10-K 1 fcsc-20171231x10k.htm 10-K Document
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ý      Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨    Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
________________________________________________________________
fibrocelllogo.jpg
Fibrocell Science, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its Charter.) 
Delaware
001-31564
87-0458888
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(Commission File Number)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
405 Eagleview Boulevard
Exton, Pennsylvania 19341
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(484) 713-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.001 par value
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o  No ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o  No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ý  No o 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes ý  No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company  x
 
Emerging growth company ¨
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in the Exchange Act Rule 12b-2).  Yes o  No ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was $36.7 million as of June 30, 2017 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), based on a total of 9,161,161 shares of common stock held by non-affiliates and on a closing price of $4.01 as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 30, 2017.
As of March 6, 2018, there were 28,356,351 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.





DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2018 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K where indicated. Such definitive proxy statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the year ended December 31, 2017.
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
_________________________

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Fibrocell,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Fibrocell Science, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Fibrocell, Fibrocell Science and LAVIV® are trademarks of Fibrocell. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.

Unless otherwise indicated, all share amounts and the exercise or conversion price of any of our securities reflect, as applicable, the occurrence of a 1-for-25 reverse split of our common stock that occurred on April 30, 2013 and the occurrence of a 1-for-3 reverse split of our common stock that occurred on March 10, 2017.



NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this Form 10-K) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among others, statements about:
our expectation that our existing cash resources, will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operations into the first quarter of 2019;
future expenses and capital expenditures;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for, and ability to obtain, additional financing;
our plans to address our future capital requirements and the consequences of failing to do so;
our plans to resolve our noncompliance with the minimum bid price requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market (Nasdaq) listing rules and the consequences of failing to do so;
our need to raise substantial additional capital to fund our operations;
our plans to execute enrollment of pediatric patients in the Phase 2 portion of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-007 in the first quarter of 2018;
our plans to report interim data from patients from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for FCX-007 in the second quarter of 2018;
our expectation to begin dosing patients in the Phase 2 portion of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-007 in the second quarter of 2018;
our expectation to complete enrollment of patients for our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-007 in the third quarter of 2018;
our plans to report interim data from patients from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for FCX-007 in the first quarter of 2019;
our expectation to initiate enrollment in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-013 in the third quarter of 2018;
our product development goals under our collaborations with Intrexon Corporation for our product candidates;
the potential benefits of Fast Track, Orphan Drug and Rare Pediatric Disease designations;
the potential advantages of our product candidates and technologies; and
the effect of legal and regulatory developments;
as well as other statements relating to our future operations, financial performance or financial condition, prospects or other future events. Forward-looking statements appear primarily in the sections of this Form 10-K entitled “Item 1—Business,” “Item 1A—Risk Factors,” “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Item 7A—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” and “Item 8—Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “continue,” “ongoing,” “scheduled” and similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

Forward-looking statements are based upon current expectations and assumptions and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those expressed or implied by such statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Form 10-K and in particular the risks and uncertainties discussed under "Item 1A—Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K. As a result, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.

Additionally, the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K represent our views only as of the date of this Form 10-K (or any earlier date indicated in such statement). While we may update certain forward-looking statements from time to time, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if new information becomes available in the future. However, you are advised to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in the periodic and current reports that
we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
The foregoing cautionary statements are intended to qualify all forward-looking statements wherever they may appear in this Form 10-K. For all forward-looking statements, we claim protection of the safe harbor for the forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
    

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This Form 10-K also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

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Part I
Item 1. Business
Overview

We are an autologous cell and gene therapy company focused on translating personalized biologics into medical breakthroughs for diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue. Our distinctive approach to personalized biologics is based on our proprietary autologous fibroblast technology. Fibroblasts are the most common cell in skin and connective tissue and are responsible for synthesizing extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen and other growth factors, that provide structure and support. Because fibroblasts naturally reside in the localized environment of the skin and connective tissue, they represent an ideal delivery vehicle for proteins targeted to these areas. We target the underlying cause of disease by using fibroblast cells from a patient’s skin and genetically modifying them to create localized therapies that are compatible with the unique biology of the patient (i.e., which are autologous).

We are focused on discovering and developing localized therapies for diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue, where there are high unmet needs, to improve the lives of patients and their families. In that regard, we commit significant resources to our research and development programs. Currently, all of our research and development operations and focus are on gaining regulatory approvals to commercialize our product candidates in the United States; however, we may seek to expand into international markets in the future.

Our current pipeline consists of the following product candidates which we are developing in collaboration with Intrexon Corporation (Intrexon):

pipelinegrapha02.jpg
    
Our most advanced product candidate, FCX-007, has entered the Phase 2 portion of a Phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Our second gene therapy product candidate, FCX-013, is in development for the treatment of moderate to severe localized scleroderma. We submitted an investigational new drug (IND) application for FCX-013 to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2018 and in March 2018, the FDA allowed the IND to progress to clinical trials. We expect to initiate enrollment for an open label, single arm Phase 1/2 clinical trial in third quarter of 2018. In addition, we have a third program in the research phase for the treatment of arthritis and related conditions. See further discussion of our gene therapy product candidates under the heading “Development Programs” included within section “Item 1—Business” of this Form 10-K.

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Our Strategy

Our strategy is to develop and commercialize transformational therapies for diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue to improve the lives of patients and their families. Key elements of our strategy are:
Leveraging our proprietary autologous fibroblast technology and patented manufacturing process;
Advancing our clinical stage gene therapy product candidate, FCX-007, through human clinical trials;
Advancing our gene therapy product candidate, FCX-013, into and through human clinical trials;
Advancing our research stage gene therapy program focused on arthritis and related conditions through research and into pre-clinical development; and
Leveraging our FDA-compliant current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) manufacturing facility and our expertise in cell therapy manufacturing to advance the development of our autologous cell and gene therapy pipeline.
Our Platform

Our proprietary autologous fibroblast technology is the foundation for creating personalized biologics for diseases of the skin and connective tissue. This technology uses a patented manufacturing process, which involves collecting small skin biopsies from patients, isolating cells and expanding them in culture, transducing the fibroblast cells with an integrative lentiviral vector to express a targeted protein, followed by continued expansion of the gene modified cells in culture. In this manner, each patient is treated with cells that were cultivated from his or her own dermal tissue (i.e., autologous).

The Science of Autologous Fibroblasts

Fibroblasts are the basis of our personalized biologics platform because they are the most common cell in skin and connective tissue and are responsible for synthesizing extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen and other growth factors, that provide structure and support.

scienceofautologous.jpg

Personalized Biologics Approach
    
Because fibroblasts naturally reside in the localized environment of the skin and connective tissue, they represent an ideal delivery vehicle for proteins targeted to these areas. Utilizing our autologous fibroblast technology, we use a patient’s fibroblast cells to create localized gene therapies that are compatible with the unique biology of the patient and have the potential to address the underlying cause of disease.

    

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We believe our personalized biologics approach provides the following distinct advantages for creating gene therapies:
Localized administration—avoids side effects typically associated with systemic therapy
Reduced rejection and immunogenicity concerns—because autologous fibroblasts are compatible with the unique biology of each patient
Fibroblast cells are genetically modified ex vivo—to enable testing for safety and confirmation of protein expression levels prior to administration to the patient
Demonstrated expertise in manufacturing our fibroblast cell therapy
    genetherapydev02.jpg
    
We are developing all of our gene therapy product candidates in collaboration with Intrexon, a leader in synthetic biology. Through our collaboration with Intrexon, we have access to:
Intrexon’s proprietary vector technology, which is designed to facilitate the assembly and delivery of the necessary target gene constructs for delivery to autologous fibroblast cells.  Access to this technology allows us to rapidly screen and construct genetic therapeutic solutions.
Intrexon’s proprietary RheoSwitch Therapeutic System® (RTS®) technology. The RTS® biologic switch is activated by an orally-administered compound (veledimex) to control level and timing of protein expression in those diseases where such control is ideal.

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Development Programs

Our development programs are focused on diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue for which there are high unmet needs. Our programs consist of the following:
Program
 
Potential Indication
 
Status
FCX-007
 
RDEB
 
Phase 1/2
FCX-013
 
Moderate to severe localized scleroderma
 
Post-IND
Research Program
 
Arthritis
 
Research

FCX-007 for Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (RDEB)

RDEB is the most severe form of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), a congenital, progressive, devastatingly painful and debilitating genetic disorder that often leads to death. RDEB is caused by a mutation of the COL7A1 gene, the gene which encodes for type VII collagen (COL7), a protein that forms anchoring fibrils. Anchoring fibrils hold together the layers of skin, and without them, skin layers separate causing severe blistering, open wounds and scarring in response to friction, including normal daily activities like rubbing or scratching. Children who inherit this condition are often called “butterfly children” because their skin can be as fragile as a butterfly’s wings. We estimate that there are approximately 1,100 - 2,500 RDEB patients in the U.S. Currently, treatments for RDEB address only the sequelae, including daily bandaging (which can cost a patient in excess of $10,000 per month), hydrogel dressings, antibiotics, feeding tubes and surgeries.

skinpicfor007a02.jpg

Our lead product candidate, FCX-007, is in clinical development for the treatment of RDEB. FCX-007 is a genetically-modified autologous fibroblast that encodes the gene for COL7 for localized treatment of RDEB and is being developed in collaboration with Intrexon. By genetically modifying autologous fibroblasts ex vivo to produce COL7, culturing them and then treating blisters and wounds locally via injection, FCX-007 offers the potential to address the underlying cause of the disease by providing high levels of COL7 directly to the affected areas, thereby avoiding systemic treatment. In addition, we believe the autologous nature of the cells, localized delivery, use of an integrative vector and the low turnover rate of the protein will contribute to long-term persistence of the COL7 produced by FCX-007.

FCX-007 has received Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of DEB, including RDEB, Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for the treatment of RDEB and fast track designation for the treatment of RDEB from the FDA.

Phase 1/2 Trial of FCX-007 for RDEB

The primary objective of this open-label trial is to evaluate the safety of FCX-007 in RDEB patients. Additionally, the trial will assess (i) the pharmacology of FCX-007 through the presence of vector DNA or COL7 mRNA evaluation of COL7 expression and/or the presence of anchoring fibrils and (ii) the efficacy of FCX-007 through intra-subject paired analysis of target wound areas by comparing FCX-007 treated wounds to untreated wounds in Phase 1 and to wounds administered with sterile saline in Phase 2 through the evaluation of digital imaging of wounds. Prior to treating pediatric patients in this trial, we were required to and obtained allowance from the FDA by submitting evidence of FCX-007 safety and benefit in the adult

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patients and data from our completed pre-clinical toxicology study. After submission of the requested data, the FDA granted allowance to include pediatric patients in the clinical trial in January 2018.

Four patients are enrolled in the Phase 1 portion of the clinical trial and continue to progress through follow-up study visits. In September 2017, we reported interim results from the Phase 1 portion of the Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-007. Three adult NC1+ patients were dosed with a single intradermal injection session of FCX-007 in the margins of and across targeted wounds, as well as in separate intact skin sites. Five wounds were treated on the three patients, ranging in size from 4.4cm2 to 13.1cm2. Data from these patients show FCX-007 was well-tolerated through 12 weeks post-administration. There were no serious adverse events and no product related adverse events reported.

Our study is currently designed to recruit two additional patients in the NC1- (patients who do not express the first non-collagenous portion of the COL7 protein) cohort of the Phase 1 portion of the clinical trial. The most recent scientific thinking and the rarity of NC1- patients compared to NC1+, i.e., the difficulty in recruiting this group, we are seeking a modification in the protocol to close out the Phase 1 cohort of this clinical trial without including any additional patients. The clinical trial protocol is designed to allow a cohort to move into the Phase 2 portion of the trial even if the other cohort is still enrolling or in the follow-up evaluation period; therefore, the modification of the protocol for the trial does not impact ongoing enrollment of Phase 2 patients. As data is collected, progress will be reported.

The targeted wounds of the three adult patients were evaluated during a monitoring period prior to dosing and were observed to be open for up to eight months. Compared to the baseline measurement collected at Day 0 before the single intradermal injection session of FCX-007, at four weeks post-administration 100% (5/5) of wounds were ≥ 75% healed. At 12 weeks post-administration, 80% (4/5) of wounds were ≥ 70% healed.  The wound that was < 70% healed from the 12 week data set was biopsied by the investigator in the middle of the wound bed rather than on the wound edge, which we believe may have contributed to the wound’s instability. We also monitored and evaluated untreated wounds of similar size to the matched treated wounds on the same patient. Compared to the baseline measurement collected at Day 0, at four weeks and 12 weeks post-administration 80% (4/5) of wounds were < 25% healed. We will continue to monitor all treated and untreated wounds throughout follow-up visits.

Various pharmacology signals for vector DNA, COL7 mRNA, or COL7 protein expression were detected throughout the data set in each patient for one or more assays up to 12 weeks post-administration (qPCR, electron microscopy or immunofluorescence). Anchoring fibrils have not been detected to date, whereas expressed COL7 mRNA and COL7 protein have been confirmed in multiple patient samples including one that detected linear expression of COL7 at the basement membrane zone. The Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for the trial reviewed the interim data and concluded that safety and potential benefit were established, and allowed continuation of enrollment and dosing.

We completed dosing of the fourth adult patient and performed additional dosing of existing adult patients in the Phase 1 portion of the trial in the fourth quarter of 2017. We expect to report additional interim adult data and provide a trial update in the second quarter of 2018, which includes presenting at the 7th International Investigative Dermatology meeting in May 2018.

We plan to enroll six patients ages seven and older in the Phase 2 portion of the clinical trial. One RDEB adult patient has been enrolled as the first patient in Phase 2 and dosing of this patient is expected to occur in the second quarter of 2018. With the allowance from the FDA, we will now include enrollment of pediatric patients. We expect to complete enrollment of Phase 2 patients in the third quarter of 2018. We plan to report another interim data readout and trial update in the first quarter of 2019.

We plan to use the existing data from the Phase 1 portion of the Phase 1/2 clinical trial to also support a petition for Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy or Breakthrough Therapy Designation for FCX-007.

We have designated our existing, cGMP cell therapy manufacturing facility in Exton, PA as the production site for FCX-007 in our IND application. FCX-007 drug product dosed in the fourth quarter of 2017 was produced and distributed from our Exton, PA facility. The facility will be used for the remaining clinical and future commercial manufacture of FCX-007, with capacity to serve the U.S. market for RDEB. The approximately 13,000 square foot facility previously supported commercial autologous fibroblast manufacturing, with multiple FDA inspections conducted at the site. The facility includes cleanroom cell therapy manufacturing, quality control testing, cryogenic storage, shipping/receiving and warehousing space.







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FCX-013 for Moderate to Severe Localized Scleroderma

Localized scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder that manifests as excess production of extracellular matrix, specifically collagen, resulting in thickening of the skin and connective tissue. Localized scleroderma encompasses several subtypes which are classified based on the depth and pattern of the lesion(s). The moderate to severe forms of the disorder include any subtype that affects function or produces symptoms of discomfort, tightness and pain. Current treatments for localized scleroderma include systemic or topical corticosteroids which target inflammation, UVA light therapy and physical therapy. There are few treatment options to address excessive collagen accumulation in the skin and connective tissue. We estimate that there are approximately 90,000 patients in the U.S. considered to have moderate to severe localized scleroderma.

Our second gene therapy product candidate, FCX-013, is in development for the treatment of moderate to severe localized scleroderma. FCX-013 is an autologous fibroblast genetically-modified using lentivirus and encoded for matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), the protein responsible for breaking down collagen. FCX-013 incorporates Intrexon’s proprietary RheoSwitch Therapeutic System® (RTS®), a biologic switch activated by an orally administered compound (veledimex) to control protein expression at the site of localized scleroderma lesions. FCX-013 is designed to be injected under the skin at the location of the fibrotic lesions where the genetically-modified fibroblast cells will produce MMP-1 to break down excess collagen accumulation. With the FCX-013 therapy, the patient will take an oral compound (veledimex) to facilitate protein expression. Once the fibrosis is resolved, the patient will stop taking the oral compound which will halt further MMP-1 production.

We previously completed a proof-of-concept study for FCX-013 in which the primary objective was to determine whether FCX-013 had the potential to reduce dermal thickness in fibrotic tissue. In this study, FCX-013 was evaluated in a bleomycin-induced scleroderma model utilizing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Data from the study demonstrated that FCX-013 reduced dermal thickness of fibrotic tissue to levels similar to that of the non-bleomycin treated control and further reduced the thickness of the sub-dermal muscle layer. Based upon these data and the FDA’s feedback to our pre-IND briefing package, we advanced FCX-013 into a pre-clinical dose-ranging study which has been completed.

In December 2017, we completed a good laboratory practice (GLP) toxicology/biodistribution study that assessed FCX-013 in a bleomycin fibrosis model using immunocompromised (NOD/SCID) mice. Data from this study showed no test article-related clinical observations, body weight changes, changes in clinical pathology parameters, gross observations or organ weight change. In addition, there was no significant vector biodistribution to target organs.

We submitted an IND for FCX-013 to FDA in January 2018, and in March 2018, the FDA allowed the IND to progress to clinical trials. We expect to initiate enrollment for an open label, single arm Phase 1/2 clinical trial in the third quarter of 2018. The primary objective of the trial is to evaluate the safety of FCX-013. Secondary analyses consist of several fibrosis assessments including histology, skin scores, ultrasound and additional measurements of targeted sclerotic lesions and control sites at various time points up to 16 weeks post-administration of FCX-013. Ten patients with any subtype of localized scleroderma are targeted for enrollment (approximately 5 patients per Phase). The Phase 1 portion will enroll adult patients, and dosing for the first three adult patients will be staggered prior to dosing the rest of the trial’s population. Fibrocell intends to include pediatric patients in the Phase 2 portion of the trial after submission and approval of safety and activity data from the adult Phase 1 patients to the FDA and the DSMB for the trial. We plan to manufacture FCX-013 at our Exton, PA cGMP manufacturing facility.

FCX-013 has received Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA for the treatment of localized scleroderma and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for moderate to severe localized scleroderma.

Gene Therapy Research Program for Arthritis and Related Conditions

Arthritis is a broad term that covers a group of more than 100 different types of diseases that affect the joints, as well as connective tissues and organs, including the skin. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, arthritis—characterized by joint inflammation, pain and decreased range of motion—is the United States’ most common cause of disability affecting more than 52 million adults as well as 300,000 children at a cost exceeding $120 billion.

Our third gene therapy program is in the research phase and is focused on the treatment of arthritis and related conditions. Our goal is to deliver a protein therapy locally to the joint to provide sustained efficacy while avoiding key side effects typically associated with systemic therapy.


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Intrexon Collaborations

2012 Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement (2012 ECC)

In October 2012, we entered into an Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement, with Intrexon, which was amended in June 2013 and January 2014 (as amended, the 2012 ECC) pursuant to which we are Intrexon’s exclusive channel collaborator in the research, development and commercialization of products in the following areas (the 2012 Fields):
the enhanced production and purification of autologous fibroblasts (without genetic modification) for all aesthetic and therapeutic indications;
the enhanced production and purification of autologous dermal cells (without genetic modification) for aesthetic and therapeutic treatment of dermal, vocal cord, and periodontal indications;
the development of genetically modified autologous fibroblasts for all aesthetic and therapeutic indications where an autologous fibroblast itself is the principal effector of the product in contrast to the use of autologous fibroblasts as the source of expression of a systemically available therapeutic protein in which that protein (and not the fibroblast) is the principal therapeutic effector;
the development of genetically modified autologous dermal cells for aesthetic and therapeutic treatment of dermal, vocal cord, and periodontal indications;
autologous fibroblasts genetically modified to express a therapeutic protein and/or bioactive ribonucleic acid for the treatment of autoimmune and non-infectious inflammatory disorders that manifest in cutaneous tissues, fascia and/or muscle; and
autologous human fibroblasts with gene therapy to express bioactive Tenascin-X locally to correct connective tissue disorders associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hypermobility type).

Pursuant to the terms of the 2012 ECC, Intrexon has granted us a license to use its proprietary technologies and other intellectual property to research, develop and commercialize products in the 2012 Fields within the United States. We are responsible for all costs incurred in connection with the research, development and commercialization of products under the 2012 ECC and own all clinical data, regulatory filings and regulatory approvals relating to such products. We engage Intrexon for support services for the research and development of products under the 2012 ECC, and reimburse Intrexon for its cost for time and materials for such services. 

We are required to pay Intrexon quarterly cash royalties on all products developed under the 2012 ECC in an amount equal to 7% of aggregate quarterly net sales up to $25 million, plus 14% on aggregate quarterly net sales greater than $25 million. We are also required to pay Intrexon half of any sublicensing revenues we receive from third parties in consideration for sublicenses granted by us with respect to products developed under the 2012 ECC, but only to the extent such sublicensing revenues are not included in net sales subject to royalties. Sales from other products that we develop and commercialize outside of the 2012 ECC are not subject to royalty payments unless we are able to reduce the product’s cost of goods sold through the 2012 ECC, in which case, we are required to pay quarterly cash royalties on such products equal to one-third of the cost of goods sold savings less any such savings developed by us outside of the 2012 ECC. 

The 2012 ECC may be terminated by Intrexon if we fail to exercise diligent efforts in developing products through the collaboration or if we elect not to pursue the development of a therapy identified by Intrexon within the 2012 Field and that qualifies as a “Superior Therapy” as defined in the 2012 ECC.  Upon such termination, the products covered by the 2012 ECC in active and ongoing Phase II clinical trials or later stage development shall be entitled to be continued by us with a continuation of the related milestone, royalty and other payment obligations for such products, and all rights to products covered by the 2012 ECC still in an earlier stage of development shall revert to Intrexon.

In September 2015, we and Intrexon entered into a letter of agreement pursuant to which we mutually agreed to terminate our collaboration with respect to the development of potential therapies to treat Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hypermobility type) due to technical hurdles. As a result, we no longer have any rights or obligations under the 2012 ECC with respect to the development of “autologous human fibroblasts genetically modified to express bioactive Tenascin-X locally to correct connective tissue disorders”.

Currently, we are in development of two gene therapy product candidates, FCX-007 and FCX-013, under the 2012 ECC, as more fully described under the heading “Development Programs” within “Item 1—Business” of this Form 10-K.



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2015 Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement (2015 ECC)

In December 2015, we entered into an additional Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement with Intrexon (the 2015 ECC) pursuant to which we are Intrexon’s exclusive channel collaborator in the research, development and commercialization of products for the treatment of chronic inflammation and degenerative diseases of human joints through intra-articular or other local administration of genetically-modified fibroblasts (the 2015 Field). The collaboration leverages our autologous fibroblast technology with Intrexon’s synthetic biology technology to identify and develop cell-based therapeutics that will be genetically modified to express one or more proteins at sites of joint inflammation. We believe this treatment approach has the potential to overcome the limitations of existing therapies for chronic inflammation and degenerative diseases of the joint, including arthritis and related conditions.

Pursuant to the terms of the 2015 ECC, Intrexon has granted us a license to use its proprietary technologies and other intellectual property to develop and commercialize products in the 2015 Field throughout the world. We are responsible for all costs incurred in connection with the research, development and commercialization of products under the 2015 ECC and own all clinical data, regulatory filings and regulatory approvals relating to such products. We engage Intrexon for support services in connection with the research and development of products under the 2015 ECC, and reimburse Intrexon for its cost for time and materials for such services.

In consideration for the license and the other rights that we receive under the 2015 ECC, we paid Intrexon an up-front technology access fee of $10 million in cash in January 2016. For each product that we develop under the 2015 ECC, we are required to pay Intrexon development milestones of up to $30 million for the first product developed under the 2015 ECC (and development milestones up to $55 million for each subsequent product developed under the 2015 ECC) and commercialization milestones of up to $22.5 million, for each product developed, a low double-digit royalty on our net sales of such products and half of any sublicensing revenues we receive from third parties in consideration for sublicenses granted by us with respect to such products but only to the extent such sublicensing revenues are not included in net sales subject to royalties.

The 2015 ECC may be terminated by Intrexon if we fail to exercise diligent efforts in developing products through the collaboration or if we elect not to pursue the development of a therapy identified by Intrexon within the 2015 Field and that qualifies as a “Superior Therapy” as defined in the 2015 ECC.  Upon such termination, the products covered by the 2015 ECC in active and ongoing Phase II clinical trials or later stage development shall be entitled to be continued by us with a continuation of the related milestone, royalty and other payment obligations for such products, and all rights to products covered by the 2015 ECC still in an earlier stage of development shall revert to Intrexon.

To date, we have only conducted research for a gene therapy product candidate for arthritis and related conditions under the 2015 ECC. We have deferred further development under the 2015 ECC in order to focus our efforts and our resources on our ongoing development of FCX-007 and FCX-013.
Manufacturing

We lease and operate our own manufacturing facility located in Exton, Pennsylvania. We have historically used this facility to manufacture our non-genetically modified products and during 2016 began using this facility for pre-clinical manufacturing of our gene therapy product candidate, FCX-013.  We designated our Exton, PA cGMP manufacturing facility in Exton, PA as the production site for FCX-007 in the fourth quarter of 2017, and are currently producing the drug product for the FCX-007 clinical trial at that facility. We also plan to manufacture FCX-013 at the same location. Previously we outsourced certain manufacturing of our genetically-modified product candidate, FCX-007, to a contract manufacturer with a facility located in Mountain View, California. We adhere to FDA cGMP regulations. We believe that we have adequate manufacturing capacity to satisfy our pre-clinical and clinical demands.

The fibroblast cells that constitute our product candidates are cultured by our proprietary cGMP manufacturing process, beginning with the collection of skin biopsies from the patient’s skin.  Fibroblasts are extracted from the biopsies and cultured using standard culture techniques to increase the cell population. A viral transduction is then performed to introduce targeted genes to the cells. The fibroblasts are then further expanded and cryopreserved for storage.  When a treatment is requested, the cells are thawed, washed and prepared for shipment.

All component parts, including raw materials and other supplies utilized in our manufacturing process are available from various third party suppliers and manufacturers in quantities adequate to meet our needs. We seek to ensure continuity of supply of such component parts, raw materials and supplies using a strategy of dual sourcing, where possible. Some of our raw materials are currently sourced from one vendor; however, alternate vendors are available should they be required, although we would need sufficient lead time to qualify those vendors.     

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We use certain hazardous chemicals and biological materials in our manufacturing process which are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations governing, among other matters, the use, generation, manufacture, transportation, storage, handling, disposal of and human exposure to these materials, including regulation by governmental regulatory agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs in the ordinary course of our business in complying with these laws and regulations. We dispose of minimal hazardous biological waste as a result of our manufacturing process.
Intellectual Property

We believe that patents, trademarks, copyrights and other proprietary rights are important to our business.  We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovations to develop and maintain our competitive position.  We seek to protect our intellectual property rights by a variety of means, including obtaining patents, maintaining trade secrets and proprietary know-how and technological innovation to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing on our proprietary rights. 

As of December 31, 2017, we own or license 11 issued U.S. patents, 8 pending U.S. patent applications, 1 granted foreign patent, 1 pending international patent and 14 pending foreign patent applications.  Our issued patents and patent applications primarily cover the method of using autologous cell fibroblasts for the repair of skin and soft tissue defects and the use of autologous fibroblast cells for tissue regeneration.  In particular, we own an issued patent in the U.S. that is directed to methods of long-term augmentation of subcutaneous or dermal tissue by injecting an effective amount of a suspension of autologous passaged dermal fibroblasts into subadjacent tissue, which is set to expire in July 2020. In addition, we own an issued U.S. patent, an issued Australian patent, and pending applications in Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and the U.S. directed to dosage formulations for injection containing particular amounts of autologous human fibroblasts and uses thereof, which naturally expire in 2030 and 2031. We also own pending applications in the U.S. and several foreign countries related to topical formulations of autologous dermal fibroblasts and uses thereof, the earliest of which, if issued, would naturally expire in 2027. We have also in-licensed from Intrexon Corporation an international application directed to compositions and methods for treating Type VII collagen deficiencies which, if issued, would expire in 2037. We have also in-licensed from Intrexon Corporation U.S. provisional applications directed to delivery of autologous cells comprising matrix metalloproteinase-1 for treating scleroderma which, if a non-provisional application would issue therefrom, would expire in 2038.
Competition

There is significant competition in the biopharmaceutical industry which can be attributed to companies ranging from small specialized biotechnology firms to large well-established pharmaceutical companies. More specifically, there are many companies currently competing in drug development for new therapies for the treatment of diseases affecting the skin, connective tissue and joints, our focus area. Some of our competitors have substantially greater financial resources and larger research and development organizations.  In addition, our experience in clinical trials, obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals, manufacturing and commercialization of products may be more limited. 

Product competition is based on a variety of factors, including but not limited to: product safety, efficacy, convenience of dosing, availability, price, as well as brand recognition. Our product candidates, if approved for commercial use, will contend with treatments offered by our competitors. Although we believe the autologous nature and localized treatment approach of our product candidates provide advantages over our competitors, existing and new treatments may also possess certain advantages. Additionally, the development of other drug technologies and methods of treating diseases are occurring at a rapid pace. These developments may render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. Currently, we believe the primary competitors for our product candidates are as follows:

FCX-007 for RDEB. Our product candidate FCX-007 is being developed for the treatment of RDEB. Current treatments for RDEB, which include bandaging, antibiotics, feeding tubes, and surgery (hand and esophageal), only address the symptoms of this disorder. There are currently no products approved by the FDA for the treatment of RDEB. We are aware of a potentially competing product candidate, EB-101, which is a genetically-modified keratinocyte graft being developed by Abeona Therapeutics (Abeona). Following presentation of Phase 1/2 clinical data at the Society of Investigative Dermatology conference in 2017, Abeona received guidance from the FDA to initiate a Pivotal Phase 3 trial in 2018. In addition, we are aware of several other products in development for the treatment of various forms of epidermolysis bullosa (including DEB and RDEB).

    

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FCX-013 for Moderate to Severe Localized Scleroderma. Our product candidate FCX-013 is being developed for the treatment of moderate to severe localized scleroderma. Current treatments for localized scleroderma include systemic or topical corticosteroids which target inflammation, UVA light therapy, and physical therapy. There are few treatment options to address excessive collagen accumulation in the skin and connective tissue. There are currently no products approved by the FDA for the treatment of localized scleroderma. We are aware of a potentially competing product, ECCS-50 Cellular Therapy, which is being developed by Cytori Therapeutics (Cytori), for the treatment of systemic scleroderma that affects the hands. Cytori recently released data from its clinical trial and is working with statisticians and study investigators in preparation for publication of these results in a peer-reviewed journal. We are also aware that miRagen Therapeutics has a product candidate, MRG-201, which utilizes microRNA biology and is in a Phase 1 clinical trial for the treatment of systemic and localized scleroderma.
Research and Development

We expense research and development costs as they are incurred.  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we incurred total research and development expenses of approximately $12.2 million and $12.1 million, respectively. Additionally, for the year ended December 31, 2016, we incurred expenses of less than $0.1 million related to a research and development agreement that we have with a third party to investigate potential new non-pharmaceutical applications for our conditioned fibroblast media technology. Expenses pertaining to this research and development agreement are classified under the caption “Cost of collaboration revenue” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Government Regulation

We are subject to extensive government regulation, principally by the FDA and state and local authorities in the United States and by comparable agencies in foreign countries.  Governmental authorities in the United States extensively regulate the pre-clinical and clinical testing, safety, efficacy, research, development, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record-keeping, advertising, promotion, import, export, marketing and distribution, among other things, of pharmaceutical and biologic products under various federal laws including the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) and under comparable laws by the states and in most foreign countries.

Domestic Regulation 

In the United States, the FDA, under the FFDCA, the PHSA, and other federal statutes and regulations, subjects pharmaceutical and biologic products to rigorous review.  If we do not comply with applicable requirements, we may be subjected to various enforcement actions, such as product seizures and court injunctions, the government may refuse to approve our marketing applications, and we could even be criminally prosecuted in certain circumstances.  The FDA also has the authority to suspend or revoke a Biologics License Application (BLA), issue adverse publicity, and take other measures if we fail to comply with applicable regulatory standards.

FDA Approval Process

To obtain approval of a new drug product from the FDA, we must, among other requirements, submit data demonstrating its safety, purity, and potency, which includes efficacy, as well as detailed information on the manufacture and composition of the product candidate.  In most cases, this entails extensive laboratory tests and pre-clinical and clinical trials.  This testing and the preparation of necessary applications and processing of those applications by the FDA are expensive and typically take many years to complete.  The FDA may deny our applications or may not act quickly or favorably in reviewing these applications, and we may encounter significant difficulties or costs in our efforts to obtain FDA approvals that could delay or preclude us from marketing any products we may develop.  The FDA also may require post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the effects of approved products or place conditions on any approvals that could restrict the commercial applications of these products.  Regulatory authorities may withdraw product approvals if we fail to comply with regulatory standards or if we encounter problems following initial marketing.  With respect to patented products or technologies, delays imposed by the governmental approval process may materially reduce the period during which we may have the exclusive right to exploit the products or technologies.

The FDA does not apply a single regulatory scheme to human cells and tissues and products derived from human cells and tissue.  On a product-by-product basis, the FDA may regulate such products as drugs, biologic products, or medical devices, in addition to regulating them as human cells, tissues, or cellular or tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), depending on whether or not the particular product triggers any of an enumerated list of regulatory factors.  A fundamental difference in the treatment of products under these classifications is that the FDA permits certain HCT/Ps, sometimes referred to as section 361 HCT/Ps, that do not trigger any of those regulatory factors to be commercially distributed without regulatory approval.  In

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contrast, HCT/P products that trigger those factors, such as if they are more than minimally manipulated, are regulated as drugs, biologics, or medical devices and require FDA approval prior to commercial distribution.  We have determined that our product candidates trigger regulatory factors that make them biologic products, in addition to HCT/Ps, and consequently, we must obtain approval from the FDA before marketing such products and must also satisfy all regulatory requirements for HCT/Ps.

The process required by the FDA before a new drug or biologic product may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:
completion of pre-clinical laboratory tests or studies and formulation studies;
submission to the FDA of an IND application for a new drug or biologic product, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug, or safety, purity, and potency of the proposed biologic product for its intended use;
detailed information on product characterization and manufacturing process; and
submission and approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) for a drug, or a BLA for a biologic product.

Pre-clinical tests include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry formulation and stability, as well as animal and other studies to evaluate toxicity.  Under FDA regulations, the results of any pre-clinical testing, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND application.  The FDA requires a 30-day waiting period after the filing of each IND application before clinical trials may begin, in order to ensure that human research patients will not be exposed to unreasonable health risks.  At any time during this 30-day period or at any time thereafter, the FDA may halt proposed or ongoing clinical trials, may authorize trials only on specified terms, or may require additional trials.  The IND application process may become extremely costly and substantially delay development of our products.  Moreover, positive results of pre-clinical tests will not necessarily forecast positive results in clinical trials. 

The sponsor typically conducts human clinical trials in three sequential phases, which may overlap.  These phases generally include the following:
Phase 1: The product candidate is usually first introduced into healthy humans or, on occasion, into patients, and is tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism;
Phase 2: The product candidate is introduced into a limited patient population to:
assess its efficacy in specific, targeted indications;
assess dosage tolerance and optimal dosage; and
identify possible adverse effects and safety risks.
Phase 3: These are commonly referred to as pivotal studies.  If a product candidate is found to have an acceptable safety profile and to be potentially effective in Phase 2 clinical trials, clinical trials in Phase 3 will be initiated to further demonstrate clinical efficacy, optimal dosage and safety within an expanded and diverse patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites; and
If the FDA does ultimately approve the product candidate, it may require post-marketing testing, including potentially expensive Phase 4 studies, to confirm or further evaluate its safety and effectiveness. Continued ability to commercialize the product may be based on the successful completion of these additional studies.

Before proceeding with a trial, the sponsor may seek a written agreement from the FDA regarding the design, size, and conduct of a clinical trial.  This is known as a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA).  Among other things, SPAs can cover clinical trials for pivotal studies whose data will form the primary basis to establish a product’s efficacy.  SPAs thus help establish up-front agreement with the FDA about the adequacy of a clinical trial design to support a regulatory approval, but the agreement is not binding if new circumstances arise.  Even if the FDA agrees to a SPA, the agreement may be changed by the sponsor or the FDA on written agreement by either parties, or if a senior FDA official determines that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or effectiveness of the product was identified after the testing began.  There is no guarantee that a study will ultimately be adequate to support an approval, even if the study is subject to a SPA.  The FDA retains significant latitude and discretion in interpreting the terms of the SPA and the data and results from any study that is the subject of the SPA. The FDA may revoke or alter its SPA agreement under the following circumstances:

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a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or efficacy of the drug has been identified after testing has begun;
the protocol that was agreed upon with the FDA has not been followed by a sponsor;
the relevant data, assumptions, or information provided by a sponsor in a request for a SPA change are found to be false or misleading, or are found to exclude relevant facts; or
the FDA and sponsor agree in writing to modify the protocol and such modification is intended to improve the study.

Clinical trials must meet requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight, patient informed consent and the FDA’s Good Clinical Practice (GCP) requirements.  Prior to commencement of each clinical trial, the sponsor must submit to the FDA a clinical plan, or protocol, accompanied by the approval of the committee responsible for overseeing clinical trials at the clinical trial sites.  The FDA or the IRB at each institution at which a clinical trial is being performed may order the temporary or permanent discontinuation of a clinical trial at any time if it believes that the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with FDA requirements or presents an unacceptable risk to the clinical trial patients.  Data safety monitoring boards, which monitor certain studies to protect the welfare of study patients, may also require that a clinical trial be discontinued or modified.

The sponsor must submit to the FDA the results of the pre-clinical and clinical trials, together with, among other things, detailed information on the manufacturing and composition of the product, and proposed labeling, in the form of an NDA, or, in the case of a biologic product, a BLA.  The applicant must also submit with the NDA or BLA a substantial user fee payment, unless a waiver or reduction applies.  In some cases, a sponsor may be able to expand the indications in an approved NDA or BLA through a submission of a Prior Approval Supplement.  Each NDA or BLA submitted for FDA approval is usually reviewed for administrative completeness and reviewability within 60 days following submission of the application.  If deemed complete, the FDA will “file” the NDA or BLA, thereby triggering substantive review of the application.  The FDA can refuse to file any NDA or BLA that it deems incomplete or not properly reviewable.  Once the submission has been accepted for filing, the FDA will review the application and will usually respond to the applicant in accordance with performance goals the FDA, industry and Congress have negotiated for the review of NDAs and BLAs. For NDAs for new molecular entity drugs and for original BLA submissions, the review period is currently six months from the filing date of the application for priority applications and ten months from the filing date for standard applications.  The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information, pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, or clarification, or by changes to the application submitted by the applicant in the form of amendments.  The FDA may refer applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation, and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions.  The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving an NDA or BLA, the FDA generally inspects the facilities at which the product is manufactured and will not approve the product unless the manufacturing facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements which govern the manufacture, holding and distribution of a product.  Manufacturers of human cellular or tissue-based biologics also must comply with the FDA’s Good Tissue Practices, as applicable, and the general biologic product standards. 

It is possible that our product candidates will not successfully proceed through this approval process or that the FDA will not approve them in any specific period of time, or at all.  The FDA may deny or delay approval of applications that do not meet applicable regulatory criteria, or if the FDA determines that the clinical data do not adequately establish the safety and efficacy of the product.  Satisfaction of FDA pre-market approval requirements for a new biologic product is a process that may take a number of years and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product or disease.  The FDA reviews these applications and, when and if it decides that adequate data are available to show that the product is both safe and effective and that other applicable requirements have been met, approves the drug or biologic product for marketing.  Government regulation may delay or prevent marketing of potential products for a considerable period of time and imposes costly procedures upon our activities.  Success in early stage clinical trials does not assure success in later stage clinical trials.  Data obtained from clinical activities are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval.  Upon approval, a product candidate may be marketed only for those indications approved in the NDA or BLA and will be subject to labeling and promotional requirements or limitations, including warnings, precautions, contraindications and use limitations, which could materially impact profitability.  Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with pre- and post-market regulatory standards and requirements are not maintained or if safety, efficacy or other problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace.


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The FDA may, during its review of an NDA or BLA, ask for additional study data.  If the FDA does ultimately approve the product, approval may be subject to limitations based on the FDA’s interpretation of the existing pre-clinical and clinical data and the FDA may require post-marketing testing, including potentially expensive Phase IV studies, to confirm or otherwise further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the product.  The FDA also may require, as a condition to approval or continued marketing of a drug, a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) to ensure that the benefits of a drug or biologic product outweigh its risks.  A REMS can include additional educational materials for healthcare professionals and patients such as Medication Guides and Patient Package Inserts, a plan for communicating information to healthcare professionals, and restricted distribution of the product.  In addition, the FDA may, in some circumstances, impose restrictions on the use of the product, which may be difficult and expensive to administer and may require prior approval of promotional materials.  Following approval, the FDA may require labeling changes or impose new post-approval study, risk management, or distribution restriction requirements.

The FDA has developed several programs intended to expedite the development and review of drugs that address unmet medical needs for serious or life threatening conditions, especially when the drugs are the first available treatment or have advantages over existing treatments:
Accelerated Approval. The FDA may grant accelerated approval to drugs or biologic products that treat serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefits to patients over existing treatments. Under this program, the FDA may approve a product based on surrogate endpoints or clinical endpoints that can be measured earlier than mortality or irreversible morbidity. When approval is based on surrogate endpoints or clinical endpoints that can be measured earlier than mortality or irreversible morbidity, the sponsor will be required to conduct additional post-approval clinical trials to verify and describe clinical benefit. Under the agency’s accelerated approval regulations, if the FDA concludes that a product that has been shown to be effective can be safely used only if distribution or use is restricted, it may require certain post-marketing restrictions as necessary to assure safe use. In addition, for products approved under accelerated approval, sponsors will be required to submit all copies of their promotional materials, including advertisements, to the FDA at least thirty days prior to initial dissemination unless otherwise informed by the FDA. After a hearing, the FDA may withdraw a previously granted accelerated approval if, for instance, post-marketing studies fail to verify any clinical benefit, it becomes clear that restrictions on the distribution of the product are inadequate to ensure its safe use, or if a sponsor fails to comply with the conditions of the accelerated approval.
Breakthrough Therapy. The FDA may grant “breakthrough therapy” status to drugs or biologic products designed to treat, alone or in combination with another drug(s) or biologic(s), a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and for which preliminary evidence suggests a substantial improvement on clinically-meaningful endpoints over existing therapies. Such products need not address an unmet need, but are nevertheless eligible for expedited review if they offer the potential for an improvement over existing therapies. Breakthrough therapy status entitles the sponsor to earlier and more frequent meetings with the FDA regarding the development of nonclinical and clinical data and permits the FDA to offer product development or regulatory advice for the purpose of potentially shortening the time to product approval. The FDA may rescind breakthrough therapy designation if it believes the designated product no longer meets the qualifying criteria. Breakthrough therapy status does not guarantee that a product will be developed or reviewed more quickly and does not ensure FDA approval.
Fast Track. The FDA may grant “fast track” status to drugs or biologic products that are intended to treat serious diseases or illness and demonstrate the potential to fill an unmet medical need. Fast track is a process designed to expedite the review of such products by providing, among other things, more frequent meetings with the FDA to discuss the product’s development plan, more frequent written correspondence from the FDA about trial design, potential eligibility for accelerated approval, and rolling review, which allows submission of individually completed sections of a NDA or BLA for the FDA’s review before the entire filing is completed. Fast track status does not ensure that a product will be developed more quickly or receive FDA approval more quickly, if at all.
Priority Review. The FDA may grant “priority review” status to products that, if approved, would be significant improvements in safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of serious conditions. Priority review is intended to reduce the time it takes for the FDA to review an NDA or BLA.

Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy. A product may be eligible for regenerative medicine advanced therapy (RMAT) designation if:

a.
The drug is a regenerative medicine therapy, which is defined as a cell therapy, therapeutic tissue engineering product, human cell and tissue product, or any combination product using such therapies or products, except

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for those regulated solely under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and part 1271 of Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations;

b.
The drug is intended to treat, modify, reverse, or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition; and

c.
Preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug has the potential to address unmet medical needs for such disease or condition

Advantages of the RMAT designation include all of the benefits of the fast track breakthrough designation programs, including early interactions with sponsors.

Additionally, there are various incentives to support development and approval of certain product candidates, including, but is not limited to, orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation.

Orphan Drug Designation

Under the U.S. Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs or biologic products intended to treat a “rare disease or condition,” which is generally defined as having a prevalence of less than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA or BLA for the product. Orphan drug designation does not shorten the regulatory review and approval process, nor does it provide any advantage in the regulatory review and approval process. However, if an orphan drug later receives approval for the indication for which it has designation, the relevant regulatory authority may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same indication, except in very limited circumstances, for seven years in the U.S. Although obtaining approval to market a product with orphan drug exclusivity may be advantageous, we cannot be certain:
that we will be the first to obtain approval for any drug for which we obtain orphan drug designation;
that orphan drug designation will result in any commercial advantage or reduce competition; or
that the limited exceptions to this exclusivity will not be invoked by the relevant regulatory authority.

Additionally, orphan drug exclusive marketing rights may be lost under certain conditions, such as if the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug.

FCX-007 and FCX-013 have received Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA, for the treatment of DEB (including RDEB) and localized scleroderma, respectively.

Rare Pediatric Disease Designation

FCX-007 has received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for the treatment of RDEB and FCX-013 has received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe localized scleroderma. The FDA generally defines a “rare pediatric disease” as a disease that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. primarily under the age of 18 years old. Under the FDA’s Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher (PRV) program, upon the approval of an NDA or BLA for a product for the treatment of a rare pediatric disease that is serious or life-threatening, the sponsor of such application is eligible for a Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher. Currently, the Priority Review Voucher can be used to obtain priority review for any subsequent NDA or BLA and may be sold or transferred an unlimited number of times. Under the 21st Century Cures Act, Congress extended the PRV program for rare pediatric diseases through 2020. A drug designated as a drug for a rare pediatric disease by September 30, 2020, and approved by September 30, 2022, may receive a voucher. Because this program has been subject to criticism, including by the FDA, it is possible that even if we obtain approval for FCX-007 and FCX-013 and qualify for such a PRV, the program may no longer be in effect at the time of approval.
    
Ongoing FDA Requirements and Post-Marketing Obligations

All approved drug products are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including record-keeping requirements, reporting of adverse experiences with the product, sampling and distribution requirements, notifying the FDA and gaining its approval of certain manufacturing or labeling changes, complying with certain electronic records and signature requirements, submitting periodic reports to the FDA, maintaining and providing updated safety and efficacy information to the FDA, and complying with FDA promotion and advertising requirements.  Failure to comply with the statutory and regulatory requirements can subject a manufacturer to possible legal or regulatory action, such as warning letters, suspension of manufacturing, seizure of product, injunctive action, criminal prosecution, or civil penalties.

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The FDA may require post-marketing studies or clinical trials to develop additional information regarding the safety of a product.  These studies or trials may involve continued testing of a product and development of data, including clinical data, about the product’s effects in various populations and any side effects associated with long-term use.  The FDA may require post-marketing studies or trials to investigate possible or known serious risks or signals of serious risks, or to identify unexpected serious risks, and may require periodic status reports if new safety information develops.  Failure to conduct these studies in a timely manner may result in substantial civil penalties, or withdrawal of product approval.

Also, newly discovered or developed safety or efficacy data may require changes to a product’s approved labeling, including the addition of new warnings and contraindications, additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, or even in some instances, withdrawal of the approval.  Violations of regulatory requirements at any stage, including after approval, may result in various adverse consequences, including the FDA’s withdrawal of an approved product from the market, other voluntary or FDA-initiated action that could delay or restrict further marketing, and the imposition of civil fines and criminal penalties against the manufacturer or the NDA or BLA holder.  In addition, later discovery of previously unknown problems may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or NDA or BLA holder, including withdrawal of the product from the market. 

The labeling, advertising, promotion, marketing and distribution of a drug or biologic product also must be in compliance with FDA requirements which include, among other things, promotional activities, standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, promotional activities involving the internet, and industry sponsored scientific and educational activities.  In general, all product promotion must be consistent with the labeling approved by the FDA for such product, contain a balanced presentation of information on the product’s uses, benefits, risks, and important safety information and limitations on use, and otherwise not be false or misleading.  The FDA has very broad enforcement authority, and failure to abide by these regulations can result in penalties, including the issuance of a warning letter directing a company to correct deviations from regulatory standards and enforcement actions that can include seizures, injunctions and criminal prosecution.  Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements and restrictions also may subject a company to adverse publicity and enforcement action by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) or the Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as well as state authorities.  This could subject the company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which a company promotes or distributes its products.

Drug and biologic product manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and to list their products with the FDA.  The FDA periodically inspects manufacturing facilities in the United States and abroad in order to assure compliance with the applicable cGMP regulations and other requirements. These cGMP requirements apply to all stages of the manufacturing process, including production, processing, sterilization, packaging, labeling, storage and shipment. Facilities also are subject to inspections by other federal, foreign, state and local agencies.  In complying with the cGMP regulations, manufacturers must continue to assure that the product meets applicable specifications, regulations and other post-marketing requirements.  Failure to comply with these requirements subjects the manufacturer to possible legal, regulatory or voluntary action, such as suspension of manufacturing or recall or seizure of product.

Sponsors and their third-party contractors are also subject to various laws and regulations governing laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals and the use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances in connection with their research. The FDA has regulatory and enforcement power to disqualify nonclinical laboratory studies performed by a violative facility from being considered by FDA in support of any application for a research or marketing permit; to publicly disclose the fact of such disqualification; and to pursue any other available and appropriate judicial proceeding or regulatory action, such as court-ordered injunctions denial or withdrawal of regulatory approvals and referral to other federal, state or local government law enforcement or regulatory agencies.

Furthermore, new government requirements may be established that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our products under development, or affect the conditions under which approved products are marketed. 





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HIPAA Requirements

Other federal legislation may affect our ability to obtain certain health information in conjunction with our research activities.  We may be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business.  The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH), and its implementing regulations, imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. HIPAA also prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statements or representation, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

In addition, numerous federal and state laws and regulations that address privacy and data security, including state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act), govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information. Failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions and create liability for us (which could include civil and/or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity that could negatively affect our business.

Failure to achieve and sustain compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security and fraud laws could result in government enforcement actions and create liability for us (which could include civil and/or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity that could negatively affect our operating results and business.

Other U.S. Regulatory Requirements

In the United States, the research, manufacturing, distribution, sale, and promotion of drug and biologic products are potentially subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities in addition to the FDA, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), other divisions of the HHS (e.g., the Office of Inspector General), the DOJ and individual U.S. Attorney offices within the DOJ, and state and local governments.  For example, sales, marketing and scientific/educational grant programs must comply with the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the False Claims Act and other federal and state fraud and abuse laws, as described in detail below.

If we successfully commercialize any of our products, we may participate in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. Participation is required for federal funds to be available for our products that we successfully commercialize under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. Under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, we would be required to pay a rebate to each state Medicaid program for our covered outpatient drugs that are dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries and paid for by a state Medicaid program as a condition of having federal funds being made available to the states for our drugs under Medicaid and Part B of the Medicare program.

Federal law requires that any company that participates in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program also participate in the Public Health Service’s 340B drug pricing program in order for federal funds to be available for the manufacturer’s drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. The 340B drug pricing program requires participating manufacturers to agree to charge statutorily-defined covered entities no more than the 340B “ceiling price” for the manufacturer’s covered outpatient drugs. These 340B covered entities include a variety of community health clinics and other entities that receive health services grants from the Public Health Service, as well as hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

Under Section 603 of the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992 (VHCA), drug companies that participate in Medicaid or Medicare Part B are required to offer their “covered drugs” (biologic products and innovator drugs) for sale on a Federal Supply Schedule (FFS) contract at a statutorily reduced price to four federal agencies including the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Defense, the Public Health Service and the Coast Guard. Participation under Section 603 the VHCA requires submission of pricing data and calculation of discounts pursuant to complex statutory formulas, as well as the entry into government procurement contracts governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulation. In addition, pursuant to regulations issued by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management Activity, now the Defense Health Agency, to implement Section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, manufacturers are required to pay rebates on “covered drug” prescriptions dispensed to TRICARE beneficiaries by TRICARE network retail pharmacies.  All of these activities are also potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection, unfair competition, and other laws.

In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (together, the Affordable Care Act). The Affordable Care Act substantially changed the

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way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The Affordable Care Act intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for health care and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms.  The Affordable Care Act has resulted in, and we expect it will continue to result in, downward pressure on coverage and the price of products covered by Medicare and other government programs. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare and other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments and coverage from private payors.  The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our products.  In addition, certain legislative changes to and regulatory changes under the Affordable Care Act have occurred in the 115th United States Congress and under the Trump Administration. For instance, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 increased the Affordable Care Act required manufacturer point-of-sale discount from 50% to 70% off the negotiated price for Medicare Part D beneficiaries during their coverage gap period beginning in 2019. It is possible that there will be further legislation or regulation that could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

At such time as we market, sell and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval, it is possible that our business activities could be subject to scrutiny and enforcement under one or more federal or state health care fraud and abuse laws and regulations, which could affect our ability to operate our business. These include the following fraud and abuse laws and regulations:

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any healthcare item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federally financed healthcare programs.  This statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other. Although there are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some business arrangements from prosecution, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly and practices that involve remuneration intended to induce prescribing, purchasing or recommending may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exemption or safe harbor. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from federal Anti-Kickback Statute liability.  The Affordable Care Act, among other things, clarified that liability may be established under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute without proving actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. In addition, the Affordable Care Act provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act (discussed below) or the civil monetary penalties statute, which imposes penalties against any person who is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits any person from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment of government funds; knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government; or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding, decreasing or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. The False Claims Act also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging violations of the statute and to share in any monetary recovery. Many pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have been investigated and have reached substantial financial settlements with the federal government under the civil False Claims Act for a variety of alleged improper marketing activities, including: providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product; providing sham consulting fees, grants, free travel and other benefits to physicians to induce them to prescribe the company’s products; and inflating prices reported to private price publication services, which are used to set drug payment rates under government healthcare programs. In addition, in recent years the government has pursued civil False Claims Act cases against a number of pharmaceutical companies for causing false claims to be submitted as a result of the marketing of their products for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. False Claims Act liability is potentially significant in the healthcare industry because the statute provides for treble damages and mandatory penalties in the tens of thousands of dollars. Pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies also are subject to other federal false claim laws, including, among others, federal criminal healthcare fraud and false statement statutes that extend to non-government health benefit programs.

HIPAA created federal criminal statutes that prohibit among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors,

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knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

Analogous state laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to items or services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs or, in several states, apply regardless of the payor. Some state laws also require pharmaceutical companies to report expenses relating to the marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical products and to report gifts and payments to certain healthcare providers in the states. Other states prohibit providing meals to prescribers or other marketing related activities. Other states restrict the ability of manufacturers to offer co-pay support to patients for certain prescription drugs.  Still other states and cities require identification or licensing of sales representatives. In addition, California, Connecticut, Nevada and Massachusetts require pharmaceutical companies to implement compliance programs or marketing codes of conduct.

The federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, being implemented as the Open Payments Program, requires certain pharmaceutical manufacturers to engage in extensive tracking of payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals, and to submit such data to CMS, which will then make all of this data publicly available on the CMS website. Pharmaceutical manufacturers with products for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the State Children’s Health Insurance Program are required to track reportable payments and must submit a report to CMS on or before the 90th day of each calendar year disclosing reportable payments made in the previous calendar year. Failure to comply with the reporting obligations may result in civil monetary penalties.

The federal Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1997 and other similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from providing money or anything of value to officials of foreign governments, foreign political parties, or international organizations with the intent to obtain or retain business or seek a business advantage. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in anti-bribery law enforcement activity by U.S. regulators, with more frequent and aggressive investigations and enforcement proceedings by both DOJ and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Violations of United States or foreign laws or regulations could result in the imposition of substantial fines, interruptions of business, loss of supplier, vendor or other third-party relationships, termination of necessary licenses and permits and other legal or equitable sanctions. Other internal or government investigations or legal or regulatory proceedings, including lawsuits brought by private litigants, may also follow as a consequence.

Violations of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations are punishable by significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines and exclusion from government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security and fraud laws may prove costly.

International Regulation

The regulation of our product candidates outside of the United States varies by country.  Certain countries regulate human tissue products as a pharmaceutical product, which would require us to make extensive filings and obtain regulatory approvals before selling our product candidates.  Certain other countries classify our product candidates as human tissue for transplantation but may restrict its import or sale.  Other countries may have no application regulations regarding the import or sale of products similar to our product candidates, creating uncertainty as to what standards we may be required to meet.
Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we had 20 full-time employees, all located in the United States.  Of these full-time employees, 15 are engaged in research, development and manufacturing (including facilities) functions and 5 are engaged in finance, legal, human resources, information technology, and other general administrative functions. None of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good. 



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Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in September 1992. Our corporate office is located at 405 Eagleview Boulevard, Exton, Pennsylvania 19341. Our telephone number is (484) 713-6000. We maintain an Internet website at www.fibrocell.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

We file reports, proxy and information statements and other information with the SEC. We make available free of charge under the “Investors—SEC Filings” section of our website all of our filings with the SEC, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to such documents, each of which is provided on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with the SEC.

The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Additionally, the SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business is subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. The occurrence of any of the following risks and uncertainties, either alone or taken together, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Risks and uncertainties of general applicability and additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Risks Related to our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We need to obtain additional capital to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to obtain sufficient capital, we will need to curtail and reduce our operations and costs, and modify our business strategy.

Our principal sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents of $17.4 million as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2017, we had working capital of $13.5 million. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations into the first quarter of 2019. However, changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of such circumstances.

To meet our capital needs, we are considering multiple alternatives, including but not limited to, equity financings, debt financings, corporate collaborations, partnerships and other strategic transactions and funding opportunities. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to complete any such transaction on acceptable terms or otherwise. These factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Consequently, the audit report prepared by our independent registered public accounting firm relating to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes a paragraph related to the substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders will experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, will result in increased fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. Any debt financing or additional equity that we raise may contain terms, such as liquidation, dividends and other rights or preferences, which are not favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration or partnership arrangements with third parties, it may be necessary to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.
If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we will need to curtail and reduce our operations and costs, and modify our business strategy which may require us to, among other things:
significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates or one or more of our other research and development initiatives;
seek collaborators for one or more of our current or future product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available;
sell or license on unfavorable terms our rights to technologies or product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves; or
seek bankruptcy protection which may result in the termination of agreements pursuant to which we license important intellectual property rights including our exclusive collaboration agreements with Intrexon.

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses in the future.
We have incurred losses since our inception, have not generated significant revenue from commercial sales of our products, and have never been profitable. Investment in drug development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that a product candidate will fail to gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable. We continue to incur significant research, development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations including development of our product candidates and operation of our manufacturing facility. As a result, we are not profitable and have incurred losses in each period since we emerged from bankruptcy in September 2009. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we had a net loss of $16.2 million and used $17.0 million in operating activities and had an accumulated deficit of $178.8 million as of December 31, 2017.


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We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate that our expenses will continue to be significant if and as we:
continue our research and pre-clinical and clinical development of our product candidates;
initiate additional pre-clinical, clinical or other studies or trials for our product candidates, including under our collaboration agreements with Intrexon;
continue or expand our collaborations with Intrexon and our other collaborators;
further develop the manufacturing process for our product candidates;
continue to maintain a cGMP manufacturing facility;
change or add additional manufacturers or suppliers;
seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain regulatory approval;
seek to identify and validate additional product candidates;
acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;
maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio;
attract and retain skilled personnel;
create additional infrastructure to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts; and
experience any delays or encounter issues with any of the above.

The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance. In any particular quarter or quarters, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.

We do not generate significant revenues from product sales and may never be profitable.
Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends on our ability, alone or with strategic collaboration partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for, the manufacture and commercialization of our product candidates. We do not anticipate generating significant revenues from product sales for the foreseeable future, if ever. Our ability to generate future revenues from product sales depends heavily on our success in:
completing research and pre-clinical and clinical development of our product candidates;
seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals for product candidates for which we complete clinical trials;
developing a sustainable, scalable, reproducible, and transferable manufacturing process for our product candidates;
establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide adequate (in amount and quality) products and services to support clinical development and the market demand for our product candidates, if approved;
launching and commercializing product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval, either by collaborating with a partner or, if launched independently, by establishing a sales force, marketing, sales operations and distribution infrastructure;
obtaining market acceptance of our product candidates and cell therapy and gene therapy as viable treatment options;
addressing any competing technological and market developments;
implementing additional internal systems and infrastructure, as needed;
identifying and validating new product candidates;
negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter;

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maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.

Even if one or more of the product candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA or other regulatory agencies, domestic or foreign, to perform clinical trials or other studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.

We will seek to raise additional funds in the future, which may be dilutive to stockholders or impose operational restrictions.

We will need to raise additional capital in the future to help fund our clinical trials, our collaboration efforts with Intrexon and for the development and commercialization of our product candidates. If we raise additional capital through the issuance of equity securities, the percentage ownership of our current stockholders will be reduced. We may also issue equity as part of license issue fees to our licensors, to compensate consultants or to settle outstanding payables. Our stockholders may experience additional dilution in net book value per share and any additional equity securities may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of the holders of our common stock. Debt financing, if available, will result in increased fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. Any debt financing or additional equity that we raise may contain terms, such as liquidation and other preferences, which are not favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through corporate collaboration, partnership or other strategic transactions, it may be necessary to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, our technologies or future revenue streams or to grant licenses or sell assets on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we cannot raise additional funds, we will have to delay our development activities or cease operations.

Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants or other terms of our outstanding convertible notes, including as a result of events beyond our control, could result in a default under the notes that could materially and adversely affect the ongoing viability of our business.

On September 7, 2016, we issued an aggregate of approximately $18.1 million in principal of convertible promissory notes (each a Note and collectively, the Notes) and accompanying warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,029,174 shares of common stock (the Private Placement Warrants) in a private placement (the 2016 Private Placement) to institutional and accredited investors (each an Investor and collectively, the Investors). The Notes bear interest at 4% per annum and have a stated maturity date of the earlier of (i) September 7, 2026 and (ii) one-hundred and eighty (180) days after the date on which our product candidate, FCX-007, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of RDEB. Each individual Note holder has the right to require us to repay all or any portion of the unpaid principal from time to time on or after September 7, 2021 (such right, a Put Right). With respect to accrued and unpaid interest on the Note, each Note holder may elect, at any time and from time to time, to have any accrued and unpaid interest converted into shares of our common stock. In addition, each Note holder may elect to accelerate the repayment of all unpaid principal and accrued interest under such holder’s Note upon consummation of a specified change of control transaction or occurrence of certain events of default (as specified in the Notes), including, among other things:
our default in a payment obligation under the Notes;
our default in a payment obligation under our other debt in excess of $5 million;
our breach of the restrictive covenants or other terms of the Notes;
certain specified insolvency and bankruptcy-related events; and
our common stock ceasing to be listed or quoted on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange.

In addition, upon an event of default, the base interest rate (excluding any additional interest) for the Notes automatically increases to twelve percent (12%) per annum. Subject to any applicable cure period set forth in the Notes, all amounts outstanding with respect to the Notes (principal and accrued interest) would become due and payable immediately upon an event of default. We cannot assure you that our assets or cash flow would be sufficient to fully repay our obligations under the Notes if the obligations thereunder are accelerated upon any events of default. Further, if we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our obligations under the Notes, the holders of such Notes could proceed to protect and enforce their rights under the Notes by exercising such remedies as are available to the holders thereunder and in respect thereof under applicable law, either by suit in equity or by action at law, or both, whether for specific performance of any covenant or other

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agreement contained in the Notes or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in the Notes. The foregoing would materially and adversely affect the ongoing viability of our business.

We are subject to restrictive covenants that may restrict our ability to pursue business strategies that are in our long-term best interests.

The Notes and Purchase Agreement (as defined below) for the sale of our Series A Preferred Stock (as defined below) contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. Subject to certain limited exceptions, the Notes and Purchase Agreement include covenants restricting, among other things, our ability to:
pay cash dividends or make distributions on our capital stock or redeem or repurchase our capital stock;
create, assume or suffer to exist at any time any lien upon any of our properties or assets;
assign any accounts or other right to receive income;
incur any senior and pari passu debt;
enter into transactions with affiliates other than on terms and conditions approved by a majority of the disinterested members of our board of directors (the Board); and
use the proceeds of the 2016 Private Placement or Series A Preferred Stock Offering (as defined below) for any purpose other than solely for the continued pre-clinical and clinical development of our product candidates and for other general corporate purposes.

In addition, a breach of any of these restrictive covenants could result in a default under the Notes, entitling the holders to declare the Notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other amounts payable thereunder, to be immediately due and payable.

Provisions of the Notes and certain of our outstanding common stock purchase warrants provide for certain potential payments to the holders of such Notes and common stock purchase warrants that could impede a sale of the Company.

The Private Placement Warrants we issued in the 2016 Private Placement give each holder the option to receive a cash payment based on a Black-Scholes valuation upon our change of control. We are required, at the warrant holder’s option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the announcement of a change of control, to repurchase the Private Placement Warrants from the applicable holder by paying to the holder an amount of cash equal to the value of the unexercised portion of such holder's warrant as determined in accordance with the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the terms of the Private Placement Warrants.

The December 2017 Common Warrants (as defined below) we issued in the December 2017 Offering (as defined below) give the holders the option to receive a cash payment based on a Black-Scholes valuation upon our change of control. We are required, at the holder’s option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the announcement of a change of control, to repurchase the December 2017 Common Warrants from the applicable holder by paying to the holder an amount of cash equal to the value of the unexercised portion of such holder’s warrant as determined in accordance with the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the terms of the December 2017 Common Warrants.

In addition, upon consummation of a specified change of control transaction, each holder of a Note may elect to accelerate the repayment of all unpaid principal and accrued interest under such holder’s Note. If a holder does not elect to have us prepay its Note upon such change of control transaction, then we may prepay the Notes, in an amount equal to one hundred one percent (101%) of the outstanding principal due under the Notes (together with accrued and unpaid interest due thereon). These provisions may make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in a business combination transaction with us. Provisions that have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

We may be subject to payment of liquidated damages if we fail to file and maintain an effective registration statement with respect to the securities covered under the registration rights agreements that we entered into in connection with the 2016 Private Placement.

In connection with the 2016 Private Placement, we entered into a registration rights agreement (the Registration Rights Agreement) with the investors that participated in the offering. The Registration Rights Agreement contains demand and piggyback registration rights requiring us to register shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of the Notes or the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants and any other shares of our common stock held by the investors for resale under

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the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. If we fail, under certain circumstances as described in the Registration Rights Agreement, to file and maintain an effective registration statement with respect to the securities covered under the Registration Rights Agreement, we have agreed to pay liquidated damages to each investor in an amount equal to one percent (1.0%) of the aggregate amount invested by such investor pursuant to the Notes then owned thereby for each 30-day period or pro rata for any portion thereof during which the failure to file or keep a registration statement effective continues.

We have a significant number of outstanding convertible notes, convertible preferred stock, warrants and stock options, and future sales of underlying shares of our common stock may cause substantial dilution to our existing stockholders.

We issued an aggregate of $18.1 million in principal of Notes and Private Placement Warrants to purchase a total of 6,029,174 shares of our common stock in connection with the 2016 Private Placement. Each Private Placement Warrant has a five year term ending on September 7, 2021 and is initially exercisable at $4.50 per share beginning March 8, 2017. Holders of the Notes have the right to convert unpaid principal of the Notes into shares of our common stock at any time at conversion prices ranging from $3.40875 to $3.67875 per share (the Conversion Price). The Notes bear interest at four percent (4%) per annum which we may elect to pay in cash or accrue. If we elect for interest to accrue, then (i) we may elect to repay any such accrued and unpaid interest in cash at any time and from time to time and (ii) each holder of a Note may elect to have us repay any such accrued and unpaid interest by delivering such number of shares of our common stock equal to (x) the amount of the accrued and unpaid interest to be repaid, divided by (y) the greater of (i) the last closing bid price of a share of our common stock as reported on Nasdaq on the date of such election and (ii) the applicable Conversion Price. Commencing September 8, 2016, we have elected to accrue interest.

On March 7, 2017, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the Purchase Agreement) with certain of our existing investors pursuant to which we issued and sold a total of 8,000 units (the Units) for a purchase price of $1,000 per Unit, with each Unit consisting of (i) one share of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (Series A Preferred Stock) and (ii) a warrant to purchase 429 shares of our common stock (the March 2017 Warrants) (collectively, the Series A Preferred Stock Offering). Each share of Series A Preferred Stock has an initial stated value of $1,000 and is convertible into shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $2.3271 per share of common stock, subject to adjustment for stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations, recapitalizations or similar events. Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are also entitled to receive cumulative dividends at a rate per share of 4% per annum (with such dividend rate increasing to 8% per annum on the five year anniversary of the original issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock), with such dividends compounded quarterly by increasing the stated value of the Series A Preferred. Each March 2017 Warrant has an exercise price of $2.53773 per share, is exercisable six months after the date of issuance and expires five years from the date of issuance.

On December 7, 2017, we entered into an underwriting agreement (the HCW Underwriting Agreement) with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (HCW), pursuant to which we issued and sold 7,714,156 shares of our common stock, pre-funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of 5,922,208 shares of our common stock (December 2017 Pre-Funded Warrants) and common stock purchase warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 14,046,950 shares of our common stock (the December 2017 Common Warrants), which amount of common stock purchase warrants includes warrants to purchase up to 410,586 shares of Common Stock pursuant to the partial exercise of HCW’s option to purchase additional common stock purchase warrants . Each share of our common stock or December 2017 Pre-Funded Warrant, as applicable, was sold together with a December 2017 Common Warrant to purchase one share of our common stock at a combined effective price to the public of $0.77 per share and accompanying December 2017 Common Warrant (collectively, the December 2017 Offering). Each December 2017 Common Warrant has an exercise price of $0.77 per share, was exercisable upon the date of issuance and expires five years from the date of issuance.

As additional compensation, we issued warrants to HCW to purchase 436,364 shares of our common stock (the December 2017 Underwriter Warrants). Each December 2017 Underwriter Warrant has an exercise price of $0.9625 per share, was exercisable as of the date of the HCW Underwriting Agreement, and will expire five years after the date of the HCW Underwriting Agreement.

Subject to adjustment upon certain corporate events, including stock dividends, stock splits and distributions of cash
or other assets to stockholders:
up to 5,280,370 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the conversion of principal under the Notes; plus
up to 2,581,843 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in satisfaction of our interest payment obligations under the Notes; plus
up to 6,029,174 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants; plus

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up to 3,432,000 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the conversion of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock; plus
up to 3,437,334 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the exercise of the March 2017 Warrants; plus
up to 2,416,104 shares of common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the exercise of the December 2017 Pre-Funded Warrants; plus
up to 436,364 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the exercise of the December 2017 Underwriter Warrants; plus
up to 14,046,950 shares of our common stock could be issuable by us in connection with the exercise of the December 2017 Common Warrants.

The exercise of the Private Placement Warrants, the March 2017 Warrants, the December 2017 Pre-Funded Warrants, the December 2017 Underwriter Warrants or the December 2017 Common Warrants or the conversion of the Notes or Series A Preferred Stock may cause substantial dilution to our existing stockholders.

If we are unable to regain compliance with the listing requirements of Nasdaq, our common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and could make it more difficult for you to sell your shares.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, and we are therefore subject to its continued listing requirements, including requirements with respect to the market value of publicly-held shares, market value of listed shares, minimum bid price per share, and minimum stockholders’ equity, among others, and requirements relating to board and committee independence. If we fail to satisfy one or more of the requirements, we may be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market.

On January 23, 2018, we received notice (the Notice) from the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC that we are not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2), as the minimum bid price of our common stock has been below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. The Notice has no immediate effect on the listing of our common stock, which will continue to trade at this time on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “FCSC.”

In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have a period of 180 calendar days, or until July 23, 2018, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of our common stock must meet or exceed $1.00 per share for at least ten consecutive business days during this 180 calendar day period. In the event we do not regain compliance by July 23, 2018, we may be eligible for an additional 180 calendar day grace period if we meet the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares ($1 million) and all other initial listing standards which require, among other things, that we have at least $5 million of stockholders’ equity or at least $4 million of stockholders’ equity and $50 million market value of listed shares. If we fail to regain compliance during the applicable period, we will receive notification from Nasdaq that our common stock is subject to delisting. At that time we may then appeal the delisting determination to a Hearings Panel. Such notification will have no immediate effect on our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, nor will it have an immediate effect on the trading of our common stock pending such hearing. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement. If we regain compliance with the Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with the continued listing requirements for the Nasdaq Capital Market, or that our common stock will not be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market in the future. In addition, we may be unable to meet other applicable listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market, including maintaining minimum levels of stockholders’ equity or market values of our common stock in which case, our common stock could be delisted notwithstanding our ability to demonstrate compliance with the minimum bid price requirement.

Delisting from the Nasdaq Capital Market may adversely affect our ability to raise additional financing through the public or private sale of equity securities, may significantly affect the ability of investors to trade our securities and may negatively affect the value and liquidity of our common stock. Delisting also could have other negative results, including the potential loss of employee confidence, the loss of institutional investors or interest in business development opportunities. Moreover, a delisting of our common stock could result in an event of default under the Notes issued in the 2016 Private Placement.

If we are delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market and we are not able to list our common stock on another exchange, our common stock could be quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board or in the “pink sheets.” As a result, we could face significant adverse consequences including, among others:

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a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in our common stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;
a limited amount of news and little or no analyst coverage for us;
we would no longer qualify for exemptions from state securities registration requirements, which may require us to comply with applicable state securities laws; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities (including pursuant to short-form registration statements on Form S-3) or obtain additional financing in the future.

If our stockholders’ equity falls below $2.5 million, our common stock may be subject to delisting from Nasdaq

Nasdaq has the authority, pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1), to delist our common stock if our stockholders’ equity falls below $2.5 million. As of December 31, 2017, our stockholders’ equity was $9.0 million. If our stockholders equity is hereafter reduced below $2.5 million as a result of operating losses or for other reasons, we will fail to meet Nasdaq’s stockholders’ equity requirement. If that occurs, or if we are unable to demonstrate to Nasdaq’s satisfaction that we will be able to sustain compliance with this requirement, Nasdaq may delist our common stock. In addition, even if we regain technical compliance with the stockholders’ equity requirement, we will have to continue to meet other objective and subjective listing requirements to continue to be listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, including the requirement that our common stock continues to trade above $1.00. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we incurred a net loss of $16.2 million and used $17.0 million in operating activities and had an accumulated deficit of $178.8 million as of December 31, 2017.

We are actively monitoring our stockholders’ equity and will consider any and all options available to us to maintain compliance. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to maintain compliance and meet Nasdaq’s minimum stockholders’ equity requirements. The alternatives to trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market or another national securities exchange are generally considered to be less efficient and less broad-based than the national securities exchanges and the liquidity of our common stock will likely be reduced. In addition, if at any time we are not listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (or similar national securities exchange), then each holder of our Notes will have the option to declare the Notes held by each holder immediately due and payable, which would drain our financial resources, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and make it exceedingly difficult to continue as a going concern.

If our common stock becomes subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares.

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do not retain our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market and if the price of our common stock is less than $5.00, our common stock may be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.

We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
We have a limited operating history and our primary business activities consist of research, pre-clinical development and conducting clinical trials, pursuing our collaborations with Intrexon and previously commercializing LAVIV (azficel-T) which had previously been approved by the FDA in June 2011 for the improvement of the appearance of moderate to severe nasolabial fold wrinkles in adults. As such, our historical financial data is of limited value in estimating future operating expenses. Our budgeted expense levels are based in part on our expectations concerning the costs of our research, pre-clinical development, clinical trials and our collaborations with Intrexon, which depend on the success of such activities, and our ability to effectively and efficiently conduct such research, pre-clinical development, clinical trials and our expectations related to our efforts to achieve FDA approval with respect to our product candidates. Our limited operating history and clinical trial experience make these costs difficult to forecast accurately. We may be unable to adjust our operations in a timely manner to

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compensate for any unexpected increase in costs. Further, our fixed manufacturing costs and operating expenses may increase significantly as we expand our operations. Accordingly, a significant increase in costs could have an immediate and material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may acquire other assets or businesses, or form collaborations or make investments in other companies or technologies that could harm our operating results, dilute our stockholders’ ownership, incur debt or cause us to incur significant expense.
As part of our business strategy, we may pursue acquisitions of assets or businesses, or strategic alliances and collaborations, to expand our existing technologies and operations. We may not identify or complete these transactions in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, or at all, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction, any of which could have a detrimental effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, and if we make any acquisitions, we may not be able to integrate these acquisitions successfully into our existing business and we may incur debt or assume unknown or contingent liabilities in connection therewith. Integration of an acquired company or assets may also disrupt ongoing operations, require the hiring of additional personnel and the implementation of additional internal systems and infrastructure, especially the acquisition of commercial assets, and require management resources that would otherwise focus on developing our existing business. We may not be able to find suitable collaboration partners or identify other investment opportunities, and we may experience losses related to any such investments.
To finance any acquisitions or collaborations, we may choose to issue debt or shares of our common stock as consideration. Any such issuance of shares would dilute the ownership of our stockholders. If the price of our common stock is low or volatile, we may not be able to acquire other assets or companies or fund a transaction using our stock as consideration. Alternatively, it may be necessary for us to raise additional capital for acquisitions through public or private financings. Additional capital may not be available on terms that are favorable to us, or at all. In addition, the Notes issued in the 2016 Private Placement restrict or limit our ability to incur or assume additional indebtedness.

Risks Related to Clinical Development, Regulatory Approval and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates
Our product candidates are based on novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product development and subsequently obtaining regulatory approval. At the moment, only a small number of gene therapy products have been approved in the United States and only two gene therapy products have been approved in the European Union.

Our product candidates, are based on novel technology. Our future success depends on the successful development of this therapeutic approach. There can be no assurance that any development problems we experience in the future related to our product candidates will not cause significant delays or unanticipated costs, or that such development problems can be solved. We may also experience delays in developing a sustainable, reproducible and commercial-scale manufacturing process or transferring that process to commercial partners, which may prevent us from completing our clinical trials or commercializing our product candidates on a timely or profitable basis, if at all.

In addition, the clinical trial requirements of the FDA, the European Medicines Agency (the EMA), and other regulatory agencies and the criteria these regulators use to determine the safety and efficacy of a product candidate vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use and market of the potential products. The regulatory approval process for gene therapy product candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other, better known or more extensively studied pharmaceutical or other product candidates. At the moment, only a small number of gene therapy products have been approved in the Western world, which makes it difficult to determine how long it will take or how much it will cost to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates in the United States, the European Union or other jurisdictions. Approvals by the EMA may not be indicative of what the FDA may require for approval and vice versa.

Regulatory requirements governing gene and cell therapy products have evolved and may continue to change in the future. For example, the FDA has established the Office of Tissues and Advanced Therapies within its Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, or CBER, to consolidate the review of gene therapy and related products, and established the Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee to advise CBER on its review. In addition, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, or RAC, of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, or NIH, reviews human gene transfer protocols when an oversight body, such as an Institutional Review Board, has determined that the protocol would significantly benefit from RAC review and when the protocol meets certain criteria. The NIH Director may also select a protocol unilaterally for RAC review if it presents significant scientific, societal, or ethical concerns. Although the FDA decides whether individual gene therapy protocols may proceed, the RAC review process can impede the initiation of a clinical trial, even if the FDA has reviewed the

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clinical trial and approved its initiation. Furthermore, all institutions and clinical trial sites in the United States that are subject to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules, or NIH Guidelines, must follow those Guidelines and all RAC recommendations, or risk losing NIH funding for such research or needing NIH pre-approval before conducting such research. Institutions subject to the NIH Guidelines include all institutions that receive any funding from NIH for research involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules, as well as institutions subject to federal or state regulations, local ordinances, or agency guidelines that require compliance with the NIH Guidelines, and institutions receiving support from federal agencies or private funders who condition such support on compliance with the NIH Guidelines. In addition, the FDA can put an IND on clinical hold for numerous reasons, such as if the information in such IND is not sufficient to assess the risks in pediatric patients. Before a clinical trial can begin at any institution, that institution’s institutional review board, or IRB, and its Institutional Biosafety Committee will have to review the proposed clinical trial to assess the safety of the trial. Moreover, serious adverse events, or SAEs, or developments in clinical trials of gene therapy product candidates conducted by others may cause the FDA or other regulatory bodies to initiate a clinical hold on our clinical trials or otherwise to change the requirements for approval of any of our product candidates.

These regulatory review agencies, committees and advisory groups and the new requirements and guidelines they promulgate may lengthen the regulatory review process, require us to perform additional or larger studies, increase our development costs, lead to changes in regulatory positions and interpretations, delay or prevent approval and commercialization of these treatment candidates or lead to significant post-approval studies, limitations or restrictions. As we advance our product candidates, we will be required to consult with these regulatory and advisory groups and comply with applicable requirements and guidelines. If we fail to do so, we may be required to delay or discontinue development of our product candidates. Delay or failure to obtain, or unexpected costs in obtaining, the regulatory approval necessary to bring a potential product to market could decrease our ability to generate sufficient product revenue to maintain our business.

The results seen in pre-clinical studies and early stage clinical trials of our product candidates may not be replicated in humans.

Although we have seen positive results in pre-clinical studies of FCX-007 and FCX-013 and interim data from the Phase 1 portion of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of FCX-007, we may not see positive results when these and any other product candidates undergo clinical trials in humans. Pre-clinical studies are not designed to test the efficacy of a product candidate in humans, but rather to:
test short-term safety;
establish biological plausibility;
identify biologically active dose levels;
establish feasibility and reasonable safety of the investigational product’s proposed clinical route of administration;
identify physiologic parameters that can guide clinical monitoring; and/or
establish proof of concept, or the feasibility and rationale for use of an investigational product in the targeted patient population.

Success in pre-clinical studies does not ensure that later studies or any clinical trials will be successful nor does it predict future results. The rate of failure in drug development is quite high, and many companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after obtaining promising results in pre-clinical studies and earlier clinical trials. Product candidates may fail to show desired safety and efficacy when used with human patients. Negative or inconclusive results from any of our ongoing pre-clinical studies could result in delays, modifications, or abandonment of clinical trials and the termination of our development of a product candidate.

In previous clinical trials involving viral vectors for gene therapy, some patients experienced serious adverse events, including the development of leukemia due to vector-related insertional oncogenesis. If our vectors demonstrate a similar effect, we may be required to halt or delay further clinical development of our product candidates.

A significant risk in any gene therapy product based on viral vectors is that the vector will insert in or near cancer-causing oncogenes leading to uncontrolled clonal proliferation of mature cancer cells in the patient. For example, in 2003, 20 patients treated for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in two gene therapy trials using a murine, or mouse-derived, gamma-retroviral vector showed correction of the disease, but the trials were terminated after five patients developed leukemia (four of whom were subsequently cured). The cause of these adverse events was shown to be insertional oncogenesis, which is the process whereby the corrected gene inserts in or near a gene that is important in a critical cellular process like growth or division, and this insertion results in the development of a cancer (often leukemia). Using molecular diagnostic techniques, it

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was determined that clones from these patients showed retrovirus insertion in proximity to the promoter of the LMO2 proto-oncogene. Earlier generation retroviruses like the one used in these two trials have been shown to preferentially integrate in regulatory regions of genes that control cell growth.     

These well-publicized adverse events led to the development of new viral vectors, such as lentiviral vectors like the ones we utilize for FCX-007 and FCX-013, with potentially improved safety profiles and also the requirement of enhanced safety monitoring in gene therapy clinical trials, including routine performance of vector copy number analysis on all production lots to monitor the number of insertion events per cell. Notwithstanding the potential safety improvements of lentiviral vectors, the risk of insertional oncogenesis remains a significant concern for gene therapy and we cannot assure that it will not occur in any of our clinical trials. There is also the potential risk of delayed adverse events following exposure to gene therapy products due to persistent biological activity of the genetic material or other components of products used to carry the genetic material. The FDA has stated that lentiviral vectors possess characteristics that may pose risks of delayed adverse events. If any such adverse events occur, further advancement of our clinical trials could be halted or delayed, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, which could delay or prevent clinical trials of our product candidates.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidates is critical to our success. The timing of our clinical trials depends on the speed at which we can recruit patients to participate in testing our product candidates. We have experienced delays in some of our clinical trials, and we may experience similar delays in the future. If patients are unwilling to participate in our clinical trials because of negative publicity from adverse events in cell and gene therapies or for other reasons, including competitive clinical trials for similar patient populations, the timeline for recruiting patients, conducting clinical trials and obtaining regulatory approval of potential products may be delayed. These delays could result in increased costs, delays in advancing our product candidates, delays in testing the effectiveness of our technology or termination of the clinical trials altogether.

We may not be able to identify, recruit and enroll a sufficient number of patients, or those with required or desired characteristics to achieve diversity in a clinical trial or complete our clinical trials in a timely manner. Patient enrollment is affected by a variety factors including, among others:
severity of the disease under investigation;
design of the study protocol;
prevalence of the disease/size of the patient population;
eligibility criteria for the clinical trial in question;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;
availability of competing therapies and clinical trials;
efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
patient referral practices of physicians; and
ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment.

Our study is currently designed to recruit two additional patients in the NC1- (patients who do not express the first non-collagenous portion of the COL7 protein) cohort of the Phase 1 portion of the clinical trial. The most recent scientific thinking and the rarity of NC1- patients compared to NC1+, i.e., the difficultly in recruiting this group, we are seeking a modification in the protocol to close out the Phase 1 cohort of this clinical trial without including any additional patients. The clinical trial protocol is designed to allow a cohort to move into the Phase 2 portion of the trial even if the other cohort is still enrolling or in the follow-up evaluation period. Therefore, the modification of the protocol for the trial does not impact ongoing enrollment of Phase 2 patients. If the FDA objects to this modification, we will continue to attempt to enroll NC1- patients. As data is collected, progress will be reported.

Our current product candidates are being developed to treat rare diseases with limited patient pools from which to draw for clinical trials and the process of finding and diagnosing patients may prove costly. We have estimated that there are approximately 1,100 to 2,500 U.S. patients with RDEB and approximately 90,000 patients in the US considered to have moderate to severe localized scleroderma. We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials if we cannot enroll a

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sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in the clinical trials required by the FDA or other regulatory agencies. If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay, limit or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials, any of which would have an adverse effect on our business.

Clinical trials may fail to demonstrate the safety or efficacy of our product candidates, which could prevent or significantly delay regulatory approval of our product candidates and harm our business.

Prior to receiving approval to commercialize any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence from well-controlled clinical trials, and to the satisfaction of the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and abroad, if applicable, that such product candidate is both safe and effective.  We will need to demonstrate such product candidate’s efficacy and monitor its safety throughout the process.  If our current or future clinical trials are unsuccessful, regulatory approval of our product candidates could be delayed or prevented and our business could be harmed.

All of our product candidates are subject to the risks of failure inherent in drug development.  The results of early-stage clinical trials of our product candidates do not necessarily predict the results of later-stage clinical trials.  Product candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate desired safety and efficacy traits despite having successfully progressed through initial clinical testing.  Even if we believe the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates is promising, this data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA or any other U.S. or foreign regulatory approval.  The FDA may also reject any of our completed clinical trials as inadequate to support approval if the trial design does not include specific safety monitoring measures. Pre-clinical and clinical data can be interpreted in different ways.  Accordingly, FDA officials could reach different conclusions in assessing such data than we do which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval.  In addition, the FDA, other regulatory authorities, our IRB or we may suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time.

Obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals is complex, time consuming and expensive, and the outcomes are uncertain.
The process of obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals is time consuming, expensive and difficult.  Clinical trials are required to establish the safety and efficacy of product candidates.  Applications to market product candidates must be submitted to the FDA which must be reviewed for approval and approved by the FDA before product candidates may be marketed and clinical trials, manufacturing, and the marketing of products, if approved, are subject to strict regulatory compliance. The commencement and completion of clinical trials for any of our product candidates could be delayed or prevented by a variety of factors, including:
delays in obtaining regulatory approvals to commence a study or trial;
delays in identifying and reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective clinical trial sites;
delays or failures in obtaining approval of our clinical trial protocol from an IRB to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective study site;
delays in the enrollment of patients;
manufacturing difficulties;
failure of our clinical trials and clinical investigators to be in compliance with the FDA’s GCP;
failure of our third-party contract research organizations, clinical site organizations or other clinical trial managers, to satisfy their contractual duties, comply with regulations or meet expected deadlines;
lack of efficacy during clinical trials; or
unforeseen safety issues.

We do not know whether our clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, if at all, or whether they will provide data necessary to support regulatory approval.  Significant delays in clinical trials will impede our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenue, and could significantly increase our development costs.

In addition, we utilize bovine-sourced materials to manufacture our product candidates.  It is possible that future FDA regulations may require us to change the source of the bovine-sourced materials we use in our product candidates or to cease using bovine-sourced materials.  If we are required to use alternative materials in our product candidates, and in the event that such alternative materials are available to us, or if we choose to change the materials used in our product candidates in the future, we would need to validate the new manufacturing process and run comparability trials with any reformulated product candidate, which could delay future clinical trials and the submission for regulatory approval of our product candidates and negatively impact the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates.


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If we fail to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals, or if such approvals are limited, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates, and we will not generate product revenues.

Even if we comply with all FDA pre-approval regulatory requirements, the FDA may determine that our product candidates are not safe or effective, and we may never obtain regulatory approval for such product candidates. If we fail to obtain regulatory approval for some or all of our product candidates, we will have fewer commercial products, if any, and correspondingly lower product revenues, if any. Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, such approval may involve limitations on the indications and conditions of use or marketing claims for our products. Further, later discovery of previously unknown problems or AEs could result in additional regulatory restrictions, including withdrawal of products and addition of warnings or other statements on the product label.

In jurisdictions outside the United States, we must receive marketing authorizations from the appropriate regulatory authorities before commercializing our product candidates. Regulatory approval processes outside the United States generally include requirements and risks similar to, and in many cases in excess of, the risks associated with FDA approval.

Our failure to comply with extensive governmental regulation may significantly affect our operating results.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for some or all of our product candidates, we will continue to be subject to extensive ongoing requirements by the FDA, as well as by a number of foreign, national, state and local agencies. These regulations will impact many aspects of our operations, including testing, research and development, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labeling, storage, quality control, AE reporting, import and export, record keeping, approval, distribution, advertising and promotion of our future products. We must also submit new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to an approved product, product labeling or manufacturing process. Application holders must also submit advertising and other promotional material to the FDA and report on ongoing clinical trials. The FDA enforces post-marketing regulatory requirements, including the cGMP requirements, through periodic unannounced inspections. We do not know whether we will pass any future FDA inspections. Failure to pass an inspection could disrupt, delay or shut down our manufacturing operations. Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could result in, among other things:

administrative or judicial enforcement actions;
changes to advertising;
failure to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;
revocation or suspension of regulatory approvals of products;
product seizures or recalls;
court-ordered injunctions;
import detentions;
delay, interruption or suspension of product manufacturing, distribution, marketing and sales; or
civil or criminal sanctions.

The discovery of previously unknown problems with any of our future approved products may result in restrictions on such products, including withdrawal from the market. In addition, the FDA may revisit and change its prior determinations with regard to the safety or efficacy of our future approved products. If the FDA’s position changes, we may be required to change our labeling or cease to manufacture and market our future approved products. Even prior to any formal regulatory action, we could voluntarily decide to cease the distribution and sale or recall any of our future approved products if concerns about their safety or efficacy develop.

In their regulation of advertising and promotion, the FDA may issue correspondence alleging that some advertising or promotional practices are false, misleading or deceptive. The FDA is authorized to impose a wide array of sanctions on companies for such advertising and promotion practices, which could result in any of the following:
incurring substantial expenses, including fines, penalties, legal fees and costs to comply with the FDA’s requirements;
changes in the methods of marketing and selling products;
taking FDA mandated corrective action, which may include placing advertisements or sending letters to physicians rescinding previous advertisements or promotions; or

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disruption in the distribution of products and loss of sales until compliance with the FDA’s position is obtained.

Improper promotional activities may also lead to investigations by federal or state prosecutors, and result in criminal and civil penalties. If we become subject to any of the above requirements, it could be damaging to our reputation and restrict our ability to sell or market our future approved products, and our business condition could be adversely affected. We may also incur significant expenses in defending ourselves.

Physicians may prescribe pharmaceutical or biologic products for uses that are not described in a product’s labeling or differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. While such “off-label” uses are common and the FDA does not regulate physicians’ choice of treatments, the FDA does restrict a manufacturer’s communications on the subject of off-label use. Companies cannot promote FDA-approved pharmaceutical or biologic products for off-label uses, but under certain limited circumstances they may disseminate to practitioners’ articles published in peer-reviewed journals. To the extent allowed by the FDA, we may disseminate peer-reviewed articles on our future approved products to practitioners. If, however, our activities fail to comply with the FDA’s regulations or guidelines, we may be subject to warnings from, or enforcement action by, the FDA or other regulatory or law enforcement authorities.

Our sales, marketing, and scientific/educational grant programs, if any in the future, must also comply with applicable requirements of various federal and state anti-fraud and abuse laws and regulations including the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal civil False Claims Act, HIPAA’s anti-fraud provisions, the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act (Open Payment Program), and similar federal and state fraud and abuse laws and regulations. Additional information about the scope of these requirements is offered under “Other U.S. Regulatory Requirements” in the Government Regulatory section above.

Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet post-approval requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines or other penalties, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre-marketing product approvals, or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response, and could generate negative publicity.

We are subject to significant regulation with respect to the manufacturing of our product candidates.

Components of a finished therapeutic product approved for commercial sale or used in late-stage clinical trials must be manufactured in accordance with cGMP. These regulations govern manufacturing processes and procedures and the implementation and operation of quality systems to control and assure the quality of investigational products and products approved for sale. Our facilities and quality systems and the facilities and quality systems of some or all of our third party manufacturers and suppliers must pass inspection for compliance with the applicable regulations as a condition of FDA approval of our products. In addition, the FDA may, at any time, audit or inspect a manufacturing facility, including our manufacturing facility or our associated quality systems for compliance with the regulations applicable to the activities being conducted. The FDA also may, at any time following approval of a product for sale, audit our manufacturing facilities or those of our third party manufacturers. If any such inspection or audit identifies a failure to comply with applicable regulations or if a violation of our product specifications or applicable regulation occurs independent of such an inspection or audit, we or the FDA may require remedial measures that may be costly and/or time consuming for us or a third party to implement and that may include the temporary or permanent suspension of a clinical trial or commercial sales, recalls, market withdrawals, seizures or the temporary or permanent closure of a facility. Any such remedial measures imposed upon us or third parties with whom we contract could materially harm our business.

If we fail to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for any of our product candidates, our competitors may sell products to treat the same conditions and our operations will be adversely impacted.

As part of our business strategy, we have obtained FDA Orphan Drug Designation for FCX-007 and FCX-013. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the U.S. The first company to obtain FDA approval for a designated orphan drug for a given rare disease receives marketing exclusivity for use of that drug for the stated condition for a period of seven years. Orphan drug exclusive marketing rights may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug or access to the biologic.
    
Because the extent and scope of patent protection for some of our product candidates is limited, Orphan Drug Designation is especially important for our product candidates that are eligible for Orphan Drug Designation. For eligible product candidates, we plan to rely, in part, on the exclusivity period under the Orphan Drug Act to maintain a competitive

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position. If we do not obtain orphan drug exclusivity for our product candidates that do not have broad patent protection, our competitors may then sell the same drug or biologic to treat the same condition which could adversely affect our operations.

Even though we have obtained Orphan Drug Designation for FCX-007 and FCX-013 and even if we obtain Orphan Drug Designation for other potential product candidates in the future, due to the uncertainties associated with developing biopharmaceutical products, we may not be the first to obtain regulatory approval for any particular orphan indication, which means that we may not obtain orphan drug exclusivity and could also potentially be blocked from approval until the first product’s orphan drug exclusivity period expires. Further, even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a product, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved and granted orphan drug exclusivity, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug or biologic for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug or biologic is safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan Drug Designation does not shorten the regulatory review and approval process, nor does it provide any additional opportunities for review and guidance from the FDA during the review and approval process.

Even if we were to obtain approval for FCX-007 or FCX-013 with the Rare Pediatric Disease Designation, the Rare Pediatric Disease PRV Program may no longer be in effect at the time of such approval.

FCX-007 has received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for the treatment of RDEB and FCX-013 has received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the FDA for the treatment of localized scleroderma. The FDA defines a “rare pediatric disease” as a disease that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. primarily under the age of 18 years old. Under the FDA’s Rare Pediatric Disease PRV program, upon the approval of a NDA or BLA for the treatment of a rare pediatric disease, the sponsor of such application would be eligible for a Rare Pediatric Disease PRV that can be used to obtain priority review for a subsequent NDA or BLA. The PRV may be sold or transferred an unlimited number of times. Congress has extended the PRV program until September 30, 2020.  This program has been subject to criticism, including by the FDA, and it is possible that even if we obtain approval for FCX-007 and FCX-013 and qualify for such a PRV, the program may no longer be in effect at the time of approval.

We are largely dependent on the future commercial success of our product candidates. 

Our ability to generate revenues and become profitable will depend in large part on the future commercial success of our product candidates.  If any product that we commercialize in the future does not gain an adequate level of acceptance among physicians, patients and third parties, we may not generate significant product revenues or become profitable. Market acceptance of our products that we commercialize, by physicians, patients and third party payors will depend on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:
The efficacy, safety and other potential advantages in relation to alternative treatments;
The relative convenience and ease of administration;
The availability of adequate coverage or reimbursement by third parties, such as insurance companies and other healthcare payors, and by government healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid;
The prevalence and severity of adverse events;
The cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments, including generic or biosimilar products;
The extent and strength of our third party manufacturer and supplier support;
The extent and strength of marketing and distribution support;
The limitations or warnings contained in a product’s FDA approved labeling; and
Distribution and use restrictions imposed by the FDA or to which we agree as part of a mandatory REMS or voluntary risk management plan

For example, even if our products have been approved by the FDA, physicians and patients may not immediately be receptive to them and may be slow to adopt them. In addition, even though we believe our product candidates have significant advantages to other treatment options, because no head-to-head trials comparing our product candidates to competing products will have been conducted, the prescribing information approved by the FDA would not contain claims that our product is safer or more effective than competitive products. Accordingly, promotion of our products will not reflect any comparative advantages that may exist.  If our products do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance among physicians, patients and third party payors, we may not generate meaningful revenues and we may not become profitable.


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In order to commercialize any of our product candidates, we will need to increase our manufacturing capacity and improve our manufacturing capabilities, which will require significant expenditures and regulatory approval.
We currently have limited manufacturing capacity. In order to commercialize any of our product candidates, we will need to increase our manufacturing capacity. We are developing enhancements and alternatives to our current manufacturing process. If we have difficulties in increasing our manufacturing capacity and improving our capabilities, we will be limited in our ability to manufacture and commercialize our product candidates, if they are approved for marketing; and we may not be able to decrease our manufacturing costs. These difficulties could adversely affect our financial performance and damage our reputation. Even if we are successful in developing such enhancements or finding alternatives to our current process, such manufacturing changes will require additional expenditures, for which we may be required to seek external financing. In addition, our ability to increase our manufacturing capacity or modify our manufacturing processes will be subject to additional FDA review and approval.
Negative public opinion and increased regulatory scrutiny of gene therapies may damage public perception of our product candidates or adversely affect our ability to conduct our business or obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates.
Public perception may be influenced by claims that gene therapies are unsafe, and gene therapies may not gain the acceptance of the public or the medical community. In particular, our success will depend upon physicians specializing in the treatment of those diseases that our product candidates target prescribing treatments that involve the use of our product candidates in lieu of, or in addition to, existing treatments they are already familiar with and for which greater clinical data may be available. More restrictive government regulations or negative public opinion would have a negative effect on our business or financial condition and may delay or impair the development and commercialization of our product candidates or demand for any products we may develop. Adverse events in our clinical trials, even if not ultimately attributable to our product candidates and the resulting publicity could result in increased governmental regulation, unfavorable public perception, potential regulatory delays in the testing or approval of our potential product candidates, stricter labeling requirements for those product candidates that are approved and a decrease in demand for any such product candidates.
Future sales of our products are subject to adequate coverage, pricing and reimbursement from third-party payors, which are subject to increasing and intense pressure from political, social, competitive and other sources. Our inability to obtain and maintain adequate coverage, pricing or reimbursement, could have an adverse effect on our business.
Future sales of our product candidates, should they receive regulatory approval and be commercialized, are dependent, in large part, on the availability and extent of coverage, pricing and reimbursement from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. When a new pharmaceutical or biologic product is approved, the availability of government and private reimbursement for that product may be uncertain, as is the pricing and amount for which that product will be reimbursed. The manner and level at which reimbursement is provided for services related to our product candidates (e.g., for administration of our products to patients) is also important. Inadequate reimbursement for such services may lead to physician resistance and adversely affect our ability to market or sell our products.

Pricing and reimbursement for our products and services related to our products may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:
changes in federal, state or foreign government regulations or private third-party payors’ reimbursement policies;
pressure by employers on private health insurance plans to reduce costs; and
consolidation and increasing assertiveness of payors, including managed care organizations, health insurers, pharmacy benefit managers, government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations, seeking price discounts or rebates in connection with the placement of our products on their formularies and, in some cases, the imposition of restrictions on access or coverage of particular drugs or biologics pricing determined based on perceived value.

Our failure to maintain adequate coverage, pricing, or reimbursement for our products and services related to our products would have an adverse effect on our business, revenues and results of operation, could curtail or eliminate our ability to adequately fund research and development programs for the discovery and commercialization of new product candidates, and could cause a decline in our stock price.
    
Drug pricing and other health care costs are under significant scrutiny in the U.S. and are subject to intense political and societal pressures which we anticipate will continue and escalate on a global basis. As a result, our business and reputation

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may be harmed, our stock price may be adversely impacted and experience periods of volatility, and our results of operations may be adversely impacted.

If the market opportunities for our product candidates are smaller than we believe they are, our results of operations may be adversely affected and our business may suffer.

We focus our research and product development on treatments of diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue. Our projections of both the number of people who have these diseases, as well as the subset of people with these diseases who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our product candidates, are based on estimates. These estimates may prove to be incorrect and new studies or clinical trials may change the estimated incidence or prevalence of these diseases. The number of patients in the U.S. and elsewhere may turn out to be lower than expected, may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with our products, or new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or gain access to, all of which would adversely affect our results of operations and our business.

If any of our approved products were to become the subject of problems related to their efficacy, safety, or otherwise, our business would be seriously harmed.

Any of our product candidates that may be approved by the FDA will be subject to continual review by the FDA, and we cannot assure you that newly discovered or developed safety issues will not arise. For all of our product candidates, the FDA has required us to pay special attention to potential skin cancer and hypersensitivity reactions at the site of injection and, while we have seen no issues to date, we cannot rule out that issues may arise in the future. With the use of any newly marketed drug by a wider patient population, serious AEs may occur from time to time that initially do not appear to relate to the drug itself. Any safety issues could cause us to suspend or cease marketing of our approved products, cause us to modify how we market our approved products, subject us to substantial liabilities, and adversely affect our financial condition and business.

If physicians do not follow our established protocols, the efficacy and safety of our product candidates may be adversely affected.

We are dependent on physicians and other healthcare professionals to follow our established protocols as to the administration and the handling of our product candidates in connection with our clinical trials, and we will continue to be dependent on physicians and other healthcare professionals to follow such protocols if and when our product candidates are commercialized. The treatment protocol requires each physician to verify the patient’s name and date of birth with the patient and the patient records immediately prior to injection. In the event more than one patient’s cells are delivered to a physician or we deliver the wrong patient’s cells to the physician, which has occurred in the past, it is the physician’s obligation to follow the treatment protocol and assure that the patient is treated with the correct cells. If the physicians and other healthcare professionals do not follow our protocol, the efficacy and safety of our product candidates may be adversely affected.

Our product candidates may face competition in the future from other pharmaceutical, medical device and biotechnology companies that may have superior products, manufacturing capabilities, financial resources or marketing position.

The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA), established an abbreviated pathway for the approval of follow-on biological products. This abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” to an existing brand product, or reference product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the reference product was approved under a BLA. These market and data exclusivities do not prevent another company from developing a product that is highly similar to the original branded product, generating its own data and seeking approval. Market and data exclusivity only assures that another company cannot rely upon the data within the innovator’s application to support the biosimilar product’s approval.

FDA’s implementation and interpretation of the BPCIA continues to evolve and could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our product candidates, if they are approved.

We may be liable for product liability claims not covered by insurance.

Physicians, patients and clinical trial participants who have used our products in the past or who use them in the future may bring product liability claims against us. While we have taken, and continue to take, what we believe are appropriate precautions, we may be unable to avoid significant liability exposure. We currently keep in force product liability insurance, although such insurance may not be adequate to fully cover any potential claims or may lapse in accordance with its terms prior

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to the assertion of claims. We may be unable to obtain product liability insurance in the future, or we may be unable to do so on acceptable terms. Any insurance we obtain or have obtained in the past may not provide adequate coverage against any asserted claims. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:
diversion of management’s time and attention;
expenditure of large amounts of cash on legal fees, expenses and payment of damages;
decreased demand for our products or any of our future products and services; or
injury to our reputation.
If we are the subject of any future product liability claims, our business could be adversely affected, and if these claims are in excess of insurance coverage, if any, that we may possess, our financial position will suffer.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties
We will incur additional expenses in connection with our exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon.
Pursuant to our exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon, we are responsible for future research, development and commercialization expenses of product candidates developed under such collaborations, including FCX-007, FCX-013 and our gene therapy program for arthritis and related conditions, the effect of which we expect will increase the level of our overall research and development expenses going forward. Although all manufacturing, pre-clinical studies and human clinical trials are expensive and difficult to design and implement, costs associated with the manufacturing, research and development of gene therapy product candidates are generally greater in comparison to small molecule product candidates. We have added personnel and expect to add additional personnel, either directly or through consulting arrangements, to support our exclusive channel collaborations with Intrexon.
Because development activities are determined pursuant to a joint steering committee comprised of Intrexon and ourselves and we have limited experience, future development costs associated with our product candidates may be difficult to anticipate and exceed our expectations. Our actual cash requirements may vary materially from our current expectations for a number of other factors that may include, but are not limited to, unanticipated technical challenges, changes in the focus and direction of our development activities or adjustments necessitated by changes in the competitive landscape in which we operate. If we are unable to continue to financially support such collaborations due to our own working capital constraints, we may be forced to discontinue the collaborations or delay our activities.
We may not be able to retain the exclusive rights licensed to us by Intrexon to develop and commercialize our product candidates.
Pursuant to our exclusive channel collaboration agreements, we are using Intrexon’s technology in connection with all of our product candidates.  The collaboration agreements grant us a license to use patents and other intellectual property of Intrexon in connection with the research, development, and commercialization of collaboration products within “Fields” that we set forth above in the “Item 1. Business - Intrexon Collaboration”.

The exclusive channel collaboration agreements may be terminated by Intrexon if we fail to exercise diligent efforts in developing products through the collaborations or if we elect not to pursue the development of a therapy in a “Field” identified by Intrexon that is a “Superior Therapy” as defined in the collaboration agreements.  Upon such termination, the product candidates covered by the applicable exclusive channel collaboration agreement in active and ongoing Phase II or III clinical trials or later stage development through the exclusive channel collaboration agreement shall be entitled to be continued by us with a continuation of the related royalties for such product candidates, and all rights to products covered by the exclusive channel collaboration agreement still in an earlier stage of development shall revert to Intrexon.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully perform under the exclusive channel collaboration agreements and if any of the agreements are terminated it may prevent us from achieving our business objectives and our business may be harmed.



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We depend on third parties to conduct our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, which may result in costs and delays that prevent us from obtaining regulatory approval or successfully commercializing our product candidates.
We engage third parties to perform various aspects of our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. For instance, we obtain viral vector from a sole source supplier in connection with the clinical development of FCX-007 and FCX-013. We depend on these third parties to perform these activities on a timely basis in accordance with the protocol, good laboratory practices, good clinical practices, and other regulatory requirements. Our reliance on these third parties for pre-clinical and clinical development activities reduces our control over these activities. Accordingly, if these parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be extended, delayed, terminated or our data may be rejected by the FDA. For example, if our sole source supplier of viral vector in connection with the clinical development of FCX-007 or FCX-013 were to cease to be able to supply viral vector to us, or decline to supply viral vector to us, our FCX-007 and FCX-013 programs would be delayed until we obtained an alternative source, which could take a considerable length of time. If it became necessary to replace a third party that was assisting with one of our pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, we believe that there are a number of other third-party contractors that could be engaged to continue these activities, although it may result in a delay of the applicable pre-clinical study or clinical trial. If there are delays in testing or obtaining regulatory approvals as a result of a third party’s failure to perform, our drug discovery and development costs will likely increase, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates.
We have limited manufacturing capacity and any manufacturing difficulties, disruptions or delays could adversely affect our ability to conduct our clinical trials.
Manufacturing biologic products is difficult, complex and highly regulated. During 2016, we began to manufacture the pre-clinical supply of our FCX-013 product candidate in our facility in Exton, PA. We lease and operate our own manufacturing facility located in Exton, Pennsylvania. We have historically used this facility to manufacture our non-genetically modified products and during 2016 began using this facility for pre-clinical manufacturing of our gene therapy product candidate, FCX-013.  We designated our Exton, PA cGMP manufacturing facility in Exton, PA as the production site for FCX-007 in the fourth quarter of 2017, and are currently producing drug product for the FCX-013 clinical trial at that facility. We also plan to manufacture FCX-013 at the same location. Our ability to adequately and timely manufacture and supply our product candidates is dependent on the operation of our sole facility which may be impacted by, among other things:
availability, performance, or contamination of raw materials and components used in the manufacturing process, particularly those for which we have no other source or supplier;
capacity of our facility and those of contract manufacturer;
the performance of information technology systems;
compliance with regulatory requirements;
inclement weather and natural disasters;
changes in forecasts of future demand for product components;
timing and actual number of production runs for product components;
potential facility contamination by microorganisms or viruses;
updating of manufacturing specifications; and
product quality success rates and yields.
If the efficient manufacture and supply of our product candidates is interrupted, we may experience delayed shipments or supply constraints, which may materially impact our ongoing and future pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.

Our manufacturing processes and those of our contract manufacturer must undergo a potentially lengthy FDA approval process, as well as other regulatory approval processes, and are subject to continued review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. It is a multi-year process to build and license a new manufacturing facility and it can take significant time to qualify and license a contract manufacturer.

If regulatory authorities determine that we or our contract manufacturer or certain of our third-party service providers have violated regulations or if they restrict, suspend or revoke our prior approvals, they could prohibit us from manufacturing our products or conducting clinical trials or selling our marketed products until we or the affected third-party service providers comply, or indefinitely. Because our third-party service providers are subject to the FDA and, potentially, in the future, foreign

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regulatory authorities, alternative qualified third-party service providers may not be available on a timely basis or at all. If we or our third-party service providers cease or interrupt production or if our third-party service providers fail to supply materials, products or services to us, we may experience delayed shipments, and supply constraints for our products.

Our research, development and manufacturing operations depend on two facilities for all of our product candidates. If one or more of such facilities is destroyed or is out of operation for a substantial period of time, our business may be adversely impacted.

We currently conduct our research, development and manufacturing operations related to our product candidates in our facility located in Exton, Pennsylvania. Previously we outsourced certain manufacturing of our genetically-modified product candidate FCX-007, to a contract manufacturer with a facility located in Mountain View, California.

If regulatory, manufacturing or other problems require us to discontinue production at our Exton, PA facility, we will not be able to have supplies for our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, which would adversely impact our business. If the facility or the equipment in it is significantly damaged or destroyed by fire, flood, power loss or similar events, we may not be able to quickly or inexpensively replace our or our contract manufacturer’s facility. In the event of a temporary or protracted loss of either facility or equipment, we might not be able to transfer manufacturing to a third party. Even if we could transfer manufacturing to a third party, the shift would likely be expensive and time-consuming, particularly since the new facility would need to comply with necessary regulatory requirements.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we or our licensors are unable to protect our intellectual property rights or if our intellectual property rights are inadequate for our technologies and product candidates, our competitive position could be harmed.

Our commercial success will depend in large part on our, and our licensors, ability to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection in the U.S. and other countries with respect to our proprietary technology and our product candidates. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, and confidentiality, licensing and other agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection. We seek to protect our proprietary position by filing and prosecuting patent applications in the U.S. and abroad related to our novel technologies and product candidates that are important to our business.

The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies generally are highly uncertain, involve complex legal and factual questions and have in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patents, including those patent rights licensed to us by third parties, are highly uncertain.  The steps we or our licensors have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, both inside and outside the U.S. Further, the examination process may require us or our licensors to narrow the claims for our pending patent applications, which may limit the scope of patent protection that may be obtained if these applications issue. The rights already granted under any of our currently issued patents or those licensed to us and those that may be granted under future issued patents may not provide us with the proprietary protection or competitive advantages we are seeking. If we or our licensors are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology and products, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficient, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and products similar or superior to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and products may be adversely affected. It is also possible that we or our licensors will fail to identify patentable aspects of inventions made in the course of our development and commercialization activities before it is too late to obtain patent protection on them.

With respect to patent rights, we do not know whether any of the pending patent applications for any of our therapies will result in the issuance of patents that protect our technology or products, or if any of our or our licensors’ issued patents will effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and product candidates. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing or in some cases not at all, until they are issued as a patent. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we or our licensors were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.

Our issued patents, those that may be issued in the future or those licensed or acquired by us, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights granted under any issued patent may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology.  In particular, we do not know if competitors will be able

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to design variations on our treatment methods to circumvent our current and anticipated patent claims.  Furthermore, competitors may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology developed by us.

Our pending applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the technology claimed in such applications unless and until a patent issues from such applications. Because the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, issued patents that we own or have licensed from third parties may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the U.S. and abroad. Such challenges may result in the loss of patent protection, the narrowing of claims in such patents or the invalidity or unenforceability of such patents, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection for our technology and products. Protecting against the unauthorized use of our or our licensor’s patented technology, trademarks and other intellectual property rights is expensive, difficult and may in some cases not be possible. In some cases, it may be difficult or impossible to detect third-party infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property rights, even in relation to issued patent claims, and proving any such infringement may be even more difficult.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could harm our business.
Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop, manufacture, and if approved, market and sell our product candidates and to use our related proprietary technologies. We may become party to, or threatened with, future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our product candidates, including interference, post grant review, inter partes review or derivation proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future. If we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party in order to be able to commercialize any of our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval.  However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Under certain circumstances, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing our future approved products and then expend time and funding to redesign such products so that such products do not infringe others’ patents while still allowing us to compete in the market with a substantially similar product. In addition, in any such proceeding or litigation, we could be found liable for monetary damages. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing any of our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Any claims by third parties that we have misappropriated their confidential information or trade secrets could have a similar negative impact on our business. In addition, our involvement in any of these proceedings may cause us to incur substantial costs and result in diversion of management and technical personnel. Furthermore, parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other equitable relief that could effectively block our ability to develop, commercialize and sell products, and could result in the award of substantial damages against us.
We believe that use of our product candidates in clinical trials falls within the scope of the exemptions provided by 35 U.S.C. Section 271(e) in the U.S., which exempts from patent infringement liability activities reasonably related to the development and submission of information to the FDA. As our product candidates progress toward regulatory approval and commercialization, the possibility of a patent infringement claim against us increases. We attempt to ensure that our product candidates and the methods we employ to manufacture them, as well as the methods for their use we intend to promote, do not infringe other parties’ patents and other proprietary rights. There can be no assurance they do not, however, and competitors or other parties may assert that we infringe their proprietary rights in any event.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on all of our product candidates throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our or our licensors’ intellectual property rights in some countries outside the U.S. can be less extensive than those in the U.S. In addition, the laws and practices of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the U.S. Consequently, we and our licensors may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our and our licensors’ inventions in all countries outside the U.S., or from selling or importing products made using our and our licensors’ inventions in and into the U.S. or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products, and may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we or our licensors have patent protection, but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the U.S. These products may compete with our products in jurisdictions where we do not have any issued patents and our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from so competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biopharmaceuticals, which could

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make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our or our licensor’s patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally in those countries. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our and our licensors’ patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our and our licensors’ patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us or our licensors. We or our licensors may not prevail in any lawsuits that we or our licensors initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful.

The laws of certain foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S., and these foreign laws may also be subject to change. For example, methods of treatment and manufacturing processes may not be patentable in certain jurisdictions, and the requirements for patentability may differ in certain countries, particularly developing countries. Furthermore, competitors may challenge the scope, validity or enforceability of our or our licensors’ patents, requiring us or our licensors to engage in complex, lengthy and costly litigation or other proceedings. Biopharmaceutical companies may develop, seek approval for, and launch biosimilar versions of our products. Many countries, including European Union countries, India, Japan and China, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled under certain circumstances to grant licenses to third parties. In those countries, we and our licensors may have limited remedies if patents are infringed or if we or our licensors are compelled to grant a license to a third party, which could materially diminish the value of those patents. This could limit our potential revenue opportunities. Accordingly, our and our licensors’ efforts to enforce intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we own or license.

Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our product candidates for an adequate amount of time.

Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of our product candidates, patents protecting such product candidates might expire before or shortly after such product candidates are commercialized. We expect to seek extensions of patent terms in the U.S. and, if available, in other countries where we are prosecuting patents. In the U.S., the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the normal expiration of the patent, which is limited to the approved indication (or any additional indications approved during the period of extension). However, the applicable authorities, including the FDA and the USPTO in the U.S., and any equivalent regulatory authority in other countries, may not agree with our assessment of whether such extensions are available, and may refuse to grant extensions to our patents, or may grant more limited extensions than we request. If this occurs, our competitors may be able to take advantage of our investment in development and clinical trials by referencing our clinical and pre-clinical data and launch their product earlier than might otherwise be the case.

Changes in patent law, including recent patent reform legislation, could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents.
As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involve technological and legal complexity, and obtaining and enforcing pharmaceutical patents is costly, time-consuming, and inherently uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the U.S. and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection.  For example, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our and our licensors’ ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our and our licensors’ ability to obtain new patents or to enforce existing patents and patents we and our licensors may obtain in the future. Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our and our licensors’ patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our or our licensors’ issued patents.
In September 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the Leahy-Smith Act), was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. In particular, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the U.S. transitioned in March 2013 to a “first to file” system in which the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent. Third parties are allowed to submit prior art before the issuance of a patent by the USPTO and may become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, post grant review, inter-partes review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of our licensors. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our or our licensors’ patent rights, which could adversely affect our competitive position.

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The Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents and those licensed to us.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submissions, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our product candidates, our competitive position would be adversely affected.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

To protect our proprietary know-how and our inventions for which patents may be unobtainable or difficult to obtain, and to maintain our competitive position, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements. To this end, it is our general policy to require our employees, consultants, advisors, and contractors to enter into agreements that prohibit the disclosure of confidential information and, where applicable, require disclosure and assignment to us of the ideas, developments, discoveries, and inventions important to our business. These agreements may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure or the lawful development by others of such information. Moreover, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for any breaches of these agreements. Our trade secrets may also be obtained by third parties by other means, such as breaches of our physical or computer security systems. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information is disclosed, the value of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary rights would be significantly impaired and our business and competitive position would suffer.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful and have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Competitors may infringe our patents or misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property rights. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of our own intellectual property rights or the proprietary rights of others. Also, third parties may initiate legal proceedings against us or our licensors to challenge the validity or scope of intellectual property rights we own or control. These proceedings can be expensive and time consuming. Many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defend their intellectual property rights than we can. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property. Litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, which could harm our business and financial results. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent owned by or licensed to us is invalid or unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of shares of our common stock.



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We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that our licensors, employees or we have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees and our licensors’ employees, including our senior management, were previously employed at universities or at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such third party. Litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel or sustain damages. Such intellectual property rights could be awarded to a third party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to commercialize our technology or products. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:
others may be able to make biologics that are the same as or similar to our product candidates, but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or have exclusively licensed;
we or our licensors or any strategic partners might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patents or pending patent applications that we own or have exclusively licensed;
we or our licensors might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;
others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;
it is possible that our pending patent applications will not lead to issued patents;
issued patents that we own or have exclusively licensed may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges;
our competitors might conduct research and development activities in the U.S. and other countries that provide a safe harbor from patent infringement claims for certain research and development activities, as well as in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;
we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; and
the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Business Operations
We are dependent on our executives and other key professionals and the loss of any of these individuals could harm our business.

We are dependent on the efforts of our executives and other key scientific, manufacturing and quality personnel. The loss of any of these individuals, or our inability to recruit and train additional key personnel in a timely manner, could materially and adversely affect our business and our future prospects. A loss of one or more of our current executives or other key professionals could severely and negatively impact our operations. All of our employees, including our chief executive officer, are employed “at-will,” and any of them may elect to pursue other opportunities at any time. We have no present intention of obtaining key man life insurance on any of our executive officers or key professionals.

We may need to attract, train and retain additional experienced executives and other key professionals in the future.

In the future, we may need to seek additional executives and other key professionals. There is a high demand for experienced executive, scientific, manufacturing and quality personnel in our industry. We do not know whether we will be able to attract, train and retain such experienced personnel in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our business may be adversely affected by current and potential future healthcare reforms.

In the U.S., federal and state legislatures, health agencies and third-party payors continue to focus on containing the cost of health care. Legislative and regulatory proposals and enactments to reform health care insurance programs could significantly influence the manner in which our product candidates, if approved, are prescribed and purchased. For example, provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) have resulted in changes in the way health care is paid for by both governmental and private insurers, including increased rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs, the requirement that manufacturers participate in a discount program for certain outpatient drugs under Medicare Part D and the expansion of the number of hospitals eligible for discounts under Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act. In addition, certain legislative changes to and regulatory changes under the Affordable Care Act have occurred in the 115th United States Congress and under the Trump Administration. For instance, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 increased the PPACA required manufacturer point-of-sale discount from 50% to 70% off the negotiated price for Medicare Part D beneficiaries during their coverage gap period beginning in 2019. Further legislative changes to and regulatory changes under the PPACA remain possible.

There is also significant economic pressure on state budgets that may result in states increasingly seeking to achieve budget savings through mechanisms that limit coverage or payment for certain drugs. In recent years, some states have considered legislation and ballot initiatives that would control the prices of drugs, including laws to allow importation of pharmaceutical products from lower cost jurisdictions outside the U.S. and laws intended to impose price controls on state drug purchases. State Medicaid programs are increasingly requesting manufacturers to pay supplemental rebates and requiring prior authorization by the state program for use of any drug for which supplemental rebates are not being paid. Government efforts to reduce Medicaid expenses may lead to increased use of managed care organizations by Medicaid programs. This may result in managed care organizations influencing prescription decisions for a larger segment of the population and a corresponding constraint on prices and reimbursement for our product candidates, if approved. In addition, under the PPACA, as states implement their health care marketplaces or operate under the federal exchange, the impact on drug manufacturers will depend in part on the formulary and benefit design decisions made by insurance sponsors or plans participating in these programs. It is possible that we may need to provide discounts or rebates to such plans in order to maintain favorable formulary access for our future product candidates, if approved, which could have an adverse impact on our sales and results of operations.

If we fail to comply with federal and state healthcare laws, including fraud and abuse and health information privacy and security laws, we could face substantial penalties and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.

As a biopharmaceutical company, even though we do not bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. For example, we could be subject to healthcare fraud and abuse and patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include, among others:
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which constrains our business activities, including our marketing practices, educational programs, pricing policies, and relationships with healthcare providers or other entities, by prohibiting, among other things, soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual or the purchase or recommendation of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;
Federal civil false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit, individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment of government funds, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent. Criminal prosecution is also possible for making or presenting a false or fictitious or fraudulent claim to the federal government;
HIPAA’s anti-fraud provisions, which prohibit, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH), and its implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
The federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act (implemented as the Open Payments program), which requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to report annually to CMS for certain “transfers of value” made to teaching hospitals and physicians and any ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members and applicable group purchasing organizations during the preceding calendar year; and

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State and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government that otherwise restricts certain payments that may be made to healthcare providers and entities; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfer of value to physicians and other healthcare providers and entities; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Additional information about the scope of these requirements is offered under “Other U.S. Regulatory Requirements” in the Government Regulatory section above. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. For example, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute is subject to evolving interpretations and has been applied by government enforcement officials to a number of common business arrangements in the pharmaceutical industry. The federal government has enforced the Anti-Kickback Statute to reach large settlements with pharmaceutical manufacturers based on allegedly sham consultant arrangements with physicians and other arrangements that are common in our industry. The government can establish a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute without proving that a person or entity had actual knowledge of the law or specific intent to violate it. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common activities from prosecution or other regulatory sanctions, but the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute, but the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by- case basis based on the totality of the facts and circumstances. In addition, a claim to a federal health care program that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act. In addition, settlements with DOJ or other law enforcement agencies have forced healthcare companies to agree to additional compliance and reporting requirements as part of a consent decree or corporate integrity agreement.
To the extent that any of our product candidates is ultimately sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations.
If we or our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from participation in United States federal or state health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations any of which could materially adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security and fraud laws may prove costly.

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing manufacturing and laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials or other work-related injuries, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

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Our business and operations would suffer in the event of computer system failures.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems, and those of our contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organization, and other third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. System failures, accidents or security breaches could cause interruptions in our operations or the unauthorized transfer of our proprietary information, and could result in a material disruption of our research, pre-clinical and clinical activities and business operations, in addition to possibly requiring substantial expenditures of resources to remedy. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach was to result in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development of our product candidates could be delayed.

Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to reduce future tax payments may be limited or restricted.

We have generated significant net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) as a result of our incurrence of losses and our conduct of research activities since inception. We generally are able to carry NOLs forward to reduce our tax liability in future years. However, our ability to utilize the NOLs is subject to the rules of Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code). Those sections generally restrict the use of NOLs after an “ownership change.” An ownership change occurs if, among other things, the stockholders (or specified groups of stockholders) who own or have owned, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of a corporation’s common stock or are otherwise treated as 5% stockholders under Section 382 of the Code and the United States Treasury Department regulations promulgated thereunder increase their aggregate percentage ownership of that corporation’s stock by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of the stock owned by these stockholders over the applicable testing period. In the event of an ownership change, Section 382 imposes an annual limitation on the amount of taxable income a corporation may offset with NOL carry forwards and Section 383 imposes an annual limitation on the amount of tax a corporation may offset with carry forwards. Any unused annual limitation may be carried over to later years until the applicable expiration date for the respective NOL carry forwards. We have completed several financings since our inception which we believe have resulted in “ownership changes” within the meaning of Section 382. We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of additional financings and subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. As a result, our NOLs may be subject to limitations and we may be required to pay taxes earlier and in larger amounts than would be the case if our NOLs were freely usable.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock

The trading price of the shares of our common stock has been highly volatile, and purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses.

Our stock began trading on NYSE MKT on May 17, 2013 and then on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 29, 2014. Between May 17, 2013 and December 31, 2017, our common stock has traded between $0.61 and $22.80. Our stock price could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, which include:
whether our clinical trials can be conducted within the timeframe that we expect and whether such trials will yield positive results;
whether our collaborations with Intrexon can be advanced with positive results within the timeframe and budget that we expect;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products or product candidates, including but not limited to clinical trial requirements for approvals;
unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of our product candidates;
a decision to initiate a clinical trial, not to initiate a clinical trial or to terminate an existing clinical trial;
our ability to increase our manufacturing capacity and reduce our manufacturing costs through the improvement of our manufacturing process, our ability to validate any such improvements with the relevant regulatory agencies and our ability to accomplish the foregoing on a timely basis;
adverse regulatory decisions;
the introduction of new products or technologies offered by us or our competitors;

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negative public opinion or perception of cell and gene therapies;
the inability to effectively manage our growth;
actual or anticipated variations in quarterly operating results;
the failure to meet or exceed the estimates and projections of the investment community;
the perception of the biopharmaceutical industry by the public, legislatures, regulators and the investment community;
the overall performance of the U.S. equity capital markets and general political and economic conditions;
announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments by us or our competitors;
disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
additions or departures of key personnel;
the trading volume of our common stock; and
other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the stock of biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.

Randal J. Kirk and certain of his affiliates (including Intrexon) own a substantial percentage of our common stock and will be able to exert significant influence over matters subject to stockholder approval.

As of March 6, 2018, Randal J. Kirk and certain of his affiliates (including Intrexon, our collaboration partner on our gene therapy programs) beneficially owned approximately 8.3 million shares, or approximately 29%, of our common stock, excluding common stock underlying the Notes and Private Placement Warrants issued in connection with the 2016 Private Placement, the Series A Preferred Stock, the March 2017 Warrants and the December 2017 Common Warrants. If Randal J. Kirk and certain affiliates exercised the convertible securities or warrants acquired in the September 2016 Private Placement, the Series A Preferred Stock Offering and the December 2017 offering, they would receive, in the aggregate, (i) approximately 2.3 million shares of our common stock pursuant to exercise of the Private Placement Warrants, (ii) approximately 2.0 million shares of common stock underlying $6,762,500 outstanding principal amount of Notes, (iii) approximately 0.1 million shares of common stock underlying accrued interest on the Notes, (iv) approximately 1.3 million shares of common stock upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock (v) approximately 1.3 million shares of common stock pursuant to the exercise of the March 2017 Warrants and (vi) approximately 2.7 million shares of common stock pursuant to the exercise of the December 2017 Common Warrants, resulting in the beneficial ownership of approximately 47% of our common stock.
Mr. Kirk and his affiliates may have interests that conflict with our other stockholders and, if acting together, have the ability to significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election and removal of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership could delay or prevent any acquisition of our company on terms that other stockholders may desire.
Additionally, two of our directors, Julian Kirk (who is the son of Randal J. Kirk) and Marcus Smith, are employees of Third Security, LLC, which is an affiliate of Randal J. Kirk.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly in the future, which may cause our results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts, stockholders and investors.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly in the future as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. These factors include, but are not limited to:
the timing, implementation and cost of our research, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials;
expenses in connection with our exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon;
the timely and successful implementation of improved manufacturing processes;

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our ability to attract and retain personnel with the necessary strategic, technical and creative skills required for effective operations;
the amount and timing of expenditures by practitioners and their patients;
introduction of new technologies;
product liability litigation, class action and derivative action litigation, or other litigation;
the amount and timing of capital expenditures and other costs relating to the expansion of our operations;
the state of the debt and/or equity capital markets at the time of any proposed offering we choose to initiate;
our ability to successfully integrate new acquisitions into our operations;
government regulation and legal developments regarding our product candidates in the United States and in the foreign countries in which we may operate in the future; and
general economic conditions.
As a strategic response to changes in the competitive environment, we may from time to time make pricing, service, technology or marketing decisions or business or technology acquisitions that could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Due to any of these factors, our operating results may fall below the expectations of securities analysts, stockholders and investors in any future period, which may cause our stock price to decline.

Future sales of our common stock may depress our stock price.

The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or as a result of the perception that these sales could occur, which could occur if we issue a large number of shares of common stock (or securities convertible into our common stock) in connection with a future financing, as our common stock is trading at low levels. These factors could make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future offerings of common stock or other equity securities. In addition to our common stock outstanding, as of December 31, 2017, we had warrants and stock options outstanding that were exercisable for a total of 28,353,679 shares of our common stock.

Holders of our outstanding preferred shares have dividend, liquidation and other rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common shares.

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive out of our assets, whether capital or surplus, an amount equal to such holder’s then stated value for each share of Series A Preferred Stock before any distribution to the holders of the common stock, any class or series of preferred stock and all other common stock equivalents other than those securities which are explicitly senior or pari passu to the Series A Preferred Stock in redemption, distribution of assets upon a liquidation or dividends. If there are insufficient assets to pay in full such amounts, then the available assets will be ratably distributed to the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock in accordance with the respective amounts that would be payable on such shares if all amounts payable thereon were paid in full. This will reduce the remaining amount of our assets, if any, available to distribute to holders of our common stock.

We have not declared any dividends on our common stock to date, and we have no intention of declaring dividends in the foreseeable future.

The decision to pay cash dividends on our common stock rests with our Board and will depend on our earnings, unencumbered cash, capital requirements and financial condition. We do not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future, as we intend to use any excess cash to fund our operations. Investors in our common stock should not expect to receive dividend income on their investment, and investors will be dependent on the appreciation of our common stock to earn a return on their investment.

Provisions in our charter documents could prevent or delay stockholders’ attempts to replace or remove current members of our Board.

Our charter documents provide for staggered terms for the members of our Board. Our Board is divided into three staggered classes, and each director serves a term of three years. At stockholders’ meetings, only those directors comprising one of the three classes will have completed their term and be subject to re-election or replacement.


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In addition, our Board is authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, with designations, rights and preferences as they may determine. Accordingly, our Board has in the past and may in the future, without stockholder approval, issue shares of preferred stock with dividend, liquidation, conversion, voting or other rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. This type of preferred stock could also be issued to discourage, delay or prevent a change in our control.

The use of a staggered Board and the ability to issue “blank check” preferred stock are traditional anti-takeover measures. These provisions in our charter documents make it difficult for a majority stockholder to gain control of the Board and of our company. These provisions may be beneficial to our management and our Board in a hostile tender offer and may have an adverse impact on stockholders who may want to participate in such a tender offer, or who may want to replace some or all of the members of our Board.

Provisions in our bylaws provide for indemnification of officers and directors, which could require us to direct funds away from our business and the development of our product candidates.

Our bylaws provide for the indemnification of our officers and directors. We have in the past and may in the future be required to advance costs incurred by an officer or director and to pay judgments, fines and expenses incurred by an officer or director, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, as a result of actions or proceedings in which our officers and directors are involved by reason of being or having been an officer or director of our company. Funds paid in satisfaction of judgments, fines and expenses may be funds we need for the operation of our business and the development of our product candidates, thereby affecting our ability to attain profitability.

An active market for our common stock may not be sustained.

In the past, we have had a limited, volatile and sporadic public trading market for our common stock. Although our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, an active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained, especially given the large percentage of our common stock held by our affiliates. If an active market for our common stock is not sustained, it may be difficult for our stockholders to sell shares without depressing the market price for our common stock.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
    
Not applicable.
Item 2. Properties
 
Our corporate office and manufacturing facility are located at 405 Eagleview Boulevard, Exton, Pennsylvania. This location consists of approximately 17,500 square feet of manufacturing and laboratory space and 69,000 square feet of office space, which we lease pursuant to a lease agreement that expires on March 31, 2023. We believe this facility is suitable for our current needs.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure

Not applicable. 

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Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “FCSC.” The following table sets forth, for the indicated periods, the high and low intra-day sales prices per share for our common stock, adjusted to reflect the effect of the reverse stock split of our common stock on March 10, 2017, for the two most recent years, as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market. 
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 

 
 

First Quarter
$
3.51

 
$
1.86

Second Quarter
$
4.64

 
$
1.80

Third Quarter
$
4.17

 
$
2.41

Fourth Quarter
$
3.29

 
$
0.61

Year Ended December 31, 2016
 

 
 

First Quarter
$
13.86

 
$
6.12

Second Quarter
$
11.34

 
$
2.73

Third Quarter
$
4.14

 
$
2.10

Fourth Quarter
$
3.15

 
$
1.56

The closing price of our common stock on March 6, 2018 was $0.62 as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

Holders of Record

As of March 6, 2018, there were 28,356,351 shares of our common stock outstanding. There were approximately 35 holders of record at March 6, 2018.  Because many of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our common stock and our Board does not intend to do so in the foreseeable future.  The declaration and payment of dividends in the future, of which there can be no assurance, will be determined by the Board in light of conditions then existing, including earnings, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors. In addition, our outstanding Notes and our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock each restrict our ability to pay cash dividends on our equity securities.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

Information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference into the information in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

All information regarding the issuance of our securities during the year ended December 31, 2017 have been previously disclosed in current reports we have filed on Form 8-K or in quarterly reports we have filed on Form 10-Q. We did not issue any unregistered equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2017.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

We did not repurchase any of our equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2017.


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 Item 6.  Selected Financial Data
    
We are a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and are not required to provide the information under this item.


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Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Part IV of this Form 10-K.
Overview
We are an autologous cell and gene therapy company focused on translating personalized biologics into medical breakthroughs for diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue. Our distinctive approach to personalized biologics is based on our proprietary autologous fibroblast technology. Fibroblasts are the most common cell in skin and connective tissue and are responsible for synthesizing extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen and other growth factors, that provide structure and support. Because fibroblasts naturally reside in the localized environment of the skin and connective tissue, they represent an ideal delivery vehicle for proteins targeted to these areas. We target the underlying cause of disease by using fibroblast cells from a patient’s skin and genetically modifying them to create localized therapies that are compatible with the unique biology of the patient (i.e., which are autologous).

We are focused on discovering and developing localized therapies for diseases affecting the skin and connective tissue, where there are high unmet needs, to improve the lives of patients and their families. In that regard, we commit significant resources to our research and development programs. Currently, all of our research and development operations and focus are on gaining regulatory approvals to commercialize our product candidates in the United States; however, we may seek to expand into international markets in the future

Development Programs

Our current pipeline consists of the following product candidates, which we are developing in collaboration with Intrexon:

FCX-007 is our clinical-stage, gene therapy product candidate for the treatment of RDEB, a congenital and progressive orphan skin disease caused by the deficiency of COL7. FCX-007 is a genetically-modified autologous fibroblast that encodes the gene for COL7 for localized treatment of RDEB and is being developed in collaboration with Intrexon. By genetically modifying autologous fibroblasts ex vivo to produce COL7, culturing them and then treating wounds locally via injection, FCX-007 offers the potential to address the underlying cause of the disease by providing high levels of COL7 directly to the affected areas, thereby avoiding systemic treatment.

FCX-007 is currently in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial. Four patients are enrolled in the Phase 1 portion of the clinical trial and continue to progress through follow-up study visits. We completed dosing of the fourth adult patient and performed additional dosing of existing adult patients in the Phase 1 portion of the trial in the fourth quarter of 2017. We expect to report additional interim adult data and provide a trial update in the second quarter of 2018, which includes presenting at the 7th International Investigative Dermatology meeting in May 2018. We have designated our existing, cGMP cell therapy manufacturing facility in Exton, PA as the production site for FCX-007 in our IND application. FCX-007 drug product dosed in the fourth quarter of 2017 was produced and distributed from our Exton, PA facility.

Prior to treating pediatric patients in this trial, we were required to and obtained allowance from the FDA by submitting evidence of FCX-007 safety and benefit in the adult patients and data from our completed pre-clinical toxicology study. After submission of the requested data, the FDA granted allowance to include pediatric patients in the clinical trial in January 2018. We plan to enroll six patients ages seven and older in the Phase 2 portion of the clinical trial. One RDEB adult patient has been enrolled as the first patient in Phase 2 and dosing of this patient is expected to occur in the second quarter of 2018. With allowance from the FDA, we will now include enrollment of pediatric patients. We expect to complete enrollment of Phase 2 patients in the third quarter of 2018. We plan to report another interim data readout and trial update in the first quarter of 2019.
 
FCX-007 has received Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of DEB, including RDEB, Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for the treatment of RDEB and fast track designation for the treatment of RDEB from the FDA.

In addition, our second gene therapy candidate, FCX-013 is in development for the treatment of moderate to severe localized scleroderma, which manifests as excess production of extracellular matrix, specifically collagen, resulting in thickening of the skin and connective tissue. FCX-013 is designed to be injected under the skin at the location of the fibrotic lesions where the genetically-modified fibroblast cells will produce matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) to break down excess collagen accumulation. We previously completed a proof-of-concept study and pre-clinical dose-ranging study for FCX-013. In December 2017, we completed a GLP toxicology/biodistribution study. We submitted an IND application for FCX-013 to the

53



FDA in January 2018, and in March 2018, the FDA allowed the IND to progress to clinical trials. We expect to initiate enrollment for an open label, single arm Phase 1/2 clinical trial in the third quarter of 2018. We plan to manufacture FCX-013 at our Exton, PA cGMP manufacturing facility.

FCX-013 has received Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA for the treatment of localized scleroderma and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for moderate to severe localized scleroderma.

Gene Therapy Research Program for Arthritis and Related Conditions

We expanded our collaboration with Intrexon to pursue the research, development and commercialization of products for the treatment of chronic inflammation and degenerative diseases of human joints through intra-articular or other local administration of genetically modified fibroblasts. We are currently in the research phase for a gene therapy to treat arthritis and related conditions under this collaboration. Our goal is to deliver a protein therapy locally to the joint to provide sustained efficacy while avoiding key side effects typically associated with systemic therapy.

See “Item 1—Business” within Part I of this Form 10-K for additional details regarding our development programs, research programs, and collaboration agreements.

54



Critical Accounting Policies

The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).  Preparing financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Estimates are based on our historical operations, our future business plans and projected financial results, the terms of existing contracts, our observance of trends in the industry, information provided by our customers and information available from other outside sources, as appropriate.  These estimates and assumptions are affected by the application of our accounting policies. Critical accounting policies and practices are both important to the portrayal of a company’s financial condition and results of operations, and require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ from such estimates due to changes in economic factors or other conditions that are outside the control of management. A summary of our significant accounting policies is more fully described in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Form 10-K.
Warrant Liability

The Company accounts for stock warrants as either equity instruments, derivative liabilities, or liabilities in accordance with ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (ASC 480), depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement. Stock warrants are accounted for as a derivative in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (ASC 815) if the stock warrants contain “down-round protection” or other terms that could potentially require “net cash settlement” and therefore, do not meet the scope exception for treatment as a derivative. Since “down-round protection” is not an input into the calculation of the fair value of the warrants, the warrants cannot be considered indexed to the Company’s own stock which is a requirement for the scope exception as outlined under ASC 815. Warrant instruments that could potentially require “net cash settlement” in the absence of express language precluding such settlement and those which include “down-round provisions” are initially classified as derivative liabilities at their estimated fair values, regardless of the likelihood that such instruments will ever be settled in cash. The Company will continue to classify the fair value of the warrants that contain “down-round protection” and “net cash settlement” as a liability until the warrants are exercised, expire or are amended in a way that would no longer require these warrants to be classified as a liability. Warrants that the Company may be required to redeem through payment of cash or other assets outside its control are classified as liabilities pursuant to ASC 480 and are initially and subsequently measured at their estimated fair values. For additional discussion on warrants, see Note 8.

Debt Issued With Warrants

The Company considers guidance within ASC 470-20, Debt (ASC 470), ASC 480, and ASC 815 when accounting for the issuance of convertible debt with detachable warrants. As described above under the caption “Warrant Liability”, the Company classifies stock warrants as either equity instruments, derivative liabilities, or liabilities depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement. In circumstances in which debt is issued with liability-classified warrants, the proceeds from the issuance of convertible debt are first allocated to the warrants at their full estimated fair value and established as both a liability and a debt discount. The remaining proceeds, as further reduced by discounts created by the bifurcation of embedded derivatives and beneficial conversion features, are allocated to the debt. The Company accounts for debt as liabilities measured at amortized cost and amortizes the resulting debt discount from the allocation of proceeds, to interest expense using the effective interest method over the expected term of the debt instrument pursuant to ASC 835, Interest (ASC 835).

Embedded Derivatives. The Company considers whether there are any embedded features in debt instruments that require bifurcation and separate accounting as derivative financial instruments pursuant to ASC 815. Embedded derivatives are initially and subsequently measured at fair value. See Note 7 for additional discussion on the embedded derivatives associated with the Company’s convertible notes.

Beneficial Conversion Feature. If the amount allocated to the convertible debt results in an effective per share conversion price less than the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the commitment date, the intrinsic value of this beneficial conversion feature is recorded as a discount to the convertible debt with a corresponding increase to additional paid in capital. The beneficial conversion feature discount is equal to the difference between the effective conversion price and the fair value of the Company’s common stock at the commitment date, unless limited by the remaining proceeds allocated to the debt. See Note 7 for additional discussion on the beneficial conversion feature associated with the Company’s convertible notes.

    

55



Debt Issuance Costs. The Company follows the guidance under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs (ASU 2015-03) for accounting for debt issuance costs. The Company allocates debt issuance costs between the debt and the warrants on the same basis as proceeds were allocated. The Company expenses issuance costs allocated to the warrants and presents the issuance costs allocated to the debt as a direct reduction from the carrying amount of the debt liability in the balance sheet. However, if debt issuance costs exceed the carrying amount of the debt, issuance costs are recorded to additional paid-in capital as a reduction of the beneficial conversion feature. As of December 31, 2017, the Company’s debt issuance costs are presented in additional paid-in capital as a reduction of the beneficial conversion feature and are being amortized to interest expense (despite their classification in additional paid-in capital) using the effective interest rate method over the expected term of the debt pursuant to ASC 835.

Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ending December 31, 2017 and 2016
Revenue and Cost of Revenue
Revenue and cost of revenue were comprised of the following: 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs 2016 Change
 
($ in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
%
 
Revenue from product sales
$

 
$
337

 
$
(337
)
(100.0
)%
(1)
Collaboration revenue

 
18

 
(18
)
(100.0
)%
(1)
Total revenue

 
355

 
(355
)
(100.0
)%
 
Cost of product sales

 
696

 
(696
)
(100.0
)%
(1)
Cost of collaboration revenue

 
1

 
(1
)
(100.0
)%
(1)
Total cost of revenue

 
697

 
(697
)
(100.0
)%
 
Gross loss
$

 
$
(342
)
 
342

(100.0
)%
 

(1)
As a result of the wind-down of azficel-T operations in the second half of 2016, we have no products for sale. Therefore in the year ended December 31, 2017 we had no revenues or related cost of revenue.

Research and Development Expenses

For each of our research and development programs, we incur both direct and indirect expenses. We track direct research and development expenses by program, which include third party costs such as contract research, consulting and pre-clinical development costs and clinical trial and manufacturing costs. We do not allocate indirect research and development expenses, which may include regulatory, laboratory (equipment and supplies), personnel, facility, process development and other overhead costs (including depreciation and amortization), to specific programs, as these expenses are to be deployed across all of our product candidates.  We expect research and development costs to continue to be significant for the foreseeable future as a result of our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, as well as our ongoing collaborations with Intrexon.
    
    














56



Direct research and development costs, by major program, and indirect research and development costs, by major component, were as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
2017 vs 2016 Change
 
 
($ in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
%
 
 
Direct costs:
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
FCX-007
4,350

 
3,216

 
1,134

35.3
 %
 
(1)
FCX-013
3,117

 
1,534

 
1,583

103.2
 %
 
(2)
Other
72

 
366

 
(294
)
(80.3
)%
 
(3)
Total direct costs
7,539

 
5,116

 
2,423

47.4
 %
 
 
Indirect costs:
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
Regulatory costs
91

 
762

 
(671
)
(88.1
)%
 
(4)
Intangible amortization

 
231

 
(231
)
(100.0
)%
 
(5)
Compensation and related expenses
2,031

 
3,267

 
(1,236
)
(37.8
)%
 
(6)
Process development
7

 
1,014

 
(1,007
)
(99.3
)%
 
(7)
Other indirect R&D costs
2,564

 
1,734

 
830

47.9
 %
 
(8)
Total indirect costs
4,693

 
7,008

 
(2,315
)
(33.0
)%
 
 
Total research and development expenses
$
12,232

 
$
12,124

 
$
108

0.9
 %
 
 

(1)
Costs for our FCX-007 program increased approximately $1.1 million, or 35.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to costs associated with the Phase 1 portion of our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for FCX-007 in adults which began in the second quarter of 2016 and continued throughout 2017.
Through December 31, 2017, we have incurred approximately $24.8 million in direct research and development costs related to this program, life-to-date, which include non-cash expenses of $6.9 million in stock issuance costs associated with the 2012 ECC with Intrexon. Other costs include product and assay development, key opinion leader development, pre-clinical studies and manufacturing, the design of the Phase 1/2 clinical trial protocol and recruiting subjects, clinical product manufacturing, statistical analyses, report generation and future clinical trial costs.
(2)
Costs for our FCX-013 program for the year ended December 31, 2017 increased approximately $1.6 million, or 103.2% compared to 2016 due primarily to costs associated with a pre-clinical dose-ranging study and a toxicology study.
Through December 31, 2017, we have incurred approximately $13.9 million in direct research and development costs related to this program, life-to-date, which include non-cash expenses of $6.4 million in stock issuance costs with the 2012 ECC with Intrexon. Other costs include product and assay development and pre-clinical work, including execution of our proof-of concept study, a pre-clinical dose-ranging study and a toxicology study. Going forward, research and development investments for this program are expected to support ongoing product and assay development, pre-clinical study execution, key opinion leader development, National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (NIH RAC) meeting preparation expenses, and the design and execution of clinical trials.
(3)
Costs for our other programs decreased approximately $0.3 million or 80.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. The azficel-T for chronic dysphonia program was discontinued at June 30, 2016 and the costs recorded since then relate to specific close out activities of the program.
(4)
Regulatory costs decreased approximately $0.7 million, or 88.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to a decrease in costs incurred with the FDA for fees levied under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The decrease in fees resulted from our decision to wind-down azficel-T (including LAVIV), which began in the fourth quarter of 2016, exempted us from being assessed annual product registration and establishment fees imposed under PDUFA, which resulted in substantial cost savings.
(5)
Intangible asset amortization decreased approximately $0.2 million, or 100.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016 due to the impairment of our intangible assets during the second quarter of 2016 which resulted in no amortization expense during the second half of 2016 or all of 2017. See Note 3 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Form 10-K for further details.
(6)
Compensation and related expenses decreased approximately $1.2 million, or 37.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016, due primarily to decreases in salaries, benefits and bonus expense resulting from the reduction in workforce associated with the wind-down of azficel-T operations which occurred in June 2016.

57



(7)
Process development costs decreased approximately $1.0 million, or 99.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016, as a result primarily of internal process development work being halted in June 2016 in connection with the wind-down of azficel-T operations and related restructuring initiatives.
(8)
Other indirect R&D costs increased approximately $0.8 million, or 47.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016, due primarily to the inclusion of costs for overhead items that were previously part of the cost of products sold computation.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses were comprised of the following:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs 2016 Change
 
 
($ in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
%
 
 
Compensation and related expenses
$
1,764

 
$
4,695

 
(2,931
)
(62.4
)%
 
(1)
Professional fees
2,103

 
2,161

 
(58
)
(2.7
)%
 
(2)
Facilities and related expenses and other
2,882

 
2,917

 
(35
)
(1.2
)%
 
(3)
Total selling, general and administrative expenses
$
6,749

 
$
9,773

 
$
(3,024
)
(30.9
)%
 
 

(1)
Compensation and related expenses decreased approximately $2.9 million, or 62.4% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. The decrease is due primarily to reductions in employee count and their related expenses, all as part of a reduction in workforce at June 30, 2016, and management reorganization and reduction later into 2016 and early 2017.
(2)
Professional fees decreased approximately $0.06 million, or 2.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 2016. This decrease is attributable primarily to lower levels of business activity.
(3)
Facilities and related expenses were approximately $2.9 million for both of the years ending December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Intangible Asset Impairment Expense

During the year ended December 31, 2016 we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of approximately $3.9 million to write off our intangible assets in connection with our decision to wind-down azficel-T (including LAVIV). No such charges were incurred during 2017. See Note 3 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Form 10-K for further details.

Restructuring Costs

During the year ended December 31, 2016 we recorded restructuring costs totaling approximately $0.3 million. Restructuring costs were comprised of employee severance and benefit related charges associated with our reduction in workforce in June 2016 and non-cash impairment charges against the carrying values of equipment with no alternative future use. No such costs were incurred during 2017. See Part I, Item 1, "Business —Wind-down of azficel-T Operations" of this Form 10-K and Note 12 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV of this Form 10-K for further details.

Warrant Revaluation Income

During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recorded non-cash income of approximately $4.9 million and $11.9 million, respectively, for warrant revaluation income in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Due to the nature and inputs of the model used to assess the fair value of our outstanding warrants, it is not abnormal to experience significant fluctuations from year to year. These fluctuations were due to a variety of factors including changes in our stock price, changes in the remaining contractual life of the warrants, and changes in management’s estimated probability of certain events occurring that would impact the warrants. Warrant revaluation income for 2017 and 2016 was driven primarily by decreases in both our stock price and the remaining contractual term of the warrants.



58



Derivative Revaluation Expense

During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recorded non-cash derivative revaluation expense of approximately $1.4 million and $0.5 million, respectively, for derivative liability revaluation charges in our Consolidated Statement of Operations related to a compound bifurcated derivative initially recorded in September 2016 in connection with the 2016 Private Placement. Derivative valuation expense was primarily the result of the decrease in our stock price during the year ended December 31, 2017. See Note 7 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV of this Form 10-K for further details.

Interest Expense

During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recorded interest expense of approximately $0.8 million and $0.2 million, respectively, in our Consolidated Statement of Operations related to the Notes that we issued in the 2016 Private Placement which bear interest at 4% per annum. No such expenses were incurred in prior periods. See Note 7 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV of this Form 10-K for further details.

Net Loss

Net loss increased approximately $0.8 million to $16.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to $15.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.  The increase was due primarily to an overall net decrease in operating expenses of approximately $7.9 million, as more fully described at the component level above, offset by a decrease in warrant revaluation income of approximately $7.0 million, increased derivative revaluation expense of approximately $0.9 million and increased interest expense of approximately $0.6 million.


59



Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources

Financial Condition

We have experienced losses since our inception. As of December 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $178.8 million. The process of developing and commercializing our product candidates requires significant research and development efforts and clinical trial work, as well as significant manufacturing and process development. These activities, together with our selling, general and administrative expenses, are expected to continue to result in significant operating losses for the foreseeable future. Additionally, to fund our operations, we issued convertible promissory notes in an aggregate amount of approximately $18.1 million, which bear interest at 4% per annum, in connection with the 2016 Private Placement as more fully described under the heading “Contractual Obligations” below and in Note 7 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV of this Form 10-K.

Our financial condition is summarized below as of the following dates:
 
As of December 31,
 
Change
($ in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
%
Cash and cash equivalents
$
17,417

 
$
17,515

 
$
(98
)
(0.6
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total current assets
$
17,902

 
$
18,028

 
$
(126
)
(0.7
)%
Less: Total current liabilities
4,425

 
2,987

 
1,438

48.1
 %
Net working capital
$
13,477

 
$
15,041

 
$
(1,564
)
(10.4
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Convertible notes payable (gross principal)
$
18,003

 
$
18,088

 
$
(85
)
(0.5
)%

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our principal sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents of approximately $17.4 million as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2017, we had net working capital of approximately $13.5 million which decreased approximately $1.6 million, or 10.4%, from December 31, 2016. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, will be sufficient to fund our operations into the first quarter of 2019; however, changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of such circumstances. We will require additional capital to fund operations beyond that point and prior to our business achieving significant net cash from operations. Our future capital requirements may be substantial, and will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:
the cost of clinical activities and outcomes related to our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for FCX-007;
the costs of clinical activities related to FCX-013, for which we received FDA allowance for our IND in the first quarter of 2018;
the cost of additional pre-clinical studies and clinical trials in order to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;
the cost of regulatory submissions, as well as the preparation, initiation and execution of clinical trials in potential new clinical indications; and
the cost of filing, surveillance around, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims.
    
To meet our capital needs, we consider multiple alternatives, including but not limited to equity financings, debt financings, corporate collaborations, partnerships and other strategic transactions and funding opportunities. However, there is no assurance that we will be able to complete any such transaction or obtain the additional required capital on acceptable terms or otherwise. Furthermore, the covenants under our convertible notes limit our ability to obtain additional debt financing. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders will experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, will result in increased fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. Any debt or equity financing that we complete may contain terms, such as liquidation and other preferences, which are not favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration or partnership arrangements with third parties, it may

60



be necessary to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we will need to curtail and reduce our operations and costs and modify our business strategy which may require us to, among other things:
significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates or one or more of our other research and development initiatives;
seek collaborators for one or more of our current or future product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available; or
sell or license on unfavorable terms our rights to technologies or product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.

Additionally, failure to obtain the necessary capital in a timely manner could require us to seek bankruptcy protection or result in our breach or default under agreements on which our business relies or pursuant to which we obtain valuable rights which could result in, among other things, the potential acceleration of payments thereunder or the termination of such agreements.

These factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Consequently, the audit report prepared by our independent registered public accounting firm relating to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes a paragraph related to the substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

Nasdaq Deficiency Notice

On January 23, 2018, we received (the “Notice”) from Nasdaq that we are not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2), as the minimum bid price of our common stock has been below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. The Notice has no immediate effect on the listing of our common stock, which will continue to trade at this time on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “FCSC.”

In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have a period of 180 calendar days, or until July 23, 2018, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of our common stock must meet or exceed $1.00 per share for at least ten consecutive business days during this 180 calendar day period. In the event we do not regain compliance by July 23, 2018, we may be eligible for an additional 180 calendar day grace period if we meet the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares ($1 million) and all other initial listing standards which require, among other things, that we have at least $5 million of stockholders’ equity or at least $4 million of stockholders’ equity and $50 million market value of listed shares. If we fail to regain compliance during the applicable period, we will receive notification from Nasdaq that our common stock is subject to delisting. At that time we may then appeal the delisting determination to a Hearings Panel. Such notification will have no immediate effect on our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, nor will it have an immediate effect on the trading of our common stock pending such hearing. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement. If we regain compliance with the Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with the continued listing requirements for the Nasdaq Capital Market, or that our common stock will not be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market in the future. In addition, we may be unable to meet other applicable listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market, including maintaining minimum levels of stockholders’ equity or market values of our common stock in which case, our common stock could be delisted notwithstanding our ability to demonstrate compliance with the minimum bid price requirement.

We intend to monitor the closing bid price of our common stock and consider options to resolve our noncompliance with the minimum bid price requirement.

Nasdaq Equity Requirement

Nasdaq has the authority, pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1), to delist our common stock if our stockholders’ equity falls below $2.5 million. As of December 31, 2017, our stockholders’ equity was $9.0 million. If our stockholders equity is hereafter reduced below $2.5 million as a result of operating losses or for other reasons, we will fail to meet Nasdaq’s stockholders’ equity requirement. If that occurs, or if we are unable to demonstrate to Nasdaq’s satisfaction that we will be able to sustain compliance with this requirement, Nasdaq may delist our common stock. In addition, even if we regain technical compliance with the stockholders’ equity requirement, we will have to continue to meet other objective and subjective listing

61



requirements to continue to be listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, including the requirement that our common stock continues to trade above $1.00. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we incurred a net loss of $16.2 million and used $17.0 million in operating activities and had an accumulated deficit of $178.8 as of December 31, 2017.

We are actively monitoring our stockholders’ equity and will consider any and all options available to us to maintain compliance. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to maintain compliance and meet Nasdaq’s minimum stockholders’ equity requirements.
 
2017 Series A Preferred Stock Offering

On March 8, 2017, we completed the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock Offering for the sale of $8.0 million of our Series A Preferred Stock and the March 2017 Warrants to certain of our existing investors, including certain related parties (including Intrexon). After deducting offering expenses, net proceeds from the offering excluding the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the March 2017 Warrants, was approximately $7.6 million.

2017 Common Stock and Warrant Offering

On December 11, 2017, we completed the December 2017 Offering for the sale of $10.5 million of shares of our common stock, detachable warrants to the general public and the December 2017 Underwriter Warrants. After deducting offering expenses, net proceeds from the December 2017 Offering excluding the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the warrants, was approximately $9.3 million.
    
Also, see Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital included within Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flow activity:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs 2016 Change
($ in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
%
Net cash flows provided by (used in):
 

 
 

 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(17,037
)
 
$
(29,390
)
 
$
12,353

(42.0
)%
Investing activities
$
(433
)
 
$
(252
)
 
$
(181
)
71.8
 %
Financing activities
$
17,372

 
$
17,889

 
$
(517
)
(2.9
)%
Operating Activities.  Cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was approximately $17.0 million, a decrease of approximately $12.4 million over the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease was due primarily to the $10 million up-front technology access fee payment to Intrexon in January 2016 in connection with the 2015 ECC, for which there was no comparable payment in 2017, as well as decreased operating costs related to the reduction in workforce at June 30, 2016.

Investing Activities.  Cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017, increased by approximately $0.2 million over the year ended December 31, 2016. The amount in both periods related primarily to the purchases of equipment and leasehold improvements. 

Financing Activities.  Cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was approximately $17.4 million, a decrease of approximately $0.5 million as compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was due primarily to net proceeds from the two offerings in 2017, raising approximately $16.9 million, as compared to the 2016 Private Placement of approximately $17.9 million. See additional information regarding the two 2017 offerings in Note 9, Equity, See additional information regarding the 2016 Private Placement included under the heading “Contractual Obligations” below and in Note 7 in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV of this     Form 10-K.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Transactions

We do not engage in material off-balance sheet transactions.


62



Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of December 31, 2017 and the effects such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods:
 
Payments due by period
($ in thousands)
Total
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023 and
thereafter
Operating lease obligations (1)
$
7,451

 
$
1,254

 
$
1,416

 
$
1,471

 
$
1,471

 
$
1,471

 
$
368

Debt obligations (2)
21,968

 

 

 

 
21,968

 

 

Total (3)
$
29,419

 
$
1,254

 
$
1,416

 
$
1,471

 
$
23,439

 
$
1,471

 
$
368

(1)
Operating lease obligations are stated based on the amended lease agreement for our office, warehouse and laboratory facility executed in February 2012.
(2)
Obligations under the Notes issued in connection with the 2016 Private Placement which includes principal and accrued interest through September 7, 2021, based on stated fixed rates, as we have elected to accrue interest. The Notes have a maturity date of the earlier of (i) September 7, 2026 and (ii) one-hundred and eighty (180) days after the date on which our product candidate, FCX-007, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of RDEB. However, each Note holder has the right to require us to repay all or any portion of the unpaid principal and accrued interest from time to time on or after September 7, 2021. See details under the sub-heading “2016 Private Placement” below.
(3)
This table does not include (a) any milestone payments which may become payable to third parties under license agreements as the timing and likelihood of such payments are not known, (b) any royalty payments to third parties as the amounts of such payments, timing and/or the likelihood of such payments are not known, and (c) contracts that are entered into in the ordinary course of business which are not material in the aggregate in any period presented above.

2016 Private Placement

In September 2016, we issued an aggregate of approximately $18.1 million in principal of Notes and accompanying Private Placement Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,029,174 shares of common stock in a private placement to the Investors, including certain related parties (including Intrexon) which were issued an aggregate of approximately $6.8 million in principal of Notes and accompanying Private Placement Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 2,254,168 shares of our common stock.

The Notes bear interest at four percent (4%) per annum. Interest is earned daily and compounded quarterly and, at our election at the beginning of each quarter, shall accrue or be paid in cash. If we elect to have interest accrue, such interest will not be added to the principal amount of the Notes but such interest shall be subject to additional interest at the rate of four percent (4%) per annum, compounded quarterly, and shall be due and payable upon the earliest of the conversion of the Notes, exercise of the Put Right, exercise of the Prepayment Right or the Maturity Date (in each case, as defined below). Additionally, if we elect for interest to accrue, then (i) we may elect to repay any such accrued and unpaid interest in cash at any time and from time to time and (ii) each Investor may elect to have us repay any such accrued and unpaid interest by delivering such number of shares of common stock equal to (x) the amount of the accrued and unpaid interest to be repaid, divided by (y) the greater of (i) the last closing bid price of a share of common stock as reported on Nasdaq on the date of such election and (ii) the applicable Conversion Price.

All unpaid principal of each Investor’s Note is convertible, at any time and from time to time, at the option of such Investor into shares of common stock at the conversion price, ($3.40875,to $3.52875) and accrued interest is convertible at the greater of (x) the conversion price or (y) the last closing bid price of a share of common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market at the time of such Investor’s execution of the Purchase Agreement, plus $0.12625.

The Notes have a maturity date of the earlier of (i) September 7, 2026 and (ii) one-hundred and eighty (180) days after the date on which our product candidate, FCX-007, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of RDEB. Each individual Note holder has the right to require us to repay all or any portion of the unpaid principal and accrued and unpaid interest from time to time on or after September 7, 2021. Such Put Right must be exercised by such Note holder by delivering written notice to us no later than one-hundred and eighty (180) days prior to such exercise date of such Put Right. In addition, upon consummation of a specified change of control transaction or the occurrence of certain events of default, as defined in the Notes, each Note holder may elect to accelerate the repayment of all unpaid principal and accrued interest under such holder’s Note. If an Investor does not elect to have us prepay its Note upon such change of control transaction, then we may prepay the Notes, in an amount equal to one hundred one percent (101%) of the outstanding principal due under the Notes (together with accrued and unpaid interest due thereon) (the Prepayment Right). Additionally, upon the occurrence of certain events of default, as defined

63



in the Notes, each Investor may elect to accelerate the repayment of all unpaid principal and accrued interest under each Note and the Notes provide for automatic redemption upon the occurrence of certain bankruptcy related events of default, as defined in the Notes.
Collaborations with Related Party

We are party to two separate exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon, a related party, pursuant to which we became Intrexon’s exclusive channel collaborator in the research, development and commercialization of certain products as defined in the respective agreements. In connection with these exclusive channel collaboration agreements, we engage Intrexon for support services for the research and development of product candidates covered under the respective agreements and reimburses Intrexon for its cost for time and materials for such services.
    
For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we incurred expenses of $5.7 million and $3.7 million, respectively, for payments to Intrexon.  As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had outstanding payables with Intrexon of $2.3 million and $0.9 million, respectively. 

For additional details, see information within Part I, Item 1—Business, under the heading “Intrexon Collaborations” and Note 14, Related Party Transactions, to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Form 10-K.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 3, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV of this Form 10-K for discussion on recently issued accounting pronouncements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk
 
Not applicable.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The information required by Item 8 including the financial statements and notes thereto, and report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, are included in this Form 10-K as set forth in the “Index to Consolidated Financial Statements” on page F-1.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

Not applicable.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act)), as of the end of the period covered by this Form 10-K. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer (our principal executive officer and principal financial officer), concluded that, as of December 31, 2017, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that (a) the information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and (b) such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer (our principal executive officer and principal financial officer), as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
    
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, our management recognized that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control

64



objectives, and our management necessarily was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer, who also serves as our principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, based on the framework in the Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO 2013).

Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Based on our evaluation under the framework in COSO 2013, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.

This Form 10-K does not include an attestation report of our independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Management’s report was not subject to the attestation by our independent registered public accounting firm because smaller reporting companies are exempt from this requirement.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2017 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Item 9B. Other Information
    
None. 

65



Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.

Our Board has adopted a written Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applicable to all officers, directors and employees, which is available on our website (www.fibrocell.com) under “Corporate Governance” within the “Investors” section. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K regarding any amendment to, or waiver from, a provision of this Code and by posting such information on the website address and location specified above.
Item 11. Executive Compensation

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
 Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.

66



Part IV 
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule

(a)    (1)  Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Consolidated Financial Statements are filed as part of this report. See the Index to the Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1.
(2)  Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule.
Schedules are omitted because they are not applicable, or are not required, or because the information is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto.

(3)  The exhibits listed under Item 15(b), which are incorporated herein by reference, are filed or furnished as part of this report or are incorporated into this report by reference.
(b)  Exhibits.
EXHIBIT
NO.
 
IDENTIFICATION OF EXHIBIT
2.1

 
3.1

 
3.2

 
3.3

 
3.4

 
3.5

 
3.6

 
3.7

 
3.8

 
4.1

 
4.2

 
4.3

 
4.4

 
4.5

 
4.6

 
4.7

 
4.8

 

67



4.9

 
10.1

 
10.2

 
10.3

 
10.4

 
10.5

 
10.6

 
10.7

 
10.8

 
10.9

 
10.10

 
10.11

 
10.12

 
10.13

t
10.14

U
10.15

 
10.16

 
10.17

 
10.18

U
10.19

U
10.20

U
10.21

U
10.22

U
10.23

 

68



10.24

 
10.25

 
10.26

 
10.27

 

 
 
 
*21
 
*23
 
*31
 
*32
 
101.INS
 
XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CAL
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.LAB
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PRE
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
101.DEF
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

*
Filed herewith.
U
Indicates management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
t
Confidential treatment has been granted as to certain portions of this exhibit pursuant to Rule 406 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.


Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

Not applicable.



69



SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
FIBROCELL SCIENCE, INC.
 
 
 
By:
/s/ John M. Maslowski
 
 
John M. Maslowski
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
 
 
Date: March 19, 2018
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the date indicated.
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ John M. Maslowski
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
March 19, 2018
John M. Maslowski
 
(Principal Executive Officer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Douglas J. Swirsky
 
Chairman of the Board
 
March 19, 2018
Douglas J. Swirsky
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Kelvin Moore
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Kelvin Moore
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Marc Mazur
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Marc Mazur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Julian Kirk
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Julian Kirk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Marcus Smith
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Marcus Smith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Christine St.Clare
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Christine St.Clare
 
 
 
 

70



Fibrocell Science, Inc.
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements 

F 1


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Fibrocell Science, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Fibrocell Science, Inc. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the years then ended, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Substantial Doubt About the Company’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations, has an accumulated deficit and cash outflows from operating activities that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 1. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.


/s/PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
March 19, 2018

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2015.


 



F 2


Fibrocell Science, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
($ in thousands, except share data)
 
As of December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
Assets
 

 
 

Current assets:
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
17,417

 
$
17,515

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
485

 
513

Total current assets
17,902

 
18,028

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $1,919 and $1,561, respectively
1,470

 
1,489

Other assets
39

 
65

Total assets
$
19,411

 
$
19,582

 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
 

 
 

Current liabilities:
 

 
 

Accounts payable
$
862

 
$
440

Related party payable
2,303

 
942

Accrued expenses
1,260

 
1,551

Warrant liability, current

 
54

Total current liabilities
4,425

 
2,987

Convertible promissory notes, net of debt discount of $18,003 and $18,088, respectively (see Note 7)

 

Accrued interest payable
967

 
228

Warrant liability, long term
1,073

 
5,980

Derivative liability
3,136

 
1,735

Deferred rent
803

 
791

Total liabilities
10,404

 
11,721

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)


 


 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized; 8,000 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2017; 5,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2016; aggregate liquidation preference of $8,264 at December 31, 2017

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 150,000,000 shares authorized, 25,940,247 shares issued and
outstanding as of December 31, 2017; 150,000,000 shares authorized, 14,688,135 shares issued
and outstanding as of December 31, 2016
26

 
15

Additional paid-in capital
187,784

 
170,409

Accumulated deficit
(178,803
)
 
(162,563
)
Total stockholders’ equity
9,007

 
7,861

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
19,411

 
$
19,582

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


F 3


Fibrocell Science, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
($ in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue from product sales
$

 
$
337

Collaboration revenue

 
18

Total revenue

 
355

Cost of product sales

 
696

Cost of collaboration revenue

 
1

Total cost of revenue

 
697

Gross loss

 
(342
)
Research and development expenses
6,512

 
8,400

Research and development expenses - related party
5,720

 
3,724

Selling, general and administrative expenses
6,749

 
9,773

Intangible asset impairment expense

 
3,905

Restructuring costs

 
335

Operating loss
(18,981
)
 
(26,479
)
Other income (expense):
 

 
 

Warrant revaluation income
4,920

 
11,884

Derivative revaluation expense
(1,407
)
 
(462
)
Interest expense
(828
)
 
(228
)
Other income (expense), net
56

 
(7
)
Loss before income taxes
(16,240
)
 
(15,292
)
Income tax benefit

 

Net loss
(16,240
)
 
$
(15,292
)
      Dividend paid in-kind to preferred stockholders
(264
)
 

      Deemed dividend on preferred stock (see Note 9)
(4,099
)
 

      Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$
(20,603
)
 
$
(15,292
)
 
 
 
 
Per Share Information:
 

 
 

Net loss
 
 
 
— Basic
$
(1.33
)
 
$
(1.04
)
— Diluted
$
(1.33
)
 
$
(1.18
)
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding
 

 
 

— Basic