10-K 1 f1231201610-k.htm 10-K Document

  


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)
 
R
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 or
 
 
o
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
 
For the transition period from  __________ to __________
 
 
 
Commission file number 1-3950
 
Ford Motor Company
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
38-0549190
(State of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
One American Road, Dearborn, Michigan
48126
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
313-322-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered*
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
__________
* In addition, shares of Common Stock of Ford are listed on certain stock exchanges in Europe.


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None.


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  ☑  No  ☐ 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ☐    No  ☑

Indicate by check mark if the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ☑   No  ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes  ☑   No  ☐ 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. R    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.   Large accelerated filer   R    Accelerated filer ☐      Non-accelerated filer ☐  Smaller reporting company ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  ☐    No  ☑
 
As of June 30, 2016, Ford had outstanding 3,902,375,117 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($12.57 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $49,052,855,221.  Although there is no quoted market for our Class B Stock, shares of Class B Stock may be converted at any time into an equal number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of effecting the sale or other disposition of such shares of Common Stock.  The shares of Common Stock and Class B Stock outstanding at June 30, 2016 included shares owned by persons who may be deemed to be “affiliates” of Ford.  We do not believe, however, that any such person should be considered to be an affiliate.  For information concerning ownership of outstanding Common Stock and Class B Stock, see the Proxy Statement for Ford’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders currently scheduled to be held on May 11, 2017 (our “Proxy Statement”), which is incorporated by reference under various Items of this Report as indicated below.

As of January 31, 2017, Ford had outstanding 3,903,445,093 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($12.36 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $48,246,581,349.
  
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Document
 
Where Incorporated
Proxy Statement*
 
Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14)
__________
*
As stated under various Items of this Report, only certain specified portions of such document are incorporated by reference in this Report.




Exhibit Index begins on page


 








FORD MOTOR COMPANY
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016

 
Table of Contents
 
Page
 
Part I
 
 
Item 1
Business
 
 
Overview
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Financial Services Segment
 
 
Governmental Standards
 
 
Employment Data
 
 
Engineering, Research, and Development
 
Item 1A
Risk Factors
 
Item 1B
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Item 2
Properties
 
Item 3
Legal Proceedings
 
Item 4
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Item 4A
Executive Officers of Ford
 
 
Part II
 
 
Item 5
Market for Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Item 6
Selected Financial Data
 
Item 7
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
Overview
 
 
Results of Operations - 2016
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Financial Services Segment
 
 
All Other
 
 
Special Items
 
 
Taxes
 
 
Results of Operations - 2015
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Financial Services Segment
 
 
All Other
 
 
Special Items
 
 
Taxes
 
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
 
Credit Ratings
 
 
2017 Industry and GDP Planning Assumptions
 
 
Production Volumes
 
 
Outlook
 
 
Non-GAAP Financial Measure Reconciliations
 
 
2016 Supplemental Financial Information
 
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
 
Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Adopted
 
 
Aggregate Contractual Obligations
 
Item 7A
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Item 8
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
Item 9
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 

i


Table of Contents
(continued)
Item 9A
Controls and Procedures
 
Item 9B
Other Information
 
 
Part III
 
 
Item 10
Directors, Executive Officers of Ford, and Corporate Governance
 
Item 11
Executive Compensation
 
Item 12
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
Item 13
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
Item 14
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
Part IV
 
 
Item 15
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
Item 16
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
Signatures
 
 
Ford Motor Company and Subsidiaries Financial Statements
 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
 
Consolidated Income Statement
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Equity
 
 
Notes to the Financial Statements
 
 
Schedule II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
 


ii


PART I.
ITEM 1. Business.

Ford Motor Company was incorporated in Delaware in 1919.  We acquired the business of a Michigan company, also known as Ford Motor Company, which had been incorporated in 1903 to produce and sell automobiles designed and engineered by Henry Ford. We are a global automotive and mobility company based in Dearborn, Michigan. With about 201,000 employees and 62 plants worldwide, our core business includes designing, manufacturing, marketing, and servicing a full line of Ford cars, trucks, and SUVs, as well as Lincoln luxury vehicles. To expand our business model, we are aggressively pursuing emerging opportunities with investments in electrification, autonomy, and mobility. We provide financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company LLC (“Ford Credit”).

In addition to the information about Ford and our subsidiaries contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 (“2016 Form 10-K Report” or “Report”), extensive information about our Company can be found at http://corporate.ford.com, including information about our management team, our brands and products, and our corporate governance principles.

The corporate governance information on our website includes our Corporate Governance Principles, Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Personnel, Code of Ethics for the Board of Directors, Code of Corporate Conduct for all employees, and the Charters for each of the Committees of our Board of Directors.  In addition, any amendments to our Code of Ethics or waivers granted to our directors and executive officers will be posted on our corporate website.  All of these documents may be accessed by going to our corporate website, or may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Shareholder Relations Department, Ford Motor Company, One American Road, P.O. Box 1899, Dearborn, Michigan 48126-1899.

Our recent periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge at http://shareholder.ford.com. This includes recent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those Reports.  Recent Section 16 filings made with the SEC by the Company or any of our executive officers or directors with respect to our Common Stock also are made available free of charge through our website.  We post each of these documents on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after it is electronically filed with the SEC. Our reports filed with the SEC also may be found on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

The foregoing information regarding our website and its content is for convenience only and not deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Report nor filed with the SEC.

1

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

OVERVIEW

Segments.  We have four operating segments that represent the primary businesses reported in our consolidated financial statements: Automotive, Financial Services, Ford Smart Mobility LLC, and Central Treasury Operations.

Automotive Segment. Our Automotive segment primarily includes the sale of Ford and Lincoln brand vehicles, service parts, and accessories worldwide, together with the associated costs to develop, manufacture, distribute, and service the vehicles, parts, and accessories. The segment includes five regional business units: North America, South America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific.

Financial Services Segment. The Financial Services segment primarily includes our vehicle-related financing and leasing activities at Ford Motor Credit Company LLC (“Ford Credit”).

All Other. Ford Smart Mobility LLC and Central Treasury Operations are combined in All Other. See Note 4 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for more information regarding All Other.

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

General

Our vehicle brands are Ford and Lincoln.  In 2016, we sold approximately 6,651,000 vehicles at wholesale throughout the world.  See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (“Item 7”) for discussion of our calculation of wholesale unit volumes.

Substantially all of our vehicles, parts, and accessories are sold through distributors and dealers (collectively, “dealerships”), the substantial majority of which are independently owned.  At December 31, 2016, the approximate number of dealerships worldwide distributing our vehicle brands was as follows:
Brand
Number of Dealerships
at December 31, 2016
Ford
10,608

Ford-Lincoln (combined)
915

Lincoln
214

Total
11,737


We do not depend on any single customer or a few customers to the extent that the loss of such customers would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition to the products we sell to our dealerships for retail sale, we also sell vehicles to our dealerships for sale to fleet customers, including commercial fleet customers, daily rental car companies, and governments.  We also sell parts and accessories, primarily to our dealerships (which in turn sell these products to retail customers) and to authorized parts distributors (which in turn primarily sell these products to retailers). We also offer extended service contracts.

The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by general economic conditions over which we have little control.  Vehicles are durable goods, and consumers have latitude in determining whether and when to replace an existing vehicle.  The decision whether to purchase a vehicle may be affected significantly by slowing economic growth, geopolitical events, and other factors (including the cost of purchasing and operating cars and trucks and the availability and cost of financing and fuel).  As we have seen in the United States and Europe, in particular, the number of cars and trucks sold may vary substantially from year to year.  Further, the automotive industry is a highly competitive business that has a wide and growing variety of product offerings from a growing number of manufacturers.

Our wholesale unit volumes vary with the level of total industry demand and our share of that industry demand.  Our wholesale unit volumes also are influenced by the level of dealer inventory.  Our share is influenced by how our products are perceived in comparison to those offered by other manufacturers based on many factors, including price, quality, styling, reliability, safety, fuel efficiency, functionality, and reputation.  Our share also is affected by the timing and frequency of new model introductions.  Our ability to satisfy changing consumer preferences with respect to type or size of vehicle, as well as design and performance characteristics, affects our sales and earnings significantly.


2

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

As with other manufacturers, the profitability of our business is affected by many factors, including:

Wholesale unit volumes
Margin of profit on each vehicle sold - which in turn is affected by many factors, such as:
Market factors - volume and mix of vehicles and options sold, and net pricing (reflecting, among other factors, incentive programs)
Costs of components and raw materials necessary for production of vehicles
Costs for customer warranty claims and additional service actions
Costs for safety, emissions, and fuel economy technology and equipment
A high proportion of relatively fixed structural costs, so that small changes in wholesale unit volumes can significantly affect overall profitability

Our industry has a very competitive pricing environment, driven in part by industry excess capacity, which is concentrated in Europe and Asia but affects other markets because much of this capacity can be redirected to other markets. The decline in the value of the yen during the past four years also has contributed significantly to competitive pressures in many of our markets. For the past several decades, manufacturers typically have given price discounts and other marketing incentives to maintain market share and production levels.  A discussion of our strategies to compete in this pricing environment is set forth in the “Overview” section in Item 7.

Competitive Position.  The worldwide automotive industry consists of many producers, with no single dominant producer. Certain manufacturers, however, account for the major percentage of total sales within particular countries, especially their countries of origin.  Key competitors with global presence include Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, General Motors Company, Honda Motor Company, Hyundai-Kia Automotive Group, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault-Nissan B.V., Suzuki Motor Corporation, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Volkswagen AG Group.

Seasonality.  We generally record the sale of a vehicle (and recognize revenue) when it is produced and shipped or delivered to our customer (i.e., the dealership).  See the “Overview” section in Item 7 for additional discussion of revenue recognition practices.

We manage our vehicle production schedule based on a number of factors, including retail sales (i.e., units sold by our dealerships to their customers at retail) and dealer stock levels (i.e., the number of units held in inventory by our dealerships for sale to their customers). Historically, we have experienced some seasonal fluctuation in the business, with production in many markets tending to be higher in the first half of the year to meet demand in the spring and summer (typically the strongest sales months of the year).  

Backlog Orders.  We generally produce and ship our products on average within approximately 20 days after an order is deemed to become firm.  Therefore, no significant amount of backlog orders accumulates during any period.

Raw Materials.  We purchase a wide variety of raw materials from numerous suppliers around the world for use in production of our vehicles.  These materials include base metals (e.g., steel, iron castings, and aluminum), precious metals (e.g., palladium), energy (e.g., natural gas), and plastics/resins (e.g., polypropylene).  We believe we have adequate supplies or sources of availability of raw materials necessary to meet our needs.  There always are risks and uncertainties with respect to the supply of raw materials, however, which could impact availability in sufficient quantities to meet our needs.  See the “Overview” section of Item 7 for a discussion of commodity and energy price trends, and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (“Item 7A”) for a discussion of commodity price risks.

Intellectual Property.  We own or hold licenses to use numerous patents, copyrights, and trademarks on a global basis. Our policy is to protect our competitive position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and international patent applications to protect technology and improvements that we consider important to the development of our business.  We have generated a large number of patents, and expect this portfolio to continue to grow as we actively pursue additional technological innovation.  We have approximately 48,000 active patents and pending patent applications globally, with an average age for patents in our active patent portfolio of just over five years.  In addition to this intellectual property, we also rely on our proprietary knowledge and ongoing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position.  Although we believe these patents, patent applications, and know-how, in the aggregate, are important to the conduct of our business, and we obtain licenses to use certain intellectual property owned by others, none is individually considered material to our business.  We also own numerous trademarks and service marks that contribute to the identity and recognition of our Company and its products and services globally.  Certain of these marks are integral to the conduct of our business, a loss of any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.


3

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

Warranty Coverage, Field Service Actions, and Customer Satisfaction Actions.  We provide warranties on vehicles we sell.  Warranties are offered for specific periods of time and/or mileage, and vary depending upon the type of product and the geographic location of its sale.  Pursuant to these warranties, we will repair, replace, or adjust all parts on a vehicle that are defective in factory-supplied materials or workmanship during the specified warranty period.  In addition to the costs associated with this warranty coverage provided on our vehicles, we also incur costs as a result of field service actions (i.e., safety recalls, emission recalls, and other product campaigns), and for customer satisfaction actions.

For additional information regarding warranty and related costs, see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 24 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

Industry Volume, Market Share, and Wholesales

Our industry volume, market share, and wholesale unit volume in each region and in certain key markets within each region during the past three years were as follows:
 
Industry Volume (a)
 
Market Share (b)
 
Wholesales (c)
 
(in millions of units)
 
(as a percentage)
 
(in thousands of units)
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
United States
16.8

 
17.8

 
17.9

 
14.7
%
 
14.7
%
 
14.6
%
 
2,457

 
2,677

 
2,588

Canada
1.9

 
1.9

 
2.0

 
15.5

 
14.4

 
15.4

 
288

 
285

 
313

Mexico
1.2

 
1.4

 
1.6

 
6.9

 
6.4

 
6.2

 
77

 
93

 
103

North America
20.2

 
21.5

 
21.8

 
14.2

 
14.0

 
13.9

 
2,842

 
3,073

 
3,019

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brazil
3.5

 
2.6

 
2.1

 
9.4
%
 
10.4
%
 
9.2
%
 
320

 
250

 
182

Argentina
0.7

 
0.6

 
0.7

 
14.1

 
14.9

 
13.6

 
94

 
94

 
101

South America
5.3

 
4.2

 
3.7

 
8.9

 
9.6

 
8.8

 
463

 
381

 
325

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United Kingdom
2.8

 
3.1

 
3.1

 
14.4
%
 
14.3
%
 
14.0
%
 
425

 
447

 
428

Germany
3.4

 
3.5

 
3.7

 
7.1

 
7.3

 
7.6

 
237

 
261

 
283

Russia
2.5

 
1.6

 
1.5

 
2.6

 
2.4

 
2.9

 
57

 
38

 
45

Turkey
0.8

 
1.0

 
1.0

 
11.7

 
12.6

 
11.4

 
91

 
128

 
116

Europe
18.6

 
19.2

 
20.1

 
7.2

 
7.7

 
7.7

 
1,387

 
1,530

 
1,539

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Middle East & Africa
4.3

 
4.3

 
3.6

 
4.6
%
 
4.4
%
 
4.5
%
 
192

 
187

 
161

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
China
24.0

 
23.5

 
26.4

 
4.5
%
 
4.8
%
 
4.8
%
 
1,116

 
1,160

 
1,267

Australia
1.1

 
1.2

 
1.2

 
7.2

 
6.1

 
6.9

 
80

 
71

 
82

India
3.2

 
3.5

 
3.7

 
2.4

 
2.1

 
2.4

 
77

 
78

 
86

ASEAN (d)
3.2

 
3.1

 
3.1

 
3.1

 
3.3

 
3.7

 
94

 
94

 
115

Asia Pacific (e)
39.7

 
39.1

 
42.1

 
3.5

 
3.6

 
3.8

 
1,439

 
1,464

 
1,607

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Global
88.1

 
88.2

 
91.4

 
7.1
%
 
7.4
%
 
7.3
%
 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total Company
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
6,323

 
6,635

 
6,651

______________
(a)
Industry volume is an internal estimate based on publicly-available data collected from various government, private, and public sources around the globe and is based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(b)
Market share represents reported retail sales of our brands as a percent of total industry volume in the relevant market or region. Market share is based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(c)
Wholesale unit volume includes sales of medium and heavy trucks. Wholesale unit volume includes all Ford and Lincoln badged units (whether produced by Ford or by an unconsolidated affiliate) that are sold to dealerships, units manufactured by Ford that are sold to other manufacturers, units distributed for other manufacturers, and local brand units produced by our unconsolidated Chinese joint venture Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. (“JMC”) that are sold to dealerships. Vehicles sold to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option (i.e., rental repurchase), as well as other sales of finished vehicles for which the recognition of revenue is deferred (e.g., consignments), also are included in wholesale unit volume. Revenue from certain vehicles in wholesale unit volume (specifically, Ford badged vehicles produced and distributed by our unconsolidated affiliates, as well as JMC brand vehicles) are not included in our revenue.
(d)
ASEAN includes Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia.
(e)
Asia Pacific market share includes Ford brand and JMC brand vehicles produced and sold by our unconsolidated affiliates.


4

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

FINANCIAL SERVICES SEGMENT

Ford Motor Credit Company LLC

Our wholly-owned subsidiary Ford Credit offers a wide variety of automotive financing products to and through automotive dealers throughout the world.  The predominant share of Ford Credit’s business consists of financing our vehicles and supporting our dealers.  Ford Credit earns its revenue primarily from payments made under retail installment sale and lease contracts that it originates and purchases; interest rate supplements and other support payments from us and our subsidiaries; and payments made under dealer financing programs.

As a result of these financing activities, Ford Credit has a large portfolio of finance receivables and operating leases which it classifies into two portfolios— “consumer” and “non-consumer.”  Finance receivables and operating leases in the consumer portfolio include products offered to individuals and businesses that finance the acquisition of our vehicles from dealers for personal and commercial use.  Retail financing includes retail installment sale contracts for new and used vehicles and direct financing leases for new vehicles to retail and commercial customers including leasing companies, government entities, daily rental companies, and fleet customers. Finance receivables in the non-consumer portfolio include products offered to automotive dealers. Ford Credit makes wholesale loans to dealers to finance the purchase of vehicle inventory (i.e., floorplan financing), as well as loans to dealers to finance working capital and improvements to dealership facilities, finance the purchase of dealership real estate, and finance other dealer vehicle programs.  Ford Credit also purchases receivables generated by us and our subsidiaries, primarily related to the sale of parts and accessories to dealers, Ford-related loans, and certain used vehicles from daily rental fleet companies.

Ford Credit does business in the United States and Canada through business centers. Outside of the United States, Europe is Ford Credit’s largest operation. Ford Credit’s European operations are managed through its United Kingdom-based subsidiary, FCE Bank plc (“FCE”). Within Europe, FCE’s largest markets are the United Kingdom and Germany, representing 65% of FCE’s finance receivables and operating leases at year-end 2016.

The following table shows Ford Credit’s financing shares of new Ford and Lincoln vehicle retail sales in the United States and new Ford vehicles sold in Europe, as well as its wholesale financing shares of new Ford and Lincoln vehicles acquired by dealers in the United States (excluding fleet) and new Ford vehicles acquired by dealers in Europe:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
United States - Financing Share
 
 
 
 
 
Retail installment and lease share of Ford retail sales
63
%
 
65
%
 
56
%
Wholesale
77

 
76

 
76

 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe - Financing Share
 

 
 

 
 

Retail installment and lease share of total Ford sales
36
%
 
37
%
 
37
%
Wholesale
98

 
98

 
98


See Item 7 and Notes 6, 7, and 8 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a detailed discussion of Ford Credit’s receivables, credit losses, allowance for credit losses, loss-to-receivables ratios, funding sources, and funding strategies. See Item 7A for discussion of how Ford Credit manages its financial market risks.

We routinely sponsor special retail and lease incentives to dealers’ customers who choose to finance or lease our vehicles from Ford Credit.  In order to compensate Ford Credit for the lower interest or lease payments offered to the retail customer, we pay the value of the incentive directly to Ford Credit when it originates the retail finance or lease contract. These programs increase Ford Credit’s financing volume and share.  See Note 2 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for information about our accounting for these programs.

We have an Amended and Restated Relationship Agreement with Ford Credit, pursuant to which, if Ford Credit’s managed leverage for a calendar quarter were to be higher than 11.5:1 (as reported in its most recent periodic report), Ford Credit could require us to make or cause to be made a capital contribution to it in an amount sufficient to have caused such managed leverage to have been 11.5:1.  No capital contributions have been made pursuant to this agreement.  The agreement also allocates to Ford Credit $3 billion of commitments under our corporate credit facility. In a separate agreement with FCE, Ford Credit also has agreed to maintain FCE’s net worth in excess of $500 million; no payments have been made pursuant to that agreement.

5

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

GOVERNMENTAL STANDARDS

Many governmental standards and regulations relating to safety, fuel economy, emissions control, noise control, vehicle recycling, substances of concern, vehicle damage, and theft prevention are applicable to new motor vehicles, engines, and equipment manufactured for sale in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere.  In addition, manufacturing and other automotive assembly facilities in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere are subject to stringent standards regulating air emissions, water discharges, and the handling and disposal of hazardous substances. The most significant of the standards and regulations affecting us are discussed below:

Vehicle Emissions Control

U.S. Requirements Federal and California Emission Standards.  The federal Clean Air Act imposes stringent limits on the amount of regulated pollutants that lawfully may be emitted by new vehicles and engines produced for sale in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) finalized new “Tier 3” regulations that phase in increasingly stringent motor vehicle emission standards beginning with the 2017 model year. Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, California may establish its own vehicle emission standards, which can then be adopted by other states. The California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) has adopted “LEV III” standards, which took effect with the 2015 model year and impose increasingly stringent tailpipe and evaporative emissions requirements for light and medium duty vehicles. Thirteen states, primarily located in the Northeast and Northwest, have adopted the LEV III standards. Compliance with both the Tier 3 and LEV III standards could be challenging.

Both federal and California regulations require motor vehicles to be equipped with on-board diagnostic (“OBD”) systems that monitor emission-related systems and components. As OBD requirements become more complex and challenging over time, they could lead to increased vehicle recalls and warranty costs. Compliance with automobile emission standards depends in part on the widespread availability of high-quality and consistent automotive fuels that the vehicles were designed to use. Fuel variables that can affect vehicle emissions include ethanol content, octane ratings, and the use of metallic-based fuel additives, among other things. There are various ongoing regulatory and judicial proceedings related to fuel quality at the national and state level, and the outcome of these proceedings could affect vehicle manufacturers’ warranty costs as well as their ability to comply with vehicle emission standards.

The California vehicle emissions program also includes requirements for manufacturers to produce and deliver for sale zero-emission vehicles (“ZEVs”). The current ZEV regulations mandate substantial annual increases in the production and sale of battery-electric, fuel cell, and plug-in hybrid vehicles, particularly for the 2018–2025 model years. By the 2025 model year, approximately 15% of a manufacturer’s total California sales volume will need to be made up of such vehicles. Compliance with ZEV rules could have a substantial adverse effect on our sales volumes and profits. We are concerned that the market and infrastructure in California may not support the large volume of advanced-technology vehicles that manufacturers will be required to produce, especially if gasoline prices remain relatively low. We also are concerned about enforcement of the ZEV mandate in other states that have adopted California’s ZEV program, where the existence of a market for such vehicles is even less certain. CARB conducts periodic reviews of its upcoming ZEV requirements, taking into account factors such as technology developments and market acceptance. Ford and the industry will be active participants in such reviews, with the goal of ensuring that ZEV requirements are feasible and not excessively burdensome.
   
European Requirements.  European Union (“EU”) directives and related legislation limit the amount of regulated pollutants that may be emitted by new motor vehicles and engines sold in the EU.  Stringent new Stage 6 emission standards took effect for vehicle registrations starting in September 2014, with a second phase beginning in September 2017.  These standards will drive the need for additional diesel exhaust after-treatment, which will add cost and potentially impact the diesel CO2 advantage.  The European Commission has also proposed new Real Driving Emission (“RDE”) rules, which will require manufacturers to conduct on-road emission tests using portable emission analyzers. These on-road emission tests will complement the laboratory-based tests. During the initial phase, which started in January 2016, the RDE tests are used for monitoring purposes. Beginning in September 2017, manufacturers will have to reduce the divergence between the regulatory limit that is tested in laboratory conditions and the values of RDE tests (“conformity factors”). The additional costs associated with conducting the RDE tests and complying with the conformity factors are expected to be significant. Europe is in process of drafting the RDE in-use surveillance rules with proposals to allow third parties to conduct testing and to define a process to challenge the product compliance with Authorities. On a longer term approach, the WVTA (Whole Vehicle Type Approval) Regulations are being adapted to cover market surveillance, which is further expected to increase testing by Authorities across Europe from 2020+.


6

Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

Other National Requirements.  Many countries, in an effort to address air quality concerns, are adopting previous versions of European or United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (“UN-ECE”) mobile source emission regulations. Some countries have adopted more advanced regulations based on the most recent version of European or U.S. regulations; for example, China adopted emission regulations based on European Stage VI emission standards and U.S. evaporative emissions and on-board diagnostic requirements. Korea and Taiwan have adopted very stringent U.S.-based standards for gasoline vehicles and European-based standards for diesel vehicles.  Although these countries have adopted regulations based on UN-ECE or U.S. standards, there may be some unique testing provisions that require emission-control systems to be redesigned for these markets.  Canadian criteria emissions regulations are aligned with U.S. Tier 2 requirements. In July 2015, the Canadian federal government amended the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations and the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulations to align Canadian emission standards with the U.S. Tier 3 regulations discussed above.

In October 2016, the Canadian Province of Quebec passed legislation enabling regulation of a ZEV mandate. Regulations are still under development but Quebec has signaled that they plan to follow California and Northeast States’ regulations.

Not all countries have adopted appropriate fuel quality standards to accompany the stringent emission standards adopted.  This could lead to compliance problems, particularly if on-board diagnostic or in-use surveillance requirements are implemented.

Brazil and Chile have introduced stringent emission and on-board diagnostic standards based on the European Stage 5 standards for light duty vehicles and Stage V standards for heavy duty vehicles.  In Brazil, all light duty vehicles are required to meet U.S.-based Proconve L6 standards and more stringent on-board diagnostic standards for diesel light duty vehicles were introduced in 2017. Argentina is phasing in European Stage 5 standards for all new light duty vehicle registrations by 2017 and European Stage V standards for heavy duty vehicles by 2018.

Global Developments. Since September 2015, the EPA and CARB have pursued enforcement actions against a major competitor in connection with its use of “defeat devices” in hundreds of thousands of light-duty diesel vehicles. These actions have resulted in settlements involving billions of dollars for environmental remediation and civil penalties, as well as indictments of several employees on charges of committing federal crimes. The competitor continues to face various class action suits, as well as numerous claims and investigations by various U.S. states and other nations. Defeat devices are elements of design (typically embedded in software) that improperly cause the emission control system to function less effectively during normal on-road driving than during an official laboratory emissions test, without justification. They are prohibited by law in many jurisdictions, including the United States and Europe. We do not use defeat devices in our vehicles.

The investigations by EPA and CARB of our competitor have led to increased scrutiny of automakers’ emission testing by regulators around the world. EPA began carrying out additional non-standard tests as part of its vehicle certification program, following an announcement in September 2015. The EU accelerated efforts to finalize its RDE testing program as described above. In 2016, several European countries, including France and Germany, conducted non-standard emission tests and published the results. In some cases, this supplemental testing has triggered investigations of other manufacturers for possible defeat devices. Testing is expected to continue on an ongoing basis.

Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards

U.S. Requirements Light Duty Vehicles Federal law requires that light duty vehicles meet minimum corporate average fuel economy (“CAFE”) standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”). Manufacturers are subject to substantial civil penalties if they fail to meet the CAFE standard in any model year, after taking into account all available credits for the preceding three model years and expected credits for the five succeeding model years. The law requires NHTSA to promulgate and enforce separate CAFE standards applicable to each manufacturer’s fleet of domestic passenger cars, imported passenger cars, and light duty trucks.

EPA also regulates vehicle greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions under the Clean Air Act. Because the vast majority of GHGs emitted by a vehicle are the result of fuel combustion, GHG emission standards effectively are fuel economy standards. Thus, it is necessary for NHTSA and EPA to coordinate with each other on their fuel economy and GHG standards, respectively, to avoid potential inconsistencies.

In 2010, EPA and NHTSA jointly promulgated regulations establishing the “One National Program” of CAFE and GHG regulations for light duty vehicles for the 2012-2016 model years. In 2012, EPA and NHTSA jointly promulgated regulations extending the One National Program framework through the 2025 model year. These rules require

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Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

manufacturers to achieve, across the industry, a light duty fleet average fuel economy of approximately 35.5 mpg by the 2016 model year, 45 mpg by the 2021 model year, and 51.4 mpg by the 2025 model year. Each manufacturer’s specific task depends on the mix of vehicles it sells. The rules include the opportunity for manufacturers to earn credits for technologies that achieve real-world CO2 reductions, and fuel economy improvements that are not captured by the EPA fuel economy test procedures. Manufacturers also can earn credits for GHG reductions not specifically tied to fuel economy, such as improvements in air conditioning systems.

The One National Program standards become increasingly stringent over time, and they will be difficult to meet if fuel prices remain relatively low and market conditions do not drive consumers to purchase electric vehicles and other highly fuel-efficient vehicles in large numbers. We are concerned about the commercial feasibility of meeting future model year GHG and CAFE standards, particularly the 2022-2025 standards, because of the many unknowns regarding technology development, market conditions, and other factors so far into the future.

The One National Program rules provided for a midterm evaluation process under which, by April 2018, EPA and NHTSA would re-evaluate their standards for model years 2022-2025 in order to ensure that those standards are feasible and optimal in light of intervening events. Shortly before President Obama left office in January 2017, EPA announced an accelerated decision to maintain the GHG standards originally set for those model years. NHTSA is continuing to conduct its evaluation with respect to the model year 2022-2025 standards. It remains to be seen whether the EPA determination will be reconsidered under President Trump’s administration, and whether the EPA and NHTSA determinations will ultimately be harmonized with each other.

If the agencies seek to impose and enforce fuel economy and GHG standards that are misaligned with market conditions, we likely would be forced to take various actions that could have substantial adverse effects on our sales volume and profits. Such actions likely would include restricting offerings of selected engines and popular options; increasing market support programs for our most fuel-efficient cars and light trucks; and ultimately curtailing the production and sale of certain vehicles such as high-performance cars, utilities, and/or full-size light trucks, in order to maintain compliance.

California has asserted the right to regulate motor vehicle GHG emissions, and other states have asserted the right to adopt the California standards. With the adoption of the federal One National Program standards discussed above, California and the other states have agreed that compliance with the federal program would satisfy compliance with any purported state GHG requirements for the 2012–2025 model years. This avoids a patchwork of potentially conflicting federal and state GHG standards. Should California and other states ever renew their efforts to enforce state-specific motor vehicle GHG rules, this would impose significant costs on automotive manufacturers.

U.S. Requirements Heavy Duty Vehicles. EPA and NHTSA have jointly promulgated GHG and fuel economy standards on heavy duty vehicles (generally, vehicles over 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight rating). In our case, the standards primarily affect our heavy duty pickup trucks and vans, plus vocational vehicles such as shuttle buses and delivery trucks. In 2016, EPA and NHTSA finalized GHG and fuel economy standards for these vehicles, covering model years 2019–2027. As the heavy-duty standards increase in stringency, it may become more difficult to comply while continuing to offer a full lineup of heavy duty trucks.

European Requirements. In December 2008, the EU approved regulation of passenger car CO2 emissions beginning in 2012 that limits the industry fleet average to a maximum of 130 grams per kilometer (“g/km”), using a sliding scale based on vehicle weight. This regulation provides different targets for each manufacturer based on the respective average vehicle weight for its fleet of vehicles. Limited credits are available for CO2 off-cycle actions (“eco-innovations”), certain alternative fuels, and vehicles with CO2 emissions below 50 g/km. A penalty system will apply for manufacturers failing to meet targets. Pooling agreements between different manufacturers are possible, although it is not clear that these will be of much practical benefit under the regulations. Starting in 2020, an industry target of 95 g/km has been set, for which 95% of a manufacturer’s fleet has to comply; by 2021, 100% of a manufacturer’s fleet has to comply. Other non-EU European countries are likely to follow with similar regulations. For example, Switzerland has introduced similar rules, which began phasing-in starting in July 2012 with the same targets (which include a 2020 target of 95 g/km, with conditions still to be defined), although the industry average emission target is significantly higher. We face the risk of advance premium payment requirements if, for example, unexpected market fluctuation within a quarter negatively impact our average fleet performance.

In separate legislation, “complementary measures” have been mandated, including requirements related to fuel economy indicators, and more-efficient low-CO2 mobile air conditioning systems.  The EU Commission, Council and Parliament have approved a target for commercial light duty vehicles to be at an industry average of 175 g/km (with phase-in from 2014–2017), and 147 g/km in 2020.  It is likely that other European countries, will implement similar rules

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Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

but under even more difficult conditions. For instance, Switzerland will implement the same 147 g/km target in 2020 but under more difficult conditions. This regulation also provides different targets for each manufacturer based on its respective average vehicle weight in its fleet of vehicles.  The final mass and CO2 requirements for “multi-stage vehicles” (e.g., our Transit chassis cabs) are fully allocated to the base manufacturer (e.g., Ford) so that the base manufacturer is fully responsible for the CO2 performance of the final up-fitted vehicles.  The EU proposal also includes a penalty system, “super-credits” for vehicles below 50 g/km, and limited credits for CO2 off-cycle eco-innovations, pooling, etc., similar to the passenger car CO2 regulation.

The United Nations developed a new technical regulation for passenger car emissions and CO2. This new world light duty test procedure (“WLTP”) is focused primarily on better aligning laboratory CO2 and fuel consumption figures with customer-reported figures. The introduction of WLTP in Europe is likely to require updates to CO2 labeling as early as 2018 and will increase certain consumer label values, thereby impacting taxes in countries with a CO2 tax scheme. Costs associated with new or incremental testing for WLTP could be significant. The European Commission requires mandatory WLTP testing for regulated emissions and CO2 starting in September 2017. The European Commission has assured comparable stringency to the existing fleet average rules for each automobile manufacturer if the 2021 fleet average targets are required to be measured on WLTP instead of under the current European New European Driving Cycle (“NEDC”) requirements. The legislative framework and process for the target translation is currently under development. The European Commission confirmed in October 2016 that there would be a delay in the introduction of a timetable for a post-2020 CO2 proposal. The proposal is now expected to be released during the second half of 2017.

Some European countries have implemented or are considering other initiatives for reducing CO2 vehicle emissions, including fiscal measures and CO2 labeling.  For example, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, among others, have introduced taxation based on CO2 emissions.  The EU CO2 requirements are likely to trigger further measures. To limit GHG emissions, the EU directive on mobile air conditioning currently requires the replacement of the current refrigerant with a lower “global warming potential” refrigerant for new vehicle types, and for all newly registered vehicles starting in January 2017. A refrigerant change adds considerable costs along the whole manufacturing chain.

Other National Requirements.  The Canadian federal government has regulated vehicle GHG emissions under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, beginning with the 2011 model year. In October 2014, the Canadian federal government published the final changes to the regulation for light duty vehicles, which maintain alignment with U.S. EPA vehicle GHG standards for the 2017–2025 model years. The final regulation for 2014–2018 heavy duty vehicles was published in February 2013. In October 2014, the Canadian federal government published the Notice of Intent to regulate heavy duty vehicles and engines for model year 2019 and beyond, which tracks U.S. EPA standards.

Mexico adopted fuel economy/CO2 standards, based on the U.S. One National Program framework, that took effect in 2014.

Many Asia Pacific countries (such as Australia, China, India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam) are developing or enforcing fuel efficiency or labeling targets. For example, South Korea has set fuel efficiency targets for 2020, with incentives for early adoption. China published standards for Stage IV fuel efficiency targets for 2016–2020. The fuel efficiency targets will impact the cost of vehicle technology in the future.

In South America, Brazil introduced a voluntary vehicle energy-efficiency labeling program, indicating fuel consumption rates for all light-duty vehicles. Brazil has required inclusion of emission classification on fuel economy labels since January 2016. Brazil also published a new automotive regime establishing a minimum absolute CAFE value as a function of Fleet Corporate Average Mass for 2017 light duty vehicles with a spark ignition engine in order to qualify for industrialized products tax reduction. Additional tax reductions are available if further fuel efficiency improvements are achieved. A severe penalty system will apply to qualified manufacturers failing to meet fuel efficiency requirements for the 2013–2017 sales period. Brazil reduced import tax on electric and hybrid cars. The tax rate, which was 35%, will vary from zero to 7%, depending on a vehicle’s energy efficiency. Discussion on new fuel efficiency requirements has started. Chile introduced a tax based on urban fuel consumption and NOx emission for light and medium vehicles beginning in late 2014. In general, fuel efficiency targets may impact the cost of technology of our models in the future.

In the Middle East, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia introduced new light duty vehicle fuel economy standards, which are patterned after the U.S. CAFE standard structure, with fuel economy targets following the design of the U.S. 2012–2016 fuel economy standards. The standards became effective on January 1, 2016 and will be fully phased in by the end of 2017.



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Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

Vehicle Safety

U.S. Requirements. The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (the “Safety Act”) regulates vehicles and vehicle equipment in two primary ways. First, the Safety Act prohibits the sale in the United States of any new vehicle or equipment that does not conform to applicable vehicle safety standards established by NHTSA. Meeting or exceeding many safety standards is costly, in part because the standards tend to conflict with the need to reduce vehicle weight in order to meet emission and fuel economy standards. Second, the Safety Act requires that defects related to motor vehicle safety be remedied through safety recall campaigns. A manufacturer is obligated to recall vehicles if it determines the vehicles do not comply with a safety standard. Should we or NHTSA determine that either a safety defect or noncompliance issue exists with respect to any of our vehicles, the cost of such recall campaigns could be substantial.


Other National Requirements.  The EU and many countries have established vehicle safety standards and regulations, and are likely to adopt additional or more stringent requirements in the future.  The European General Safety Regulation introduced United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (“UN-ECE”) regulations, which will be required for the European Type Approval process.  EU regulators also are focusing on active safety features such as lane departure warning systems, electronic stability control, and automatic brake assist.  Globally, governments generally have been adopting UN-ECE based regulations with minor variations to address local concerns.  Any difference between North American and UN-ECE based regulations can add complexity and costs to the development of global platform vehicles, and we continue to support efforts to harmonize regulations to reduce vehicle design complexity while providing a common level of safety performance; several recently launched bilateral negotiations on free trade can potentially contribute to this goal. New safety and recall requirements in China, India, and Gulf Cooperation Council countries also may add substantial costs and complexity to our global recall practice. In South America, additional safety requirements are being introduced or proposed in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Uruguay, influenced by The New Car Assessment Program for Latin America and the Caribbean (“Latin NCAP”), which may be a driver for similar actions in other countries. In Canada, regulatory requirements are currently aligned with U.S. regulations. However, recent amendments to the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Act have introduced broad powers to the Minister of Transport to order manufacturers to submit a notice of defect or non-compliance when the Minister considers it would be in the interest of safety.

New Car Assessment Programs. Organizations around the globe rate and compare motor vehicles in New Car Assessment Programs (“NCAPs”) to provide consumers with additional information about the safety of new vehicles. NCAPs use crash tests and other evaluations that are different than what is required by applicable regulations, and use stars to rate vehicle safety, with five stars awarded for the highest rating and one for the lowest. Achieving high NCAP ratings can add complexity and cost to vehicles.

EMPLOYMENT DATA

The approximate number of individuals employed by us and entities that we consolidated as of December 31, 2015 and 2016 was as follows (in thousands):
 
2015
 
2016
Automotive
 
 
 
North America
96

 
101

South America
15

 
15

Europe
53

 
52

Middle East & Africa
3

 
3

Asia Pacific
25

 
23

Financial Services
 

 
 

Ford Credit
7

 
7

Total
199

 
201


Substantially all of the hourly employees in our Automotive operations are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining agreements.  In the United States, approximately 99% of these unionized hourly employees in our Automotive segment are represented by the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (“UAW” or “United Auto Workers”).  At December 31, 2016, approximately 57,000 hourly employees in the United States were represented by the UAW, an increase of about 3,000 employees since December 31, 2015. Approximately 1.5% of our U.S. salaried employees are represented by unions.  Many non-management salaried employees at our operations outside of the United States also are represented by unions.


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Item 1. Business (Continued)                                                                                              

In 2016, we entered into collective bargaining agreements (covering wages, benefits and/or other employment provisions) with unions in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Taiwan and Thailand.

In 2017, we will negotiate collective bargaining agreements (covering wages, benefits and/or other employment provisions) with unions in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Britain, France, India, Mexico, Romania, Russia, and Thailand.

ENGINEERING, RESEARCH, AND DEVELOPMENT

We engage in engineering, research, and development primarily to improve the performance (including fuel efficiency), safety, and customer satisfaction of our products, and to develop new products and services (including for emerging opportunities).  Engineering, research, and development expenses for 2014, 2015, and 2016 were $6.7 billion, $6.7 billion, and $7.3 billion, respectively.  

ITEM 1A. Risk Factors.

We have listed below (not necessarily in order of importance or probability of occurrence) the most significant risk factors applicable to us:

Decline in industry sales volume, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, due to financial crisis, recession, geopolitical events, or other factors.  Because we, like other manufacturers, have a high proportion of relatively fixed structural costs, relatively small changes in industry sales volume can have a substantial effect on our cash flow and profitability. If industry vehicle sales were to decline to levels significantly below our planning assumption, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, due to financial crisis, recession, geopolitical events, or other factors, the decline could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flow. For discussion of economic trends, see the “Overview” section of Item 7.

Lower-than-anticipated market acceptance of Ford’s new or existing products or services, or failure to achieve expected growth. Although we conduct extensive market research before launching new or refreshed vehicles and introducing new services, many factors both within and outside our control affect the success of new or existing products and services in the marketplace.  Offering vehicles and services that customers want and value can mitigate the risks of increasing price competition and declining demand, but products and services that are perceived to be less desirable (whether in terms of price, quality, styling, safety, overall value, fuel efficiency, or other attributes) can exacerbate these risks. With increased consumer interconnectedness through the internet, social media, and other media, mere allegations relating to quality, safety, fuel efficiency, corporate social responsibility, or other key attributes can negatively impact our reputation or market acceptance of our products or services, even where such allegations prove to be inaccurate or unfounded. Further, our ability to successfully grow through investments in the area of emerging opportunities depends on many factors, including advancements in technology, regulatory changes, and other factors that are difficult to predict, that may significantly affect the future of electrification, autonomy, and mobility.

Market shift away from sales of larger, more profitable vehicles beyond Ford’s current planning assumption, particularly in the United States. A shift in consumer preferences away from larger, more profitable vehicles at levels beyond our current planning assumption—whether because of spiking fuel prices, a decline in the construction industry, government actions or incentives, or other reasons—could result in an immediate and substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Continued or increased price competition resulting from industry excess capacity, currency fluctuations, or other factors. The global automotive industry is intensely competitive, with manufacturing capacity far exceeding current demand. According to the December 2016 report issued by IHS Automotive, the global automotive industry is estimated to have had excess capacity of about 32 million units in 2016. Industry overcapacity has resulted in many manufacturers offering marketing incentives on vehicles in an attempt to maintain and grow market share; these incentives historically have included a combination of subsidized financing or leasing programs, price rebates, and other incentives. As a result, we are not necessarily able to set our prices to offset higher costs of marketing incentives, commodity or other cost increases, or the impact of adverse currency fluctuations, including pricing advantages foreign competitors may have because of their weaker home market currencies. Continuation of or increased excess capacity could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


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Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates. As a resource-intensive manufacturing operation, we are exposed to a variety of market and asset risks, including the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates. We monitor and manage these exposures as an integral part of our overall risk management program, which recognizes the unpredictability of markets and seeks to reduce potentially adverse effects on our business. Nevertheless, changes in currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates cannot always be predicted or hedged. In addition, because of intense price competition and our high level of fixed costs, we may not be able to address such changes even if foreseeable. As a result, substantial unfavorable changes in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, or interest rates could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. See “Overview” to Item 7 and Item 7A for additional discussion of currency, commodity price, and interest rate risks.

Adverse effects resulting from economic, geopolitical, protectionist trade policies, or other events. With the increasing interconnectedness of global economic and financial systems, a financial crisis, natural disaster, geopolitical crisis, or other significant event in one area of the world can have an immediate and material adverse impact on markets around the world.  Concerns persist regarding the overall stability of the European Union, given the diverse economic and political circumstances of individual European currency area (“euro area”) countries.  These concerns have been exacerbated by Brexit, which, among other things, has resulted in a weaker sterling versus U.S. dollar and euro.  We have a sterling revenue exposure and a euro cost exposure; a sustained weakening of sterling against euro may have an adverse effect on our profitability.  Further, the United Kingdom may be at risk of losing access to free trade agreements for goods and services with the European Union and other countries, which may result in increased tariffs on U.K. imports and exports that could have an adverse effect on our profitability.
              
FCE Bank plc (“FCE”), our subsidiary, is a bank authorized by the U.K. government to carry on a range of regulated activities within the United Kingdom and through a branch network in 11 other European countries through a passporting system, which allows it to establish or provide its services in the EU27 without further authorization requirements.  If passporting arrangements cease to be effective as a result of Brexit, FCE could be required to reconsider its structure or seek additional authorizations to continue to do business in the EU27, which may be time-consuming and costly.

The economic and policy uncertainty on-going in the euro area highlights potential longer-term risks regarding its sustainability.  This uncertainty could cause financial and capital markets within and outside Europe to constrict, thereby negatively impacting our ability to finance our business or, if a country within the euro area were to default on its debt or withdraw from the euro currency, or-—in a more extreme circumstance—the euro currency were to be dissolved entirely, the impact on markets around the world, and on Ford’s global business, could be immediate and significant.

In addition, we have operations in various markets with volatile economic or political environments and are pursuing growth opportunities in a number of newly developed and emerging markets.  These investments may expose us to heightened risks of economic, geopolitical, or other events, including governmental takeover (i.e., nationalization) of our manufacturing facilities or intellectual property, restrictive exchange or import controls, disruption of operations as a result of systemic political or economic instability, outbreak of war or expansion of hostilities, and acts of terrorism, each of which could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  Further, the U.S. government, other governments, and international organizations could impose additional sanctions that could restrict us from doing business directly or indirectly in or with certain countries or parties, which could include affiliates.

Work stoppages at Ford or supplier facilities or other limitations on production (whether as a result of labor disputes, natural or man-made disasters, tight credit markets or other financial distress, production constraints or difficulties, or other factors). A work stoppage or other limitation on production could occur at Ford or supplier facilities for any number of reasons, including as a result of disputes under existing collective bargaining agreements with labor unions or in connection with negotiation of new collective bargaining agreements, or as a result of supplier financial distress or other production constraints or difficulties, or for other reasons. A work stoppage or other limitations on production at Ford or supplier facilities for any reason (including but not limited to labor disputes, natural or man-made disasters, tight credit markets or other financial distress, or production constraints or difficulties) could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


12

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Single-source supply of components or materials. Many components used in our vehicles are available only from a single supplier and cannot be re-sourced quickly or inexpensively to another supplier (due to long lead times, new contractual commitments that may be required by another supplier before ramping up to provide the components or materials, etc.). In addition to the general risks described above regarding interruption of supplies, which are exacerbated in the case of single-source suppliers, the exclusive supplier of a key component potentially could exert significant bargaining power over price, quality, warranty claims, or other terms relating to a component.

Labor or other constraints on Ford’s ability to maintain competitive cost structure. Substantially all of the hourly employees in our Automotive operations in the United States and Canada are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining agreements.  These agreements provide guaranteed wage and benefit levels throughout the contract term and some degree of income security, subject to certain conditions. As a practical matter, these agreements may restrict our ability to close plants and divest businesses. A substantial number of our employees in other regions are represented by unions or government councils, and legislation or custom promoting retention of manufacturing or other employment in the state, country, or region may constrain as a practical matter our ability to sell or close manufacturing or other facilities.

Substantial pension and other postretirement liabilities impairing liquidity or financial condition. We have defined benefit retirement plans in the United States that cover many of our hourly and salaried employees. We also provide pension benefits to non-U.S. employees and retirees, primarily in Europe. In addition, we and certain of our subsidiaries sponsor plans to provide other postretirement benefits (“OPEB”) for retired employees (primarily health care and life insurance benefits). See Note 13 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for more information about these plans. These benefit plans impose significant liabilities on us and could require us to make additional cash contributions, which could impair our liquidity. If our cash flows and capital resources were insufficient to meet any pension or OPEB obligations, we could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, suspend dividend payments, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.

Worse-than-assumed economic and demographic experience for pension and other postretirement benefit plans (e.g., discount rates or investment returns). The measurement of our obligations, costs, and liabilities associated with benefits pursuant to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans requires that we estimate the present value of projected future payments to all participants. We use many assumptions in calculating these estimates, including assumptions related to discount rates, investment returns on designated plan assets, and demographic experience (e.g., mortality and retirement rates). We generally remeasure these estimates at each year end, and recognize any gains or losses associated with changes to our plan assets and liabilities in the year incurred. To the extent actual results are less favorable than our assumptions, we may recognize a substantial remeasurement loss in our results. For discussion of our assumptions, see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 13 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

Restriction on use of tax attributes from tax law “ownership change.”  Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code restricts the ability of a corporation that undergoes an ownership change to use its tax attributes, including net operating losses and tax credits (“Tax Attributes”).  For these purposes, an ownership change occurs if 5 percent shareholders of an issuer’s outstanding common stock, collectively, increase their ownership percentage by more than 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. At December 31, 2016, we had Tax Attributes that would offset more than $15 billion of taxable income. In 2015, we renewed for an additional three-year period our tax benefit preservation plan (the “Plan”) to reduce the risk of an ownership change under Section 382. Under the Plan, shares held by any person who acquires, without the approval of our Board of Directors, beneficial ownership of 4.99% or more of our outstanding Common Stock could be subject to significant dilution. Our shareholders approved the renewal at our annual meeting in May 2016.
 

13

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

The discovery of defects in vehicles resulting in delays in new model launches, recall campaigns, or increased warranty costs. Government safety standards require manufacturers to remedy defects related to vehicle safety through safety recall campaigns, and a manufacturer is obligated to recall vehicles if it determines that the vehicles do not comply with a safety standard. NHTSA’s enforcement strategy has shifted to a significant increase in civil penalties levied and the use of consent orders requiring direct oversight by NHTSA of certain manufacturers’ safety processes, a trend that could continue. Should we or government safety regulators determine that a safety or other defect or a noncompliance exists with respect to certain of our vehicles prior to the start of production, the launch of such vehicle could be delayed until such defect is remedied. The costs associated with any protracted delay in new model launches necessary to remedy such defects, or the cost of recall campaigns or warranty costs to remedy such defects in vehicles that have been sold, could be substantial. Such recall and customer satisfaction actions may relate to defective components we receive from suppliers. The cost to complete a recall or customer satisfaction action could be exacerbated to the extent such action relates to a global platform. Furthermore, launch delays or recall actions could adversely affect our reputation or market acceptance of our products as discussed above under “Lower-than-anticipated market acceptance of Ford’s new or existing products or services, or failure to achieve expected growth.”

Increased safety, emissions, fuel economy, or other regulations resulting in higher costs, cash expenditures, and/or sales restrictions. The worldwide automotive industry is governed by a substantial amount of government regulation, which often differs by state, region, and country. Government regulation has arisen, and proposals for additional regulation are advanced, primarily out of concern for the environment (including concerns about the possibility of global climate change and its impact), vehicle safety, and energy independence. For example, as discussed above under “Item 1. Business - Governmental Standards,” in the United States the CAFE standards for light duty vehicles increase sharply to 51.4 mpg by the 2025 model year; EPA’s parallel CO2 emission regulations impose similar standards. California’s ZEV rules also mandate steep increases in the sale of electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles beginning in the 2018 model year. In addition, many governments regulate local product content and/or impose import requirements as a means of creating jobs, protecting domestic producers, and influencing the balance of payments.

In recent years, we have made significant changes to our product cycle plan to improve the overall fuel economy of vehicles we produce, thereby reducing their GHG emissions. There are limits on our ability to achieve fuel economy improvements over a given time frame, however, primarily relating to the cost and effectiveness of available technologies, consumer acceptance of new technologies and changes in vehicle mix, willingness of consumers to absorb the additional costs of new technologies, the appropriateness (or lack thereof) of certain technologies for use in particular vehicles, the widespread availability (or lack thereof) of supporting infrastructure for new technologies, and the human, engineering, and financial resources necessary to deploy new technologies across a wide range of products and powertrains in a short time. The current fuel economy, CO2, and ZEV standards will be difficult to meet if fuel prices remain relatively low and market conditions do not drive consumers to purchase electric vehicles and other highly fuel-efficient vehicles in large numbers.

The U.S. government has pursued an enforcement action against a major competitor in connection with its alleged use of “defeat devices” in hundreds of thousands of light duty diesel vehicles, collecting billions of dollars for environmental remediation projects and civil penalties.  Several of the competitor’s employees have been indicted on charges of committing federal crimes.  The competitor also faces various class action suits, as well as numerous claims and investigations by various U.S. states and other nations. The emergence of this issue has led to increased scrutiny of automaker emission testing by regulators around the world, which in turn has triggered investigations of other manufacturers. These events may lead to new regulations, more stringent enforcement programs, requests for field actions, and/or delays in regulatory approvals. The cost to comply with existing government regulations is substantial and additional regulations or changes in consumer preferences that affect vehicle mix could have a substantial adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. For more discussion of the impact of such standards on our global business, see the “Governmental Standards” discussion in “Item 1. Business” above. In addition, a number of governments, as well as non-governmental organizations, publicly assess vehicles to their own protocols. The protocols could change aggressively, and any negative perception regarding the performance of our vehicles subjected to such tests could reduce future sales.


14

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Unusual or significant litigation, governmental investigations, or adverse publicity arising out of alleged defects in products, perceived environmental impacts, or otherwise. We spend substantial resources ensuring that we comply with governmental safety regulations, mobile and stationary source emissions regulations, and other standards. Compliance with governmental standards, however, does not necessarily prevent individual or class actions, which can entail significant cost and risk. In certain circumstances, courts may permit tort claims even where our vehicles comply with federal and/or other applicable law. Furthermore, simply responding to actual or threatened litigation or government investigations of our compliance with regulatory standards, whether related to our products or business or commercial relationships, may require significant expenditures of time and other resources. Litigation also is inherently uncertain, and we could experience significant adverse results. In addition, adverse publicity surrounding an allegation may cause significant reputational harm that could have a significant adverse effect on our sales.

Adverse effects on results from a decrease in or cessation or clawback of government incentives related to investments. We receive economic benefits from national, state, and local governments in various regions of the world in the form of incentives designed to encourage manufacturers to establish, maintain, or increase investment, workforce, or production. These incentives may take various forms, including grants, loan subsidies, and tax abatements or credits. The impact of these incentives can be significant in a particular market during a reporting period. For example, most of our manufacturing facilities in South America are located in Brazil, where the state or federal governments have historically offered, and continue to offer, significant incentives to manufacturers to encourage capital investment, increase manufacturing production, and create jobs. As a result, the performance of our South American operations has been impacted favorably by government incentives to a substantial extent. In Brazil, however, the federal government has levied assessments against us concerning our calculation of federal incentives we received, and certain states have challenged the grant to us of tax incentives by the state of Bahia, including a constitutional challenge of state incentives that is pending in Brazil’s Supreme Court. A decrease in, expiration without renewal of, or other cessation or clawback of government incentives for any of our business units, as a result of administrative decision or otherwise, could have a substantial adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. See Note 2 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for discussion of our accounting for government incentives, and “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” for a discussion of tax proceedings in Brazil and the potential requirement for us to post collateral.

Cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, or infrastructure owned by Ford, Ford Credit, or a third-party vendor or supplier. We are at risk for interruptions, outages, and breaches of: (i) operational systems (including business, financial, accounting, product development, consumer receivables, data processing, or manufacturing processes); (ii) facility security systems; and/or (iii) in-vehicle systems or mobile devices. Such cyber incidents could materially disrupt operational systems; result in loss of trade secrets or other proprietary or competitively sensitive information; compromise personally identifiable information of customers, employees, or others; jeopardize the security of our facilities; and/or affect the performance of in-vehicle systems. A cyber incident could be caused by malicious third parties using sophisticated, targeted methods to circumvent firewalls, encryption, and other security defenses, including hacking, fraud, trickery, or other forms of deception. The techniques used by third parties change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. A significant cyber incident could impact production capability, harm our reputation and/or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation.

Failure of financial institutions to fulfill commitments under committed credit and liquidity facilities. Under our corporate credit facility), we are able to borrow, repay, and then re-borrow up to $13.4 billion. Certain of our subsidiaries have standby or revolving credit facilities on which they depend for liquidity. If the financial institutions that provide commitments under the corporate credit facility, our subsidiaries’ standby or revolving credit facilities, or other committed credit facilities were to default on their obligation to fund the commitments, these facilities would not be available to us, which could substantially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. For discussion of our Credit Agreement, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7 and Note 14 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.


15

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Inability of Ford Credit to access debt, securitization, or derivative markets around the world at competitive rates or in sufficient amounts, due to credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, regulatory requirements, or other factors. Ford Credit’s ability to obtain unsecured funding at a reasonable cost is dependent on its credit ratings or its perceived creditworthiness. Ford Credit’s ability to obtain securitized funding under its committed asset-backed liquidity programs and certain other asset-backed securitization transactions is subject to having a sufficient amount of assets eligible for these programs, as well as Ford Credit’s ability to obtain appropriate credit ratings and, for certain committed programs, derivatives to manage the interest rate risk. Over time, and particularly in the event of any credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, or other factors, Ford Credit may reduce the amount of receivables it purchases or originates because of funding constraints. In addition, Ford Credit may be limited in the amount of receivables it purchases or originates in certain countries or regions if the local capital markets, particularly in developing countries, do not exist or are not adequately developed. Similarly, Ford Credit may reduce the amount of receivables it purchases or originates if there is a significant decline in the demand for the types of securities it offers or Ford Credit is unable to obtain derivatives to manage the interest rate risk associated with its securitization transactions. A significant reduction in the amount of receivables Ford Credit purchases or originates would significantly reduce its ongoing profits and could adversely affect its ability to support the sale of Ford vehicles.

Higher-than-expected credit losses, lower-than-anticipated residual values, or higher-than-expected return volumes for leased vehicles. Credit risk is the possibility of loss from a customer’s or dealer’s failure to make payments according to contract terms. Credit risk (which is heavily dependent upon economic factors including unemployment, consumer debt service burden, personal income growth, dealer profitability, and used car prices) has a significant impact on Ford Credit’s business. The level of credit losses Ford Credit may experience could exceed its expectations and adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, Ford Credit projects expected residual values (including residual value support payments from Ford) and return volumes for the vehicles it leases. Actual proceeds realized by Ford Credit upon the sale of returned leased vehicles at lease termination may be lower than the amount projected, which would reduce the profitability of the lease transaction. Among the factors that can affect the value of returned lease vehicles are the volume of vehicles returned, economic conditions, and quality or perceived quality, safety, fuel efficiency, or reliability of the vehicles. Actual return volumes may be higher than expected and can be influenced by contractual lease-end values relative to auction values, marketing programs for new vehicles, and general economic conditions. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, has the potential to adversely affect Ford Credit’s profitability if actual results were to differ significantly from Ford Credit’s projections. See “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 for additional discussion.

Increased competition from banks, financial institutions, or other third parties seeking to increase their share of financing Ford vehicles. No single company is a dominant force in the automotive finance industry. Most of Ford Credit’s competitors in the United States use credit aggregation systems that permit dealers to send, through standardized systems, retail credit applications to multiple finance sources to evaluate financing options offered by these sources. Also, direct on-line or large dealer group financing options provide consumers with alternative finance sources and/or increased pricing transparency. All of these financing alternatives drive greater competition based on financing rates and terms. Competition from such institutions and alternative finance sources could adversely affect Ford Credit’s profitability and the volume of its retail business. In addition, Ford Credit may face increased competition on wholesale financing for Ford dealers.

New or increased credit regulations, consumer or data protection regulations, or other regulations resulting in higher costs and/or additional financing restrictions. As a finance company, Ford Credit is highly regulated by governmental authorities in the locations in which it operates, which can impose significant additional costs and/or restrictions on its business.  In the United States, for example, Ford Credit’s operations are subject to regulation, supervision, and licensing under various federal, state, and local laws and regulations, including the federal Truth-in-Lending Act, Consumer Leasing Act, Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

The Dodd-Frank Act directs federal agencies to adopt rules to regulate the consumer finance industry and the capital markets and gives the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) broad rule-making and enforcement authority for a wide range of consumer financial protection laws that regulate consumer finance businesses, such as Ford Credit’s retail automotive financing business. Exercise of these powers by the CFPB may increase the costs of, impose additional restrictions on, or otherwise adversely affect companies in the automotive finance business. The CFPB has authority to supervise and examine the largest nonbank automotive finance companies, such as Ford Credit, for compliance with consumer financial protection laws.


16

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

In some countries outside the United States, some of Ford Credit’s subsidiaries are regulated banking institutions and are required, among other things, to maintain minimum capital and liquidity. In many other locations, governmental authorities require companies to have licenses in order to conduct financing businesses. Compliance with these laws and regulations imposes additional costs on Ford Credit and affects the conduct of its business. Additional regulation could add significant cost or operational constraints that might impair Ford Credit’s profitability.

ITEM 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

17


ITEM 2. Properties.

Our principal properties include manufacturing and assembly facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, sales or administrative offices, and engineering centers.

We own substantially all of our U.S. manufacturing and assembly facilities. Our facilities are situated in various sections of the country and include assembly plants, engine plants, casting plants, metal stamping plants, transmission plants, and other component plants. About half of our distribution centers are leased (we own approximately 47% of the total square footage, and lease the balance). A substantial amount of our warehousing is provided by third-party providers under service contracts. Because the facilities provided pursuant to third-party service contracts need not be dedicated exclusively or even primarily to our use, these spaces are not included in the number of distribution centers/warehouses listed in the table below. The majority of the warehouses that we operate are leased, although many of our manufacturing and assembly facilities contain some warehousing space. Substantially all of our sales offices are leased space. Approximately 98% of the total square footage of our engineering centers and our supplementary research and development space is owned by us.

In addition, we maintain and operate manufacturing plants, assembly facilities, parts distribution centers, and engineering centers outside of the United States. We own substantially all of our non-U.S. manufacturing plants, assembly facilities, and engineering centers. The majority of our parts distribution centers outside of the United States are either leased or provided by vendors under service contracts.

We and the entities that we consolidated as of December 31, 2016 use nine regional engineering, research, and development centers, and 62 manufacturing plants as shown in the table below:
 
Automotive Business Units
 
Plants
North America
 
29
South America
 
8
Europe
 
16
Middle East & Africa
 
2
Asia Pacific
 
7
Total
 
62
 
Included in the number of plants shown above are plants that are operated by us or our consolidated joint ventures that support our Automotive segment. The significant consolidated joint ventures and the number of plants each owns are as follows:

Ford Lio Ho Motor Company Ltd. (“FLH”) — a joint venture in Taiwan among Ford (70% partner), the Lio Ho Group (25% partner), and individual shareholders (5% ownership in aggregate) that assembles a variety of Ford and Mazda vehicles sourced from Ford as well as Mazda.  In addition to domestic assembly, FLH imports Ford brand built-up vehicles from the Asia Pacific region, Europe, and the United States. The joint venture operates one plant in Taiwan.

Ford Sollers Netherlands B.V. (“Ford Sollers”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Sollers OJSC (“Sollers”), in which Ford has control. The joint venture primarily is engaged in manufacturing a range of Ford passenger cars and light commercial vehicles for sale in Russia, and has an exclusive right to manufacture, assemble, and distribute certain Ford vehicles in Russia through the licensing of certain trademarks and intellectual property rights. The joint venture has been approved to participate in Russia’s industrial assembly regime, which qualifies it for reduced import duties for parts imported into Russia. In addition to its three existing manufacturing facilities in Russia, Ford Sollers launched an engine plant in Russia in 2015.

Ford Vietnam Limited — a joint venture between Ford (75% partner) and Diesel Song Cong One Member Limited Liability Company (a subsidiary of the Vietnam Engine and Agricultural Machinery Corporation, which in turn is majority owned (87.43%) by the State of Vietnam represented by the Ministry of Industry and Trade) (25% partner). Ford Vietnam Limited assembles and distributes a variety of Ford passenger and commercial vehicle models.  The joint venture operates one plant in Vietnam.


18

Item 2. Properties (Continued)                                                                                                    

In addition to the plants that we operate directly or that are operated by our consolidated joint ventures, additional plants that support our Automotive segment are operated by unconsolidated joint ventures of which we are a partner.  These plants are not included in the number of plants shown in the table above.  The most significant of the automotive unconsolidated joint ventures are as follows:

AutoAlliance (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (“AAT”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Mazda that owns and operates a manufacturing plant in Rayong, Thailand. AAT produces Ford and Mazda products for domestic and export sales.

Changan Ford Automobile Corporation, Ltd. (“CAF”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (“Changan”). CAF currently operates five assembly plants, an engine plant, and a transmission plant in China where it produces and distributes an expanding variety of Ford passenger vehicle models.

Changan Ford Mazda Engine Company, Ltd. (“CFME”) — a joint venture among Ford (25% partner), Mazda (25% partner), and Changan (50% partner).  CFME is located in Nanjing, and produces engines for Ford and Mazda vehicles manufactured in China.

Ford Otomotiv Sanayi Anonim Sirketi (“Ford Otosan”) — a joint venture in Turkey among Ford (41% partner), the Koc Group of Turkey (41% partner), and public investors (18%) that is a major supplier to us of the Transit, Transit Custom, and Transit Courier commercial vehicles and is our sole distributor of Ford vehicles in Turkey. Ford Otosan also manufactures the Cargo truck for the Turkish and certain export markets and certain engines and transmissions, most of which are under license from us.  The joint venture owns three plants, a parts distribution depot, and a new research and development center in Turkey.

Getrag Ford Transmissions GmbH (“GFT”) — a 50/50 joint venture with Getrag International GmbH, a German company belonging to Magna Powertrain GmbH. GFT operates plants in Halewood, England; Cologne, Germany; Bordeaux, France; and Kechnec, Slovakia to produce, among other things, manual transmissions for our Europe business unit.  

JMC — a publicly-traded company in China with Ford (32% shareholder) and Jiangling Holdings, Ltd. (41% shareholder) as its controlling shareholders.  Jiangling Holdings, Ltd. is a 50/50 joint venture between Changan and Jiangling Motors Company Group.  The public investors in JMC own 27% of its total outstanding shares.  JMC assembles Ford Transit, Ford Everest, Ford engines, and non-Ford vehicles and engines for distribution in China and in other export markets. JMC operates two assembly plants and one engine plant in Nanchang. In 2015, JMC opened a new plant in Taiyuan to assemble heavy duty trucks and engines.

The facilities described above are, in the opinion of management, suitable and adequate for the manufacture and assembly of our and our joint ventures’ products.

The furniture, equipment, and other physical property owned by our Financial Services operations are not material in relation to the operations’ total assets.


19



ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings.

The litigation process is subject to many uncertainties, and the outcome of individual matters is not predictable with assurance. See Note 24 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for discussion of loss contingencies. Following is a discussion of our significant pending legal proceedings:

PRODUCT LIABILITY MATTERS

We are a defendant in numerous actions in state and federal courts within and outside of the United States alleging damages from injuries resulting from (or aggravated by) alleged defects in our vehicles. In many, no monetary amount of damages is specified, or the specific amount alleged is the jurisdictional minimum. Our experience with litigation alleging a specific amount of damages suggests that such amounts, on average, bear little relation to the actual amount of damages, if any, that we will pay in resolving such matters.

In addition to pending actions, we assess the likelihood of incidents that likely have occurred but not yet been reported to us; we also take into consideration specific matters that have been raised as claims but have not yet proceeded to litigation. Individual product liability matters which, if resolved unfavorably to the Company, likely would involve a significant cost would be described herein. Currently there are no such matters to report.

ASBESTOS MATTERS

Asbestos was used in some brakes, clutches, and other automotive components from the early 1900s. Along with other vehicle manufacturers, we have been the target of asbestos litigation and, as a result, are a defendant in various actions for injuries claimed to have resulted from alleged exposure to Ford parts and other products containing asbestos. Plaintiffs in these personal injury cases allege various health problems as a result of asbestos exposure, either from component parts found in older vehicles, insulation or other asbestos products in our facilities, or asbestos aboard our former maritime fleet. We believe that we are being targeted more aggressively in asbestos suits because many previously-targeted companies have filed for bankruptcy, or emerged from bankruptcy relieved of liability for such claims.

Most of the asbestos litigation we face involves individuals who claim to have worked on the brakes of our vehicles. We are prepared to defend these cases, and believe that the scientific evidence confirms our long-standing position that there is no increased risk of asbestos-related disease as a result of exposure to the type of asbestos formerly used in the brakes on our vehicles. The extent of our financial exposure to asbestos litigation remains very difficult to estimate and could include both compensatory and punitive damage awards. The majority of our asbestos cases do not specify a dollar amount for damages; in many of the other cases the dollar amount specified is the jurisdictional minimum, and the vast majority of these cases involve multiple defendants, sometimes more than one hundred. Many of these cases also involve multiple plaintiffs, and often we are unable to tell from the pleadings which plaintiffs are making claims against us (as opposed to other defendants). Annual payout and defense costs may become significant in the future.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

We have received notices under various federal and state environmental laws that we (along with others) are or may be a potentially responsible party for the costs associated with remediating numerous hazardous substance storage, recycling, or disposal sites in many states and, in some instances, for natural resource damages. We also may have been a generator of hazardous substances at a number of other sites. The amount of any such costs or damages for which we may be held responsible could be significant.

We have two environmental legal proceedings to which a governmental authority is a party and in which we believe there is the possibility of monetary sanctions in excess of $100,000:

Notices of Violation to Ford Chicago Assembly Plant and Dearborn Truck Plant.  On August 17, 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) issued a notice of violation to our Chicago Assembly Plant and on December 26, 2015, EPA issued a notice of violation to our Dearborn Truck Plant. EPA alleges that the plants violated several requirements related to their air permits.  Monetary sanctions, if any, have not yet been determined.


20

Item 3. Legal Proceedings (Continued)                                                                                        

CLASS ACTIONS

In light of the fact that very few of the purported class actions filed against us in the past have ever been certified by the courts as class actions, in general we list those actions that (i) have been certified as a class action by a court of competent jurisdiction (and any additional purported class actions that raise allegations substantially similar to an existing and certified class), and (ii) likely would involve a significant cost if resolved unfavorably to the Company. At this time, we have no such purported class actions filed against us.

OTHER MATTERS
Brazilian Tax Matters.  Two Brazilian states and the Brazilian federal tax authority currently have outstanding substantial tax assessments against Ford Brazil related to state and federal tax incentives Ford Brazil receives for its operations in the Brazilian state of Bahia.  All assessments have been appealed to the relevant administrative court of each jurisdiction.  For each assessment, if we do not prevail at the administrative level, we plan to appeal to the relevant state or federal judicial court, which would likely require us to post significant collateral in order to proceed. Our appeals with one state and the federal tax authority remain at the administrative level. In the other state, where three cases are pending, one remains at the administrative level and two have been appealed to the judicial court.  To date we have not been required to post any collateral.

Transit Connect Customs Ruling. On March 8, 2013, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) ruled that Transit Connects imported as passenger wagons and later converted into cargo vans are subject to the 25% duty applicable to cargo vehicles, rather than the 2.5% duty applicable to passenger vehicles. As a result of the ruling, CBP is requiring Ford to pay the 25% duty upon importation of Transit Connects that will be converted to cargo vehicles, and is seeking the difference in duty rates for prior imports. Our protest of the ruling within CBP was denied and we filed a challenge in the U.S. Court of International Trade (“CIT”). A decision by CIT may be appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. If we prevail, we will receive a refund of the contested amounts paid, plus interest. If we do not prevail, CBP would recover the increased duties for prior imports, plus interest, and might assert a claim for penalties.

ITEM 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.
 

21


ITEM 4A. Executive Officers of Ford.

Our executive officers are as follows, along with each executive officer’s position and age at February 1, 2017:
Name
 
 
Position
 
Position
Held Since
 
Age
William Clay Ford, Jr. (a)
 
Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board
 
September 2006
 
59
Mark Fields (b)
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
July 2014
 
56
James D. Farley, Jr.
 
Executive Vice President – President, Europe, Middle East & Africa
 
January 2015
 
54
Joseph R. Hinrichs
 
Executive Vice President – President, The Americas
 
December 2012
 
50
Stephen T. Odell
 
Executive Vice President – Global Marketing, Sales and Service
 
January 2015
 
61
Raj Nair
 
Executive Vice President – Product Development and Chief Technical Officer
 
December 2015
 
52
Bob Shanks
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
April 2012
 
64
John Casesa
 
Group Vice President – Global Strategy
 
March 2015
 
54
Ray Day
 
Group Vice President – Communications
 
March 2013
 
50
Joy Falotico
 
Group Vice President – Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Ford Motor Credit Co.
 
October 2016
 
49
Felicia Fields
 
Group Vice President – Human Resources and Corporate Services
 
April 2008
 
51
Bennie Fowler
 
Group Vice President – Quality and New Model Launch
 
April 2008
 
60
Bradley M. Gayton
 
Group Vice President and General Counsel
 
January 2016
 
53
Bruce Hettle
 
Group Vice President – Manufacturing and Labor Affairs
 
January 2016
 
55
Marcy Klevorn
 
Group Vice President – Information Technology and Chief Information Officer
 
January 2017
 
57
Ziad S. Ojakli
 
Group Vice President – Government and Community Relations
 
January 2004
 
49
Kimberly Pittel
 
Group Vice President – Sustainability, Environment & Safety Engineering
 
January 2017
 
57
Dave Schoch
 
Group Vice President – President, Asia Pacific
 
December 2012
 
65
Hau Thai-Tang
 
Group Vice President – Global Purchasing
 
August 2013
 
50
John Lawler
 
Vice President and Controller
 
June 2016
 
50
____________
(a)
Also a Director, Chair of the Office of the Chairman and Chief Executive, Chair of the Finance Committee, and a member of the Sustainability Committee of the Board of Directors.
(b)
Also a Director and member of the Office of the Chairman and Chief Executive and the Finance Committee of the Board of Directors.

Each of the officers listed above, except for John Casesa, has been employed by Ford or its subsidiaries in one or more capacities during the past five years.  Prior to joining Ford in March 2015, John Casesa was Senior Managing Director of Guggenheim Partners, where he led the firm’s automotive investment banking activities since 2010.

Under our by-laws, executive officers are elected by the Board of Directors at an annual meeting of the Board held for this purpose or by a resolution to fill a vacancy.  Each officer is elected to hold office until a successor is chosen or as otherwise provided in the by-laws.



22


PART II.

ITEM 5. Market for Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States.

The table below shows the high and low sales prices for our Common Stock, and the dividends we paid per share of Common and Class B Stock, for each quarterly period in 2015 and 2016:
 
2015
 
2016
 
Ford Common Stock price per share (a)
First
Quarter
 
Second
Quarter
 
Third
Quarter
 
Fourth
Quarter
 
First
Quarter
 
Second
Quarter
 
Third
Quarter
 
Fourth
Quarter
High
$
16.74

 
$
16.16

 
$
15.30

 
$
15.84

 
$
14.00

 
$
14.22

 
$
14.04

 
$
13.20

Low
14.30

 
14.78

 
10.44

 
13.40

 
11.02

 
12.00

 
11.90

 
11.07

Dividends per share of Ford Common and Class B Stock
0.15

 
0.15

 
0.15

 
0.15

 
0.40

 
0.15

 
0.15

 
0.15

__________
(a)
New York Stock Exchange composite intraday prices as listed in the price history database available at www.NYSEnet.com.
 
As of January 31, 2017, stockholders of record of Ford included approximately 125,465 holders of Common Stock and 34 holders of Class B Stock.

In the first quarter of 2016, we repurchased shares of Ford Common Stock from our employees or directors related to certain exercises of stock options, in accordance with our various compensation plans. We also completed a modest anti-dilutive share repurchase program to offset the dilutive effect of share-based compensation granted during 2016. The plan authorized repurchases of up to 10.7 million shares of Ford Common Stock.





23


ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following table sets forth selected financial data for each of the last five years (dollar amounts in millions, except for per share amounts):
SUMMARY OF INCOME
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
Total revenues
$
133,559

 
$
146,917

 
$
144,077

 
$
149,558

 
$
151,800

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income taxes
$
2,005

 
$
14,371

 
$
1,234

 
$
10,252

 
$
6,796

Provision for/(Benefit from) income taxes
89

 
2,425

 
4

 
2,881

 
2,189

Net income
1,916

 
11,946

 
1,230

 
7,371

 
4,607

Less: Income/(Loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
(1
)
 
(7
)
 
(1
)
 
(2
)
 
11

Net income attributable to Ford Motor Company
$
1,917

 
$
11,953

 
$
1,231

 
$
7,373

 
$
4,596

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings Per Share Attributable to Ford Motor Company Common and Class B Stock
Average number of shares of Ford Common and Class B Stock outstanding (in millions)
3,815

 
3,935

 
3,912

 
3,969

 
3,973

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic income
$
0.50

 
$
3.04

 
$
0.31

 
$
1.86

 
$
1.16

Diluted income
0.49

 
2.94

 
0.31

 
1.84

 
1.15

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends declared
0.15

 
0.40

 
0.50

 
0.60

 
0.85

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common Stock price range (NYSE Composite Intraday)
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

High
13.08

 
18.02

 
18.12

 
16.74

 
14.22

Low
8.82

 
12.10

 
13.26

 
10.44

 
11.02

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BALANCE SHEET DATA AT YEAR-END
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total assets
$
189,800

 
$
202,204

 
$
208,615

 
$
224,925

 
$
237,951

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Automotive debt
$
14,256

 
$
15,683

 
$
13,824

 
$
12,839

 
$
15,907

Financial Services debt
90,802

 
99,005

 
105,347

 
120,015

 
127,063

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total equity
$
15,924

 
$
26,173

 
$
24,465

 
$
28,657

 
$
29,187

 


24


ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

OVERVIEW

Beginning with the second quarter of 2016, we changed our reportable segments. Prior-period amounts have been adjusted retrospectively to reflect the reportable segment change. See Note 4 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for additional information.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures That Supplement GAAP Measures

We use both generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and non-GAAP financial measures for operational and financial decision making, and to assess Company and segment business performance. The non-GAAP measures listed below are intended to be considered by users as supplemental information to their equivalent GAAP measures, to aid investors in better understanding our financial results. We believe that these non-GAAP measures provide useful perspective on underlying business results and trends, and a means to assess our period-over-period results. These non-GAAP measures should not be considered as a substitute for, or superior to measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP measures may not be the same as similarly titled measures used by other companies due to possible differences in method and in items or events being adjusted.

Total Company Adjusted Pre-tax Profit (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Income Attributable to Ford) – The non-GAAP measure is useful to management and investors because it allows users to evaluate our pre-tax results excluding pre-tax special items. Pre-tax special items consist of (i) pension and other postretirement employee benefits (“OPEB”) remeasurement gains and losses that are not reflective of our underlying business results, (ii) significant restructuring actions related to our efforts to match production capacity and cost structure to market demand and changing model mix, and (iii) other items that we do not necessarily consider to be indicative of earnings from ongoing operating activities. When we provide guidance for adjusted pre-tax profit, we do not provide guidance on a net income basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, specifically pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Adjusted Earnings Per Share (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Earnings Per Share) – Measure of Company’s diluted net earnings per share adjusted for impact of pre-tax special items (described above) and tax special items. The measure provides investors with useful information to evaluate performance of our business excluding items not indicative of the underlying run rate of our business. When we provide guidance for adjusted earnings per share, we do not provide guidance on an earnings per share basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, specifically pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Adjusted Effective Tax Rate (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Effective Tax Rate) – Measure of Company’s tax rate excluding pre-tax special items (described above) and tax special items. The measure provides an ongoing effective rate which investors find useful for historical comparisons and for forecasting. When we provide guidance for adjusted effective tax rate, we do not provide guidance on an effective tax rate basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, specifically pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Ford Credit Managed Receivables (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Finance Receivables plus Net Investment in Operating Leases) – Measure of Ford Credit’s total net receivables, excluding unearned interest supplements and residual support, allowance for credit losses, and other (primarily accumulated supplemental depreciation). The measure is useful to management and investors as it closely approximates the customer’s outstanding balance on the receivables, which is the basis for earning revenue.

Ford Credit Managed Leverage (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Financial Statement Leverage) – Ford Credit’s debt-to-equity ratio adjusted (i) to exclude cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (other than amounts related to insurance activities), and (ii) for derivative accounting. The measure is useful to investors because it reflects the way Ford Credit manages its business. Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are deducted because they generally correspond to excess debt beyond the amount required to support operations and on-balance sheet securitization transactions. Derivative accounting adjustments are made to asset, debt, and equity positions to reflect the impact of interest rate instruments used with Ford Credit’s term-debt issuances and securitization transactions. Ford Credit generally repays its debt obligations as they mature, so the interim effects of changes in market interest rates are excluded in the calculation of managed leverage.

25

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Revenue

Our Automotive segment revenue is generated primarily by sales of vehicles, parts, and accessories; we generally treat sales and marketing incentives as a reduction to revenue. Revenue is recorded when all risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to our customers (generally, our dealers and distributors). For the majority of sales, this occurs when products are shipped from our manufacturing facilities. This is not the case, however, with respect to vehicles produced for sale to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option. These vehicles are accounted for as operating leases, with lease revenue and profits recognized over the term of the lease. Proceeds from the sale of vehicles at auction are recognized in revenue at the time of sale.

Most of the vehicles sold by us to our dealers and distributors are financed at wholesale by Ford Credit. Upon Ford Credit originating the wholesale receivable related to a dealer’s purchase of a vehicle, Ford Credit pays cash to the relevant Automotive legal entity in payment of the dealer’s obligation for the purchase price of the vehicle. The dealer then pays the wholesale finance receivable to Ford Credit when it sells the vehicle to a retail customer.

Our Financial Services segment revenue is generated primarily from interest on finance receivables, net of certain deferred origination costs that are included as a reduction of financing revenue, and such revenue is recognized over the term of the receivable using the interest method. Also, revenue from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Income is generated to the extent revenues exceed expenses, most of which are interest, depreciation, and operating expenses.

Transactions between our Automotive and Financial Services segments occur in the ordinary course of business. For example, we offer special retail financing and lease incentives to dealers’ customers who choose to finance or lease our vehicles from Ford Credit. The estimated cost for these incentives is recorded as revenue reduction to Automotive sales at the later of the date the related vehicle sales to our dealers are recorded or the date the incentive program is both approved and communicated. In order to compensate Ford Credit for the lower interest or lease rates offered to the retail customer, we pay the discounted value of the incentive directly to Ford Credit when it originates the retail finance or lease contract with the dealer’s customer. Ford Credit recognizes the amount over the life of retail finance contracts as an element of financing revenue and over the life of lease contracts as a reduction to depreciation. See Note 1 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a more detailed discussion of transactions between our Automotive and Financial Services segments.

Costs and Expenses

Our income statement classifies our Automotive segment total costs and expenses into two categories: (i) cost of sales, and (ii) selling, administrative, and other expenses. We include within cost of sales those costs related to the development, manufacture, and distribution of our vehicles, parts, and accessories. Specifically, we include in cost of sales each of the following: material costs (including commodity costs); freight costs; warranty, including product recall and customer satisfaction program costs; labor and other costs related to the development and manufacture of our products; depreciation and amortization; and other associated costs. We include within selling, administrative, and other expenses labor and other costs not directly related to the development and manufacture of our products, including such expenses as advertising and sales promotion costs.

Certain of our costs, such as material costs, generally vary directly with changes in volume and mix of production. In our industry, production volume often varies significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. Quarterly production volumes experience seasonal shifts throughout the year (including peak retail sales seasons, and the impact on production of model changeover and new product launches). As we have seen in recent years, annual production volumes are heavily impacted by external economic factors, including the pace of economic growth and factors such as the availability of consumer credit and cost of fuel.

As a result, we analyze the profit impact of certain cost changes holding constant present-year volume and mix and currency exchange, in order to evaluate our cost trends absent the impact of varying production and currency exchange levels. We analyze these cost changes in the following categories:

Contribution Costs – these costs typically vary with production volume. These costs include material, commodity, warranty, and freight and duty costs.

Structural Costs – these costs typically do not have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. These costs include manufacturing, engineering, spending-related, advertising and sales promotion, administrative and selling, and pension and OPEB costs.

26

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)


While contribution costs generally vary directly in proportion to production volume, elements within our structural costs category are impacted to differing degrees by changes in production volume. We also have varying degrees of discretion when it comes to controlling the different elements within our structural costs. For example, depreciation and amortization expense largely is associated with prior capital spending decisions. On the other hand, while labor costs do not vary directly with production volume, manufacturing labor costs may be impacted by changes in volume, for example when we increase overtime, add a production shift or add personnel to support volume increases. Other structural costs, such as advertising or engineering costs, do not necessarily have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. Our structural costs generally are within our discretion, although to varying degrees, and can be adjusted over time in response to external factors.

We consider certain structural costs to be a direct investment in future growth and revenue. For example, increases in structural costs are necessary to grow our business and improve profitability as we expand around the world, invest in new products and technologies, respond to increasing industry sales volume, and grow our market share.

Cost of sales and Selling, administrative, and other expenses for full-year 2016 were $138.8 billion. Our Automotive segment’s material and commodity costs make up the largest portion of these costs and expenses, representing in 2016 about two-thirds of the total amount. Structural costs are the largest piece of the remaining balance. Although material costs are our largest absolute cost, our margins can be affected significantly by changes in any category of costs.

Key Economic Factors and Trends Affecting the Automotive Industry

Currency Exchange Rate Volatility. The U.S. Federal Reserve raised its policy interest rate in December 2016, a move which has been accompanied by an upward shift in longer term interest rates since November 2016.  The related shifts in capital flows have contributed to downward pressure on both developed and emerging market currencies globally.  In some emerging markets, that pressure is aggravated by low commodity prices, high inflation, or unstable policy environments.   Additionally, the yen, euro and pound have depreciated as a result of monetary policy easing by the central banks in those markets, as well as ongoing Brexit negotiations in Europe.  The weak yen, in particular, adds significant potential downward pressure on vehicle pricing across many markets globally.  In most markets, exchange rates are market-determined, and all are impacted by many different macroeconomic and policy factors, and thus likely to remain volatile.  However, in some markets, exchange rates are heavily influenced or controlled by governments.

Excess Capacity. According to IHS Automotive, an automotive research firm, the estimated automotive industry global production capacity for light vehicles of about 125 million units exceeded global production by about 32 million units in 2016.  In North America and Europe, two regions where a significant share of industry revenue is earned, excess capacity as a percent of production was an estimated 7% and 21%, respectively, in 2016.  In China, the auto industry also witnessed excess capacity at 48% of production in 2016, as manufacturers compete to capitalize on China’s future market potential.  According to production capacity data projected by IHS Automotive, global excess capacity conditions could continue for several years at an average of about 39 million units per year during the period from 2017 to 2021.
 
Pricing Pressure. Excess capacity, coupled with a proliferation of new products being introduced in key segments, will keep pressure on manufacturers’ ability to increase prices.  In North America, the industry restructuring of the past few years has allowed manufacturers to better match production with demand, although Japanese and Korean manufacturers also have capacity located outside of the region directed to North America.  In the future, Chinese and Indian manufacturers are expected to enter U.S. and European markets, further intensifying competition.  Over the long term, intense competition and excess capacity will continue to put downward pressure on inflation-adjusted prices for similarly-contented vehicles in the United States and contribute to a challenging pricing environment for the automotive industry.  In Europe, the excess capacity situation was exacerbated by weakening demand and the lack of reductions in existing capacity, such that negative pricing pressure is expected to continue for the foreseeable future.
 
Commodity and Energy Price Changes. The price of oil has increased since late 2016 as oil producing nations agreed to modest output reductions, although the average oil price for the year was below the 2015 level.  Other commodity prices have begun to increase as well, with continued volatility likely.  Over the longer term, commodity prices are likely to trend higher given expectations for global demand growth.
 

27

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Vehicle Profitability. Our financial results depend on the profitability of the vehicles we sell, which may vary significantly by vehicle line. In general, larger vehicles tend to command higher prices and be more profitable than smaller vehicles, both across and within vehicle segments. For example, in North America, our larger, more profitable
vehicles had an average contribution margin that was about 135% of our total average contribution margin across all
vehicles, whereas our smaller vehicles had significantly lower contribution margins. In addition, government regulations aimed at reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency may increase the cost of vehicles by more than the perceived benefit to the consumer. Given the backdrop of excess capacity, these regulations could dampen contribution margins.

Trade Policy. To the extent governments in various regions erect or intensify barriers to imports, or implement currency policy that advantages local exporters selling into the global marketplace, there can be a significant negative impact on manufacturers based in markets that promote free trade.  While we believe the long-term trend is toward the growth of free trade, we have noted with concern recent developments in a number of regions.  In Asia Pacific, for example, the recent dramatic depreciation of the yen significantly reduces the cost of exports into the United States, Europe, and other global markets by Japanese manufacturers.  Over a period of time, the emerging weakness of the yen can contribute to other countries pursuing weak currency policies by intervening in the exchange rate markets.  This is particularly likely in other Asian countries, such as South Korea.  As another example, government actions in South America to incentivize local production and balance trade are driving trade frictions between South American countries and also with Mexico, resulting in business environment instability and new trade barriers.  We will continue to monitor and address developing issues around trade policy. 

Other Economic Factors. During 2016, mature market government bond yields and inflation were lower than expected.  Although in recent months interest rates have risen, and deflation risks have receded somewhat, this is occurring against a backdrop of loose monetary policy, particularly in Europe and Japan.  At the same time, government deficits and debt remain at high levels in many major markets.  The eventual implications of higher government deficits and debt, with potentially higher long-term interest rates, may drive a higher cost of capital over our planning period.  Higher interest rates and/or taxes to address the higher deficits also may impede real growth in gross domestic product and, therefore, vehicle sales over our planning period.

For additional information on our assessment of the business environment, refer to the “Outlook” section below.


28

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Trends and Strategies

In 2016, we updated our vision and strategy to reflect our expansion to be an automotive and mobility company. Our strategy is to deliver top quartile shareholder returns through automotive and high-growth mobility businesses. We are doing this by focusing on the strategic priorities in both our core business and emerging opportunities that will fortify, transform, and grow our business.
a2016strategicframe9.jpg

Fortifying the Profit Pillars

The profit pillars are the foundation and underlying strength of Ford. We are focused on keeping these areas strong and we intend to strengthen them further through new innovations that will continue to address the needs of our customers.

Trucks, Vans, and Commercial Vehicles. F-Series has been the U.S. truck leader for 40 years. We plan to strengthen our truck leadership with the 2018 model year new F-150, which will feature new powertrains, including our first diesel for F-150, and will be equipped with advanced connectivity to provide even more productivity for our customers. In 2020, F-150 will be available in a hybrid version that will improve capability, productivity, and fuel efficiency. The new Super Duty is off to a strong start, with high average transaction price and mix. And for the second year in a row, we are the commercial vehicle leader in Europe. We saw strong performance around the world in 2016 from our Ranger mid-size pickup. In 2019, Ranger will be joining F-150 and Super Duty in North America, expanding our pickup portfolio in our largest market.
Utilities. We will introduce an all-new aluminum-body Expedition in 2017 with new capability. We also plan to introduce five other all-new utilities through 2020, including an all-new Bronco and an all-new fully electric utility vehicle that will have an expected range of at least 300 miles.
Performance Vehicles. We are on track to deliver 12 new performance vehicles by the end of the decade, including the all-new Raptor and Ford GT. Mustang will be available in a hybrid version by 2020, delivering V-8 equivalent power with greater low-end torque.
Ford Credit. Ford Credit remains a strategic asset to our automotive business around the world, delivering class-leading services.
Ford Customer Service Division. Our parts and service business continues to grow, including a significant expansion of Quick Lane globally, adding to customer satisfaction and owner loyalty.

29

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Transforming the Underperforming Parts of the Business

In addition to fortifying our profit pillars, we are transforming the underperforming parts of our business.
Luxury. Sales for Lincoln were up 24% globally and tripled in China in 2016, and Lincoln is being recognized for product appeal, quality, and customer satisfaction. We are strengthening the Lincoln product portfolio with the Continental flagship launched in 2016 and the all-new aluminum-body Navigator to be launched in 2017. We will continue to evaluate further opportunities to improve returns on capital in the Lincoln business.
Small Vehicles. Small vehicles in developed markets is an area of challenge. We have repositioned and capped capacity for the next generation Fiesta in Europe and underpinned it with an attractive value entry, our KA+, made in India from a low-cost operation. We are producing the EcoSport mini utility for Europe and North America in low-cost manufacturing locations. To match capacity with demand, we have cancelled our plans to build a new plant in Mexico and will instead build the next-generation Focus at an existing plant in Mexico.
Emerging Markets. We exited Indonesia and Japan in 2016, given the lack of a clear path to sustained profitability in these markets. In ASEAN, we returned to a profit in 2016, while in Russia, the business improved substantially in 2016, with further improvement expected in 2017. Similarly, in South America, we expect results to improve in 2017 as economic conditions begin to turn around. In our Middle East & Africa operations, we also expect results to improve in 2017 as we work to strengthen our distribution, particularly in the Middle East. We achieved significant year-over-year growth in production in India in 2016, driven primarily by strong exports. Despite the growth, India remains a significant challenge; we will continue to work this year to evaluate alternative business models for this large and growing emerging market.
Growing with Investments in Emerging Opportunities
We are driving for leadership in three key emerging opportunity areas—electrification, autonomy, and mobility. In each area, we are leveraging the strengths of our core business, as well as synergies across the three areas.
Electrification. In the area of electrification, we are focusing on our profit pillars of trucks, vans, commercial vehicles, utilities, and performance vehicles to provide more to our customers—more capability, more productivity, and more performance—in addition to better fuel economy. We have 13 new electrified products we plan to bring to market by 2020. These include hybrid versions of the F-150 and Mustang, a new Transit Custom plug-in hybrid in Europe, an all-new fully electric small SUV with an estimated range of at least 300 miles, and two new electrified police vehicles.
Autonomy. We continue to make progress in the area of autonomy. We announced in 2016 our intention to produce a high-volume, dedicated, level 4 autonomous vehicle in 2021 for ride sharing applications in a “geo-fenced” area. We have made progress toward this objective with a new-generation Fusion Hybrid autonomous development vehicle. It demonstrates the advancement of Ford’s in-house hardware and software engineering efforts. In 2016, we expanded our autonomous test fleet from 10 to 30 vehicles. In 2017, we plan to further expand the fleet and begin testing in Europe.
Mobility. We are developing mobility services and related business models that are designed to reduce transportation congestion and increase transportation capacity in crowded cities. These cities need more flow, but, at the same time, they need to reduce congestion and they need to reduce pollution. We are moving quickly to develop partnerships with major cities to co-create solutions for congestion. The Ford Smart Mobility team is deploying innovative solutions to support both shared and owned business models, while aggressively developing new products and services. In 2016, Ford Smart Mobility LLC acquired Chariot, a demand responsive shuttle company that operates in two U.S. cities and has plans to expand to eight cities by the end of 2017, including a city outside the United States.



    


30

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2016

TOTAL COMPANY

Net income attributable to Ford. The chart below shows our net income attributable to Ford for full year 2016:

a2016totconetincome6.jpg

Net income attributable to Ford for full year 2016 was $4.6 billion or $1.15 diluted earnings per share of Common and Class B Stock, a decrease of $2.8 billion or $0.69 per share compared with 2015. Full year 2016 pre-tax results of our Automotive segment, Financial Services segment, All Other, and Special Items, as well as Taxes are discussed in the following sections in “Results of Operations.”

Revenue. Company revenue for full year 2016 was $151.8 billion, $2.2 billion higher than a year ago.

Cost of sales and Selling, administrative, and other expenses for the full year 2016 were $138.8 billion, an increase of about $4.2 billion compared with 2015. The detail for the change is shown below (in billions):
 
 
2016
Lower/(Higher)
2015
Volume and mix, exchange, and other
 
$
(0.1
)
Contribution costs
 
 
Material excluding commodities
 
(0.3
)
Commodities
 
0.9

Warranty and other
 
(0.4
)
Structural costs
 
(1.5
)
Special items
 
(2.8
)
Total
 
$
(4.2
)



31

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Equity. At December 31, 2016, total equity attributable to Ford was $29.2 billion, an increase of $0.5 billion compared with December 31, 2015. The detail for this change is shown below (in billions):
 
Increase/(Decrease)
Net income
$
4.6

Dividends
(3.4
)
Other comprehensive income
(0.8
)
Compensation-related equity issuances
0.2

Treasury stock share repurchases
(0.1
)
Total
$
0.5

    
The chart below shows our full year 2016 total Company adjusted pre-tax results and pre-tax results of our Automotive segment by regional business unit, our Financial Services segment, and All Other, which is mainly net interest expense.

a2016totcowaterfall6.jpg

Our total Company adjusted pre-tax profit for full year 2016 was $10.4 billion, or $1.76 of adjusted earnings per share of Common and Class B Stock, a decrease of $425 million or $0.17 per share compared with 2015. Our total Company adjusted pre-tax profit consisted of our second-best Automotive segment profit of $9.4 billion, a solid profit of $1.8 billion in the Financial Services segment, and a loss of $867 million in All Other.

Automotive results were driven by North America, a record profit in Europe, and the second-best profit in Asia Pacific.

In total, our Automotive operations outside North America delivered a full year profit of $421 million, $198 million higher than in 2015.




32

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

In general, we measure year-over-year change in Automotive segment pre-tax results using the causal factors listed below, with net pricing and cost variances calculated at present-year volume and mix and exchange:

Market Factors:
Volume and Mix – primarily measures profit variance from changes in wholesale volumes (at prior-year average contribution margin per unit) driven by changes in industry volume, market share, and dealer stocks, as well as the profit variance resulting from changes in product mix, including mix among vehicle lines and mix of trim levels and options within a vehicle line
Net Pricing – primarily measures profit variance driven by changes in wholesale prices to dealers and marketing incentive programs such as rebate programs, low-rate financing offers, special lease offers, and stock adjustments on dealer inventory

Contribution Costs – primarily measures profit variance driven by per-unit changes in cost categories that typically vary with volume, such as material costs (including commodity and component costs), warranty expense, and freight and duty costs

Structural Costs – primarily measures profit variance driven by absolute change in cost categories that typically do not have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. Structural costs include the following cost categories:
Manufacturing, Including Volume Related consists primarily of costs for hourly and salaried manufacturing personnel, plant overhead (such as utilities and taxes), and new product launch expense. These costs could be affected by volume for operating pattern actions such as overtime, line-speed, and shift schedules
Engineering consists primarily of costs for engineering personnel, prototype materials, testing, and outside engineering services
Spending-Related consists primarily of depreciation and amortization of our manufacturing and engineering assets, but also includes asset retirements and operating leases
Advertising and Sales Promotions includes costs for advertising, marketing programs, brand promotions, customer mailings and promotional events, and auto shows
Administrative and Selling includes primarily costs for salaried personnel and purchased services related to our staff activities and selling functions, as well as associated information technology costs
Pension and OPEB consists primarily of past service pension costs and other postretirement employee benefit costs

Exchange – primarily measures profit variance driven by one or more of the following: (i) transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the relevant entities, (ii) effects of converting functional currency income to U.S. dollars, (iii) effects of remeasuring monetary assets and liabilities of the relevant entities in currencies other than their functional currency, or (iv) results of our foreign currency hedging

Other includes a variety of items, such as parts and services profits, royalties, government incentives and compensation-related changes

In addition, definitions and calculations used in this report include:

Wholesales and Revenue – wholesale unit volumes include all Ford and Lincoln badged units (whether produced by Ford or by an unconsolidated affiliate) that are sold to dealerships, units manufactured by Ford that are sold to other manufacturers, units distributed by Ford for other manufacturers, and local brand units produced by our China joint venture, Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. (“JMC”), that are sold to dealerships. Vehicles sold to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option (i.e., rental repurchase), as well as other sales of finished vehicles for which the recognition of revenue is deferred (e.g., consignments), also are included in wholesale unit volumes. Revenue from certain vehicles in wholesale unit volumes (specifically, Ford badged vehicles produced and distributed by our unconsolidated affiliates, as well as JMC brand vehicles) are not included in our revenue

Automotive Segment Operating Margin – defined as Automotive segment pre-tax profit divided by Automotive segment revenue

Industry Volume and Market Share – based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy duty trucks




33

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Automotive Cash – includes cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities

References to Automotive records for operating cash flow, operating margin, and business units are since at least 2000.

The charts on the following pages detail full year 2016 key metrics and the change in full year 2016 pre-tax results compared with full year 2015 by causal factor for our Automotive segment and its business units — North America, South America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific.

a2016autometrics6.jpg

Shown above are the key financial metrics for our Automotive segment for full year 2016. Wholesales and revenue were about the same as a year ago with all other metrics down, consistent with our expectations for the year.

Global industry volume, estimated at 91.4 million units, was up 3.2 million units or 4%. The increase was driven by industry gains in Asia Pacific, Europe, and North America.

Global market share was down one-tenth of a percentage point driven by lower market share in North America and South America. Market share was flat in Europe and higher in Middle East & Africa and Asia Pacific.

Our Automotive operating margin was 6.7% and pre-tax profit was $9.4 billion. Both metrics were the second-best for a full year and only slightly lower than our record performance in 2015.





34

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016autowaterfall6.jpg

Shown above are the factors that contributed to the $146 million decline in full year Automotive segment pre-tax profit. The lower profit was more than explained by higher warranty costs, including about $600 million for the door latch recall we announced in the third quarter of 2016.

Market factors were favorable, driven by strong mix in all regions except South America. This more than offset unfavorable dealer stock changes which reflected stock reductions this year compared to increases in 2015 in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific.
    






35

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016nametrics6.jpg

North America generated a full year pre-tax profit of $9 billion with an operating margin of 9.7%.

North America industry, at 21.8 million units, was up 300,000 units, reflecting increases in Mexico, United States, and Canada. U.S. industry, at 17.9 million units, was up 100,000 units.
 
Our North America market share was down one-tenth of a percentage point, with U.S. share down by one-tenth of a point to 14.6%. The decrease was driven by lower retail sales, mainly cars. F-Series retail share was a partial offset, improving two-tenths from a year ago.

Included in North America’s profit is about $600 million for the door latch recall we announced in the third quarter, which negatively impacted North America’s operating margin by six-tenths of a percentage point.

36

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016nawaterfall6.jpg

North America’s full year pre-tax profit was $344 million lower than a year ago driven by unfavorable stock changes and higher recall costs.

The unfavorable stock changes reflect decreases in dealer stock this year compared to increases a year ago when we were building F-150 stock after the Kansas City plant launch. It also reflects actions to align production to demand for several vehicles.

The higher product costs reflect primarily the impact of our first major refresh of the Super Duty.

The non-repeat of last year’s one-time ratification bonus related to the UAW agreement was a partial offset.

Within the United States, average retail transaction prices were $1,300 per vehicle higher compared to a year ago, more than double the industry average increase. Our incentives were up as a percent of revenue, but less than the industry average.

For 2017, we expect our North America operating margin and profit to be strong but lower than in 2016, mainly due to unfavorable volume and mix, and increased investments in emerging opportunities.


37

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016sametrics6.jpg
    
All full year key metrics were lower than a year ago, reflecting the difficult external environment.

Industry volume for the region, at 3.7 million units, was 500,000 units lower than 2015 due to Brazil.

Our market share for the region, at 8.8%, was down eight-tenths of a percentage point, reflecting our continued focus on optimizing more profitable share amid higher industry discounting.



38

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016sawaterfall9.jpg

South America’s full year loss was $277 million greater than in 2015. This was more than explained by the unfavorable effects of high local inflation and weaker local currencies exceeding higher net pricing and favorable cost performance.

For 2017, we expect South America’s loss to improve as a result of improving market conditions as the economy begins to recover.



39

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016eurmetrics6.jpg

Europe delivered a record full year profit of $1.2 billion and a record operating margin of 4.2%, both up sharply from a year ago.

Europe industry volume, at 20.1 million units, was 5% higher than a year ago.

Europe’s market share, at 7.7%, was flat from a year ago.

In 2016, Ford remained Europe’s best-selling commercial vehicle brand and improved its share in the commercial vehicle market, reflecting the strength of the Transit line and Ranger.




40

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016eurwaterfall6.jpg

Europe’s full year pre-tax profit improved $946 million from a year ago. This was driven by favorable mix, reflecting increasing demand for our higher trim series across all major vehicle lines, and improved cost performance, reflecting our continued focus on material cost reductions. Improved results in Russia also contributed to Europe’s favorable year-over-year profit improvement.

For 2017, we expect Europe to remain profitable, although at levels below 2016 due mainly to a weaker sterling resulting from Brexit and higher costs associated with continued investment in the business, including the launch of Fiesta and Ecosport. Net pricing is expected to be a partial offset. We also expect continued improvements from our business in Russia.



41

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016meametrics6.jpg

Middle East & Africa’s operating margin and pre-tax results were down sharply, reflecting difficult external conditions resulting in lower volume and unfavorable exchange, primarily the South African rand.

Industry volume for the region, at 3.6 million units, was down 700,000 units from 2015. Lower industry volume was the primary driver in the 14% reduction in our wholesale volume. Our market share for the region was 4.5%, up one-tenth of a percentage point.

For 2017, we expect results in Middle East & Africa to improve due to lower costs, higher net pricing, and favorable exchange.



42

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016apmetrics6.jpg

In 2016, Asia Pacific generated its second-best full year pre-tax profit.

Wholesale volume increased by 10% while revenue from consolidated operations was up 12%.

Asia Pacific industry was 42.1 million units, up 3.0 million units from 2015, primarily explained by a 2.9 million unit increase in China industry volume, estimated at 26.4 million units. The increase was driven by the government purchase tax incentive for vehicles with engine displacements of 1.6 liters or lower.

Our Asia Pacific market share was 3.8%, up two-tenths of a percentage point. The improvement in share was driven by new product introductions, including Taurus, Edge, Lincoln MKX, and Lincoln MKZ.

Our China joint ventures contributed $1.4 billion to Asia Pacific’s pre-tax profit, reflecting our equity share of the unconsolidated JVs’ after-tax earnings; this was $75 million lower than in 2015. Our China joint ventures’ net income margin was 14.6%, a reduction of 1 percentage point from 2015. The decline in margin reflects negative industry pricing in China and a higher mix of vehicles with engine displacement of 1.6 liters or lower.
 



43

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016apwaterfall6.jpg

Asia Pacific’s full year profit was $627 million, down $138 million from 2015, reflecting lower net pricing, adverse exchange effects (mainly a weaker Chinese renminbi), and unfavorable cost performance.

Lower net pricing compared to a year ago reflects continued negative pricing trends in China.

Unfavorable cost performance was driven by cost increases to support higher volumes and continued investment for future product and regulatory actions. The investments in structural cost were offset partially by our continued focus on material cost efficiencies.

Volume and mix were up reflecting higher industry volume in China and improved mix from new product launches.

For 2017, we expect Asia Pacific’s profit to improve due to favorable volume and mix. This will be offset, in part, by lower net pricing which will be lower due to continued negative China industry pricing and unfavorable exchange, mainly the Chinese renminbi.












44

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

FINANCIAL SERVICES SEGMENT

In general, we measure year-over-year changes in Ford Credit’s pre-tax results using the causal factors listed below:

Volume and Mix:
Volume primarily measures changes in net financing margin driven by changes in average managed receivables at prior period financing margin yield (defined below in financing margin) at prior period exchange rates. Volume changes are primarily driven by the volume of new and used vehicle sales and leases, the extent to which Ford Credit purchases retail installment sale and lease contracts, the extent to which Ford Credit provides wholesale financing, the sales price of the vehicles financed, the level of dealer inventories, Ford-sponsored special financing programs available exclusively through Ford Credit, and the availability of cost-effective funding for the purchase of retail installment sale and lease contracts and to provide wholesale financing
Mix primarily measures changes in net financing margin driven by period over period changes in the composition of Ford Credit’s average managed receivables by product and by country or region

Financing Margin:
Financing margin variance is the period-to-period change in financing margin yield multiplied by the present period average managed receivables at prior period exchange rates. This calculation is performed at the product and country level and then aggregated. Financing margin yield equals revenue, less interest expense and scheduled depreciation for the period, divided by average managed receivables for the same period
Financing margin changes are driven by changes in revenue and interest expense. Changes in revenue are primarily driven by the level of market interest rates, cost assumptions in pricing, mix of business, and competitive environment. Changes in interest expense are primarily driven by the level of market interest rates, borrowing spreads, and asset-liability management

Credit Loss:
Credit loss is the change in the provision for credit losses at prior period exchange rates. For analysis purposes, management splits the provision for credit losses into net charge-offs and the change in the allowance for credit losses
Net charge-off changes are primarily driven by the number of repossessions, severity per repossession, and recoveries. Changes in the allowance for credit losses are primarily driven by changes in historical trends in credit losses and recoveries, changes in the composition and size of Ford Credit’s present portfolio, changes in trends in historical used vehicle values, and changes in economic conditions. For additional information on the allowance for credit losses, refer to the “Critical Accounting Estimates - Allowance for Credit Losses” section below

Lease Residual:
Lease residual measures changes to residual performance at prior period exchange rates. For analysis purposes, management splits residual performance primarily into residual gains and losses, and the change in accumulated supplemental depreciation
Residual gain and loss changes are primarily driven by the number of vehicles returned to Ford Credit and sold, and the difference between the auction value and the depreciated value (which includes both base and accumulated supplemental depreciation) of the vehicles sold. Changes in accumulated supplemental depreciation are primarily driven by changes in Ford Credit’s estimate of the expected auction value at the end of the lease term, and changes in the estimate of the number of vehicles that will be returned to it and sold. For additional information on accumulated supplemental depreciation, refer to the “Critical Accounting Estimates - Accumulated Depreciation on Vehicles Subject to Operating Leases” section below

Exchange:
Reflects changes in pre-tax results driven by the effects of converting functional currency income to U.S. dollars

Other:
Primarily includes operating expenses, other revenue, and insurance expenses at prior period exchange rates
Changes in operating expenses are primarily driven by salaried personnel costs, facilities costs, and costs associated with the origination and servicing of customer contracts
In general, other revenue changes are primarily driven by changes in earnings related to market valuation adjustments to derivatives (primarily related to movements in interest rates) and other miscellaneous items




45

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016fcmetrics7.jpg

Ford Credit’s receivables were higher than a year ago, in line with expectations, and while full year pre-tax profit was lower, it remained solid at $1.9 billion. Portfolio performance remained robust, despite higher LTRs. Origination, servicing, and collection practices remained disciplined and consistent.



 

46

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016fcwaterfall9.jpg

Ford Credit’s lower full year pre-tax profit is primarily explained by unfavorable lease residual performance and credit losses. Favorable volume and mix, driven by growth in consumer and non-consumer finance receivables globally and operating leases in North America, was a partial offset. Lease residual performance primarily reflects higher depreciation in North America as we expect lower auction values in the future. Credit loss performance primarily reflects higher charge-offs in North America.

For 2017, we continue to expect Ford Credit’s full year pre-tax profit to be about $1.5 billion, which is lower compared with 2016 due to the impact of increased accumulated depreciation driven by expected lower residual values for Ford Credit’s lease portfolio in North America.






47

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016fintrends6.jpg

Over the last several years, we have seen industry lease share grow. As a result, the supply of off-lease vehicles is higher, and will continue to grow for the next several years. The increased supply of used vehicles is resulting in lower auction values, and we expect this trend to continue. Ford Credit’s off-lease vehicle auction performance reflects industry trends. In 2016, Ford Credit’s off-lease auction values were lower than 2015, primarily reflecting higher return volume and lower auction values on smaller vehicles.

Ford Credit’s 2016 full year lease share was flat compared with 2015 and remains below the industry, reflecting the parameters of our leasing strategy which focuses on supporting sales, protecting residual values, and managing the trade cycle. Industry off-lease volume is expected to continue to grow. Ford Credit continues to plan for lower auction values.

The average placement terms and average FICO score have remained stable for several years, reflecting Ford Credit’s disciplined and consistent underwriting practices.


48

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

ALL OTHER

All Other is a combination of Central Treasury Operations (formerly Other Automotive) and Ford Smart Mobility LLC, two operating segments that did not meet the quantitative thresholds in this reporting period to qualify as reportable segments.

The Central Treasury Operations segment is primarily engaged in decision making for investments, risk management activities, and providing financing for the Automotive segment. Interest income (excluding interest earned on our extended service contract portfolio that is included in our Automotive segment), interest expense, gains and losses on cash equivalents and marketable securities, and foreign exchange derivatives associated with intercompany lending are included in the results of Central Treasury Operations. The underlying assets and liabilities, primarily cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, debt, and derivatives, remain with the Automotive segment.

Ford Smart Mobility LLC is a subsidiary formed to design, build, grow, and invest in emerging mobility services. Designed to compete like a start-up company, Ford Smart Mobility LLC will design and build mobility services on its own, and collaborate with start-ups and tech companies.

In 2016, pre-tax results for All Other were a loss of $867 million, a $71 million higher loss compared with a year ago. This increase is more than explained by higher net interest expense, offset partially by lower net losses on cash equivalents and marketable securities.

49

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

SPECIAL ITEMS

As detailed in Note 4 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, special items are reflected as a separate reconciling item, as opposed to being allocated among the Automotive segment, Financial Services segment, and All Other. This reflects the fact that management excludes these items from its review of operating segment results for purposes of measuring segment profitability and allocating resources.

Our pre-tax and tax special items were as follows:

a2016specials8.jpg

TAXES

Our provision for income taxes for full year 2016 was $2.2 billion, resulting in an effective tax rate of 32.2%.

Our full year 2016 adjusted effective tax rate, which excludes special items, was 31.9%.

50

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2015

TOTAL COMPANY

Net income attributable to Ford. The chart below shows our net income attributable to Ford for full year 2015:

a2015totconetincome6.jpg

Net income attributable to Ford for full year 2015 was $7.4 billion or $1.84 diluted earnings per share of Common and Class B Stock, an increase of $6.1 billion or $1.53 per share compared with 2014. Full year 2015 pre-tax results of our Automotive segment, Financial Services segment, All Other, Special Items, and Taxes are discussed in the following sections in “Results of Operations.”

Revenue. Company revenue for full year 2015 was $149.6 billion, $5.5 billion higher than 2014.

Cost of sales and Selling, administrative, and other expenses for full year 2015 were $134.5 billion, a decrease of $2.3 billion compared with 2014. The detail for the change is shown below (in billions):
 
 
2015
Lower/(Higher)
2014
Volume and mix, exchange, and other
 
$
1.4

Contribution costs
 
 

Material excluding commodities
 
(3.7
)
Commodities
 
0.9

Warranty, freight, and other
 
1.4

Structural costs
 
(1.8
)
Special items
 
4.1

Total
 
$
2.3




51

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Equity. At December 31, 2015, total equity attributable to Ford was $28.6 billion, an increase of $4.2 billion compared with December 31, 2014. The detail for this change is shown below (in billions):
 
Increase/(Decrease)
Net income
$
7.4

Dividends
(2.4
)
Other comprehensive income
(1.0
)
Compensation-related equity issuances
0.3

Treasury stock share repurchases
(0.1
)
Total
$
4.2


The chart below shows our full year 2015 total Company adjusted pre-tax results and pre-tax results of our Automotive segment by regional business unit, our Financial Services segment, and All Other, which is mainly net interest expense.

a2015totcowaterfall6a.jpg

We achieved a record Company full-year adjusted pre-tax profit of $10.8 billion in 2015. Collectively, our operations outside of North America were profitable and every business unit, with the exception of South America, was profitable in 2015. In Europe, we earned $259 million, reflecting the progress of our Transformation Plan announced in 2012. Asia Pacific had its best-ever annual profit. North America and Ford Credit continued to deliver benchmark profitability. And as shown below the chart, all business units improved compared with 2014.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

The charts on the following pages detail 2015 key metrics and the change in 2015 pre-tax results compared with 2014 by causal factor for our Automotive segment and its business units —North America, South America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific.

a2015autometrics6.jpg

Shown above are the key market factors and financial metrics for our Automotive segment for full year 2015. Our Automotive operating margin of 6.8 percent was the highest since at least the 1990s. Each of the key metrics improved compared to 2014:

Wholesale volume was up 5%,
Automotive revenue was up 4%, or 9% at constant exchange,
Automotive operating margin was up 2.2 points or nearly 50%, and
Record full year Automotive pre-tax profit, at $9.6 billion, was up 53%.

Global industry volume, estimated at 88.2 million units, was up 0.1 million units from a year ago. Our global market share, at 7.4%, was up three-tenths of a percentage point with gains in South America and Europe.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015autowaterfall6a.jpg

As shown above, our full year Automotive segment pre-tax profit improved by $3.3 billion. The improvement was driven by $7.4 billion of favorable market factors, reflecting the success of our new product launches, our Asia Pacific growth strategy, as well as industry growth in North America and Europe. Cost increases were mainly product-related costs and manufacturing and engineering expense that supported our growth in 2015, and will support further growth in 2016 and beyond.






54

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015nametrics6.jpg

North America had an outstanding year. We delivered substantial top-line growth, operating margin at 10.2%, and full year pre-tax profit of $9.3 billion—up 26%.

The North America industry volume improved compared with a year ago; the U.S. industry volume totaled 17.8 million units, up 1 million units. U.S. market share was flat compared to last year. In addition, although not shown above, U.S. retail share increased one-tenth of a percentage point to 13.0% driven by strong demand for our newest products, including F-150 and Mustang.



55

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015nawaterfall6.jpg

Favorable volume and mix and higher net pricing drove North America’s pre-tax profit higher than a year ago. Higher costs, including a one-time ratification bonus in Other related to the UAW agreement in the fourth quarter, and unfavorable exchange were partial offsets.

We achieved our highest annual sales in the United States since 2005. Ford remained the best-selling vehicle brand in the United States and Ford F-Series was the best-selling vehicle in the United States for the 34th straight year.





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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015sametrics6.jpg

Wholesale volume, revenue, and operating margin were each lower than a year ago, reflecting the continued deterioration of the business environment in South America. Despite the tough conditions, South America’s pre-tax loss for the full year was reduced by $332 million, or 29%, compared to a year ago.

The South America industry volume, at 4.2 million units, was down 1.1 million units. Most of this was in Brazil.
Ford’s market share in South America, at 9.6%, was up seven-tenths of a percentage point reflecting our strong performance in Brazil with the all-new Ka.


57

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015sawaterfall6.jpg

The full year pre-tax loss in South America was less severe than a year ago, reflecting higher net pricing and market share, partially offset by lower industry.

Our team in the region continued to work on all areas of the business to counter the effects of the difficult business environment and position ourselves to be able to recover quickly once conditions begin to improve.


58

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015eurmetrics6.jpg

With the exception of revenue, which was impacted adversely by the strong U.S. dollar, all metrics for the full year were better than a year ago.

The Europe industry volume was 600,000 units higher compared to a year ago, more than explained by the improvement in the Europe 20 markets. Our total Europe market share in the region was up five-tenths of a percentage point to 7.7%, reflecting the strength of EcoSport and Mondeo and geographic mix.

In 2015, Ford became Europe’s best-selling commercial vehicle brand, reflecting the strength of our renewed Transit line-up and Ranger as well as our dedicated dealer network support.


59

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015eurwaterfall6.jpg

In Europe, our full year pre-tax profit was $259 million, up over $850 million compared to a year ago. The improvement in Europe reflects favorable market factors and improved costs flowing through to the bottom line, partially offset by unfavorable exchange and the consolidation of Ford Sollers, our joint venture in Russia. Returning to profitability in 2015 reflected the progress of our Transformation Plan announced in 2012.




60

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015meametrics6.jpg

Our pre-tax results and operating margin improved from a year ago, reflecting higher net pricing offset by lower volume. Wholesale volume and revenue declined compared to a year ago.

The industry volume for the region was flat and our market share declined two-tenths of a percentage point due to industry growth in markets in which we do not participate. Market share was higher compared to 2014 in the major markets in which we do participate.





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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015apmetrics6.jpg

In Asia Pacific, we had our best year yet as we continued to execute our growth strategy.

Asia Pacific achieved record volume, revenue, operating margin, and pre-tax profit in 2015, mainly reflecting the strength of our new products, including the all-new three-row Edge, Figo, Everest, Lincoln MKX, Taurus, and new Ranger.

Our China joint ventures contributed $1.5 billion to pre-tax profit in 2015, reflecting our equity share of the unconsolidated joint ventures’ after-tax earnings; this was $234 million higher than last year.

The industry volume for the region was 39.1 million units, down 600,000 units from a year ago, primarily explained by a decrease in the China industry volume. For the full year, both our Asia Pacific regional market share of 3.6% and our China market share of 4.8% were higher than a year ago.





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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015apwaterfall6.jpg

Asia Pacific delivered an outstanding year with a record pre-tax profit of $765 million, up 29% from a year ago. Favorable volume was driven by strong industry in China, where we were able to leverage the government incentive program with our strong line-up of vehicles with 1.6L or smaller engines. Higher mix reflected the strength of our new products, highlighted by the performance of the locally produced all-new three-row Edge. Higher structural cost was a partial offset to the improvement, as we continued to invest for further growth in the region.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

FINANCIAL SERVICES SEGMENT
    
a2015fcmetrics9.jpg

Ford Credit earned a pre-tax profit of $2.1 billion in 2015, up $232 million from 2014, and its receivables were higher than 2014.





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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2015fcwaterfall9.jpg

Ford Credit’s 2015 pre-tax profit improved compared with 2014. The improvement is more than explained by favorable volume and mix, driven by growth in all products globally. Higher credit losses and the adverse effect of the stronger U.S. dollar were partial offsets. The higher credit losses, primarily in North America, reflect reserve increases in 2015 compared with reserve releases in 2014. Charge-offs were also higher.

ALL OTHER

Our full year 2015 All Other pre-tax results were a loss of $796 million, a $41 million higher loss compared with a year ago. This increase primarily reflects higher net interest expense.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

SPECIAL ITEMS

Our pre-tax and tax special items were as follows:

a2015specials8.jpg

TAXES

Our tax provision for full year 2015 was $2.9 billion, resulting in an effective tax rate of 28.1%.

Our full year 2015 adjusted effective tax rate, which excludes special items, was 28.6%.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

a2016bssummary6.jpg

Automotive Segment

Liquidity. One of our key priorities is to maintain a strong balance sheet, while at the same time having resources available to grow our core business and invest in emerging opportunities. Based on our planning assumptions, we believe we have sufficient liquidity and capital resources to continue to invest in new products and services that customers want and value, transform and grow our business, pay our debts and obligations as and when they come due, pay a sustainable dividend, and provide protection within an uncertain global economic environment.

Our key balance sheet metrics include total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (collectively “Automotive cash”), Automotive liquidity, which includes Automotive cash and total available committed credit lines, and cash net of debt.
 
At December 31, 2016, we had $27.5 billion of Automotive cash, of which about 89% was held by consolidated entities domiciled in the United States. We target to have an average ongoing Automotive cash balance of about $20 billion. We expect to have periods when we will be above or below this amount due to (i) future cash flow expectations, such as for pension contributions, debt maturities, capital investments, investments in emerging opportunities, or restructuring requirements, (ii) short-term timing differences, and (iii) changes in the global economic environment.

Our Automotive cash investments primarily include U.S. Department of Treasury obligations, federal agency securities, bank time deposits with investment-grade institutions, corporate investment-grade securities, commercial paper rated A-1/P-1 or higher, and debt obligations of a select group of non-U.S. governments, non-U.S. governmental agencies, and supranational institutions. The average maturity of these investments is approximately one year, and is adjusted based on market conditions and liquidity needs. We monitor our Automotive cash levels and average maturity on a daily basis.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

In addition to our target Automotive cash balance, we also target to maintain a corporate credit facility for our Automotive business of about $10 billion to protect against exogenous shocks. Our corporate credit facility is discussed below. We assess the appropriate long-term target for total Automotive liquidity, comprised of Automotive cash and the corporate credit facility, to be about $30 billion, which is an amount we believe is sufficient to support our business priorities and to protect our business. At December 31, 2016, we had $38.3 billion of Automotive liquidity. Our Automotive cash and Automotive liquidity targets could be reduced over time based on improved operating performance and changes in our risk profile.

Changes in Automotive Cash. Changes in Automotive segment cash are summarized below (in billions):

a2016cashflow6.jpg

In managing our Automotive business, we classify changes in Automotive cash into operating and other items. Operating items include: Automotive segment pre-tax profits, capital spending, depreciation and tooling amortization, changes in working capital, and All Other and timing differences. Non-operating items include: separation payments, transactions with other segments, acquisitions and divestitures, changes in Automotive debt, contributions to funded pension plans, and dividends paid to shareholders.

Automotive operating cash flow was $6.4 billion in 2016, more than explained by Automotive segment pre-tax profits. Automotive total cash flow of $3.9 billion in 2016 includes $2.8 billion in proceeds from our unsecured debt issuance in the United States.

Capital spending was $6.9 billion in 2016, and is projected to be about $7 billion in 2017. Based on expected cash flows and the identification of additional opportunities for profitable growth, the ongoing amount of capital spending to support product development, growth, restructuring, and infrastructure is expected to be between $8 billion and $9 billion per year through 2020.



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

With respect to “Changes in working capital,” in general we carry relatively low Automotive segment trade receivables compared with our trade payables because the majority of our Automotive wholesales are financed (primarily by Ford Credit) immediately upon sale of vehicles to dealers, which generally occurs at the time the vehicles are gate-released shortly after being produced. In addition, our inventories are lean because we build to order, not for inventory. In contrast, our Automotive trade payables are based primarily on industry-standard production supplier payment terms generally ranging between 30 days to 45 days. As a result, our cash flow tends to improve as wholesale volumes increase, but can deteriorate significantly when wholesale volumes drop sharply. These working capital balances generally are subject to seasonal changes that can impact cash flow. For example, we typically experience cash flow timing differences associated with inventories and payables due to our annual summer and December shutdown periods, when production, and therefore inventories and wholesale volumes, are usually at their lowest levels, while payables continue to come due and be paid. The net impact of this typically results in cash outflows from changes in our working capital balances during these shutdown periods.

Available Credit Lines. Total committed Automotive credit lines at December 31, 2016 were $11.9 billion, consisting of $10.4 billion of our corporate credit facility and $1.5 billion of local credit facilities available to non-U.S. Automotive affiliates.  At December 31, 2016, the amount available under the corporate credit facility was about $10.4 billion with about $35 million utilized for letters of credit.  At December 31, 2016, the amount available under local credit facilities was about $500 million with about $1 billion utilized.

Lenders under our corporate credit facility have commitments to us totaling $13.4 billion, with 75% of the commitments maturing on April 30, 2021 and 25% of the commitments maturing on April 30, 2019. We have allocated $3 billion of commitments to Ford Credit on an irrevocable and exclusive basis to support its growth and liquidity. Any borrowings by Ford Credit under the corporate credit facility would be guaranteed by us.

The corporate credit facility is unsecured and free of material adverse change conditions to borrowing, restrictive financial covenants (for example, interest or fixed charge coverage ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and minimum net worth requirements), and credit rating triggers that could limit our ability to obtain funding. The corporate credit facility contains a liquidity covenant that requires us to maintain a minimum of $4 billion in aggregate of domestic cash, cash equivalents, and loaned and marketable securities and/or availability under the facility. If our senior, unsecured, long-term debt does not maintain at least two investment grade ratings from Fitch, Moody’s, and S&P (each as defined under “Credit Ratings” below), the guarantees of certain subsidiaries will be required.

Debt. Total Automotive debt at December 31, 2016 was $15.9 billion, which is about $3.1 billion higher than at December 31, 2015. The increase primarily reflects our unsecured debt issuance in the United States, local funding in international markets and foreign currency exchange, offset partially by debt repayments, including repayments to the U.S. Department of Energy.

U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturer (“ATVM”) Incentive Program. See Note 14 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for information regarding the ATVM loan.

Leverage. We manage Automotive debt levels with a leverage framework to maintain strong, investment grade credit ratings through a normal business cycle. The leverage framework includes a ratio of Automotive debt, underfunded pension liabilities, operating leases, and other adjustments, divided by Automotive income before income tax, adjusted for depreciation, amortization, interest expense on Automotive debt, and other adjustments. Ford Credit’s leverage is calculated as a separate business as described in the Liquidity - Financial Services section of Item 7. Ford Credit is self-funding and its debt, which is used to fund its operations, is separate from our Automotive debt.



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Financial Services Segment

Ford Credit

Funding Overview. Ford Credit’s primary funding and liquidity objective is to maintain a strong investment grade balance sheet with ample liquidity to support its financing activities and growth under a variety of market conditions, including short-term and long-term market disruptions. Ford Credit’s funding strategy remains focused on diversification, and it plans to continue accessing a variety of markets, channels, and investors.

Ford Credit’s liquidity profile continues to be diverse, robust, and focused on maintaining liquidity levels that meet its business and funding requirements. Ford Credit annually stress tests its balance sheet and liquidity to ensure that it continues to meet its financial obligations through economic cycles.

Funding Sources. Ford Credit’s funding sources include primarily unsecured debt and securitization transactions (including other structured financings). Ford Credit issues both short-term and long-term debt that is held by both institutional and retail investors, with long-term debt having an original maturity of more than 12 months. Ford Credit sponsors a number of securitization programs that can be structured to provide both short-term and long-term funding through institutional investors in the United States and international capital markets.

Ford Credit obtains short-term unsecured funding from the sale of floating rate demand notes under its Ford Interest Advantage program and by issuing unsecured commercial paper in the United States and other international markets. At December 31, 2016, the principal amount outstanding of Ford Interest Advantage notes, which may be redeemed at any time at the option of the holders thereof without restriction, was $6 billion. At December 31, 2016, the principal amount outstanding of Ford Credit’s unsecured commercial paper was $4.5 billion, which primarily represents issuance under its commercial paper program in the United States. Ford Credit maintains multiple sources of readily available liquidity to fund the payment of its unsecured short-term debt obligations.

Funding Portfolio. The chart below shows the trends in funding for Ford Credit’s managed receivables:

a2016fcfundingstructure8.jpg

Managed receivables of $137 billion at the end of 2016 were funded primarily with term debt and term asset-backed securities. Securitized funding as a percent of managed receivables was 37%.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Ford Credit expects the mix of securitized funding to trend lower over time. The calendarization of the funding plan may result in quarterly fluctuations of the securitized funding percentage.

Public Term Funding Plan. The chart below shows Ford Credit’s issuances for full-year 2014, 2015, and 2016, and its planned issuances for full-year 2017, excluding short-term funding programs:

a2016fcfundingplan8.jpg

In 2016, Ford Credit completed $28 billion of public term funding.

For 2017, Ford Credit projects full-year public term funding in the range of $24 billion to $30 billion. Through February 8, 2017, Ford Credit has completed over $5 billion of public term issuances.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Liquidity. The chart below shows Ford Credit’s liquidity sources and utilization:

a2016liquidity7.jpg

Ford Credit’s liquidity available for use will fluctuate quarterly based on factors including near-term debt maturities, receivable growth, and timing of funding transactions. Ford Credit targets liquidity of at least $25 billion. At December 31, 2016, Ford Credit’s liquidity available for use was $27 billion, $3.5 billion higher than year-end 2015.

Ford Credit’s sources of liquidity include cash, committed asset-backed facilities, unsecured credit facilities, and the corporate credit facility allocation.

Ford Credit’s balance sheet is inherently liquid because of the short-term nature of its finance receivables, investment in operating leases, and cash. Ford Credit ensures its cumulative debt maturities have a longer tenor than its cumulative asset maturities. This positive maturity profile is intended to provide Ford Credit with additional liquidity after all of its assets have been funded.



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Leverage. Ford Credit uses leverage, or the debt-to-equity ratio, to make various business decisions, including evaluating and establishing pricing for finance receivable and operating lease financing, and assessing its capital structure.

The chart below shows the calculation of Ford Credit’s financial statement leverage and managed leverage:

a2016leverage6.jpg

Ford Credit believes that managed leverage is useful to its investors because it reflects the way Ford Credit manages its business. Ford Credit deducts cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (excluding amounts related to insurance activities) because they generally correspond to excess debt beyond the amount required to support its operations and amounts to support on-balance sheet securitization transactions. Ford Credit makes derivative accounting adjustments to its assets, debt, and equity positions to reflect the impact of interest rate instruments Ford Credit uses in connection with its term-debt issuances and securitization transactions. The derivative accounting adjustments related to these instruments vary over the term of the underlying debt and securitized funding obligations based on changes in market interest rates. Ford Credit generally repays its debt obligations as they mature. As a result, Ford Credit excludes the impact of these derivative accounting adjustments on both the numerator and denominator in order to exclude the interim effects of changes in market interest rates.

Ford Credit plans its managed leverage by considering prevailing market conditions and the risk characteristics of its business. At December 31, 2016, Ford Credit’s financial statement leverage was 9.9:1, and managed leverage was 9.2:1. Ford Credit targets managed leverage in the range of 8:1 to 9:1. Managed leverage is above the targeted range reflecting growth in receivables and the continued impact of a strong U.S. dollar, but it continues to trend toward the target range.








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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Total Company

Pension Plan Contributions and Strategy. Our strategy is to reduce the risk of our funded defined benefit pension plans, including minimizing the volatility of the value of our pension assets relative to pension liabilities and the need for unplanned use of capital resources to fund the plans. The strategy reduces balance sheet, cash flow, and income exposures and, in turn, reduces our risk profile. The key elements of this strategy include:

Limiting liability growth in our defined benefit plans by closing participation to new participants;
Reducing plan deficits through discretionary cash contributions;
Progressively re-balancing assets to more fixed income investments, with a target asset allocation of about 80% fixed income investments and 20% growth assets, which will provide a better matching of plan assets to the characteristics of the liabilities, thereby reducing our net exposure; and
Taking other strategic actions to reduce pension liabilities.

a2016pension6.jpg

Worldwide, our defined benefit pension plans were underfunded by $8.9 billion at December 31, 2016, a deterioration of $700 million from December 31, 2015, due to lower discount rates partially offset by asset returns and contributions. Of the $8.9 billion underfunded status at year-end 2016, $5.9 billion, or about 66%, is associated with our unfunded plans.

The U.S. weighted-average discount rate decreased 24 basis points to 4.03% at year-end 2016 from 4.27% at year-end 2015. The non-U.S. weighted average discount rate decreased 76 basis points to 2.44% at year-end 2016 from 3.20% at year-end 2015.
Asset returns in 2016 for our U.S. plans were 8.6% reflecting fixed income gains as interest rates fell. The fixed income mix in our U.S. plans at year-end 2016 was 75%, two percentage points lower than year-end 2015. Asset returns for our non-U.S. plans were 14%, reflecting fixed income gains and favorable exchange. The fixed income mix in our non-U.S. plans at year-end 2016 was 76%, two percentage points higher than year-end 2015.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

In 2016, consistent with our plan, we contributed $1.2 billion to our global funded pension plans (most of which were mandatory contributions), an increase of $100 million compared with 2015. During 2017, we expect to contribute $1 billion from Automotive cash to our global funded pension plans (most of which are mandatory contributions). We also expect to make about $300 million of benefit payments to participants in unfunded plans, for a combined total of $1.3 billion. Based on current assumptions and regulations, we do not expect to have a legal requirement to fund our major U.S. plans in 2017. After 2017, we expect contributions to our global funded plans of about $1 billion per year, limited to ongoing service cost. While full funding and de-risking will be dependent on many factors, including future global interest rates, based on our present assumptions we expect our global funded pension plans will be fully funded in 2018.

For a detailed discussion of our pension plans, see Note 13 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

Return on Invested Capital. We analyze total company performance using a Return on Invested Capital (“ROIC”) financial metric based on an after-tax rolling five-year average basis, which we believe is appropriate given our industry’s product and investment cycles. The following table contains the calculation of our ROIC for the years shown:

a2016roic8.jpg

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

CREDIT RATINGS

Our short-term and long-term debt is rated by four credit rating agencies designated as nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission:

DBRS Limited (“DBRS”);
Fitch, Inc. (“Fitch”);
Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”); and
Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, a division of McGraw Hill Financial (“S&P”).

In several markets, locally-recognized rating agencies also rate us. A credit rating reflects an assessment by the rating agency of the credit risk associated with a corporate entity or particular securities issued by that entity. Rating agencies’ ratings of us are based on information provided by us and other sources. Credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell, or hold securities, and are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating agency. Each rating agency may have different criteria for evaluating company risk and, therefore, ratings should be evaluated independently for each rating agency.

In the first half of 2016, Ford and Ford Credit received rating upgrades from each of these NRSROs. The following chart summarizes certain of the credit ratings and outlook presently assigned by these four NRSROs:
 
NRSRO RATINGS
 
Ford
 
Ford Credit
 
NRSROs
 
Issuer
Default /
Corporate /
Issuer Rating
 
Long-Term Senior Unsecured
 
Outlook / Trend
 
Long-Term Senior Unsecured
 
Short-Term
Unsecured
 
Outlook / Trend
 
Minimum Long-Term Investment Grade Rating
DBRS
BBB
 
BBB
 
Stable
 
BBB
 
R-2M
 
Stable
 
BBB (low)
Fitch
BBB
 
BBB
 
Stable
 
BBB
 
F2
 
Stable
 
BBB-
Moody’s
N/A
 
Baa2
 
Stable
 
Baa2
 
P-2
 
Stable
 
Baa3
S&P
BBB
 
BBB
 
Stable
 
BBB
 
A-2
 
Stable
 
BBB-


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

2017 INDUSTRY AND GDP PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS

Based on the current environment, our industry and GDP planning assumptions for 2017 include the following:

a2016planassumptions6.jpg

Overall, we expect growth in GDP globally and in all major markets shown above. Similarly, we expect growth in industry volume globally and in all major markets shown above, except the United States. Industry volume in the United States is expected to decline but remain strong.





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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

PRODUCTION VOLUMES

Our full year 2016 production volumes and first quarter 2017 forecast production volumes for our Automotive business units are as follows (in thousands):

a2016productionvol7.jpg



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

OUTLOOK

2017 Company Guidance

Based on the current economic environment, our Company guidance for 2017 includes the following:

a2016coguidance20178.jpg

After a strong 2016, we expect to deliver another good year in 2017. The total Company outlook shown above is in line with expectations set out at our Investor Day in September 2016.

We are making substantial progress on expanding our business, from a strong, healthy automotive company to one that will be even stronger and bigger as we become an auto and mobility company in the future.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)


Our 2017 outlook by business unit is as follows:

a2016buguidance20176.jpg
We expect profits in North America and Europe to be lower than 2016, while we expect to see improvements in results in South America, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific. Results for Ford Credit and All Other are expected to be lower than 2016.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Risk Factors

Statements included or incorporated by reference herein may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are based on expectations, forecasts, and assumptions by our management and involve a number of risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated, including, without limitation:

Decline in industry sales volume, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, due to financial crisis, recession, geopolitical events, or other factors; 
Lower-than-anticipated market acceptance of Ford’s new or existing products or services, or failure to achieve expected growth;
Market shift away from sales of larger, more profitable vehicles beyond Ford’s current planning assumption, particularly in the United States;
Continued or increased price competition resulting from industry excess capacity, currency fluctuations, or other factors;
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates;
Adverse effects resulting from economic, geopolitical, protectionist trade policies, or other events;
Work stoppages at Ford or supplier facilities or other limitations on production (whether as a result of labor disputes, natural or man-made disasters, tight credit markets or other financial distress, production constraints or difficulties, or other factors);
Single-source supply of components or materials;
Labor or other constraints on Ford’s ability to maintain competitive cost structure;
Substantial pension and other postretirement liabilities impairing liquidity or financial condition;
Worse-than-assumed economic and demographic experience for pension and other postretirement benefit plans (e.g., discount rates or investment returns);
Restriction on use of tax attributes from tax law “ownership change;”  
The discovery of defects in vehicles resulting in delays in new model launches, recall campaigns, or increased warranty costs;
Increased safety, emissions, fuel economy, or other regulations resulting in higher costs, cash expenditures, and/or sales restrictions;
Unusual or significant litigation, governmental investigations, or adverse publicity arising out of alleged defects in products, perceived environmental impacts, or otherwise;
Adverse effects on results from a decrease in or cessation or clawback of government incentives related to investments;
Cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, or infrastructure owned by Ford, Ford Credit, or a third-party vendor or supplier;  
Failure of financial institutions to fulfill commitments under committed credit and liquidity facilities;
Inability of Ford Credit to access debt, securitization, or derivative markets around the world at competitive rates or in sufficient amounts, due to credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, regulatory requirements, or other factors;
Higher-than-expected credit losses, lower-than-anticipated residual values, or higher-than-expected return volumes for leased vehicles;
Increased competition from banks, financial institutions, or other third parties seeking to increase their share of financing Ford vehicles; and
New or increased credit regulations, consumer or data protection regulations, or other regulations resulting in higher costs and/or additional financing restrictions.

We cannot be certain that any expectation, forecast, or assumption made in preparing forward-looking statements will prove accurate, or that any projection will be realized. It is to be expected that there may be differences between projected and actual results. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of their initial issuance, and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. For additional discussion, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” above.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURE RECONCILIATIONS

The following charts show our Non-GAAP financial measure reconciliations for: Adjusted Pre-Tax Profit, Adjusted Earnings Per Share, Adjusted Effective Tax Rate, and Ford Credit Managed Receivables. The GAAP reconciliation for Ford Credit Managed Leverage can be found in the Financial Services Segment section of “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

a2016netincomerecon8.jpg

a2016epsrecon8.jpg

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2016taxraterecon8.jpg

a2016fcmanrecrecon10.jpg



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

2016 SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The tables below provide supplemental consolidating financial information. The data is presented by our reportable segments, Automotive and Financial Services. All Other, Special Items, and Adjustments include our operating segments that did not meet the quantitative threshold to qualify as a reportable segment, special items (which primarily consists of our pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses), eliminations of intersegment transactions, and deferred tax netting.

Selected Income Statement Information. The following table provides supplemental income statement information, by segment (in millions):
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2016
 
 
Automotive
 
Financial
Services
 
All Other, Special Items, & Adjustments
 
Consolidated
Revenues
 
$
141,546

 
$
10,253

 
$
1

 
$
151,800

Total costs and expenses
 
135,158

 
8,904

 
3,622

 
147,684

Interest expense on Automotive debt
 

 

 
894

 
894

Other income/(loss), net
 
1,287

 
438

 
69

 
1,794

Equity in net income of affiliated companies
 
1,747

 
33

 

 
1,780

Income/(loss) before income taxes
 
9,422

 
1,820

 
(4,446
)
 
6,796

Provision for/(Benefit from) income taxes
 
3,109

 
505

 
(1,425
)
 
2,189

Net income/(loss)
 
$
6,313

 
$
1,315

 
$
(3,021
)
 
$
4,607



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Selected Balance Sheet Information. The following tables provide supplemental balance sheet information, by segment (in millions):
 
 
December 31, 2016
Assets
 
Automotive
 
Financial
Services
 
All Other, Special Items, & Adjustments
 
Consolidated
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
7,820

 
$
8,077

 
$
8

 
$
15,905

Marketable securities
 
19,642

 
3,280

 

 
22,922

Financial Services finance receivables, net
 

 
46,266

 

 
46,266

Trade and other receivables, less allowances
 
4,457

 
6,645

 

 
11,102

Inventories
 
8,898

 

 

 
8,898

Other assets
 
2,328

 
1,040

 

 
3,368

Receivable from other segments
 
7

 
784

 
(791
)
 

   Total current assets
 
43,152

 
66,092

 
(783
)
 
108,461

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Services finance receivables, net
 

 
49,924

 

 
49,924

Net investment in operating leases
 
1,620

 
27,209

 

 
28,829

Net property
 
31,916

 
156

 

 
32,072

Equity in net assets of affiliated companies
 
3,136

 
153

 
15

 
3,304

Deferred income taxes
 
13,112

 
206

 
(3,613
)
 
9,705

Other assets
 
3,993

 
1,617

 
46

 
5,656

Receivable from other segments
 

 
895

 
(895
)
 

   Total assets
 
$
96,929

 
$
146,252

 
$
(5,230
)
 
$
237,951

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Payables
 
$
20,239

 
$
1,057

 
$

 
$
21,296

Other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
18,193

 
1,120

 
3

 
19,316

Automotive debt payable within one year
 
2,685

 

 

 
2,685

Financial Services debt payable within one year
 

 
46,984

 

 
46,984

Payable to other segments
 
784

 

 
(784
)
 

   Total current liabilities
 
41,901

 
49,161

 
(781
)
 
90,281

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
23,414

 
972

 
9

 
24,395

Automotive long-term debt
 
13,222

 

 

 
13,222

Financial Services long-term debt
 

 
80,079

 

 
80,079

Deferred income taxes
 
199

 
4,105

 
(3,613
)
 
691

Payable to other segments
 
895

 

 
(895
)
 

   Total liabilities
 
$
79,631

 
$
134,317

 
$
(5,280
)