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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020
OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to           

Commission file number 001-08359  

NEW JERSEY RESOURCES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey22-2376465
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1415 Wyckoff Road,Wall,New Jersey07719(732)938‑1000
(Address of principal executive offices)(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered)
Common Stock ‑ $2.50 Par ValueNJRNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
     Yes         No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes        No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes         No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
     Yes         No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.             

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).      Yes        No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was $3,248,998,994 based on the closing price of $33.97 per share on March 31, 2020, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.

The number of shares outstanding of $2.50 par value common stock as of November 26, 2020 was 96,132,545.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareowners (Proxy Statement) to be held on January 20, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part I and Part III of this report.


New Jersey Resources Corporation

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
PART III*
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
* Portions of Item 10 and Items 11-14 are Incorporated by Reference from the Proxy Statement.
i

New Jersey Resources Corporation


GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS                                                                                                                                                       
Adelphia GatewayAdelphia Gateway, LLC
AFUDCAllowance for Funds Used During Construction
AROAsset Retirement Obligations
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
BcfBillion Cubic Feet
BGSSBasic Gas Supply Service
BPUNew Jersey Board of Public Utilities
Bridge FacilityThe $350 million term loan credit agreement
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
CIPConservation Incentive Program
CMEChicago Mercantile Exchange
COVID-19Novel coronavirus disease
CR&RCommercial Realty & Resources Corp.
Degree-dayThe measure of the variation in the weather based on the extent to which the average daily temperature falls below 65 degrees Fahrenheit
DominionDominion Energy, Inc.
DMDominion Energy Midstream Partners, L.P., a master limited partnership
DM Common UnitsCommon units representing limited partnership interests in DM
DRPNJR Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan
DthsDekatherms
EDANew Jersey Economic Development Authority
EDA BondsBonds issued to NJNG by the EDA
EDECAElectric Discount and Energy Competition Act
EEEnergy Efficiency
Energy ServicesEnergy Services segment
EPSEarnings Per Share
ERPEnterprise Resource Planning
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FCMFutures Commission Merchant
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
Financial MarginA non-GAAP financial measure, which represents revenues earned from the sale of natural gas less costs of natural gas sold including any transportation and storage costs, and excludes any accounting impact from the change in the fair value of certain derivative instruments
FitchFitch Ratings Company
FMBFirst Mortgage Bonds
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles of the United States
GWRAGlobal Warming Response Act of 2007
HCCTRHealth Care Cost Trend Rate
Home Services and OtherHome Services and Other Operations
ICEIntercontinental Exchange
IECInterstate Energy Company, LLC
IIPInfrastructure Investment Program
IRSInternal Revenue Service
ISDAThe International Swaps and Derivatives Association
ITCInvestment Tax Credit
LDCC
Leadership Development and Compensation Committee
Leaf RiverLeaf River Energy Center LLC
LIBORLondon Inter-Bank Offered Rate
LNGLiquefied Natural Gas
Loan AgreementLoan Agreement between the EDA and NJNG
MGPManufactured Gas Plant
MMBtuMillion British Thermal Units
Moody’sMoody’s Investors Service, Inc.
Mortgage IndentureThe Amended and Restated Indenture of Mortgage, Deed of Trust and Security Agreement between NJNG and U.S. Bank National Association dated as of September 1, 2014, as amended
MWMegawatts
Page 1

New Jersey Resources Corporation


GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS (cont.)                                                                                                                                            
MWhMegawatt Hour
NAESBThe North American Energy Standards Board
NAVNet Asset Value
Natural Gas ActThe Natural Gas Act of 1938, as amended; the federal law regulating interstate natural gas pipeline and storage companies, among other things, codified beginning at 15 U.S.C. Section 717.
NFENet Financial Earnings
NJ RISENew Jersey Reinvestment in System Enhancement
NJCEPNew Jersey’s Clean Energy Program
NJDEPNew Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
NJNGNew Jersey Natural Gas Company or Natural Gas Distribution segment
NJNG Credit FacilityThe $250 million unsecured committed credit facility expiring in December 2023
NJR Credit FacilityThe $425 million unsecured committed credit facility expiring in December 2023
NJR or The CompanyNew Jersey Resources Corporation
NJRCEVNJR Clean Energy Ventures Corporation or Clean Energy Ventures Segment
NJRESNJR Energy Services Company
NJRHSNJR Home Services Company
NJRRSNJR Retail Services Company
Non-GAAPNot in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles of the United States
NPNSNormal Purchase/Normal Sale
NYMEXNew York Mercantile Exchange
OASDIOld Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance tax
O&MOperations and Maintenance
OPEBOther Postemployment Benefit Plans
PBOProjected Benefit Obligation
PennEastPennEast Pipeline Company, LLC
PEPPension Equalization Plan
PIMPipeline Integrity Management
PPAPower Purchase Agreement
Prudential FacilityNJR’s unsecured, uncommitted private placement shelf note agreement with Prudential Investment Management, Inc.
PTCProduction Tax Credit
RACRemediation Adjustment Clause
RECRenewable Energy Certificate
S&PStandard & Poor’s Financial Services, LLC
SAFE ISafety Acceleration and Facility Enhancement Program, Phase I
SAFE IISafety Acceleration and Facility Enhancement Program, Phase II
Sarbanes-OxleySarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
SAVEGREENThe SAVEGREEN Project®
Savings PlanEmployees’ Retirement Savings Plan
SBCSocietal Benefits Charge
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as amended
SRECSolar Renewable Energy Certificate
SRLSouthern Reliability Link
Steckman RidgeCollectively, Steckman Ridge GP, LLC and Steckman Ridge, LP
TalenTalen Energy Marketing, LLC or Talen Generation, LLC
TETCOTexas Eastern Transmission
The Tax ActAn Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018, previously known as The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
Third CircuitThe United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
Storage and Transportation
Storage and Transportation segment, formerly Midstream segment
TrusteeU.S. Bank National Association
TSRTotal Shareholder Return
U.S.The United States of America
UnionInternational Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 1820
USFUniversal Service Fund
Page 2

New Jersey Resources Corporation


INFORMATION CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS                                                                           

Certain statements contained in this report, including, without limitation, statements as to management expectations, assumptions and beliefs presented in Part I, Item 1. Business and Item 3. Legal Proceedings, and in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, and in the notes to the financial statements, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “may,” “could,” “might,” “intend,” “expect,” “believe,” “will,” “plan” or “should” or comparable terminology and are made based upon management’s current expectations, assumptions and beliefs as of this date concerning future developments and their potential effect on us. There can be no assurance that future developments will be in accordance with management’s expectations, assumptions or beliefs, or that the effect of future developments on us will be those anticipated by management.

We caution readers that the expectations, assumptions and beliefs that form the basis for forward-looking statements regarding customer growth, customer usage, qualifications for ITCs, RECs, future rate case proceedings, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, capital requirements, future capital expenditures, market risk, effective tax rate and other matters for fiscal 2021 and thereafter include many factors that are beyond our ability to control or estimate precisely, such as estimates of future market conditions, the behavior of other market participants and changes in the debt and equity capital markets. The factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, assumptions and beliefs include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors, as well as the following:

risks related to the impact of COVID-19 on business operations, financial performance and condition and cash flows;
our ability to obtain governmental and regulatory approvals, land-use rights, electric grid connection (in the case of clean energy projects) and/or financing for the construction, development and operation of our unregulated energy investments, pipeline transportation systems and NJNG and Storage and Transportation infrastructure projects, including PennEast and Adelphia Gateway, in a timely manner;
risks associated with our investments in clean energy projects, including the availability of regulatory incentives and federal tax credits, the availability of viable projects, our eligibility for ITCs, the future market for SRECs, TRECs and electricity prices, and operational risks related to projects in service;
risks associated with acquisitions and the related integration of acquired assets with our current operations, including the acquisition of Adelphia Gateway and Leaf River;
our ability to comply with current and future regulatory requirements;
volatility of natural gas and other commodity prices and their impact on NJNG customer usage, NJNG’s BGSS incentive programs, our Energy Services segment operations and our risk management efforts;
the performance of our subsidiaries;
access to adequate supplies of natural gas and dependence on third-party storage and transportation facilities for natural gas supply;
the level and rate at which NJNG’s costs and expenses are incurred and the extent to which they are approved for recovery from customers through the regulatory process, including through future base rate case filings;
the impact of a disallowance of recovery of environmental-related expenditures and other regulatory changes;
the regulatory and pricing policies of federal and state regulatory agencies;
operating risks incidental to handling, storing, transporting and providing customers with natural gas;
demographic changes in our service territory and their effect on our customer growth;
timing of qualifying for ITCs due to delays or failures to complete planned solar projects and the resulting impact on our effective tax rate and earnings;
changes in rating agency requirements and/or credit ratings and their effect on availability and cost of capital to the Company;
the impact of volatility in the equity and credit markets on our access to capital;
our ability to comply with debt covenants;
the results of legal or administrative proceedings with respect to claims, rates, environmental issues, natural gas cost prudence reviews and other matters;
risks related to cyberattacks or failure of information technology systems;
the impact to the asset values and resulting higher costs and funding obligations of our pension and postemployment benefit plans as a result of potential downturns in the financial markets, lower discount rates, revised actuarial assumptions or impacts associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act;
commercial and wholesale credit risks, including the availability of creditworthy customers and counterparties, and liquidity in the wholesale energy trading market;
accounting effects and other risks associated with hedging activities and use of derivatives contracts;
our ability to optimize our physical assets;
weather and economic conditions;
the costs of compliance with present and future environmental laws, potential climate change-related legislation or any legislation resulting from the 2019 New Jersey Energy Master Plan;
uncertainties related to litigation, regulatory, administrative or environmental proceedings;
changes to tax laws and regulations;
any potential need to record a valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets;
the impact of natural disasters, terrorist activities and other extreme events on our operations and customers;
risks related to our employee workforce and succession planning;
risks associated with the management of our joint ventures and partnerships; and
risks associated with keeping pace with technological change.

While we periodically reassess material trends and uncertainties affecting our results of operations and financial condition in connection with the preparation of management’s discussion and analysis of results of operations and financial condition contained in our Quarterly and Annual Reports on Form 10-Q and Form 10-K, respectively, we do not, by including this statement, assume any obligation to review or revise any particular forward-looking statement referenced herein in light of future events.
Page 3

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS                                                                                                                                                                         

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

New Jersey Resources Corporation is a New Jersey corporation formed in 1981 pursuant to a corporate reorganization. We are a diversified energy services holding company whose principal business is the distribution of natural gas through a regulated utility, providing other retail and wholesale energy services to customers and investing in clean energy projects and natural gas storage and transportation assets. We are an exempt holding company under section 1263 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

Our primary subsidiaries include:

New Jersey Natural Gas Company provides regulated retail natural gas utility service to approximately 558,000 residential and commercial customers throughout Monmouth, Ocean, Morris, Middlesex and Burlington counties in New Jersey and participates in the off-system sales and capacity release markets. NJNG, a local natural gas distribution company, is regulated by the BPU and comprises the Company’s Natural Gas Distribution segment and is referred to herein as NJNG or Natural Gas Distribution.


NJR Clean Energy Ventures Corporation includes the results of operations and assets related to the Company’s unregulated capital investments in clean energy projects, including commercial and residential solar projects. NJRCEV comprises the Company’s Clean Energy Ventures segment and is referred to herein as Clean Energy Ventures.


NJR Energy Services Company maintains and transacts around a portfolio of physical assets consisting of natural gas transportation and storage contracts in the U.S. and Canada. NJRES also provides unregulated wholesale energy management services to other energy companies and natural gas producers. NJRES comprises our Energy Services segment and is referred to herein as Energy Services.


NJR Midstream Holdings Corporation, which comprises the Storage and Transportation segment, formerly known as the Midstream segment, invests in energy-related ventures through its subsidiaries. Investments include NJR Steckman Ridge Storage Company, which holds our 50 percent combined ownership interest in Steckman Ridge, located in Pennsylvania, and NJR Midstream Company, formerly NJR Pipeline Company, which includes our 20 percent ownership interest in PennEast, our wholly-owned subsidiaries of Leaf River, located in southeastern Mississippi, and Adelphia Gateway, located in eastern Pennsylvania, and are subject to FERC regulation. See Note 7. Investments in Equity Investees for more information on Steckman Ridge and PennEast.


NJR Home Services Company provides heating, ventilation and cooling service, sales and installation of appliances to approximately 107,000 service contract customers, as well as solar installation projects, and is the primary contributor to Home Services and Other operations.
Page 4

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
REPORTING SEGMENTS

We operate within four reporting segments: Natural Gas Distribution, Clean Energy Ventures, Energy Services and Storage and Transportation, formerly known as Midstream.

The Natural Gas Distribution segment consists of regulated natural gas services, off-system sales, capacity and storage management operations. The Energy Services segment consists of unregulated wholesale and retail energy operations, as well as energy management services. The Clean Energy Ventures segment consists of capital investments in clean energy projects. The Storage and Transportation segment consists of investments in the natural gas storage and transportation market, such as natural gas storage and transportation facilities.

Net income by reporting segment and other business operations for the fiscal years ended September 30, are as follows:
njr-20200930_g1.jpg
Energy Services incurred a net loss of $11 million and $1.3 million in fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively, which is not shown clearly in the above graph.

Assets composition by reporting segment and other business operations at September 30, are as follows:
20202019
njr-20200930_g2.jpgnjr-20200930_g3.jpg

Assets at Home Services and Other are immaterial, which is not shown clearly in the above charts.
Page 5

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
Management uses NFE, a non-GAAP financial measure, when evaluating our operating results. NFE is a measure of the earnings based on eliminating timing differences surrounding the recognition of certain gains or losses to effectively match the earnings effects of the economic hedges with the physical sale of natural gas and, therefore, eliminates the impact of volatility to GAAP earnings associated with the derivative instruments. Energy Services economically hedges its natural gas inventory with financial derivative instruments and calculates the related tax effect based on the statutory rate.

Non-GAAP financial measures are not in accordance with, or an alternative to, GAAP, and should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, the comparable GAAP measure. The following is a reconciliation of consolidated net income, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, to NFE for the fiscal years ended September 30:
(Thousands)202020192018
Net income$193,919 $169,505 $233,436 
Add:
Unrealized (gain) loss on derivative instruments and related transactions(9,644)2,881 26,770 
Tax effect2,296 (711)(4,512)
Effects of economic hedging related to natural gas inventory12,690 4,309 (22,570)
Tax effect(3,016)(1,024)7,362 
NFE (1)
$196,245 $174,960 $240,486 
Basic earnings per share$2.05 $1.90 $2.66 
Add:
Unrealized (gain) loss on derivative instruments and related transactions(0.10)0.03 0.31 
Tax effect0.02 (0.01)(0.05)
Effects of economic hedging related to natural gas inventory0.13 0.05 (0.26)
Tax effect(0.03)(0.01)0.08 
Basic NFE per share$2.07 $1.96 $2.74 
(1)    NFE during fiscal 2018 was $59.6 million, or $0.68 per share, higher due to the revaluation of deferred taxes resulting from the reduction in the federal corporate tax rate related to the Tax Act.

NFE by reporting segment and other business operations for the fiscal years ended September 30, are as follows:
njr-20200930_g4.jpg
NFE at Energy Services had a loss of $7.9 million in fiscal 2020 and income of $2.9 million in fiscal 2019, which is not shown clearly in the above graph.
Page 6

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
Natural Gas Distribution

General

Our Natural Gas Distribution segment consists of regulated utility operations that provide natural gas service to approximately 558,000 customers. NJNG’s service territory includes Monmouth, Ocean, Morris, Middlesex and Burlington counties in New Jersey. It encompasses 1,516 square miles, covering 105 municipalities with an estimated population of 1.5 million people. It is primarily suburban, highlighted by approximately 100 miles of New Jersey coastline. It is in close proximity to New York City, Philadelphia and the metropolitan areas of northern New Jersey and is accessible through a network of major roadways and mass transportation.

NJNG’s business is subject to various risks, such as those associated with adverse economic conditions, which can negatively impact customer growth and operating and financing costs; fluctuations in commodity prices, which can impact customer usage; customer conservation efforts; certain regulatory actions; and environmental remediation. It is often difficult to predict the impact of trends associated with these risks. NJNG employs strategies to manage the challenges it faces, including pursuing customer conversions from other fuel sources and monitoring new construction markets through contact with developers, utilizing incentive programs through BPU-approved mechanisms to reduce natural gas costs, pursuing rate and other regulatory strategies designed to stabilize and decouple gross margin, and working actively with consultants and the NJDEP to manage expectations related to its obligations associated with its former MGP sites.

Operating Revenues/Throughput

For the fiscal years ended September 30, operating revenues and throughput by customer class for our Natural Gas Distribution segment are as follows:
202020192018
($ in thousands)
Operating Revenue (2)
Bcf
Operating Revenue (2)
BcfOperating RevenueBcf
Residential$500,271 44.6 $450,515 46.0 $441,486 45.5 
Commercial and other98,463 8.2 104,372 9.7 95,351 8.9 
Firm transportation66,871 13.3 57,513 13.7 65,256 15.5 
Total residential and commercial665,605 66.1 612,400 69.4 602,093 69.9 
Interruptible6,322 30.9 6,637 39.0 7,522 46.2 
Total system671,927 97.0 619,037 108.4 609,615 116.1 
BGSS incentive programs (1)
57,996 118.4 91,756 37.8 122,250 42.8 
Total$729,923 215.4 $710,793 146.2 $731,865 158.9 
(1)Does not include 86.3, 86 and 107.4 Bcf for the capacity release program and related amounts of $3.1 million, $4.1 million and $5.7 million, which are recorded as a reduction of natural gas purchases on the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(2)Operating revenue presents sales tax, net during fiscal 2020 and 2019, due to the adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. During fiscal 2018, operating revenue only included sales tax on operating revenues excluding tax-exempt sales.

NJNG added 8,349 and 9,711 new customers and added natural gas heat and other services to another 260 and 218 existing customers in fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively. NJNG expects its new customer annual growth rate to continue to be approximately 1.7 percent with projected additions in the range of approximately 28,000 to 30,000 new customers over the next three fiscal years. This anticipated customer growth represents approximately $6.3 million in new annual utility gross margin, a non-GAAP financial measure, as calculated under NJNG’s current CIP tariff. For a definition of utility gross margin see Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Natural Gas Distribution Segment.

In fiscal 2020, no single customer represented more than 10 percent of consolidated operating revenues.

Seasonality of Natural Gas Revenues

Therm sales are significantly affected by weather conditions, with customer demand being greatest during the winter months when natural gas is used for heating purposes. The relative measurement of the impact of weather is in degree-days. Degree-day data is used to estimate amounts of energy required to maintain comfortable indoor temperature levels based on each day’s average temperature. A degree-day is the measure of the variation in the weather based on the extent to which the average daily temperature falls below 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Each degree of temperature below 65 degrees Fahrenheit is counted as one heating degree-day. Normal heating degree-days are based on a 20-year average, calculated based on three reference areas representative of NJNG’s service territory.
Page 7

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
The CIP, a mechanism authorized by the BPU, stabilizes NJNG’s utility gross margin, regardless of variations in weather. In addition, the CIP decouples the link between utility gross margin and customer usage, allowing NJNG to promote energy conservation measures. Recovery of utility gross margin is subject to additional conditions, including an earnings test, a revenue test and an evaluation of BGSS-related savings achieved over a 12-month period. In May 2014, the BPU approved the continuation of the CIP program.

Concurrent with its annual BGSS filing, NJNG files for an annual review of its CIP, during which time it can request rate changes, as appropriate. For additional information regarding the CIP, including rate actions and impact to margin, see Note 4. Regulation in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Natural Gas Distribution Segment.

Natural Gas Supply

Firm Natural Gas Supplies

In fiscal 2020, NJNG purchased natural gas from approximately 65 suppliers under contracts ranging from one day to one year and purchased over 10 percent of its natural gas from one supplier. NJNG believes the loss of this supplier would not have a material adverse impact on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows, as an adequate number of alternative suppliers exist. NJNG believes that its supply strategy should adequately meet its expected firm load for the upcoming winter season.

Firm Transportation and Storage Capacity

NJNG maintains agreements for firm transportation and storage capacity with several interstate pipeline companies to take delivery of firm natural gas supplies, which ensures the ability to reliably service its customers. NJNG receives natural gas at 10 citygate stations located in Middlesex, Morris and Passaic counties in New Jersey.

The pipeline companies that provide firm transportation service to NJNG’s citygate stations, the maximum daily deliverability of that capacity and the contract expiration dates are as follows:
Pipeline
Dths(1)
Expiration
Texas Eastern Transmission, L.P.300,738 Various dates between 2021 and 2025
Columbia Gas Transmission Corp.50,000 Various dates between 2024 and 2030
Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co.55,166 Various dates between 2021 and 2024
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp.210,606 Various dates between 2021 and 2033
Algonquin Gas Transmission12,000 2022
Total628,510 
(1)    Numbers are shown net of any capacity release contracted amounts.

Eastern Gas Transmission and Storage, Inc., formerly known as Dominion Energy Transmission, Inc. provides NJNG firm contract transportation service and supplies the pipelines included in the table above.

In addition, NJNG has storage contracts that provide an additional 102,941 Dths of maximum daily deliverability to NJNG’s citygate stations from storage fields in its Northeast market area. The storage suppliers, the maximum daily deliverability of that storage capacity and the contract expiration dates are as follows:
PipelineDthsExpiration
Texas Eastern Transmission, L.P.94,557 2022
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp.8,384 2028
Total102,941 

NJNG also has upstream storage contracts. The maximum daily deliverability and contract expiration dates are as follows:
CompanyDthsExpiration
Eastern Gas Transmission and Storage, Inc.251,829 Various dates between 2023 and 2026
Steckman Ridge, L.P.38,000 2025
Central New York Oil & Gas25,337 2023
Total315,166 

Page 8

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
NJNG utilizes its transportation contracts to transport natural gas to NJNG’s citygates from the Eastern Gas Transmission and Storage, Inc., Steckman Ridge and Stagecoach Pipeline & Storage Company LLC storage fields. NJNG has sufficient firm transportation, storage and supply capacity to fully meet its firm sales contract obligations.

Citygate Supplies from Energy Services

NJNG has several citygate supply agreements with Energy Services. NJNG and Energy Services have an agreement where NJNG releases 10,000 Dths/day of TETCO capacity, 2,200 Dths/day of Eastern Gas Transmission and Storage, Inc. capacity, 10,728 Dths/day of Tennessee Gas Pipeline capacity and 1.6 million Dths of Stagecoach Pipeline & Storage Company LLC storage capacity to Energy Services for the period of April 1, 2019 to March 31, 2021. NJNG can call upon a supply of up to 20,000 Dths/day delivered to NJNG’s TETCO citygate. Energy Services manages the storage inventory and NJNG can call on that storage supply as needed at NJNG’s Tennessee citygate or storage point.

NJNG also has agreements where it releases 160,000 Dths/day of its TETCO capacity to Energy Services for the period of April 1, 2018 to October 31, 2021. Under these agreements, NJNG can call upon a supply of up to 160,000 Dths/day delivered to its TETCO citygate as needed. See Note 18. Related Party Transactions in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding these transactions.

Peaking Supply

To manage its winter peak day demand, NJNG maintains two LNG facilities with a combined deliverability of approximately 170,000 Dths/day, which represents approximately 18 percent of its estimated peak day sendout. NJNG’s liquefaction facility allows NJNG to convert natural gas into LNG to fill NJNG’s existing LNG storage tanks. See Item 2. Properties - Natural Gas Distribution for additional information regarding the LNG storage facilities.

Basic Gas Supply Service

BGSS is a BPU-approved clause designed to allow for the recovery of natural gas commodity costs on an annual basis. The clause requires all New Jersey natural gas utilities to make an annual filing by each June 1 for review of BGSS rates and to request a potential rate change effective the following October 1. The BGSS also allows each natural gas utility to provisionally increase residential and small commercial customer BGSS rates on December 1 and February 1 for up to a five percent increase to the average residential heat customer’s bill on a self-implementing basis with proper notice. Such increases are subject to subsequent BPU review and final approval.

In addition to making periodic rate adjustments to reflect changes in commodity prices, NJNG is also permitted to refund or credit back a portion of the commodity costs to customers when the natural gas commodity costs decrease in comparison to amounts projected or to amounts previously collected from customers. Decreases in the BGSS rate and BGSS refunds can be implemented with five days’ notice to the BPU. Rate changes, as well as other regulatory actions related to BGSS, are discussed further in Note 4. Regulation in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

Wholesale natural gas prices are, by their nature, volatile. NJNG mitigates the impact of volatile price changes on customers through the use of financial derivative instruments, which are part of its storage incentive program and its BGSS clause.

Future Natural Gas Supplies

NJNG expects to meet the natural gas requirements for existing and projected firm customers. If NJNG’s long-term natural gas requirements change, NJNG expects to renegotiate and restructure its contract portfolio to better match the changing needs of its customers and changing natural gas supply landscape.

Regulation and Rates

State

NJNG is subject to the jurisdiction of the BPU with respect to a wide range of matters such as base rates and regulatory rider rates, the issuance of securities, the safety and adequacy of service, the manner of keeping its accounts and records, the sufficiency of natural gas supply, pipeline safety, environmental issues, compliance with affiliate standards and the sale or encumbrance of its properties. See Note 4. Regulation in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding NJNG’s rate proceedings.

Page 9

New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
Federal

FERC regulates rates charged by interstate pipeline companies for the transportation and storage of natural gas. This affects NJNG’s agreements with several interstate pipeline companies for the purchase of such services. Costs associated with these services are currently recoverable through the BGSS.

Competition

Although its franchises are nonexclusive, NJNG is not currently subject to competition from other natural gas distribution utilities with regard to the transportation of natural gas in its service territory. Due to significant distances between NJNG’s current large industrial customers and the nearest interstate natural gas pipelines, as well as the availability of its transportation tariff, NJNG currently does not believe it has significant exposure to the risk that its distribution system will be bypassed. Competition does exist from suppliers of oil, electricity and propane. At the present time, however, natural gas is used in over 95 percent of new construction due to its efficiency, reliability and price advantage. Natural gas prices are a function of market supply and demand. Although NJNG believes natural gas will remain competitive with alternate fuels, no assurance can be given in this regard.

The BPU, within the framework of the EDECA, fully opened NJNG’s residential markets to competition, including third-party suppliers, and restructured rates to segregate its BGSS and delivery (i.e., transportation) prices. New Jersey’s natural gas utilities must provide BGSS in the absence of a third-party supplier. On September 30, 2020, NJNG had 22,420 residential and 9,184 commercial and industrial customers utilizing the transportation service.

Clean Energy Ventures

Our Clean Energy Ventures segment invests in, owns and operates clean energy projects, including commercial and residential solar installations located in New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island.

As of September 30, 2020, Clean Energy Ventures has constructed a total of 357.4 MW of solar capacity in New Jersey that has qualified for ITCs, including a combination of residential and commercial net-metered and grid-connected solar systems. As part of its solar investment program, Clean Energy Ventures operates a residential solar program, The Sunlight Advantage®, which provides qualifying homeowners with the opportunity to have a solar system installed at their home with no installation or maintenance expenses. Clean Energy Ventures owns, operates and maintains the system over the life of the lease in exchange for monthly lease payments. The program is operated by Clean Energy Ventures using qualified contracting partners in addition to strategic suppliers for material standardization and sourcing. The residential solar lease and PPA market is highly competitive, with a large number of companies operating in New Jersey. Clean Energy Ventures competes on price, quality and brand reputation, leveraging its partner network and customer referrals.

Clean Energy Ventures’ commercial solar projects are sourced through various channels and include both net-metered and grid-connected systems. Net-metered projects involve the sale of energy to a host and grid-connected systems into the wholesale energy markets. Project construction is competitively sourced through third parties. New Jersey has the sixth largest solar market in the U.S., according to the Solar Energy Industries Association®, with a large number of firms competing in all facets of the market including development, financing and construction.

Our solar systems are registered and certified with the BPU’s Office of Clean Energy and qualified to produce RECs. One REC is created for every MWh of electricity produced by a solar generator. Clean Energy Ventures sells SRECs generated to a variety of counterparties, including electric load-serving entities that serve electric customers in New Jersey and are required to comply with the solar carve-out of the Renewable Portfolio Standard, a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewable energy sources. Solar projects are also currently eligible for federal ITCs in the year that they are placed into service. In December 2019, the BPU established the TREC as the interim program successor to the SREC program. TRECs provide a fixed compensation base multiplied by an assigned project factor in order to determine their value. The project factor is determined by the type and location of the project, as defined. All TRECs generated are required to be purchased monthly by a TREC program administrator as appointed by the BPU.

Clean Energy Ventures is subject to various risks including those associated with adverse federal and state legislation and regulatory policies, construction delays that can impact the timing or eligibility of tax incentives, technological changes and the future market of SRECs and TRECs. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional information regarding these risks.


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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
Energy Services

Our Energy Services segment consists of unregulated wholesale and retail natural gas operations and provides producer and asset management services to a diverse customer base across North America. Energy Services has acquired contractual rights to natural gas transportation and storage assets it utilizes to implement its strategic and opportunistic market strategies. The rights to these assets were acquired in anticipation of delivering natural gas, performing asset management services for customers or identifying strategic opportunities that exist in or between the market areas that it serves. These opportunities are driven by price differentials between market locations and/or time periods. Energy Services’ activities are conducted in the market areas in which it has strong expertise, including the U.S. and Canada. Energy Services differentiates itself in the marketplace based on price, reliability and quality of service. Its competitors include wholesale marketing and trading companies, utilities, natural gas producers and financial institutions. Energy Services’ portfolio of customers includes regulated natural gas distribution companies, industrial companies, electric generators, natural gas/liquids processors, retail aggregators, wholesale marketers and natural gas producers.

While focusing on maintaining a low-risk operating and counterparty credit profile, Energy Services’ activities specifically consist of the following elements:

Providing natural gas portfolio management services to nonaffiliated and our affiliated natural gas utility, electric generation facilities and natural gas producers;

Managing strategies for new and existing natural gas transportation and storage assets to capture value from changes in price due to location or timing differences as a means to generate financial margin (as defined below);

Managing transactional logistics to minimize the cost of natural gas delivery to customers while maintaining security of supply. Transactions utilize the most optimal and advantageous natural gas supply transportation routing available within its contractual asset portfolio and various market areas; and

Managing economic hedging programs that are designed to mitigate the impact of changes in market prices on financial margin generated on its natural gas transportation and storage commitments.

In fiscal 2020, Energy Services did not purchase over 10 percent of its natural gas from any one supplier.

Transportation and Natural Gas Storage Transactions

Energy Services focuses on creating value from the use of its physical assets, which are typically amassed through contractual rights to natural gas transportation and storage capacity. These assets become more valuable when favorable price changes occur that impact the value between or within market areas and across time periods. On a forward basis, Energy Services may hedge these price differentials through the use of financial instruments. In addition, Energy Services may seek to optimize these assets on a daily basis, as market conditions warrant, by evaluating natural gas supply and transportation availability within its portfolio. This enables Energy Services to capture geographic pricing differences across various regions, as delivered natural gas prices may change favorably as a result of market conditions. Energy Services may, for example, initiate positions when intrinsic financial margin is present, and then enhance that financial margin as prices change across regions or time periods.

Energy Services also engages in park-and-loan transactions with storage and pipeline operators, where Energy Services will either borrow (receive a loan of) natural gas with an obligation to repay the storage or pipeline operator at a later date or “park” natural gas with an obligation to withdraw at a later date. In these cases, Energy Services evaluates the economics of the transaction to determine if it can capture pricing differentials in the marketplace and generate financial margin. Energy Services evaluates deal attributes such as fixed fees, calendar spread value from deal inception until volumes are scheduled to be returned and/or repaid, as well as the time value of money. If this evaluation demonstrates that financial margin exists, Energy Services may enter into the transaction and hedge with natural gas futures contracts, thereby locking in financial margin.

Energy Services maintains inventory balances to satisfy existing or anticipated sales of natural gas to its counterparties and/or to create additional value, as described above. During fiscal 2020 and 2019, Energy Services managed and sold 526.7 Bcf and 584.9 Bcf of natural gas, respectively. In addition, as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, Energy Services had 34.3 Bcf or $57.4 million of natural gas in storage and 25.6 Bcf or $52.4 million of natural gas in storage, respectively.


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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
Weather/Seasonality

Energy Services activities are typically seasonal in nature as a result of changes in the supply and demand for natural gas. Demand for natural gas is generally higher during the winter months when there may also be supply constraints; however, during periods of milder temperatures, demand can decrease. In addition, demand for natural gas can also be high during periods of extreme heat in the summer months, resulting from the need for additional natural gas supply for natural gas-fired electric generation facilities. Accordingly, Energy Services can be subject to variations in earnings and working capital throughout the year as a result of changes in weather.

Volatility

Energy Services’ activities are also subject to price volatility or supply/demand dynamics within its North American wholesale markets, including in the Northeastern, Appalachian, Mid-Continent and Southeast regions. Changes in natural gas supply can affect capacity values and Energy Services’ financial margin, which, as described below, is generated from the optimization of transportation and storage assets. With its focus on risk management, Energy Services continues to diversify its revenue stream by identifying new growth opportunities in producer and asset management services. Energy Services monitors changing market dynamics and strategically adjusts its portfolio of transportation and storage assets, which currently includes an average of approximately 35bcf of firm storage and 1.4bcf/d of firm transportation capacity.

Financial Margin

To economically hedge the commodity price risk associated with its existing and anticipated commitments for the purchase and sale of natural gas, Energy Services enters into a variety of derivative instruments including, but not limited to, futures contracts, physical forward contracts, financial swaps and options. These derivative instruments are accounted for at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings as they occur. Energy Services views “financial margin” as a key internal financial metric. Energy Services’ financial margin, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, represents revenues earned from the sale of natural gas less costs of natural gas sold including any transportation and storage costs, and excluding any accounting impact from changes in the fair value of certain derivative instruments. For additional information regarding financial margin, see Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Energy Services Segment.

Risk Management

In conducting its business, Energy Services mitigates risk by following formal risk management guidelines, including transaction limits, segregation of duties and formal contract and credit review approval processes. Energy Services continuously monitors and seeks to reduce the risk associated with its counterparty credit exposures. Our Risk Management Committee oversees compliance with these established guidelines.

Storage and Transportation

Our Storage and Transportation segment, formerly known as our Midstream segment, includes investments in FERC-regulated interstate natural gas storage and transportation assets and is comprised of the following subsidiaries:

NJR Steckman Ridge Storage Company, which holds our 50 percent equity investment in Steckman Ridge. Steckman Ridge is a Delaware limited partnership, jointly owned and controlled by our subsidiaries and subsidiaries of Enbridge Inc., which built, owns and operates a natural gas storage facility with up to 12 Bcf of working natural gas capacity in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. The facility has direct access to the TETCO and Eastern Gas Transmission and Storage, Inc. pipelines and has access to the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic markets; and

NJR Midstream Company, formerly NJR Pipeline Company, which includes our 20 percent equity investment in PennEast, which is expected to construct a 120-mile, FERC-regulated interstate natural gas pipeline system that will extend from northern Pennsylvania to western New Jersey; Leaf River Energy Center LLC, which owns and operates a 32.2 million Dth salt dome natural gas facility, located in southeastern Mississippi; and FERC-regulated Adelphia Gateway, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of NJR, which acquired all of Talen’s membership interests in IEC, an existing 84-mile pipeline in southeastern Pennsylvania. See Note 19. Acquisitions and Dispositions for more information.

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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
OTHER BUSINESS OPERATIONS

Home Services and Other

Home Services and Other operations consist primarily of the following unregulated affiliates:

NJRHS, which provides heating, ventilation and cooling service, sales and installation of appliances to approximately 107,000 service contract customers, as well as installation of solar equipment;

NJR Plumbing Services, Inc., which provides plumbing repair and installation services;

New Jersey Resources Corporation, a diversified energy services holding company;

CR&R, which holds commercial real estate; and

NJR Service Corporation, which provides shared administrative and financial services to the Company and all of its subsidiaries and affiliates.
ENVIRONMENT

We, along with our subsidiaries, are subject to legislation and regulation by federal, state and local authorities with respect to environmental matters. We believe that we are, in all material respects, in compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.

NJNG is responsible for the environmental remediation of identified former MGP sites, which contain contaminated residues from former gas manufacturing operations that ceased at these sites by the mid-1950s and, in some cases, had been discontinued many years earlier. NJNG periodically, and at least annually, performs an environmental review of the former MGP sites, including a review of potential estimated liabilities related to the investigation and remedial action on these sites. Based on this review, NJNG has estimated that the total future expenditures to remediate and monitor the former MGP sites for which it is responsible will range from approximately $143.1 million to $181.7 million.

NJNG’s estimate of these liabilities is based upon known and measurable facts, existing technology and enacted laws and regulations in place when the review was completed in fiscal 2020. Where it is probable that costs will be incurred, and the information is sufficient to establish a range of possible liability, NJNG accrues the most likely amount in the range. If no point within the range is more likely than the other, it is NJNG’s policy to accrue the lower end of the range. As of September 30, 2020, NJNG recorded an MGP remediation liability and a corresponding regulatory asset of $150.6 million on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, based on the most likely amount; however, actual costs may differ from these estimates.

HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES

Employee Overview

NJR fundamentally believes that its employees make the Company a unique, successful organization – in creativity, commitment, ingenuity, hard work and innovation. NJR employees fulfill the responsibilities that enable the Company to deliver natural gas service to its customers; to be a leader in clean energy investments; to grow its storage and transportation energy business; and, to earn the loyalty of its retail home services customers. NJR also is committed to provide every appropriate resource to ensure its employees’ safety. Through initiatives that start at the top, NJR has invested time, energy and manpower to foster a culture where safety is top-of-mind at all times, and where achieving safety goals is a shared priority for every NJR employee.

As of September 30, 2020, the Company and our subsidiaries employed 1,156 employees compared with 1,108 employees as of September 30, 2019. Of the total number of employees, NJNG had 469 and 460 and NJRHS had 101 and 101 Union or Represented employees as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. NJNG and NJRHS have collective bargaining agreements with the Union, which is affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, that expire on December 7, 2021 and April 2, 2023, respectively. The labor agreements cover wage increases and other benefits, including the defined benefit pension (which was closed to all employees hired on or after January 1, 2012, with the exception of certain rehires who are eligible to resume active participation), the postemployment benefit plan (which was closed to all employees hired on or after January 1, 2012) and the enhanced 401(k) retirement savings plan. We consider our relationship with employees, including those covered by collective bargaining agreements, to be in good standing.
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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
The Company depends on its key personnel to successfully operate its businesses, including its executive officers, senior corporate management and management at its operating units. NJR seeks to attract and retain its employees by offering competitive compensation packages including base and incentive compensation (and in certain instances share-based compensation and retention incentives), attractive benefits and opportunities for advancement and rewarding careers. NJR periodically reviews and adjusts, if needed, its employees’ total compensation (including salaries, annual cash incentive compensation, other cash and equity incentives, and benefits) to ensure that it is competitive within the industry and is consistent with our level of performance. NJR has also implemented enterprise-wide talent development and succession planning programs designed to identify future and/or replacement candidates for key positions. In addition to compensation, NJR promotes numerous charitable, philanthropic, and social awareness programs that not only support the communities served, but also provide experiences for employees to promote a collaborative and rewarding work environment.

Further, in order to take advantage of available opportunities and successfully implement our long-term strategy, NJR must be able to employ, train and retain the necessary skilled personnel. As a result, NJR supports and utilizes various training and educational programs and has developed additional company-wide and project-specific employee training and educational programs. NJR continues key programs focused on employee safety, leadership development, work-life balance, talent management, health and wellness, diversity and inclusion as well as employee engagement. Moreover, diversity, inclusion and employee engagement are integral to NJR’s vision, strategy and business success. NJR prides itself on a culture that respects co-workers and values concern for others. Fostering an environment that values diversity, inclusion and ethics helps create an inclusive organization that is able to embrace, leverage and respect the differences of employees, customers and the communities where we live, work and serve.

NJR regularly evaluates employees and their productivity against future demand expectations and historical trends. NJR employees continue to maintain high levels of engagement, satisfaction and retention according to NJR’s annual employee survey. From time to time, NJR may reduce or add resources in certain areas in an effort to align with changing demands.

NJR’s Board of Directors’ Role in Human Capital Resource Management

NJR’s Board of Directors believes that human capital management is an important component of the Company’s continued growth and success, and is essential for our ability to attract, retain and develop talented and skilled employees. We pride ourselves on a culture that respects co-workers and values concern for others.

Management regularly reports to the LDCC of the Board of Directors on human capital management topics, including corporate culture, diversity and inclusion, employee development and compensation and benefits. The LDCC has oversight of talent retention and development and succession planning, and the Board of Director’s provides input on important decisions in each of these areas.

Each year, NJR conducts an employee feedback survey designed to help the Company measure overall employee engagement. The feedback employees provide during the survey helps NJR evaluate employee programs and benefits and monitor its current practices for potential areas of improvement. The LDCC maintains oversight of matters related to human capital management and in that capacity reviews the results of the employee feedback survey.

Employee Benefits

The LDCC believes employee benefits are an essential component of the Company’s competitive total compensation package. These benefits are designed to attract and retain our employees and include medical, health and dental insurance, long-term disability insurance, accidental death and disability insurance, travel and accident insurance, and our 401(k) Plan. As part of the 401(k) Plan, NJR generally matches 80 percent of the first 6 percent of compensation contributed by the employee into the 401(k) Plan, subject to the Internal Revenue Code and NJR’s 401(k) Plan limits. The matching contribution is limited to 70 percent for represented employees of NJRHS. Additionally, for employees who are not eligible to participate in the defined benefit plans, NJR contributes between 3.5 percent and 4.5 percent of base compensation, depending upon years of service, into the 401(k) Plan on their behalf.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DOCUMENTS

The following reports and any amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website at https://investor.njresources.com/financials/sec-filings/default.aspx as soon as reasonably possible after filing or furnishing them with the SEC:

Annual reports on Form 10-K;
Quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; and
Current reports on Form 8-K.

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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS Continued)                                                                                                                                                     
The following documents are available free of charge on our website (https://investor.njresources.com/governance/governance-documents/default.aspx):

Amended and Restated Bylaws;
Corporate Governance Guidelines;
Wholesale Trading Code of Conduct;
NJR Code of Conduct;
Charters of the following Board of Directors Committees: Audit, Leadership Development and Compensation and Nominating/Corporate Governance;
Audit Complaint Procedure;
Communicating with Non-Management Directors Procedure; and
Statement of Policy with Respect to Related Person Transactions.

In Part III of this Form 10-K, we incorporate certain information by reference from our Proxy Statement for our 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareowners. We expect to file that Proxy Statement with the SEC on or about December 11, 2020. We will make it available on our website as soon as reasonably possible following that filing date. Please refer to the Proxy Statement when it is available.

A printed copy of each document is available free of charge to any shareowner who requests it by contacting the Corporate Secretary at New Jersey Resources Corporation, 1415 Wyckoff Road, Wall, New Jersey 07719.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The Company’s Executive Officers and their age, position and business experience during the past five years are below.
NameAgeOfficer
since
Business experience during last five years
Stephen D. Westhoven522004President and Chief Executive Officer (October 2019 - present)
President and Chief Operating Officer (October 2018 - September 2019)
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (November 2017 - September 2018)
Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, NJRES and NJRCEV (October 2016 -
October 2017)
Senior Vice President, NJRES (May 2010 - September 2016)
Patrick J. Migliaccio462013Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (January 2016 - present)
Vice President, Finance and Accounting (November 2014 - December 2015)
Amanda E. Mullan542015Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (January 2017 - present)
Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (April 2015 - December 2016)
Amy Cradic492018Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Non-Utility Businesses, Strategy and External Affairs (March 2020 - present)
Vice President, Corporate Strategy and External Affairs (January 2020 – February 2020)
Vice President, Government Affairs and Policy (January 2018 – December 2019)
Chief of Staff, Office of New Jersey Governor Chris Christie (April 2016 – January 2018)
Chief Policy Advisor, Office of New Jersey Governor Chris Christie (December 2013 – March 2016)
Nancy A. Washington562017Senior Vice President and General Counsel (March 2017 - present)
Senior Vice President and Chief Litigation Counsel, CIT Group Inc., a Livingston, NJ-based
financial services firm (September 2010 - March 2017)

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS                                                                                                                                                           

When considering any investment in our securities, investors should consider the following risk factors, as well as the information contained under the caption “Information Concerning Forward-Looking Statements,” in analyzing our present and future business performance. While this list is not exhaustive, management also places no priority or likelihood based on their descriptions or order of presentation. Unless indicated otherwise or the content requires otherwise, references below to “we,” “us,” and “our” should be read to refer to the Company and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Risks Related to the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic and Other Extreme Events

The Company and our subsidiaries and affiliates are subject to risk associated with the ongoing novel coronavirus, COVID-19 pandemic, which could materially and adversely impact our business, including our financial condition, results from operations, liquidity, cash flows and the market value of our common stock.

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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and has spread globally, including throughout the U.S. In response, the U.S. federal government and many jurisdictions, including without limitation, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mississippi and Texas have instituted emergency orders, restrictions on travel, limitations on public gatherings and non-essential business, shelter-in-place requirements and government shutdowns. These emergency orders and restrictions have significantly disrupted economic activity in the jurisdictions in which we operate and have caused volatility in the capital markets.

The effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and related government responses could include extended disruptions to supply chains and capital markets, reduced labor availability and productivity and a prolonged reduction in economic activity. We are currently evaluating the potential prolonged impacts that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have on our future operating results and liquidity, which include:

impacts related to the health, safety, productivity and availability of our employees and contractors;
reduced demand for energy and forecasted customer growth;
our ability to develop, construct and operate facilities;
suspension of collection activities and the inability to shutoff natural gas services for nonpayment;
reduced demand for commercial, industrial and residential natural gas services;
deterioration of the credit quality of our counterparties;
increases in costs and supply chain delays and disruptions;
delays and disruptions to capital construction and infrastructure operations and maintenance programs, including delays in the permitting process and base rate cases;
delays and disruptions to financing plans and increasing costs related thereto;
impacts on pension valuations and increased pension and post-retirement plan costs and funding requirements;
deterioration in our financial metrics or the business environment that impacts our credit ratings;
impacts to our liquidity position and cost of and ability to access funds from financial institutions and capital markets;
impacts on our legal and regulatory matters, including the potential for delayed state regulatory filings and recovery of invested capital, as well as delays in newly enacted and proposed state regulatory actions and federal laws;
exacerbation of other risks that may impact us; and
other unpredictable events.

 These uncertain economic conditions may also result in the inability of our customers to pay for utility and certain non-utility services, which could affect the collectability and recognition of our revenues and adversely affect our financial results.
 
While we have implemented our business continuity plan (including without limitation employee travel restrictions, employee remote work locations and cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events, and conferences) to conform to government restrictions and best practices encouraged by federal, state, and local government and regulatory authorities, if a large proportion of our employees in essential capacities were to contract COVID-19, there is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate an adverse impact to our operations.

The situation surrounding the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains fluid and the likelihood of material impacts therefrom increases the longer the pandemic impacts activity levels in the U.S. As of September 30, 2020, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has not had a material impact on the Company and our subsidiaries and affiliates; however, the ultimate severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the responses thereto are uncertain and we cannot predict whether they will have a material impact on our liquidity, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows and when and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume.

We may be adversely impacted by natural disasters, pandemic illness (including COVID-19), terrorist activities and other extreme events to which we may be unable to promptly respond.

Local or national natural disasters, pandemic illness (including COVID-19), terrorist activities, catastrophic failure of the interstate pipeline system and other extreme events are a threat to our assets and operations. Companies in our industry that are located in our service territory may face a heightened risk due to exposure to acts of terrorism that could target or impact our natural gas distribution, transmission and storage facilities and disrupt our operations and ability to meet customer requirements. In addition, the threat of terrorist activities could lead to increased economic instability and volatility in the price of natural gas that could affect our operations. Natural disasters or actual or threatened terrorist activities may also disrupt capital markets and our ability to raise capital or may impact our suppliers or our customers directly. A local disaster or
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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
pandemic illness (including COVID-19) could result in part of our workforce being unable to operate or maintain our infrastructure or perform other tasks necessary to conduct our business. In addition, these risks could result in loss of human life, significant damage to property, environmental damage, impairment of our operations and substantial loss to the Company. Our regulators may not allow us to recover from our customers part or all of the increased cost related to the foregoing events, which could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

A slow or inadequate response to events that could cause business interruption may have an adverse impact on operations and earnings. We may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance to cover all risks associated with local and national disasters, pandemic illness, terrorist activities, catastrophic failure of the interstate pipeline system and other events, which could increase the risk that an event adversely affects our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risk Related to Our Business Operations

We may be unable to obtain governmental approvals, property rights and/or financing for the construction, development and operation of our proposed energy investments and projects in a timely manner or at all.

Construction, development and operation of energy investments, such as Leaf River and other natural gas storage facilities, NJNG infrastructure improvements, such as SRL and NJ RISE, pipeline transportation systems, such as PennEast and Adelphia Gateway Pipeline project, and solar energy projects are subject to federal and state regulatory oversight and require certain property rights, such as easements and rights-of-way from public and private property owners, as well as regulatory approvals, including environmental and other permits and licenses for such facilities and systems. We or our joint venture partnerships may be unable to obtain, in a cost-efficient or timely manner, all such needed property rights, permits and licenses to successfully construct and develop our energy facilities and systems. Successful financing of our energy investments requires participation by willing financial institutions and lenders, as well as acquisition of capital at favorable interest rates. If we do not obtain the necessary regulatory approvals, property rights and financing, our equity method investments could be impaired. Such impairment could have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our investments in solar energy projects are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties.

Our investments in commercial and residential solar energy projects are dependent, in part, upon current state regulatory incentives and federal tax credits in order for the projects to be economically viable. Our return on investment for these solar projects is based substantially on our eligibility for ITCs and the future market value of SRECs that are traded in a competitive marketplace in the State of New Jersey. These projects face the risk that the current state regulatory programs and tax laws may expire or be adversely modified. Specifically, the legislature in New Jersey ordered the BPU to close the current SREC market to new projects and transition to a new incentive program to support long-term solar growth. If the BPU does not execute on the legislative requirements to effect this transition in an orderly manner, protect investor value and support long term industry growth, this could result in an oversupply of SRECs and a corresponding decrease in SREC prices. A sustained decrease in the value of SRECs could negatively impact the return on our investments and could impair our portfolio of solar assets.

In addition, there are risks associated with our ability to develop and manage such projects profitably, including logistical risks and potential delays related to construction, permitting, regulatory approvals (including any approvals by the BPU required pursuant to solar energy legislation in the State of New Jersey, and similar approvals required by the State of Connecticut and State of Rhode Island) and electric grid interconnection, as well as the operational risk that the projects in service will not perform according to expectations due to equipment failure, suboptimal weather conditions or other economic factors beyond our control. All of the aforementioned risks could reduce the availability of viable solar energy projects for development. Furthermore, at the development or acquisition stage, our ability to predict actual performance results may be hindered or inaccurate and the projects may not perform as predicted.

NJNG and Energy Services rely on storage, transportation assets and suppliers, which they do not own or control, to deliver natural gas.

NJNG and Energy Services depend on natural gas pipelines and other transportation and storage facilities owned and operated by third parties to deliver natural gas to wholesale and retail markets and to provide retail energy services to customers. Their ability to provide natural gas for their present and projected sales will depend upon their suppliers’ ability to obtain and deliver additional supplies of natural gas, as well as NJNG’s ability to acquire supplies directly from new sources. Factors beyond the control of NJNG, its suppliers and the independent suppliers that have obligations to provide natural gas to certain NJNG customers may affect NJNG’s ability to deliver such supplies. These factors include other parties’ control over
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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
the drilling of new wells and the facilities to transport natural gas to NJNG’s citygate stations, development of additional interstate pipeline infrastructure, availability of supply sources, competition for the acquisition of natural gas, priority allocations, impact of severe weather disruptions to natural gas supplies and the regulatory and pricing policies of federal and state regulatory agencies, as well as the availability of Canadian reserves for export to the U.S. Energy deregulation legislation may increase competition among natural gas utilities and impact the quantities of natural gas requirements needed for sales service. Energy Services also relies on a firm supply source to meet its energy management obligations to its customers. If supply, transportation or storage is disrupted, including for reasons of force majeure, the ability of NJNG and Energy Services to sell and deliver their products and services may be hindered. As a result, they may be responsible for damages incurred by their customers, such as the additional cost of acquiring alternative supply at then-current market rates. Particularly for Energy Services, these conditions could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Energy Services’ earnings and cash flows are dependent upon optimization of its physical assets.

Energy Services’ earnings and cash flows are based, in part, on its ability to optimize its portfolio of contractually based natural gas storage and pipeline assets. The optimization strategy involves utilizing its physical assets to take advantage of differences in natural gas prices between geographic locations and/or time periods. Any change among various pricing points could affect these differentials. In addition, significant increases in the supply of natural gas in Energy Services’ market areas, including as a result of increased production along the Marcellus Shale, can reduce Energy Services’ ability to take advantage of pricing fluctuations in the future. Changes in pricing dynamics and supply could have an adverse impact on Energy Services’ optimization activities, earnings and cash flows. Energy Services incurs fixed demand fees to acquire its contractual rights to transportation and storage assets. Should commodity prices at various locations or time periods change in such a way that Energy Services is not able to recoup these costs from its customers, the cash flows and earnings at Energy Services, and ultimately the Company, could be adversely impacted.

Changes in weather conditions may affect earnings and cash flows.

Weather conditions and other natural phenomena can have an adverse impact on our earnings and cash flows. Severe weather conditions can impact suppliers and the pipelines that deliver natural gas to NJNG’s distribution system. Extended mild weather, during either the winter period or summer period, can have a significant impact on demand for and the cost of natural gas. While we believe the CIP mitigates the impact of weather variations on NJNG’s utility gross margin, severe weather conditions may have an impact on the ability of suppliers and pipelines to deliver the natural gas to NJNG, which can negatively affect our earnings. The CIP does not mitigate the impact of severe weather conditions on our cash flows.

Future results at Energy Services are subject to volatility in the natural gas market due to weather. Variations in weather may affect earnings and working capital needs throughout the year. During periods of milder temperatures, demand and volatility in the natural gas market may decrease, which can negatively impact Energy Services’ earnings and cash flows.

Failure to attract and retain an appropriately qualified employee workforce could adversely affect operations.

Our ability to implement our business strategy and serve our customers is dependent upon our continuing ability to attract and retain talented professionals and a technically skilled workforce, and being able to transfer the knowledge and expertise of our workforce to new employees as our aging employees retire. Failure to hire and adequately train replacement employees, including the transfer of significant internal historical knowledge and expertise to the new employees, or the future availability and cost of contract labor could adversely affect the ability to manage and operate our business. Furthermore, NJNG and NJRHS have collective bargaining agreements with the Union that expire on December 7, 2021 and April 2, 2023, respectively. Disputes with the Union over terms and conditions of the agreements could result in instability in our labor relationship and work stoppages that could impair the timely delivery of natural gas and other services from our utility and Home Services business, which could strain relationships with customers and state regulators and cause a loss of revenues that could adversely affect our results of operations. Our collective bargaining agreements may also increase the cost of employing our natural gas distribution segment and Home Services workforce, affect our ability to continue offering market-based salaries and employee benefits, limit our flexibility in dealing with our workforce and limit our ability to change work rules and practices and implement other efficiency-related improvements to successfully compete in today’s challenging marketplace.

Our success as a company depends upon our ability to attract, effectively transition, motivate and retain key employees and identify and develop talent to succeed senior management. We depend on senior executive officers and other key personnel to develop, implement and execute on our overall business strategy. The inability to recruit and retain or effectively transition key personnel or the unexpected loss of key personnel may adversely affect our operations.
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New Jersey Resources Corporation
Part I
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
Uncertainties associated with our Adelphia Gateway Pipeline project could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We acquired Adelphia Gateway in January 2020, which involves the operation of a natural gas transmission pipeline extending approximately 90 miles through eastern Pennsylvania. As part of the Adelphia Gateway Pipeline project, we expect to convert the remaining sections of the southern mainline of the pipeline to transport natural gas. Any delays in the expected timeframe relating to converting the southern mainline of the pipeline to transport natural gas could cause disruption and create uncertainties, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Risk Related to Technologies

Failure to keep pace with technological change may limit customer growth and have an adverse effect on our operations.

Advances in technology and changes in laws or regulations are reducing the cost of alternative methods of producing energy. In addition, customers are increasingly expecting enhanced communications regarding their electric and natural gas services, which, in some cases, may involve additional investments in technology. New technologies may require us to make significant expenditures to remain competitive and may result in the obsolescence of certain of our operating assets.

Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and successfully adapt to technological changes and to offer services that meet customer demand. Failure to adapt to advances in technology and manage the related costs could make us less competitive and negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Cyberattacks or failure of information technology systems could adversely affect our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

We continue to place ever-greater reliance on technological tools that support our business operations and corporate functions, including tools that help us manage our natural gas distribution and energy trading operations and infrastructure. The failure of, or security breaches related to, these technologies could materially adversely affect our business operations, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We rely on information technology to manage our natural gas distribution and storage, energy trading and other corporate operations; maintain customer, employee, Company and vendor data; and prepare our financial statements and perform other critical business processes. This technology may fail due to cyberattack, physical disruption, design and implementation defects or human error. Disruption or failure of business operations and information technology systems could harm our facilities or otherwise adversely impact our ability to safely deliver natural gas to our customers, serve our customers effectively or manage our assets. Additionally, an attack on, or failure of, information technology systems could result in the unauthorized release of customer, employee or other confidential or sensitive data. Any of the foregoing events could adversely affect our business reputation, diminish customer confidence, disrupt operations, subject us to financial liability or increased regulation, increase our costs and expose us to material legal claims and liability.

There is no guarantee that redundancies built into our networks and technology, or the procedures we have implemented to protect against cyberattack and other unauthorized access to secured data, are adequate to safeguard against all failures of technology or security breaches.

Risk Related to Acquisition and Investment Strategies

Any acquisitions that we may undertake involve risks and uncertainties. We may not realize the anticipated synergies, cost savings and growth opportunities as a result of these transactions.

The integration of acquisitions require significant time and resources. Investments of resources are required to support any acquisition, which could result in significant ongoing operating expenses, and we may experience challenges when combining separate business cultures, information technology systems and employees, and those challenges may divert senior management’s time and attention. If we fail to successfully integrate assets and liabilities through the entities which we acquire, we may not fully realize all of the growth opportunities, benefits expected from the transaction, cost savings and other synergies and, as a result, the fair value of assets acquired could be impaired. We assess long-lived assets, including intangible assets associated with acquisitions, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that an asset’s carrying amount may not be recoverable. To the extent the value of long-lived assets become impaired, the impairment charges could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
The benefits that we expect to achieve from acquisitions will depend, in part, on our ability to realize anticipated growth opportunities and other synergies with our existing businesses. The success of these transactions will depend on our ability to integrate these transactions within our existing businesses in a timely and seamless manner. We may experience challenges when combining separate business cultures, information technology systems and employees. Even if we are able to complete an integration successfully, we may not fully realize all the growth opportunities, cost savings and other synergies that we expect.

Investing through partnerships or joint ventures decreases our ability to manage risk.

We have utilized joint ventures through partnerships for certain Storage and Transportation investments, including Steckman Ridge and PennEast. Although we currently have no specific plans to do so, we may acquire interests in other joint ventures or partnerships in the future. In these joint ventures or partnerships, we may not have the right or power to direct the management and policies of the joint ventures or partnerships, and other participants or investors may take action contrary to our instructions or requests and against our policies and objectives. In addition, the other participants may become bankrupt or have economic or other business interests or goals that are inconsistent with those of NJR and our subsidiaries and affiliates. Our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be harmed if a joint venture participant acts contrary to our interests.

Risk Related to Regulations and Litigation

We are subject to governmental regulation. Compliance with current and future regulatory requirements and procurement of necessary approvals, permits and certificates may result in substantial costs to us.

We are subject to substantial regulation from federal, state and local authorities. We are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations and to obtain numerous authorizations, permits, approvals and certificates from governmental agencies. These agencies regulate various aspects of our business, including customer rates, services, construction and natural gas pipeline operations.

FERC has regulatory authority over some of our operations, including sales of natural gas in the wholesale and retail markets and the purchase and sale of interstate pipeline and storage capacity, including Steckman Ridge, Leaf River and Adelphia Gateway. FERC will also have regulatory authority over the operations of PennEast. Any Congressional legislation or agency regulation that would alter these or other similar statutory and regulatory structures in a way to significantly raise costs that could not be recovered in rates from customers, that would reduce the availability of supply or capacity or that would reduce our competitiveness could negatively impact our earnings. In addition, changes in and compliance with laws such as the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty and Job Creation Act of 2011 could increase federal regulatory oversight and administrative costs that may not be recovered in rates from customers, which could have an adverse effect on our earnings.

We cannot predict the impact of any future revisions or changes in interpretations of existing regulations or the adoption of new laws and applicable regulations. Changes in regulations or the imposition of additional regulations could influence our operating environment and may result in substantial costs to us.

Our costs of compliance with present and future environmental laws are significant and could adversely affect our cash flows and profitability.

Our operations are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental statutes, rules and regulations relating to air quality, water quality, waste management, natural resources and site remediation. Compliance with these laws and regulations may require us to expend significant financial resources to, among other things, conduct site remediation and perform environmental monitoring. If we fail to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations, even if we are unable to do so due to factors beyond our control, we may be subject to civil liabilities or criminal penalties and may be required to incur significant expenditures to come into compliance. Additionally, any alleged violations of environmental laws and regulations may require us to expend significant resources in our defense against alleged violations.

Furthermore, the U.S. Congress has for some time been considering various forms of climate change legislation. In addition, in July 2019, the State of New Jersey amended the GWRA, which targets 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions economy-wide by 2050. The amendments to the GWRA require NJDEP to publish a report detailing measures to accomplish the goals of the GWRA, and within 18 months of the report, mandates that NJDEP promulgate regulations to achieve environmental targets. The policies in the state’s Energy Master Plan, currently in draft form, could be used to inform future regulations.
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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
There is a possibility that the final form of such legislation at the federal level and regulations at the state level could impact our costs and put upward pressure on natural gas prices. Higher cost levels could impact the competitive position of natural gas and negatively affect our growth opportunities, cash flows and earnings.

Risks related to the regulation of NJNG could affect the rates it is able to charge, its costs and its profitability.

NJNG is subject to regulation by federal, state and local authorities. These authorities regulate many aspects of NJNG’s distribution and transmission operations, including construction and maintenance of facilities, operations, safety, tariff rates that NJNG can charge customers, rates of return, the authorized cost of capital, recovery of pipeline replacement, environmental remediation costs and relationships with its affiliates. NJNG’s ability to construct rate based assets timely and obtain rate increases, including base rate increases, extend its BGSS incentive and CIP programs and maintain its currently authorized rates of return may be impacted by events, including regulatory or legislative actions. There can be no assurance that NJNG will be able to obtain rate increases and continue its BGSS incentive, CIP, RAC and SAVEGREEN programs or continue to earn its currently authorized rates of return.

Our regulated operations are subject to certain operating risks incidental to handling, storing, transporting and providing customers with natural gas.

Our regulated operations are subject to all operating hazards and risks incidental to handling, storing, transporting and providing customers with natural gas, including our natural gas vehicle refueling stations and LNG facilities. These risks include catastrophic failure of the interstate pipeline system, explosions, pollution, release of toxic substances, fires, storms, safety issues and other adverse weather conditions and hazards, each of which could result in damage to or destruction of facilities or damage to persons and property. We could suffer substantial losses should any of these events occur. Moreover, as a result, NJNG has been, and likely will be, a defendant in legal proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. Although NJNG maintains insurance coverage, insurance may not be sufficient to cover all material expenses related to these risks.

We are involved in legal or administrative proceedings before various courts and governmental bodies that could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

In the ordinary conduct of business, we are involved in legal or administrative proceedings before various courts and governmental bodies with respect to general claims, rates, permitting, taxes, environmental issues, natural gas cost prudence reviews and other matters. Adverse decisions regarding these matters, to the extent they require us to make payments in excess of amounts provided for in our financial statements or are not covered by insurance or indemnity rights, could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Risk Related to our Markets

We are exposed to market risk and may incur losses in our wholesale business.

Our transportation and storage portfolios consist of contracts to transport and store natural gas. The value of our transportation and storage portfolio could be negatively impacted if the value of these contracts changes in a direction or manner that we do not anticipate. In addition, upon expiration of these transportation and storage contracts, to the extent that they are renewed or replaced at less favorable terms, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Major changes in the supply and price of natural gas may affect financial results.

While NJRES and NJNG expect to meet customers’ demand for natural gas for the foreseeable future, factors affecting suppliers and other third parties, including the inability to develop additional interstate pipeline infrastructure, lack of supply sources, increased competition, further deregulation, transportation costs, possible climate change legislation, energy efficiency mandates or changes in consumer behaviors, transportation availability and drilling for new natural gas resources, may impact the supply and price of natural gas. In addition, any significant disruption in the availability of supplies of natural gas could result in increased supply costs, higher prices for customers and potential supply disruptions to customers.

NJRES and NJNG actively hedge against the fluctuation in the price of natural gas by entering into forward and financial contracts with third parties. Should these third parties fail to perform, and regulators not allow the pass-through of expended funds to customers, it may result in a loss that could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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New Jersey Resources Corporation
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS (Continued)                                                                                                                                      
Changes in customer growth may affect earnings and cash flows.

NJNG’s ability to increase its utility gross margin is dependent upon the new construction housing market, as well as the conversion of customers to natural gas from other fuel sources. During periods of extended economic downturns, prolonged weakness in housing markets or slowdowns in the conversion market, there could be an adverse impact on NJNG’s utility gross margin, earnings and cash flows. Furthermore, while our estimates regarding customer growth are based in part upon information from third parties, the estimates have not been verified by an independent source and are subject to the aforementioned risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results to materially deviate from the estimates.

Adverse economic conditions, including inflation, increased natural gas costs, foreclosures and business failures, could adversely impact NJNG’s customer collections and increase our level of indebtedness.

Inflation may cause increases in certain operating and capital costs. We continually review the adequacy of NJNG’s base tariff rates in relation to the increasing cost of providing service and the inherent regulatory lag in adjusting those rates. The ability to control operating expenses is an important factor that will influence future results.

Rapid increases in the price of purchased natural gas may cause NJNG to experience a significant increase in short-term debt because it must pay suppliers for natural gas when it is purchased, which can be significantly in advance of when these costs may be recovered through the collection of monthly bills for natural gas delivered to customers. Increases in purchased natural gas costs also slow collection efforts as customers are more likely to delay the payment of their natural gas bills, leading to higher-than-normal accounts receivable.

Our economic hedging activities that are designed to protect against commodity and financial market risks, including the use of derivative contracts in the normal course of our business, may cause fluctuations in reported financial results and financial losses that negatively impact results of operations and our stock price.

We use derivatives, including futures, forwards, options, swaps and foreign exchange contracts, to manage commodity, financial market and foreign currency risks. The timing of the recognition of gains or losses associated with our economic hedges in accordance with GAAP does not always coincide with the gains or losses on the items being hedged. The difference in accounting can result in volatility in reported results, even though the expected profit margin is essentially unchanged from the dates the transactions were consummated.

In addition, we could recognize financial losses on these contracts as a result of volatility in the market values of the underlying commodities or if a counterparty fails to perform under a contract. In the absence of actively quoted market prices and pricing information from external sources, the valuation of these financial instruments can involve management’s judgment or use of estimates. As a result, changes in the underlying assumptions or use of alternative valuation methods could adversely affect the value of the reported fair value of these contracts.

Risk Related to Credit and Liquidity

NJR is a holding company and depends on its operating subsidiaries to meet its financial obligations.

NJR is a holding company with no significant assets other than possible cash investments and the stock of its operating subsidiaries. We rely exclusively on dividends from our subsidiaries, on intercompany loans from our unregulated subsidiaries, and on the repayments of principal and interest from intercompany loans and reimbursement of expenses from our subsidiaries for our cash flows. Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock and to pay principal and interest on our outstanding debt depends on the payment of dividends to us by our subsidiaries or the repayment of loans to us by our subsidiaries. The extent to which our subsidiaries are unable to pay dividends or repay funds to us may adversely affect our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common stock and principal and interest to holders of our debt.

Credit rating downgrades could increase financing costs, limit