increase its borrowing costs.
Arconic has significant capital requirements and depends, in part, upon the issuance of debt to fund its operations and contractual commitments and pursue strategic acquisitions. A decline in the Company’s financial performance or outlook

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due to internal or external factors could affect the Company’s access to, and the availability or cost of, financing on acceptable terms and conditions. There can be no assurance that Arconic will have access to the global capital market on terms the Company finds acceptable. Limitations on Arconic’s ability to access the global capital markets, a reduction in the Company’s liquidity or an increase in borrowing costs could materially and adversely affect Arconic’s ability to maintain or grow its business, which in turn may adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.
A downgrade of Arconic’s credit ratings could limit Arconic’s ability to obtain future financing, increase its borrowing costs, increase the pricing of its credit facilities, adversely affect the market price of its securities, trigger letter of credit or other collateral postings, or otherwise impair its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Arconic’s credit ratings are important to the Company’s cost of capital. The major rating agencies routinely evaluate Arconic’s credit profile and assign debt ratings to the Company. This evaluation is based on a number of factors, which include financial strength, business and financial risk, as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. On May 1, 2017, Standard and Poor’s Ratings Services affirmed Arconic’s long-term debt at BBB-, an investment grade rating, with a stable outlook, and its short-term debt at A-3. On November 1, 2016, Moody’s Investor Service (Moody’s) downgraded Arconic’s long-term debt rating from Ba1, a non-investment grade, to Ba2 and its short-term debt rating from Speculative Grade Liquidity-1 to Speculative Grade Liquidity-2. Additionally, Moody’s changed the outlook from negative to stable (ratings and outlook were affirmed on November 2, 2017). On April 21, 2016, Fitch affirmed Arconic’s long-term debt rating at BB+, a non-investment grade, and short-term debt at B. Additionally, Fitch changed the current outlook from positive to evolving. On July 7, 2016, Fitch changed the current outlook from evolving to stable (ratings and outlook were affirmed on July 3, 2017).
There can be no assurance that one or more of these or other rating agencies will not take negative actions with respect to Arconic’s ratings. Increased debt levels, macroeconomic conditions, a deterioration in the Company’s debt protection metrics, a contraction in the Company’s liquidity, or other factors could potentially trigger such actions. A rating agency may lower, suspend or withdraw entirely a rating or place it on negative outlook or watch if, in that rating agency’s judgment, circumstances so warrant.
A downgrade of Arconic’s credit ratings by one or more rating agencies could adversely impact the market price of Arconic’s securities; adversely affect existing financing (for example, a downgrade by Standard and Poor’s or a further downgrade by Moody’s would subject Arconic to higher costs under Arconic’s Five-Year Revolving Credit Agreement and certain of its other revolving credit facilities); limit access to the capital (including commercial paper) or credit markets or otherwise adversely affect the availability of other new financing on favorable terms, if at all; result in more restrictive covenants in agreements governing the terms of any future indebtedness that the Company incurs; increase the cost of borrowing or fees on undrawn credit facilities; result in vendors or counterparties seeking collateral or letters of credit from Arconic; or otherwise impair Arconic’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Arconic’s business and growth prospects may be negatively impacted by limits in its capital expenditures.
Arconic requires substantial capital to invest in growth opportunities and to maintain and prolong the life and capacity of its existing facilities. Insufficient cash generation or capital project overruns may negatively impact Arconic’s ability to fund as planned its sustaining and return-seeking capital projects. Over the long term, Arconic’s ability to take advantage of improved market conditions or growth opportunities in its businesses may be constrained by earlier capital expenditure restrictions, which could adversely affect the long-term value of its business and the Company’s position in relation to its competitors.
An adverse decline in the liability discount rate, lower-than-expected investment return on pension assets and other factors could affect Arconic’s results of operations or amount of pension funding contributions in future periods.
Arconic’s results of operations may be negatively affected by the amount of expense Arconic records for its pension and other postretirement benefit plans, reductions in the fair value of plan assets and other factors. Arconic calculates income or expense for its plans using actuarial valuations in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP).
These valuations reflect assumptions about financial market and other economic conditions, which may change based on changes in key economic indicators. The most significant year-end assumptions used by Arconic to estimate pension or other postretirement benefit income or expense for the following year are the discount rate applied to plan liabilities and the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets. In addition, Arconic is required to make an annual measurement of plan assets and liabilities, which may result in a significant charge to shareholders’ equity. For a discussion regarding how Arconic’s financial statements can be affected by pension and other postretirement benefits accounting policies, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates-Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits” in Part II, Item 7. (Management’s Discussion

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and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) and Note T to the Consolidated Financial Statements-Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data). Although GAAP expense and pension funding contributions are impacted by different regulations and requirements, the key economic factors that affect GAAP expense would also likely affect the amount of cash or securities Arconic would contribute to the pension plans.
Potential pension contributions include both mandatory amounts required under federal law and discretionary contributions to improve the plans’ funded status. The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (“MAP-21”), enacted in 2012, provided temporary relief for employers like Arconic who sponsor defined benefit pension plans related to funding contributions under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 by allowing the use of a 25-year average discount rate within an upper and lower range for purposes of determining minimum funding obligations. In 2014, the Highway and Transportation Funding Act (HATFA) was signed into law. HATFA extended the relief provided by MAP-21 and modified the interest rates that had been set by MAP-21. In 2015, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (BBA 2015) was signed into law. BBA 2015 extends the relief period provided by HAFTA. Arconic believes that the relief provided by BBA 2015 will moderately reduce the cash flow sensitivity of the Company’s U.S. pension plans’ funded status to potential declines in discount rates over the next several years. However, higher than expected pension contributions due to a decline in the plans’ funded status as a result of declines in the discount rate or lower-than-expected investment returns on plan assets could have a material negative effect on the Company’s cash flows. Adverse capital market conditions could result in reductions in the fair value of plan assets and increase the Company’s liabilities related to such plans, which could adversely affect Arconic’s liquidity and results of operations.
Unanticipated changes in Arconic’s tax provisions or exposure to additional tax liabilities could affect Arconic’s future profitability.
Arconic is subject to income taxes in both the United States and various non-U.S. jurisdictions. Its domestic and international tax liabilities are dependent upon the distribution of income among these different jurisdictions. Changes in applicable domestic or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including the possibility of retroactive effect, could affect the Company’s tax expense and profitability. Arconic’s tax expense includes estimates of additional tax that may be incurred for tax exposures and reflects various estimates and assumptions. The assumptions include assessments of future earnings of the Company that could impact the valuation of its deferred tax assets. The Company’s future results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the effective tax rate as a result of a change in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the overall profitability of the Company, changes in tax legislation and rates, changes in generally accepted accounting principles, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, the results of tax audits and examinations of previously filed tax returns or related litigation and continuing assessments of its tax exposures.
Corporate tax law changes continue to be analyzed in the United States and in many other jurisdictions. In particular, on December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Act”) was signed into law, significantly reforming the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The Company continues to review the components of the 2017 Act and evaluate its consequences. As such, the ultimate impact of the 2017 Act may differ from reported amounts, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made; guidance that may be issued; and actions the Company may take as a result of the 2017 Act. The changes to the U.S. corporate tax system resulting from the 2017 Act could have a substantial impact, positive or negative, on Arconic’s future effective tax rate, cash tax expenditures, and deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Arconic’s business could be adversely affected by increases in the cost of aluminum.
Arconic derives a significant portion of its revenue from aluminum-based products. The price of primary aluminum has historically been subject to significant cyclical price fluctuations and the timing of changes in the market price of aluminum is largely unpredictable. Although the Company’s pricing of products is generally intended to pass the risk of metal price fluctuations on to the Company’s customers, Arconic may be unable to pass on the entire cost of increases to its customers and there can be a potential time lag on certain products between increases in costs for aluminum and the point when the Company can implement a corresponding increase in price to its customers. As a result, Arconic may be exposed to such price fluctuations during the time lag. If this occurs, it could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
Arconic is exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, as well as inflation, and other economic factors in the countries in which it operates.
Economic factors, including inflation and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, competitive factors in the countries in which Arconic operates, and continued volatility or deterioration in the global economic and

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financial environment could affect Arconic’s revenues, expenses and results of operations. Changes in the valuation of the U.S. dollar against other currencies, including the Euro, British pound, Chinese yuan (renminbi) and Russian ruble, may affect Arconic’s profitability as some important inputs are purchased in other currencies, while the Company’s products are generally sold in U.S. dollars.
Arconic may not realize expected benefits from its productivity and cost-reduction initiatives.
Arconic has undertaken, and may continue to undertake, productivity and cost-reduction initiatives to improve performance and conserve cash, including deployment of company-wide business process models, such as Arconic’s degrees of implementation process in which ideas are executed in a disciplined manner to generate savings, and overhead cost reductions. There is no assurance that these initiatives will be successful or beneficial to Arconic or that estimated cost savings from such activities will be realized. If Arconic fails to achieve net cost savings at anticipated levels, its business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Arconic’s customers may reduce their demand for aluminum products in favor of alternative materials.
Certain applications of Arconic’s aluminum-based products compete with products made from other materials, such as steel, titanium and composites. The willingness of customers to pursue materials other than aluminum depends upon the desire to achieve specific attributes. For example, the commercial aerospace industry has used and continues to evaluate the further use of alternative materials to aluminum, such as titanium and composites, in order to reduce the weight and increase the fuel efficiency of aircraft. Additionally, the automotive industry, while motivated to reduce vehicle weight through the use of aluminum, may revert to steel or other materials for certain applications. Further, the decision to use aluminum may be impacted by aluminum prices. The willingness of customers to accept other materials in lieu of aluminum could adversely affect the demand for certain of Arconic’s products, and thus adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
Arconic’s profitability could be adversely affected by volatility in the availability or cost of raw materials.
Arconic’s results of operations may be affected by changes in the availability or cost of raw materials (e.g., aluminum, nickel, titanium dioxide), as well as freight costs associated with transportation of raw materials. The availability and costs of certain raw materials necessary for the production of Arconic’s products may be influenced by private or government entities, changes in world politics or regulatory requirements, labor relations between the producers and their work forces, unstable governments in exporting nations, export quotas, sanctions, new or increased import duties, countervailing or anti-dumping duties, market forces of supply and demand, and inflation. In addition, from time to time, commodity prices may fall rapidly. When this happens, suppliers may withdraw capacity from the market until prices improve, which may cause periodic supply interruptions. Arconic may be unable to offset fully the effects of raw material shortages or higher costs through price increases, productivity improvements or cost reduction programs. Shortages or price fluctuations in raw materials could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s operating results.
Union disputes and other employee relations issues could adversely affect Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
A significant portion of Arconic’s employees are represented by labor unions in a number of countries under various collective bargaining agreements with varying durations and expiration dates. For more information, see “Employees” in Part I, Item 1. (Business) of this report. While Arconic was previously successful in renegotiating its collective bargaining agreements with various unions, Arconic may not be able to satisfactorily renegotiate collective bargaining agreements in the United States and other countries when they expire. In addition, existing collective bargaining agreements may not prevent a strike or work stoppage at Arconic’s facilities in the future. Arconic may also be subject to general country strikes or work stoppages unrelated to its business or collective bargaining agreements. Any such work stoppages (or potential work stoppages) could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
A failure to attract, retain or provide adequate succession plans for key personnel could adversely affect Arconic’s operations and competitiveness.
Arconic’s existing operations and development projects require highly skilled executives and staff with relevant industry and technical experience. The inability of the Company to attract and retain such people may adversely impact Arconic’s ability to meet project demands adequately and fill roles in existing operations. Skills shortages in engineering, manufacturing, technology, construction and maintenance contractors and other labor market inadequacies may also impact activities. These shortages may adversely impact the cost and schedule of development projects and the cost and efficiency of existing operations.

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In addition, the continuity of key personnel and the preservation of institutional knowledge are vital to the success of the Company’s growth and business strategy. The loss of key members of management and other personnel could significantly harm Arconic’s business, and any unplanned turnover, or failure to develop adequate succession plans for key positions, could deplete the Company’s institutional knowledge base, delay or impede the execution of the Company’s business plans and erode Arconic’s competitiveness.
Arconic may be exposed to significant legal proceedings, investigations or changes in U.S. federal, state or foreign law, regulation or policy.
Arconic’s results of operations or liquidity in a particular period could be affected by new or increasingly stringent laws, regulatory requirements or interpretations, or outcomes of significant legal proceedings or investigations adverse to Arconic. The Company may experience a change in effective tax rates or become subject to unexpected or rising costs associated with business operations or provision of health or welfare benefits to employees due to changes in laws, regulations or policies. The Company is also subject to a variety of legal and regulatory compliance risks associated with its business and products. These risks include, among other things, potential claims relating to product liability, health and safety, environmental matters, intellectual property rights, government contracts and taxes, as well as compliance with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations governing export, anti-bribery, antitrust and competition, sales and trading practices, and the manufacture and sale of products. Arconic could be subject to fines, penalties, damages (in certain cases, treble damages), or suspension or debarment from government contracts.
For example, in the event that an Arconic product fails to perform as expected, regardless of fault, or is used in an unexpected manner, and such failure or use results in, or is alleged to result in, bodily injury and/or property damage or other losses, Arconic may be subject to product liability lawsuits and other claims or may be required or requested by its customers to participate in a recall or other corrective action involving such product. In addition, if an Arconic product is perceived to be defective or unsafe, sales of the Company’s products could be diminished, and the Company could be subject to further liability claims. Even if Arconic successfully defends against these types of claims, the Company could still be required to spend a substantial amount of money in connection with legal proceedings or investigations with respect to such claims; the Company’s management could be required to devote significant time, attention and operational resources responding to and defending against these claims; and Arconic’s reputation could suffer, any of which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.
While Arconic believes it has adopted appropriate risk management and compliance programs to address and reduce these risks, including insurance arrangements with respect to these risks, such measures may provide inadequate protection against liabilities that may arise. The global and diverse nature of Arconic’s operations means that these risks will continue to exist, and additional legal proceedings and contingencies may arise from time to time. In addition, various factors or developments can lead the Company to change current estimates of liabilities or make such estimates for matters previously unsusceptible to reasonable estimates, such as a significant judicial ruling or judgment, a significant settlement, significant regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling or settlement or unfavorable changes in laws, regulations or policies, or other contingencies that the Company cannot predict with certainty could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows in a particular period. For additional information regarding the legal proceedings involving the Company, see the discussion in Part I, Item 3. (Legal Proceedings) of this report and in Note L to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8. (Financial Statements and Supplementary Data).
Arconic is subject to a broad range of health, safety and environmental laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which it operates and may be exposed to substantial costs and liabilities associated with such laws and regulations.
Arconic’s operations worldwide are subject to numerous complex and increasingly stringent health, safety and environmental laws and regulations. The costs of complying with such laws and regulations, including participation in assessments and cleanups of sites, as well as internal voluntary programs, are significant and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Environmental laws may impose cleanup liability on owners and occupiers of contaminated property, including past or divested properties, regardless of whether the owners and occupiers caused the contamination or whether the activity that caused the contamination was lawful at the time it was conducted. Environmental matters for which Arconic may be liable may arise in the future at its present sites, where no problem is currently known, at previously owned sites, sites previously operated by the Company, sites owned by its predecessors or sites that it may acquire in the future. Compliance with health, safety and environmental laws and regulations may prove to be more challenging and costly than the Company anticipates. For example, new data and information, including information about the ways in which the Company’s products are used, may lead the Company, regulatory authorities, government agencies or other entities or organizations to publish guidelines or recommendations, or impose restrictions, related to the manufacturing or use of the Company’s products. This could lead to

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reduced sales or market acceptance of the Company’s products. Arconic’s results of operations or liquidity in a particular period could be affected by certain health, safety or environmental matters, including remediation costs and damages related to certain sites as well as other health and safety risks relating to its operations and products. Additionally, evolving regulatory standards and expectations can result in increased litigation and/or increased costs, all of which can have a material and adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Arconic is subject to privacy and data security/protection laws in the jurisdictions in which it operates and may be exposed to substantial costs and liabilities associated with such laws and regulations.
The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding, with frequent imposition of new and changing requirements. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR’), which will become effective in May 2018, imposes significant new requirements on how companies process and transfer personal data, as well as significant fines for non-compliance. Compliance with changes in privacy and information security laws and standards may result in significant expense due to increased investment in technology and the development of new operational processes, which could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the payment of potentially significant fines or penalties in the event of a breach of the GDRP or other privacy and information security laws, as well as the negative publicity associated with such a breach, could damage the Company’s reputation and adversely impact product demand and customer relationships.
Arconic may be subject to securities litigation, which could cause the Company to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources.
Arconic currently is, and may in the future become, subject to claims and litigation alleging violations of the securities laws. Arconic is generally obliged, to the extent permitted by law, to indemnify its current and former directors and officers who are named as defendants in these types of lawsuits. Regardless of the outcome, securities litigation may require substantial attention from management and could result in significant legal expenses, settlement costs or damage awards that could have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Failure to comply with domestic or international employment and related laws could result in penalties or costs that could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s business results.
Arconic is subject to a variety of domestic and foreign employment laws, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act (which governs such matters as minimum wages, overtime and other working conditions), state and local wage laws, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (“ERISA”), and regulations related to safety, discrimination, organizing, whistle-blowing, classification of employees, privacy and severance payments, citizenship requirements, and healthcare insurance mandates. Allegations that Arconic has violated such laws or regulations could damage the Company’s reputation and lead to fines from or settlements with federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities or damages payable to employees, which could have a material adverse impact on Arconic’s operations and financial condition.
Arconic may be affected by global climate change or by legal, regulatory, or market responses to such change.
Increased concern over climate change has led to new and proposed legislative and regulatory initiatives, such as cap-and-trade systems and additional limits on emissions of greenhouse gases. New laws enacted could directly and indirectly affect Arconic’s customers and suppliers (through an increase in the cost of production or their ability to produce satisfactory products) or business (through an impact on Arconic’s inventory availability, cost of sales, operations or demand for Arconic products), which could result in an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Compliance with any new or more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretations of existing laws, could require additional expenditures by the Company or its customers or suppliers. Also, Arconic relies on natural gas, electricity, fuel oil and transport fuel to operate its facilities. Any increased costs of these energy sources because of new laws could be passed along to the Company and its customers and suppliers, which could also have a negative impact on Arconic’s profitability.
Anti-takeover provisions could prevent or delay a change in control of Arconic, including a takeover attempt by a third party and limit the power of Arconic’s shareholders.
Arconic’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with Arconic’s Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. For example, Arconic is subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which imposes certain restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between the Company and any holder of 15% or more of the Company’s outstanding common stock, which could make it more difficult for another party to acquire Arconic. Additionally, the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation authorizes Arconic’s Board of Directors to issue preferred stock or adopt other

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anti-takeover measures without shareholder approval. These provisions may apply even if an offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that Arconic’s Board of Directors determines is not in the best interests of Arconic’s shareholders. These provisions may also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of Arconic common stock, or prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
Dividends on Arconic common stock could be reduced or eliminated in the event of material future deterioration in business conditions or in other circumstances.
The existence, timing, declaration, amount and payment of future dividends to Arconic’s shareholders falls within the discretion of Arconic’s Board of Directors. The Arconic Board of Director’s decisions regarding the payment of dividends will depend on many factors, such as Arconic’s financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, debt service obligations, covenants associated with certain of the Company’s debt service obligations, industry practice, legal requirements, regulatory constraints and other factors that Arconic’s Board of Directors deems relevant. Arconic’s Board of Directors may determine to reduce or eliminate Arconic’s common stock dividend in the event of material future deteriorations in business conditions or in other circumstances.
Changes in the United Kingdom’s economic and other relationships with the European Union could adversely affect Arconic.
In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom elected to withdraw from the European Union in a national referendum (also referred to as “Brexit”). The ultimate effects of Brexit on Arconic are difficult to predict, but because the Company currently operates and conducts business in the United Kingdom and in Europe, the results of the referendum and any eventual withdrawal could cause disruptions and create uncertainty to Arconic’s businesses, including affecting the business of and/or our relationships with Arconic’s customers and suppliers, as well as altering the relationship among tariffs and currencies, including the value of the British pound and the Euro relative to the U.S. dollar. Such disruptions and uncertainties could adversely affect Arconic’s financial condition, operating results and cash flows. In addition, Brexit could result in legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as new legal relationships between the United Kingdom and the European Union are established. The ultimate effects of Brexit on Arconic will also depend on the terms of any agreements the United Kingdom and the European Union make to retain access to each other’s respective markets either during a transitional period or more permanently.
Arconic may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the Separation, and failure to realize such benefits in a timely manner may materially adversely affect Arconic’s business.
Arconic may be unable to achieve the full strategic and financial benefits expected to result from the Separation, or such benefits may be delayed or not occur at all. The Separation is expected to provide the following benefits, among others: (i) enabling the management of each company to pursue more effectively its own distinct operating priorities and strategies, to focus on strengthening its core business and its unique needs, and to pursue distinct and targeted opportunities for long-term growth and profitability; (ii) permitting each company to allocate its financial resources to meet the unique needs of its own business, allowing each company to intensify its focus on its distinct strategic priorities and to pursue more effectively its own distinct capital structures and capital allocation strategies; (iii) allowing each company to articulate more effectively a clear investment thesis to attract a long-term investor base suited to its business and providing investors with two distinct and targeted investment opportunities; (iv) creating an independent equity currency tracking each company’s underlying business, affording Arconic and Alcoa Corporation direct access to the capital markets and facilitating each company’s ability to consummate future acquisitions or other restructuring transactions utilizing its common stock; (v) allowing each company more consistent application of incentive structures and targets, due to the common nature of the underlying businesses; and (vi) separating and simplifying the structures required to manage two distinct and differing underlying businesses.
Arconic may not achieve these and other anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons, including, among others: (i) Arconic may be more susceptible to market fluctuations and other adverse events than if Alcoa Corporation were still a part of the Company because Arconic’s business is less diversified than it was prior to the completion of the Separation; and (ii) as a smaller, independent company, Arconic may be unable to obtain certain goods, services and technologies at prices or on terms as favorable as those it obtained prior to completion of the Separation. If Arconic fails to achieve some or all of the benefits expected to result from the Separation, or if such benefits are delayed, it could have a material adverse effect on Arconic’s competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Alcoa Corporation may fail to perform under various transaction agreements that were executed as part of the Separation.
In connection with the Separation, Arconic and Alcoa Corporation entered into a Separation and Distribution Agreement and also entered into various other agreements, including a Tax Matters Agreement, an Employee Matters Agreement, intellectual property license agreements, a metal supply agreement, real estate and office leases, a spare parts loan agreement and an agreement relating to the North American packaging business. The Separation and Distribution Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement and the Employee Matters Agreement, together with the documents and agreements by which the internal reorganization of the Company prior to the Separation was effected, determined the allocation of assets and liabilities between the companies following the Separation for those respective areas and included any necessary indemnifications related to liabilities and obligations. Arconic will rely on Alcoa Corporation to satisfy its performance and payment obligations under these agreements. If Alcoa Corporation is unable or unwilling to satisfy its obligations under these agreements, including its indemnification obligations, we could incur operational difficulties and/or losses.
In connection with the Separation, Alcoa Corporation has agreed to indemnify Arconic for certain liabilities and Arconic has agreed to indemnify Alcoa Corporation for certain liabilities. If Arconic is required to pay under these indemnities to Alcoa Corporation, Arconic’s financial results could be negatively impacted. The Alcoa Corporation indemnity may be insufficient to hold Arconic harmless from the full amount of liabilities for which Alcoa Corporation will be allocated responsibility, and Alcoa Corporation may be unable to satisfy its indemnification obligations in the future.
Pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement and certain other agreements with Alcoa Corporation, Alcoa Corporation has agreed to indemnify Arconic for certain liabilities, and Arconic has agreed to indemnify Alcoa Corporation for certain liabilities, in each case for uncapped amounts. Indemnities that Arconic may be required to provide Alcoa Corporation are not subject to any cap, may be significant and could negatively impact Arconic’s business. Third parties could also seek to hold Arconic responsible for any of the liabilities that Alcoa Corporation has agreed to retain. Any amounts Arconic is required to pay pursuant to these indemnification obligations and other liabilities could require Arconic to divert cash that would otherwise have been used in furtherance of the Company’s operating business. Further, the indemnity from Alcoa Corporation may be insufficient to protect Arconic against the full amount of such liabilities, and Alcoa Corporation may be unable to satisfy its indemnification obligations fully. Moreover, even if Arconic ultimately succeeds in recovering from Alcoa Corporation any amounts for which Arconic is held liable, Arconic may be temporarily required to bear such losses. Each of these risks could negatively affect Arconic’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Separation could result in substantial tax liability.
It was a condition to the Distribution that (i) the private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters relating to the Separation and the Distribution received by Arconic remain valid and be satisfactory to Arconic’s Board of Directors and (ii) Arconic receive an opinion of its outside counsel, satisfactory to the Board of Directors, regarding the qualification of the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, as a transaction that is generally tax-free, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Both of these conditions were satisfied prior to the Distribution. However, the IRS private letter ruling and the opinion of counsel were based upon and relied on, among other things, various facts and assumptions, as well as certain representations, statements and undertakings of Arconic and Alcoa Corporation, including those relating to the past and future conduct of Arconic and Alcoa Corporation. If any of these representations, statements or undertakings is, or becomes, inaccurate or incomplete, or if Arconic or Alcoa Corporation breaches any of its representations or covenants contained in any of the Separation- related agreements and documents or in any documents relating to the IRS private letter ruling and/or the opinion of counsel, the IRS private letter ruling and/or the opinion of counsel may be invalid and the conclusions reached therein could be jeopardized.
Notwithstanding Arconic’s receipt of the IRS private letter ruling and the opinion of counsel, the IRS could determine that the Distribution and/or certain related transactions should be treated as taxable transactions for U.S. federal income tax purposes if it determines that any of the representations, assumptions or undertakings upon which the IRS private letter ruling or the opinion of counsel was based are false or have been violated. In addition, the IRS private letter ruling does not address all of the issues that are relevant to determining whether the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, qualifies as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the opinion of counsel represents the judgment of such counsel and is not binding on the IRS or any court and the IRS or a court may disagree with the conclusions in the opinion of counsel. Accordingly, notwithstanding receipt by Arconic of the IRS private letter ruling and the opinion of counsel, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that the Distribution and/or certain related transactions do not qualify for tax-free treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. In the

26


event the IRS were to prevail with such challenge, Arconic, Alcoa Corporation and Arconic shareholders could be subject to significant U.S. federal income tax liability.
If the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, fails to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, in general, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Arconic would recognize taxable gain as if it had sold the Alcoa Corporation common stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value and Arconic shareholders who received Alcoa Corporation shares in the distribution would be subject to tax as if they had received a taxable distribution equal to the fair market value of such shares.
Under current U.S. federal income tax law, even if the Distribution, together with certain related transactions, otherwise qualifies for tax-free treatment under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, the Distribution may nevertheless be rendered taxable to Arconic and its shareholders as a result of certain post-Distribution transactions, including certain acquisitions of shares or assets of Arconic or Alcoa Corporation. The possibility of rendering the Distribution taxable as a result of such transactions may limit Arconic’s ability to pursue certain equity issuances, strategic transactions or other transactions that would otherwise maximize the value of Arconic’s business. Under the Tax Matters Agreement that Arconic entered into with Alcoa Corporation, Alcoa Corporation may be required to indemnify Arconic against any additional taxes and related amounts resulting from (i) an acquisition of all or a portion of the equity securities or assets of Alcoa Corporation, whether by merger or otherwise (and regardless of whether Alcoa Corporation participated in or otherwise facilitated the acquisition), (ii) issuing equity securities beyond certain thresholds, (iii) repurchasing shares of Alcoa Corporation stock other than in certain open-market transactions, (iv) ceasing actively to conduct certain of its businesses, (v) other actions or failures to act by Alcoa Corporation or (vi) any of Alcoa Corporation’s representations, covenants or undertakings contained in any of the Separation-related agreements and documents or in any documents relating to the IRS private letter ruling and/or the opinion of counsel being incorrect or violated. However, the indemnity from Alcoa Corporation may be insufficient to protect Arconic against the full amount of such additional taxes or related liabilities, and Alcoa Corporation may be unable to satisfy its indemnification obligations fully. Moreover, even if Arconic ultimately succeeds in recovering from Alcoa Corporation any amounts for which Arconic is held liable, Arconic may be temporarily required to bear such losses. In addition, Arconic and Arconic’s subsidiaries may incur certain tax costs in connection with the Separation, including tax costs resulting from separations in non-U.S. jurisdictions, which may be material. Each of these risks could negatively affect Arconic’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2. Properties.
Arconic’s principal office is located at 390 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10022-4608. Arconic’s corporate center is located at 201 Isabella Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212-5858. The Arconic Technology Center for research and development is located at 100 Technical Drive, New Kensington, Pennsylvania 15069-0001.
Arconic leases some of its facilities; however, it is the opinion of management that the leases do not materially affect the continued use of the properties or the properties’ values.
Arconic believes that its facilities are suitable and adequate for its operations. Although no title examination of properties owned by Arconic has been made for the purpose of this report, the Company knows of no material defects in title to any such properties. See Notes A and H to the financial statements for information on properties, plants and equipment.
Arconic has active plants and holdings under the following segments and in the following geographic areas:
ENGINEERED PRODUCTS AND SOLUTIONS
See the table and related text in the Engineered Products and Solutions Facilities section on page 6 of this report.
GLOBAL ROLLED PRODUCTS
See the table and related text in the Global Rolled Products Facilities section on page 8 of this report.
TRANSPORTATION AND CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS
See the table and related text in the Transportation and Construction Solutions section on page 9 of this report.

27


Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
In the ordinary course of its business, Arconic is involved in a number of lawsuits and claims, both actual and potential.
Environmental Matters
Arconic is involved in proceedings under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, also known as Superfund (CERCLA) or analogous state provisions regarding the usage, disposal, storage or treatment of hazardous substances at a number of sites in the U.S. The Company has committed to participate, or is engaged in negotiations with federal or state authorities relative to its alleged liability for participation, in clean-up efforts at several such sites. The most significant of these matters, the remediation of the Grasse River in Massena, NY, is discussed in the Environmental Matters section of Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements under the caption “Environmental Matters” on page 84.
As previously reported, on June 21, 2017, the UK Environment Agency (the “Agency”) confirmed that it will prosecute Firth Rixson Metals Limited in Chesterfield (UK) Magistrates Court in relation to an environmental incident that took place on April 22, 2015 at the Company’s Glossop UK site. It is alleged that an acid scrubber unit at the site caused a leak into the local river resulting in environmental damage, including the death of approximately 200 fish. Arconic was not successful in persuading the Agency to drop the prosecution in lieu of an enforcement undertaking (a civil remedy) despite the fact that cyanide, a compound not used on the site, had been identified in the samples of water taken at the time. A hearing before the Court was held on September 13, 2017 at which Firth Rixson pled guilty to the underlying offense of allowing a release to occur to the nearby stream. A follow-up hearing was held on December 6, 2017 at which the Court accepted Firth Rixson’s guilty plea.  The Court categorized the Company’s level of culpability as negligent and the level of harm to the environment as level 2 (on a scale of 1 to 4 with 1 being the most serious). The Court fined Firth Rixson £80,000 (converted to approximately $108,355) plus costs of approximately £19,000 (converted to $25,734).  The Company paid the fine and costs and accordingly, this matter is now closed and no further reports will be made.
Reynobond PE
As previously reported, on June 13, 2017, the Grenfell Tower in London, UK caught fire resulting in fatalities, injuries and damage. A French subsidiary of Arconic, Arconic Architectural Products SAS (AAP SAS), supplied a product, Reynobond PE, to its customer, a cladding system fabricator, which used the product as one component of the overall cladding system on Grenfell Tower. The fabricator supplied its portion of the cladding system to the façade installer, who then completed and installed the system under the direction of the general contractor. Neither Arconic nor AAP SAS was involved in the design or installation of the system used at the Grenfell Tower, nor did it have a role in any other aspect of the building’s refurbishment or original design. Regulatory investigations into the overall Grenfell Tower matter are being conducted, including a criminal investigation by the London Metro Police, a Public Inquiry by the British government and a consumer protection inquiry by a French public authority. AAP SAS has sought and received core participant status in the Public Inquiry. The Company will no longer sell the PE product for architectural use on buildings.
Sullivan v. Arconic Inc. et al. A purported class action complaint was filed on July 18, 2017 in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against Arconic Inc., as well as two former Arconic executives and several current and former Arconic directors, and banks that acted as underwriters for Arconic’s September 18, 2014 preferred stock offering. The complaint alleges that statements in the registration statement for Arconic’s September 18, 2014 preferred stock offering were false and misleading in light of the subsequent Grenfell Tower fire. The complaint also alleges that Arconic’s failure to disclose at the time of the offering that it was obtaining significant profits through sales that exposed it to substantial liability violated the federal securities laws. The plaintiffs seek, among other things, unspecified compensatory and rescissory damages and an award of attorney and expert fees and expenses. On August 25, 2017, this case was dismissed by the plaintiff without prejudice and re-filed on September 15, 2017 in the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. On February 7, 2018, on motion from certain putative class members, the court consolidated Sullivan and Howard v. Arconic Inc. et al., another case pending in the Western District of Pennsylvania (described below), and appointed lead plaintiffs in the consolidated case.
Howard v. Arconic Inc. et al. A purported class action complaint was filed on August 11, 2017 in the United States District Court for Western District of Pennsylvania against Arconic Inc., and Klaus Kleinfeld. The complaint alleges that Arconic and Mr. Kleinfeld made various false and misleading statements, and omitted to disclose material information, about the Company’s business and financial prospects and, specifically, the risks of the Reynobond PE product. The complaint alleges that the statements in Arconic’s Form 10-K for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, its 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Annual Reports, and its 2016 Annual Highlights Report about management’s recognition of its responsibility to conduct the Company’s affairs according to the highest standards of personal and corporate conduct and within the laws of the host countries in which it operates, and its failure to disclose that Arconic knowingly supplied highly flammable Reynobond PE cladding panels for use in construction that significantly increased the risk of property damage, injury and death, were false and misleading in violation of the federal securities laws and artificially inflated the prices of Arconic’s

28


securities. The plaintiffs seek, among other things, unspecified compensatory damages and an award of attorney and expert fees and expenses. On February 7, 2018, on motion from certain putative class members, the court consolidated Howard and Sullivan v. Arconic Inc. et al., another case pending in the Western District of Pennsylvania (described above), and appointed lead plaintiffs in the consolidated case.
While the Company believes that these cases are without merit and intends to challenge them vigorously, there can be no assurances regarding the ultimate resolution of these matters. Given the preliminary nature of these matters and the uncertainty of litigation, the Company cannot reasonably estimate at this time the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome or the possible loss or range of losses in the event of an unfavorable outcome. The Board of Directors has also received letters, purportedly sent on behalf of shareholders, reciting allegations similar to those made in the federal court lawsuits and demanding that the Board authorize the Company to initiate litigation against members of management, the Board and others. The Board of Directors has appointed a Special Litigation Committee of the Board to review these shareholder demand letters and consider the appropriate course of action. In addition, lawsuits are pending in state court in New York and federal court in Pennsylvania, initiated, respectively, by another purported shareholder and by the Company, concerning the shareholder’s claimed right, which the Company contests, to inspect the Company’s books and records related to the Grenfell Tower fire and Reynobond PE.
Other Matters
As previously reported, Arconic Inc. and its subsidiaries and former subsidiaries are defendants in lawsuits filed on behalf of persons alleging injury as a result of occupational or other exposure to asbestos. Arconic, its subsidiaries and former subsidiaries have numerous insurance policies over many years that provide coverage for asbestos related claims. Arconic has significant insurance coverage and believes that Arconic’s reserves are adequate for its known asbestos exposure related liabilities. The costs of defense and settlement have not been and are not expected to be material to the results of operations, cash flows, and financial position of the Company.
Tax
Pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2016, entered into between the Company and Alcoa Corporation in connection with the Separation, the Company shares responsibility with Alcoa Corporation for, and Alcoa Corporation has agreed to partially indemnify the Company with respect to, the following matter.
As previously reported, in September 2010, following a corporate income tax audit covering the 2003 through 2005 tax years, an assessment was received as a result of Spain’s tax authorities disallowing certain interest deductions claimed by a Spanish consolidated tax group owned by the Company. An appeal of this assessment in Spain’s Central Tax Administrative Court by the Company was denied in October 2013. In December 2013, the Company filed an appeal of the assessment in Spain’s National Court.
On January 16, 2017, Spain’s National Court issued a decision in favor of the Company related to the assessment received in September 2010. The Spanish Tax Administration did not file an appeal within the applicable period. Based on this decision and recent confirming correspondence from the Spanish Tax Administration, the matter is now closed. The Company will not be responsible for any assessment related to the 2003 through 2005 tax years.
Additionally, following a corporate income tax audit of the same Spanish tax group for the 2006 through 2009 tax years, Spain’s tax authorities issued an assessment in July 2013, similarly disallowing certain interest deductions. In August 2013, the Company filed an appeal of this second assessment in Spain’s Central Tax Administrative Court, which was denied in January 2015. The Company filed an appeal of this second assessment in Spain’s National Court in March 2015. Spain’s National Court has not yet rendered a decision related to the assessment received in July 2013. The assessment for the 2006 through 2009 tax years is $155 million (€130 million), including interest.
The Company believes it has meritorious arguments to support its tax position and intends to vigorously litigate the assessments through Spain’s court system. However, in the event the Company is unsuccessful, a portion of the assessments may be offset with existing net operating losses available to the Spanish consolidated tax group, which would be shared between the Company and Alcoa Corporation as provided for in the Tax Matters Agreement. Additionally, while the tax years 2010 through 2013 are closed to audit, it is possible that the Company may receive similar assessments for tax years subsequent to 2013. At this time, the Company is unable to reasonably predict an ultimate outcome for this matter.
Matters Previously Reported – Alcoa Corporation
We have included the matters discussed below in which the Company remains party to proceedings relating to Alcoa Corporation in accordance with SEC regulations. The Separation and Distribution Agreement, dated October 31, 2016, entered into between the Company and Alcoa Corporation in connection with the Separation, provides for cross-indemnities between

29


the Company and Alcoa Corporation for claims subject to indemnification. The Company does not expect any of such matters to result in a net claim against it.
St. Croix Proceedings
Abednego and Abraham cases. As previously reported, on January 14, 2010, Arconic was served with a multi-plaintiff action complaint involving several thousand individual persons claiming to be residents of St. Croix who are alleged to have suffered personal injury or property damage from Hurricane Georges or winds blowing material from the St. Croix Alumina, L.L.C. (“SCA”) facility on the island of St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands) since the time of the hurricane. This complaint, Abednego, et al. v. Alcoa, et al. was filed in the Superior Court of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Division. Following an unsuccessful attempt by Arconic and SCA to remove the case to federal court, the case has been lodged in the Superior Court. The complaint names as defendants the same entities that were sued in a February 1999 action arising out of the impact of Hurricane Georges on the island and added as a defendant the current owner of the alumina facility property.
Also as previously reported, on March 1, 2012, Arconic was served with a separate multi-plaintiff action complaint involving approximately 200 individual persons alleging claims essentially identical to those set forth in the Abednego v. Alcoa complaint. This complaint, Abraham, et al. v. Alcoa, et al., was filed on behalf of plaintiffs previously dismissed in the federal court proceeding involving the original litigation over Hurricane Georges impacts. The matter was originally filed in the Superior Court of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Division, on March 30, 2011.
Arconic and other defendants in the Abraham and Abednego cases filed or renewed motions to dismiss each case in March 2012 and August 2012 following service of the Abraham complaint on Arconic and remand of the Abednego complaint to Superior Court, respectively. By order dated August 10, 2015, the Superior Court dismissed plaintiffs’ complaints without prejudice to re-file the complaints individually, rather than as a multi-plaintiff filing. The order also preserves the defendants’ grounds for dismissal if new, individual complaints are filed. On July 7, 2017, the Court issued an order and associated memoranda on plaintiff’s multiple motions for extension of time to file the individual Complaints. Following the court’s July 7, 2017 order, a total of 429 complaints were filed and accepted by the court by the deadline of July 30, 2017 (and consolidated into the Red Dust Claims docket (Master Case No.: SX-15-CV-620)). These complaints include claims of about 1,260 individual plaintiffs. As a result of the devastation caused by two hurricanes, court operations were suspended until very recently. On December 11, 2017, the court issued a new scheduling order and further set a scheduling conference for January 18, 2018. At that conference, the court set the next status conference for late July 2018.
Other Contingencies
In addition to the matters discussed above, various other lawsuits, claims, and proceedings have been or may be instituted or asserted against Arconic, including those pertaining to environmental, product liability, safety and health, employment and tax matters. While the amounts claimed in these other matters may be substantial, the ultimate liability cannot currently be determined because of the considerable uncertainties that exist. Therefore, it is possible that the Company’s liquidity or results of operations in a particular period could be materially affected by one or more of these other matters. However, based on facts currently available, management believes that the disposition of these other matters that are pending or asserted will not have a material adverse effect, individually or in the aggregate, on the results of operations, financial position, or cash flows of the Company.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.


30


PART II
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
The Company’s common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Prior to the Separation of Alcoa Corporation from the Company, the Company’s common stock traded under the symbol “AA.” In connection with the separation, on November 1, 2016, the Company changed its stock symbol and its common stock began trading under the symbol “ARNC.”
On October 5, 2016, the Company’s common shareholders approved a 1-for-3 reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding and authorized shares of common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”). As a result of the Reverse Stock Split, every three shares of issued and outstanding common stock were combined into one issued and outstanding share of common stock, without any change in the par value per share. The Reverse Stock Split reduced the number of shares of common stock outstanding from approximately 1.3 billion shares to approximately 0.4 billion shares, and proportionately decreased the number of authorized shares of common stock from 1.8 billion to 0.6 billion shares. The Company’s common stock began trading on a Reverse Stock Split-adjusted basis on October 6, 2016.
On November 1, 2016, the Company completed the Separation of its business into two independent, publicly traded companies: the Company and Alcoa Corporation. The Separation was effected by means of a pro rata distribution by the Company of 80.1% of the outstanding shares of Alcoa Corporation common stock to the Company’s shareholders. The Company’s shareholders of record as of the close of business on October 20, 2016 (the “Record Date”) received one share of Alcoa Corporation common stock for every three shares of the Company’s common stock held as of the Record Date. The Company retained 19.9% of the outstanding common stock of Alcoa Corporation immediately following the Separation. See disposition of retained shares in Note C to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices and quarterly dividend amounts per share of the Company’s common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, adjusted to take into account the Reverse Stock Split effected on October 6, 2016. The prices listed below for those dates prior to November 1, 2016 reflect stock trading prices of Alcoa Inc. prior to the Separation of Alcoa Corporation from the Company on November 1, 2016, and therefore are not comparable to the Company’s post-Separation prices.
 
  
2017
2016
Quarter
High
Low
Dividend
High
Low
Dividend
First
$
30.69

$
18.64

$
0.06

$
30.66

$
18.42

$
0.09

Second
28.65

21.76

0.06

34.50

26.34

0.09

Third
26.84

22.67

0.06

32.91

27.09

0.09

Fourth (Separation occurred on November 1, 2016)
27.85

22.74

0.06

32.10

16.75

0.09

Year
$
30.69

$
18.64

$
0.24

$
34.50

$
16.75

$
0.36

The number of holders of record of common stock was approximately 12,271 as of February 16, 2018.

31


Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the most recent five-year performance of the Company’s common stock with (1) the Standard & Poor’s 500® Index and (2) the Standard & Poor’s 500® Materials Index, a group of 25 companies categorized by Standard & Poor’s as active in the “materials” market sector. The graph assumes, in each case, an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2012, and the reinvestment of dividends. Historical prices prior to the separation of Alcoa Corporation from the Company on November 1, 2016, have been adjusted to reflect the value of the Separation transaction. The graph, table and related information shall not be deemed to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.
chart-13253991862dc5c260d.jpg

Copyright© 2018 Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved. 

As of December 31,
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Arconic Inc.
$
100

$
124.15

$
186.02

$
117.48

$
99.40

$
147.47

S&P 500® Index
100

132.39

150.51

152.59

170.84

208.14

S&P 500® Materials Index
100

125.60

134.28

123.03

143.56

177.79



32


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The separation of Alcoa Inc. into two standalone, publicly-traded companies, Arconic Inc. (the new name for Alcoa Inc.) and Alcoa Corporation, became effective on November 1, 2016 (the “Separation Transaction”). The financial results of Alcoa Corporation for all periods prior to the Separation Transaction have been retrospectively reflected in the Statement of Consolidated Operations as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from continuing operations and segment results for 2016 and all prior periods presented prior to the Separation Transaction. The cash flows related to Alcoa Corporation have not been segregated and are included in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows for 2016 and all prior periods presented.
(dollars in millions, except per-share amounts) 
For the year ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Sales
$
12,960

$
12,394

$
12,413

$
12,542

$
11,997

Amounts attributable to Arconic:
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from continuing operations(1)
$
(74
)
$
(1,062
)
$
(157
)
$
(61
)
$
(63
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations(2)

121

(165
)
329

(2,222
)
Net (loss) income
$
(74
)
$
(941
)
$
(322
)
$
268

$
(2,285
)
(Loss) earnings per share attributable to Arconic common shareholders:(3)
 
 
 
 
 
Basic:
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from continuing operations
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.58
)
$
(0.54
)
$
(0.21
)
$
(0.18
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations

0.27

(0.39
)
0.85

(6.23
)
Net (loss) income
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.31
)
$
(0.93
)
$
0.64

$
(6.41
)
Diluted:
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from continuing operations
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.58
)
$
(0.54
)
$
(0.21
)
$
(0.18
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations

0.27

(0.39
)
0.84

(6.23
)
Net (loss) income
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.31
)
$
(0.93
)
$
0.63

$
(6.41
)
Cash dividends declared per common share(3)
$
0.24

$
0.36

$
0.36

$
0.36

$
0.36

Total assets
18,718

20,038

36,477

37,298

35,623

Total debt
6,844

8,084

8,827

8,445

7,826

Cash provided from operations(4)
701

870

1,582

1,674

1,578

Capital expenditures:
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures—continuing operations
596

827

789

775

626

Capital expenditures—discontinued operations

298

391

444

567

Total capital expenditures
$
596

$
1,125

$
1,180

$
1,219

$
1,193

(1) 
Calculated from the accompanying Statement of Consolidated Operations as Loss from continuing operations after income taxes less Net income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests.
(2) 
Calculated from the accompanying Statement of Consolidated Operations as Income (loss) from discontinued operations after income taxes less Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interests.
(3) 
Per share data for all periods presented has been retroactively restated to reflect the 1-for-3 reverse stock split which became effective on October 6, 2016 (see Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K).
(4) 
Cash provided from operations has not been restated for discontinued operations presentation for 2016 and all prior periods presented (see Basis of Presentation section of Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K).
The data presented in the Selected Financial Data table should be read in conjunction with the information provided in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II Item 7 and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

33


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
(dollars in millions, except per-share amounts and aluminum prices; shipments in thousands of metric tons [kmt])
Overview
Our Business
Arconic (“Arconic” or the “Company”) is a global leader in lightweight metals engineering and manufacturing. Arconic’s innovative, multi-material products, which include aluminum, titanium, and nickel, are used worldwide in aerospace, automotive, commercial transportation, packaging, building and construction, oil and gas, defense, consumer electronics, and industrial applications.
Arconic is a global company operating in 18 countries. Based upon the country where the point of sale occurred, the United States and Europe generated 63% and 26%, respectively, of Arconic’s sales in 2017. In addition, Arconic has operating activities in Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, and Russia, among others. Governmental policies, laws and regulations, and other economic factors, including inflation and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, affect the results of operations in these countries.
Management Review of 2017 and Outlook for the Future
In 2017, Arconic’s revenues increased 5% over 2016 as a result of higher volumes across all segments including strong volume growth in our aerospace, automotive, and commercial transportation markets, and higher aluminum pricing primarily impacting the Global Rolled Products segment, partially offset by the planned ramp down and Toll Processing and Services Agreement (the “Toll Processing Agreement”) relating to the Company’s North America packaging business in Tennessee, and unfavorable product pricing and mix. In the segments, Adjusted EBITDA increased over 2016 as a result of the aforementioned higher volumes and continued focus on net cost savings that more than offset negative factors including product pricing pressures, ramp up costs associated with new aerospace engine parts, aerospace customer inventory destocking and reduced build rates, and higher aluminum prices.
Loss from continuing operations after income taxes was $74 in 2017 compared to $1,062 in 2016. There were several significant items that impacted the fourth quarter of 2017. The Company recorded a charge of $719 ($719 pre-tax) associated with the impairment of goodwill in the forgings and extrusions business and a charge of $41 ($41 pre-tax) for the impairment of assets in the Latin America extrusions business in conjunction with an agreement to sell the business. Also in the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company recorded income of $97 ($106 pre-tax) associated with the reversal of liabilities for a contingent earn-out and a separation-related guarantee. The Company was also impacted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 (“the 2017 Act”), and recorded a provisional charge of $272 associated with the revaluation of U.S. net deferred tax assets due to a decrease in the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, as well as a one-time transition tax on the non-previously taxed earnings and profits of certain U.S.-owned foreign corporations as of December 31, 2017. The impact of the 2017 Act provisions will be updated over the course of 2018, in accordance with guidance issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission which has provided a one-year measurement period to finalize the accounting impacts of the new legislation, and as additional guidance is issued and the new law is further analyzed.
Additionally during 2017, the Company disposed of its retained interest in Alcoa Corporation common stock and recorded gains of $405 ($518 pre-tax), and the Company redeemed debt of $1,250, recording charges of $49 ($76 pre-tax) primarily for the premium paid for the early redemption of the debt. See discussion that follows under Results of Operations below for further information on 2017 results.
Management continued its focus on liquidity and cash flows as well as improving its operating performance through cost reductions, streamlined organizational structures, margin enhancement, and profitable revenue generation. Management has also intensified its focus on capital efficiency. This focus and the related results enabled Arconic to end 2017 with a solid financial position.

34


The following financial information reflects certain key measures of Arconic’s 2017 results:
Sales of $12,960 and Net loss of $74, or 0.28 per diluted share;
Consolidated adjusted EBITDA of $1,761, an increase of 17% from 20161;
Cash from operations of $701;
Capital expenditures of $596;
Cash on hand at the end of the year of $2,150; and
Total debt of $6,844, a decrease in total debt of $1,240 from 2016.
(1) For the reconciliation of Net loss attributable to Arconic to Consolidated adjusted EBITDA and related information, see page 45.
In 2018, management projects that sales will be up 3% to 6% based on volume and share gains, as well as higher aluminum prices. In aerospace, it is anticipated that the favorable impact of share gains on new platforms and engines will be somewhat offset by lower pricing and the mix of wide-body and narrow-body aircraft produced. Management also expects strong growth in automotive sheet and commercial transportation markets, particularly due to North American and European heavy-duty truck production increases, while the industrial gas turbine market will continue declining throughout 2018.
Looking ahead over the next year, management will continue to focus on improving operating performance through cost reductions, margin enhancement, and profitable revenue generation. As part of this effort, the Company made the decision to freeze its U.S. defined benefit pension plans for all U.S.-based salaried and non-bargained hourly employees effective April 1, 2018, and the Company intends to relocate its global headquarters by the end of 2018 out of New York City to a more cost-effective location. Management has initiated a review of the Company’s strategy and portfolio. Additionally, each of the segments are projected to achieve net cost savings in 2018. As a result, adjusted earnings per share is anticipated to increase and free cash flow is also expected to improve in 2018 through increased focus on driving operational improvements and working capital efficiency.
To further enhance the Company’s financial position and return capital to shareholders, Arconic’s Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $500 of its outstanding common stock and a $500 early debt reduction. Under the share repurchase program, the Company may repurchase shares from time to time, in amounts, at prices, and at such times as the Company deems appropriate. Repurchases will be subject to market conditions, legal requirements and other considerations. The Company is not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares or to do so at any particular time, and the share repurchase program may be suspended, modified or terminated at any time without prior notice. For the early debt reduction, Arconic intends to redeem in March 2018 all of its outstanding 5.72% Notes due in 2019.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2018, the Company's primary measure of segment performance will change from Adjusted EBITDA to Operating income, which more closely aligns segment performance with Operating income as presented in the Statement of Consolidated Operations. As part of this change, LIFO and metal price lag will be included in the Operating income of the segments.
In conjunction with the implementation of the new accounting guidance on changes to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments within the statement of cash flows (effective January 1, 2018 and to be applied retrospectively), specifically as it relates to the requirement to reclassify cash received from net sales of beneficial interest in sold receivables from Cash from operations to Cash provided from investing activities, the Company has changed the calculation of its measure of free cash flow to Cash from operations plus cash received from net sales of beneficial interest in sold receivables, less Capital expenditures. This change to our measure of free cash flow is being implemented to ensure consistent presentation of this measure across all historical periods, once the required accounting guidance reclassification is reflected in our financial results beginning in the first quarter of 2018. The adoption of this accounting change does not reflect a change in our underlying business or activities.
2016 Separation Transaction. On November 1, 2016, the Company completed the separation of its business into two standalone, publicly-traded companies, Arconic Inc. and Alcoa Corporation. Following the Separation Transaction, Arconic comprises the Global Rolled Products (other than the rolling mill in Warrick, Indiana, and the 25.1% equity ownership stake in the Ma’aden Rolling Company), the Engineered Products and Solutions, and the Transportation and Construction Solutions segments. Alcoa Corporation comprises the Alumina and Primary Metals segments, the rolling mill in Warrick, Indiana, and the 25.1% equity ownership stake in the Ma’aden Rolling Company in Saudi Arabia.

35


The Separation Transaction was effected by the distribution of 80.1% of the outstanding shares of Alcoa Corporation common stock to the Company’s shareholders (the “Distribution”). The Company’s shareholders of record as of the close of business on October 20, 2016 (the “Record Date”) received one share of Alcoa Corporation common stock for every three shares of the Company’s common stock held as of the Record Date. The Company distributed 146,159,428 shares of common stock of Alcoa Corporation in the Distribution and retained 36,311,767 shares, or approximately 19.9% (see disposition of retained shares under Results of Operations below), of the common stock of Alcoa Corporation immediately following the Distribution. As a result of the Distribution, Alcoa Corporation is now an independent public company trading under the symbol “AA” on the New York Stock Exchange, and the Company trades under the symbol “ARNC” on the New York Stock Exchange.
On October 31, 2016, Arconic entered into several agreements with Alcoa Corporation that govern the relationship of the parties following the completion of the Separation Transaction. These agreements include the following: Separation and Distribution Agreement, Transition Services Agreement, Tax Matters Agreement, Employee Matters Agreement, Alcoa Corporation to Arconic Inc. Patent, Know-How, and Trade Secret License Agreement, Arconic Inc. to Alcoa Corporation Patent, Know-How, and Trade Secret License Agreement, Alcoa Corporation to Arconic Inc. Trademark License Agreement, Toll Processing and Services Agreement, Master Agreement for the Supply of Primary Aluminum, Massena Lease and Operations Agreement, Fusina Lease and Operations Agreement, and Stockholder and Registration Rights Agreement.
Results of Operations
Earnings Summary
Sales—Sales for 2017 were $12,960 compared with sales of $12,394 in 2016, an increase of $566, or 5%. The increase was the result of strong volume growth in all segments and higher aluminum pricing, partially offset by the planned ramp down and Toll Processing Agreement relating to the Company’s North America packaging business in Tennessee in the Global Rolled Products segment, as well as unfavorable product pricing in both the Engineered Products and Solutions and Global Rolled Products segments. Pursuant to the Toll Processing Agreement that Arconic entered into with Alcoa Corporation on October 31, 2016 in connection with the Separation Transaction, Arconic provides can body stock to Alcoa Corporation using aluminum supplied by Alcoa Corporation, resulting in the absence of metal sales in 2017 compared to 2016.
Sales for 2016 were $12,394 compared with sales of $12,413 in 2015, a decline of $19, or less than 1%. The relatively flat performance was the result of a full-year effect of two 2015 acquisitions in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment and automotive volume increases in the Global Rolled Products segment, which were more than offset by the ramp-down of the Tennessee packaging business and the impact of aluminum prices in the Global Rolled Products segment and unfavorable product price and mix across all segments.
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)—COGS as a percentage of Sales was 79.9% in 2017 compared with 79.2% in 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to cost increases, including net higher aluminum prices of $84 and ramp-up costs related to new commercial aerospace engines, and a lower margin product mix, partially offset by net cost savings.
COGS as a percentage of Sales was 79.2% in 2016 compared with 81.4% in 2015. The primary drivers in the improvement in COGS as a percentage of sales were productivity gains across all segments and higher volume in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment due to the benefit of a full-year effect of two 2015 acquisitions. This benefit was somewhat offset by overall cost increases across all segments and unfavorable product pricing and mix impacts primarily in the Engineered Products and Solutions and Global Rolled Products segments.
Selling, General Administrative, and Other Expenses (SG&A) — SG&A expenses were $731, or 5.6% of Sales, in 2017 compared with $942, or 7.6% of Sales, in 2016. The decrease in SG&A was the result of expenses related to the Separation Transaction of $193 in 2016 compared to $18 in 2017, as well as ongoing overhead cost reduction efforts (see Restructuring and Other Charges below), partially offset by proxy, advisory and governance-related costs of $58, external legal and other advisory costs related to Grenfell Tower of $14 and costs associated with the Company’s Delaware reincorporation of $3 in 2017.
,
SG&A expenses were $942, or 7.6% of Sales, in 2016 compared with $765, or 6.2% of Sales, in 2015. The increase in SG&A was primarily due to costs related to the Separation Transaction of $193 in 2016, an increase of $169 from 2015 separation costs.
Research and Development Expenses (R&D)—R&D expenses were $111 in 2017 compared with $132 in 2016 and $169 in 2015. The decrease in 2017 as compared to 2016 was driven by lower spending. The decrease in 2016 as compared to 2015 was driven by the decrease in spending for the Micromill™ in San Antonio, TX which was completed in 2015 and began production of automotive sheet, on a limited basis, for the Global Rolled Products segment.

36


Provision for Depreciation and Amortization (D&A)—The provision for D&A was $551 in 2017 compared with $535 in 2016. The increase of $16, or 3%, was primarily due to capital projects placed into service. The provision for D&A was $535 in 2016 compared with $508 in 2015. The increase of $27 related to a full year of D&A related to two acquisitions which occurred during 2015 (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information below).
Impairment of Goodwill—In 2017, the Company recognized an impairment of goodwill of $719, related to the annual impairment review of the Arconic Forgings and Extrusions business. In 2015, the Company recognized an impairment of goodwill of $25 related to the annual impairment review of the soft alloy extrusion business in Brazil. See Goodwill under Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates below.
Restructuring and Other Charges—Restructuring and other charges for each year in the three-year period ended December 31, 2017 were comprised of the following: 
 
2017
2016
2015
Asset impairments
$
58

$
80

$

Layoff costs
64

70

97

Net loss on divestitures of businesses
57

3

136

Other
(3
)
27

(11
)
Reversals of previously recorded layoff costs
(11
)
(25
)
(8
)
Restructuring and other charges
$
165

$
155

$
214


Layoff costs were recorded based on approved detailed action plans submitted by the operating locations that specified positions to be eliminated, benefits to be paid under existing severance plans, union contracts or statutory requirements, and the expected timetable for completion of the plans.

2017 Actions. In 2017, Arconic recorded Restructuring and other charges of $165 ($143 after-tax), which were comprised of the following components: $69 ($47 after-tax) for layoff costs related to cost reduction initiatives including the separation of approximately 880 employees (400 in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, 245 in the Global Rolled Products segment, 135 in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment and 100 in Corporate), a charge of $60 ($60 after-tax) related to the sale of the Fusina, Italy rolling mill; a charge of $41 ($41 after-tax) for the impairment of assets associated with the agreement to sell the Latin America Extrusions business (see Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K); a net benefit of $6 ($4 after-tax), for the reversal of forfeited executive stock compensation of $13, partially offset by a charge of $7 for the related severance; a net charge of $12 ($7 after-tax) for other miscellaneous items; and a favorable benefit of $11 ($8 after-tax) for the reversal of a number of small layoff reserves related to prior periods.
As of December 31, 2017, approximately 300 of the 880 employees were separated. The remaining separations for 2017 restructuring programs are expected to be completed by the end of 2018. In 2017, cash payments of $28 were made against layoff reserves related to 2017 restructuring programs.
2016 Actions. In 2016, Arconic recorded Restructuring and other charges of $155 ($114 after-tax), which were comprised of the following components: $57 ($46 after-tax) for costs related to the exit of certain legacy Firth Rixson operations in the U.K.; $37 ($24 after-tax) for exit costs related to the decision to permanently shut down a can sheet facility; $20 ($14 after-tax) for costs related to the closures of five facilities, primarily in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment and Engineered Products and Solutions segment, including the separation of approximately 280 employees; $53 ($33 after-tax) for other layoff costs, including the separation of approximately 1,315 employees (1,045 in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, 210 in Corporate, 30 in the Global Rolled Products segment and 30 in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment); $11 ($8 after-tax) for other miscellaneous items, including $3 ($2 after-tax) for the sale of Remmele Medical; $2 ($1 after-tax) for a pension settlement; and $25 ($12 after-tax) for the reversal of a number of small layoff reserves related to prior periods.
In 2016, management made the decision to exit certain legacy Firth Rixson facilities in the U.K. Costs related to these actions included asset impairments and accelerated depreciation of $51; other exit costs of $4; and $2 for the separation of 60 employees.
Also in 2016, management approved the shutdown and demolition of the can sheet facility in Tennessee upon completion of the Toll Processing Agreement with Alcoa Corporation (see Global Rolled Products under Segment Information below). Costs related to this action included $21 in asset impairments; $9 in other exit costs; and $7 for the separation of 145 employees. The other exit costs of $9 represent $4 in asset retirement obligations and $3 in environmental remediation, both of which were triggered by the decision to permanently shut down and demolish the can sheet facility in Tennessee, and $2 in other exit costs.

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As of December 31, 2017, approximately 1,280 of the 1,700 (previously 1,750) employees were separated. The total number of employees associated with 2016 restructuring programs was updated to reflect employees, who were initially identified for separation, accepting other positions within Arconic and natural attrition. The remaining separations for 2016 restructuring programs are expected to be completed by the end of 2018. In 2017 and 2016, cash payments of $26 and $16 were made against layoff reserves related to 2016 restructuring programs.
2015 Actions. In 2015, Arconic recorded Restructuring and other charges of $214 ($192 after-tax), which were comprised of the following components: a $136 ($134 after-tax) net loss related to the March 2015 divestiture of a rolling mill in Russia and post-closing adjustments associated with the December 2014 divestitures of three rolling mills located in Spain and France; $97 ($70 after-tax) for layoff costs, including the separation of approximately 1,505 employees (590 in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, 425 in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment, 400 in Corporate, and 90 in the Global Rolled Products segment); an $18 ($13 after-tax) gain on the sale of land related to one of the rolling mills in Australia that was permanently closed in December 2014; a net charge of $7 ($4 after-tax) for other miscellaneous items; and $8 ($3 after-tax) for the reversal of a number of small layoff reserves related to prior periods.
As of December 31, 2017, the separations associated with the 2015 restructuring programs were essentially complete. In 2017, 2016 and 2015, cash payments of $5, $55 and $18, respectively, were made against layoff reserves related to 2015 restructuring programs.
Arconic does not include Restructuring and other charges in the results of its reportable segments. The pre-tax impact of allocating such charges to segment results would have been as follows: 
 
2017
2016
2015
Engineered Products and Solutions
$
30

$
78

$
46

Global Rolled Products
72

40

121

Transportation and Construction Solutions
52

14

8

Segment total
154

132

175

Corporate
11

23

39

Total restructuring and other charges
$
165

$
155

$
214

Interest Expense—Interest expense was $496 in 2017 compared with $499 in 2016. The decrease of $3, or 1%, was primarily due to lower interest expense resulting from lower outstanding debt, mostly offset by $73 primarily in higher premiums paid in 2017 related to the early redemption of $1,250 in debt. In the second quarter of 2017, Arconic redeemed all of the Company’s 6.50% Bonds due 2018 and 6.75% Notes due 2018, and a portion of the Company’s 5.72% Notes due 2019 in advance of the respective maturity dates.
Interest expense was $499 in 2016 compared with $473 in 2015. The increase of $26, or 5%, was primarily due to debt issuance costs of $9 that were expensed in connection with the Separation Transaction and costs associated with the early redemption of $750 of 5.55% Notes due February 2017, completed on December 30, 2016, which included a $3 purchase premium, and a full-year of interest related to RTI International Metals, Inc. (RTI) debt of $6.
Other Income, Net—Other income, net was $640 in 2017 compared with $94 in 2016. The increase of $546 was primarily due to the gain on the sale of a portion of Arconic’s investment in Alcoa Corporation common stock of $351 (in February 2017, the Company sold 23,353,000 shares of Alcoa Corporation stock at $38.03 per share, which resulted in cash proceeds of $888 and a gain of $351) and the gain of $167 on the Debt-for-Equity Exchange (in April and May 2017, the Company acquired a portion of its outstanding notes held by two investment banks (the “Investment Banks”) in exchange for cash and the Company’s remaining 12,958,767 shares (valued at $35.91 per share) in Alcoa Corporation stock and recorded a gain of $167), income of $25 associated with a higher reversal of a contingent earn-out liability related to the Firth Rixson acquisition (see Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information), and income of $25 due to the reversal of a liability associated with a separation-related guarantee. The Company was required to provide a guarantee for an Alcoa Corporation electricity contract in the event of an Alcoa Corporation payment default. In the fourth quarter of 2017, Alcoa Corporation announced that it had terminated the electricity contract at its Rockdale Operations and, as a result, Arconic reversed its associated guarantee liability.
Other income, net was $94 in 2016 compared with $28 in 2015. The increase of $66 was mainly the result of a favorable adjustment to the contingent earn-out liability and a post-closing adjustment, both of which related to the acquisition of Firth Rixson of $76, and favorable foreign currency movements of $55. These items were partially offset by the absence of gains on the sales of land in the United States and an equity investment in a China rolling mill of $38 in 2015.

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Income Taxes—Arconic’s effective tax rate was 115.7% in 2017 compared with the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35%. The effective tax rate primarily differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate as a result of a $719 impairment of goodwill, a $41 impairment of assets in the Latin America extrusions business, and a $60 charge related to the sale of a rolling mill in Italy that are nondeductible for income tax purposes, a $272 tax charge as a provisional impact of the 2017 Act, and a $23 tax charge for an increase in an uncertain tax position in Germany, partially offset by a $73 tax benefit related to the sale and Debt-for-Equity Exchange of the Alcoa Corporation stock, a $69 tax benefit for the release of U.S. state valuation allowances net of the federal tax benefit, a $27 favorable tax impact associated with a non-taxable earn-out liability adjustment in connection with the Firth Rixson acquisition, and by foreign income taxed in lower rate jurisdictions.
Arconic’s effective tax rate was 356.5% in 2016 compared with the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35%. The effective tax rate differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to a $1,267 discrete income tax charge for valuation allowances related to the Separation Transaction (see Income Taxes under Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates below), a $95 tax charge associated with the redemption of company-owned life insurance policies whose tax basis was less than the redemption amount resulting in a taxable gain, a $51 net charge for the remeasurement of certain deferred tax assets and liabilities due to tax rate and tax law changes, and a $34 unfavorable tax impact related to certain separation costs which are nondeductible for income tax purposes, somewhat offset by a $39 discrete income tax benefit for the release of valuation allowances in Canada and Russia, a $38 tax benefit related to currency impacts of a distribution of previously taxed income, and a $26 favorable tax impact associated with non-taxable settlement proceeds and earn-out liability adjustments in connection with the Firth Rixson acquisition.
Arconic’s effective tax rate was 185.2% in 2015 compared with the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35%. The effective tax rate differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate principally due to a $190 discrete income tax charge for valuation allowances on certain deferred tax assets in the U.S. and Iceland (see Income Taxes under Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates below), a $25 impairment of goodwill that is nondeductible for income tax purposes, a loss on the sale of a rolling mill in Russia for which no tax benefit was recognized, and a $34 net discrete income tax charge as described below.
In 2015, Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals (AWAC), the former joint venture owned 60% by Arconic and 40% by Alumina Limited, recognized an $85 discrete income tax charge for a valuation allowance on certain deferred tax assets in Suriname (see Income Taxes under Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates below), which were related mostly to employee benefits and tax loss carryforwards. Arconic also had a $51 deferred tax liability related to its 60%-share of these deferred tax assets that was written off as a result of the valuation allowance recognized by AWAC.
Management anticipates that the effective tax rate in 2018 will be between 27% and 29%. However, business portfolio actions, changes in the current economic environment, tax legislation or rate changes, currency fluctuations, ability to realize deferred tax assets, movements in stock price impacting tax benefits or deficiencies on stock-based payment awards, and the results of operations in certain taxing jurisdictions may cause this estimated rate to fluctuate. It is also expected that continuing analysis of the 2017 Act, as well as additional guidance as it is issued, will have an impact on the estimated rate.
Loss from continuing operations after income taxes and noncontrolling interests—Loss from continuing operations after income taxes and noncontrolling interests was $74 for 2017, or $0.28 per diluted share, compared to $1,062 for 2016, or $2.58 per share. The increase in results of $988 was primarily attributable to charges for tax valuation allowances and costs related to the Separation Transaction in 2016; a gain of $238 ($351 pre-tax) on the sale of a portion of Arconic’s investment in Alcoa Corporation common stock and a gain of $167 ($167 pre-tax) on the Debt-for-Equity Exchange in 2017; income of $25 ($25 pre-tax) associated with a higher reversal of a contingent earn-out liability related to the Firth Rixson acquisition and income of $16 ($25 pre-tax) due to the reversal of a liability associated with a separation-related guarantee; net cost savings; and higher sales volumes across all segments; partially offset by a charge for goodwill impairment of $719 ($719 pre-tax); a charge related to the 2017 Act of $272; $47 ($73 pre-tax) of higher premiums paid for the early redemption of debt in 2017; higher LIFO inventory expense associated with higher aluminum prices; charges for asset impairments of the Fusina, Italy rolling mill of $60 ($60 pre-tax) and Latin America extrusions business of $41 ($41 pre-tax) based on the sale of these businesses; unfavorable product pricing, primarily in aerospace; and lower-margin product mix.
Loss from continuing operations after income taxes and noncontrolling interests was $1,062 for 2016, or $2.58 per diluted share, compared to $157 for 2015, or $0.54 per share. The decrease in results of $905 was primarily due to charges for tax valuation allowances and costs related to the Separation Transaction, primarily offset by a full-year effect of 2015 acquisitions (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information below) and net cost savings across all segments.
Segment Information
Arconic’s operations consist of three worldwide reportable segments: Engineered Products and Solutions, Global Rolled Products and Transportation and Construction Solutions (see below). In the first quarter of 2017, the Company changed its primary measure of segment performance from After-tax operating income (ATOI) to Adjusted earnings before interest, tax,

39


depreciation, and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”). Segment performance under Arconic’s management reporting system is evaluated based on a number of factors; however, the primary measure of performance in 2017 was Adjusted EBITDA. Arconic’s definition of Adjusted EBITDA is net margin plus an add-back for depreciation and amortization. Net margin is equivalent to Sales minus the following items: Cost of goods sold; Selling, general administrative, and other expenses; Research and development expenses; and Provision for depreciation and amortization. Prior period information has been recast to conform to current year presentation. The Adjusted EBITDA presented may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Certain items are excluded from segment Adjusted EBITDA such as: Impairment of goodwill; Restructuring and other charges; the impact of LIFO inventory accounting; metal price lag (the timing difference created when the average price of metal sold differs from the average cost of the metal when purchased by the respective segment - generally, when the price of metal increases, metal price lag is favorable, and when the price of metal decreases, metal price lag is unfavorable); corporate expense (general administrative and selling expenses of operating the corporate headquarters and other global administrative facilities and corporate research and development expenses); and other items, including intersegment profit eliminations.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2018, the Company's primary measure of segment performance will change from Adjusted EBITDA to Operating income, which more closely aligns segment performance with Operating income as presented in the Statement of Consolidated Operations. As part of this change, LIFO and metal price lag will be included in the Operating income of the segments.
Adjusted EBITDA for all reportable segments totaled $2,144 in 2017, $2,063 in 2016, and $1,894 in 2015. The following information provides sales and Adjusted EBITDA for each reportable segment, as well as certain shipment and realized price data for Global Rolled Products, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017. See Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Engineered Products and Solutions 
 
2017
2016
2015
Third-party sales
$
5,935

$
5,728

$
5,342

Adjusted EBITDA
$
1,224

$
1,195

$
1,111

The Engineered Products and Solutions segment produces products that are used primarily in the aerospace (commercial and defense), industrial, commercial transportation, and power generation end markets. Such products include fastening systems (titanium, steel, and nickel superalloys) and seamless rolled rings (mostly nickel superalloys); investment castings (nickel superalloys, titanium, and aluminum), including airfoils and forged jet engine components (e.g., jet engine disks), and extruded, machined and formed aircraft parts (titanium and aluminum), all of which are sold directly to customers and through distributors. More than 75% of the third-party sales in this segment are from the aerospace end market. A small part of this segment also produces various forged, extruded, and machined metal products (titanium, aluminum and steel) for the oil and gas, automotive, and land and sea defense end markets. Seasonal decreases in sales are generally experienced in the third quarter of the year due to the European summer slowdown across all end markets. Generally, the sales and costs and expenses of this segment are transacted in the local currency of the respective operations, which are mostly the U.S. dollar, British pound and the euro.
In April 2016, Arconic completed the sale of the Remmele Medical business that was part of the RTI acquisition (see below) and manufactured precision-machined metal products for customers in the minimally invasive surgical device and implantable device markets. Remmele Medical generated third-party sales of $23 from January 1, 2016 through the divestiture date, and, at the time of the divestiture, had approximately 330 employees.
In July 2015, Arconic completed the acquisition of RTI, a global supplier of titanium and specialty metal products and services for the commercial aerospace, defense, energy, and medical device end markets. The purpose of the acquisition was to expand Arconic’s range of titanium offerings and add advanced technologies and materials, primarily related to the aerospace end market. In 2014, RTI generated net sales of $794 and had approximately 2,600 employees. The operating results and assets and liabilities of RTI have been included within the Engineered Products and Solutions segment since the date of acquisition.
In March 2015, Arconic completed the acquisition of TITAL, a privately held aerospace castings company with approximately 650 employees (at the time of the acquisition) based in Germany. TITAL produces aluminum and titanium investment casting products for the aerospace and defense end markets. In 2014, TITAL generated sales of approximately $100. The purpose of the acquisition was to capture increasing demand for advanced jet engine components made of titanium, establish titanium-casting capabilities in Europe, and expand existing aluminum casting capacity. The operating results and assets and liabilities of TITAL have been included within the Engineered Products and Solutions segment since the date of acquisition.

40


Third-party sales for the Engineered Products and Solutions segment increased $207, or 4%, in 2017 compared with 2016, primarily attributable to volume growth in both aerospace engines and airframes, partially offset by lower product pricing, primarily in the aerospace end market, and the absence of sales of $23 related to the Remmele Medical business, which was sold in April 2016.
Third-party sales for this segment increased $386, or 7%, in 2016 compared with 2015, primarily attributable to higher third-party sales of the two acquired businesses of $457, primarily related to the aerospace end market, and increased demand from the industrial gas turbine end market, partially offset by lower volumes in the oil and gas end market and commercial transportation end market as well as pricing pressures in aerospace.
Adjusted EBITDA for the Engineered Products and Solutions segment increased $29, or 2%, in 2017 compared with 2016, primarily on higher volumes and net cost savings, partially offset by product pricing pressures, ramp up costs associated with increasing production volumes of new aerospace engine parts, and a lower margin product mix.
Adjusted EBITDA for this segment increased $84, or 8%, in 2016 compared with 2015, primarily on net cost savings across all businesses as well as the volume increase from both the RTI acquisition and organic revenue growth, partially offset by a lower margin product mix and pricing pressures in the aerospace end market.
In 2018, demand in the commercial aerospace end market is expected to remain strong, driven by the ramp-up of new aerospace engine platforms. Demand in the defense end market is expected to grow due to the continuing ramp-up of certain aerospace programs. Additionally, net cost savings are anticipated while declines in the industrial gas turbine market and pricing pressure across all markets is likely to continue.
Global Rolled Products(1) 
 
2017
2016
2015
Third-party sales
$
4,992

$
4,864

$
5,253

Intersegment sales
148

118

125

Total sales
$
5,140

$
4,982

$
5,378

Adjusted EBITDA
$
599

$
577

$
512

Third-party aluminum shipments (kmt)
1,197

1,339

1,375

Average realized price per metric ton of aluminum (2)
$
4,171

$
3,633

$
3,820

(1) 
Excludes the Warrick, IN rolling operations and the equity interest in the rolling mill at the joint venture in Saudi Arabia, both of which were previously part of the Global Rolled Products segment but became part of Alcoa Corporation effective November 1, 2016.
(2) 
Generally, average realized price per metric ton of aluminum includes two elements: a) the price of metal (the underlying base metal component based on quoted prices from the LME, plus a regional premium which represents the incremental price over the base LME component that is associated with physical delivery of metal to a particular region), and b) the conversion price, which represents the incremental price over the metal price component that is associated with converting primary aluminum into sheet and plate. In this circumstance, the metal price component is a pass-through to this segment’s customers with limited exception (e.g., fixed-priced contracts, certain regional premiums).
The Global Rolled Products segment produces aluminum sheet and plate for a variety of end markets. Sheet and plate is sold directly to customers and through distributors related to the aerospace, automotive, commercial transportation, packaging, building and construction, and industrial products (mainly used in the production of machinery and equipment and consumer durables) end markets. A small portion of this segment also produces aseptic foil for the packaging end market. While the customer base for flat-rolled products is large, a significant amount of sales of sheet and plate is to a relatively small number of customers. Generally, the sales and costs and expenses of this segment are transacted in the local currency of the respective operations, which are mostly the U.S. dollar, Chinese yuan, the euro, the Russian ruble, the Brazilian real, and the British pound.
In March 2017, Arconic completed the sale of its Fusina, Italy rolling mill. While owned by Arconic, the operating results and assets and liabilities of the Fusina, Italy rolling mill were included in the Global Rolled Products segment. The rolling mill generated third-party sales of approximately $54 and $165 for 2017 and 2016, respectively. At the time of the divestiture, the rolling mill had approximately 312 employees. See Restructuring and Other Charges under Results of Operations above.
On November 1, 2016, Arconic entered into a Toll Processing Agreement with Alcoa Corporation for the tolling of metal for the Warrick, IN rolling mill which became a part of Alcoa Corporation upon the completion of the Separation Transaction. As

41


part of this arrangement, Arconic provides a toll processing service to Alcoa Corporation to produce can sheet products at its facility in Tennessee through the expected end date of the contract, December 31, 2018. Alcoa Corporation supplies all required raw materials to Arconic and Arconic processes the raw materials into finished can sheet coils ready for shipment to the end customer. Tolling revenue for 2017 and the two months ended December 31, 2016 was $190 and $37, respectively.
In March 2015, Arconic completed the sale of a rolling mill located in Belaya Kalitva, Russia. While owned by Arconic, the operating results and assets and liabilities of the rolling mill were included in the Global Rolled Products segment. The rolling mill generated sales of approximately $20 and $130 in 2015 and 2014 and, at the time of divestiture, had approximately 1,870 employees. See Restructuring and Other Charges under Results of Operations above.
Third-party sales for the Global Rolled Products segment increased $128, or 3%, in 2017 compared with 2016, primarily attributable to volume growth in the automotive end market and higher aluminum pricing, partially offset by the impact of $362 associated with the ramp-down and Toll Processing Agreement with Alcoa Corporation at the Company’s North America packaging business in Tennessee, the absence of sales of $111 from the rolling mill in Fusina, Italy, aerospace customer inventory destocking and reduced build rates, and pricing pressures in the global packaging market.
Third-party sales for this segment decreased $389, or 7%, in 2016 compared with 2015, primarily due to the ramp-down of Tennessee packaging of $251; lower aluminum prices; and lower demand in the industrial products, packaging, commercial aerospace, commercial transportation, and North American heavy duty truck markets. These decreases were partially offset by higher volume in the automotive market.
Adjusted EBITDA for the Global Rolled Products segment increased $22, or 4%, in 2017 compared with 2016, primarily driven by net cost savings and increased automotive volumes, partially offset by lower aerospace volume from customer destocking and reduced build rates, continued pricing pressure on global packaging products and higher aluminum prices. The higher aluminum prices negatively impacted the Global Rolled Products Adjusted EBITDA margin by $18, or 140 basis points, in 2017 compared with 2016.
Adjusted EBITDA for this segment increased $65, or 13%, in 2016 compared with 2015, primarily driven by strong productivity improvements, which significantly exceeded cost increases, partially offset by lower pricing, primarily due to overall pricing pressure in the global can sheet market, unfavorable product mix and lower volumes as detailed above.
In 2018, demand in the automotive end market is expected to continue to grow due to the growing demand for innovative products and aluminum-intensive vehicles. Demand from the commercial airframe end market is expected to be flat in 2018 as the ramp-up of new programs is offset by lower build rates for aluminum intensive wide-body programs. The ramp-down of the North American packaging operations is expected to continue in 2018. Net productivity improvements are anticipated to continue.
Transportation and Construction Solutions 
 
2017
2016
2015
Third-party sales
$
1,985

$
1,802

$
1,882

Adjusted EBITDA
$
321

$
291

$
271

The Transportation and Construction Solutions segment produces products that are used mostly in the commercial transportation and nonresidential building and construction end markets. Such products include integrated aluminum structural systems, architectural extrusions, and forged aluminum commercial vehicle wheels, which are sold both directly to customers and through distributors. A small part of this segment also produces aluminum products for the industrial products end market. Generally, the sales and costs and expenses of this segment are transacted in the local currency of the respective operations, which are primarily the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the Brazilian real.
In December 2017, Arconic reached an agreement to sell its Latin America extrusions business that operates primarily in Brazil (see Restructuring and Other Charges under Results of Operations above). The sale is expected to close in the first half of 2018 following customary regulatory and anti-trust reviews. The operating results and assets and liabilities of the extrusions business are included in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment.
Third-party sales for the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment increased $183, or 10%, in 2017 compared with 2016, primarily driven by increased volumes in the commercial transportation and building and construction end markets, higher aluminum pricing, and favorable foreign currency movements, partially offset by lower product pricing.

42


Third-party sales for this segment decreased $80, or 4%, in 2016 compared with 2015, primarily driven by lower demand from the North American commercial transportation end market, which was partially offset by rising demand from the building and construction end market.
Adjusted EBITDA for the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment increased $30, or 10%, in 2017 compared with 2016, principally driven by net cost savings and higher volumes, partially offset by lower product pricing in the heavy-duty truck market, unfavorable product mix, and higher aluminum prices. The higher aluminum prices negatively impacted the Transportation and Construction Solutions Adjusted EBITDA margin by $19, or 120 basis points, in 2017 compared with 2016.
Adjusted EBITDA for this segment increased $20, or 7%, in 2016 compared with 2015, principally driven by net cost savings across all businesses and growth in the building and construction segment, partially offset by lower demand in the North American heavy duty truck and Brazilian markets.
In 2018, we expect continued growth in the North American and European commercial transportation and building and construction markets and continued demand for innovative products. Additionally, net cost savings are anticipated.
Reconciliation of Combined segment adjusted EBITDA to Net loss attributable to Arconic
Items required to reconcile Combined segment adjusted EBITDA to Net loss attributable to Arconic include: the Provision for depreciation and amortization; Impairment of goodwill; Restructuring and other charges; the impact of LIFO inventory accounting; metal price lag (the timing difference created when the average price of metal sold differs from the average cost of the metal when purchased by the respective segment — generally, when the price of metal increases, metal price lag is favorable, and when the price of metal decreases, metal price lag is unfavorable); corporate expense (general administrative and selling expenses of operating the corporate headquarters and other global administrative facilities and corporate research and development expenses); other items, including intersegment profit eliminations; Other income, net; Interest expense; Income tax expense; and the results of discontinued operations.
The following table reconciles Combined segment adjusted EBITDA to Net loss attributable to Arconic: 
 
2017
2016
2015
Combined segment adjusted EBITDA
$
2,144

$
2,063

$
1,894

Unallocated amounts:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
(551
)
(535
)
(508
)
Impairment of goodwill
(719
)

(25
)
Restructuring and other charges
(165
)
(155
)
(214
)
Impact of LIFO
(110
)
(18
)
101

Metal price lag
72

27

(175
)
Corporate expense
(274
)
(454
)
(371
)
Other
(71
)
(109
)
(74
)
Operating income
$
326

$
819

$
628

Interest expense
(496
)
(499
)
(473
)
Other income, net
640

94

28

Income from continuing operations before income taxes
$
470

$
414

$
183

Provision for income taxes
(544
)
(1,476
)
(339
)
Discontinued operations

121

(165
)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest


(1
)
Net loss attributable to Arconic
$
(74
)
$
(941
)
$
(322
)
The significant changes in the reconciling items between Combined segment adjusted EBITDA and Net loss attributable to Arconic for 2017 compared with 2016 consisted of:
an impairment of goodwill related to the annual impairment review of the Arconic Forgings and Extrusions business in 2017;

43


a change in the Impact of LIFO, mostly due to a greater increase in the price of aluminum, driven by higher base metal prices (LME) and regional premiums (increase in price at December 31, 2017 indexed to December 31, 2016 compared to the increase in price at December 31, 2016 indexed to December 31, 2015);
a favorable change in Metal price lag due to higher prices for aluminum;
a decrease in Corporate expense primarily attributable to costs incurred in 2016 related to the Separation Transaction, partially offset by proxy, advisory and governance-related costs and legal and other advisory costs related to Grenfell Tower incurred in 2017;
an increase in Other income, net, largely the result of the $351 gain on the sale of a portion of Arconic’s investment in Alcoa Corporation common stock and a $167 gain on the Debt-for-Equity Exchange, income of $25 associated with a higher reversal of a contingent earn-out liability related to the Firth Rixson acquisition, and income of $25 due to the reversal of a liability associated with a separation-related guarantee;
a decrease in Interest expense due to lower outstanding debt, mostly offset by premiums paid for the early redemption of $1,250 of the Company’s long-term debt; and
a decrease in Provision for income taxes attributable to a charge for tax valuation allowances related to the Separation Transaction of $1,267 in 2016, partially offset by a charge of $272 resulting from the 2017 Act that principally relates to the revaluation of U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities from 35% to 21%.
The significant changes in the reconciling items between Combined segment adjusted EBITDA and Net loss attributable to Arconic for 2016 compared with 2015 consisted of:
an increase in Depreciation and amortization related to a full year of D&A related to two acquisitions which occurred during 2015 (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information above)
a decrease in Restructuring and other charges, due to fewer portfolio actions;
a change in the impact of LIFO, mostly due to higher aluminum prices, driven by higher base metal prices (LME) (increase in price at December 31, 2016 indexed to December 31, 2015 compared to a decrease in price at December 31, 2015 indexed to December 31, 2014);
a favorable change in Metal price lag, the result of higher prices for aluminum;
an increase in Corporate expense, largely attributable to an increase in costs related to the Separation Transaction of $193, partially offset by decreases in corporate research and development expenses and other various expenses;
an increase in Other income, net, as a result of income of $76 associated with the reversal of a contingent earn-out liability and a post-closing adjustment, both of which related to the November 2014 acquisition of Firth Rixson;
an increase in Interest expense, due to debt issuance costs expensed associated with the Separation Transaction, a full year of interest related to the RTI debt and costs associated with the early redemption of $750 of 5.55% Notes due February 2017, completed on December 30, 2016, which included a purchase premium; and
an increase in Provision for income taxes attributable to a charge for tax valuation allowances related to the Separation Transaction of $1,267.
Reconciliation of Net loss attributable to Arconic to Consolidated adjusted EBITDA
Items required to reconcile Net loss attributable to Arconic to Consolidated adjusted EBITDA include: Depreciation and amortization; Impairment of goodwill; Restructuring and other charges; Other income, net; Interest expense; Income tax expense; and Discontinued operations.

44


The following table reconciles Net loss attributable to Arconic to Consolidated adjusted EBITDA:
 
2017
2016
2015
Net loss attributable to Arconic
$
(74
)
$
(941
)
$
(322
)
Depreciation and amortization
551

535

508

Impairment of goodwill
719


25

Restructuring and other charges
165

155

214

Other income, net
(640
)
(94
)
(28
)
Interest expense
496

499

473

Income taxes
544

1,476

339

Discontinued operations

(121
)
165

Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA (1)
$
1,761

$
1,509

$
1,374

(1) Consolidated adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure. Management believes that this measure is meaningful to investors because Consolidated adjusted EBITDA provides additional information with respect to Arconic’s operating performance. Additionally, presenting Consolidated adjusted EBITDA pursuant to our debt agreements is appropriate to provide additional information to investors to demonstrate Arconic’s ability to comply with its financial debt covenants. The Consolidated adjusted EBITDA presented may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
Environmental Matters
See the Environmental Matters section of Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Arconic maintains a disciplined approach to cash management and strengthening of its balance sheet. Management continued to focus on actions to improve Arconic’s cost structure and liquidity, providing the Company with the ability to operate effectively. Such actions included procurement efficiencies and overhead rationalization to reduce costs, working capital initiatives, and maintaining a sustainable level of capital expenditures.
Cash provided from operations and financing activities is expected to be adequate to cover Arconic’s operational and business needs over the next 12 months. For an analysis of long-term liquidity, see Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements below.
At December 31, 2017, cash and cash equivalents of Arconic were $2,150, of which $402 was held by Arconic's non-U.S. subsidiaries. The cash held by non-U.S. subsidiaries is generally used for operational activities of Arconic’s international businesses.  As such, management does not have a current expectation of repatriating cash held in foreign jurisdictions.  
The Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows has not been restated for discontinued operations, therefore the discussion below concerning Cash from Operations, Financing Activities, and Investing Activities for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 includes the results of both Arconic and Alcoa Corporation up through the completion of the Separation Transaction on November 1, 2016.
Cash from Operations
Cash provided from operations in 2017 was $701 compared with $870 in 2016. The decrease of $169, or 19%, was primarily due to lower operating results (net loss plus net add-back for noncash transactions in earnings) of $345 and higher pension contributions of $20, partially offset by a favorable change in noncurrent assets of $111 due to the prepayment of $200 made in April 2016 related to a gas supply agreement for the Australia alumina refineries (Alcoa Corporation), a favorable change in noncurrent liabilities of $55, and lower cash used for working capital of $30. The components of the change in working capital included favorable changes of $114 in receivables; $87 in prepaid expenses and other current assets; and $278 in accrued expenses; mostly offset by unfavorable changes in working capital, including $163 in inventories; $170 in accounts payable, trade; and $116 in taxes, including income taxes.
Cash provided from operations in 2016 was $870 compared with $1,582 in 2015. The decrease of $712, or 45%, was primarily due to lower operating results (net loss plus net add-back for noncash transactions in earnings) of $985 and unfavorable changes in working capital of $104 and noncurrent liabilities of $21, partially offset by a favorable change associated with noncurrent assets of $218 and a decrease in pension contributions of $180. The components of the unfavorable change in working capital included $450 in receivables and $122 in prepaid expenses and other current assets; partially offset by

45


favorable changes in working capital including $322 in accounts payable, trade, principally the result of the impact of purchasing metal from Alcoa Corporation and the timing of payments; $68 in taxes, including income taxes; $43 in accrued expenses; and $35 in inventories.
Financing Activities
Cash used for financing activities was $963 in 2017 compared with $754 in 2016 and $441 in 2015.
The use of cash of $963 in 2017 was principally the result of $1,634 in repayments on borrowings under certain revolving credit facilities (see below) and repayments on debt, primarily related to the early redemption of the Company’s 6.50% Bonds due 2018, 6.75% Notes due 2018, and a portion of the 5.72% Notes due 2019 (see Note I to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information); and $162 in dividends to shareholders. These items were partially offset by $816 in additions to debt, primarily from borrowings under certain revolving credit facilities, and $50 of proceeds from the exercise of stock options.
The use of cash of $754 in 2016 was principally the result of $2,734 in payments on debt, mostly related to the repayment of borrowings under certain revolving credit facilitates (see below) and the repayment in December 2016 of $750 of outstanding principal of 5.55% Notes due February 2017; $228 in dividends to shareholders; and $175 in net cash paid to noncontrolling interests. These items were mostly offset by $1,962 in additions to debt, virtually all of which was the result of borrowing under certain revolving credit facilities, and $421 in net cash transferred from Alcoa Corporation at the completion of the Separation Transaction.
The use of cash in 2015 of $441 was principally the result of $2,030 in payments on debt, mostly related to the repayment of borrowings under certain revolving credit facilities (see below) and the repayment of convertible notes assumed in conjunction with the acquisition of RTI (see below); $223 in dividends paid to shareholders; and $104 in net cash paid to noncontrolling interests. These items were mostly offset by $1,901 in additions to debt, virtually all of which was the result of borrowings under certain revolving credit facilities (see below).
In July 2015, through the acquisition of RTI (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information above), Arconic assumed the obligation to repay two tranches of convertible debt; one tranche was due and settled in cash on December 1, 2015 (principal amount of $115) and the other tranche is due on October 15, 2019 (principal amount of $403), unless earlier converted or purchased by Arconic at the holder’s option under specific conditions. Upon conversion of the 2019 convertible notes, holders will receive, at Arconic’s election, cash, shares of common stock (approximately 14,294,000 shares using the December 31, 2017 conversion rate of 35.5119 shares per $1,000 (not in millions) bond or per-share conversion price of $28.1596), or a combination of cash and shares. On the maturity date, each holder of outstanding notes will be entitled to receive $1,000 (not in millions) in cash for each $1,000 (not in millions) bond, together with accrued and unpaid interest.
On July 25, 2014, Arconic entered into a Five-Year Revolving Credit Agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with a syndicate of lenders and issuers named therein which provides for a senior unsecured revolving credit facility (the “Credit Facility”). The proceeds are to be used to provide working capital or for other general corporate purposes of Arconic. By an Extension Request and Amendment Letter dated as of June 5, 2015, the maturity date of the Credit Facility was extended to July 25, 2020. In September 2016, Arconic entered into an amendment to the Credit Agreement to permit the Separation Transaction and to amend certain terms of the Credit Facility including the replacement of the existing financial covenant with a leverage ratio and reduction of total commitments available from $4,000 to $3,000. The amendment became effective on the separation date of November 1, 2016. The previous financial covenant, based upon Consolidated Net Worth (as defined in the Credit Agreement) was replaced. Arconic is required to maintain a ratio of Indebtedness (as defined in the Credit Agreement), to Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the Credit Agreement) of 4.50 to 1.00 for the period of the four fiscal quarters most recently ended, declining to 3.50 to 1.00 on December 31, 2019 and thereafter.
The Credit Agreement includes additional covenants, including, among others, (a) limitations on Arconic’s ability to incur liens securing indebtedness for borrowed money, (b) limitations on Arconic’s ability to consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of its assets, and (c) limitations on Arconic’s ability to change the nature of its business. As of December 31, 2017, Arconic was in compliance with all such covenants.
The Credit Agreement matures on July 25, 2020, unless extended or earlier terminated in accordance with the provisions of the Credit Agreement. Arconic may make one additional one-year extension request during the remaining term of the Credit Agreement, subject to the lender consent requirements set forth in the Credit Agreement. Under the provisions of the Credit Agreement, Arconic will pay a fee of 0.30% (based on Arconic’s long-term debt ratings as of December 31, 2017) of the total commitment per annum to maintain the Credit Facility.

46


The Credit Facility is unsecured and amounts payable under it will rank pari passu with all other unsecured, unsubordinated indebtedness of Arconic. Borrowings under the Credit Facility may be denominated in U.S. dollars or euros. Loans will bear interest at a base rate or a rate equal to LIBOR, plus, in each case, an applicable margin based on the credit ratings of Arconic’s outstanding senior unsecured long-term debt. The applicable margin on base rate loans and LIBOR loans will be 0.70% and 1.70% per annum, respectively, based on Arconic’s long-term debt ratings as of December 31, 2017. Loans may be prepaid without premium or penalty, subject to customary breakage costs.
The obligation of Arconic to pay amounts outstanding under the Credit Facility may be accelerated upon the occurrence of an “Event of Default” as defined in the Credit Agreement. Such Events of Default include, among others, (a) Arconic’s failure to pay the principal of, or interest on, borrowings under the Credit Facility, (b) any representation or warranty of Arconic in the Credit Agreement proving to be materially false or misleading, (c) Arconic’s breach of any of its covenants contained in the Credit Agreement, and (d) the bankruptcy or insolvency of Arconic.
There were no amounts outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016 and no amounts were borrowed during 2017, 2016 or 2015 under the Credit Facility. In addition to the Credit Facility, Arconic has a number of other credit facilities that provide a combined borrowing capacity of $715 as of December 31, 2017, of which $640 is due to expire in 2018 and $75 is due to expire in 2019. The purpose of any borrowings under these credit arrangements is to provide for working capital requirements and for other general corporate purposes. The covenants contained in all these arrangements are the same as the Credit Agreement (see above).
In 2017, 2016 and 2015, Arconic borrowed and repaid $810, $1,950, and $1,890, respectively, under the respective credit arrangements. The weighted-average interest rate and weighted-average days outstanding of the respective borrowings during 2017, 2016, and 2015 were 2.6%, 1.9%, and 1.6%, respectively, and 46 days, 49 days, and 69 days, respectively.
In September 2014, Arconic completed two public securities offerings under its shelf registration statement for (i) $1,250 of 25 million depositary shares, each representing a 1/10th interest in a share of Arconic’s 5.375% Class B Mandatory Convertible Preferred Stock, Series 1, par value $1 per share, liquidation preference $500 per share, and (ii) $1,250 of 5.125% Notes due 2024. The net proceeds of the offerings were used to finance the cash portion of the acquisition of Firth Rixson. On October 2, 2017, all outstanding 24,975,978 depositary shares were converted at a rate of 1.56996 into 39,211,286 common shares; 24,022 depositary shares were previously tendered for early conversion into 31,420 shares of Arconic common stock. No gain or loss was recognized associated with this noncash equity transaction.
Arconic’s cost of borrowing and ability to access the capital markets are affected not only by market conditions but also by the short- and long-term debt ratings assigned to Arconic’s debt by the major credit rating agencies.
On May 1, 2017, Standard and Poor’s Ratings Services affirmed Arconic’s long-term debt at BBB-, an investment grade rating, with a stable outlook, and its short-term debt at A-3. On November 1, 2016, Moody’s Investor Service (Moody’s) downgraded Arconic’s long-term debt rating from Ba1, a non-investment grade, to Ba2 and its short-term debt rating from Speculative Grade Liquidity-1 to Speculative Grade Liquidity-2. Additionally, Moody’s changed the outlook from negative to stable (ratings and outlook were affirmed on November 2, 2017). On April 21, 2016, Fitch affirmed Arconic’s long-term debt rating at BB+, a non-investment grade, and short-term debt at B. Additionally, Fitch changed the current outlook from positive to evolving. On July 7, 2016, Fitch changed the current outlook from evolving to stable (ratings and outlook were affirmed on July 3, 2017).
Investing Activities
Cash provided from investing activities was $540 in 2017 compared with cash used for investing activities of $165 in 2016 and $1,060 in 2015.
The source of cash in 2017 included proceeds of $888 from the sale of a portion of Arconic’s investment in Alcoa Corporation common stock and the receipt of proceeds from the sale of the Yadkin Hydroelectric Project of $243, somewhat offset by cash used for capital expenditures of $596, including the aerospace expansion (very thick plate stretcher and horizontal heat treat furnace) at the Davenport, IA plant and a titanium aluminide furnace at the Niles, Ohio facility, and the injection of $10 into the Fusina rolling business prior to its sale.
The use of cash in 2016 was mainly due to $1,125 in capital expenditures ($298 Alcoa Corporation), 29% of which related to growth projects, including the aerospace expansion (very thick plate stretcher) at the Davenport, IA plant and a titanium aluminide furnace at the Niles, Ohio facility. This use of cash was primarily offset by $692 in proceeds from the sale of assets and businesses, including $457 from the redemption of company-owned life insurance policies, $120 in proceeds related to the sale of the Intalco smelter wharf property (Alcoa Corporation), and $102 in proceeds ($99 net of transaction costs) from the sale of the Remmele Medical business, which was part of Arconic’s acquisition of RTI in July 2015; and $280 in sales of

47


investments, composed primarily of $145 for an equity interest in a natural gas pipeline in Australia (Alcoa Corporation) and $130 for securities held by Arconic’s captive insurance company.
The use of cash in 2015 was mainly due to $1,180 in capital expenditures ($391 Alcoa Corporation) (includes costs related to environmental control in new and expanded facilities of $141), 38% of which related to growth projects, including the aerospace expansion at the La Porte, IN plant, the automotive expansion at the Alcoa, TN plant, the aerospace expansion (very thick plate stretcher) at the Davenport, IA plant, the aerospace expansion (isothermal press) at the Savannah, GA plant (Firth Rixson), and the specialty foil expansion at the Itapissuma plant in Brazil; $205 (net of cash acquired) for the acquisition of TITAL (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information above); and $134 in additions to investments, including the purchase of $70 in securities held by Arconic’s captive insurance company and equity contributions of $29 related to the aluminum complex joint venture in Saudi Arabia (Alcoa Corporation). These items were somewhat offset by $302 in cash acquired from RTI (see Engineered Products and Solutions under Segment Information above); $112 in proceeds from the sale of assets and businesses, composed of three land sales in Australia and the United States combined and post-closing adjustments related to an ownership stake in a smelter (Alcoa Corporation), four rolling mills, and an ownership stake in a bauxite mine/alumina refinery (Alcoa Corporation) divested from December 2014 through March 2015; and $40 in sales of investments, related to the sale of $21 in securities held by Arconic’s captive insurance company and $19 in proceeds from the sale of the remaining portion of an equity investment in a China rolling mill.
Noncash Financing and Investing Activities.
On October 2, 2017, all outstanding 24,975,978 depositary shares (each depositary share representing a 1/10th interest in a share of the mandatory convertible preferred stock) were converted at a rate of 1.56996 into 39,211,286 common shares; 24,022 depositary shares were previously tendered for early conversion into 31,420 shares of Arconic common stock. No gain or loss was recognized associated with this equity transaction. (See Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.)
In the second quarter of 2017, the Company completed a Debt-for-Equity Exchange with the Investment Banks of a portion of Arconic’s retained interest in Alcoa Corporation common stock for a portion of the Company’s outstanding notes held by the Investment Banks for $465 including accrued and unpaid interest.
On October 5, 2016, Arconic completed a 1-for-3 reverse stock split of its outstanding and authorized shares of common stock, pursuant to the authorization provided at a special meeting of Arconic common shareholders (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The Reverse Stock Split reduced the number of shares of common stock outstanding from approximately 1.3 billion shares to approximately 0.4 billion shares. The par value of the common stock remained at $1.00 per share. Accordingly, Common stock and Additional capital in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2016 reflect a decrease and increase of $877, respectively.
In August 2016, Arconic retired its outstanding treasury stock consisting of approximately 76 million shares. As a result, Common stock and Additional capital were decreased by $76 and $2,563, respectively, to reflect the retirement of the treasury shares.
In July 2015, Arconic purchased all outstanding shares of RTI common stock in a stock-for-stock transaction valued at $870. As a result, Arconic issued 29 million shares (87 million shares—pre-Reverse Stock Split) of its common stock to consummate this transaction.

48


Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Contractual Obligations. Arconic is required to make future payments under various contracts, including long-term purchase obligations, financing arrangements, and lease agreements. Arconic also has commitments to fund its pension plans, provide payments for other postretirement benefit plans, and fund capital projects. As of December 31, 2017, a summary of Arconic’s outstanding contractual obligations is as follows (these contractual obligations are grouped in the same manner as they are classified in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows in order to provide a better understanding of the nature of the obligations and to provide a basis for comparison to historical information):
 
 
Total
2018
2019-2020
2021-2022
Thereafter
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Energy-related purchase obligations
$
71

$
40

$
26

$
5

$

Raw material purchase obligations
1,013

801

210

2


Other purchase obligations
51

20

14

12

5

Operating leases
442

108

150

84

100

Interest related to total debt
2,675

371

693

429

1,182

Estimated minimum required pension funding
1,600

350

675

575


Other postretirement benefit payments
785

90

180

180

335

Layoff and other restructuring payments
58

58




Deferred revenue arrangements
30

12

18



Uncertain tax positions
75




75

Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Total debt
6,844

29

1,883

1,870

3,062

Dividends to shareholders





Investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Capital projects
426

340

86



Totals
$
14,070

$
2,219

$
3,935

$
3,157

$
4,759


Obligations for Operating Activities
Energy-related purchase obligations consist primarily of electricity and natural gas contracts with expiration dates ranging from one year to six years. Raw material purchase obligations consist mostly of aluminum, titanium sponge, and various other metals with expiration dates ranging from less than one year to four years. Many of these purchase obligations contain variable pricing components, and, as a result, actual cash payments may differ from the estimates provided in the preceding table. Operating leases represent multi-year obligations for certain land and buildings, plant equipment, vehicles, and computer equipment.
Interest related to total debt is based on interest rates in effect as of December 31, 2017 and is calculated on debt with maturities that extend to 2042.
Estimated minimum required pension funding and postretirement benefit payments are based on actuarial estimates using current assumptions for discount rates, long-term rate of return on plan assets, rate of compensation increases, and health care cost trend rates, among others. It is Arconic’s policy to fund amounts for pension plans sufficient to meet the minimum requirements set forth in applicable country benefits laws and tax laws. Arconic has determined that it is not practicable to present pension funding and other postretirement benefit payments beyond 2022 and 2027, respectively.
Layoff and other restructuring payments to be paid within one year primarily relate to severance costs and special layoff benefit payments.
Deferred revenue arrangements require Arconic to deliver product to a customer over the specified contract period through 2020 for a sheet and plate contract. While these obligations are not expected to result in cash payments, they represent contractual obligations for which the Company would be obligated if the specified product deliveries could not be made.
Uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken on an income tax return may result in additional payments to tax authorities. The amount in the preceding table includes interest and penalties accrued related to such positions as of December 31, 2017. The total amount of uncertain tax positions is included in the “Thereafter” column as the Company is not

49


able to reasonably estimate the timing of potential future payments. If a tax authority agrees with the tax position taken or expected to be taken or the applicable statute of limitations expires, then additional payments will not be necessary.
Obligations for Financing Activities
Arconic has historically paid quarterly dividends on its preferred and common stock. Including dividends on preferred stock, Arconic paid $162 in dividends to shareholders during 2017. This amount includes dividends related to a class of preferred stock issued in September 2014, which converted to common stock on October 2, 2017 (see Financing Activities under Liquidity and Capital Resources above). Because all dividends are subject to approval by Arconic’s Board of Directors, amounts are not included in the preceding table unless such authorization has occurred. As of December 31, 2017, there were 481,416,537 shares of outstanding common stock and 546,024 shares of outstanding Class A preferred stock. The annual preferred stock dividend is at a rate of $3.75 per share and the annual common stock dividend expected to be paid is $0.24 per share for 2018.
Obligations for Investing Activities
Capital projects in the preceding table only include amounts approved by management as of December 31, 2017. Funding levels may vary in future years based on anticipated construction schedules of the projects. It is expected that significant expansion projects will be funded through various sources, including cash provided from operations. Total capital expenditures are anticipated to be approximately $700 in 2018.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.
At December 31, 2017, Arconic has outstanding bank guarantees related to tax matters, outstanding debt, workers’ compensation, environmental obligations, energy contracts, and customs duties, among others. The total amount committed under these guarantees, which expire at various dates between 2018 and 2026 was $29 at December 31, 2017.
Pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, Arconic was required to provide certain guarantees for Alcoa Corporation, which had a combined fair value of $8 and $35 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and were included in Other noncurrent liabilities and deferred credits on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet. Arconic was required to provide payment guarantees for Alcoa Corporation issued on behalf of a third party, and amounts outstanding under these payment guarantees were $197 and $354 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. These guarantees expire at various times between 2018 and 2024, and relate to project financing for Alcoa Corporation’s aluminum complex in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, Arconic was required to provide guarantees related to two long-term supply agreements for energy for Alcoa Corporation facilities in the event of an Alcoa Corporation payment default. In October 2017, Alcoa Corporation announced that it had terminated one of the two agreements, the electricity contract with Luminant Generation Company LLC that was tied to its Rockdale Operations, effective as of October 1, 2017. As a result of the termination of the Rockdale electricity contract, Arconic recorded income of $25 in the fourth quarter of 2017 associated with reversing the fair value of the electricity contract guarantee. For the remaining long-term supply agreement, Arconic is required to provide a guarantee up to an estimated present value amount of approximately $1,297.
Arconic was also required to provide guarantees of $50 related to two Alcoa Corporation energy supply contracts. These guarantees expired in March 2017. Additionally, Arconic was required to provide guarantees of $53 related to certain Alcoa Corporation environmental liabilities. Notification of a change in guarantor to Alcoa Corporation was made to the appropriate environmental agencies and as such, Arconic no longer provides these guarantees.
In December 2016, Arconic entered into a one-year claims purchase agreement with a bank covering claims up to $245 related to the Saudi Arabian joint venture and two long-term energy supply agreements. The majority of the premium was paid by Alcoa Corporation.  The agreement matured in December 2017 and was not renewed in 2018 due to the decline in exposure to guarantee claims including a substantial reduction in the guarantees related to the Saudi Arabian joint venture and also the elimination of the guarantee related to the Rockdale energy contract. The decision to enter into a claims purchase agreement will be made on an annual basis going forward.
Arconic has outstanding letters of credit primarily related to workers’ compensation, energy contracts and leasing obligations. The total amount committed under these letters of credit, which automatically renew or expire at various dates, mostly in 2018, was $120 at December 31, 2017.
Pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, Arconic was required to retain letters of credit of $62 that had previously been provided related to both Arconic and Alcoa Corporation workers’ compensation claims which occurred prior to November 1, 2016. Alcoa Corporation workers’ compensation claims and letter of credit fees paid by Arconic are being

50


proportionally billed to and are being fully reimbursed by Alcoa Corporation. Additionally, Arconic was required to provide letters of credit for certain Alcoa Corporation equipment leases and energy contracts and, as a result, Arconic had $103 of outstanding letters of credit relating to these liabilities. The entire $103 of outstanding letters of credit were canceled in 2017 when Alcoa Corporation issued its own letters of credit to cover these obligations.
Arconic also has outstanding surety bonds primarily related to tax matters, contract performance, workers’ compensation, environmental-related matters, and customs duties. The total amount committed under these bonds, which automatically renew or expire at various dates, mostly in 2018, was $54 at December 31, 2017.
As part of the Separation Transaction, Arconic was required to provide surety bonds related to Alcoa Corporation workers’ compensation claims which occurred prior to November 1, 2016 and, as a result, Arconic has $25 in outstanding surety bonds relating to these liabilities. Alcoa Corporation workers’ compensation claims and surety bond fees paid by Arconic are being proportionally billed to and are being fully reimbursed by Alcoa Corporation.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make certain judgments, estimates, and assumptions regarding uncertainties that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and disclosed in the accompanying Notes. Areas that require significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions include accounting for environmental and litigation matters; the testing of goodwill, other intangible assets, and properties, plants, and equipment for impairment; estimating fair value of businesses acquired or divested; pension plans and other postretirement benefits obligations; stock-based compensation; and income taxes.
Management uses historical experience and all available information to make these judgments, estimates, and assumptions, and actual results may differ from those used to prepare the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements at any given time. Despite these inherent limitations, management believes that Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes provide a meaningful and fair perspective of the Company.
A summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies is included in Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Management believes that the application of these policies on a consistent basis enables the Company to provide the users of the Consolidated Financial Statements with useful and reliable information about the Company’s operating results and financial condition.
Environmental Matters. Expenditures for current operations are expensed or capitalized, as appropriate. Expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations, which will not contribute to future revenues, are expensed. Liabilities are recorded when remediation costs are probable and can be reasonably estimated. The liability may include costs such as site investigations, consultant fees, feasibility studies, outside contractors, and monitoring expenses. Estimates are generally not discounted or reduced by potential claims for recovery. Claims for recovery are recognized when probable and as agreements are reached with third parties. The estimates also include costs related to other potentially responsible parties to the extent that Arconic has reason to believe such parties will not fully pay their proportionate share. The liability is continuously reviewed and adjusted to reflect current remediation progress, prospective estimates of required activity, and other factors that may be relevant, including changes in technology or regulations.
Litigation Matters. For asserted claims and assessments, liabilities are recorded when an unfavorable outcome of a matter is deemed to be probable and the loss is reasonably estimable. Management determines the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome based on many factors such as the nature of the matter, available defenses and case strategy, progress of the matter, views and opinions of legal counsel and other advisors, applicability and success of appeals processes, and the outcome of similar historical matters, among others. Once an unfavorable outcome is deemed probable, management weighs the probability of estimated losses, and the most reasonable loss estimate is recorded. If an unfavorable outcome of a matter is deemed to be reasonably possible, then the matter is disclosed and no liability is recorded. With respect to unasserted claims or assessments, management must first determine that the probability that an assertion will be made is likely, then, a determination as to the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to reasonably estimate the potential loss is made. Legal matters are reviewed on a continuous basis to determine if there has been a change in management’s judgment regarding the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome or the estimate of a potential loss.
Goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized; instead, it is reviewed for impairment annually (in the fourth quarter) or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist or if a decision is made to sell or realign a business. A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indicator of impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include deterioration in general economic conditions, negative developments in equity and credit markets, adverse changes in the markets in which an entity

51


operates, increases in input costs that have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, or a trend of negative or declining cash flows over multiple periods, among others. The fair value that could be realized in an actual transaction may differ from that used to evaluate the impairment of goodwill.
Goodwill is allocated among and evaluated for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. Arconic has eight reporting units, of which four are included in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, three are included in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment, and the remaining reporting unit is the Global Rolled Products segment. More than 85% of Arconic’s total goodwill at December 31, 2017 is allocated to two reporting units as follows: Arconic Fastening Systems and Rings (AFSR) ($2,221) and Arconic Power and Propulsion (APP) ($1,686) businesses, both of which are included in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment. These amounts include an allocation of Corporate’s goodwill.
In January 2018, management announced a change in the organizational structure of the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, from four business units to three business units, with a focus on aligning its internal structure to core markets and customers and reducing cost. As a result of this change, goodwill will be reallocated to the three new reporting units and evaluated for impairment during the first quarter of 2018. The Company does not expect any goodwill impairment as a result of this realignment.
In reviewing goodwill for impairment, an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (greater than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If an entity elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the entity is then required to perform the quantitative impairment test (described below), otherwise no further analysis is required. An entity also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The ultimate outcome of the goodwill impairment review for a reporting unit should be the same whether an entity chooses to perform the qualitative assessment or proceeds directly to the quantitative impairment test.
Arconic determines annually, based on facts and circumstances, which of its reporting units will be subject to the qualitative assessment. For those reporting units where a qualitative assessment is either not performed or for which the conclusion is that an impairment is more likely than not, a quantitative impairment test will be performed. Arconic’s policy is that a quantitative impairment test be performed for each reporting unit at least once during every three-year period.
Under the qualitative assessment, various events and circumstances (or factors) that would affect the estimated fair value of a reporting unit are identified (similar to impairment indicators above). These factors are then classified by the type of impact they would have on the estimated fair value using positive, neutral, and adverse categories based on current business conditions. Additionally, an assessment of the level of impact that a particular factor would have on the estimated fair value is determined using high, medium, and low weighting. Furthermore, management considers the results of the most recent quantitative impairment test completed for a reporting unit and compares the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) between the current and prior years for each reporting unit.
During the 2017 annual review of goodwill, management performed the qualitative assessment for one reporting unit, Arconic Wheel and Transportation Products (within the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment). Management concluded that it was not more likely than not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit was less than its carrying value. As such, no further analysis was required.
Under the quantitative impairment test, the evaluation of impairment involves comparing the current fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Arconic uses a discounted cash flow (DCF) model to estimate the current fair value of its reporting units when testing for impairment, as management believes forecasted cash flows are the best indicator of such fair value. A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the DCF model to forecast operating cash flows, including markets and market share, sales volumes and prices, production costs, tax rates, capital spending, discount rate, and working capital changes. Most of these assumptions vary significantly among the reporting units. Cash flow forecasts are generally based on approved business unit operating plans for the early years and historical relationships in later years. The WACC rate for the individual reporting units is estimated with the assistance of valuation experts. Arconic would recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value without exceeding the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
During the 2017 annual review of goodwill, management proceeded directly to the quantitative impairment test for six reporting units as follows: AFSR, APP, Arconic Titanium and Engineered Products (ATEP), and Arconic Forgings and Extrusions (AFE), which are all included in the Engineered Products and Solutions segment, Global Rolled Products, and Building and Construction Systems, which is included in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment. The estimated fair value for five of the six reporting units exceeded its respective carrying value, resulting in no impairment. However, the

52


estimated fair value of AFE was lower than its carrying value. As such, in the fourth quarter of 2017, Arconic recorded an impairment for the full amount of goodwill in the AFE reporting unit of $719. The decrease in the AFE fair value was primarily due to unfavorable performance that is impacting operating margins and a higher discount rate due to an increase in the risk-free rate of return, while the carrying value increased compared to prior year.
Goodwill impairment tests in 2016 and 2015 indicated that goodwill was not impaired for any of the Company’s reporting units, except for the soft alloy extrusion business in Brazil which is included in the Transportation and Construction Solutions segment. In the fourth quarter of 2015, for the soft alloy extrusion business in Brazil, the estimated fair value as determined by the DCF model was lower than the associated carrying value of its reporting unit’s goodwill. As a result, management determined that the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill was zero. Arconic recorded a goodwill impairment of $25 in 2015. The impairment of goodwill resulted from headwinds from the downturn in the Brazilian economy and the continued erosion of gross margin despite the execution of cost reduction strategies. As a result of the goodwill impairment, there is no goodwill remaining for the reporting unit.
Properties, Plants, and Equipment and Other Intangible Assets. Properties, plants, and equipment and Other intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets (asset group) may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets is determined by comparing the estimated undiscounted net cash flows of the operations related to the assets (asset group) to their carrying amount. An impairment loss would be recognized when the carrying amount of the assets (asset group) exceeds the estimated undiscounted net cash flows. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated as the excess of the carrying value of the assets (asset group) over their fair value, with fair value determined using the best information available, which generally is a DCF model. The determination of what constitutes an asset group, the associated estimated undiscounted net cash flows, and the estimated useful lives of assets also require significant judgments.
Discontinued Operations and Assets Held For Sale. The fair values of all businesses to be divested are estimated using accepted valuation techniques such as a DCF model, valuations performed by third parties, earnings multiples, or indicative bids, when available. A number of significant estimates and assumptions are involved in the application of these techniques, including the forecasting of markets and market share, sales volumes and prices, costs and expenses, and multiple other factors. Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the estimates are made; however, the fair value that is ultimately realized upon the divestiture of a business may differ from the estimated fair value reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits. Liabilities and expenses for pension and other postretirement benefits are determined using actuarial methodologies and incorporate significant assumptions, including the interest rate used to discount the future estimated liability, the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, and several assumptions relating to the employee workforce (salary increases, health care cost trend rates, retirement age, and mortality).
The interest rate used to discount future estimated liabilities is determined using a Company-specific yield curve model (above-median) developed with the assistance of an external actuary. The cash flows of the plans’ projected benefit obligations are discounted using a single equivalent rate derived from yields on high quality corporate bonds, which represent a broad diversification of issuers in various sectors, including finance and banking, industrials, transportation, and utilities, among others. The yield curve model parallels the plans’ projected cash flows, which have an average duration of 11 years. The underlying cash flows of the bonds included in the model exceed the cash flows needed to satisfy the Company’s plans’ obligations multiple times. In 2017, 2016, and 2015, the discount rate used to determine benefit obligations for U.S. pension and other postretirement benefit plans was 3.75%, 4.20%, and 4.29%, respectively. The impact on the liabilities of a change in the discount rate of 1/4 of 1% would be approximately $225 and either a charge or credit of approximately $3 to after-tax earnings in the following year.
In conjunction with the annual measurement of the funded status of Arconic’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans at December 31, 2015, management elected to change the manner in which the interest cost component of net periodic benefit cost will be determined in 2016 and beyond. Previously, the interest cost component was determined by multiplying the single equivalent rate described above and the aggregate discounted cash flows of the plans’ projected benefit obligations. Under the new methodology, the interest cost component will be determined by aggregating the product of the discounted cash flows of the plans’ projected benefit obligations for each year and an individual spot rate (referred to as the “spot rate” approach). This change resulted in a lower interest cost component of net periodic benefit cost under the new methodology compared to the previous methodology in 2017 and 2016 of $34 and $84, respectively, for pension plans and $6 and $14, respectively, for other postretirement benefit plans. Management believes this new methodology, which represents a change in an accounting estimate, is a better measure of the interest cost as each year’s cash flows are specifically linked to the interest rates of bond payments in the same respective year.

53


The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is generally applied to a five-year market-related value of plan assets (a fair value at the plan measurement date is used for certain non-U.S. plans). The process used by management to develop this assumption is one that relies on a combination of historical asset return information and forward-looking returns by asset class. As it relates to historical asset return information, management focuses on various historical moving averages when developing this assumption. While consideration is given to recent performance and historical returns, the assumption represents a long-term, prospective return. Management also incorporates expected future returns on current and planned asset allocations using information from various external investment managers and consultants, as well as management’s own judgment.
For 2017, 2016, and 2015, management used 7.75% as its expected long-term rate of return, which was based on the prevailing and planned strategic asset allocations, as well as estimates of future returns by asset class. These rates fell within the respective range of the 20-year moving average of actual performance and the expected future return developed by asset class. In 2015, the decrease of 25 basis points in the expected long-term rate of return was due to a decrease in the 20-year moving average of actual performance. For 2018, management anticipates that 7.00% will be the expected long-term rate of return. The decrease of 75 basis points in the expected long-term rate is due to a decrease in the expected return by asset class and the 20-year moving average.
A change in the assumption for the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets of 1/4 of 1% would impact after-tax earnings by approximately $9 for 2018.

In 2017, a net loss of $220 (after-tax) was recorded in other comprehensive loss, primarily due to the decrease in the discount rate of 45 basis points and asset performance less than expected, which was partially offset by the amortization of actuarial losses. In 2016, a net benefit of $1,601 (after-tax and noncontrolling interest) was recorded in other comprehensive loss, primarily due to the transfer of $2,080 to Alcoa Corporation which was partially offset by a net charge of $479. The charge was due to the unfavorable performance of the plan assets and a 9 basis point decrease in the discount rate, which was partially offset by the amortization of actuarial losses. In 2015, a net charge of $10 (after-tax and noncontrolling interest) was recorded in other comprehensive loss, primarily due to the unfavorable performance of the plan assets, which was mostly offset by the amortization of actuarial losses and a 29 basis point increase in the discount rate.

In January 2018, the Company announced the freeze of its U.S. defined benefit pension plans for salaried and non-bargained hourly employees, effective April 1, 2018. Benefit accruals for future service and compensation under all of the Company’s qualified and non-qualified defined benefit pension plans for U.S. salaried and non-bargained hourly employees (the “Pension Plans”) will cease. In connection with this change, effective April 1, 2018, impacted employees will commence receiving an employer contribution of 3% of eligible compensation under the Arconic Salaried Retirement Savings Plan, and, for the period from April 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018, an additional transition employer contribution of 3% of eligible compensation.
As a result of this change to the Pension Plans, in the first quarter of 2018, the Company expects to record a liability decrease of approximately $140 related to the reduction of future benefits and a curtailment charge of approximately $5 pre-tax.  For the full year 2018, the Company expects pension-related expense to be lower by approximately $50 pre-tax compared to 2017 full year expenses.  The lower pension expense expectation is based on preliminary year-end December 31, 2017 results and is inclusive of the change to the Pension Plans described above as well as expected changes in other pension-related assumptions.

Additionally, in accordance with accounting guidance effective January 1, 2018 that requires the other components of net periodic benefit cost to be presented separately from the service cost component, approximately $110 of pension-related expense in 2018 is expected to be recorded in the Other income, net line item in the Statement of Consolidated Operations.
Stock-based Compensation. Arconic recognizes compensation expense for employee equity grants using the non-substantive vesting period approach, in which the expense is recognized ratably over the requisite service period based on the grant date fair value. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur. The fair value of new stock options is estimated on the date of grant using a lattice-pricing model. The fair value of performance awards containing a market condition is valued using a Monte Carlo valuation model. Determining the fair value at the grant date requires judgment, including estimates for the average risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, volatility, and exercise behavior. These assumptions may differ significantly between grant dates because of changes in the actual results of these inputs that occur over time.
As part of Arconic’s stock-based compensation plan design, individuals who are retirement-eligible have a six-month requisite service period in the year of grant. As a result, a larger portion of expense will be recognized in the first half of each year for these retirement-eligible employees. Compensation expense recorded in 2017, 2016, and 2015 was $54 ($36 after-tax), $76 ($51 after-tax), and $77 ($51 after-tax), respectively. Of these amounts, $15, $19, and $15 in 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively, pertains to the acceleration of expense related to retirement-eligible employees.

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Most plan participants can choose whether to receive their award in the form of stock options, stock awards, or a combination of both. This choice is made before the grant is issued and is irrevocable.
Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, the provision for income taxes represents income taxes paid or payable (or received or receivable) for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid, and result from differences between the financial and tax bases of Arconic’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when enacted.
Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. In evaluating the need for a valuation allowance, management considers all potential sources of taxable income, including income available in carryback periods, future reversals of taxable temporary differences, projections of taxable income, and income from tax planning strategies, as well as all available positive and negative evidence. Positive evidence includes factors such as a history of profitable operations, projections of future profitability within the carryforward period, including from tax planning strategies, and Arconic’s experience with similar operations. Existing favorable contracts and the ability to sell products into established markets are additional positive evidence. Negative evidence includes items such as cumulative losses, projections of future losses, or carryforward periods that are not long enough to allow for the utilization of a deferred tax asset based on existing projections of income. Deferred tax assets for which no valuation allowance is recorded may not be realized upon changes in facts and circumstances, resulting in a future charge to establish a valuation allowance. Existing valuation allowances are re-examined under the same standards of positive and negative evidence. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will be realized, the appropriate amount of the valuation allowance, if any, is released. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are also re-measured to reflect changes in underlying tax rates due to law changes and the granting and lapse of tax holidays.
In 2017, Arconic released $98 of certain U.S. state valuation allowances. After weighing all available positive and negative evidence, management determined that the underlying net deferred tax assets were more likely than not realizable based on projected taxable income estimates taking into account expected post-separation apportionment data. Valuation allowances of $750 remain against other net state deferred tax assets expected to expire before utilization. The need for valuation allowances against net state deferred tax assets will be reassessed on a continuous basis in future periods and, as a result, the allowance may increase or decrease based on changes in facts and circumstances.
Arconic also recorded an additional valuation allowance of $675 which offsets additional losses reported on the Spanish tax return filed in 2017 related to the Separation Transaction that are not more likely than not to be realized.  There is no net impact to the provision for income taxes, as the additional valuation allowance fully offsets the current year tax benefit in Spain
Arconic’s foreign tax credits in the United States have a 10-year carryforward period with expirations ranging from 2018 to 2027 (as of December 31, 2017). Valuation allowances were initially established in prior years on a portion of the foreign tax credit carryforwards, primarily due to insufficient foreign source income to allow for full utilization of the credits within the expiration period. After consideration of all available evidence including potential tax planning strategies and earnings of foreign subsidiaries projected to be distributable as taxable foreign dividends, incremental valuation allowances of $302 and $134 were recognized in 2016 and 2015, respectively. Foreign tax credits of $57, $128, and $15 expired at the end of 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively, resulting in a corresponding decrease to the valuation allowance. During 2017, an additional valuation allowance of $23 was recorded for current year excess foreign tax credits, offset by a net $14 reduction for other adjustments. At December 31, 2017, the cumulative amount of the valuation allowance was $379. The need for this valuation allowance will be reassessed on a continuous basis in future periods and, as a result, the allowance may increase or decrease based on changes in facts and circumstances, including the impact of the 2017 Act.
Arconic will continue its analysis of the 2017 Act, including any additional guidance that may be issued. Further analysis could result in changes to assumptions related to the realizability of certain deferred tax assets including, but not limited to, foreign tax credits, alternative minimum tax credits, and state tax loss carryforwards. Provisional estimates of the impact of the 2017 Act on the realizability of certain deferred tax assets have been made based on information and computations that were available, prepared, and analyzed as of February 2, 2018. In accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, Arconic will reassess the need for valuation allowances on these deferred tax assets as necessary during 2018.
In 2016, Arconic recognized a $1,267 discrete income tax charge for valuation allowances related to the Separation Transaction, including $925 with respect to Alcoa Corporation’s net deferred tax assets in the United States, $302 with respect to Arconic’s foreign tax credits in the United States, $42 with respect to certain deferred tax assets in Luxembourg, and $(2) related to the net impact of other smaller items. After weighing all positive and negative evidence, as described above,

55


management determined that the net deferred tax assets of Alcoa Corporation were not more likely than not to be realized due to lack of historical and projected domestic source taxable income. As such, a valuation allowance was recorded immediately prior to separation.
In addition, Arconic recognized a $42 discrete income tax charge in 2016 for a valuation allowance on the full value of certain net deferred tax assets in Luxembourg. Sources of taxable income which previously supported the net deferred tax asset are no longer available as a result of the Separation Transaction. The need for this valuation allowance will be reassessed on a continuous basis in future periods and, as a result, the allowance may increase or decrease based on changes in facts and circumstances.
In 2016, Arconic also recognized discrete income tax benefits related to the release of valuation allowances on certain net deferred tax assets in Russia and Canada of $19 and $20, respectively. After weighing all available evidence, management determined that it was more likely than not that the net income tax benefits associated with the underlying deferred tax assets would be realizable based on historical cumulative income and projected taxable income.
Arconic also recorded additional valuation allowances in Australia of $93 related to the Separation Transaction, in Spain of $163 related to a tax law change and in Luxembourg of $280 related to the Separation Transaction as well as a tax law change. These valuation allowances fully offset current year changes in deferred tax asset balances of each respective jurisdiction, resulting in no net impact to tax expense. The need for a valuation allowance will be reassessed on a continuous basis in future periods by each jurisdiction and, as a result, the allowances may increase or decrease based on changes in facts and circumstances.
In 2015, Arconic recognized an additional $141 discrete income tax charge for valuation allowances on certain deferred tax assets in Iceland and Suriname. Of this amount, an $85 valuation allowance was established on the full value of the deferred tax assets in Suriname, which were related mostly to employee benefits and tax loss carryforwards. These deferred tax assets have an expiration period ranging from 2016 to 2022 (as of December 31, 2015). The remaining $56 charge relates to a valuation allowance established on a portion of the deferred tax assets recorded in Iceland. These deferred tax assets have an expiration period ranging from 2017 to 2023. After weighing all available positive and negative evidence, as described above, management determined that it was no longer more likely than not that Arconic will realize the tax benefit of either of these deferred tax assets. This was mainly driven by a decline in the outlook of the Primary Metals business, combined with prior year cumulative losses and a short expiration period.
Tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken on a tax return are recorded when such benefits meet a more likely than not threshold. Otherwise, these tax benefits are recorded when a tax position has been effectively settled, which means that the statute of limitations has expired or the appropriate taxing authority has completed their examination even though the statute of limitations remains open. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes and are accrued beginning in the period that such interest and penalties would be applicable under relevant tax law until such time that the related tax benefits are recognized.
Related Party Transactions
Arconic buys products from and provides services to Alcoa Corporation following the separation at negotiated prices between the parties. These transactions were not material to the financial position or results of operations of Arconic for all periods presented. Effective May 2017, upon disposition of the remaining common stock that Arconic held in Alcoa Corporation, they are no longer deemed a related party.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
See the Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance section of Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
See the Recently Issued Accounting Guidance section of Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

56


Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Not material.

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Management’s Reports to Arconic Shareholders
Management’s Report on Financial Statements and Practices
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements of Arconic Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) were prepared by management, which is responsible for their integrity and objectivity. The statements were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and include amounts that are based on management’s best judgments and estimates. The other financial information included in the annual report is consistent with that in the financial statements.
Management also recognizes its responsibility for conducting the Company’s affairs according to the highest standards of personal and corporate conduct. This responsibility is characterized and reflected in key policy statements issued from time to time regarding, among other things, conduct of its business activities within the laws of the host countries in which the Company operates and potentially conflicting outside business interests of its employees. The Company maintains a systematic program to assess compliance with these policies.
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting for the Company. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, management has conducted an assessment, including testing, using the criteria in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013), issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s system of internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Based on the assessment, management has concluded that the Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included herein.
 
/s/ Charles P. Blankenship
Charles P. Blankenship
Chief Executive Officer
 
/s/ Ken Giacobbe
Ken Giacobbe
Executive Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer

57


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of Arconic Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Arconic Inc. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.


58


Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
February 23, 2018

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1950.  


































59


Arconic and subsidiaries
Statement of Consolidated Operations
(in millions, except per-share amounts)
 
For the year ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
Sales (N)
$
12,960

$
12,394

$
12,413

Cost of goods sold (exclusive of expenses below)
10,357

9,811

10,104

Selling, general administrative, and other expenses (C)
731

942

765

Research and development expenses
111

132

169

Provision for depreciation and amortization
551

535

508

Impairment of goodwill (A and E)
719


25

Restructuring and other charges (D)
165

155

214

Operating income
326

819

628

Interest expense (S)
496

499

473

Other income, net (L)
(640
)
(94
)
(28
)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
470

414

183

Provision for income taxes (Q)
544

1,476

339

Loss from continuing operations after income taxes
(74
)
(1,062
)
(156
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations after income taxes (C)

184

(41
)
Net loss
(74
)
(878
)
(197
)
Less: Net income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests


1

Less: Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interests (C)

63

124

Net loss Attributable to Arconic
$
(74
)
$
(941
)
$
(322
)
Amounts Attributable to Arconic Common Shareholders (P):
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(127
)
$
(1,010
)
$
(391
)
(Loss) earnings per share—basic:
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.58
)
$
(0.54
)
Discontinued operations

0.27

(0.39
)
Net loss per share-basic
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.31
)
$
(0.93
)
(Loss) earnings per share—diluted
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.58
)
$
(0.54
)
Discontinued operations

0.27

(0.39
)
Net loss per share-diluted
$
(0.28
)
$
(2.31
)
$
(0.93
)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.


60


Arconic and subsidiaries
Statement of Consolidated Comprehensive (Loss) Income
(in millions)
 
 
Arconic
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
For the year ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
 
2017
2016
2015
 
2017
2016
2015
Net (loss) income
$
(74
)
$
(941
)
$
(322
)
 
$

$
63

$
125

 
$
(74
)
$
(878
)
$
(197
)
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax (B):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in unrecognized net actuarial loss and prior service cost/benefit related to pension and other postretirement benefits
(220
)
(479
)
(10
)
 

(3
)
8

 
(220
)
(482
)
(2
)
Foreign currency translation adjustments
252

268

(1,566
)
 
2

182

(429
)
 
254

450

(1,995
)
Net change in unrealized gains on available-for-sale securities
(134
)
137

(5
)
 



 
(134
)
137

(5
)
Net change in unrecognized gains (losses) on cash flow hedges
26

(617
)
827

 

5

(1
)
 
26

(612
)
826

Total Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
(76
)
(691
)
(754
)
 
2

184

(422
)
 
(74
)
(507
)
(1,176
)
Comprehensive (loss) income
$
(150
)
$
(1,632
)
$
(1,076
)
 
$