10-K 1 hov20171031_10k.htm FORM 10-K hov20171031_10k.htm
 

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT

OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended OCTOBER 31, 2017

 

  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission file number: 1-8551

 

Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware

22-1851059

(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 110 West Front Street, P.O. Box 500, Red Bank, N.J.

 07701

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

  

  

732-747-7800

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

  

  

Title of Each Class

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

New York Stock Exchange

Preferred Stock Purchase Rights

New York Stock Exchange

Depositary Shares, each representing 1/1,000th of a share of

7.625% Series A Preferred Stock

NASDAQ Global Market

  

  

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Class B Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

Preferred Stock Purchase Rights

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.  Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ☐  No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate “website”, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes ☒  No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a nonaccelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer ☒ 

Nonaccelerated Filer ☐  

Smaller Reporting Company ☐

Emerging Growth Company ☐
  (Do Not Check if a smaller reporting Company)   

          

If an emerging growth company indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ☐  No ☒

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and nonvoting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity as of April 30, 2017 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $283,280,186.

 

As of the close of business on December 15, 2017, there were outstanding 132,286,691 shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock and 15,306,226 shares of its Class B Common Stock.

 

 

HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

 

Part III — Those portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held on March 13, 2018, which are responsive to those parts of Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 as identified herein.

 

 

 

 

 FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Item

  

Page

  

PART I

4

 

 

 

1

Business

4

1A

Risk Factors

12

1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

21

2

Properties

21

3

Legal Proceedings

22

4

Mine Safety Disclosures

23

  

Executive Officers of the Registrant

23

 

 

 

  

PART II

23

 

 

 

5

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

23

6

Selected Financial Data

24

7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

25

7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

52

8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

53

9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

53

9A

Controls and Procedures

53

9B

Other Information

56

 

 

 

  

PART III

56

 

 

 

10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

56

11

Executive Compensation

57

12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

57

13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

58

14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

58

 

 

 

  

PART IV

58

 

 

 

15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

58

  

Signatures

64

16

Form 10-K Summary

58

  

 

 

Part I

 

ITEM 1

 

BUSINESS

 

Business Overview

 

We design, construct, market, and sell single-family detached homes, attached townhomes and condominiums, urban infill, and active lifestyle homes in planned residential developments and are one of the nation’s largest builders of residential homes. Founded in 1959 by Kevork Hovnanian, Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. (the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) was incorporated in New Jersey in 1967 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1983. Since the incorporation of our predecessor company and including unconsolidated joint ventures, we have delivered in excess of 331,000 homes, including 6,149 homes in fiscal 2017. The Company has two distinct operations: homebuilding and financial services. Our homebuilding operations consist of six segments: Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West. Our financial services operations provide mortgage loans and title services to the customers of our homebuilding operations.

 

We are currently, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, offering homes for sale in 130 communities in 24 markets in 14 states throughout the United States. We market and build homes for first-time buyers, first-time and second-time move-up buyers, luxury buyers, active lifestyle buyers and empty nesters. We offer a variety of home styles at base prices ranging from $135,000 to $2,675,000 with an average sales price, including options, of $418,000 nationwide in fiscal 2017.

 

Our operations span all significant aspects of the home-buying process – from design, construction, and sale, to mortgage origination and title services.

 

The following is a summary of our growth history:

 

1959 - Founded by Kevork Hovnanian as a New Jersey homebuilder.

 

1983 - Completed initial public offering.

 

1986 - Entered the North Carolina market through the investment in New Fortis Homes.

 

1992 - Entered the greater Washington, D.C. market.

 

1994 - Entered the Coastal Southern California market.

 

1998 - Expanded in the greater Washington, D.C. market through the acquisition of P.C. Homes.

 

1999 - Entered the Dallas, Texas market through our acquisition of Goodman Homes. Further diversified and strengthened our position as New Jersey’s largest homebuilder through the acquisition of Matzel & Mumford.

 

2001 - Continued expansion in the greater Washington D.C. and North Carolina markets through the acquisition of Washington Homes. This acquisition further strengthened our operations in each of these markets.

 

2002 - Entered the Central Valley market in Northern California and Inland Empire region of Southern California through the acquisition of Forecast Homes.

 

2003 - Expanded operations in Texas and entered the Houston market through the acquisition of Parkside Homes and Brighton Homes. Entered the greater Ohio market through our acquisition of Summit Homes and entered the greater metro Phoenix market through our acquisition of Great Western Homes.

 

 

2004 - Entered the greater Tampa, Florida market through the acquisition of Windward Homes and started operations in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota market.

  

2005 - Entered the Orlando, Florida market through our acquisition of Cambridge Homes and entered the greater Chicago, Illinois market and expanded our position in Florida and Minnesota through the acquisition of the operations of Town & Country Homes, which occurred concurrently with our entering into a joint venture with affiliates of Blackstone Real Estate Advisors to own and develop Town & Country Homes’ existing residential communities. We also entered the Cleveland, Ohio market through the acquisition of Oster Homes.

    

2006 - Entered the coastal markets of South Carolina and Georgia through the acquisition of Craftbuilt Homes.

 

 During fiscal 2016, we exited the Minneapolis, Minnesota and Raleigh, North Carolina markets and sold land portfolios in those markets. We are in the process of completing a wind down of our operations in the San Francisco Bay area in Northern California and in Tampa, Florida by building and delivering homes to sell through our existing land position.

 

Geographic Breakdown of Markets by Segment

 

The Company markets and builds homes that are constructed in 18 of the nation’s top 50 housing markets. We segregate our homebuilding operations geographically into the following six segments:

 

Northeast: New Jersey and Pennsylvania

 

Mid-Atlantic: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C. and West Virginia

 

Midwest: Illinois and Ohio

 

Southeast: Florida, Georgia and South Carolina

 

Southwest: Arizona and Texas

 

West: California

 

For financial information about our segments, see Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Employees

 

We employed 1,905 full-time employees (whom we refer to as associates) as of October 31, 2017.

 

Corporate Offices and Available Information

 

Our corporate offices are currently located at 110 West Front Street, P.O. Box 500, Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 (See Item 2-Properties). Our telephone number is 732-747-7800, and our Internet web site address is www.khov.com. Information available on or through our web site is not a part of this Form 10-K. We make available through our web site our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(d) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Copies of the Company’s Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports are available free of charge upon request. Any materials we file with the SEC may be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C., 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

 

 

Business Strategies

 

Given the low levels of total U.S. housing starts, and our belief in the long-term recovery of the homebuilding market, we remain focused on identifying new land parcels, which are critical to improving our financial performance. During fiscal 2016, we had approximately $260 million of bonds mature, which we were unable to refinance because financing was unavailable in the capital and loan markets to companies with comparable credit ratings to ours. As a result, we shifted our focus from growth to gaining operating efficiencies and improving our bottom line, and in order to preserve and increase cash to fund our maturing debt, we decided to temporarily reduce the amount of cash we were spending on future land acquisitions and to exit from four underperforming markets during fiscal 2016. In addition, we increased our use of land banking and joint ventures in order to enhance our liquidity position. The net effect of these liquidity enhancing efforts was to temporarily reduce our ability to invest as aggressively in new land parcels as previously planned. This resulted in a reduction in our community count in fiscal 2016 and 2017, along with a decrease in net contracts during these periods, as compared to the prior year periods. As a result of our decreased community count, we had fewer deliveries, revenues and profit in 2017 as compared to the prior year.

 

In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 and in July 2017, we were able to refinance certain of our debt maturities including certain of our senior secured notes which were scheduled to mature in October 2018 and October and November 2020, with $440.0 million of new senior secured notes maturing in July 2022 and $400.0 million of new senior secured notes maturing in July 2024. While these transactions extended the maturities of a significant amount of debt giving us the ability to more fully invest in new communities again, they also resulted in a $42.3 million loss on early extinguishment of debt. When added to prior period results, this created a three-year cumulative loss, which led us to reconsider the realizability of our deferred tax assets in accordance with GAAP and record a $294.1 million non-cash increase in the valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets. See Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. We continue to see opportunities to purchase land at prices that make economic sense in light of our current sales prices and sales pace and plan to continue actively pursuing such land acquisitions.

 

In addition to our current focus on maintaining adequate liquidity and evaluating new investment opportunities, we intend to continue to focus on our historic key business strategies, as enumerated below. We believe that these strategies separate us from our competitors in the residential homebuilding industry and the adoption, implementation and adherence to these principles will continue to benefit our business.

    

Our goal is to become a significant builder in each of the selected markets in which we operate, which will enable us to achieve powers and economies of scale and differentiate ourselves from most of our competitors.

 

As noted above, we offer a broad product array to provide housing to a wide range of customers. Our customers consist of first-time buyers, first-time and second-time move-up buyers, luxury buyers, active lifestyle buyers and empty nesters. Our diverse product array includes single-family detached homes, attached townhomes and condominiums, urban infill and active lifestyle homes.

 

We are committed to customer satisfaction and quality in the homes that we build. We recognize that our future success rests in the ability to deliver quality homes to satisfied customers. We seek to expand our commitment to customer service through a variety of quality initiatives. In addition, our focus remains on attracting and developing quality associates. We use several leadership development and mentoring programs to identify key individuals and prepare them for positions of greater responsibility within our Company.

 

We focus on achieving high return on invested capital. Each new community is evaluated based on its ability to meet or exceed internal rate of return requirements. Our belief is that the best way to create lasting value for our shareholders is through a strong focus on return on invested capital.

 

We prefer to use a risk-averse land acquisition strategy. We attempt to acquire land with a minimum cash investment and negotiate takedown options, thereby limiting the financial exposure to the amounts invested in property and predevelopment costs. This approach significantly reduces our risk and generally allows us to obtain necessary development approvals before acquisition of the land.

 

We enter into homebuilding and land development joint ventures from time to time as a means of controlling lot positions, expanding our market opportunities, establishing strategic alliances, reducing our risk profile, leveraging our capital base and enhancing our returns on capital. Our homebuilding joint ventures are generally entered into with third-party investors to develop land and construct homes that are sold directly to home buyers. Our land development joint ventures include those with developers and other homebuilders, as well as financial investors to develop finished lots for sale to the joint venture’s members or other third parties.

 

We manage our financial services operations to better serve all of our home buyers. Our current mortgage financing and title service operations enhance our contact with customers and allow us to coordinate the home-buying experience from beginning to end.

 

Operating Policies and Procedures

 

We attempt to reduce the effect of certain risks inherent in the housing industry through the following policies and procedures:

 

Training - Our training is designed to provide our associates with the knowledge, attitudes, skills and habits necessary to succeed in their jobs. Our training department regularly conducts online or webinar training in sales, construction, administration and managerial skills.

 

 

Land Acquisition, Planning, and Development - Before entering into a contract to acquire land, we complete extensive comparative studies and analyses which assist us in evaluating the economic feasibility of such land acquisition. We generally follow a policy of acquiring options to purchase land for future community developments.

 

 

Where possible, we acquire land for future development through the use of land options, which need not be exercised before the completion of the regulatory approval process. We attempt to structure these options with flexible takedown schedules rather than with an obligation to take down the entire parcel upon receiving regulatory approval. If we are unable to negotiate flexible takedown schedules, we will buy parcels in a single bulk purchase. Additionally, we purchase improved lots in certain markets by acquiring a small number of improved lots with an option on additional lots. This allows us to minimize the economic costs and risks of carrying a large land inventory, while maintaining our ability to commence new developments during favorable market periods.

     
 

Our option and purchase agreements are typically subject to numerous conditions, including, but not limited to, our ability to obtain necessary governmental approvals for the proposed community. Generally, the deposit on the agreement will be returned to us if all approvals are not obtained, although predevelopment costs may not be recoverable. By paying an additional nonrefundable deposit, we have the right to extend a significant number of our options for varying periods of time. In most instances, we have the right to cancel any of our land option agreements by forfeiture of our deposit on the agreement. In fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, rather than purchase additional lots in underperforming communities, we took advantage of this right and walked away from 3,930 lots, 6,102 lots and 4,730 lots, respectively, out of 17,837 total lots, 19,210 total lots and 20,653 total lots, respectively, under option, resulting in pretax charges of $2.7 million, $8.9 million and $4.7 million, respectively.

   

Design - Our residential communities are generally located in urban and suburban areas easily accessible through public and personal transportation. Our communities are designed as neighborhoods that fit existing land characteristics. We strive to create diversity within the overall planned community by offering a mix of homes with differing architecture, textures and colors. Recreational amenities, such as swimming pools, tennis courts, clubhouses, open areas and tot lots, are frequently included.

 

Construction - We design and supervise the development and building of our communities. Our homes are constructed according to standardized prototypes, which are designed and engineered to provide innovative product design while attempting to minimize costs of construction. We generally employ subcontractors for the installation of site improvements and construction of homes. Agreements with subcontractors are generally short term and provide for a fixed price for labor and materials. We rigorously control costs through the use of computerized monitoring systems.

 

Because of the risks involved in speculative building, our general policy is to construct an attached condominium or townhouse building only after signing contracts for the sale of at least 50% of the homes in that building. A majority of our single-family detached homes are constructed after the signing of a sales contract and mortgage approval has been obtained. This limits the buildup of inventory of unsold homes and the costs of maintaining and carrying that inventory.

 

Materials and Subcontractors - We attempt to maintain efficient operations by utilizing standardized materials available from a variety of sources. In addition, we generally contract with subcontractors to construct our homes. We have reduced construction and administrative costs by consolidating the number of vendors serving certain markets and by executing national purchasing contracts with select vendors. In recent years, we have experienced some construction delays due to shortage of labor in certain markets like Houston and Dallas; and we cannot predict the extent to which shortages in necessary materials or labor may occur in these or other markets in the future.

 

Marketing and Sales - Our residential communities are sold principally through on-site sales offices. In order to respond to our customers’ needs and trends in housing design, we rely upon our internal market research group to analyze information gathered from, among other sources, buyer profiles, exit interviews at model sites, focus groups and demographic databases. We make use of our website, internet, newspaper, radio, television, magazine, billboard, video and direct mail advertising, special and promotional events, illustrated brochures and full-sized and scale model homes in our comprehensive marketing program. In addition, we have home design galleries in our Florida, Illinois, New Jersey and Virginia markets, which offer a wide range of customer options to satisfy individual customer tastes.

 

Customer Service and Quality Control - In many of our markets, associates are responsible for customer service and preclosing quality control inspections as well as responding to postclosing customer needs. Prior to closing, each home is inspected and any necessary completion work is undertaken by us or our subcontractors. Our homes are enrolled in a standard limited warranty program which, in general, provides a homebuyer with a limited warranty for the home’s materials and workmanship which follows each State’s applicable statute of repose. All of the warranties contain standard exceptions, including, but not limited to, damage caused by the customer.

 

 

Customer Financing - We sell our homes to customers who generally finance their purchases through mortgages. Our financial services segment provides our customers with competitive financing and coordinates and expedites the loan origination transaction through the steps of loan application, loan approval, and closing and title services. We originate loans in each of the states in which we build homes, except Ohio. We believe that our ability to offer financing to customers on competitive terms as a part of the sales process is an important factor in completing sales.

 

During the year ended October 31, 2017, for the markets in which our mortgage subsidiaries originated loans, 13.9% of our home buyers paid in cash and 67.8% of our noncash home buyers obtained mortgages from our mortgage banking subsidiary. The loans we originated in fiscal 2017 were 74.9% prime and 25.1% Federal Housing Administration/Veterans Affairs (“FHA/VA”).

  

We customarily sell virtually all of the loans and loan-servicing rights that we originate within a short period of time. Loans are sold either individually or against forward commitments to institutional investors, including banks, mortgage banking firms, and savings and loan associations.

 

Residential Development Activities

 

Our residential development activities include site planning and engineering, obtaining environmental and other regulatory approvals and constructing roads, sewer, water, and drainage facilities, recreational facilities, and other amenities and marketing and selling homes. These activities are performed by our associates, together with independent architects, consultants and contractors. Our associates also carry out long-term planning of communities. A residential development generally includes single-family detached homes and/or a number of residential buildings containing from two to 24 individual homes per building, together with amenities, such as club houses, swimming pools, tennis courts, tot lots and open areas.

  

Current base prices for our homes in contract backlog at October 31, 2017, range from $160,000 to $970,000 in the Northeast, from $171,000 to $2,675,000 in the Mid-Atlantic, from $135,000 to $831,000 in the Midwest, from $224,000 to $880,000 in the Southeast, from $179,000 to $625,000 in the Southwest and from $208,000 to $965,000 in the West. Closings generally occur and are typically reflected in revenues within six to nine months of when sales contracts are signed.

 

 

Information on homes delivered by segment for the year ended October 31, 2017, is set forth below:

 

(Housing revenue in thousands)

 

Housing

Revenues

   

Homes

Delivered

   

Average Price

 

Northeast

  $ 166,752       351     $ 475,077  

Mid-Atlantic

    463,271       856       541,205  

Midwest

    199,009       640       310,951  

Southeast

    257,066       614       418,675  

Southwest

    826,422       2,357       350,624  

West

    427,513       784       545,297  

Consolidated total

  $ 2,340,033       5,602     $ 417,714  

Unconsolidated joint ventures (1)

    310,573       547       567,774  

 

(1) Represents housing revenues and home deliveries for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our unconsolidated joint ventures.

 

The value of our net sales contracts, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, decreased 17.3% to $2.1 billion for the year ended October 31, 2017 from $2.5 billion for the year ended October 31, 2016. The number of homes contracted decreased 14.9% to 5,196 in fiscal 2017 from 6,109 in fiscal 2016. The decrease in the number of homes contracted occurred along with a 22.2% decrease in the number of open-for-sale communities from 167 at October 31, 2016 to 130 at October 31, 2017. We contracted an average of 35.1 homes per average active selling community in fiscal 2017 compared to 31.3 homes per average active selling community in fiscal 2016, a 12.1% increase in sales pace per community as our performance per community improved in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016.

   

 Information on the value of net sales contracts by segment for the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016, is set forth below:

 

 

(Value of net sales contracts in thousands)

 

2017

   

2016

   

Percentage of

Change

 

Northeast

  $ 119,018     $ 226,635       (47.5

)%

Mid-Atlantic

    399,420       467,782       (14.6

)%

Midwest

    193,451       229,671       (15.8

)%

Southeast

    232,278       287,538       (19.2

)%

Southwest

    718,595       887,341       (19.0

)%

West

    421,335       420,681       0.2

%

Consolidated total

  $ 2,084,097     $ 2,519,648       (17.3

)%

Unconsolidated joint ventures(1)

    436,538       154,088       183.3

%

  

(1) Represents net contract dollars for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our unconsolidated joint ventures.

 

The following table summarizes our active selling communities under development as of October 31, 2017. The contracted not delivered and remaining homes available in our active selling communities are included in the consolidated total homesites under the total residential real estate chart in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” 

   

Active Selling Communities

 

   

Communities

   

Approved

Homes

   

Homes

Delivered

   

Contracted

Not

Delivered(1)

   

Remaining

Homes

Available(2)

 

Northeast

    3       977       658       98       221  

Mid-Atlantic

    24       3,601       2,113       309       1,179  

Midwest

    15       2,746       1,092       382       1,272  

Southeast

    15       2,847       875       285       1,687  

Southwest

    59       10,260       7,027       509       2,724  

West

    14       3,097       1,791       400       906  

Total

    130       23,528       13,556       1,983       7,989  

 

(1)

Includes 301 home sites under option.

 

(2)

Of the total remaining homes available, 685 were under construction or completed (including 83 models and sales offices), and 3,776 were under option.

 

Backlog

 

At October 31, 2017 and 2016, including unconsolidated joint ventures, we had a backlog of signed contracts for 2,437 homes and 2,649 homes, respectively, with sales values aggregating $1.1 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively. The majority of our backlog at October 31, 2017 is expected to be completed and closed within the next six to nine months. At November 30, 2017 and 2016, our backlog of signed contracts, including unconsolidated joint ventures, was 2,606 homes and 2,644 homes, respectively, with sales values aggregating $1.2 billion for both periods. For information on our backlog excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, see the table on page 42 under Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Results of Operations -Homebuilding.”

 

Sales of our homes typically are made pursuant to a standard sales contract that provides the customer with a statutorily mandated right of rescission for a period ranging up to 15 days after execution. This contract requires a nominal customer deposit at the time of signing. In addition, in the Northeast, and some sections of the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest, we typically obtain an additional 5% to 10% down payment due within 30 to 60 days after signing. In most markets, an additional deposit is required when a customer selects and commits to optional upgrades in the home. The contract may include a financing contingency, which permits customers to cancel their obligation in the event mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates (including financing arranged or provided by us) is unobtainable within the period specified in the contract. This contingency period typically is four to eight weeks following the date of execution of the contract. When housing values decline in certain markets, some customers cancel their contracts and forfeit their deposits. Cancellation rates are discussed further in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Sales contracts are included in backlog once the sales contract is signed by the customer, which in some cases includes contracts that are in the rescission or cancellation periods. However, revenues from sales of homes are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations, when title to the home is conveyed to the buyer, adequate initial and continuing investments have been received, and there is no continued involvement.

 

 

Residential Land Inventory in Planning

 

It is our objective to control a supply of land, primarily through options, whenever possible, consistent with anticipated homebuilding requirements in each of our housing markets. Controlled land (land owned and under option) as of October 31, 2017, exclusive of communities under development described above under “Active Selling Communities” and excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, is summarized in the following table. The proposed developable home sites in communities in planning are included in the 25,549 consolidated total home sites under the total residential real estate table in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” on page 37.

 

Communities in Planning

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

Number

of Proposed

Communities

   

Proposed

Developable

Home Sites

   

Total

Land

Option

Price

   

Book

Value

 

Northeast:

                               

Under option(1)

    33       3,479     $ 221,566     $ 6,628  

Owned

    10       729             $ 49,589  

Total

    43       4,208             $ 56,217  

Mid-Atlantic:

                               

Under option(1)

    11       1,343     $ 139,720     $ 3,955  

Owned

    14       1,410             $ 27,929  

Total

    25       2,753             $ 31,884  

Midwest:

                               

Under option(1)

    9       1,152     $ 67,453     $ 2,169  

Owned

    8       586             $ 5,305  

Total

    17       1,738             $ 7,474  

Southeast:

                               

Under option(1)

    8       1,311     $ 44,679     $ 1,043  

Owned

    4       73             $ 14,412  

Total

    12       1,384             $ 15,455  

Southwest:

                               

Under option(1)

    25       2,200     $ 141,810     $ 8,410  

Owned

    -       -             $ -  

Total

    25       2,200             $ 8,410  

West:

                               

Under option(1)

    5       345     $ 43,006     $ 7,486  

Owned

    16       2,949             $ 13,998  

Total

    21       3,294             $ 21,484  

Totals:

                               

Under option(1)

    91       9,830     $ 658,234     $ 29,691  

Owned

    52       5,747             $ 111,233  

Combined total

    143       15,557             $ 140,924  

 

(1)

The book value of properties under option also includes costs incurred on properties not under option but which are under evaluation. For properties under option, as of October 31, 2017, option fees and deposits aggregated $24.4 million. As of October 31, 2017, we spent an additional $5.3 million in nonrefundable predevelopment costs on such properties.

 

We either option or acquire improved or unimproved home sites from land developers or other sellers. Under a typical agreement with the land developer, we purchase a minimal number of home sites. The balance of the home sites to be purchased is covered under an option agreement or a nonrecourse purchase agreement. During the declining homebuilding market, we decided to mothball (or stop development on) certain communities where we determined that current market conditions did not justify further investment at that time. When we decide to mothball a community, the inventory is reclassified on our Consolidated Balance Sheet from Sold and unsold homes and lots under development to Land and land options held for future development or sale. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on mothballed communities. For additional financial information regarding our homebuilding segments, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

  

 

Raw Materials

 

The homebuilding industry has from time to time experienced raw material and labor shortages. In particular, shortages and fluctuations in the price of lumber or in other important raw materials could result in delays in the start or completion of or increase the cost of developing one or more of our residential communities. We attempt to maintain efficient operations by utilizing standardized materials available from a variety of sources. In recent years, we have experienced some construction delays due to shortage of labor in certain markets like Houston and Dallas, and anticipate that the supply of raw materials could be affected in the near future as a result of Hurricane Harvey in Houston and Hurricane Irma in Florida. We cannot predict, however, the extent to which shortages in necessary raw materials or labor may occur in the future. In addition, we generally contract with subcontractors to construct our homes. We have reduced construction and administrative costs by consolidating the number of vendors serving certain markets and by executing national purchasing contracts with select vendors.

   

Seasonality

 

Our business is seasonal in nature and, historically, weather-related problems, typically in the fall, late winter and early spring, can delay starts or closings and increase costs.

 

Competition

 

Our homebuilding operations are highly competitive. We are among the top 10 homebuilders in the United States in both homebuilding revenues and home deliveries. We compete with numerous real estate developers in each of the geographic areas in which we operate. Our competition ranges from small local builders to larger regional builders to publicly owned builders and developers, some of which have greater sales and financial resources than we do. Previously owned homes and the availability of rental housing provide additional competition. We compete primarily on the basis of reputation, price, location, design, quality, service and amenities.

 

Regulation and Environmental Matters

 

We are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations that affect the development of land and home building, sales and customer financing processes concerning zoning, building design, construction, and similar matters, including local regulations which impose restrictive zoning and density requirements in order to limit the number of homes that can eventually be built within the boundaries of a particular locality. In addition, we are subject to registration and filing requirements in connection with the construction, advertisement and sale of our communities in certain states and localities in which we operate even if all necessary government approvals have been obtained. We may also be subject to periodic delays or may be precluded entirely from developing communities due to building moratoriums that could be implemented in the future in the states in which we operate. Generally, such moratoriums relate to insufficient water or sewerage facilities or inadequate road capacity.

 

In addition, some state and local governments in markets where we operate have approved, and others may approve, slow-growth, or no-growth initiatives that could negatively affect the availability of land and building opportunities within those areas. Approval of these initiatives could adversely affect our ability to build and sell homes in the affected markets and/or could require the satisfaction of additional administrative and regulatory requirements, which could result in slowing the progress or increasing the costs of our homebuilding operations in these markets. Any such delays or costs could have a negative effect on our future revenues and earnings.

 

We are also subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations concerning protection of health and the environment, including those regulating the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, the management of storm water runoff at construction sites, the handling, use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, impacts to wetlands and other sensitive environments, and the remediation of contamination at properties that we have owned or developed or currently own or are developing (“environmental laws”). The particular environmental laws which apply to any given community vary greatly according to the community site, the site’s environmental conditions and the present and former uses of the site. See Risk Factors – “Homebuilders are subject to a number of federal, local, state, and foreign laws and regulations concerning the development of land, the homebuilding, sales, and customer financing processes and the protection of the environment, which can cause us to incur delays and costs associated with compliance and which can prohibit or restrict our activity in some regions or areas”, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” and Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

  

Despite our past ability to obtain necessary permits and approvals for our communities, we anticipate that increasingly stringent requirements will be imposed on developers and homebuilders in the future. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these requirements may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained is dependent upon many factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as changes in policies, rules and regulations and their interpretation and application.

 

 

ITEM 1A

RISK FACTORS

 

You should carefully consider the following risks in addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto.

   

The homebuilding industry is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic conditions, real estate markets, and weather and other environmental conditions, which could affect our ability to build homes at prices our customers are willing or able to pay, could reduce profits that may not be recaptured, could result in cancellation of sales contracts, and could affect our liquidity.

 

The homebuilding industry is cyclical, has from time to time experienced significant difficulties, and is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic conditions such as:   

 

 

Employment levels and job growth;

 

 

Availability of financing for home buyers;

 

 

Interest rates;

 

 

Adverse changes in tax laws;

 

 

Foreclosure rates;

 

 

Inflation;

 

 

Consumer confidence;

 

 

Housing demand in general and for our particular community locations and product designs, as well as consumer interest in purchasing a home compared to other housing alternatives;

  

 

Population growth; and

 

 

Availability of water supply in locations in which we operate.

 

Turmoil in the financial markets could affect our liquidity. In addition, our cash balances are primarily invested in short-term government-backed instruments. The remaining cash balances are held at numerous financial institutions and may, at times, exceed insurable amounts. We seek to mitigate this risk by depositing our cash in major financial institutions and diversifying our investments. In addition, our homebuilding operations often require us to obtain letters of credit. We have an unsecured revolving credit facility that can be used for general purposes, or under which letters of credit may be issued, which matures in 2018. We also have certain stand-alone letter of credit facilities and agreements pursuant to which letters of credit are issued. However, we may need additional letters of credit above the amounts provided under these facilities and agreements. If we are unable to obtain such additional letters of credit as needed to operate our business, we may be adversely affected, particularly in light of the upcoming maturity of our unsecured revolving credit facility.

 

Weather conditions and man-made or natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, droughts, fires and other environmental conditions, can harm the local homebuilding business. For example, in September 2017, Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma caused disruption and delays in Houston and Florida which may continue to impact results in these markets in fiscal 2018. Similarly, our production process slowed and our cost of operations increased in Texas during fiscal 2015 as a result of record wet conditions in this state and, in August 2011 and October 2012, Hurricane Irene and Hurricane Sandy, respectively, caused widespread flooding and disruptions on the Atlantic seaboard, which impacted our sales and construction activity in affected markets during those months.

 

The difficulties described above could cause us to take longer and incur more costs to build our homes. In addition, our insurance may not fully cover business interruptions or losses caused by weather conditions and manmade or natural disasters and we may not be able to recapture increased costs by raising prices in many cases because we fix our prices up to 12 months in advance of delivery by signing home sales contracts. Some home buyers may also cancel or not honor their home sales contracts altogether.

 

Our business, liquidity and results of operations are still recovering from the significant and sustained homebuilding downturn and another downturn in the homebuilding industry could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

The homebuilding industry experienced a significant and sustained downturn that began in 2007, during which the lowest volumes of housing starts were significantly below troughs in previous downturns. This downturn resulted in an industry-wide softening of demand for new homes due to a lack of consumer confidence, decreased availability of mortgage financing, and large supplies of resale and new home inventories, among other factors. In addition, an oversupply of alternatives to new homes, such as rental properties, resale homes, and foreclosures, depressed prices and reduced margins for the sale of new homes. Industry conditions had a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations in fiscal years 2007 through 2011. Further, we had substantially increased our inventory through fiscal 2006, which required significant cash outlays and which increased our price and margin exposure as we worked through this inventory. Although the homebuilding market has improved in the last few years, the volume of 2017 housing starts is still just above previous volume troughs in historical cycles, and our business, liquidity and results of operations continue to be impacted by the lasting effects of the significant and sustained downturn and it may continue to materially adverse our business and results of operations in future years. If the homebuilding industry experiences another significant or sustained downturn, it would materially adversely affect our business and results of operations in future years.

 

 

Several challenges, such as general U.S. economic uncertainty and the potential for more rapid inflation, extreme weather conditions, increasing cycle times due to labor shortages, increasing labor and materials costs, the restrictive mortgage lending environment and rising mortgage interest rates, could further impact the housing market and, consequently, our performance. For example, if rising house construction costs substantially outpace increases in the income of potential purchasers we may be limited in our ability to raise home sales prices, which may result in lower gross margins.

 

Our leverage places burdens on our ability to comply with the terms of our indebtedness, may restrict our ability to operate, may prevent us from fulfilling our obligations, and may adversely affect our financial condition.

 

We have a significant amount of debt.

 

 

Our debt (excluding nonrecourse secured debt and debt of our financial subsidiaries), as of October 31, 2017, including the debt of the subsidiaries that guarantee our debt, was $1,661.5 million ($1,654.0 million net of discount), which includes borrowings under our $75.0 million revolving credit facility under which at October 31, 2017, there were $52.0 million of borrowings and $14.6 million of letters of credit outstanding resulting in available borrowing capacity of $8.4 million.

  

 

Our debt service payments for the 12-month period ended October 31, 2017, were $109.7 million, substantially all of which represented interest incurred and the remainder of which represented payments on the principal of our amortizing notes, and do not include repurchases of our debt in open market transactions, principal and interest on nonrecourse secured debt, debt of our financial subsidiaries and fees under our letter of credit and other credit facilities and agreements.

 

As of October 31, 2017, in addition to the $14.6 million letters of credit outstanding under the revolving credit facility, we had $1.7 million in aggregate outstanding face amount of letters of credit issued under various letter of credit and other credit facilities and agreements, certain of which were collateralized by $1.7 million of cash. Our fees for these letters of credit for the year ended October 31, 2017, which are based on both the used and unused portion of the facilities and agreements, were $1.2 million. We also had substantial contractual commitments and contingent obligations, including $199.5 million of performance bonds as of October 31, 2017. See Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Contractual Obligations.”

 

Our significant amount of debt could have important consequences. For example, it could:

 

 

Limit our ability to obtain future financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, or other requirements;

  

 

Require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of our debt and reduce our ability to use our cash flow for other purposes, including land investments;

  

 

Limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business;

 

 

Place us at a competitive disadvantage because we have more debt than some of our competitors;

 

 

Limit our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions;

 

 

Require us to consider selling some of our assets or debt or equity securities, possibly on unfavorable terms, to satisfy obligations; and

  

 

Make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business and general economic conditions.

 

Our ability to meet our debt service and other obligations will depend upon our future performance. We are engaged in businesses that are substantially affected by changes in economic cycles. Our revenues and earnings vary with the level of general economic activity in the markets we serve. Our businesses are also affected by customer sentiment and financial, political, business, and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. The factors that affect our ability to generate cash can also affect our ability to raise additional funds for these purposes through the sale of equity securities, the refinancing of debt, or the sale of assets. Changes in prevailing interest rates may affect our ability to meet our debt service obligations to the extent we have any floating rate indebtedness. A higher interest rate on our debt service obligations could result in lower earnings or increased losses.

 

 

Our sources of liquidity are limited and may not be sufficient to meet our needs.

 

We are largely dependent on our current cash balance and future cash flows from operations (which may not be positive) to enable us to service our indebtedness, to cover our operating expenses, and/or to fund our other liquidity needs. Cash provided from operating activities in fiscal 2017 and fiscal 2016 were $297.6 million and $387.7 million, respectively. Depending on the levels of our land purchases, we could generate negative or positive cash flow in future years. In 2016, we used a significant portion of cash to repay debt because financing was unavailable to us in the capital and loan markets. If the homebuilding industry does not experience improved conditions over the next several years, our cash flows could be insufficient to fund our obligations and support land purchases; if we cannot buy additional land we would ultimately be unable to generate future revenues from the sale of houses. In addition, we will need to refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity including amounts outstanding under our unsecured revolving credit facility which matures in 2018, $369 million principal of unsecured senior notes which will mature during calendar year 2019, and our $75 million Term Loan which will mature in 2019 (subject to earlier maturity if our 7.0% Senior Notes due 2019 have not been refinanced with a maturity date after January 15, 2021), which we may not be able to do on favorable terms or at all. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations (pursuant to the terms of certain of our senior secured notes we generally must refinance our unsecured senior notes due 2019 and may not use cash to satisfy our obligations thereunder) or we are unable to refinance our indebtedness, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital, or restructure our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful or, if successful, made on desirable terms and may not permit us to meet our debt service obligations. We have also entered into certain cash collateralized letters of credit agreements and facilities that require us to maintain specified amounts of cash in segregated accounts as collateral to support our letters of credit issued thereunder. If our available cash and capital resources are insufficient to meet our debt service and other obligations, we could face liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or the proceeds from the dispositions may not be permitted under the terms of our debt instruments to be used to service indebtedness or may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. For additional information about capital resources and liquidity, see Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Capital Resources and Liquidity.”

 

Our cash flows, liquidity and consolidated financial statements could be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to obtain letters of credit.

 

Our homebuilding operations often require us to obtain letters of credit. We have an unsecured revolving credit facility under which letters of credit may be issued, which matures in 2018. We also have certain stand-alone letter of credit facilities and agreements pursuant to which letters of credit are issued. However, we may need additional letters of credit above the amounts provided under these facilities and agreements. If we are unable to obtain such additional letters of credit as needed to operate our business, we may be adversely affected, particularly in light of the upcoming maturity of our unsecured revolving credit facility.

 

We may have difficulty in obtaining the additional financing required to operate and develop our business.

 

Our operations require significant amounts of cash, and we may be required to seek additional capital, whether from sales of debt or equity securities or borrowing additional money, for the future growth and development of our business. The terms and/or availability of additional capital is uncertain. Moreover, the agreements governing our outstanding debt instruments contain provisions that restrict the debt we may incur in the future (including a requirement (i) to refinance our 7% Senior Notes due 2019 and 8% Senior Notes due 2019 (the “Existing Unsecured Notes”) with indebtedness that may not be scheduled to mature earlier than our 10.50% Senior Notes due 2024 or equity, subject to an exception for up to $50 million of cash repurchases and (ii) in our $75.0 million senior secured term loan facility (the “Term Loan Facility”) and the 9.50% Senior Secured Notes due 2020 that any new or refinancing indebtedness may not be scheduled to mature earlier than specified dates in 2021) and our ability to pay dividends on equity. If we are not successful in obtaining sufficient capital, it could reduce our sales and may hinder our future growth and results of operations. In addition, pledging substantially all of our assets to support our term loans and our senior secured notes may make it more difficult to raise additional financing in the future.

 

Restrictive covenants in our debt instruments may restrict our and certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to operate, and if our financial performance worsens, we may not be able to undertake transactions within the restrictions of our debt instruments.

 

The indentures governing our outstanding debt securities, the Term Loan Facility and our revolving credit facility impose certain restrictions on our and certain of our subsidiaries’ operations and activities. The most significant restrictions relate to debt incurrence (including maturity date requirements), creating liens, sales of assets (including in certain land banking transactions), cash distributions, including paying dividends on common and preferred stock, capital stock, Existing Unsecured Notes and subordinated debt repurchases, and investments by us and certain of our subsidiaries. Because of these restrictions, we are currently prohibited from paying dividends on our common and preferred stock and anticipate that we will remain prohibited for the foreseeable future.

 

 

The restrictions in our debt instruments could prohibit or restrict our and certain of our subsidiaries’ activities, such as undertaking capital raising or restructuring activities or entering into other transactions. In such a situation, we may be unable to amend the instrument or obtain a waiver. In addition, if we fail to comply with these restrictions or to make timely payments on this debt and other material indebtedness, an event of default could occur and our debt under these debt instruments could become due and payable prior to maturity. Any such event of default could lead to cross defaults under certain of our other debt or negatively impact other covenants. In these situations, we may be unable to amend the applicable instrument or obtain a waiver without significant additional cost, or at all. In such a situation, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain alternative financing. Any such situation could have a material adverse effect on the solvency of the Company.

 

The terms of our debt instruments allow us to incur additional indebtedness.

 

Under the terms of our indebtedness under our indentures and credit facilities, we have the ability, subject to our debt covenants, to incur additional amounts of debt. The incurrence of additional indebtedness could magnify the risks described above. In addition, certain obligations, such as standby letters of credit and performance bonds issued in the ordinary course of business, including those issued under our stand-alone letter of credit agreements and facilities, are not considered indebtedness under our debt instruments (and may be secured), and therefore, are not subject to limits in our debt covenants.

 

We could be adversely affected by a negative change in our credit rating.

 

Our ability to access capital on favorable terms is a key factor in our ability to service our indebtedness to cover our operating expenses and to fund our other liquidity needs. For example, during fiscal 2011 and thereafter, credit agencies took a series of negative actions with respect to their credit ratings of us and our debt. More recently, in April, May and August 2016, Moody’s Investor Services and S&P Global Ratings, respectively, took certain negative rating actions, including downgrades with respect to their credit ratings of us and our debt, as discussed in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations—Capital Resources and Liquidity.” Downgrades may make it more difficult and costly for us to access capital. Therefore, any further downgrade by any of the principal credit agencies may exacerbate these difficulties. There can be no assurances that our credit ratings will not be further downgraded in the future, whether as a result of deteriorating general economic conditions, a more protracted downturn in the housing industry, failure to successfully implement our operating strategy, the adverse impact on our results of operations or liquidity position of any of the above, or otherwise.

 

Our business is seasonal in nature and our quarterly operating results can fluctuate.

 

Our quarterly operating results generally fluctuate by season. The construction of a customer’s home typically begins after signing the agreement of sale and can take six to nine months or more to complete. Weather-related problems, typically in the fall, winter and early spring, can delay starts or closings and increase costs and thus reduce profitability. In addition, delays in opening communities could have an adverse effect on our sales and revenues. Due to these factors, our quarterly operating results will likely continue to fluctuate.

 

Our success depends on the availability of suitable undeveloped land and improved lots at acceptable prices and our having sufficient liquidity to fund such investments.

 

Our success in developing land and in building and selling homes depends in part upon the continued availability of suitable undeveloped land and improved lots at acceptable prices. The homebuilding industry is highly competitive for land that is suitable for residential development and the availability of undeveloped land and improved lots for purchase at favorable prices depends on a number of factors outside of our control, including the risk of competitive overbidding on land and lots, geographical or topographical constraints and restrictive governmental regulation. Should suitable land opportunities become less available, our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions would be limited and the number of homes we may be able to build and sell would be reduced, which would reduce revenue and profits. In addition, our ability to make land purchases will depend upon us having sufficient liquidity to fund such purchases. We may be at a disadvantage in competing for land due to our significant debt obligations, which require substantial cash resources.

 

Raw material and labor shortages and price fluctuations could delay or increase the cost of home construction and adversely affect our operating results.

 

The homebuilding industry has from time to time experienced raw material and labor shortages. In particular, shortages and fluctuations in the price of lumber or in other important raw materials could result in delays in the start or completion of, or increase the cost of, developing one or more of our residential communities. For example, manufacturers increased the price of drywall in 2013 by approximately 20% as compared to the prior year, and there is a potential for significant future price increases. In addition, we contract with subcontractors to construct our homes. Therefore, the timing and quality of our construction depends on the availability, skill, and cost of our subcontractors. Delays or cost increases caused by shortages and price fluctuations, including as a result of inflation, could harm our operating results, the impact of which may be further affected depending on our ability to raise sales prices to offset increased costs. We have experienced some labor shortages and increased labor costs over the past few years, including fiscal 2017 during which we also experienced increased materials and construction costs. It is uncertain whether these shortages will continue as is, improve or worsen. If rising labor and house construction costs substantially outpace increases in the income of potential purchasers we may be limited in our ability to raise home sale prices, which may result in lower gross margins.

 

 

We rely on subcontractors to construct our homes and should our homes not be properly constructed, it may be costly.

 

We engage subcontractors to perform the actual construction of our homes. Despite our quality control efforts, we may discover that our subcontractors failed to properly construct our homes. The occurrence of such events could require us to repair the homes in accordance with our standards and as required by law. The cost of satisfying our legal obligations in these instances may be significant, and we may be unable to recover the cost of repair from subcontractors and insurers.

 

Changes in economic and market conditions could result in the sale of homes at a loss or holding land in inventory longer than planned, the cost of which can be significant.

 

Land inventory risk can be substantial for homebuilders. We must continuously seek and make acquisitions of land for expansion into new markets and for replacement and expansion of land inventory within our current markets. We incur many costs even before we begin to build homes in a community. Depending on the stage of development of a land parcel when we acquire it, these may include costs of preparing land, finishing and entitling lots, installing roads, sewers, water systems and other utilities, taxes and other costs related to ownership of the land on which we plan to build homes. The market value of undeveloped land, buildable lots, and housing inventories can fluctuate significantly as a result of changing economic and market conditions. In the event of significant changes in economic or market conditions, we may have to sell homes at a loss or hold land in inventory longer than planned. In the case of land options, we could choose not to exercise them, in which case we would write-off the value of these options. Inventory carrying costs can be significant and can result in losses in a poorly performing project or market. The assessment of communities for indication of impairment is performed quarterly. While we consider available information to determine what we believe to be our best estimates as of the reporting period, these estimates are subject to change in future reporting periods as facts and circumstances change. See Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Critical Accounting Policies.” For example, during more recent years, we did not have significant land option write-offs or impairments; however, during fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009, we decided not to exercise many option contracts and walked away from land option deposits and predevelopment costs, which resulted in land option write-offs of $24.3 million, $13.2 million, and $45.4 million, respectively. Also, in fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009, as a result of the difficult market conditions, we recorded inventory impairment losses on owned property of $77.5 million, $122.5 million and $614.1 million, respectively. If market conditions worsen, additional inventory impairment losses and land option write-offs will likely be necessary.

 

We conduct a significant portion of our business in Arizona, California, Florida, New Jersey, Texas and Virginia, and accordingly, regional factors affecting home sales and activities in these markets may have a large impact on our results of operations.

 

We presently conduct a significant portion of our business in Arizona, California, Florida, New Jersey, Texas and Virginia, which subjects us to risks associated with the regional and local economies of these markets. Home prices and sales activities in these markets and in most of the other markets in which we operate have declined from time to time, particularly as a result of slow economic growth. These markets may also depend, to a degree, on certain sectors of the economy and any declines in those sectors may impact home sales and activities in that region. For example, to the extent the oil and gas industries, which can be very volatile, are negatively impacted by declining commodity prices, climate change, legislation or other factors, it could result in reduced employment, or other negative economic consequences, which in turn could adversely impact our home sales and activities in Texas. Furthermore, precarious economic and budget situations at the state government level may adversely affect the market for our homes in the affected areas. Events impacting these markets could also negatively affect the other markets in which we operate. If home prices and sales activity decline in one or more of the markets in which we operate, our costs may not decline at all or at the same rate and the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Because almost all of our customers require mortgage financing, increases in interest rates or the decreased availability of mortgage financing could impair the affordability of our homes, lower demand for our products, limit our marketing effectiveness, and limit our ability to fully realize our backlog.

 

Virtually all of our customers finance their acquisitions through lenders providing mortgage financing. Increases in interest rates (or the perception that interest rates will rise, including as a result of government actions), increases in the costs to obtain mortgages or decreases in availability of mortgage financing could lower demand for new homes because of the increased monthly mortgage costs and cash required to close on mortgages to potential home buyers. Even if potential customers do not need financing, changes in interest rates and mortgage availability could make it harder for them to sell their existing homes to potential buyers who need financing. This could prevent or limit our ability to attract new customers as well as our ability to fully realize our backlog because our sales contracts generally include a financing contingency. Financing contingencies permit the customer to cancel his/her obligation in the event mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates, including financing arranged or provided by us, is unobtainable within the period specified in the contract. This contingency period is typically four to eight weeks following the date of execution of the sales contract.

 

 

Starting in 2007, many lenders have been significantly tightening their underwriting standards, even above the minimum standards set by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and HUD/FHA, and subprime and other alternative mortgage products are no longer being made available in the marketplace. If these trends continue and mortgage loans continue to be difficult to obtain, the ability and willingness of prospective buyers to finance home purchases or to sell their existing homes will be adversely affected, which will adversely affect our operating results. In addition, we believe that the availability of mortgage financing, including Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp, and FHA/VA financing, is an important factor in marketing many of our homes. The maximum size of mortgage loans that are treated as conforming by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac was reduced in the past few years, which could further weaken home sales in general as mortgages may become more expensive and, if conforming loan limits are further reduced, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, in 2010 HUD tightened FHA underwriting standards and the mortgage environment remains constrained. Any limitations or restrictions on the availability of those types of financing could reduce our sales. Further, if we are unable to originate mortgages for any reason going forward, our customers may experience significant mortgage loan funding issues, which could have a material impact on our homebuilding business and our consolidated financial statements.

 

Increases in cancellations of agreements of sale could have an adverse effect on our business.

 

Our backlog reflects agreements of sale with our home buyers for homes that have not yet been delivered. We have received a deposit from our home buyer for each home, which is reflected in our backlog, and we generally have the right to retain the deposit if the home buyer does not complete the purchase. In some situations, however, a home buyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit for reasons such as state and local law, his or her inability to obtain mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates (including financing arranged or provided by us), his or her inability to sell his or her current home, or our inability to complete and deliver the home within the specified time. At October 31, 2017, including unconsolidated joint ventures, we had a backlog of signed contracts for 2,437 homes with a sales value aggregating $1.1 billion. If mortgage financing becomes less accessible, or if economic conditions deteriorate, more home buyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

Increases in the after-tax costs of owning a home could prevent potential customers from buying our homes and adversely affect our business or financial results.

 

Significant expenses of owning a home, including mortgage interest expenses and real estate taxes, generally are, under current tax law, deductible expenses for an individual’s federal, and in some cases state, income taxes, subject to limitations under current tax law and policy. If the federal government or a state government changes its income tax laws to eliminate or substantially limit these income tax deductions, the after-tax cost of owning a new home would increase for many of our potential customers. The "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" which was recently signed into law includes provisions which would impose significant limitations with respect to these income tax deductions. For instance, under the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act", the annual deduction for real estate taxes and state and local income or sales taxes would generally be limited to $10,000. Furthermore, through the end of 2025, the deduction for mortgage interest would generally only be available with respect to acquisition indebtedness that does not exceed $750,000. The loss or reduction of these homeowner tax deductions, if such tax law changes were enacted without any offsetting legislation, would adversely impact demand for and sales prices of new homes, including ours. In addition, increases in property tax rates or fees on developers by local governmental authorities, as experienced in response to reduced federal and state funding or to fund local initiatives, such as funding schools or road improvements, or increases in insurance premiums can adversely affect the ability of potential customers to obtain financing or their desire to purchase new homes, and can have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.

 

We conduct certain of our operations through unconsolidated joint ventures with independent third parties in which we do not have a controlling interest. These investments involve risks and are highly illiquid.

 

We currently operate through a number of unconsolidated homebuilding and land development joint ventures with independent third parties in which we do not have a controlling interest. At October 31, 2017, we had invested an aggregate of $115.1 million in these joint ventures, including advances and a note receivable to these joint ventures of $22.4 million. In addition, as part of our strategy, we intend to continue to evaluate additional joint venture opportunities.

 

These investments involve risks and are highly illiquid. There are a limited number of sources willing to provide acquisition, development, and construction financing to land development and homebuilding joint ventures, and if market conditions become more challenging, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain financing for our joint ventures on commercially reasonable terms. Over the past few years, it has been difficult to obtain financing for newly created joint ventures. In addition, we lack a controlling interest in these joint ventures and, therefore, are usually unable to require that our joint ventures sell assets or return invested capital, make additional capital contributions, or take any other action without the vote of at least one of our venture partners. Therefore, absent partner agreement, we will be unable to liquidate our joint venture investments to generate cash.

 

 

Homebuilders are subject to a number of federal, local, state, and foreign laws and regulations concerning the development of land, the homebuilding, sales, and customer financing processes and the protection of the environment, which can cause us to incur delays and costs associated with compliance and which can prohibit or restrict our activity in some regions or areas.

 

We are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations that affect the development of land and homebuilding, sales and customer financing processes, including zoning, density, building standards and mortgage financing. These laws and regulations often provide broad discretion to the administering governmental authorities. This can delay or increase the cost of development or homebuilding. In light of recent developments in the home building industry and the financial markets, federal, state, or local governments may seek to adopt regulations that limit or prohibit homebuilders from providing mortgage financing to their customers. If adopted, any such regulations could adversely affect future revenues and earnings. In addition, some state and local governments in markets where we operate have approved, and others may approve, slow-growth or no-growth initiatives that could negatively impact the availability of land and building opportunities within those areas. Approval of these initiatives could adversely affect our ability to build and sell homes in the affected markets and/or could require the satisfaction of additional administrative and regulatory requirements, which could result in slowing the progress or increasing the costs of our homebuilding operations in these markets. Any such delays or costs could have a negative effect on our future revenues and earnings.

 

We also are subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations concerning protection of health and the environment, including those regulating the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, the management of storm water runoff at construction sites, the handling, use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, impacts to wetlands and other sensitive environments, and the remediation of contamination at properties that we have owned or developed or currently own or are developing (“environmental laws”). The particular environmental laws that apply to a site may vary greatly according to the community's site, for example, due to the community, the environmental conditions at or near the site, and the present and former uses of the site. These environmental laws may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance, remediation and/or other costs, and can prohibit or severely restrict development and homebuilding activity. In addition, noncompliance with these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations or other sanctions; and contamination or other environmental conditions at or in the vicinity of our developments may result in claims against us for personal injury, property damage or other losses.

 

For example, in March 2013, we received a letter from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) requesting information about our involvement in a housing redevelopment project in Newark, New Jersey that a Company entity undertook during the 1990s. We understand that the development is in the vicinity of a former lead smelter and that tests on soil samples from properties within the development conducted by the EPA show elevated levels of lead. We also understand that the smelter ceased operations many years before the Company entity involved acquired the properties in the area and carried out the re-development project. We responded to the EPA’s request. In August 2013, we were notified that the EPA considers us a potentially responsible party (or “PRP”) with respect to the site, that the EPA will clean up the site, and that the EPA is proposing that we fund and/or contribute towards the cleanup of the contamination at the site. We began preliminary discussions with the EPA concerning a possible resolution but do not know the scope or extent of the Company’s obligations, if any, that may arise from the site and therefore cannot provide any assurance that this matter will not have a material impact on the Company. The EPA requested additional information in April 2014 and again in March 2017 and the Company has responded to its information requests.

 

We anticipate that increasingly stringent requirements will be imposed on developers and homebuilders in the future. For example, for a number of years, the EPA and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have been engaged in rulemakings to clarify the scope of federally regulated wetlands, which included a June 2015 rule many affected businesses contend impermissibly expanded the scope of such wetlands that was challenged in court, stayed, and remains in litigation, and a proposal in June 2017 to formally rescind the June 2015 rule and reinstate the rule scheme previously in place while the agencies initiate a new substantive rulemaking on the issue. It is unclear how these and related developments, including at the state or local level, ultimately may affect the scope of regulated wetlands where we operate. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these developments regarding wetlands, or any other requirements that may take effect may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained is dependent upon many factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as changes in policies, rules, and regulations and their interpretations and application.

 

Several other homebuilders have received inquiries from regulatory agencies regarding the potential for homebuilders using contractors to be deemed employers of the employees of their contractors under certain circumstances. Contractors are independent of the homebuilders that contract with them under normal management practices and the terms of trade contracts and subcontracts within the industry; however, if regulatory agencies reclassify the employees of contractors as employees of homebuilders, homebuilders using contractors could be responsible for wage, hour and other employment-related liabilities of their contractors.

 

Product liability litigation and warranty claims that arise in the ordinary course of business may be costly.

 

As discussed in Item 3 – “Legal Proceedings,” in the ordinary course of business we are involved in litigation from time to time, including with home owners associations, home buyers and other persons with whom we have relationships. As a homebuilder, we are subject to construction defect and home warranty claims, including moisture intrusion and related claims, arising in the ordinary course of business. Such claims are common in the homebuilding industry and can be costly. For example, in the past we have received construction defect and home warranty claims associated with, and we were involved in a multidistrict litigation concerning, allegedly defective drywall manufactured in China (“Chinese Drywall”) that may have been responsible for noxious smells and accelerated corrosion of certain metals in certain homes we have constructed. We remediated certain homes in response to such claims and settled the litigation.

 

 

With regard to certain general liability exposures such as product liability claims, construction defect claims and related claims, assessment of claims and the related liability and reserve estimation process is highly judgmental and subject to a high degree of variability due to uncertainties such as trends in construction defect claims relative to our markets and the types of products we build, claim settlement patterns, insurance industry practices and legal interpretations, among others. Because of the high degree of judgment required in determining these estimated liability amounts, actual future costs could differ significantly from our currently estimated amounts. Furthermore, after claims are asserted for construction defects, it can be difficult to determine the extent to which assertions of such claims will expand geographically. For example, we are party to litigation in New Jersey concerning alleged defects in construction (see Item 3 – “Legal Proceedings” and Note 18 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended October 31, 2017). In addition, the amount and scope of coverage offered by insurance companies is currently limited, and this coverage may be further restricted and become more costly. If we are not able to obtain adequate insurance against such claims, if the costs associated with such claims significantly exceed the amount of our insurance coverage, or if our insurers do not pay on claims under our policies (whether because of dispute, inability, or otherwise), we may experience losses that could hurt our financial results.

 

Our financial results could also be adversely affected if we were to experience an unusually high number of claims or unusually severe claims. Our insurance companies have the right to review our claims and claims history, and do so from time to time, and could decline to pay on such claims if such reviews determine the claims did not meet the terms for coverage. For example, we had a dispute with XL, our insurance carrier for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2006 through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2010, regarding coverage issues pertaining to the fiscal 2006 insurance policy. Specifically, XL maintained that the Company had not satisfied its aggregate retention of $21 million for fiscal 2006 and therefore the Company’s submitted claims in excess of the aggregate retention for fiscal 2006 were not reimbursable by XL under the policy terms (XL disputed the Company’s interpretation of certain definitions within the policy and therefore was denying coverage). The dispute was resolved as a result of mediation pursuant to which XL made a payment in October 2015 to the Company to fully settle coverage for its 2006 and 2007 insurance policy years. The Company is therefore self-insured for those policy years (policy years 2008 through 2010 remain in effect and to date, the Company has not met the aggregate retention for any of these other policy years). Additionally, we may need to significantly increase our construction defect and home warranty reserves as a result of insurance not being available for any of the reasons discussed above, such claims or the results of our annual actuarial study.

 

Mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations or warranties.

 

Our financial services segment originates mortgages, primarily for our homebuilding customers. Substantially all of the mortgage loans originated are sold within a short period of time in the secondary mortgage market on a servicing released, nonrecourse basis, although we remain liable for certain limited representations, such as fraud, and warranties related to loan sales. Accordingly, mortgage investors have in the past and could in the future seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations or warranties. We believe there continues to be an industry-wide issue with the number of purchaser claims in which purchasers purport to have found inaccuracies related to sellers’ representations and warranties in particular loan sale agreements. We have established reserves for potential losses. While we believe these reserves are adequate for known losses and projected repurchase requests, given the volatility in the mortgage industry and the uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of these claims, if either actual repurchases or the losses incurred resolving those repurchases exceed our expectations, additional expense may be incurred. There can be no assurance that we will not have significant liabilities in respect of such claims in the future, which could exceed our reserves, or that the impact of such claims on our results of operations will not be material. Further, an increase in the default rate on the mortgages we originate may adversely affect our ability to sell mortgages or the pricing we receive upon the sale of mortgages.

 

We compete on several levels with homebuilders that may have greater sales and financial resources, which could hurt future earnings.

 

We compete not only for home buyers but also for desirable properties, financing, raw materials, and skilled labor often within larger subdivisions designed, planned, and developed by other homebuilders. Our competitors include other local, regional, and national homebuilders, some of which have greater sales and financial resources or more established relationships with suppliers and subcontractors in the markets in which we operate. In addition, we compete with other housing alternatives, such as existing homes and rental housing. In the homebuilding industry, we compete primarily on the basis of reputation, price, location, design, quality, service and amenities. Our financial services segment competes with other mortgage bankers, primarily on the basis of fees, interest rates and other features of mortgage loan products.

 

The competitive conditions in the homebuilding industry together with current market conditions have, and could continue to, result in:

 

 

difficulty in acquiring suitable land at acceptable prices;  

 

 

increased selling incentives;  

 

 

lower sales;  

 

 

 

delays in construction; or  

 

 

impairment of our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions.

 

Any of these problems could increase costs and/or lower profit margins.

 

Our future growth may include additional acquisitions of companies that may not be successfully integrated and may not achieve expected benefits.

 

Acquisitions of companies have contributed to our historical growth and may again be a component of our growth strategy in the future. In the future, we may acquire businesses, some of which may be significant. As a result of acquisitions of companies, we may need to seek additional financing and integrate product lines, dispersed operations, and distinct corporate cultures. These integration efforts may not succeed or may distract our management from operating our existing business. Additionally, we may not be able to enhance our earnings as a result of acquisitions. Our failure to successfully identify and manage future acquisitions could harm our operating results.

 

Our controlling stockholders are able to exercise significant influence over us.

 

Members of the Hovnanian family, including Ara K. Hovnanian, our chairman of the board, president, and chief executive officer, have voting control, through personal holdings, the limited partnership and the limited liability company established for members of Mr. Hovnanian’s family and family trusts of Class A and Class B common stock that enabled them to cast approximately 57% of the votes that could be cast by the holders of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock combined as of October 31, 2017. Their combined stock ownership enables them to exert significant control over us, including power to control the election of the Board of Directors and to approve matters presented to our stockholders. This concentration of ownership may also make some transactions, including mergers or other changes in control, more difficult or impossible without their support. Also, because of their combined voting power, circumstances may occur in which their interests could be in conflict with the interests of other stakeholders.

 

Our net operating loss carryforwards could be substantially limited if we experience an ownership change as defined in the Internal Revenue Code.

 

Based on past impairments and our current financial performance, we generated a federal net operating loss carryforward of $1.6 billion through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017, and we may generate net operating loss carryforwards in future years.

 

Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) contains rules that limit the ability of a company that undergoes an ownership change, which is generally any change in ownership of more than 50% of its stock over a three year period, to utilize its net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses recognized in years after the ownership change. These rules generally operate by focusing on ownership shifts among stockholders owning directly or indirectly 5% or more of the stock of a company and any change in ownership arising from a new issuance of stock by the company.

 

If we undergo an ownership change for purposes of Section 382 as a result of future transactions involving our stock, including purchases or sales of stock between 5% shareholders, our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and to recognize certain built-in losses would be subject to the limitations of Section 382. Depending on the resulting limitation, a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards could expire before we would be able to use them. A limitation imposed under Section 382 on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards could have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations.

 

In August 2008, we announced that the Board of Directors adopted a shareholder rights plan (the “Rights Plan”) designed to preserve shareholder value and the value of certain tax assets primarily associated with net operating loss carryforwards and built-in losses under Section 382 of the Code, and on December 5, 2008, our stockholders approved the Board’s decision to adopt the Rights Plan. The Rights Plan is intended to act as a deterrent to any person or group acquiring 4.9% or more of our outstanding Class A common stock (any such person an “Acquiring Person”), without the approval of the Company’s Board of Directors. Subject to the terms, provisions and conditions of the Rights Plan, if and when they become exercisable, each right would entitle its holder to purchase from the Company one ten-thousandth of a share of the Company’s Series B Junior Preferred Stock for a purchase price of $35.00 per share (the “purchase price”). The rights will not be exercisable until the earlier of (i) 10 business days after a public announcement by us that a person or group has become an Acquiring Person and (ii) 10 business days after the commencement of a tender or exchange offer by a person or group for 4.9% of the Class A common stock (the “distribution date”). If issued, each fractional share of Series B Junior Preferred Stock would give the stockholder approximately the same dividend, voting and liquidation rights as does one share of the Company’s Class A common stock. However, prior to exercise, a right does not give its holder any rights as a stockholder of the Company, including without limitation any dividend, voting or liquidation rights. After the distribution date, each holder of a right, other than rights beneficially owned by the Acquiring Person (which will thereupon become void), will thereafter have the right to receive upon exercise of a right and payment of the purchase price, that number of shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as the case may be, having a market value of two times the purchase price. After the distribution date, our Board of Directors may exchange the rights (other than rights owned by an Acquiring Person which will have become void), in whole or in part, at an exchange ratio of one share of common stock, or a fractional share of Series B Junior Preferred Stock (or of a share of a similar class or series of Hovnanian’s preferred stock having similar rights, preferences and privileges) of equivalent value, per right (subject to adjustment).

 

 

In addition, on December 5, 2008, our stockholders approved an amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation to restrict certain transfers of our common stock in order to preserve the tax treatment of our net operating loss carryforwards and built-in losses under Section 382 of the Code. Subject to certain exceptions pertaining to pre-existing 5% stockholders and Class B stockholders, the transfer restrictions in the amended Certificate of Incorporation generally restrict any direct or indirect transfer (such as transfers of the Company’s stock that result from the transfer of interests in other entities that own the Company’s stock) if the effect would be to: (i) increase the direct or indirect ownership of the Company’s stock by any person (or public group) from less than 5% to 5% or more of the Company’s stock; (ii) increase the percentage of the Company’s stock owned directly or indirectly by a person (or public group) owning or deemed to own 5% or more of the Company’s stock; or (iii) create a new “public group” (as defined in the applicable United States Treasury regulations).

 

Utility shortages and outages or rate fluctuations could have an adverse effect on our operations.

 

In prior years, the areas in which we operate in California have experienced power shortages, including periods without electrical power, as well as significant fluctuations in utility costs. We may incur additional costs and may not be able to complete construction on a timely basis if such power shortages and outages and utility rate fluctuations continue. Furthermore, power shortages and outages and rate fluctuations may adversely affect the regional economies in which we operate, which may reduce demand for our homes. Our operations may be adversely affected if further rate fluctuations and/or power shortages and outages occur in California, the Northeast or in our other markets.

 

Geopolitical risks and market disruption could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

 

Geopolitical events, acts of war or terrorism, civil unrest, or any outbreak or escalation of hostilities throughout the world or health pandemics, may have a substantial impact on the economy, consumer confidence, the housing market, our associates and our customers. Further, perceived threats to national security and other actual or potential conflicts or wars and related geopolitical risks have created many economic and political uncertainties. If any such events were to occur, it could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

We could be adversely impacted by the loss of key management personnel or if we fail to attract qualified personnel.

 

To a significant degree, our future success depends on the efforts of our senior management, many of whom have been with the Company for a significant number of years, and our ability to attract qualified personnel. Our operations could be adversely affected if key members of our senior management leave the Company or if we cannot attract qualified personnel to manage growth in our business.

 

Information technology failures and data security breaches could harm our business.

 

We use information technology, digital telecommunications and other computer resources to carry out important operational activities and to maintain our business records. Our computer systems, including our backup systems, are subject to damage or interruption from computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, power outages, security breaches (including through data-theft and cyber-attack), usage errors by our associates and catastrophic events, such as fires, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes. If our computer systems and our backup systems are breached, compromised, damaged, or otherwise cease to function properly, we could suffer interruptions in our operations or unintentionally allow misappropriation of proprietary or confidential information, including information about our business partners and home buyers, which could require us to incur significant costs to remediate or otherwise resolve these issues and could damage our reputation.

 

 

ITEM 1B

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 2

PROPERTIES

 

At October 31, 2017, we owned a 69,000 square-foot office complex located in the Northeast that has served as our corporate headquarters, which was sold on November 1, 2017. We plan on renting approximately 57,000 square feet of office space in the Northeast beginning in January 2018 for our corporate headquarters. We own 215,000 square feet of office and warehouse space throughout the Midwest. We lease approximately 433,000 square feet of space for our segments located in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West. Included in this amount is 6,800 square feet of abandoned lease space.

 

 

 

ITEM 3

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

We are involved in litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, none of which is expected to have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows, and we are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations that affect the development of land and home building, sales and customer financing processes, including zoning, density, building standards and mortgage financing. These laws and regulations often provide broad discretion to the administering governmental authorities. This can delay or increase the cost of development or homebuilding.

  

We also are subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations concerning protection of health and the environment, including those regulating the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, the management of storm water runoff at construction sites, the handling, use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, impacts to wetlands and other sensitive environments, and the remediation of contamination at properties that we have owned or developed or currently own or are developing (“environmental laws”). The particular environmental laws that apply to a site may vary greatly according to the community site, for example, due to the community, the environmental conditions at or near the site, and the present and former uses of the site. These environmental laws may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance, remediation and/or other costs, and can prohibit or severely restrict development and homebuilding activity. In addition, noncompliance with these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations or other sanctions; and contamination or other environmental conditions at or in the vicinity of our developments may result in claims against us for personal injury, property damage or other losses.

 

We anticipate that increasingly stringent requirements will be imposed on developers and homebuilders in the future. For example, for a number of years, the EPA and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have been engaged in rulemakings to clarify the scope of federally regulated wetlands, which included a June 2015 rule many affected businesses contend impermissibly expanded the scope of such wetlands that was challenged in court, stayed, and remains in litigation, and a proposal in June 2017 to formally rescind the June 2015 rule and reinstate the rule scheme previously in place while the agencies initiate a new substantive rulemaking on the issue. It is unclear how these and related developments, including at the state or local level, ultimately may affect the scope of regulated wetlands where we operate. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these developments regarding wetlands, or any other requirements that may take effect may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained is dependent upon many factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as changes in policies, rules and regulations and their interpretations and application.

 

In March 2013, we received a letter from the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) requesting information about our involvement in a housing redevelopment project in Newark, New Jersey that a Company entity undertook during the 1990s. We understand that the development is in the vicinity of a former lead smelter and that recent tests on soil samples from properties within the development conducted by the EPA show elevated levels of lead. We also understand that the smelter ceased operations many years before the Company entity involved acquired the properties in the area and carried out the re-development project. We responded to the EPA’s request. In August 2013, we were notified that the EPA considers us a potentially responsible party (or “PRP”) with respect to the site, that the EPA will clean up the site, and that the EPA is proposing that we fund and/or contribute towards the cleanup of the contamination at the site. We began preliminary discussions with the EPA concerning a possible resolution but do not know the scope or extent of the Company’s obligations, if any, that may arise from the site and therefore cannot provide any assurance that this matter will not have a material impact on the Company. The EPA requested additional information in April 2014 and again in March 2017 and the Company has responded to its information requests.

  

The Grandview at Riverwalk Port Imperial Condominium Association, Inc. (“Grandview Plaintiff”) filed a construction defect lawsuit against Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and several of its affiliates, including K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal II, LLC, K. Hovnanian Construction Management, Inc., K. Hovnanian Companies, LLC, K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian North East, Inc. aka and/or dba K. Hovnanian Companies North East, Inc., K. Hovnanian Construction II, Inc., K. Hovnanian Cooperative, Inc., K. Hovnanian Developments of New Jersey, Inc., and K. Hovnanian Holdings NJ, LLC, as well as the project architect, the geotechnical engineers and various construction contractors for the project alleging various construction defects, design defects and geotechnical issues totaling approximately $41.3 million. The lawsuit included claims against the geotechnical engineers for differential soil settlement under the building, against the architects for failing to design the correct type of structure allowable under the New Jersey Building Code, and against the Hovnanian-affiliated developer entity (K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal II, LLC ) alleging that it: (1) had knowledge of and failed to disclose the improper building classification to unit purchasers and was therefore liable for treble damages under the New Jersey Consumer Fraud Act; and (2) breached an express warranty set forth in the Public Offering Statements that the common elements at the building were fit for their intended purpose. The Grandview Plaintiff further alleged that Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian Holdings NJ, LLC, K. Hovnanian Developments of New Jersey, Inc., and K. Hovnanian Developments of New Jersey II, Inc. were jointly liable for any damages owed by the Hovnanian development entity under a veil piercing theory.

 

The parties reached a settlement on the construction defect issues prior to trial, but attempts to settle the subsidence, building classification issue and Consumer Fraud Act claims were unsuccessful. The trial commenced on April 17, 2017 in Hudson County, New Jersey. In the third week of the trial, all of the Hovnanian defendants resolved the geotechnical claims for an amount immaterial to the Company, but the balance of the case continued to be tried before the jury. On June 1, 2017, the jury rendered a verdict against K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal II, LLC on the breach of warranty and New Jersey Consumer Fraud claims in the total amount of $3 million, which resulted in a total verdict of $9 million against that entity due to statutory trebling, plus a to-be-determined portion of Grandview Plaintiff’s counsel fees, per the statute. The jury also found in favor of Grandview Plaintiff on its veil piercing theory. Certain Hovnanian-affiliated defendants filed post-trial motions on three issues: (1) a motion for a judgment notwithstanding the verdict or a new trial; (2) a motion addressing whether any of the Hovnanian-affiliated entities could be jointly liable under a veil piercing theory for the damages awarded against K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal II, LLC; and (3) a motion for contractual indemnification against the project architect. On October 27, 2017, the Court addressed a number of post-trial motions. The Court denied the motion for a judgment notwithstanding the verdict or a new trial, and held that Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and its affiliate, K. Hovnanian Developments of New Jersey, Inc., are jointly liable for the damages awarded against K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal II, LLC. On November 18, 2017, the Court awarded approximately $1.8 million in attorney fees and costs to Grandview Plaintiff out of the approximately $4.8 million it had sought. Certain Hovnanian-affiliated defendants filed a motion for reconsideration of the Court’s decision on attorney fees and costs, which remains pending.

 

 

Once a final judgment is entered, the relevant Hovnanian-affiliated defendants intend to appeal all aspects of the verdict against them. With respect to this case, depending on the outcome of all appeals, the range of loss is between $0 and $10.8 million, inclusive of attorneys’ fees and costs. Management believes that a loss is probable and reasonably estimable and that the Company has reserved for its estimated probable loss amount in its construction defect reserves. However, our assessment of the probable loss may differ from the ultimate resolution of this matter.

 

In 2014, the condominium association of the Grandview II at Riverwalk Port Imperial condominium building (the “Grandview II Plaintiff”) filed a lawsuit in the Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Hudson County (the “Court”) alleging various construction defects, design defects, and geotechnical issues relating to the building along with a claim for piercing the corporate veil as to certain defendants. The operative complaint (“Complaint”) brought claims against Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and several of its affiliates, including K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal III, LLC, PI Investments I, LLC, K. Hovnanian Investments, LLC, K. Hovnanian Homes (not a legal entity but named as a defendant), K. Hovnanian Shore Acquisitions, LLC, K. Hovnanian Construction Management, Inc., K. Hovnanian Companies, LLC, K. Hovnanian Northeast, Inc., K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian Construction III, Inc. and K. Hovnanian Cooperative, Inc. The Complaint also brought claims against various other design professionals and contractors. Grandview II Plaintiff asserted damages of approximately $69 million to $79 million, which amount was potentially subject to treble damages. On December 7, 2017, the Court issued orders adjudicating various parties’ motions for summary judgment. The Court issued an order that granted Grandview II Plaintiff’s motion for partial summary judgment on the claim seeking to pierce the corporate veil of K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal III, LLC and ordered that Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. shall be jointly and severally liable for any damages awarded against K. Hovnanian at Port Imperial Urban Renewal III, LLC, including any treble damages and attorney’s fees and costs. The Court also issued an order dismissing Grandview II Plaintiff’s claims for negligence and breach of implied warranties against certain Hovnanian-affiliated defendants. As of December 14, 2017, the Hovnanian-affiliated defendants reached a settlement with Grandview II Plaintiff that resolved all claims in the case involving the Hovnanian-affiliated defendants. As of October 31, 2017, the Company had fully reserved for this settlement amount. On December 15, 2017, the Court issued an order dismissing the action.

 

On December 21, 2016, the members of the Company’s Board were named as defendants in a derivative and class action lawsuit filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery by Plaintiff Joseph Hong ("Plaintiff Hong").  Plaintiff Hong had previously made a demand for inspection of the books and records of the Company pursuant to Delaware law.  The Company had provided certain company documents in response to Plaintiff Hong’s demand. The complaint relates to the Board of Directors’ decisions to grant Ara K. Hovnanian equity awards in the form of Class B Common Stock, alleging that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company and its stockholders; that the equity awards granted in Class B Common Stock amounted to corporate waste; and that Ara. K Hovnanian was unjustly enriched by equity awards granted to him in Class B Common Stock.  The complaint seeks a declaration that the equity awards granted to Ara K. Hovnanian in Class B Common Stock between June 13, 2014 and June 10, 2016 were ultra vires, invalidation or rescission of those awards, injunctive relief, and unspecified damages. 

 

On December 18, 2017, the parties finalized a settlement agreement to resolve the litigation. Pursuant to the settlement agreement, which remains subject to approval by the Chancery Court, the Company will submit for stockholder approval at the next Annual Meeting of Stockholders a resolution to amend the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation to affirm that in the event of a merger, consolidation, acquisition, tender offer, recapitalization, reorganization or other business combination, the same consideration will be provided for shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock unless different treatment of the shares of each such class is approved separately by a majority of each class.  The Company has also agreed to implement certain operational and corporate governance measures regarding the granting of equity awards in Class B Common Stock and, further, that it will not oppose an application by Plaintiff Hong for attorney’s fees up to $275,000, the amount of which is subject to approval by the Court.

 

 

ITEM 4

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable

 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

 

Information on executive officers of the registrant is incorporated herein from Part III, Item 10.

 

Part II

 

ITEM 5

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Our Class A Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “HOV” and was held by 457 stockholders of record at December 15, 2017. There is no established public trading market for our Class B Common Stock, which was held by 230 stockholders of record at December 15, 2017. If a shareholder desires to sell shares of Class B Common Stock (other than to Permitted Transferees (as defined in the Company’s amended Certificate of Incorporation)), such stock must be converted into shares of Class A Common Stock at a one to one conversion rate. The high and low closing sales prices for our Class A Common Stock were as follows for each fiscal quarter during the years ended October 31, 2017 and 2016: 

 

   

October 31, 2017

   

October 31, 2016

 

Quarter

 

High

   

Low

   

High

   

Low

 

First

  $ 2.89     $ 1.54     $ 2.05     $ 1.36  

Second

  $ 2.48     $ 2.16     $ 1.79     $ 1.30  

Third

  $ 2.96     $ 2.20     $ 1.93     $ 1.54  

Fourth

  $ 2.42     $ 1.72     $ 1.98     $ 1.55  

 

Certain debt instruments to which we are a party contain restrictions on the payment of cash dividends. As a result of the most restrictive of these provisions, we are not currently able to pay any cash dividends. We have never paid a cash dividend to common stockholders.

 

 

For information regarding the equity securities that are authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Part III. Item 12. “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” Equity Compensation Plan Information.

   

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

 

 None.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

No shares of our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock were purchased by or on behalf of the Company or any affiliated purchaser during the fiscal fourth quarter of 2017. The maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the Company’s repurchase plans or programs is 0.5 million.

 

 

ITEM 6

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data and should be read in conjunction with Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 

  

   

Year Ended

 

Summary of Consolidated Statements of Operations Data

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

October 31,

2015

   

October 31,

2014

   

October 31,

2013

 

Revenues

  $ 2,451,665     $ 2,752,247     $ 2,148,480     $ 2,063,380     $ 1,851,253  

Expenses excluding inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs

    2,437,195       2,708,912       2,162,370       2,044,718       1,835,633  

Inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs

    17,813       33,353       12,044       5,224       4,965  

Total expenses

    2,455,008       2,742,265       2,174,414       2,049,942       1,840,598  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

    (34,854

)

    (3,200

)

    -       (1,155

)

    (760

)

(Loss) income from unconsolidated joint ventures

    (7,047

)

    (4,346

)

    4,169       7,897       12,040  

(Loss) income before income taxes

    (45,244

)

    2,436       (21,765

)

    20,180       21,935  

State and federal income tax provision (benefit)

    286,949       5,255       (5,665

)

    (286,964

)

    (9,360

)

Net (loss) income

  $ (332,193

)

  $ (2,819

)

  $ (16,100

)

  $ 307,144     $ 31,295  

Per share data:

                                       

Basic:

                                       

(Loss) income per common share

  $ (2.25

)

  $ (0.02

)

  $ (0.11

)

  $ 2.05     $ 0.22  

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding

    147,703       147,451       146,899       146,271       145,087  

Assuming dilution:

                                       

(Loss) income per common share

  $ (2.25

)

  $ (0.02

)

  $ (0.11

)

  $ 1.87     $ 0.22  

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding

    147,703       147,451       146,899       162,441       162,329  

 

 

Summary of Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

                                       
                                         

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

October 31,

2015

   

October 31,

2014

   

October 31,

2013

 

Total assets(1)

  $ 1,900,898     $ 2,354,956     $ 2,577,398     $ 2,264,433     $ 1,737,373  

Mortgages, lines of credit and revolving credit agreement(1)

  $ 244,088     $ 294,015     $ 310,672     $ 193,104     $ 168,816  

Senior secured term loan, senior secured notes, senior notes, senior amortizing notes, senior exchangeable notes and tangible equity unit (“TEU”) senior subordinated amortizing notes (net of discount)

  $ 1,585,837     $ 1,573,333     $ 1,827,924     $ 1,636,402     $ 1,511,171  

Total equity deficit

  $ (460,371

)

  $ (128,510

)

  $ (128,084

)

  $ (117,799

)

  $ (432,799

)

  

(1) In connection with our adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2015-03 in November 2016, certain prior year amounts for unamortized debt issuance costs were reclassified between the lines “Total assets” and “Mortgages, lines of credit and revolving credit agreement” and “Senior secured term loans, senior secured notes, senior notes, senior amortizing notes, senior exchangeable notes and tangible equity unit (“TEU”) senior subordinated amortizing note (net of discount”. See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

 

 

 

ITEM 7

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Overview

 

During fiscal 2016, we had approximately $260 million of bonds mature, which we were unable to refinance because financing was unavailable in the capital markets to companies with comparable credit ratings to ours. As a result, we shifted our focus from growth to gaining operating efficiencies and improving our bottom line, and in order to preserve and increase cash to fund our maturing debt, we decided to temporarily reduce the amount of cash we were spending on future land acquisitions and to exit from four underperforming markets during fiscal 2016. In addition, we increased our use of land banking and joint ventures in order to enhance our liquidity position. The net effect of these liquidity enhancing efforts was to temporarily reduce our ability to invest as aggressively in new land parcels as previously planned. This resulted in a reduction in our community count in fiscal 2016 and 2017, along with a decrease in net contracts during these periods, as compared to the prior year periods. However, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, we were able to refinance certain of our debt maturities and had homebuilding cash of $339.8 million as of October 31, 2016. In addition, in July 2017, we successfully refinanced and extended the maturities of certain of our senior secured notes which were scheduled to mature in October 2018 and October and November 2020, with $440.0 million of new senior secured notes maturing in July 2022 and $400.0 million of new senior secured notes maturing in July 2024. While these transactions extended the maturities of a significant amount of debt giving us the ability to more fully invest in new communities again, they also resulted in a $42.3 million loss on early extinguishment of debt. When added to prior period results, this created a three-year cumulative loss, which led us to reconsider the realizability of our deferred tax assets in accordance with GAAP and record a $294.1 million non-cash increase in the valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets. See Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Our cash position in fiscal 2017 has allowed us to spend $555.0 million on land purchases and land development during fiscal 2017 and still have $463.7 million of homebuilding cash and cash equivalents as of October 31, 2017. This cash and the July 2017 refinancing transaction, by extending our debt maturities, will enable us to allocate additional cash to further grow our business. We continue to see opportunities to purchase land at prices that make economic sense in light of our current sales prices and sales pace and plan to continue actively pursuing such land acquisitions. New land purchases at pricing that we believe will generate appropriate investment returns and drive greater operating efficiencies are needed to return to sustained profitability.

 

The above factors during fiscal 2016 led to a reduction in our land position and a 22.2% decline in our community count for fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016 and as a result, during fiscal 2017, we experienced mixed operating results compared to the prior year. Net contracts per average active selling community increased 12.1% to 35.1 for the year ended October 31, 2017 compared to 31.3 in the same period in the prior year. This improvement in net contracts per average active selling community demonstrates an increase in sales absorption, which allows us to be more efficient by permitting us to deliver more homes per community without any increase in fixed overheads in those communities. Active selling communities decreased from 167 at October 31, 2016 to 130 at October 31, 2017, and net contracts decreased 14.9% for the year ended October 31, 2017, compared to the same period of the prior year. For the year ended October 31, 2017, sale of homes revenues decreased 10.0% as compared to the same period of the prior year, as a result of the decreased community count. Gross margin percentage increased from 12.2% for the year ended October 31, 2016 to 13.2% for the year ended October 31, 2017. Gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges, increased slightly from 16.9% for the year ended October 31, 2016 to 17.2% for the year ended October 31, 2017. The improvements in both gross margin percentage and gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges, are primarily the result of the mix of communities delivering homes and the reduction of our warranty reserves, rather than significant changes in prices or costs. Additionally, gross margin percentage improved due to a decrease in land charges for the year ended October 31, 2017 compared to the prior year because of the impairments recorded in fiscal 2016, which related to the sale of our land portfolio in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Selling, general and administrative costs (including corporate general and administrative expenses) increased $2.6 million for the year ended October 31, 2017 as compared to the prior year. As a percentage of total revenue such costs increased from 9.2% for the year ended October 31, 2016, to 10.4% for the year ended October 31, 2017 due to the decrease in sale of homes revenues resulting from our decreased community count, as discussed above. The increase in selling, general and administrative costs (including corporate general and administrative expenses) is primarily due to a $12.5 million adjustment recorded during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017 to our construction defect reserves related to litigation. Excluding this adjustment, selling, general and administrative costs (including corporate general and administrative expenses) decreased $9.9 million for the year ended October 31, 2017 as compared to the prior year.

 

When comparing sequentially from the third quarter of fiscal 2017 to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, our gross margin percentage increased from 12.8% to 13.7% and our gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges, increased from 16.8% to 18.2%. Gross margin percentage increased primarily as a result of product mix and the reduction of our warranty reserves, along with price increases in certain communities primarily in the West. Selling, general and administrative costs (including corporate general and administrative expenses) as a percentage of total revenues decreased slightly from 10.3% to 10.1%, as compared to the third quarter of fiscal 2017, and decreased to 8.4% excluding the adjustment to our construction defect reserves discussed above. Selling, general and administrative costs include some fixed costs that are not impacted by delivery volume. Therefore, as revenues increased from the third quarter of fiscal 2017 to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, consistent with our normal seasonality trends, selling, general and administrative costs as a percentage of total revenues decreased. Improving the efficiency of our selling, general and administrative expenses will continue to be a significant area of focus.

 

 

We had 1,983 homes in backlog with a dollar value of $808.0 million at October 31, 2017 (a decrease of 24.4% in dollar value compared to the prior year). As discussed above, we have invested $555.0 million in land purchases and land development during fiscal 2017, which along with continued land acquisitions is expected to eventually result in community count growth. However, there is typically a significant time lag from when we first control lots until the time that we open a community for sale. This timeline can vary significantly from a few months (in a market such as Houston) to three to five years (in a market such as New Jersey). Given the mix of land that we currently control and the land investment we currently anticipate, we are not expecting community count growth until the second half of fiscal 2018. Once our community count grows, absent adverse market factors, we expect delivery and revenue growth will follow.

 

Our fourth quarter results in fiscal 2017 were impacted by Hurricane Harvey. Fortunately, less than ten homes within two of our 45 Houston communities experienced flood damage. The storm damage and construction delays caused by Hurricane Harvey reduced our fourth quarter deliveries and may impact fiscal 2018 results. In spite of this temporary impact, the long-term prospect for the Houston market remains strong. The fourth quarter of fiscal 2017 results were also negatively impacted by an issue related to I-joist’s coated with a certain type of fire resistance product that were manufactured by Weyerhaeuser Company. The Company identified a total of 63 homes located in our Delaware and New Jersey markets that were affected. Of these 63 impacted homes, 30 were scheduled to close in fiscal 2017 and did not as a result of this issue. Weyerhaeuser has accepted responsibility and is presently remediating all affected homes and we will not incur any material costs, expenses or charges as a result. We experienced a combination of delayed closings and cancellations with respect to these units which had a negative impact on net orders, closings and revenue in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017. Subsequent to our fiscal year-end, there have been significant wildfires throughout Southern California. While none of our communities have been directly affected, we could experience labor shortages, construction delays or utility company delays, which in turn could impact our fiscal 2018 results.

   

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Management believes that the following critical accounting policies require its most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements:

  

Income Recognition from Mortgage Loans - Our Financial Services segment originates mortgages, primarily for our homebuilding customers. We use mandatory investor commitments and forward sales of mortgage backed securities (“MBS”) to hedge our mortgage-related interest rate exposure on agency and government loans.

 

We elected the fair value option for our mortgage loans held for sale in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 825, “Financial Instruments,” which permits us to measure our loans held for sale at fair value. Management believes that the election of the fair value option for loans held for sale improves financial reporting by mitigating volatility in reported earnings caused by measuring the fair value of the loans and the derivative instruments used to economically hedge them without having to apply complex hedge accounting provisions.

 

Substantially all of the mortgage loans originated are sold within a short period of time in the secondary mortgage market on a servicing released, nonrecourse basis, although the Company remains liable for certain limited representations, such as fraud, and warranties related to loan sales. Mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations and warranties. We believe there continues to be an industry-wide issue with the number of purchaser claims in which purchasers purport to have found inaccuracies related to the sellers’ representations and warranties in particular loan sale agreements. We have established reserves for probable losses. While we believe these reserves are adequate for known losses and projected repurchase requests, given the volatility in the mortgage industry and the uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of these claims, if either actual repurchases or the losses incurred resolving those repurchases exceed our expectations, additional expense may be incurred.  

 

Inventories - Inventories consist of land, land development, home construction costs, capitalized interest, construction overhead and property taxes. Construction costs are accumulated during the period of construction and charged to cost of sales under specific identification methods. Land, land development and common facility costs are allocated based on buildable acres to product types within each community, then charged to cost of sales equally based upon the number of homes to be constructed in each product type.

 

We record inventories in our consolidated balance sheets at cost unless the inventory is determined to be impaired, in which case the inventory is written down to its fair value. Our inventories consist of the following three components: (1) sold and unsold homes and lots under development, which includes all construction, land, capitalized interest and land development costs related to started homes and land under development in our active communities; (2) land and land options held for future development or sale, which includes all costs related to land in our communities in planning or mothballed communities; and (3) consolidated inventory not owned, which includes all costs related to specific performance options, variable interest entities and other options, which consists primarily of model homes financed with an investor and inventory related to land banking arrangements accounted for as financings.

 

 

We decide to mothball (or stop development on) certain communities when we determine that the current performance does not justify further investment at the time. When we decide to mothball a community, the inventory is reclassified on our Consolidated Balance Sheets from “Sold and unsold homes and lots under development” to “Land and land options held for future development or sale.” As of October 31, 2017, the net book value associated with our 22 mothballed communities was $36.7 million, net of impairment charges recorded in prior periods of $214.1 million. We regularly review communities to determine if mothballing is appropriate. During fiscal 2017, we did not mothball any communities, but we sold five previously mothballed communities and re-activated two previously mothballed communities.

 

From time to time we enter into option agreements that include specific performance requirements, whereby we are required to purchase a minimum number of lots. Because of our obligation to purchase these lots, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 360-20-40-38, we are required to record this inventory on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of October 31, 2017, we had no specific performance options recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Consolidated inventory not owned also consists of other options that were included on our Consolidated Balance Sheets in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”). 

 

We sell and lease back certain of our model homes with the right to participate in the potential profit when each home is sold to a third party at the end of the respective lease. As a result of our continued involvement, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 360-20-40-38, these sale and leaseback transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. Therefore, for purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2017, inventory of $58.5 million was recorded to “Consolidated inventory not owned,” with a corresponding amount of $51.8 million recorded to “Liabilities from inventory not owned.”

   

We have land banking arrangements, whereby we sell our land parcels to the land banker and they provide us an option to purchase back finished lots on a quarterly basis. Because of our options to repurchase these parcels, for accounting purposes, in accordance with ASC 360-20-40-38, these transactions are considered financings rather than sales. For purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2017, inventory of $66.3 million was recorded as “Consolidated inventory not owned,” with a corresponding amount of $39.3 million recorded to “Liabilities from inventory not owned” for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

 

The recoverability of inventories and other long-lived assets is assessed in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360-10, “Property, Plant and Equipment − Overall” (“ASC 360-10”). ASC 360-10 requires long-lived assets, including inventories, held for development to be evaluated for impairment based on undiscounted future cash flows of the assets at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows. As such, we evaluate inventories for impairment at the individual community level, the lowest level of discrete cash flows that we measure.

 

We evaluate inventories of communities under development and held for future development for impairment when indicators of potential impairment are present. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, decreases in local housing market values, decreases in gross margins or sales absorption rates, decreases in net sales prices (base sales price net of sales incentives), or actual or projected operating or cash flow losses. The assessment of communities for indication of impairment is performed quarterly. As part of this process, we prepare detailed budgets for all of our communities at least semi-annually and identify those communities with a projected operating loss. For those communities with projected losses, we estimate the remaining undiscounted future cash flows and compare those to the carrying value of the community, to determine if the carrying value of the asset is recoverable.

 

The projected operating profits, losses, or cash flows of each community can be significantly impacted by our estimates of the following:

 

 

future base selling prices;

 

 

future home sales incentives;

 

 

future home construction and land development costs; and

 

 

future sales absorption pace and cancellation rates.

 

 

These estimates are dependent upon specific market conditions for each community. While we consider available information to determine what we believe to be our best estimates as of the end of a quarterly reporting period, these estimates are subject to change in future reporting periods as facts and circumstances change. Local market-specific conditions that may impact our estimates for a community include:

 

 

the intensity of competition within a market, including available home sales prices and home sales incentives offered by our competitors;

 

 

the current sales absorption pace for both our communities and competitor communities;

 

 

community specific attributes, such as location, availability of lots in the market, desirability and uniqueness of our community, and the size and style of homes currently being offered;

 

 

potential for alternative product offerings to respond to local market conditions;

 

 

changes by management in the sales strategy of the community;

 

 

current local market economic and demographic conditions and related trends of forecasts; and

 

 

existing home inventory supplies, including foreclosures and short sales.

 

These and other local market-specific conditions that may be present are considered by management in preparing projection assumptions for each community. The sales objectives can differ between our communities, even within a given market. For example, facts and circumstances in a given community may lead us to price our homes with the objective of yielding a higher sales absorption pace, while facts and circumstances in another community may lead us to price our homes to minimize deterioration in our gross margins, although it may result in a slower sales absorption pace. In addition, the key assumptions included in our estimate of future undiscounted cash flows may be interrelated. For example, a decrease in estimated base sales price or an increase in homes sales incentives may result in a corresponding increase in sales absorption pace. Additionally, a decrease in the average sales price of homes to be sold and closed in future reporting periods for one community that has not been generating what management believes to be an adequate sales absorption pace may impact the estimated cash flow assumptions of a nearby community. Changes in our key assumptions, including estimated construction and development costs, absorption pace and selling strategies, could materially impact future cash flow and fair-value estimates. Due to the number of possible scenarios that would result from various changes in these factors, we do not believe it is possible to develop a sensitivity analysis with a level of precision that would be meaningful to an investor.

   

If the undiscounted cash flows are more than the carrying value of the community, then the carrying amount is recoverable, and no impairment adjustment is required. However, if the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount, then the community is deemed impaired and is written down to its fair value. We determine the estimated fair value of each community by determining the present value of its estimated future cash flows at a discount rate commensurate with the risk of the respective community, or in limited circumstances, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale), and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties. Our discount rates used for all impairments recorded from October 31, 2015 to October 31, 2017 ranged from 16.8% to 19.8%. The estimated future cash flow assumptions are virtually the same for both our recoverability and fair value assessments. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated cash flows or fair value, including discount rates, decrease or differ from current estimates in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairments related to current and future communities. The impairment of a community is allocated to each lot on a relative fair value basis.

 

From time to time, we write off deposits and approval, engineering and capitalized interest costs when we determine that it is no longer probable that we will exercise options to buy land in specific locations or when we redesign communities and/or abandon certain engineering costs. In deciding not to exercise a land option, we take into consideration changes in market conditions, the timing of required land takedowns, the willingness of land sellers to modify terms of the land option contract (including timing of land takedowns), and the availability and best use of our capital, among other factors. The write-off is recorded in the period it is deemed not probable that the optioned property will be acquired. In certain instances, we have been able to recover deposits and other pre-acquisition costs that were previously written off. These recoveries have not been significant in comparison to the total costs written off.

 

Inventories held for sale are land parcels ready for sale in their current condition, where we have decided not to build homes but are instead actively marketing for sale. These land parcels represented $23.6 million and $48.7 million of our total inventories at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. In determining fair value for land held for sale, management considers, among other things, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale) and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties.

 

 

Unconsolidated Homebuilding and Land Development Joint Ventures - Investments in unconsolidated homebuilding and land development joint ventures are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, we recognize our proportionate share of earnings and losses earned by the joint venture upon the delivery of lots or homes to third parties. Our ownership interests in the joint ventures vary but our voting interests are generally 50% or less. In determining whether or not we must consolidate joint ventures where we are the managing member of the joint venture, we assess whether the other partners have specific rights to overcome the presumption of control by us as the manager of the joint venture. In most cases, the presumption is overcome because the joint venture agreements require that both partners agree on establishing the significant operating and capital decisions of the partnership, including budgets, in the ordinary course of business. The evaluation of whether or not we control a venture can require significant judgment. In accordance with ASC 323-10, “Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures – Overall,” we assess our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for recoverability, and if it is determined that a loss in value of the investment below its carrying amount is other than temporary, we write down the investment to its fair value. We evaluate our equity investments for impairment based on the joint venture’s projected cash flows. This process requires significant management judgment and estimates. During fiscal 2017, we wrote down certain joint venture investments by $2.8 million. There were no write-downs in fiscal 2016 or 2015.

 

Post-Development Completion, Warranty Costs and Insurance Deductible Reserves - In those instances where a development is substantially completed and sold and we have additional construction work to be incurred, an estimated liability is provided to cover the cost of such work. We accrue for warranty costs that are covered under our existing general liability and construction defect policy as part of our general liability insurance deductible. This accrual is expensed as selling, general, and administrative costs. For homes delivered in fiscal 2017 and 2016, our deductible under our general liability insurance is a $20 million aggregate for construction defect and warranty claims. For bodily injury claims, our deductible per occurrence in fiscal 2017 and 2016 is $0.25 million, up to a $5 million limit. Our aggregate retention in fiscal 2017 and 2016 is $21 million for construction defect, warranty and bodily injury claims. We do not have a deductible on our worker's compensation insurance. Reserves for estimated losses for construction defects, warranty and bodily injury claims have been established using the assistance of a third-party actuary. We engage a third-party actuary that uses our historical warranty and construction defect data to assist our management in estimating our unpaid claims, claim adjustment expenses and incurred but not reported claims reserves for the risks that we are assuming under the general liability and construction defect programs. The estimates include provisions for inflation, claims handling and legal fees. These estimates are subject to a high degree of variability due to uncertainties such as trends in construction defect claims relative to our markets and the types of products we build, claim settlement patterns, insurance industry practices and legal interpretations, among others. Because of the high degree of judgment required in determining these estimated liability amounts, actual future costs could differ significantly from our currently estimated amounts. In addition, we establish a warranty accrual for lower cost-related issues to cover home repairs, community amenities and land development infrastructure that are not covered under our general liability and construction defect policy. We accrue an estimate for these warranty costs as part of cost of sales at the time each home is closed and title and possession have been transferred to the homebuyer. See Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the amount of warranty costs recognized in cost of goods sold and administrative expenses.

   

Deferred Income Taxes - Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences between amounts recorded for financial reporting and for income tax purposes. If the combination of future years’ income (or loss) combined with the reversal of the timing differences results in a loss, such losses can be carried back to prior years or carried forward to future years to recover the deferred tax assets. In accordance with ASC 740-10, “Income Taxes - Overall” (“ASC 740-10”), we evaluate our deferred tax assets quarterly to determine if valuation allowances are required. ASC 740-10 requires that companies assess whether valuation allowances should be established based on the consideration of all available evidence using a “more-likely-than-not” standard. See “Total Taxes” below under “Results of Operations” for further discussion of the valuation allowances.

 

In evaluating the exposures associated with our various tax filing positions, we recognize tax liabilities in accordance with ASC 740-10, for more likely than not exposures. We re-evaluate the exposures associated with our tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors such as changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, new audit activity by taxing authorities and effectively settled issues. Determining whether an uncertain tax position is effectively settled requires judgment. Such a change in recognition or measurement would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. A number of years may elapse before a particular matter for which we have established a liability is audited and fully resolved or clarified. We adjust our liability for unrecognized tax benefits and income tax provision in the period in which an uncertain tax position is effectively settled, or the statute of limitations expires for the relevant taxing authority to examine the tax position or when more information becomes available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a liability that is materially different from our current estimate. Any such changes will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

Capital Resources and Liquidity

 

Our operations consist primarily of residential housing development and sales in the Northeast (New Jersey and Pennsylvania), the Mid-Atlantic (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington D.C. and West Virginia), the Midwest (Illinois and Ohio), the Southeast (Florida, Georgia and South Carolina), the Southwest (Arizona and Texas) and the West (California). In addition, we provide certain financial services to our homebuilding customers.

 

We have historically funded our homebuilding and financial services operations with cash flows from operating activities, borrowings under our credit facilities, the issuance of new debt and equity securities and other financing activities. Due to covenant restrictions in our debt instruments, we are currently limited in the amount of debt we can incur that does not qualify as refinancing indebtedness with certain maturity requirements (a limitation that we expect to continue for the foreseeable future), even if market conditions would otherwise be favorable, which could also impact our ability to grow our business. In fiscal 2016, as a result of our evaluation of our geographic operating footprint as it relates to our strategic objectives, we exited the Minneapolis, Minnesota and Raleigh, North Carolina markets, and completed the sale of our land portfolios in those markets. In addition, we entered into a new joint venture by transferring eight communities to the joint venture and receiving cash in return. In fiscal 2017, we transferred an additional four communities to the joint venture, which resulted in $11.2 million of net cash proceeds to us during the period. We are in the process of completing a wind down of our operations in the San Francisco Bay area in Northern California and in Tampa, Florida by building and delivering homes to sell through our existing land position. Any other liquidity-enhancing transaction will depend on identifying counterparties, negotiation of documentation and applicable closing conditions and any required approvals. 

 

Operating, Investing and Financing Activities Overview

 

Our homebuilding cash balance at October 31, 2017 increased $123.9 million from October 31, 2016 to $463.7 million, which is above our target liquidity range of $170 million to $245 million. We would prefer to have our cash fully invested, but we are being disciplined in our underwriting of new land deals and the methods in which we control land (through more options and fewer direct purchases). In addition to using cash to pay down debt during fiscal 2017, we spent $555.0 million on land and land development. After considering this land and land development and all other operating activities, including revenue received from deliveries, we generated $297.6 million of cash from operations. During fiscal 2017, cash used in investing activities was $27.2 million, primarily related to investments in existing joint ventures, along with an investment in a new joint venture. Cash used in financing activities was $147.8 million during fiscal 2017, which included $862.0 million for repurchases of debt, $840.0 million of proceeds for debt issuances, $61.1 million used for model finance and land banking programs and a $31.0 million reduction in mortgage warehouse lines of credit. We intend to continue to use nonrecourse mortgage financings, model sale leaseback, joint ventures, and, subject to covenant restrictions in our debt instruments, land banking programs as our business needs dictate.

 

Our cash uses during the year ended October 31, 2017 and 2016 were for operating expenses, land purchases, land deposits, land development, construction spending, debt payments, state income taxes, interest payments and investments in joint ventures. During these periods, we provided for our cash requirements from available cash on hand, housing and land sales, financing transactions, model sale leasebacks, land banking transactions, joint ventures, financial service revenues and other revenues. We believe that these sources of cash will be sufficient through fiscal 2018 to finance our working capital requirements.

 

Our net income (loss) historically does not approximate cash flow from operating activities. The difference between net income (loss) and cash flow from operating activities is primarily caused by changes in inventory levels together with changes in receivables, prepaid and other assets, mortgage loans held for sale, interest and other accrued liabilities, deferred income taxes, accounts payable and other liabilities, and noncash charges relating to depreciation, stock compensation awards and impairment losses for inventory. When we are expanding our operations, inventory levels, prepaids and other assets increase causing cash flow from operating activities to decrease. Certain liabilities also increase as operations expand and partially offset the negative effect on cash flow from operations caused by the increase in inventory levels, prepaids and other assets. Similarly, as our mortgage operations expand, net income from these operations increases, but for cash flow purposes net income is partially offset by the net change in mortgage assets and liabilities. The opposite is true as our investment in new land purchases and development of new communities decrease, causing us to generate positive cash flow from operations. In fiscal 2017, with spending on land purchases and land development relatively flat as compared to fiscal 2016, we continued to generate cash from operations. As we continue to increase spending on land purchases and land development, cash flow from operations will decrease. As we continue to actively seek land investment opportunities, we will also remain focused on liquidity.

 

See “Inventory Activities” below for a detailed discussion of our inventory position.

  

Debt Transactions

 

As of October 31, 2017, we had a $75.0 million outstanding senior secured term loan facility (the “Term Loan Facility”) ($73.0 million net of debt issuance costs), and $1,110.0 million of outstanding senior secured notes ($1,090.6 million, net of discount and debt issuance costs), comprised of $53.2 million 2.0% 2021 Notes (defined below), $141.8 million 5.0% 2021 Notes (defined below), $75.0 million 9.50% 2020 Notes (defined below), $440.0 million 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 and $400.0 million 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024. As of October 31, 2017, we also had $368.5 million of outstanding senior notes ($366.3 million net of debt issuance costs), comprised of $132.5 million 7.0% Senior Notes due 2019 and $236.0 million 8.0% Senior Notes due 2019. In addition, as of October 31, 2017, we had outstanding $2.1 million 11.0% Senior Amortizing Notes due 2017 (issued as a component of our 6.0% Exchangeable Note Units) ($2.0 million net of debt issuance costs) and $53.9 million Senior Exchangeable Notes due 2017 (issued as a component of our 6.0% Exchangeable Note Units) ($53.9 million net of debt issuance costs).

 

 

Except for K. Hovnanian, the issuer of the notes, our home mortgage subsidiaries, joint ventures and subsidiaries holding interests in our joint ventures and certain of our title insurance subsidiaries, we and each of our subsidiaries are guarantors of the Term Loan Facility and senior secured, senior, senior amortizing and senior exchangeable notes outstanding at October 31, 2017 (collectively, the “Notes Guarantors”). In addition to the Notes Guarantors, the 5.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2021 (the “5.0% 2021 Notes”), the 2.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2021 (the “2.0% 2021 Notes” and together with the 5.0% 2021 Notes, the “2021 Notes”) and the 9.50% Senior Secured Notes due 2020 (the “9.50% 2020 Notes” and collectively with the 2021 Notes, the “JV Holdings Secured Group Notes”) are guaranteed by K. Hovnanian JV Holdings, L.L.C. and its subsidiaries, except for certain joint ventures and joint venture holding companies (collectively, the “JV Holdings Secured Group”). Members of the JV Holdings Secured Group do not guarantee K. Hovnanian's other indebtedness.  

 

The credit agreement governing the Term Loans (defined below) and the indentures governing the notes outstanding at October 31, 2017 do not contain any financial maintenance covenants, but do contain restrictive covenants that limit, among other things, the Company’s ability and that of certain of its subsidiaries, including K. Hovnanian, to incur additional indebtedness (other than nonrecourse indebtedness, certain permitted indebtedness and refinancing indebtedness (under the Term Loans and the 9.50% 2020 Notes, any new or refinancing indebtedness may not be scheduled to mature earlier than January 15, 2021 (so long as no member of the JV Holdings Secured Group is an obligor thereon), or February 15, 2021 (if otherwise), and under the 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 (the “10.0% 2022 Notes”) and the 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 (the “10.5% 2024 Notes”), any refinancing indebtedness of the 7.0% Senior Notes due 2019 (the “7.0% Notes”) and 8.0% Senior Notes due 2019 (the “8.0% Notes” and together with the 7.0% Notes, the “2019 Notes”) may not be scheduled to mature earlier than July 16, 2024)), pay dividends and make distributions on common and preferred stock, repurchase subordinated indebtedness (with respect to the Term Loans and certain of the senior secured and senior notes) and common and preferred stock, make other restricted payments, including investments, sell certain assets (including in certain land banking transactions), incur liens, consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all assets, enter into certain transactions with affiliates and make cash repayments of the 2019 Notes (with respect to the 10.0% 2022 Notes and 10.5% 2024 Notes). The credit agreement governing the Term Loans and the indentures also contain events of default which would permit the lenders/holders thereof to exercise remedies with respect to the collateral (as applicable), declare the loans made under the Term Loan facility (the “Term Loans”)/notes to be immediately due and payable if not cured within applicable grace periods, including the failure to make timely payments on the Term Loans/notes or other material indebtedness, cross default to other material indebtedness, the failure to comply with agreements and covenants and specified events of bankruptcy and insolvency, with respect to the Term Loans, material inaccuracy of representations and warranties and a change of control, and, with respect to the Term Loans and senior secured notes, the failure of the documents granting security for the Term Loans and senior secured notes to be in full force and effect, and the failure of the liens on any material portion of the collateral securing the Term Loans and senior secured notes to be valid and perfected. As of October 31, 2017, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants of the Term Loan Facility and the indentures governing our outstanding notes.

 

If our consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio, as defined in the agreements governing our debt instruments (other than the senior exchangeable note units discussed below), is less than 2.0 to 1.0, we are restricted from making certain payments, including dividends, and from incurring indebtedness other than certain permitted indebtedness, refinancing indebtedness and nonrecourse indebtedness. As a result of this ratio restriction, we are currently restricted from paying dividends, which are not cumulative, on our 7.625% Series A Preferred Stock. We anticipate that we will continue to be restricted from paying dividends for the foreseeable future. Our inability to pay dividends is in accordance with covenant restrictions and will not result in a default under our debt instruments or otherwise affect compliance with any of the covenants contained in our debt instruments.

 

Under the terms of our debt agreements, we have the right to make certain redemptions and prepayments and, depending on market conditions and covenant restrictions, may do so from time to time. We also continue to evaluate our capital structure and may also continue to make debt purchases and/or exchanges for debt or equity from time to time through tender offers, open market purchases, private transactions, or otherwise, or seek to raise additional debt or equity capital, depending on market conditions and covenant restrictions.

  

During the year ended October 31, 2017, we repurchased in open market transactions $17.5 million aggregate principal amount of 7.0% Notes, $14.0 million aggregate principal amount of 8.0% Notes and 6,925 senior exchangeable note units representing $6.9 million stated amount of senior exchangeable note units. The aggregate purchase price for these transactions was $30.8 million, plus accrued and unpaid interest. These transactions resulted in a gain on extinguishment of debt of $7.8 million, which is included as “Loss on Extinguishment of Debt” on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. This gain was offset by $0.4 million of costs associated with the 9.50% 2020 Notes issued during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 and the debt transactions during the third quarter of fiscal 2017 discussed below.

 

 

On July 27, 2017, K. Hovnanian issued $440.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% 2022 Notes and $400.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.5% 2024 Notes. The net proceeds from these issuances together with available cash were used to (i) purchase $575,912,000 principal amount of 7.25% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2020 (the “7.25% First Lien Notes”), $87,321,000 principal amount of 9.125% Senior Secured Second Lien Notes due 2020 (the “9.125% Second Lien Notes” and, together with the 7.25% First Lien Notes, the “2020 Secured Notes”) and all $75,000,000 principal amount of 10.0% Senior Secured Second Lien Notes due 2018 (the “10.0% Second Lien Notes”) that were tendered and accepted for purchase pursuant to K. Hovnanian’s offers to purchase for cash (the “Tender Offers”) any and all of the 7.25% First Lien Notes, the 9.125% Second Lien Notes and the 10.0% Second Lien Notes and to pay related tender premiums and accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of purchase and (ii) satisfy and discharge all obligations (and cause the release of the liens on the collateral securing such indebtedness) under the indentures under which the 7.25% First Lien Notes, the 9.125% Second Lien Notes and the 10.0% Second Lien Notes were issued and in connection therewith to call for redemption on October 15, 2017 and on November 15, 2017 all remaining $1,088,000 principal amount of 7.25% First Lien Notes and all remaining $57,679,000 principal amount of 9.125% Second Lien Notes, respectively, that were not validly tendered and purchased in the applicable Tender Offer in accordance with the redemption provisions of the indentures governing the 2020 Secured Notes. These transactions resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $42.3 million, which is included as “Loss on Extinguishment of Debt” on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.

 

The 10.0% 2022 Notes have a maturity of July 15, 2022 and bear interest at a rate of 10.0% per annum payable semi-annually on January 15 and July 15 of each year, commencing January 15, 2018, to holders of record at the close of business on January 1 and July 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding such interest payment dates. The 10.0% 2022 Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at our option at any time prior to July 15, 2019 at 100.0% of their principal amount plus an applicable “Make-Whole Amount.” K. Hovnanian may also redeem some or all of the 10.0% 2022 Notes at 105.0% of principal commencing July 15, 2019, at 102.50% of principal commencing July 15, 2020 and at 100.0% of principal commencing July 15, 2021. In addition, K. Hovnanian may also redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of the 10.0% 2022 Notes prior to July 15, 2019 with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at 110.0% of principal.

 

The 10.5% 2024 Notes have a maturity of July 15, 2024 and bear interest at a rate of 10.5% per annum payable semi-annually on January 15 and July 15 of each year, commencing January 15, 2018, to holders of record at the close of business on January 1 and July 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding such interest payment dates. The 10.5% 2024 Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at our option at any time prior to July 15, 2020 at 100.0% of their principal amount plus an applicable “Make-Whole Amount.” K. Hovnanian may also redeem some or all of the 10.5% 2024 Notes at 105.25% of principal commencing July 15, 2020, at 102.625% of principal commencing July 15, 2021 and at 100.0% of principal commencing July 15, 2022. In addition, K. Hovnanian may also redeem up to 35.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the 10.5% 2024 Notes prior to July 15, 2020 with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at 110.50% of principal.

 

All of K. Hovnanian’s obligations under the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes are guaranteed by the Notes Guarantors. In addition to pledges of the equity interests in K. Hovnanian and the subsidiary Notes Guarantors which secure the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes, the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes and the guarantees thereof will also be secured in accordance with the terms of the indenture and security documents governing such Notes by pari passu liens on substantially all of the assets owned by K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors, in each case subject to permitted liens and certain exceptions (the collateral securing the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes will be the same as that securing the Term Loans). The liens securing the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes rank junior to the liens securing the Term Loans and any other future secured obligations that are senior in priority with respect to the assets securing the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes.

 

In connection with the issuance of the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes, K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors entered into security and pledge agreements pursuant to which K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors pledged substantially all of their assets to secure their obligations under the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes, subject to permitted liens and certain exceptions as set forth in such agreements. K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors also entered into applicable intercreditor and collateral agency agreements which set forth agreements with respect to the relative priority of their various secured obligations.

 

The indenture governing the 10.0% 2022 Notes and the 10.5% 2024 Notes was entered into on July 27, 2017 among K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent. The covenants and events of default in the indenture are described above.

 

See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further discussion of K. Hovnanian’s Term Loans, senior secured notes, senior notes and senior exchangeable note units.

 

 

Mortgages and Notes Payable

 

We have nonrecourse mortgage loans for certain communities totaling $64.5 million and $82.1 million (net of debt issuance costs) at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, which are secured by the related real property, including any improvements, with an aggregate book value of $157.8 million and $201.8 million, respectively. The weighted-average interest rate on these obligations was 5.3% and 4.9% at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and the mortgage loan payments on each community primarily correspond to home deliveries. We also had nonrecourse mortgage loans on our corporate headquarters totaling $13.0 million and $14.3 million at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. These loans had a weighted-average interest rate of 8.9% at October 31, 2017 and 8.8% at October 31, 2016. As of October 31, 2017, these loans had installment obligations with annual principal maturities in the years ending October 31 of: $1.4 million in 2018, $1.5 million in 2019, $1.7 million in 2020, $1.8 million in 2021, $2.0 million in 2022 and $4.6 million after 2022. On November 1, 2017, the non-recourse loans on our corporate headquarters were paid in full, in connection with the sale of building.

    

In June 2013, K. Hovnanian, as borrower, and we and certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, entered into a five-year, $75.0 million unsecured revolving credit facility (the “Credit Facility”) with Citicorp USA, Inc., as administrative agent and issuing bank, and Citibank, N.A., as a lender. The Credit Facility is available for both letters of credit and general corporate purposes. The Credit Facility does not contain any financial maintenance covenants, but does contain certain restrictive covenants that track those contained in our indenture governing the 8.0% Senior Notes due 2019, which are described in Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Credit Facility also contains certain customary events of default which would permit the administrative agent at the request of the required lenders to, among other things, declare all loans then outstanding to be immediately due and payable if such default is not cured within applicable grace periods, including the failure to make timely payments of amounts payable under the Credit Facility or other material indebtedness or the acceleration of other material indebtedness, the failure to comply with agreements and covenants or for representations or warranties to be correct in all material respects when made, specified events of bankruptcy and insolvency, and the entry of a material judgment against a loan party. Outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility accrue interest at an annual rate equal to either, as selected by K. Hovnanian, (i) the alternate base rate plus the applicable spread determined on the date of such borrowing or (ii) an adjusted London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) rate plus the applicable spread determined as of the date two business days prior to the first day of the interest period for such borrowing. As of October 31, 2017 there were $52.0 million of borrowings and $14.6 million of letters of credit outstanding under the Credit Facility. As of October 31, 2016, there were $52.0 million of borrowings and $17.9 million of letters of credit outstanding under the Credit Facility. As of October 31, 2017, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants under the Credit Facility.

 

In addition to the Credit Facility which matures in 2018, we have certain stand–alone cash collateralized letter of credit agreements and facilities under which there were a total of $1.7 million letters of credit outstanding at both October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. These agreements and facilities require us to maintain specified amounts of cash as collateral in segregated accounts to support the letters of credit issued thereunder, which will affect the amount of cash we have available for other uses. At both October 31, 2017 and October 31, 2016, the amount of cash collateral in these segregated accounts was $1.7 million, respectively, which is reflected in “Restricted cash and cash equivalents” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

 

Our wholly owned mortgage banking subsidiary, K. Hovnanian American Mortgage, LLC (“K. Hovnanian Mortgage”), originates mortgage loans primarily from the sale of our homes. Such mortgage loans and related servicing rights are sold in the secondary mortgage market within a short period of time. In certain instances, we retain the servicing rights for a small amount of loans. The loans are secured by the mortgages held for sale and repaid when we sell the underlying mortgage loans to permanent investors. As of October 31, 2017 and 2016, we had an aggregate of $114.6 million and $145.6 million, respectively, outstanding under several of K. Hovnanian Mortgage’s short-term borrowing facilities.

   

 See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of these agreements and facilities.

 

Equity

 

On July 3, 2001, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to purchase up to 4 million shares of Class A Common Stock. We did not repurchase any shares under this program during fiscal 2017 or 2016. As of October 31, 2017, the maximum number of shares of Class A Common Stock that may yet be purchased under this program is 0.5 million. (See Part II, Item 5 for information on equity purchases).  

 

On July 12, 2005, we issued 5,600 shares of 7.625% Series A Preferred Stock, with a liquidation preference of $25,000 per share. Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are not cumulative and are payable at an annual rate of 7.625%. The Series A Preferred Stock is not convertible into the Company’s common stock and is redeemable in whole or in part at our option at the liquidation preference of the shares. The Series A Preferred Stock is traded as depositary shares, with each depositary share representing 1/1000th of a share of Series A Preferred Stock. The depositary shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “HOVNP.” In fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, we did not make any dividend payments on the Series A Preferred Stock as a result of covenant restrictions in our debt instruments. We anticipate that we will continue to be restricted from paying dividends, which are not cumulative, for the foreseeable future.

 

 

 

Ratings Actions

 

On November 9, 2015, Moody’s Investors Services (“Moody’s”) took certain rating actions as follows:

 

 

Corporate Family Rating, downgraded to Caa1; 

 

Probability of Default Rating, downgraded to Caa1;

 

7.625% Series A Preferred Stock, downgraded to Caa3;

 

First Lien Notes, downgraded to B1;

 

Existing Second Lien Notes, downgraded to Caa1; and

 

Senior unsecured notes, downgraded to Caa2.

 

On December 9, 2015, Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”) took certain rating actions as follows:

 

 

Long-term Issuer Default Rating, downgraded to CCC;

 

First Lien Notes, downgraded to B;

 

Existing Second Lien Notes, downgraded to CCC-;

 

Senior unsecured notes, downgraded to CCC-; and

 

7.625% Series A Preferred Stock, downgraded to C.

 

On April 20, 2016, Moody’s took certain rating actions as follows:

 

 

Corporate Family Rating, downgraded to Caa2;

 

Probability of Default Rating, downgraded to Caa2;

 

7.625% Series A Preferred Stock, downgraded to Ca;

 

First Lien Notes, downgraded to B2;

 

Existing Second Lien Notes, downgraded to Caa2; and

 

Senior unsecured notes, downgraded to Caa3.

 

On May 3, 2016, S&P Global Ratings took certain rating actions as follows:

 

 

 

 

Corporate Credit Rating, downgraded to CCC+;

 

First Lien Notes, downgraded to CCC+;

 

2021 Notes, downgraded to CCC;

 

Existing Second Lien Notes, downgraded to CCC-; and

 

Senior unsecured notes, downgraded to CCC-.

 

On August 1, 2016, Moody’s took certain rating actions as follows:

 

 

First Lien Notes, downgraded to B3;

 

Existing Second Lien Notes, downgraded to Caa3

 

Downgrades in our credit ratings do not accelerate the scheduled maturity dates of our debt or affect the interest rates charged on any of our debt issues or our debt covenant requirements or cause any other operating issue. A potential risk from negative changes in our credit ratings is that they may make it more difficult or costly for us to access capital. 

 

Inventory Activities

 

Total inventory, excluding consolidated inventory not owned, decreased $189.4 million during the year ended October 31, 2017 from October 31, 2016. Total inventory, excluding consolidated inventory not owned, decreased in the Northeast by $56.4 million, in the Mid-Atlantic by $26.1 million, in the Midwest by $19.1 million, in the Southwest by $49.8 million and in the West by $59.6 million. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in the Southeast of $21.6 million. These inventory fluctuations were primarily attributable to home deliveries and land sales during the period, partially offset by new land purchases and land development. During the year ended October 31, 2017, we had aggregate impairments in the amount of $15.1 million. We wrote-off costs in the amount of $2.7 million during the year ended October 31, 2017 related to land options that expired or that we terminated, as the communities’ forecasted profitability was not projected to produce adequate returns on investment commensurate with the risk. In the last few years, we have been able to acquire new land parcels at prices that we believe will generate reasonable returns under current homebuilding market conditions. There can be no assurances that this trend will continue in the near term. Substantially all homes under construction or completed and included in inventory at October 31, 2017 are expected to be closed during the next six to nine months.  

 

 

Consolidated inventory not owned decreased $83.9 million. Consolidated inventory not owned consists of options related to land banking and model financing transactions that were added to our Consolidated Balance Sheet in accordance with US GAAP. The decrease from October 31, 2016 to October 31, 2017 was primarily due to a decrease in land banking transactions along with a decrease in the sale and leaseback of certain model homes during the period. We have land banking arrangements, whereby we sell land parcels to the land bankers and they provide us an option to purchase back finished lots on a predetermined schedule. Because of our options to repurchase these parcels, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 360-20-40-38, these transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. For purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheet, at October 31, 2017, inventory of $66.3 million was recorded to “Consolidated inventory not owned,” with a corresponding amount of $39.3 million (net of debt issuance costs) recorded to “Liabilities from inventory not owned” for the amount of net cash received from the transactions. In addition, we sell and lease back certain of our model homes with the right to participate in the potential profit when each home is sold to a third party at the end of the respective lease. As a result of our continued involvement, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 360-20-40-38, these sale and leaseback transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. Therefore, for purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheet, at October 31, 2017, inventory of $58.5 million was recorded to “Consolidated inventory not owned,” with a corresponding amount of $51.8 million (net of debt issuance costs) recorded to “Liabilities from inventory not owned” for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

  

When possible, we option property for development prior to acquisition. By optioning property, we are only subject to the loss of the cost of the option and predevelopment costs if we choose not to exercise the option (other than with respect to specific performance options discussed above). As a result, our commitment for major land acquisitions is reduced. The costs associated with optioned properties are included in “Land and land options held for future development or sale” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Also included in “Land and land options held for future development or sale” are amounts associated with inventory in mothballed communities. We mothball (or stop development on) certain communities when we determine the current performance does not justify further investment at the time. That is, we believe we will generate higher returns if we decide against spending money to improve land today and save the raw land until such time as the markets improve or we determine to sell the property. As of October 31, 2017, we had mothballed land in 22 communities. The book value associated with these communities at October 31, 2017 was $36.7 million, which was net of impairment charges recorded in prior periods of $214.1 million. We continually review communities to determine if mothballing is appropriate. During fiscal 2017, we did not mothball any additional communities, but we sold five previously mothballed communities and re-activated two previously mothballed communities.

 

Inventories held for sale, which are land parcels where we have decided not to build homes, represented $23.6 million and $48.7 million, respectively, of our total inventories at October 31, 2017 and October 31, 2016, and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. In determining fair value for land held for sale, management considers, among other things, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale) and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties.

 

The following tables summarize home sites included in our total residential real estate. The decrease in remaining home sites available at October 31, 2017 compared to October 31, 2016 was primarily attributable to our decreased community count and our delivering homes without investing in new land at the same rate during the period due to the reasons discussed above in “-Overview”. As previously discussed, based on our cash position at October 31, 2017, we expect to continue to actively seek new land investment opportunities in fiscal 2018. 

 

   

Total

Home

Sites

   

Contracted

Not

Delivered

   

Remaining

Home

Sites

Available

 

October 31, 2017:

                       

Northeast

    4,527       98       4,429  

Mid-Atlantic

    4,241       309       3,932  

Midwest

    3,392       382       3,010  

Southeast

    3,356       285       3,071  

Southwest

    5,433       509       4,924  

West

    4,600       400       4,200  

Consolidated total

    25,549       1,983       23,566  

Unconsolidated joint ventures

    5,770       454       5,316  

Owned

    11,422       1,462       9,960  

Optioned

    13,907       301       13,606  

Construction to permanent financing lots

    220       220       -  

Consolidated total

    25,549       1,983       23,566  

Lots controlled by unconsolidated joint ventures

    5,770       454       5,316  
                         

October 31, 2016:

                       

Northeast

    4,862       204       4,658  

Mid-Atlantic

    4,189       430       3,759  

Midwest

    4,093       374       3,719  

Southeast

    3,484       332       3,152  

Southwest

    4,652       763       3,889  

West

    5,517       295       5,222  

Consolidated total

    26,797       2,398       24,399  

Unconsolidated joint ventures

    4,631       251       4,380  

Owned

    13,542       1,837       11,705  

Optioned

    13,108       414       12,694  

Construction to permanent financing lots

    147       147       -  

Consolidated total

    26,797       2,398       24,399  

Lots controlled by unconsolidated joint ventures

    4,631       251       4,380  

 

 

The following table summarizes our started or completed unsold homes and models, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, in active and substantially completed communities. The decrease in the total homes from October 31, 2016 to October 31, 2017 is due to the decrease in community count during the period. 

 

   

October 31, 2017

   

October 31, 2016

 
   

Unsold

Homes

   

Models

   

Total

   

Unsold

Homes

   

Models

   

Total

 

Northeast

    11       6       17       57       11       68  

Mid-Atlantic

    81       11       92       113       4       117  

Midwest

    21       13       34       33       14       47  

Southeast

    118       28       146       66       20       86  

Southwest

    348       15       363       425       8       433  

West

    23       10       33       33       20       53  

Total

    602       83       685       727       77       804  

Started or completed unsold homes and models per active selling communities(1)

    4.6       0.7       5.3       4.3       0.5       4.8  

 

(1)

Active selling communities (which are communities that are open for sale with ten or more home sites available) were 130 and 167 at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Ratio does not include substantially completed communities, which are communities with less than ten home sites available. 

 

Other Balance Sheet Activities

 

Homebuilding – Restricted cash and cash equivalents decreased $1.8 million from October 31, 2016 to $2.1 million at October 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to the release of escrow cash related to our warranty obligations in certain communities which have been closed for more than a year.

 

Investments in and advances to unconsolidated joint ventures increased $14.6 million during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017 compared to October 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to additional investments and advances to existing joint ventures during fiscal 2017, along with an investment in a new joint venture in the second quarter of fiscal 2017. These increases were partially offset by decreases primarily related to partner distributions during the period. As of both October 31, 2017 and October 31, 2016, we had investments in 10 homebuilding joint ventures and one land development joint venture. We have no guarantees associated with our unconsolidated joint ventures, other than guarantees limited only to performance and completion of development, environmental indemnification and standard warranty and representation against fraud misrepresentation and similar actions, including a voluntary bankruptcy.

 

Receivables, deposits and notes, net increased $8.4 million from October 31, 2016 to $58.1 million at October 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to a new receivable related to a land sale in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, partially offset by a decrease in refundable deposits resulting from reimbursements received during the period.

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets were as follows as of:

 

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

Dollar Change

 

Prepaid insurance

  $ 1,893     $ 3,228     $ (1,335

)

Prepaid project costs

    30,360       38,032       (7,672

)

Net rental properties

    -       447       (447

)

Other prepaids

    4,245       4,493       (248

)

Other assets

    528       562       (34

)

Total

  $ 37,026     $ 46,762     $ (9,736

)

 

Prepaid insurance decreased due to the timing of premium payments. These costs are amortized over the life of the associated insurance policy, which can be one to three years. Prepaid project costs consist of community specific expenditures that are used over the life of the community. Such prepaids are expensed as homes are delivered and therefore have declined as our community count has declined.

 

Financial services other assets consist primarily of residential mortgages receivable held for sale of which $131.5 million and $155.0 million at October 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, were being temporarily warehoused and are awaiting sale in the secondary mortgage market. The decrease in mortgage loans held for sale from October 31, 2016 was related to a decrease in the volume of loans originated during the fourth quarter of 2017 compared to the fourth quarter of 2016, along with a decrease in the average loan value.

 

Income Taxes Receivable decreased $285.8 million from $283.6 million at October 31, 2016 to a payable of $2.2 million at October 31, 2017. The decrease is due to the increase in the valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets during the period, as discussed in Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Nonrecourse mortgages decreased to $64.5 million at October 31, 2017, from $82.1 million at October 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily due to the payment of existing mortgages, including a mortgage on a community which was transferred to a joint venture, partially offset by new mortgages for communities mainly in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic and Southwest obtained during the year ended October 31, 2017.

 

Accounts payable and other liabilities are as follows as of:

 

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

Dollar Change

 

Accounts payable

  $ 128,844     $ 160,924     $ (32,080

)

Reserves

    134,089       126,888       7,201

 

Accrued expenses

    12,900       17,913       (5,013

)

Accrued compensation

    47,209       44,715       2,494  

Other liabilities

    12,015       18,788       (6,773

)

Total

  $ 335,057     $ 369,228     $ (34,171

)

 

The decrease in accounts payable was primarily due to the 14.2% decrease in deliveries in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017 compared to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016. Reserves increased during fiscal 2017 primarily due to an increase in our construction defect reserves due to an adjustment for litigation, partially offset by a reduction in our warranty reserves, which were reduced based on our annual assessment, as discussed in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The decrease in accrued expenses was primarily due to the amortization of accruals related to abandoned lease space along with the timing of other accruals. The increase in accrued compensation was primarily due to accrued bonuses payable at the end of fiscal 2017 as compared to the end of fiscal 2016. Other liabilities decreased primarily due to deferred income recorded in fiscal 2016 and recognized in fiscal 2017 from municipality reimbursements for infrastructure costs and development fees related to work performed under a bond issuance in one of our communities in the West. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in deferred income related to the delay of home closings associated with the Weyerhaeuser-manufacture I-joist issue, discussed previously in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

 

Customers’ deposits decreased $3.7 million to $33.8 million at October 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily related to the decrease in backlog during the period.

 

Liabilities from inventory not owned decreased $59.1 million to $91.1 million at October 31, 2017. The decrease was due a decrease in land banking transactions during the period, along with a decrease in the sale and leaseback of certain model homes, both of which are accounted for as financing transactions as described above.

  

Financial services (liabilities) decreased $30.5 million from $172.4 million at October 31, 2016, to $141.9 million at October 31, 2017. The decrease is primarily due to the decrease in our mortgage warehouse lines of credit, and correlates to the decrease in the volume of mortgage loans held for sale during the period as discussed above.

 

Accrued interest increased $9.4 million to $41.8 million at October 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to a combination of the timing of interest payments and higher interest rates on our 10.0% 2022 Notes and 10.5% 2024 Notes issued in July 2017.

 

Results of Operations

 

Total Revenues

 

Compared to the prior period, revenues increased (decreased) as follows:

 

   

Year Ended

 

(Dollars in thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

October 31,

2015

 

Homebuilding:

                       

Sale of homes

  $ (260,757

)

  $ 512,661     $ 75,116  

Land sales

    (27,445

)

    75,191       (4,374

)

Other revenues

    1,494       (37

)

    107  

Financial services

    (13,874

)

    15,952       14,251  

Total change

  $ (300,582

)

  $ 603,767     $ 85,100  

Total revenues percent change

    (10.9

)%

    28.1

%

    4.1

%

 

Homebuilding

 

Sale of homes revenues decreased $260.8 million, or 10.0%, for the year ended October 31, 2017, increased $512.7 million, or 24.6%, for the year ended October 31, 2016 and increased $75.1 million, or 3.7%, for the year ended October 31, 2015 as compared to the same period of the prior year. The decreased revenues in fiscal 2017 were primarily due to the number of home deliveries decreasing 13.3%, partially offset by the average price per home increasing to $417,714 in fiscal 2017 from $402,350 in fiscal 2016. The decrease in deliveries is primarily the result of a reduction in community count by 22.2%. The increased revenues in fiscal 2016 were primarily due to the 17.4% increase in deliveries, as well as the average price per home increasing to $402,350 in fiscal 2016 from $379,177 in fiscal 2015. The increased revenues in fiscal 2015 were primarily due to the average price per home increasing to $379,177 in fiscal 2015 from $366,202 in fiscal 2014. For fiscal 2017, the fluctuations in average prices were primarily the result of the geographic and community mix of our deliveries, along with our ability to raise home prices in certain communities. For fiscal 2016 and 2015, the fluctuations in average prices were primarily a result of the geographic and community mix of our deliveries, as opposed to home price increases (which we increase or decrease in communities depending on the respective community’s performance). For further detail on changes in segment revenues see “Homebuilding Operations by Segment” below. For further detail on land sales and other revenue, see the section titled “Land Sales and Other Revenues” below.

 

 

Information on homes delivered by segment is set forth below:

 

   

Year Ended

 

(Housing Revenue in thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

October 31,

2016

   

October 31,

2015

 

Northeast:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 166,752     $ 274,126     $ 189,049  

Homes delivered

    351       557       380  

Average price

  $ 475,077     $ 492,147     $ 497,497  

Mid-Atlantic:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 463,271     $ 457,906     $ 398,132  

Homes delivered

    856       960       854  

Average price

  $ 541,205     $ 476,985     $ 466,197  

Midwest:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 199,009     $ 287,469     $ 311,364  

Homes delivered

    640       921       958  

Average price

  $ 310,951     $ 312,127     $ 325,015  

Southeast:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 257,066     $ 214,585     $ 207,407  

Homes delivered

    614       581       675  

Average price

  $ 418,675     $ 369,339     $ 307,269  

Southwest:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 826,422     $ 1,024,410     $ 822,371  

Homes delivered

    2,357       2,750       2,263  

Average price

  $ 350,624     $ 372,512     $ 363,399  

West:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 427,513     $ 342,294     $ 159,806  

Homes delivered

    784       695       377  

Average price

  $ 545,297     $ 492,509     $ 423,889  

Consolidated total:

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 2,340,033     $ 2,600,790     $ 2,088,129  

Homes delivered

    5,602       6,464       5,507  

Average price

  $ 417,714     $ 402,350     $ 379,177  

Unconsolidated joint ventures:(1)

                       

Housing revenues

  $ 310,573     $ 140,576     $ 119,920  

Homes delivered

    547       248       269  

Average price

  $ 567,774     $ 566,836     $ 445,799  

 

(1) Represents housing revenue and home deliveries for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our joint ventures.

 

The decrease in housing revenues during year ended October 31, 2017, as compared to year ended October 31, 2016, was primarily attributed to our decreased deliveries, partially offset by an increase in average sales price. Housing revenues in fiscal 2017 decreased in all of our homebuilding segments combined by 10.0%, while average sales price increased by 3.8%, excluding joint ventures. In our homebuilding segments, homes delivered decreased in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016 by 37.0%, 10.8%, 30.5% and 14.3% in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest and Southwest, respectively, and increased by 5.7% and 12.8% in the Southeast and West, respectively. Overall in fiscal 2017 as compared to fiscal 2016 homes delivered decreased 13.3% across all our segments, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures.

 

The increase in housing revenues during year ended October 31, 2016, as compared to year ended October 31, 2015, was primarily attributed to our increased deliveries, along with an increase in average sales price. Housing revenues and average sales prices in fiscal 2016 increased in all of our homebuilding segments combined by 24.6% and 6.1%, respectively, excluding joint ventures. In our homebuilding segments, homes delivered increased in fiscal 2016 as compared to fiscal 2015 by 46.6%, 12.4%, 21.5% and 84.4% in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Southwest and West, respectively, and decreased by 3.9% and 13.9% in the Midwest and Southeast, respectively. Overall in fiscal 2016 as compared to fiscal 2015 homes delivered increased 17.4% across all our segments, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures.

 

 

Quarterly housing revenues and net sales contracts by segment, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, for the years ended October 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are set forth below (Net contracts are defined as new contracts executed during the period for the purchase of homes, less cancellations of contracts in the same period):

 

 

   

Quarter Ended

 

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2017

   

July 31,

2017

   

April 30,

2017

   

January 31,

2017

 

Housing revenues:

                               

Northeast

  $ 27,913     $ 40,015     $ 45,917     $ 52,907  

Mid-Atlantic

    149,881       113,111       100,120       100,159  

Midwest

    72,944       40,620       41,794       43,651  

Southeast

    78,267       68,408       54,005       56,386  

Southwest

    209,223       209,041       224,898       183,260  

West

    128,555       103,087       100,819       95,052  

Consolidated total

  $ 666,783     $ 574,282     $ 567,553     $ 531,415  

Sales contracts (net of cancellations):

                               

Northeast

  $ 24,407     $ 26,648     $ 29,918     $ 38,045  

Mid-Atlantic

    77,112       97,017       123,045       102,246  

Midwest(1)

    38,139       48,257       61,489       45,566  

Southeast(2)

    56,354       73,896       55,577       46,451  

Southwest

    142,926       177,285       227,500       170,884  

West

    91,048       103,342       142,522       84,423  

Consolidated total

  $ 429,986     $ 526,445     $ 640,051     $ 487,615  

 

 

   

Quarter Ended

 

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2016

   

July 31,

2016

   

April 30,

2016

   

January 31,

2016

 

Housing revenues:

                               

Northeast

  $ 81,467     $ 66,308     $ 53,913     $ 72,438  

Mid-Atlantic

    162,902       111,579       89,873       93,552  

Midwest

    62,193       56,643       76,793       91,840  

Southeast

    67,690       56,471       51,230       39,194  

Southwest

    298,689       248,228       273,304       204,189  

West

    104,531       101,157       81,044       55,562  

Consolidated total

  $ 777,472     $ 640,386     $ 626,157     $ 556,775  

Sales contracts (net of cancellations):

                               

Northeast

  $ 50,179     $ 61,945     $ 74,727     $ 39,784  

Mid-Atlantic

    99,179       97,338       150,369       130,316  

Midwest(1)

    38,339       54,318       69,445       67,569  

Southeast(2)

    53,372       59,242       84,665       90,259  

Southwest

    190,426       225,929       262,344       208,642  

West

    102,819       99,284       126,505       92,073  

Consolidated total

  $ 534,314     $ 598,056     $ 768,055     $ 628,643  

 

(1)

The Midwest net contracts include $1.9 million, $7.1 million and $18.4 million, respectively, for the quarters ended July 31, 2016, April 30, 2016 and January 31, 2016, from Minneapolis, Minnesota.

(2)

The Southeast net contracts include $9.9 million and $21.7 million, respectively, for the quarters ended April 30, 2016 and January 31, 2016, from Raleigh, North Carolina.

  

 

 

   

Quarter Ended

 

(In thousands)

 

October 31,

2015

   

July 31,

2015

   

April 30,

2015

   

January 31,

2015

 

Housing revenues:

                               

Northeast

  $ 63,175     $ 36,109     $ 39,123     $ 50,642  

Mid-Atlantic

    127,233       113,886       76,102       80,911  

Midwest

    91,122       82,618       73,214       64,410  

Southeast

    63,074       57,294       49,255       37,784  

Southwest

    262,713       203,075