Washington, D.C. 20549


(Mark One)

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

For the transition period from _______ to _______

Commission File Number 1-3671

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organizationI.R.S. Employer Identification No.
11011 Sunset Hills RoadReston,Virginia20190
Address of principal executive officesZip code
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockGDNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes _ü_ No ___

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ___ No _ü_
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes _ü_ No ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes _ü_ No ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer _ü_ Accelerated filer ___ Non-accelerated filer ___ Smaller reporting company ___ Emerging growth company ___
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes _ü_No ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ___No _ü_
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $54,293,907,678 as of July 3, 2022 (based on the closing price of the shares on the New York Stock Exchange).
274,430,054 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $1 par value per share, were outstanding on January 29, 2023.
Part III incorporates by reference information from certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2023 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year.

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(Dollars in millions, except per-share amounts or unless otherwise noted)

General Dynamics is a global aerospace and defense company that specializes in high-end design, engineering and manufacturing to deliver state-of-the-art solutions to our customers. We offer a broad portfolio of products and services in business aviation; ship construction and repair; land combat vehicles, weapons systems and munitions; and technology products and services. Our leadership positions in attractive business aviation and defense markets enable us to deliver superior and enduring shareholder returns.
Our company consists of 10 business units, which are organized into four operating segments: Aerospace, Marine Systems, Combat Systems and Technologies. We refer to the latter three collectively as our defense segments. To optimize market focus, customer intimacy, agility and operating expertise, each business unit is responsible for the development and execution of its strategy and operating results. This structure allows for a lean corporate function, which sets the overall strategy and governance for the company and is responsible for allocating and deploying capital.
Our business units seek to deliver superior operating results by building industry-leading franchises. To achieve this goal, we invest in advanced technologies, pursue a culture of continuous improvement, and strive to be the low-cost, high-quality provider in each of our markets. The result is long-term value creation measured by strong earnings and cash flow and an attractive return on capital.
Over the past 10 years, we have invested in our business to create, renew or expand our portfolio of products and services across our businesses. This includes product development investments in Aerospace to bring to market an all-new lineup of business jet aircraft, capital investments in Marine Systems to support significant growth in U.S. Navy ship and submarine construction plans over the next two decades, development of next-generation platforms and technologies to meet customers’ emerging requirements in Combat Systems, and strategic acquisitions to achieve critical mass and build out a complete spectrum of solutions for our Technologies customers. As we emerge from this period of significant investment, we expect to realize an attractive return from these investments in each of our segments and continue to evaluate our capital deployment opportunities to deliver long-term growth and enduring value to our shareholders.
Following is additional information on each of our operating segments. For a supplemental discussion of segment performance and backlog, see Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.
Our Aerospace segment is recognized as a leading producer of business jets and the standard bearer in new technology aircraft, aircraft repair, support and completion services. The segment consists of our Gulfstream and Jet Aviation business units. We have earned our reputation through:
superior aircraft design, quality, performance, safety and reliability;
technologically advanced flight deck and cabin systems; and
industry-leading customer support.

We believe the key to long-term value creation in the business jet industry is steady investment in new aircraft models and technologies and in customer service capabilities. As a result, since we acquired Gulfstream more than 20 years ago, we have made significant investments in research and development (R&D), state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities, and maintenance and support through a combination of product development efforts, capital expansion and the acquisition of Jet Aviation’s global support network. We are also the industry leader in the use of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) and energy efficient engines.
We are committed to continual investment in R&D to create new aircraft that consistently broaden customer offerings while raising the bar for safety and performance. The result is the unprecedented development of an all-new lineup of the most technologically advanced business jet aircraft in the world. The Gulfstream family of aircraft offer industry-leading cabin, cockpit and safety technologies and the longest ranges at the fastest speeds in their respective classes.
The following represents Gulfstream’s current product line, along with the maximum range, maximum speed, cabin length (excluding baggage), and total number of city-pair speed records held for each aircraft:
The most recent additions to the in-service Gulfstream fleet are two large-cabin aircraft, the G500 and G600, which entered service in 2018 and 2019, respectively. These clean-sheet (i.e., all-new) aircraft replace the G450 and G550 models, whose combined family has an installed base of more than

1,650 aircraft around the world. Our investment included development of a new wing, new avionics, new fuselage and new ergonomically designed larger interiors, as well as systems and technologies to improve the manufacturing process and quality of the platform. As a result, the G500 and G600 are faster, more fuel efficient, and have greater cabin volume, reduced emissions, more range and improved flight controls compared with the aircraft they are replacing. These aircraft hold more than 90 city-pair speed records, and at year-end 2022, cumulative deliveries for the aircraft totaled over 200.
The next model to join the Gulfstream lineup is the ultra-long-range, ultra-large-cabin G700. It combines our most spacious cabin with our advanced Symmetry Flight Deck, the industry’s most technologically advanced flight deck, which we launched on our G500 and G600 aircraft, and the superior high-speed performance of all-new engines to create best-in-class capabilities. Gulfstream is in the process of flight testing and seeking U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification of the G700, which currently has logged more than 3,200 test hours. We expect the G700 to enter service following certification from the FAA in the summer of 2023.
In 2021, we introduced two new aircraft, the ultra-long-range, ultra-large-cabin G800 and large-cabin G400, completing a nearly two-decade effort to develop an all-new family of Gulfstream aircraft. Both aircraft combine our industry-leading high-speed range and efficiency, safety enhancements, and our advanced Symmetry Flight Deck. The G800 is Gulfstream’s longest-range aircraft, with an 8,000 nautical mile range at Mach 0.85, and it is expected to enter service approximately six months after the G700, pending FAA certification. The G400 is a clean-sheet design developed in concert with the G500 and G600, thus expanding the commonality across the Gulfstream family of aircraft. Expected to enter service in 2025, pending FAA certification, the G400 will join a market segment in which Gulfstream has not participated for several decades.
The ultra-long-range, ultra-large-cabin G650 and G650ER continue to generate significant customer interest, with more than 500 aircraft of this family currently operating in more than 50 countries. Since the first G650 entered service in December 2012, its capabilities and reliability have led to significant sales and expansion of our installed base around the globe. Gulfstream’s current product line holds more than 325 city-pair speed records, more than any other business jet manufacturer, led by the G650ER, which holds the National Aeronautic Association’s polar and westbound around-the-world speed records.
Our disciplined and consistent approach to new product development has allowed us to introduce repeatedly first-to-market capabilities that set industry standards for safety, performance, quality, speed and comfort. Product enhancement and development efforts include initiatives in advanced avionics, composites, flight-control and vision systems, acoustics, and cabin technologies.
Gulfstream designs, develops and manufactures aircraft in Savannah, Georgia, including all large-cabin models. The mid-cabin G280 is assembled by a non-U.S. partner. All models are outfitted in Gulfstream’s U.S. facilities. As Gulfstream’s aircraft portfolio and customer base have grown and become increasingly global in reach over the years, we have invested in our facilities and operations around the world. At our Savannah campus, we added new purpose-built manufacturing facilities, increased aircraft service capacity, opened a customer-support distribution center and expanded our R&D capabilities.
We offer comprehensive support for the more than 3,000 Gulfstream aircraft in service around the world and operate an extensive network of factory-owned service centers. We continue to invest in these maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) facilities and inventory to accommodate fleet growth. We also operate a 24/7 year-round customer support center and offer on-call Gulfstream aircraft technicians

ready to deploy around the world for customer service requirements under our Field and Airborne Support Team (FAST) rapid-response unit.
In addition to expanding the reach of Gulfstream’s aircraft maintenance network outside the United States, Jet Aviation provides a comprehensive suite of innovative aircraft services for aircraft owners and operators around the world. With approximately 50 locations throughout North America, Europe, the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, our offerings include maintenance, aircraft management, charter, staffing and fixed-base operator (FBO) services.
Jet Aviation manages approximately 300 business aircraft globally on behalf of individuals and corporate owners. We operate a leading global FBO network and support all aircraft types with a full range of maintenance services, including 24/7 global aircraft-on-ground support. We also operate one of the world’s largest custom completion and refurbishment centers for both narrow- and wide-body aircraft and perform modifications, upgrades and lifecycle sustainment support for various government fleets. We continue to grow our global footprint through acquisitions, expansions and significant renovations in strategic business aviation markets most frequented by our customers.
The following map displays the broad reach of our combined Gulfstream and Jet Aviation services network, including authorized service centers:
The Aerospace segment places a priority on sustainability throughout its manufacturing and service operations, producing aircraft that maximize fuel efficiency while offering customers options to reduce or eliminate their carbon footprints. Gulfstream and Jet Aviation have been at the forefront of the industry by adopting and expanding the availability of SAF, which achieves as much as an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions per gallon over its lifecycle compared to petroleum-based jet fuel. Gulfstream’s service and test aircraft have flown more than 2 million nautical miles on SAF since 2016, and in 2019 Gulfstream became the first business jet manufacturer to make SAF available to customers. Gulfstream also offers operators the ability to achieve carbon-neutral travel by facilitating the purchase of carbon-offset credits. In addition to actively expanding the availability of SAF at its FBO locations,

Jet Aviation allows customers to purchase SAF at locations where it is not available through a book-and-claim system. Since 2019, Jet Aviation has uploaded more than 10 million gallons of blended SAF to its customers.
Revenue for the Aerospace segment was 22% of our consolidated revenue in 2022 and 21% in 2021 and 2020. Revenue by major products and services was as follows:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
Aircraft manufacturing$5,876 $5,864 $6,115 
Aircraft services2,691 2,271 1,960 
Total Aerospace$8,567 $8,135 $8,075 
Our Marine Systems segment is the leading designer and builder of nuclear-powered submarines and a leader in surface combatant and auxiliary ship design and construction for the U.S. Navy. We also provide maintenance, modernization and lifecycle support services for Navy ships and maintain the most sophisticated marine engineering expertise in the world to support future capabilities. Our ability to design, build and maintain our nation’s most technologically sophisticated warships is a critical element of the U.S. defense industrial base. In addition to Navy ships, we design and build ocean-going Jones Act ships for commercial customers. Marine Systems consists of three business units — Electric Boat, Bath Iron Works and NASSCO.
In support of our Navy customer’s significant increase in demand for submarines and surface ships, we are making substantial investments to expand our facilities, grow and train our workforce, and expand our supply chain. The resulting increase in capacity and capabilities will support the unprecedented growth expected in our shipbuilding business, particularly submarines, over the next two decades.
Electric Boat is the prime contractor and lead shipyard on all Navy nuclear-powered submarine programs. The business is responsible for all aspects of design and engineering and leads the construction of both Virginia-class attack submarines and Columbia-class ballistic-missile submarines.
The Navy procures Virginia-class submarines in multi-boat blocks at a two-per-year rate. Along with an industry partner, we are currently working on Blocks IV and V in the program, with 17 Virginia-class submarines in our backlog scheduled for delivery through 2032. Nine of the boats in Block V include the Virginia Payload Module, an 84-foot Electric Boat-designed-and-built hull section that adds four additional payload tubes, more than tripling the strike capacity of these submarines and providing unique capabilities to support special missions.
The Columbia-class ballistic-missile submarine is a 12-boat program that the Navy considers its top acquisition priority. Accordingly, the program has received the highest possible rating from the government’s Defense Priorities and Allocations System. These submarines will provide strategic deterrent capabilities for decades, with the first boat delivering in 2027 to begin replacement of the current Ohio-class ballistic-missile submarine fleet as it reaches the end of its service life. Construction is scheduled to continue for two decades, and the value of the Navy’s program of record is in excess of $110 billion. The submarine’s design was more than 80% complete at the time we began construction of the first boat in 2020, nearly twice as mature as any of the Navy’s previous submarine programs at the start of construction.

We are investing $1.8 billion of capital in expanded and modernized facilities at Electric Boat to support the growth in submarine construction and expect the investments to be substantially complete by the end of 2023. Equal to the commitment of capital is our commitment to developing our Electric Boat workforce. While the steepest portion of our personnel ramp is behind us, we still expect the Electric Boat workforce to grow another 25% by the end of the decade, particularly in support of Columbia-class production. Along with strong contributions from the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island, we continue to invest in the training and tools necessary for our employees to deliver these next-generation submarines to the Navy on time and on budget. We are also working with our network of approximately 3,000 suppliers — mostly small businesses — to support concurrent production of the two submarine programs.
Bath Iron Works builds the Arleigh Burke-class (DDG-51) guided-missile destroyers and manages modernization and lifecycle support for the class. We have a total of 10 ships in backlog scheduled for delivery through 2029.
NASSCO specializes in Navy auxiliary and support ships and is currently building the Expeditionary Sea Base (ESB), which serves as an afloat forward-staging base for U.S. Marines and special operations forces, and the John Lewis-class (T-AO-205) fleet replenishment oiler. Work on the three ESBs in backlog will continue into 2026, while the seven T-AO-205 ships currently in backlog have deliveries planned into 2027. NASSCO has also designed and built crude oil and product tankers and container and cargo ships for commercial customers, satisfying Jones Act requirements that ships carrying cargo between U.S. ports be built in U.S. shipyards.

On December 31, 2022, backlog for our major ship construction programs and the scheduled final delivery date of ships currently in backlog were as follows:
In addition to design and construction activities, our Marine Systems segment provides comprehensive post-delivery services to modernize and extend the service life of these and other Navy ships. NASSCO conducts full-service maintenance and surface-ship repair operations in Navy fleet concentration areas in San Diego, California; Norfolk, Virginia; Mayport, Florida; and Bremerton, Washington. Electric Boat provides submarine maintenance and modernization services in a variety of U.S. locations, and Bath Iron Works provides lifecycle support services for Navy surface ships in both U.S. and overseas ports. In support of allied navies, we offer program management, planning, engineering and design support for submarine construction programs.
Revenue for the Marine Systems segment was 28% of our consolidated revenue in 2022, 27% in 2021 and 26% in 2020. Revenue by major products and services was as follows:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
Nuclear-powered submarines$7,310 $7,117 $6,938 
Surface ships2,561 2,328 2,055 
Repair and other services1,169 1,081 986 
Total Marine Systems$11,040 $10,526 $9,979 

Our Combat Systems segment is a premier manufacturer and integrator of land combat solutions worldwide, including wheeled and tracked combat vehicles, weapons systems and munitions. The segment consists of three business units — Land Systems, European Land Systems (ELS), and Ordnance and Tactical Systems (OTS).
Combat Systems creates long-term value through operational excellence — high-quality, on-schedule and on-budget performance — combined with investments in innovative technologies that modernize existing platforms and develop next-generation capabilities to meet our customers’ rapidly evolving requirements. We maintain our market-leading position by focusing on innovation, affordability and speed to market to deliver increased survivability, performance and lethality on the battlefield. Our large installed base of wheeled and tracked vehicles around the world and expertise gained from research, engineering and production programs position us well for modernization programs, support and sustainment services, and future development programs.
Land Systems is the sole-source producer of two foundational products central to the U.S. Army’s warfighting capabilities — the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank and Stryker wheeled combat vehicle. Both of these platforms are core components of the multi-domain, joint war fight envisioned on the battlefield of the future.
We are maximizing the effectiveness and lethality of the Army’s tank fleet with next-generation Abrams upgrades, providing technological advancements in communications, power generation, fuel efficiency, optics and armor. Even as we are delivering this modernized platform in the System Enhanced Package Version 3 (SEPv3) configuration, we are developing an Abrams SEPv4 configuration with third-generation forward-looking infrared sights (3GEN FLIR) and additional advanced capabilities that will allow this platform to adapt and incorporate transformative capabilities into the future. We are also upgrading Abrams tanks for several non-U.S. partners.
The Stryker is an eight-wheeled, medium-weight combat vehicle that combines lethality, mobility and survivability. Land Systems continues to develop upgrades and enhancements to this highly versatile and combat-proven platform to address the Army’s evolving operational needs. We are currently fielding an enhanced Stryker platform that includes the double-V-hull for survivability, increased power, improved cross-country mobility and an advanced digital, in-vehicle network. We have completed fielding these vehicles for the first of nine Army brigades, as well as for the Army’s Ranger Regiment. In addition, coordination continues with the Army for next-generation upgrades to the platform and new uses for the vehicle. Leveraging our rapid prototyping expertise and customer intimacy, we continue to expand the mission capabilities of this platform, including an air defense mission package (M-SHORAD), a state-of-the-art electronic warfare suite, a high-energy laser, a high-power microwave, and several command post options.
In 2022, we introduced new capabilities within each of these two foundational product lines in support of the Army’s climate and electrification strategies, including incorporating next-generation electronic architecture technology, hybrid electric engines, integrated active protection systems, and the ability to employ air and ground robotic teaming. AbramsX is a next-generation main battle tank technology demonstrator that features significantly reduced weight for improved mobility and transportation and delivers the same tactical range as the M1A2 Abrams with 50% less fuel consumption. Like AbramsX, StrykerX offers next-generation capabilities such as silent movement, silent watch, exportable electric power and reduced fuel consumption via a hybrid diesel-electric power

pack. Our focus on innovation and technological investments in these platforms positions us to continue to meet our customers’ evolving requirements.
In addition, during 2022 we were awarded a low-rate initial production (LRIP) contract for the Army’s Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF) vehicle — the first ground combat vehicle to transition from prototype to production in 40 years. The MPF vehicle will enhance the relevance of Infantry Brigade Combat Teams in large-scale combat operations against near-peer threats. The highly lethal, survivable and mobile direct-fire combat vehicle melds recently developed and battle-tested designs to dominate ground threats on the multi-domain battlefield.
Combat Systems provides similar capabilities for U.S. allies through export opportunities and through our operations in several countries around the world, including Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Romania. As a result, we have a market-leading position in light armored vehicles (LAVs) with approximately 12,000 of the high-mobility, versatile Pandur, Piranha and other LAVs in service worldwide.
Land Systems is producing 399 new LAVs in eight variants, including ambulances, command posts, maintenance and recovery vehicles, and troop-carrying vehicles, for the Canadian Army, as well as upgrading its existing fleet. Land Systems is also producing the British Army’s Ajax armored fighting vehicle, a next-generation, medium-weight tracked combat vehicle. With six variants, including a reconnaissance vehicle, an armored personnel carrier, and various support platforms, the Ajax family of vehicles offers advanced electronic architecture and proven technology for an unparalleled balance of survivability, lethality and mobility, along with high reliability for a vehicle in its weight class.
ELS is producing and upgrading Piranha vehicles, a premier 8x8 armored combat vehicle, around the world. We are currently providing Piranha 5 vehicles for several countries, including Denmark, Romania and Spain. Additionally, we provide mobile bridge systems with payloads ranging from 100 kilograms to 100 tons to customers worldwide. We offer the ASCOD, a highly versatile tracked combat vehicle with multiple versions, including the Spanish Pizarro and the Austrian Ulan. ELS also offers Duro and Eagle tactical vehicles in a range of options and weight classes and is currently producing these vehicles for Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Germany, while providing a full range of product support for the German armed forces.
We are expanding our platform capabilities through continued investment in robotic and autonomous vehicle technology. We have the Multi-Utility Tactical Transport (MUTT), a semi-autonomous robotic platform that can be equipped with an array of modular mission payloads for use alongside dismounted soldiers. This platform was selected as the Army’s first robotic vehicle program of record and is officially designated as the Small Multipurpose Equipment Transport (SMET). Additionally, we have the Tracked Robot 10-ton (TRX) prototype, a medium-sized, semi-autonomous combat vehicle that enables critical battlefield roles, such as direct and indirect fire, autonomous resupply, reconnaissance and other battlefield missions.

On December 31, 2022, the installed base for our major vehicle programs, as well as the quantity and scheduled final delivery date of vehicles and vehicle upgrades in backlog were as follows:
Complementing these military-vehicle offerings, OTS designs, develops and produces a comprehensive array of sophisticated weapon systems for ground forces, including the M2/M2-A1 heavy machine guns and MK19/MK47 grenade launchers. OTS also produces next-generation weapon systems for shipboard and aircraft applications, including high-speed Gatling guns for all U.S. fighter aircraft, including the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.
OTS’s munitions portfolio covers the full breadth of naval, air and ground forces applications across all calibers and weapon platforms for the U.S. government and its non-U.S. partners. Globally, we maintain a market-leading position in the supply of Hydra-70 rockets, bomb bodies, large-caliber tank ammunition, medium-caliber ammunition, military propellants, mortar and artillery projectiles. OTS is also the systems integrator for the next generation of artillery solutions in support of the Army’s Indirect Fire Modernization objectives. Additionally, OTS maintains a leading position providing missile subsystems in support of U.S. tactical and strategic missiles, provisioning both legacy and next-generation missiles with critical aerostructures, control actuators, high-performance warheads and cutting-edge hypersonic rocket cases.

Revenue for the Combat Systems segment was 18% of our consolidated revenue in 2022 and 19% in 2021 and 2020. Revenue by major products and services was as follows:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
Military vehicles$4,581 $4,699 $4,687 
Weapons systems, armament and munitions2,024 2,006 1,991 
Engineering and other services703 646 545 
Total Combat Systems$7,308 $7,351 $7,223 
Our Technologies segment provides a full spectrum of services, technologies and products to an expanding market that increasingly seeks solutions combining leading-edge electronic hardware with specialized software. The segment is organized into two business units — Information Technology (GDIT) and Mission Systems. Together they serve a wide range of military, intelligence, federal civilian and state customers with a diverse portfolio that includes:
information technology (IT) solutions and mission-support services;
mobile communication, computers, command-and-control and cyber (C5) mission systems; and
intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) solutions.
Over the past decade, the Department of Defense (DoD), the intelligence community and federal civilian agencies have increasingly prioritized technology solutions as a critical element of their missions, transforming technology resources from back-office support functions to a strategic priority for this customer community. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the cyber threat landscape and demand for advanced warfighter connectivity have accelerated these trends, adding urgency to required technology investments. The result is a significant increase in federal IT modernization and technology spending in recent years and a shift to large-scale, end-to-end, highly engineered solutions that require a broad array of integrated technology services and hardware offerings to meet these customer demands.
GDIT and Mission Systems share the same defense, intelligence and federal civilian customer base and increasingly go to market together to meet the ever-changing information-systems and mission-support needs of these customers. In addition, with the convergence of digital technologies, the two businesses benefit from significant complementary offerings and solution sets. The segment makes strategic investments in new and emerging technologies and combines an in-depth understanding of the evolving technology landscape with an intimate knowledge of our customers’ mission needs. The segment’s highly skilled workforce is one of its key differentiators and comprises approximately 40,000 employees, including technologists, engineers, mission experts and cleared personnel dedicated to solving the toughest security and technology challenges facing the United States and its allies.
With a broad network of global partners, the segment develops solutions that keep its customers at the leading edge of technology in support of their missions. This includes operating a network of technology labs to prototype solutions and accelerate the development of advanced capabilities for customers’ environments. As technology continues to advance, we are at the forefront of new technological trends, including cloud computing, cybersecurity, zero trust, fifth generation (5G) technology, artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML), data analytics, and high-performance computing.
GDIT modernizes large-scale IT enterprises and deploys the latest technologies to optimize and protect customer networks, data and information. Operating thousands of complex digital modernization

programs across the federal government, GDIT’s expansive portfolio includes cloud services, cybersecurity, network modernization, AI/ML, application development, high-performance computing, and 5G and next-generation wireless communications.
Mission Systems offers solutions across all domains and produces a unique combination of products and capabilities that are purpose-built for essential C5ISR applications. Our technologies and products are often built into platforms and integrated systems on which our customers rely. The business’ portfolio includes prime contract programs to provide innovative defense-electronics solutions as well as subcontract efforts that enhance the capabilities of large-scale land, air, sea and space platforms.
The Technologies segment leverages its scale, partnerships and deep knowledge of its customers’ missions and challenges to bring innovation to those customers across a portfolio of thousands of contracts. While no individual contract is material to the segment’s results, the following highlights provide a sampling of the value of this business.
GDIT delivers a full spectrum of cloud solutions and services to modernize customers’ legacy IT infrastructures and systems. These cloud capabilities advance security and accelerate access to cutting-edge technologies such as high-performance computing and AI/ML. For the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), GDIT is providing hybrid cloud services, including commercial clouds and data centers, and innovative IT design, engineering, implementation and operations support services to the NGA and its mission partners. In the federal civilian market, GDIT is delivering a scalable, hybrid multi-cloud platform to modernize the United States Patent and Trademark Office’s IT infrastructure and services.
We apply AI/ML to expand the human capacity to make better decisions and implement smarter actions as we automate, secure and enhance our customers’ operations. For the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), GDIT leverages managed services and AI/ML to accelerate veteran benefits claims processing, develops applications and software to improve the veteran user experience, and provides on-demand 24/7/365 IT support to more than 500,000 VA personnel nationwide. In the federal civilian sector, GDIT’s high-performance supercomputers, ranked 49th and 50th fastest in the world by TOP500, run the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operational models used to forecast the weather and model climate data.
To adapt to a constantly evolving threat landscape, GDIT embeds cyber solutions into every aspect of digital modernization. More than 3,000 cyber professionals support cyber projects across 30 agencies in the federal government. This work includes supporting the U.S. Army National Guard’s Department of Defense Information Network’s IT infrastructure, cybersecurity, application hosting and associated services. This enterprise network, one of the largest in the DoD, provides soldiers with access to the internet; allows them to connect securely with other databases and networks; and provides leaders with tools for training, mission planning and execution.
Mission Systems develops and manufactures high-assurance encryption products that are widely deployed to protect national security systems, data and networks against persistent threats. These Type 1 National Security Agency (NSA)-certified products and capabilities provide needed protection for classified voice, video and data in-transit or at-rest in all domains. Capabilities range from enterprise systems to embedded applications required for terrestrial, airborne or space environments.
We are working with our Army customer to adapt elements of advanced resilient radio frequency (RF) and 5G technologies to address battlefield realities such as jamming, spoofing, cyberattacks and

lack of ground connectivity. We also provide similar capabilities to non-U.S. customers, including Canada and the United Kingdom.
Mission Systems continues to help advance our nation’s dominance in the space domain. We designed and manufactured mission-critical communications and optical technologies for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Artemis I and James Webb Space Telescope missions. Additionally, the U.S. Space Development Agency (SDA) selected Mission Systems to establish the ground operations and integration segment for Tranche 1 of the National Defense Space Architecture by building ground entry points and operations centers, as well as providing network operations and systems integration services for the SDA’s next tranche of proliferated low-earth orbit satellites.
On the platform side, we have a more than 60-year legacy of providing advanced fire-control systems for the Navy’s submarine programs. We are developing and integrating commercial off-the-shelf software and hardware upgrades to improve the tactical control capabilities for several submarine classes, including the Columbia and U.K. Dreadnought ballistic-missile submarines.
Mission Systems also continues to invest in autonomous capabilities, including through its Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Manufacturing and Assembly Center of Excellence in Taunton, Massachusetts. The facility provides manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing capabilities for Mission Systems’ Knifefish and Bluefin Robotics UUVs, as well as the recently awarded Hammerhead program for the Navy.
Revenue for the Technologies segment was 32% of our consolidated revenue in 2022, 33% in 2021 and 34% in 2020. Revenue by major products and services was as follows:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
IT services$8,195 $8,069 $7,892 
C5ISR solutions4,297 4,388 4,756 
Total Technologies$12,492 $12,457 $12,648 

In 2022, 70% of our consolidated revenue was from the U.S. government, 15% was from U.S. commercial customers, 9% was from non-U.S. government customers and the remaining 6% was from non-U.S. commercial customers.
Our primary customer is the DoD. We also contract with other U.S. government customers, including the intelligence community and the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services. Our revenue from the U.S. government was as follows:

Year Ended December 31202220212020
DoD$22,250 $21,386 $20,840 
Non-DoD4,808 4,862 4,726 
Foreign military sales (FMS)*633 598 737 
Total U.S. government$27,691 $26,846 $26,303 
% of total revenue70 %70 %69 %
*In addition to our direct non-U.S. sales, we sell to non-U.S. governments through the FMS program. Under the FMS program, we contract with and are paid by the U.S. government, and the U.S. government assumes the risk of collection from the non-U.S. government customer.
Our U.S. government revenue is derived from fixed-price, cost-reimbursement and time-and-materials contracts. Our production contracts are primarily fixed-price. Under these contracts, we agree to perform a specific scope of work for a fixed amount. Contracts for research, engineering, repair and maintenance, and other services are typically cost-reimbursement or time-and-materials. Under cost-reimbursement contracts, the customer reimburses contract costs incurred and pays a fixed, incentive or award-based fee. The amount for an incentive or award fee is determined by our ability to achieve targets set in the contract, such as cost, quality, schedule and performance. Under time-and-materials contracts, the customer pays a fixed hourly rate for direct labor and generally reimburses us for the cost of materials.
Of our U.S. government revenue, fixed-price contracts accounted for 56% in 2022, 57% in 2021 and 59% in 2020; cost-reimbursement contracts accounted for 38% in 2022, 36% in 2021 and 35% in 2020; and time-and-materials contracts accounted for 6% in 2022, 7% in 2021 and 6% in 2020.
For information on the advantages and disadvantages of each of these contract types, see Note B to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Our U.S. commercial revenue was $5.7 billion in 2022, $4.8 billion in 2021 and $4.9 billion in 2020, which represented 15%, 12% and 13% of our consolidated revenue in each of the respective years. The majority of this revenue was for business jet aircraft and related services where our customer base consists of individuals and public and privately held companies across a wide range of industries.
Our revenue from non-U.S. government and commercial customers was $6 billion in 2022, $6.8 billion in 2021 and $6.7 billion in 2020, which represented 15% of our consolidated revenue in 2022 and 18% in 2021 and 2020.
We conduct business with customers around the world. Our non-U.S. defense subsidiaries maintain long-term relationships with their customers and have established themselves as principal regional suppliers and employers, providing a broad portfolio of products and services.
Our non-U.S. commercial revenue consists primarily of business jet aircraft exports and worldwide aircraft services. While the installed base of aircraft is concentrated in North America, orders from customers outside North America represent a significant portion of our aircraft business with approximately 40% of the Aerospace segment’s aircraft backlog on December 31, 2022.


Several factors determine our ability to compete successfully in the defense and business aviation markets. While customers’ evaluation criteria vary, the principal competitive elements include:
the technical excellence, reliability, safety and cost competitiveness of our products and services;
our ability to innovate and develop new products and technologies that improve mission performance and adapt to dynamic threats;
successful program execution and on-time delivery of complex, integrated systems;
our global footprint and accessibility to customers;
the reputation and customer confidence derived from past performance; and
the successful management of customer relationships.
The U.S. government contracts with numerous domestic and non-U.S. companies for products and services. We compete against other contractors as well as smaller companies that specialize in a particular technology or capability. Outside the United States, we compete with global defense contractors’ exports and the offerings of local, private and state-owned defense manufacturers. Our Marine Systems segment has one primary competitor with which it also partners on the Virginia-class submarine program, and to which it subcontracts on the Columbia-class submarine program. Our Combat Systems segment competes with a large number of U.S. and non-U.S. businesses. Our Technologies segment competes with many companies, from large government contracting and commercial technology companies to small niche competitors with specialized technologies or expertise. The operating cycle of many of our major programs can result in sustained periods of program continuity when we perform successfully.
We are involved in teaming and subcontracting relationships with some of our competitors. Competitions for major defense and other government contracting programs often require companies to form teams to bring together a spectrum of capabilities to meet the customer’s requirements. Opportunities associated with these programs include roles as the program’s integrator, overseeing and coordinating the efforts of all participants on a team, or as a provider of a specific component or subsystem.
The Aerospace segment has several competitors for each of its Gulfstream products. Key competitive factors include aircraft safety, reliability and performance; comfort and in-flight productivity; service quality, global footprint and responsiveness; technological and new-product innovation; and price. We believe that Gulfstream competes effectively in all of these areas.
The Aerospace segment competes worldwide in the business jet aircraft services market primarily on the basis of quality, price and timeliness. While competition for each type of service varies somewhat, the segment faces a number of competitors of varying sizes for each of its offerings.

We develop technology, manufacturing processes and systems-integration practices. In addition to owning a large portfolio of proprietary intellectual property, we license some intellectual property rights to and from others. The U.S. government holds licenses to many of our patents developed in the

performance of U.S. government contracts, and it may use or authorize others to use the inventions covered by these patents. Although these intellectual property rights are important to the operation of our business, no existing patent, license or other intellectual property right is of such importance that its loss or termination would have a material impact on our business.

Our company is a global community of approximately 106,500 employees dedicated to our Ethos of transparency, trust, honesty and alignment. These four core values drive how we operate our business; govern how we interact with each other, our customers, partners and suppliers; guide the way that we treat our workforce; and determine how we connect with our communities. Our commitment to ethical business practices is outlined in our Standards of Business Ethics and Conduct, which states our expectation that all employees conduct business in accordance with our Ethos, applicable laws and our policies. Each employee is asked to acknowledge receipt, understanding of and compliance with our standards.
Due to the highly specialized nature of our business, we must hire and train skilled and qualified people to design and build the products and perform the services required by our customers. The health, welfare and safety of our employees is paramount throughout our workplaces. This effort starts with treating all employees with dignity and respect and providing them with fair, market-based, competitive and equitable compensation. We recognize and reward the performance of our employees in line with our pay-for-performance philosophy and provide a comprehensive suite of benefit options that aim to enable our employees and their dependents to live healthy and productive lives.
Across our businesses, we take measures to prevent workplace hazards, encourage safe behaviors and enforce a culture of continuous improvement to ensure our processes help reduce safety incidents and illnesses and comply with applicable health and safety laws. These efforts continue to be of the utmost importance as we address ongoing challenges, including those presented by the COVID-19 pandemic.
We recognize that our success as a company depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain qualified people. Our commitment to promoting diversity of thought, experience, perspectives, backgrounds and capabilities to drive innovation strengthens the solutions we deliver to our customers. General Dynamics works hard to promote an environment that values and supports all employees. We proudly support a work environment that respects diverse opinions, values individual skills, celebrates unique experiences and cultivates teamwork. These efforts are a demonstration of our dedication to equal employment opportunities that foster and support a principled, productive and inclusive work environment. We stand for basic universal human rights, including that employment must be voluntary. We track, measure and analyze our workforce trends to establish accountability for putting people first across our businesses and at every level of our company.
Our values motivate us to promote strong workplace practices with opportunities for development and training. Our training and development efforts focus on ensuring that our people are appropriately trained on critical job skills as well as on leadership behaviors that are consistent with our Ethos. We conduct rigorous succession planning exercises to ensure that key positions have the appropriate level of bench strength to provide for future key positions and leadership transitions. We listen to our people to assess areas of concern and levels of engagement.

Approximately 84% of our employees are based in the United States, of which roughly 71% are white, 29% are people of color, 19% are veterans of the U.S. armed forces and 7% have self-reported having a disability. The remaining 16% of our workforce is based internationally in over 65 countries with the primary concentrations being in North America and Europe.
Our global workforce is 76% male and 24% female, and our senior leadership teams across the business are represented by 74% males and 26% females. During 2022, the diversity profile of our workforce continued to improve across our businesses, as we hired approximately 24,000 individuals of which 71% were male and 29% were female. For our approximately 19,800 U.S.-based hires in 2022, 60% were white and 40% were people of color.

We depend on suppliers and subcontractors for raw materials, components and subsystems. Our U.S. government customer is a supplier for some of our programs. These supply networks can experience price fluctuations and capacity constraints, which can put pressure on our costs. Effective management and oversight of suppliers and subcontractors is an important element of our successful performance. If our sources of supply are disrupted, particularly in instances where we rely on only one or two sources of supply, or in the event that international conflicts result in the disruption of manufacturing or trade relations for some supply components, our ability to meet our customer commitments could be adversely impacted. We attempt to mitigate risks with our suppliers by entering into long-term agreements and leveraging company-wide agreements to achieve economies of scale and by negotiating flexible pricing terms in our customer contracts.

U.S. government contracts are subject to procurement laws and regulations. The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) govern the majority of our contracts. The FAR mandates uniform policies and procedures for U.S. government acquisitions and purchased services. Also, individual agencies can have acquisition regulations that provide implementing language for the FAR or that supplement the FAR. For example, the DoD implements the FAR through the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS). For all federal government entities, the FAR regulates the phases of any product or service acquisition, including:
acquisition planning;
competition requirements;
contractor qualifications;
protection of source selection and supplier information; and
acquisition procedures.
In addition, the FAR addresses the allowability of our costs, while the CAS addresses the allocation of those costs to contracts. The FAR and CAS subject us to audits and other government reviews covering issues such as cost, performance, internal controls and accounting practices relating to our contracts.

Our non-U.S. operations are subject to the applicable government regulations and procurement policies and practices, as well as U.S. policies and regulations. We are also subject to regulations governing investments, exchange controls, repatriation of earnings and import-export control.
The Aerospace segment is subject to FAA regulation in the United States and other similar aviation regulatory authorities internationally, including the Civil Aviation Administration of Israel (CAAI), the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). For an aircraft to be manufactured and sold, the model must receive a type certificate from the appropriate aviation authority, and each aircraft must receive a certificate of airworthiness. Aircraft outfitting and completions also require approval by the appropriate aviation authority, which is often accomplished through a supplemental type certificate. Aviation authorities can require changes to a specific aircraft or model type before granting approval. Maintenance facilities and charter operations must be licensed by aviation authorities as well.
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations. These laws and regulations cover the discharge, treatment, storage, disposal, investigation and remediation of materials, substances and wastes identified in the laws and regulations. We are directly or indirectly involved in environmental investigations or remediation at some of our current and former facilities and at third-party sites that we do not own but where we have been designated a potentially responsible party (PRP) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or a state environmental agency. As a PRP, we are potentially liable to the government or third parties for the cost of remediating contamination. In cases where we have been designated a PRP, we generally seek to mitigate these environmental liabilities through available insurance coverage and by pursuing appropriate cost-recovery actions. In the unlikely event that we are required to fully fund the remediation of a site, the current statutory framework would allow us to pursue contributions from other PRPs. We regularly assess our compliance status and management of environmental matters.
Operating and maintenance costs associated with environmental compliance and management of contaminated sites are a normal, recurring part of our operations. Historically, these costs have not been material. In addition, we could be affected by future laws or regulations imposed in response to concerns over climate change, the timing and effect of which are difficult to assess.
Changes in environmental and climate change laws or regulations, including laws relating to greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to new or additional investment in product designs or facilities and could increase environmental compliance expenditures, including increased energy and raw materials costs. Environmental costs are often recoverable under our contracts with the U.S. government. Based on information currently available and current U.S. government policies relating to cost recovery, we do not expect continued compliance with environmental regulations, including costs associated with changes in environmental and climate change laws or regulations, to have a material impact on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. For additional information relating to the impact of environmental matters, see Note M to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.


We file reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These reports and information include an annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and proxy statements. Free copies of these items are made available on our website (www.gd.com) as soon as practicable. The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information.
In addition to the information contained in this Form 10-K, information about the company can be found on our website and our Investor Relations website (investorrelations.gd.com). Our Investor Relations website contains a significant amount of information about the company, including financial information, our corporate governance principles and practices, and other information for investors. We encourage investors to visit our website, as we frequently update and post new information about our company, and it is possible that this information could be deemed material information.
References to our website and the SEC’s website in this Form 10-K do not constitute, and should not be viewed as, incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the websites. The information should not be considered a part of this Form 10-K, unless otherwise expressly incorporated by reference.

An investment in our common stock or debt securities is subject to risks and uncertainties. Investors should consider the following factors, in addition to the other information contained in this annual report on Form 10-K, before deciding whether to purchase our securities.
Investment risks can be market-wide as well as unique to a specific industry or company. The market risks faced by an investor in our securities are similar to the uncertainties faced by investors in a broad range of industries. There are some risks that apply more specifically to our business.
Our revenue is concentrated with the U.S. government. This customer relationship involves some specific risks. In addition, our sales to non-U.S. customers expose us to different financial and legal risks. Despite the varying nature of our government and commercial operations and the markets they serve, each segment shares some common risks, such as the ongoing development of high-technology products and the price, availability and quality of commodities and subsystems.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
The U.S. government provides a significant portion of our revenue. In 2022, 70% of our consolidated revenue was from the U.S. government. Levels of U.S. defense spending may be impacted by numerous factors, such as the domestic political environment, changes in national and international priorities, and threats to national security. Competing demands for federal funds can pressure various areas of spending. Decreases in U.S. government defense and other spending or changes in spending allocation or priorities could result in one or more of our programs being reduced, delayed or terminated, which could impact our financial performance.
For additional information relating to U.S. budget matters, see the Business Environment section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.

U.S. government contracts are not always fully funded at inception, and any funding is subject to disruption or delay. Our U.S. government revenue is funded by agency budgets that operate on an October-to-September fiscal year. Early each calendar year, the President of the United States presents to the Congress the budget for the upcoming fiscal year. This budget proposes funding levels for every federal agency and is the result of months of policy and program reviews throughout the executive branch. For the remainder of the year, the Appropriations and Authorization Committees of the Congress review the President’s budget proposals and establish the funding levels for the upcoming fiscal year. Once these levels are enacted into law, the Executive Office of the President administers the funds to the agencies.
There are two primary risks associated with the U.S. government budget cycle. First, the annual process may be delayed or disrupted. If the annual budget is not approved by the beginning of the government fiscal year, portions of the U.S. government can shut down or operate under a continuing resolution that maintains spending at prior-year levels, which can impact funding for our programs and timing of new awards. Second, the Congress typically appropriates funds on a fiscal-year basis, even though contract performance may extend over many years. Future revenue under existing multi-year contracts is conditioned on the continuing availability of congressional appropriations. Changes in appropriations in subsequent years may impact the funding available for these programs. Delays or changes in funding can impact the timing of available funds or lead to changes in program content.
Government contracts are subject to termination rights by the customer. U.S. government contracts generally permit the government to terminate a contract, in whole or in part, for convenience. If a contract is terminated for convenience, a contractor usually is entitled to receive payments for its allowable costs incurred and the proportionate share of fees or earnings for the work performed. The government may also terminate a contract for default in the event of a breach by the contractor. If a contract is terminated for default, the government in most cases pays only for the work it has accepted. Many foreign contracts have similar termination rights by customers. The termination of multiple or large programs could have a material adverse effect on our future revenue and earnings.
Government contractors operate in a highly regulated environment and are subject to audit by the U.S. government. Numerous U.S. government agencies routinely audit and review government contractors. These agencies review a contractor’s performance under its contracts and compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. The U.S. government also reviews the adequacy of, and compliance with, internal control systems and policies, including the contractor’s purchasing, property, estimating, material, earned value management and accounting systems. In some cases, audits may result in delayed payments or contractor costs not being reimbursed or subject to repayment. If an audit or investigation were to result in allegations against a contractor of improper or illegal activities, civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions could result, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. government. In addition, reputational harm could result if allegations of impropriety were made. In some cases, audits may result in disputes with the respective government agency that can result in negotiated settlements, arbitration or litigation. Moreover, new laws, regulations or standards, or changes to existing ones, can increase our performance and compliance costs and reduce our revenue and earnings.
Our Aerospace segment is subject to changing customer demand for business aircraft. The business jet market is driven by the demand for business-aviation products and services by corporate, individual and government customers in the United States and around the world. The Aerospace segment’s results also depend on other factors, including general economic conditions, the availability

and cost of credit, pricing pressures and trends in capital goods markets. In addition, if customers default on existing contracts and the contracts are not replaced, the segment’s anticipated revenue and profitability could be reduced materially.
Earnings and margin depend on our ability to perform on our contracts. When agreeing to contractual terms, our management team makes assumptions and projections about future conditions and events. The accounting for our contracts requires assumptions and estimates about these conditions and events. These projections and estimates assess, among other things:
the productivity and availability of labor;
the complexity of the work to be performed;
the cost and availability of materials and components; and
schedule requirements.
If there is a significant change in one or more of these circumstances, estimates or assumptions, or if the risks under our contracts are not managed adequately, the profitability of contracts could be adversely affected. This could affect earnings and margin materially.
Revenue, earnings and margin depend in part on supplier performance. We rely on other companies and our government customers to provide materials, components and subsystems for our products. Suppliers, including subcontractors, sometimes perform some of the services that we provide to our customers. We depend on these suppliers and government entities to meet our contractual obligations in full compliance with customer requirements and applicable law. Misconduct by suppliers, such as a failure to comply with procurement regulations or engaging in unauthorized activities, may harm our future revenue, earnings and margin.
We sometimes rely on only one or two sources of supply, and any disruption in our supply chain could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our customer commitments. For example, some of our operating segments rely on the supply of semiconductors for the manufacture of our products, and any inability of or delay by our suppliers to meet our order demands (including due to the suppliers’ competing commercial priorities, any military conflict resulting in a disruption of manufacturing or trade relations, or any other business disruption) could delay or disrupt our ability to procure semiconductors. Our ability to perform our obligations to our customers, and our future revenue, earnings and margin, may be materially adversely affected if (1) any one or more of our suppliers is unable to provide the agreed-upon materials, or perform the agreed-upon services in a timely and cost-effective manner, or engages in misconduct or other improper activities or (2) we are unable to otherwise obtain necessary materials, components, subsystems or services in a timely and cost-effective manner.
Our success depends in part on our ability to develop new products and technologies and maintain a qualified workforce to meet the needs of our customers. Many of the products and services we provide involve sophisticated technologies and engineering, with related complex manufacturing and system-integration processes. Our customers’ requirements change and evolve regularly. Accordingly, our performance depends in part on our ability to continue to develop, manufacture and provide innovative products and services and bring those offerings to market quickly at cost-effective prices. Many of our new products must meet extensive and time-consuming regulatory requirements that are often outside our control and may result in unanticipated delays. Additionally, due to the highly specialized nature of our business, we must hire and retain the skilled and qualified personnel necessary to perform the services required by our customers and to develop and manufacture our products. To the extent that the demand for skilled personnel exceeds supply, we could experience higher labor, recruiting or training costs in order to attract and retain such employees. If we were unable

to develop new products that meet customers’ changing needs and satisfy regulatory requirements in a timely manner or successfully attract and retain qualified personnel, our future revenue and earnings may be materially adversely affected.
Risks Relating to Our International Operations
Operations outside the United States are subject to various risks that may be associated with doing business in foreign countries. In some countries there is increased chance for economic, legal or political instability, and procurement procedures may be less robust or mature, which may complicate the contracting process. Our non-U.S. operations may be sensitive to and impacted by (1) changes in a foreign government’s national policies and priorities, political leadership and budgets, which may be influenced by changes in threat environments, geopolitical uncertainties, volatility in economic conditions and other economic and political factors including inflationary pressures; (2) changes in U.S., foreign, and international laws, regulations, and policies; (3) energy, natural resource and other commodity shortages; and (4) global trade disputes and supply chain disruptions. For example, the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine has resulted in the imposition of numerous economic and trade sanctions, export controls, and other restrictions targeting Russia and Belarus, and the Russian government has implemented counter-sanctions and export controls targeting the U.S. and various foreign countries in which we operate. These actions have caused some economic disruptions around the world and have exacerbated global supply chain challenges. Changes and developments in any of these matters or factors may occur suddenly and could impact funding for programs or delay purchasing decisions or customer payments.
Non-U.S. transactions can involve increased risks arising from foreign exchange rate variability, which could, among other things, negatively impact sales and the translation of our international revenue from local currencies into U.S. dollars, and differing legal systems. Our non-U.S. operations are subject to U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including laws and regulations relating to import-export controls, technology transfers, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other anti-corruption laws, and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). An unfavorable event or trend in any one or more of these factors or a failure to comply with U.S. or foreign laws could result in administrative, civil or criminal liabilities, including suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, and could materially adversely affect revenue and earnings.
In addition, some non-U.S. government customers require contractors to enter into letters of credit, performance or surety bonds, bank guarantees and other similar financial arrangements. We may also be required to agree to specific in-country purchases, manufacturing agreements or financial support arrangements, known as offsets, that require us to satisfy investment or other commitments or face penalties. Offset requirements may extend over several years and could require us to team with local companies to fulfill these commitments. If we do not satisfy these financial or offset requirements, our future revenue and earnings may be materially adversely affected.
Risks Relating to Our Acquisitions and Similar Investment Activities
We have made and expect to continue to make investments, including acquisitions and joint ventures, that involve risks and uncertainties. When evaluating potential acquisitions and joint ventures, we make judgments regarding the value of business opportunities, technologies and other assets, and the risks and costs of potential liabilities based on information available to us at the time of the transaction. Whether we realize the anticipated benefits from these transactions depends on multiple factors, including our integration of the businesses involved; the performance of the underlying products, capabilities, or technologies; market conditions following the acquisition; and acquired

liabilities, including some that may not have been identified prior to the acquisition. These factors could materially adversely affect our financial results.
Changes in business conditions may cause goodwill and other intangible assets to become impaired. Goodwill represents the purchase price paid in excess of the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is not amortized and remains on our balance sheet indefinitely unless there is an impairment or a sale of a portion of the business. We review goodwill for impairment annually at each of our reporting units or when circumstances indicate that the likelihood of an impairment is greater than 50%. Such circumstances include a significant adverse change in the business climate for one of our reporting units or a decision to dispose of a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit. We face some uncertainty in our business environment due to a variety of challenges, including the risk factors discussed in this section. We may experience unforeseen circumstances that adversely affect the value of our goodwill or intangible assets. Future write-offs of goodwill or other intangible assets as a result of an impairment in the business could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Other Business and Operational Risks
Our business could be negatively impacted by cybersecurity events and other disruptions. We face various cybersecurity threats, including threats to our IT infrastructure and attempts to gain unauthorized access to our proprietary or classified information, denial-of-service attacks, as well as threats to the physical security of our facilities and employees, and threats from terrorist acts. We also design and manage IT systems and products for various customers. We generally face the same security threats for these systems and products as for our own internal systems. In addition, we face cyber threats from entities and persons that may seek to target us through our customers, suppliers and other third parties with whom we do business. Many of these cybersecurity threats are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Accordingly, we maintain information security staff, policies and procedures for managing risk to our information systems, and we review and update our policies, procedures and practices in light of evolving threats. We conduct employee training on cybersecurity to mitigate persistent and continuously evolving cybersecurity threats, and we report cybersecurity events or losses of customer data to affected customers and applicable regulatory authorities. However, there can be no assurance that any such actions, including the timeliness of our efforts to review, update or implement policies, procedures and practices in light of evolving threats, or the safeguards put in place by our customers, suppliers and other parties on which we rely, will be sufficient to detect, prevent and mitigate cybersecurity breaches or disruptions, or the unauthorized release of sensitive information or corruption of data.
We have experienced cybersecurity events and disruptions such as viruses and attacks targeting our IT systems. Such prior events have not had a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. However, future threats could have a materially adverse impact on our company by, among other things, causing harm to our business, results of operations or reputation; disrupting our operations; exposing us to potential liability, regulatory actions and loss of business; and challenging our eligibility for future work on sensitive or classified systems for government customers. Due to the evolving nature of these security threats, the potential impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all the costs related to cybersecurity attacks or disruptions resulting from such events.
Our business may continue to be negatively impacted by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and could be negatively impacted by other pandemics and outbreaks. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and could continue to have, a negative effect on our business, results of operations

and financial condition. This includes disruptions or restrictions on our employees’ ability to work effectively, temporary closures of our facilities and the facilities of our customers, and supply-chain disruptions. Any such effects could materially adversely affect our ability to perform on our contracts. In addition, the U.S. government’s federal contractor vaccine mandate, if enforced, could adversely affect our ability, and our subcontractors’ ability, to hire and retain highly skilled employees to work on U.S. government programs. Any cost increases that result from these effects may not be fully recoverable on our contracts or adequately covered by insurance.
In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread health crisis that is adversely affecting the economies and financial markets of many countries, which could result in a prolonged economic downturn that may negatively affect demand for our products and services. The imposition of quarantine and travel restrictions has negatively affected and, if reimposed, may continue to negatively affect portions of our business. The extent to which COVID-19 continues to impact our business, results of operations and financial condition is highly uncertain and will depend on future developments. Such developments may include the geographic spread and duration of the virus, including the emergence of new variants, the severity of the disease, vaccination rates and the actions that may be taken by various governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic. Other outbreaks of contagious diseases, or other adverse public health developments in countries where we operate or our customers are located, could similarly adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future.
Global climate change could negatively affect our business. Increased public awareness and concern regarding global climate change may result in state, federal or international requirements to reduce or mitigate global warming, such as the imposition of carbon pricing mechanisms, stricter limits on greenhouse gas emissions, or other business restrictions or compliance requirements regarding reducing or mitigating global climate change. If environmental or climate-change laws or regulations are adopted or changed that directly or indirectly impose significant new costs, operational restrictions or compliance requirements on our business, products, customers or suppliers, they could increase our costs, require additional capital expenditures, reduce our margins and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Further, while we continuously evaluate the evolving landscape of environmental-related legislation and seek opportunities for continuous improvement of our existing climate-related measures, as well as new ways to minimize our impact on the planet, there can be no assurance that changes in customer demand patterns and competition driven by climate change, as well as potential climate-related reputational risks will not adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

This annual report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s expectations, estimates, projections and assumptions. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “believes,” “forecasts,” “scheduled,” “outlook,” “estimates,” “should” and variations of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples include projections of revenue, earnings, operating margin, segment performance, cash flows, contract awards, aircraft production, deliveries and backlog. In making these statements, we rely on assumptions and analyses based on our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments as well as other factors we consider appropriate under the circumstances. We believe our estimates and judgments are reasonable based on information available to us at the time. Forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation

Reform Act of 1995, as amended. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual future results and trends may differ materially from what is forecast in forward-looking statements due to a variety of factors, including the risk factors discussed in this Form 10-K.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to General Dynamics or any person acting on our behalf are qualified by the cautionary statements in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to update or publicly release revisions to any forward-looking statements to reflect events, circumstances or changes in expectations after the date of this report. These factors may be revised or supplemented in future filings with the SEC.


We operate in a number of offices, manufacturing plants, laboratories, warehouses and other facilities in the United States and abroad. We believe our facilities are adequate for our present needs and, given planned improvements and construction, expect them to remain adequate for the foreseeable future.
On December 31, 2022, our segments had material operations at the following locations:
Aerospace – Mesa, Arizona; Van Nuys, California; West Palm Beach, Florida; Brunswick and Savannah, Georgia; Cahokia, Illinois; Westfield, Massachusetts; Teterboro, New Jersey; New York, New York; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas; Dulles, Virginia; Appleton, Wisconsin; Sydney, Australia; Beijing, China; Mexicali, Mexico; Singapore; Basel, Switzerland; Farnborough, United Kingdom.
Marine Systems – San Diego, California; Groton and New London, Connecticut; Jacksonville, Florida; Honolulu, Hawaii; Bath and Brunswick, Maine; Middletown and North Kingstown, Rhode Island; Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia; Bremerton, Washington; Mexicali, Mexico.
Combat Systems – Anniston, Alabama; East Camden, Arkansas; Healdsburg, California; Crawfordsville, St. Petersburg and Tallahassee, Florida; Marion, Illinois; Saco, Maine; Sterling Heights, Michigan; Lima, Ohio; Eynon, Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; Garland, Texas; Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington; Vienna, Austria; Le Gardeur, London and Valleyfield, Canada; Kaiserslautern, Germany; Madrid, Sevilla and Trubia, Spain; Kreuzlingen and Tägerwilen, Switzerland; Merthyr Tydfil, United Kingdom.
Technologies – Daleville, Alabama; Scottsdale, Arizona; Orlando, Florida; Bossier City, Louisiana; Annapolis Junction, Maryland; Dedham, Pittsfield and Taunton, Massachusetts; Bloomington, Minnesota; Rensselaer, New York; Greensboro, North Carolina; Chesapeake and Marion, Virginia; multiple locations in Northern Virginia; Ottawa, Canada; Oakdale and St. Leonards, United Kingdom.

A summary of floor space by segment on December 31, 2022, follows:
(Square feet in millions)Company-owned
Aerospace5.9 9.4 0.5 15.8 
Marine Systems8.7 4.5 — 13.2 
Combat Systems6.5 4.7 4.9 16.1 
Technologies3.1 7.9 0.9 11.9 
Total square feet24.2 26.5 6.3 57.0 

For information relating to legal proceedings, see Note M to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Not applicable.

All of our executive officers are appointed annually. None of our executive officers were selected pursuant to any arrangement or understanding between the officer and any other person. Set forth below is information regarding our executive officers as of February 7, 2023 (references are to positions with General Dynamics Corporation, unless otherwise noted):
Name, Position and OfficeAge
Jason W. Aiken – Executive Vice President, Technologies and Chief Financial Officer since January 2023; Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, January 2014 - December 2022; Vice President of the company and Chief Financial Officer of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, September 2011 - December 2013; Vice President and Controller, April 2010 - August 2011; Staff Vice President, Accounting, July 2006 - March 201050
Christopher J. Brady – Vice President of the company and President of General Dynamics Mission Systems since January 2019; Vice President, Engineering of General Dynamics Mission Systems, January 2015 - December 2018; Vice President, Engineering of General Dynamics C4 Systems, May 2013 - December 2014; Vice President, Assured Communications Systems of General Dynamics C4 Systems, August 2004 - May 201360
Mark L. Burns – Vice President of the company and President of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation since July 2015; Vice President of the company since February 2014; President, Product Support of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, June 2008 - June 2015
Danny Deep – Vice President of the company and President of General Dynamics Land Systems since April 2020; Chief Operating Officer of General Dynamics Land Systems, September 2018 - April 2020; Vice President of General Dynamics Land Systems – Canada, January 2011 - September 2018

Gregory S. Gallopoulos – Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since January 2010; Vice President and Deputy General Counsel, July 2008 - January 2010; Managing Partner of Jenner & Block LLP, January 2005 - June 200863
M. Amy Gilliland – Senior Vice President of the company since April 2015; President of General Dynamics Information Technology since September 2017; Deputy for Operations of General Dynamics Information Technology, April 2017 - September 2017; Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Administration, April 2015 - March 2017; Vice President, Human Resources, February 2014 - March 2015; Staff Vice President, Strategic Planning, January 2013 - February 2014; Staff Vice President, Investor Relations, June 2008 - January 201348
Kevin M. Graney – Vice President of the company and President of Electric Boat Corporation since October 2019; Vice President of the company and President of NASSCO, January 2017 - October 2019; Vice President and General Manager of NASSCO, November 2013 - January 2017 59
Kimberly A. Kuryea – Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Administration since April 2017; Vice President and Controller, September 2011 - March 2017; Chief Financial Officer of General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, November 2007 - August 2011; Staff Vice President, Internal Audit, March 2004 - October 200755
William A. Moss – Vice President and Controller since April 2017; Staff Vice President, Internal Audit, May 2015 - March 2017; Staff Vice President, Accounting, August 2010 - May 201559
Phebe N. Novakovic – Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since January 2013; President and Chief Operating Officer, May 2012 - December 2012; Executive Vice President, Marine Systems, May 2010 - May 2012; Senior Vice President, Planning and Development, July 2005 - May 2010; Vice President, Strategic Planning, October 2002 - July 200565
Mark C. Roualet – Executive Vice President, Combat Systems, since March 2013; Vice President of the company and President of General Dynamics Land Systems, October 2008 - March 2013; Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of General Dynamics Land Systems, July 2007 - October 200864
Robert E. Smith – Executive Vice President, Marine Systems, since July 2019; Vice President of the company and President of Jet Aviation, January 2014 - July 2019; Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Jet Aviation, July 2012 - January 201455


Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “GD.”
On January 29, 2023, there were approximately 9,000 holders of record of our common stock.
For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Note R to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8.
We did not make any unregistered sales of equity securities in 2022.

The following table provides information about our fourth-quarter purchases of equity securities that are registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended:
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program
Maximum Number of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
PeriodTotal Number of SharesAverage Price per Share
Shares Purchased Pursuant to Share Buyback Program
10/3/22-10/30/22— $— — 7,150,564 
10/31/22-11/27/22441,286 249.14 441,286 6,709,278 
11/28/22-12/31/22— — — 6,709,278 
Shares Delivered or Withheld Pursuant to Restricted Stock Vesting*
10/3/22-10/30/22776 213.77 
10/31/22-11/27/22498 249.13 
11/28/22-12/31/22728 253.72 
443,288 $249.09 
*Represents shares withheld by, or delivered to, us pursuant to provisions in agreements with recipients of restricted stock granted under our equity compensation plans that allow us to withhold, or the recipient to deliver to us, the number of shares with a fair value equal to the statutory tax withholding due upon vesting of the restricted shares.
On December 31, 2022, 6.7 million shares remained authorized by our board of directors for repurchase. For additional information relating to our purchases of common stock during the past three years, see Note N to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

The following performance graph compares the cumulative total return to shareholders on our common stock, assuming reinvestment of dividends, with similar returns for the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index and the Standard & Poor’s Aerospace & Defense Index, both of which include General Dynamics.
Cumulative Total Return
Based on Investments of $100 Beginning December 31, 2017
(Assumes Reinvestment of Dividends)
(in per-share amounts)



(Dollars in millions, except per-share amounts or unless otherwise noted)
For an overview of our operating segments, including a discussion of our major products and services, see the Business discussion contained in Item 1. The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations for 2022 compared with 2021 should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8, while a discussion of 2021 compared with 2020 can be found in Item 7 of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant disruptions to national and global economies and government activities since March 2020. During this time, we have continued to conduct our operations while responding to the pandemic with actions to mitigate adverse consequences to our employees, business, supply chain and customers.
In February 2022, Russian forces invaded Ukraine. In response, the United States and several other countries imposed economic and trade sanctions, export controls and other restrictions (collectively, global sanctions) targeting Russia and Belarus. The conflict and these sanctions have caused some disruptions to global economies and some global businesses, including heightened cybersecurity risks, increased energy costs and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, as well as exacerbated existing supply chain challenges and inflationary pressures.
In our Aerospace segment, we continue to see strong order activity as we emerge from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this segment is the most impacted relatively by the global sanctions, particularly our aircraft services business in Europe, which we have offset to date through additional services revenue in other regions. Across the aerospace industry, the global sanctions impact sales to certain individuals and entities and exports of associated aircraft parts and related services.
Within our defense segments, the COVID-19 pandemic created some staffing and supply chain challenges, particularly in our Marine Systems (especially in the submarine supply chain) and Technologies segments. The Russia-Ukraine conflict could continue to impact future U.S. government defense spending due to the heightened national security threat and the need to replenish stockpiles that have been reduced in support of Ukraine. Internationally, many countries in the region have expressed a renewed commitment to defense-related spending. As a result, we have seen signals of additional demand for our products and services.
Any longer-term impact of these global events to our business is currently unknown due to the uncertainty around duration and their broader impact. For additional information, see the Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A. The Review of Operating Segments includes information on these global events for the affected segments.

With approximately 70% of our revenue from the U.S. government, government spending levels particularly defense spending influence our financial performance. On December 29, 2022, the fiscal

year (FY) 2023 defense appropriations bill was signed into law. It totaled approximately $798 billion, representing an increase of approximately 10% over the enacted FY 2022 spending level.
The long-term outlook for our U.S. defense business is influenced by the U.S. military’s funding priorities, the diversity of our programs and customers, our insight into customer requirements stemming from our incumbency on core programs, our ability to evolve our products to address a fast-changing threat environment and our proven track record of successful contract execution.
International demand for military equipment and technologies presents opportunities for our non-U.S. operations and exports from our North American businesses. While the revenue potential can be significant, there are risks to doing business in foreign countries, including changing budget priorities and overall spending pressures unique to each country.
In our Aerospace segment, we expect our investment in the development of new aircraft products and technologies to support the segment’s long-term growth. Similarly, we believe the aircraft services business will be a source of steady revenue growth as the global business jet fleet continues to grow.

The following paragraphs explain how we recognize revenue and operating costs in our operating segments and the terminology we use to describe our operating results.
In the Aerospace segment, we record revenue on contracts for new aircraft when the customer obtains control of the asset, which is generally upon delivery and acceptance by the customer of the fully outfitted aircraft. Revenue associated with the segment’s services businesses is recognized as work progresses or upon delivery of services. Fluctuations in revenue from period to period result from the number and mix of new aircraft deliveries, and the level and type of aircraft services performed during the period.
The majority of the Aerospace segment’s operating costs relates to new aircraft production on firm orders and consists of labor, material, subcontractor and overhead costs. The costs are accumulated in production lots, recorded in inventory and recognized as operating costs at aircraft delivery based on the estimated average unit cost in a production lot. While changes in the estimated average unit cost for a production lot impact the level of operating costs, the amount of operating costs reported in a given period is based largely on the number and type of aircraft delivered. Operating costs in the Aerospace segment’s services businesses are recognized generally as incurred.
For new aircraft, operating earnings and margin are a function of the prices of our aircraft, our operational efficiency in manufacturing and outfitting the aircraft, and the mix of ultra-large-cabin, large-cabin and mid-cabin aircraft deliveries. Aircraft mix can also refer to the stage of program maturity for our aircraft models. A new aircraft model typically has lower margins in its initial production lots, and then margins generally increase as we realize efficiencies in the production process. Additional factors affecting the segment’s earnings and margin include the volume, mix and profitability of services work performed, the market for pre-owned aircraft, and the level of general and administrative (G&A) and net research and development (R&D) costs incurred by the segment.
In the defense segments, revenue on long-term government contracts is recognized generally over time as the work progresses, either as products are produced or as services are rendered. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at

completion to measure progress toward satisfying our performance obligations. Incurred costs represent work performed, which corresponds with, and thereby best depicts, the transfer of control to the customer. Contract costs include labor, material, overhead and, when appropriate, G&A expenses. Variances in costs recognized from period to period reflect primarily increases and decreases in production or activity levels on individual contracts. Because costs are used as a measure of progress, year-over-year variances in costs result in corresponding variances in revenue, which we generally refer to as volume.
Operating earnings and margin in the defense segments are driven by changes in volume, performance or contract mix. Performance refers to changes in profitability based on adjustments to estimates at completion on individual contracts. These adjustments result from increases or decreases to the estimated value of the contract, the estimated costs to complete the contract or both. Therefore, changes in costs incurred in the period compared with prior periods do not necessarily impact profitability. It is only when total estimated costs at completion on a given contract change without a corresponding change in the contract value (or vice versa) that the profitability of that contract may be impacted. Contract mix refers to changes in the volume of higher- versus lower-margin work. Higher or lower margins can result from a number of factors, including contract type (e.g., fixed-price/cost-reimbursable) and type of work (e.g., development/production). Contract mix can also refer to the stage of program maturity for our long-term production contracts. New long-term production contracts typically have lower margins initially, and then margins generally increase as we achieve learning curve improvements or realize other cost reductions.

Strong operating performance:
Record-high revenue of $39.4 billion, an increase of 2.4% from 2021
Operating earnings of $4.2 billion with sequential growth throughout the year
Record-high diluted earnings per share of $12.19, up 5.5% from 2021
Record-high cash provided by operating activities of $4.6 billion, or 135% of net earnings
Record-high backlog of $91.1 billion increased $3.5 billion, or 4%, from 2021, driven by significant order activity during the year supporting our long-term growth expectations:
Outstanding Gulfstream aircraft order activity, including orders across all aircraft models
Several significant contract awards received in our defense segments, including $5.4 billion of combined awards from the U.S. Navy for advance procurement and other work for the Columbia-class submarine program
Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Revenue$39,407 $38,469 $938 2.4 %
Operating costs and expenses(35,196)(34,306)(890)2.6 %
Operating earnings4,211 4,163 48 1.2 %
Operating margin10.7 %10.8 %
Our consolidated revenue increased in 2022 from growth in U.S. Navy ship construction in our Marine Systems segment and aircraft services activity in our Aerospace segment. Operating earnings increased

in 2022 due primarily to strong operating performance in our Aerospace segment, while we managed through the impacts of supply chain challenges and inflationary pressure across the business.

Following is a discussion of operating results and outlook for each of our operating segments. For the Aerospace segment, results are analyzed by specific types of products and services, consistent with how the segment is managed. For the defense segments, the discussion is based on markets and the lines of products and services offered with a supplemental discussion of specific contracts and programs when significant to the results. Additional information regarding our segments can be found in Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Revenue$8,567 $8,135 $432 5.3 %
Operating earnings1,130 1,031 99 9.6 %
Operating margin13.2 %12.7 %
Gulfstream aircraft deliveries (in units)120 119 10.8 %
Operating Results
The increase in the Aerospace segment’s revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
Aircraft services$420 
Aircraft manufacturing12 
Total increase$432 
Revenue was up in our Aerospace segment driven by an increase in demand for aircraft services, particularly maintenance work, and increased activity at our fixed-base operator (FBO) facilities due to growing global air travel.
The increase in the segment’s operating earnings in 2022 consisted of the following:
Aircraft manufacturing$123 
Aircraft services89 
G&A/other expenses(113)
Total increase$99 
Aircraft manufacturing operating earnings were up in 2022 due to a favorable mix of aircraft deliveries and ongoing improvements in manufacturing efficiency. Earnings in 2022 were somewhat impacted by customer accommodations associated with a G500/G600 airworthiness directive while 2021 earnings included mark-to-market adjustments related to aircraft that were in the G500 test program. In 2022, operating earnings from aircraft services were up due to higher volume and favorable cost performance. These increases were offset partially by higher G&A/other expenses due primarily to increased R&D expenses associated with ongoing product development efforts. In total, the Aerospace segment’s operating margin increased 50 basis points in 2022 to 13.2%.

2023 Outlook
We expect the Aerospace segment’s 2023 revenue to increase to approximately $10.4 billion due to an increase in new aircraft deliveries to 145. We expect the segment’s operating margin to be approximately 14.6%. This outlook assumes the certification and entry into service of the new G700 aircraft.
Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Revenue$11,040 $10,526 $514 4.9 %
Operating earnings897 874 23 2.6 %
Operating margin8.1 %8.3 %  
Operating Results
The increase in the Marine Systems segment’s revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
U.S. Navy ship construction$577 
U.S. Navy ship engineering, repair and other services(63)
Total increase$514 
Revenue from U.S. Navy ship construction was up across our shipyards in 2022 due to increased volume on the Columbia-class submarine program, the John Lewis-class (T-AO-205) fleet replenishment oiler program and the Arleigh Burke-class (DDG-51) destroyer program. These increases were offset partially by lower submarine engineering volume. Overall, the Marine Systems segment’s operating margin decreased 20 basis points in 2022 due to program mix and supply chain impacts to the Virginia-class submarine schedule, offset partially by improved performance at NASSCO.
2023 Outlook
We expect the Marine Systems segment’s 2023 revenue to remain steady at approximately $10.9 billion. Operating margin is expected to be approximately 8.1% driven by program mix across our shipyards and ongoing supply chain challenges.
Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Revenue$7,308 $7,351 $(43)(0.6)%
Operating earnings 1,075 1,067 0.7 %
Operating margin14.7 %14.5 %

Operating Results
The change in the Combat Systems segment’s revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
International military vehicles$(318)
U.S. military vehicles282 
Weapons systems and munitions(7)
Total decrease$(43)
Revenue from international military vehicles was down in 2022, but this decrease was offset largely by increased revenue from U.S. Stryker wheeled combat vehicles, particularly the maneuver short-range air defense (M-SHORAD) variant.
The strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro and British pound has negatively impacted the Combat Systems segment’s results in 2022, specifically the translation of our international revenue from local currencies into U.S. dollars. Had foreign exchange rates in 2022 held constant from 2021, the Combat Systems segment’s revenue would have increased 2.1% in 2022 compared to 2021.
The Combat Systems segment’s operating margin increased 20 basis points compared with 2021 driven by favorable contract mix and strong operating performance.
2023 Outlook
We expect the Combat Systems segment’s 2023 revenue to be approximately $7.3 billion with operating margin of approximately 14.7%.
Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Revenue$12,492 $12,457 $35 0.3 %
Operating earnings 1,227 1,275 (48)(3.8)%
Operating margin9.8 %10.2 %
Operating Results
The increase in the Technologies segment’s revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
IT services$126 
C5ISR* solutions(91)
Total increase$35 
*Command, control, communications, computers, cyber, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
The group’s revenue was up despite continued delays in customer order activity as revenue from IT services increased on several programs, particularly with the group’s federal civilian customers. This increase was offset partially by decreased revenue from C5ISR solutions due to supply chain disruptions. The Technologies segment’s operating margin decreased 40 basis points compared with 2021 due primarily to the mix of service activity and product volume.

2023 Outlook
We expect the Technologies segment’s 2023 revenue to be between $12.5 and $12.6 billion with operating margin of around 9.5% driven by a shift in the mix of IT service activity and hardware volume.
Corporate operating costs totaled $118 in 2022 and $84 in 2021 and consisted primarily of equity-based compensation expense. The increase was due primarily to accelerated recognition of equity-based compensation expense. Corporate operating costs are expected to be approximately $140 in 2023.

Year Ended December 3120222021Variance
Products$23,022 $22,428 $594 2.6 %
Services16,385 16,041 344 2.1 %
Operating Costs:
Products$(18,981)$(18,524)$(457)2.5 %
Services(13,804)(13,537)(267)2.0 %
The increase in product revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
Ship construction $577 
Other, net17 
Total increase$594 
Ship construction revenue increased due to higher volume on the Columbia-class submarine, T-AO-205 oiler and DDG-51 destroyer programs. In 2022, the primary driver of the increase in product operating costs was the change in volume described above.
The increase in service revenue in 2022 consisted of the following:
Aircraft services$420 
Other, net(76)
Total increase$344 
Aircraft services revenue increased due to additional maintenance work and FBO activity. In 2022, the primary driver of the increase in service operating costs was the change in volume described above.
As a percentage of revenue, G&A expenses were 6.1% in 2022 and 5.8% in 2021, reflecting an increase in equity-based compensation expense. We expect G&A expenses as a percentage of revenue in 2023 to be generally consistent with 2022.

Net other income was $189 in 2022 and $134 in 2021 and represents primarily the non-service components of pension and other post-retirement benefits. In 2023, we expect net other income to decrease to approximately $80 due to lower pension income. The decrease in pension income is driven primarily by higher interest rates and a change in investment mix in one of our plans due to its improved funded status.
Net interest expense was $364 in 2022 and $424 in 2021, reflecting repayment of our scheduled debt maturities in 2021. See Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for additional information regarding our debt obligations, including interest rates. We expect 2023 net interest expense to be consistent with 2022.
Our effective tax rate was 16% in 2022 and 15.9% in 2021. For further discussion, including a reconciliation of our effective tax rate from the statutory federal rate, see Note D to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. For 2023, we anticipate a slightly higher full-year effective tax rate of approximately 17% due to higher taxes on foreign earnings.
In August 2022, the president signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which contained provisions effective January 1, 2023, including a 15% corporate minimum tax and a 1% excise tax on stock buybacks, both of which we do not expect to have a material impact on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

Our total backlog, including funded and unfunded portions, was $91.1 billion on December 31, 2022, up 4% from $87.6 billion at the end of 2021. Our total backlog is equal to our remaining performance obligations under contracts with customers as discussed in Note B to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Our total estimated contract value, which combines total backlog with estimated potential contract value, was $127.7 billion on December 31, 2022.

The following table details the backlog and estimated potential contract value of each segment at the end of 2022 and 2021:
FundedUnfundedTotal BacklogEstimated Potential Contract ValueTotal
Estimated Contract Value
December 31, 2022
Aerospace$19,077 $439 $19,516 $685 $20,201 
Marine Systems26,246 19,453 45,699 3,672 49,371 
Combat Systems12,726 525 13,251 5,364 18,615 
Technologies9,100 3,571 12,671 26,889 39,560 
Total$67,149 $23,988 $91,137 $36,610 $127,747 
December 31, 2021
Aerospace$15,878 $415 $16,293 $1,657 $17,950 
Marine Systems23,678 21,177 44,855 4,271 49,126 
Combat Systems12,584 509 13,093 6,936 20,029 
Technologies9,005 4,348 13,353 26,997 40,350 
Total$61,145 $26,449 $87,594 $39,861 $127,455 
For additional information about our major products and services in backlog see the Business discussion contained in Item 1.

Aerospace funded backlog represents primarily new aircraft orders for which we have definitive purchase contracts and deposits from customers. Unfunded backlog consists of agreements to provide future aircraft maintenance and support services. The Aerospace segment ended 2022 with backlog of $19.5 billion, up 19.8% from $16.3 billion at year-end 2021.
Orders in 2022 reflected strong demand across our product and services portfolio, including orders for all models of Gulfstream aircraft. The segment’s book-to-bill ratio (orders divided by revenue) was 1.5-to-1 in 2022.
Beyond total backlog, estimated potential contract value represents primarily options and other agreements with existing customers to purchase new aircraft and long-term aircraft services agreements. On December 31, 2022, estimated potential contract value in the Aerospace segment was $685.
Demand for Gulfstream aircraft remains strong across customer types and geographic regions, generating orders from public and privately held companies, individuals, and governments around the world. Geographically, U.S. customers represented 70% of the segment’s orders in 2022 and 59% of the segment’s backlog on December 31, 2022, demonstrating continued strong domestic demand.

The following represents Gulfstream aircraft (in units) in backlog by region on December 31, 2022:

The total backlog in our defense segments represents the estimated remaining sales value of work to be performed under firm contracts. The funded portion of total backlog includes items that have been authorized and appropriated by the U.S. Congress and funded by customers, as well as commitments by international customers that are approved and funded similarly by their governments. The unfunded portion of total backlog includes the amounts we believe are likely to be funded, but there is no guarantee that future budgets and appropriations will provide the same funding level currently anticipated for a given program.
Estimated potential contract value in our defense segments includes unexercised options associated with existing firm contracts and unfunded work on indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts. Contract options represent agreements to perform additional work under existing contracts at the election of the customer. We recognize options in backlog when the customer exercises the option and establishes a firm order. For IDIQ contracts, we evaluate the amount of funding we expect to receive and include this amount in our estimated potential contract value. This amount is often less than the total IDIQ contract value, particularly when the contract has multiple awardees. The actual amount of funding received in the future may be higher or lower than our estimate of potential contract value.
Total backlog in our defense segments was $71.6 billion on December 31, 2022, compared with $71.3 billion at year-end 2021. In 2022, the total book-to-bill ratio in our defense segments was 1-to-1. Estimated potential contract value in our defense segments was $35.9 billion on December 31, 2022, compared with $38.2 billion at year-end 2021.

The Marine Systems segment’s backlog consists of very long-term submarine and surface ship construction programs, as well as numerous engineering and repair contracts. The segment’s book-to-bill ratio was 1.1-to-1 in 2022, resulting in backlog growth of 1.9% from year-end 2021 to $45.7 billion. The segment’s estimated potential contract value was $3.7 billion on December 31, 2022, compared with $4.3 billion at year-end 2021.
Significant contract awards in the Marine Systems segment during 2022 include:
$5.4 billion from the Navy for the Columbia-class submarine program for advance procurement and advance construction of critical components and material to support follow-on submarines, efforts to support continuous missile tube production, enhancements to develop the submarine industrial base, and sustained class maintenance and support. The awards also include options totaling $585 of additional potential contract value.
$2 billion from the Navy for long-lead materials and construction of an additional Expeditionary Sea Base (ESB) auxiliary support ship and two additional T-AO-205 oilers. The awards also include a $715 option for an additional T-AO-205 oiler.
$1.2 billion from the Navy to provide maintenance, modernization and repair services for the DDG-51 destroyer, Wasp-class amphibious assault ship and Los Angeles-class submarine programs.
$580 from the Navy for lead yard services, development studies and design efforts for Virginia-class submarines. The awards also include options totaling $320 of additional potential contract value.
$235 from the Navy to provide engineering, technical, design and planning yard support services for operational strategic and attack submarines.
$170 from the Navy for advanced nuclear plant studies (ANPS) in support of the Columbia-class submarine program.
$145 from the Navy to provide ongoing planning and lead yard services for the DDG-51 destroyer program.

The following represents the Marine Systems segment’s total estimated contract value by major program on December 31, 2022:
The Combat Systems segment’s backlog consists of a mix of U.S. and international combat vehicles, weapons systems and munitions programs. The vehicle programs are generally long-term franchise programs, while the weapons systems and munitions programs tend to be shorter-term in nature. The segment’s backlog was up from year-end 2021 to $13.3 billion. The segment’s estimated potential contract value was $5.4 billion on December 31, 2022, compared with $6.9 billion at year-end 2021.
Significant contract awards in the Combat Systems segment during 2022 include:
$1 billion for various munitions and ordnance with additional option value of $465.
$410 from the U.S. Army to begin low-rate initial production (LRIP) of the Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF) vehicle. The contract has a maximum potential value of $1.1 billion.
A contract worth up to $1.1 billion to produce Abrams main battle tanks in the system enhancement package version 3 (SEPv3) configuration for Poland.
$770 from the Army for Abrams main battle tank upgrades, engineering and logistics support services, and system and sustainment technical support services.
$760 from the Army for Stryker vehicle upgrades, spare parts, and inventory management and support services.
$440 from the Army to produce Stryker M-SHORAD vehicles.
$355 to produce Abrams main battle tanks in the SEPv3 configuration for Australia.
$320 to upgrade Ulan tracked vehicles for Austria.

$230 to produce Piranha armored combat vehicles for Switzerland.
$60 to produce M3 amphibious bridge systems for an international customer. The contract has a maximum potential value of $210.
The following represents the Combat Systems segment’s total estimated contract value by market on December 31, 2022:
The Technologies segment’s backlog consists of thousands of contracts and task orders across a mix of U.S. and non-U.S. government and commercial customers. These contracts can be shorter-cycle or span multiple years, but commonly include a small, initially funded order. Therefore, our estimated potential contract value of $26.9 billion is an important indicator of future orders and revenue. In 2022, approximately 75% of the segment’s orders were from additional work on IDIQ contracts or the exercise of options. The segment’s total estimated contract value remained steady compared with year-end 2021.
Significant contract awards in the Technologies segment during 2022 include:
An IDIQ contract from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) to provide hybrid cloud services and IT design, engineering, and operations and sustainment services. The contract has a maximum potential value of $4.5 billion over 10 years.
$1.6 billion for several key classified contracts.
An IDIQ contract to provide IT infrastructure and modernization support services for the U.S. Air Forces in Europe under the Europe-Wide Information Technology and Enterprise Network (EITEN) program. The contract has a maximum potential value of $910.
$80 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managed application, information, networking, enterprise and security services. The contract has a maximum potential value of $660.

An IDIQ contract from the Army to develop and field adversarial electronic warfare threat systems and capabilities in support of the Army’s test and training communities. The contract has a maximum potential value of $580.
$375 from the Army for computing and communications equipment under the Common Hardware Systems-5 (CHS-5) program.
$160 from the U.S. Space Development Agency to build and operate ground systems for the new low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite network. The contract has a maximum potential value of $325.
An IDIQ contract for the development and sustainment of applications and websites for the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC). The contract has a maximum potential value of $300.
The following represents the Technologies segment’s total estimated contract value by customer on December 31, 2022:

We place a strong emphasis on cash flow generation, which is underpinned by an operating discipline focused on cost control and working capital management. This emphasis gives us the flexibility for prudent capital deployment, while allowing us to step down debt over time, and preserves a strong balance sheet for future opportunities.
We evaluate a variety of capital deployment options based on current market conditions and our long-term outlook, and we believe agility is a key component of our capital deployment strategy as market conditions change over time. Our capital deployment priorities include investments in our products and services to drive long-term growth, a predictable dividend, strategic acquisitions and opportunistic share repurchases.

We believe cash generated by operating activities, supplemented by commercial paper issuances, is sufficient to satisfy our short- and long-term liquidity needs. An additional potential source of capital is the issuance of long-term debt in capital market transactions.
We ended 2022 with a cash and equivalents balance of $1.2 billion compared with $1.6 billion at the end of 2021. The following is a discussion of our major operating, investing and financing activities in 2022 and 2021, as classified on the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows in Item 8:
Year Ended December 3120222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$4,579 $4,271 
Net cash used by investing activities(1,489)(882)
Net cash used by financing activities(3,471)(4,590)

Cash provided by operating activities was $4.6 billion in 2022 compared with $4.3 billion in 2021. The primary driver of cash inflows in both years was net earnings. Cash flows in both years were affected positively by an increase in customer deposits driven by Gulfstream aircraft orders. While cash flows in 2021 were affected positively by a reduction in inventory from the sale of G500 flight-test aircraft in our Aerospace segment, cash flows in 2022 were affected negatively by growth in inventory related to new aircraft models awaiting certification from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Cash used by investing activities was $1.5 billion in 2022 and $882 in 2021. Our investing activities include cash paid for capital expenditures and business acquisitions; purchases, sales and maturities of marketable securities; and proceeds from asset sales.
Capital Expenditures. The primary use of cash for investing activities in both years was capital expenditures. Capital expenditures were $1.1 billion in 2022 and $887 in 2021. Capital expenditures have been at an elevated level the past two years as we continue to invest in our shipyards, particularly for the planned growth in submarine construction. Other capital expenditures include equipment and facility enhancements to support new and existing programs across our businesses. We expect capital expenditures to be just below 2.5% of revenue in 2023.
Business Acquisitions. In 2022, we acquired a provider of mission-critical embedded computing solutions for U.S. Navy platforms in our Technologies segment.

Cash used by financing activities was $3.5 billion in 2022 and $4.6 billion in 2021. Financing activities include the use of cash for repurchases of common stock, payment of dividends, and debt and commercial paper repayments. Our financing activities also include proceeds received from debt and commercial paper issuances and employee stock option exercises.
Dividends. On March 2, 2022, our board of directors declared an increased quarterly dividend of $1.26 per share, the 25th consecutive annual increase. Previously, the board had increased the quarterly

dividend to $1.19 per share in March 2021. Cash dividends paid were $1.4 billion in 2022 and $1.3 billion in 2021.
Share Repurchases. Our board of directors from time to time authorizes management to repurchase outstanding shares of our common stock on the open market. We paid $1.2 billion and $1.8 billion in 2022 and 2021, respectively, to repurchase our outstanding shares. On December 31, 2022, 6.7 million shares remained authorized by our board of directors for repurchase, representing 2.4% of our total shares outstanding.
Debt Issuances and Repayments. In November 2022, we repaid fixed-rate notes of $1 billion at the scheduled maturity using cash on hand. Fixed-rate notes of $750 and $500 mature in May 2023 and August 2023, respectively. We currently plan to repay these notes at maturity using cash on hand, potentially supplemented by commercial paper or other borrowings. For additional information regarding our debt obligations, including scheduled debt maturities and interest rates, see Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
On December 31, 2022, we had no commercial paper outstanding, but we maintain the ability to access the commercial paper market in the future. Separately, we have a $4 billion committed bank credit facility for general corporate purposes and working capital needs and to support our commercial paper issuances. We also have an effective shelf registration on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that allows us to access the debt markets.

We emphasize the efficient conversion of net earnings into cash and the deployment of that cash to maximize shareholder returns. As described below, we use free cash flow and return on invested capital (ROIC) to measure our performance in these areas. While we believe these metrics provide useful information, they are not defined operating measures under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), and there are limitations associated with their use. Our calculation of these metrics may not be completely comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential differences in the method of calculation. As a result, the use of these metrics should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, GAAP measures.
Free Cash Flow. We define free cash flow as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures. We believe free cash flow is a useful measure for investors because it portrays our ability to generate cash from our businesses for purposes such as repaying debt, funding business acquisitions, repurchasing our common stock and paying dividends. We use free cash flow to assess the quality of our earnings and as a key performance measure in evaluating management. The following table reconciles the free cash flow with net cash provided by operating activities, as classified on the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows in Item 8:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
Net cash provided by operating activities$4,579 $4,271 $3,858 
Capital expenditures(1,114)(887)(967)
Free cash flow$3,465 $3,384 $2,891 
Cash flows as a percentage of net earnings:
Net cash provided by operating activities135 %131 %122 %
Free cash flow102 %104 %91 %

Return on Invested Capital. We believe ROIC is a useful measure for investors because it reflects our ability to generate returns from the capital we have deployed in our operations. We use ROIC to evaluate investment decisions and as a performance measure in evaluating management. We define ROIC as net operating profit after taxes divided by average invested capital. Net operating profit after taxes is defined as net earnings plus after-tax interest and amortization expense, calculated using the statutory federal income tax rate. Average invested capital is defined as the sum of the average debt and average shareholders’ equity excluding accumulated other comprehensive loss. Average debt and average shareholders’ equity excluding accumulated other comprehensive loss are calculated using the respective balances at the end of the preceding year and the respective balances at the end of each of the four quarters of the year presented. ROIC excludes goodwill impairments and non-economic accounting changes as they are not reflective of company performance.
ROIC is calculated as follows:
Year Ended December 31202220212020
Net earnings$3,390 $3,257 $3,167 
After-tax interest expense309 340 386 
After-tax amortization expense235 254 280 
Net operating profit after taxes$3,934 $3,851 $3,833 
Average invested capital$31,260 $32,270 $32,431 
Return on invested capital12.6 %11.9 %11.8 %

The following is a discussion of how we expect to meet the future cash requirements from known contractual and other obligations.
The majority of our revenue is derived from long-term contracts and programs that can span several years. We similarly enter into long-term agreements with suppliers and subcontractors for goods and services in support of these contracts and programs with payment terms that are generally aligned with the payment terms from our customers. In some instances, we require advance payments or deposits from our customers, which help fund our purchase commitments and reduce the risk of customer performance.
Additionally, we have significant liabilities under our defined benefit retirement plans. As these liabilities are settled using plan assets, our future cash requirements associated with these liabilities are generally limited to the annual cash contributions to these plans required in accordance with Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations. See Note S to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for additional information.
Other obligations, such as scheduled principal and interest payments on our fixed-rate notes, and scheduled payments in accordance with our lease agreements are expected to be satisfied using cash generated from operations. See Notes J and K to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based on the Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We employ judgment in making our estimates, but they are based on historical experience, currently available information and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates. We believe our judgment is applied consistently and produces financial information that fairly depicts our results of operations for all periods presented.
In our opinion, the following policies are critical and require the use of significant judgment in their application:
Revenue. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account for revenue. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation within that contract and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. Our performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses or at a point in time.
Substantially all of our revenue in the defense segments is recognized over time because control is transferred continuously to our customers. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion to measure progress toward satisfying our performance obligations. Incurred costs represent work performed, which corresponds with, and thereby best depicts, the transfer of control to the customer. Contract costs include labor, material, overhead and, when appropriate, G&A expenses.
Most of our revenue recognized at a point in time is for the manufacture of business jet aircraft in our Aerospace segment. Revenue on these contracts is recognized when the customer obtains control of the asset, which is generally upon delivery and acceptance by the customer of the fully outfitted aircraft.
The majority of our revenue is derived from long-term contracts and programs that can span several years. Accounting for long-term contracts and programs involves the use of various techniques to estimate total contract revenue and costs. For long-term contracts, we estimate the profit on a contract as the difference between the total estimated revenue and expected costs to complete a contract and recognize that profit over the life of the contract.
Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that often span several years. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability; the complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; the performance of subcontractors; and the availability and timing of funding from the customer.
The nature of our contracts gives rise to several types of variable consideration, including claims, award fees and incentive fees. We include in our contract estimates additional revenue for contract modifications or claims against the customer when we believe we have an enforceable right to the modification or claim, the amount can be estimated reliably and its realization is probable. In evaluating these criteria, we consider the contractual/legal basis for the claim, the cause of any additional costs

incurred, the reasonableness of those costs and the objective evidence available to support the claim. We include award fees or incentive fees in the estimated transaction price when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount of the fee. These estimates are based on historical award experience, anticipated performance and our best judgment at the time.
As a significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of our contracts, we review and update our contract-related estimates regularly. We recognize adjustments in estimated profit on contracts under the cumulative catch-up method. Under this method, the impact of the adjustment on profit recorded to date on a contract is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. Revenue and profit in future periods of contract performance are recognized using the adjusted estimate. The aggregate impact of adjustments in contract estimates increased our operating earnings (and diluted earnings per share) by $370 ($1.05) in 2022 and $377 ($1.06) in 2021. While no adjustment on any one contract was material to the Consolidated Financial Statements in 2022 or 2021, our Marine Systems segment’s 2022 results were affected negatively by supply chain impacts to the Virginia-class submarine schedule, offset partially by improved performance on auxiliary and support ships.
Consistent with industry practice, we classify assets and liabilities related to long-term contracts as current, even though some of these amounts may not be realized within one year. The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. These assets and liabilities are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet on a contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period.
Long-lived Assets and Goodwill. We review long-lived assets, including intangible assets subject to amortization, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of assets held for use based on a review of undiscounted projected cash flows. Impairment losses, where identified, are measured as the excess of the carrying value of the long-lived assets over the estimated fair value as determined by discounted cash flows.
Goodwill represents the purchase price paid in excess of the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired in a business combination. We review goodwill for impairment annually at each of our reporting units or when circumstances indicate that the likelihood of an impairment is greater than 50%. Such circumstances include a significant adverse change in the business climate for one of our reporting units or a decision to dispose of a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit. Our reporting units are consistent with our operating segments in Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. We use both qualitative and quantitative approaches when testing goodwill for impairment. When determining the approach to be used, we consider the current facts and circumstances of each reporting unit as well as the excess of each reporting unit’s estimated fair value over its carrying value based on our most recent quantitative assessments. Our qualitative approach evaluates the business environment and various events impacting the reporting unit including, but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, changes in the business environment and reporting unit-specific events. If, based on the qualitative assessment, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is greater than its carrying value, then a quantitative assessment is not necessary. However, if a quantitative assessment is determined to be necessary, we compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value and, if necessary, recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.

Our estimate of fair value is based primarily on the discounted cash flows of the underlying operations and requires the use of judgment by management. The process requires numerous assumptions, including the timing of work embedded in our backlog, our performance and profitability under our contracts, our success in securing future business, the appropriate risk-adjusted interest rate used to discount the projected cash flows, and terminal-value growth rates applied to the final year of projected cash flows. Due to the variables inherent in our estimates of fair value, differences in assumptions may have a material effect on the result of our impairment analysis. To assess the reasonableness of our discounted cash flows, we compare the sum of our reporting units’ fair value to our market capitalization. Additionally, we evaluate the reasonableness of each reporting unit’s fair value by comparing the fair value to peer companies and recent relevant market transactions.
In the fourth quarter of 2022, we completed qualitative assessments for our Aerospace, Marine Systems and Combat Systems reporting units as the estimated fair values of each of the reporting units significantly exceeded the respective carrying values based on our most recent quantitative assessments, which were performed in the fourth quarter of 2018. Our qualitative assessments did not present indicators of impairment for the reporting units.
In the fourth quarter of 2022, we completed a quantitative assessment for our Technologies reporting unit, and the results indicated that no impairment existed. The Technologies reporting unit’s estimated fair value exceeded its carrying value by approximately 25%. The fair value of the Technologies reporting unit decreased since our previous quantitative assessment, performed in the fourth quarter of 2020, driven by the negative impact of increased interest rates on our discounted projected cash flows. As a result, a material decrease in the fair value or increase in carrying value would put the reporting unit at risk of goodwill impairment. For example, a 50-basis-point increase in interest rates would lower our discounted projected cash flows and negatively impact the fair value of the Technologies reporting unit, reducing the cushion to approximately 15%. We believe the projections and assumptions we used in estimating fair value are reasonable, but it is possible actual experience could differ.
Commitments and Contingencies. We are subject to litigation and other legal proceedings arising either from the normal course of business or under provisions relating to the protection of the environment. Estimating liabilities and costs associated with these matters requires the use of judgment. We record a charge against earnings when a liability associated with claims or pending or threatened litigation is probable and when our exposure is reasonably estimable. The ultimate resolution of our exposure related to these matters may change as further facts and circumstances become known.
Retirement Plans. Our pension and other post-retirement benefit costs and obligations depend on several assumptions and estimates, which are based on our best judgment, including consideration of current and future market conditions. For a discussion of our assumptions and any changes to these assumptions, as well as the impact of these changes, which is reported as an actuarial gain or loss in the reconciliation of the change in the benefit obligation, see Note S to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. The key assumption is the interest rates used to discount estimated future pension benefits. We base the discount rates on a current yield curve developed from a portfolio of high-quality, fixed-income investments with maturities consistent with the projected benefit payout period. The effect of a 25-basis-point increase or decrease in the discount rate assumption on the December 31, 2022, pension benefit obligation is ($319) and $334, respectively.
As described in Note S to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, our contractual arrangements with the U.S. government provide for the recovery of benefit costs for our government retirement plans. We have elected to defer recognition of the benefit costs until such costs can be

allocated to contracts. Therefore, the impact of annual changes in financial reporting assumptions on the retirement benefit cost for these plans does not immediately affect our operating results.

The outstanding notes described in Note K to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, issued by General Dynamics Corporation (the parent), are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on an unsecured, joint and several basis by several of the parent’s 100%-owned subsidiaries (the guarantors). The guarantee of each guarantor ranks equally in right of payment with all other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness of such guarantor. A listing of the guarantors is included in an exhibit to this Form 10-K.
Because the parent is a holding company, its cash flow and ability to service its debt, including the outstanding notes, depends on the performance of its subsidiaries and the ability of those subsidiaries to distribute cash to the parent, whether by dividends, loans or otherwise. Holders of the outstanding notes have a direct claim only against the parent and the guarantors.
Under the relevant indenture, the guarantee of each guarantor is limited to the maximum amount that can be guaranteed without rendering the guarantee voidable under applicable laws relating to fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer or similar laws affecting the rights of creditors generally. Each indenture also provides that, in the event (1) of a merger, consolidation or sale or disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of a guarantor (other than a transaction with the parent or any of its subsidiaries) or (2) there occurs a transfer, sale or other disposition of the voting stock of a guarantor so that the guarantor is no longer a subsidiary of the parent, then the guarantor or the entity acquiring the assets (in the event of the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of a guarantor) will be released and relieved of any obligations under the guarantee.
The following summarized financial information presents the parent and guarantors (collectively, the combined obligor group) on a combined basis. The summarized financial information of the combined obligor group excludes net investment in and earnings of subsidiaries related to interests held by the combined obligor group in subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the notes.
Year Ended December 312022
Operating costs and expenses, excluding G&A(12,310)
Net earnings840 

December 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Cash and equivalents$540 $925 
Other current assets4,279 3,149 
Noncurrent assets4,164 3,597 
Total assets$8,983 $7,671 
Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt$1,250 $999 
Other current liabilities3,392 3,190 
Long-term debt9,189 10,424 
Other noncurrent liabilities3,814 3,844 
Total liabilities$17,645 $18,457 
The summarized balance sheet information presented above includes the funded status of the company’s primary qualified U.S. government pension plans as the parent has the ultimate obligation for the plans.

We are exposed to market risk, primarily from foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, commodity prices and investments.
Foreign Currency Risk. Our exchange-rate sensitivity relates primarily to changes in the Canadian dollar, euro and Swiss franc exchange rates. We had notional forward exchange contracts outstanding of $6.9 billion and $6.8 billion on December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. A 10% unfavorable rate movement in our portfolio of forward exchange contracts would have resulted in the following hypothetical, incremental pretax losses:
(Dollars in millions)20222021
These losses would be offset by corresponding gains in the remeasurement of the underlying transactions being hedged. We believe these foreign currency forward exchange contracts and the offsetting underlying commitments, when taken together, do not create material market risk.
Interest Rate Risk. On December 31, 2022, we had $10.5 billion principal amount of fixed-rate debt. Our fixed-rate debt obligations are not putable, and we do not trade these securities in the market. A 10% unfavorable interest rate movement would not have a material impact on the fair value of our fixed-rate debt.
Commodity Price and Investment Risk. See Note Q to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for a discussion of commodity price and investment risk.


Year Ended December 31
(Dollars in millions, except per-share amounts)202220212020
Products$23,022 $22,428 $22,188 
Services16,385 16,041 15,737 
39,407 38,469 37,925 
Operating costs and expenses:
General and administrative (G&A)(2,411)(2,245)(2,192)
Operating earnings4,211 4,163 4,133 
Other, net189 134 82 
Interest, net(364)(424)(477)
Earnings before income tax4,036 3,873 3,738 
Provision for income tax, net(646)(616)(571)
Net earnings$3,390 $3,257 $3,167 
Earnings per share
Basic$12.31 $11.61 $11.04 
Diluted$12.19 $11.55 $11.00 
The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.


Year Ended December 31
(Dollars in millions)202220212020
Net earnings$3,390 $3,257 $3,167 
Changes in unrealized cash flow hedges(190)(174)366 
Foreign currency translation adjustments(278)(103)353 
Changes in retirement plans’ funded status241 2,365 (453)
Other comprehensive (loss) income, pretax(227)2,088 266 
(Provision) benefit for income tax, net(5)(458)2 
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax(232)1,630 268 
Comprehensive income$3,158 $4,887 $3,435 
The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.


December 31
(Dollars in millions)20222021
Current assets:
Cash and equivalents$1,242 $1,603 
Accounts receivable3,008