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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from  __________ to __________
Commission file number 1-3950
 
Ford Motor Company
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware38-0549190
(State of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
  
One American Road
Dearborn,Michigan48126
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
313-322-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareFNew York Stock Exchange
6.200% Notes due June 1, 2059FPRBNew York Stock Exchange
6.000% Notes due December 1, 2059FPRCNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  

Large accelerated filer ☑   Accelerated filer ☐   Non-accelerated filer ☐   Smaller reporting company     
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes    No  ☑

As of June 30, 2020, Ford had outstanding 3,907,530,652 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($6.08 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $23,757,786,364.  Although there is no quoted market for our Class B Stock, shares of Class B Stock may be converted at any time into an equal number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of effecting the sale or other disposition of such shares of Common Stock.  The shares of Common Stock and Class B Stock outstanding at June 30, 2020 included shares owned by persons who may be deemed to be “affiliates” of Ford.  We do not believe, however, that any such person should be considered to be an affiliate.  For information concerning ownership of outstanding Common Stock and Class B Stock, see the Proxy Statement for Ford’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders currently scheduled to be held on May 13, 2021 (our “Proxy Statement”), which is incorporated by reference under various Items of this Report as indicated below.

As of January 29, 2021, Ford had outstanding 3,907,842,941 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($10.53 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $41,149,586,169.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Document Where Incorporated
Proxy Statement* Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14)
__________
*    As stated under various Items of this Report, only certain specified portions of such document are incorporated by reference in this Report.




Exhibit Index begins on page 92





FORD MOTOR COMPANY
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

 Table of ContentsPage
 Part I 
Item 1Business
Overview
Automotive Segment
Mobility Segment
Ford Credit Segment
Corporate Other
Interest on Debt
Governmental Standards
Human Capital Resources
Item 1ARisk Factors
Item 1BUnresolved Staff Comments
Item 2Properties
Item 3Legal Proceedings
Item 4Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 4AExecutive Officers of Ford
Part II
Item 5
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6Selected Financial Data
Item 7Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Key Trends and Economic Factors Affecting Ford and the Automotive Industry
Results of Operations - 2020
Automotive Segment
Mobility Segment
Ford Credit Segment
Corporate Other
Interest on Debt
Taxes
Results of Operations - 2019
Automotive Segment
Mobility Segment
Ford Credit Segment
Corporate Other
Interest on Debt
Taxes
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Credit Ratings
Outlook
Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements
Non-GAAP Financial Measures That Supplement GAAP Measures
Non-GAAP Financial Measure Reconciliations
2020 Supplemental Financial Information
Critical Accounting Estimates
Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Adopted
Aggregate Contractual Obligations
i


Table of Contents
(continued)
Item 7AQuantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9AControls and Procedures
Item 9BOther Information
Part III
Item 10Directors, Executive Officers of Ford, and Corporate Governance
Item 11Executive Compensation
Item 12
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16Form 10-K Summary
Signatures
Ford Motor Company and Subsidiaries Financial Statements
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Income Statements
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Equity
Notes to the Financial Statements
Schedule II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts

ii


PART I.
ITEM 1. Business.

Ford Motor Company was incorporated in Delaware in 1919.  We acquired the business of a Michigan company, also known as Ford Motor Company, which had been incorporated in 1903 to produce and sell automobiles designed and engineered by Henry Ford. We are a global company based in Dearborn, Michigan. With about 186,000 employees worldwide, the Company designs, manufactures, markets, and services a full line of Ford trucks, utility vehicles, and cars – increasingly including electrified versions – and Lincoln luxury vehicles; provides financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company LLC (“Ford Credit”); and is pursuing leadership positions in electrification; mobility solutions, including self-driving services; and connected vehicle services.

In addition to the information about Ford and our subsidiaries contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (“2020 Form 10-K Report” or “Report”), extensive information about our Company can be found at http://corporate.ford.com, including information about our management team, brands, products, services, and corporate governance principles.

The corporate governance information on our website includes our Corporate Governance Principles, Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Personnel, Code of Ethics for the Board of Directors, Code of Corporate Conduct for all employees, and the Charters for each of the Committees of our Board of Directors.  In addition, any amendments to our Code of Ethics or waivers granted to our directors and executive officers will be posted on our corporate website.  All of these documents may be accessed by going to our corporate website, or may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Shareholder Relations Department, Ford Motor Company, One American Road, P.O. Box 1899, Dearborn, Michigan 48126-1899.

Our recent periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge at http://shareholder.ford.com. This includes recent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those reports, and our Section 16 filings.  We post each of these documents on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after it is electronically filed with the SEC. Our reports filed with the SEC also may be found on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

Our Sustainability Report, which details our performance and progress toward our sustainability and corporate responsibility goals, is available at http://sustainability.ford.com.

The foregoing information regarding our website and its content is for convenience only and not deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Report nor filed with the SEC.
1

Item 1. Business (Continued)
OVERVIEW

Below is a description of our reportable segments and other activities.

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

The Automotive segment primarily includes the sale of Ford and Lincoln vehicles, service parts, and accessories worldwide, together with the associated costs to develop, manufacture, distribute, and service the vehicles, parts, and accessories. This segment includes revenues and costs related to our electrification vehicle programs. The segment includes the following regional business units: North America, South America, Europe, China (including Taiwan), and the International Markets Group.

General

Our vehicle brands are Ford and Lincoln.  In 2020, we sold approximately 4,187,000 vehicles at wholesale throughout the world. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (“Item 7”) for a discussion of our calculation of wholesale unit volumes.

Substantially all of our vehicles, parts, and accessories are sold through distributors and dealers (collectively, “dealerships”), the substantial majority of which are independently owned.  At December 31, the approximate number of dealerships worldwide distributing our vehicle brands was as follows:

Brand20192020
Ford9,883 9,618 
Ford-Lincoln (combined)759 707 
Lincoln279 392 
Total10,921 10,717 

We do not depend on any single customer or a few customers to the extent that the loss of such customers would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition to the products we sell to our dealerships for retail sale, we also sell vehicles to our dealerships for sale to fleet customers, including commercial fleet customers, daily rental car companies, and governments.  We also sell parts and accessories, primarily to our dealerships (which, in turn, sell these products to retail customers) and to authorized parts distributors (which, in turn, primarily sell these products to retailers). We also offer extended service contracts.

The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by general economic and political conditions over which we have little control.  Vehicles are durable goods, and consumers and businesses have latitude in determining whether and when to replace an existing vehicle.  The decision whether to purchase a vehicle may be affected significantly by slowing economic growth, geopolitical events, and other factors (including the cost of purchasing and operating cars, trucks, and utility vehicles and the availability and cost of financing and fuel).  As a result, the number of cars, trucks, and utility vehicles sold may vary substantially from year to year.  Further, the automotive industry is a highly competitive business that has a wide and growing variety of product and service offerings from a growing number of manufacturers.
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Item 1. Business (Continued)
Our wholesale unit volumes vary with the level of total industry demand and our share of that industry demand.  Our wholesale unit volumes also are influenced by the level of dealer inventory.  Our share is influenced by how our products are perceived by customers in comparison to those offered by other manufacturers based on many factors, including price, quality, styling, reliability, safety, fuel efficiency, functionality, and reputation.  Our share also is affected by the timing and frequency of new model introductions.  Our ability to satisfy changing consumer and business preferences with respect to type or size of vehicle, as well as design and performance characteristics, affects our sales and earnings significantly.

As with other manufacturers, the profitability of our business is affected by many factors, including:

Wholesale unit volumes
Margin of profit on each vehicle sold - which, in turn, is affected by many factors, such as:
Market factors - volume and mix of vehicles and options sold, and net pricing (reflecting, among other factors, incentive programs)
Costs of components and raw materials necessary for production of vehicles
Costs for customer warranty claims and additional service actions
Costs for safety, emissions, and fuel economy technology and equipment
A high proportion of relatively fixed structural costs, so that small changes in wholesale unit volumes can significantly affect overall profitability

Our industry has a very competitive pricing environment, driven in part by industry excess capacity. For the past several decades, manufacturers typically have given price discounts and other marketing incentives to provide value for customers and maintain market share and production levels.  The decline in value of foreign currencies in the past has contributed significantly to competitive pressures in many of our markets.  The U.S. administration has sought to address this issue with currency provisions that were included in the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement and United States-China trade deals.

Competitive Position.  The worldwide automotive industry consists of many producers, with no single dominant producer. Certain manufacturers, however, account for the major percentage of total sales within particular countries, especially their countries of origin.  

Seasonality.  We manage our vehicle production schedule based on a number of factors, including retail sales (i.e., units sold by our dealerships to their customers at retail) and dealer stock levels (i.e., the number of units held in inventory by our dealerships for sale to their customers). Historically, we have experienced some seasonal fluctuation in the business, with production in many markets tending to be higher in the first half of the year to meet demand in the spring and summer (typically the strongest sales months of the year). In 2020, because of production disruptions in the first half of the year due to COVID-19, production was higher in the second half of the year.

Backlog Orders.  We generally produce and ship our products on average within approximately 20 days of an order becoming firm.  Therefore, no significant amount of backlog orders accumulates during any period.

Raw Materials.  We purchase a wide variety of raw materials from numerous suppliers around the world for use in the production of, and development of technologies in, our vehicles.  These materials include base metals (e.g., steel and aluminum), precious metals (e.g., palladium), energy (e.g., natural gas), and plastics/resins (e.g., polypropylene).  We believe we have adequate supplies or sources of availability of raw materials necessary to meet our needs; however, there always are risks and uncertainties with respect to the supply of raw materials that could impact availability in sufficient quantities and at cost effective prices to meet our needs.  See the “Key Trends and Economic Factors Affecting Ford and the Automotive Industry” section of Item 7 for a discussion of supplier disruptions caused by a shortage of key components, as well as commodity and energy price changes, and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (“Item 7A”) for a discussion of commodity price risks.

Intellectual Property.  We own or hold licenses to use numerous patents, trade secrets, copyrights, and trademarks on a global basis.  We expect to continue building this portfolio as we actively pursue innovation in every part of our business.  We also own numerous trademarks and service marks that contribute to the identity and recognition of our Company and its products and services globally.  While our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of each of our businesses, we do not believe that our business would be materially affected by the expiration of any particular intellectual property right or termination of any particular intellectual property agreement.
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Item 1. Business (Continued)
Warranty Coverage, Field Service Actions, and Customer Satisfaction Actions.  We provide warranties on vehicles we sell.  Warranties are offered for specific periods of time and/or mileage, and vary depending upon the type of product and the geographic location of its sale.  Pursuant to these warranties, we will repair, replace, or adjust all parts on a vehicle that are defective in factory-supplied materials or workmanship during the specified warranty period.  In addition to the costs associated with this warranty coverage provided on our vehicles, we also incur costs as a result of field service actions (i.e., safety recalls, emission recalls, and other product campaigns), and for customer satisfaction actions.

For additional information regarding warranty and related costs, see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 25 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

Wholesales

Wholesales consist primarily of vehicles sold to dealerships. For the majority of such sales, we recognize revenue when we ship the vehicles to our dealerships from our manufacturing facilities. See Item 7 for additional discussion of revenue recognition practices. Wholesales in each region and in certain key markets within each region during the past three years were as follows:
 Wholesales (a)
(in thousands of units)
 201820192020
United States2,540 2,412 1,826 
Canada295 289 210 
Mexico69 53 34 
North America2,920 2,765 2,081 
Brazil235 218 135 
Argentina86 47 31 
South America 365 295 185 
United Kingdom387 367 208 
Germany313 328 211 
EU20 (b)1,388 1,317 904 
Turkey65 47 102 
Europe1,482 1,390 1,020 
China (c)732 535 617 
Australia65 64 57 
India98 73 46 
ASEAN (d)117 102 67 
Russia51 28 14 
International Markets Group483 401 284 
Total Company5,982 5,386 4,187 
__________
(a)Wholesale unit volumes include sales of medium and heavy trucks. Wholesale unit volumes also include all Ford and Lincoln badged units (whether produced by Ford or by an unconsolidated affiliate) that are sold to dealerships, units manufactured by Ford that are sold to other manufacturers, units distributed by Ford for other manufacturers, and local brand units produced by our unconsolidated Chinese joint venture Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. (“JMC”) that are sold to dealerships. Vehicles sold to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option (i.e., rental repurchase), as well as other sales of finished vehicles for which the recognition of revenue is deferred (e.g., consignments), also are included in wholesale unit volumes. Revenue from certain vehicles in wholesale unit volumes (specifically, Ford badged vehicles produced and distributed by our unconsolidated affiliates, as well as JMC brand vehicles) are not included in our revenue.
(b)EU20 markets are United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland.
(c)China includes Taiwan.
(d)ASEAN includes Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.
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Item 1. Business (Continued)
Retail Sales, Industry Volume, and Market Share

Retail sales, industry volume, and market share in each region and in certain key markets within each region during the past three years were as follows:

 Retail Sales (a)Industry Volume (b)Market Share (c)
(in millions of units)(in millions of units)(as a percentage)
 201820192020201820192020201820192020
United States2.5 2.4 2.0 17.7 17.5 14.9 14.1 %13.8 %13.7 %
Canada0.3 0.3 0.2 2.0 2.0 1.6 14.7 14.6 15.1 
Mexico0.1 0.1 — 1.5 1.4 1.0 4.8 4.4 4.0 
North America2.9 2.8 2.3 21.5 21.1 17.6 13.4 13.2 13.2 
Brazil0.2 0.2 0.1 2.6 2.8 2.1 9.2 8.1 6.8 
Argentina0.1 0.1 — 0.8 0.5 0.3 12.1 11.4 9.7 
South America 0.4 0.3 0.2 4.5 4.3 3.1 8.3 7.2 6.2 
United Kingdom0.4 0.4 0.2 2.8 2.7 1.9 13.7 13.0 12.9 
Germany0.3 0.3 0.2 3.8 4.0 3.3 7.9 8.3 7.4 
EU20 (d)1.4 1.3 1.0 17.7 17.9 13.7 7.6 7.4 7.1 
Turkey0.1 — 0.1 0.6 0.5 0.8 10.9 10.1 12.4 
Europe1.5 1.4 1.1 19.0 19.2 15.1 7.6 7.3 7.2 
China (e)0.8 0.6 0.6 26.7 26.1 25.2 2.9 2.2 2.4 
Australia0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 6.0 6.0 6.5 
India0.1 0.1 0.1 4.4 3.8 2.8 2.2 2.0 1.7 
ASEAN (f)0.1 0.1 0.1 1.7 1.8 1.3 6.6 5.9 5.3 
Russia0.1 — — 1.8 1.8 1.5 2.9 1.6 0.9 
International Markets Group0.5 0.4 0.3 22.5 21.2 17.5 2.2 1.9 1.7 
Global / Total Company6.0 5.5 4.5 94.2 91.9 78.5 6.3 %6.0 %5.8 %
__________
(a)Retail sales represents primarily sales by dealers and is based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(b)Industry volume is an internal estimate based on publicly available data collected from various government, private, and public sources around the globe; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(c)Market share represents reported retail sales of our brands as a percent of total industry volume in the relevant market or region.
(d)EU20 markets are United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland.
(e)China includes Taiwan; China market share includes Ford brand and JMC brand vehicles produced and sold by our unconsolidated affiliates.
(f)ASEAN includes Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

U.S. Sales by Type

The following table shows U.S. retail sales volume and U.S. wholesales segregated by truck, sport utility vehicle (“SUV”), and car sales. U.S. retail sales volume reflects transactions with (i) retail and fleet customers (as reported by dealers), (ii) government, and (iii) Ford management.  U.S. wholesales reflect sales to dealers.

U.S. Retail SalesU.S. Wholesales
2019202020192020
Trucks1,243,136 1,102,097 1,285,859 953,165 
SUVs830,471 749,583 816,933 712,623 
Cars349,091 193,064 309,413 160,449 
Total Vehicles 2,422,698 2,044,744 2,412,205 1,826,237 

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Item 1. Business (Continued)
MOBILITY SEGMENT

The Mobility segment primarily includes development costs for Ford’s autonomous vehicles and related businesses, Ford’s equity ownership in Argo AI (a developer of autonomous driving systems), and other mobility businesses and investments (including Spin, a micro-mobility service provider). Effective January 1, 2021, the costs and benefits related to Ford’s enterprise connectivity activities included in the Mobility segment will be reported in the Automotive segment.

FORD CREDIT SEGMENT

The Ford Credit segment is comprised of the Ford Credit business on a consolidated basis, which is primarily vehicle-related financing and leasing activities.

Ford Credit offers a wide variety of automotive financing products to and through automotive dealers throughout the world.  The predominant share of Ford Credit’s business consists of financing our vehicles and supporting our dealers.  Ford Credit earns its revenue primarily from payments made under retail installment sale and finance lease (retail financing) and operating lease contracts that it originates and purchases; interest rate supplements and other support payments from us and our affiliates; and payments made under dealer financing programs.

As a result of these financing activities, Ford Credit has a large portfolio of finance receivables and operating leases which it classifies into two portfolios—“consumer” and “non-consumer.”  Finance receivables and operating leases in the consumer portfolio include products offered to individuals and businesses that finance the acquisition of our vehicles from dealers for personal and commercial use.  Retail financing includes retail installment sale contracts for new and used vehicles and finance leases (comprised of sales-type and direct financing leases) for new vehicles to retail and commercial customers, including leasing companies, government entities, daily rental companies, and fleet customers. Finance receivables in the non-consumer portfolio include products offered to automotive dealers. Ford Credit makes wholesale loans to dealers to finance the purchase of vehicle inventory, also known as floorplan financing, as well as loans to dealers to finance working capital and improvements to dealership facilities, finance the purchase of dealership real estate, and finance other dealer vehicle programs.  Ford Credit also purchases receivables generated by us and our affiliates, primarily related to the sale of parts and accessories to dealers and certain used vehicles from daily rental fleet companies. Ford Credit also provides financing to us for vehicles that we lease to our employees.

Ford Credit does business in the United States and Canada through business centers. Outside of the United States, Europe is Ford Credit’s largest operation. Ford Credit’s European operations are managed primarily through its United Kingdom-based subsidiary, FCE Bank plc (“FCE”). Within Europe, Ford Credit’s largest markets are the United Kingdom and Germany.

See Item 7 and Notes 10 and 12 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a detailed discussion of Ford Credit’s receivables, credit losses, allowance for credit losses, loss-to-receivables ratios, funding sources, and funding strategies. See Item 7A for a discussion of how Ford Credit manages its financial market risks.

We routinely sponsor special retail financing and lease incentives to dealers’ customers who choose to finance or lease our vehicles from Ford Credit.  In order to compensate Ford Credit for the lower interest or lease payments offered to the retail customer, we pay the discounted value of the incentive directly to Ford Credit when it originates the retail finance or lease contract with the dealer’s customer. These programs increase Ford Credit’s financing volume and share.  See Note 2 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for information about our accounting for these programs.

We have a Second Amended and Restated Relationship Agreement with Ford Credit, pursuant to which, if Ford Credit’s managed leverage for a calendar quarter were to be higher than 11.5:1 (as reported in its most recent periodic report), Ford Credit could require us to make or cause to be made a capital contribution to it in an amount sufficient to have caused such managed leverage to have been 11.5:1.  No capital contributions have been made pursuant to this agreement.  In a separate agreement with FCE, Ford Credit has agreed to maintain FCE’s net worth in excess of $500 million. No payments have been made pursuant to that agreement.

Ford Credit files periodic reports with the SEC that contain additional information regarding Ford Credit. The reports are available through Ford Credit’s website located at www.fordcredit.com/investor-center and can also be found on the SEC’s website located at www.sec.gov.

The foregoing information regarding Ford Credit’s website and its content is for convenience only and not deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Report nor filed with the SEC.
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Item 1. Business (Continued)
CORPORATE OTHER

Corporate Other primarily includes corporate governance expenses, interest income (excluding interest earned on our extended service contract portfolio that is included in our Automotive segment) and gains and losses from our cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and other investments, and foreign exchange derivatives gains and losses associated with intercompany lending. Corporate governance expenses are primarily administrative, delivering benefit on behalf of the global enterprise, and are not allocated to specific Automotive business units or operating segments. These include expenses related to setting and directing global policy, providing oversight and stewardship, and promoting the Company’s interests.

Effective January 1, 2021, (i) cash and other centrally managed corporate assets reported in the Automotive segment will be realigned to Corporate Other, and (ii) certain corporate governance expenses that benefit the global enterprise reported in the Automotive segment will be reported as part of Corporate Other.

INTEREST ON DEBT

Interest on Debt consists of interest expense on Automotive and Other debt.

GOVERNMENTAL STANDARDS

Many governmental standards and regulations relating to safety, fuel economy, emissions control, noise control, vehicle recycling, substances of concern, vehicle damage, and theft prevention are applicable to new motor vehicles, engines, and equipment.  In addition, manufacturing and other automotive assembly facilities are subject to stringent standards regulating air emissions, water discharges, and the handling and disposal of hazardous substances. The most significant of the standards and regulations affecting us are discussed below:

Vehicle Emissions Control

U.S. Requirements - Federal and California Tailpipe Emission Standards.   Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) have established motor vehicle tailpipe and evaporative emissions standards that become increasingly stringent over time. Thirteen states have adopted California’s light-duty standards, and other states may join them. Both federal and California regulations also require motor vehicles to be equipped with on-board diagnostic (“OBD”) systems that monitor emission-related systems and components. In addition, light- and medium-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines must be certified by EPA prior to sale in the United States and by CARB prior to sale in California and the relevant states. Canada accepts EPA certification. Compliance with emissions standards, OBD requirements, and related regulations can be challenging and can drive increased product development costs, warranty costs, and vehicle recalls.

CARB is in t