10-K 1 a2202064z10-k.htm 10-K

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549



FORM 10-K


ý

 

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010

or

o

 

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from                                    to                                     

Commission File Number 001-11339

PROTECTIVE LIFE CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

DELAWARE
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  95-2492236
(IRS Employer
Identification Number)

2801 HIGHWAY 280 SOUTH
BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 35223

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code (205) 268-1000



          Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.50 Par Value   New York Stock Exchange
PLC Capital Trust III 7.5% Trust Originated Preferred Securities,
including the Guarantee of Protective Life Corporation
  New York Stock Exchange
PLC Capital Trust IV 7.25% Trust Originated Preferred Securities, including the Guarantee of Protective Life Corporation   New York Stock Exchange
PLC Capital Trust V 6.125% Trust Originated Preferred Securities,
including the Guarantee of Protective Life Corporation
  New York Stock Exchange
7.25% Capital Securities   New York Stock Exchange

          Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o    No ý

          Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated Filer o   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller Reporting Company o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý

          Aggregate market value of the registrant's voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2010: $1,805,643,272

          Number of shares of Common Stock, $0.50 Par Value, outstanding as of February 14, 2011: 85,674,860

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

          Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement prepared for the 2011 annual meeting of shareowners, pursuant to Regulation 14A, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.


Table of Contents

PROTECTIVE LIFE CORPORATION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page

 

PART I

   

Item 1.

 

Business

  3

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors and Cautionary Factors that may Affect Future Results

  21

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

  39

Item 2.

 

Properties

  39

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

  39

Item 4.

 

Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

  39

 

PART II

   

Item 5.

 

Market for the Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

  40

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

  41

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

  42

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

  118

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

  119

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

  217

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

  217

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

  218

 

PART III

   

Item 10.

 

Directors and Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

  219

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

  219

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

  219

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

  219

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

  219

 

PART IV

   

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

  220

 

Signatures

  225

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PART I

Item 1.    Business

        Protective Life Corporation is a holding company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, with subsidiaries that provide financial services through the production, distribution, and administration of insurance and investment products. Founded in 1907, Protective Life Insurance Company ("PLICO") is the Company's largest operating subsidiary. Unless the context otherwise requires, the "Company," "we," "us," or "our" refers to the consolidated group of Protective Life Corporation and its subsidiaries.

        The Company operates several operating segments, each having a strategic focus. An operating segment is distinguished by products, channels of distribution, and/or other strategic distinctions. The Company's operating segments are Life Marketing, Acquisitions, Annuities, Stable Value Products, and Asset Protection. The Company has an additional segment referred to as Corporate and Other which consists of net investment income (including the impact of carrying excess liquidity), expenses not attributable to the segments above (including interest on debt), and a trading portfolio that was previously part of a variable interest entity. This segment also includes earnings from several non-strategic or runoff lines of business, various investment-related transactions, and the operations of several small subsidiaries. The Company periodically evaluates operating segments, as prescribed in the Accounting Standard Codification ("ASC" or "Codification") Segment Reporting Topic, and makes adjustments to our segment reporting as needed.

        Additional information concerning the Company's operating segments may be found in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 23, Operating Segments to consolidated financial statements included herein.

        In the following paragraphs, the Company reports sales and other statistical information. These statistics are used to measure the relative progress of its marketing and acquisition efforts, but may or may not have an immediate impact on reported segment operating income. Sales data for traditional life insurance is based on annualized premiums, while universal life sales are based on annualized planned premiums, or "target" premiums if lesser, plus 6% of amounts received in excess of target premiums and 10% of single premiums. "Target" premiums for universal life are those premiums upon which full first year commissions are paid. Sales of annuities are measured based on the amount of deposits received less surrenders occurring within twelve months of the deposit. Stable value contract sales are measured at the time that the funding commitment is made based on the amount of deposit to be received. Sales within the Asset Protection segment are based on the amount of single premiums and fees received.

        These statistics are derived from various sales tracking and administrative systems and are not derived from the Company's financial reporting systems or financial statements. These statistics attempt to measure only some of the many factors that may affect future profitability, and therefore, are not intended to be predictive of future profitability.

Life Marketing

        The Life Marketing segment markets universal life ("UL"), variable universal life, level premium term insurance ("traditional"), and bank-owned life insurance ("BOLI") products on a national basis primarily through a variety of distribution channels. The largest distribution system is comprised of brokerage general agencies who recruit a network of independent life agents. The segment also distributes insurance products through a network of experienced independent personal producing general agents who are recruited by regional sales managers and through stockbrokers and banks. The Company markets its BOLI products through independent marketing organizations that specialize in the BOLI market.

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        The following table presents the Life Marketing segment's sales measured by new premium:

For The Year Ended December 31,
  Sales  
 
  (Dollars In Millions)
 

2006

  $ 228  

2007

    229  

2008

    158  

2009

    163  

2010

    171  

Acquisitions

        The Acquisitions segment focuses on acquiring, converting, and servicing policies acquired from other companies. The segment's primary focus is on life insurance policies and annuity products that were sold to individuals. In the ordinary course of business, the Acquisitions segment regularly considers acquisitions of blocks of policies or insurance companies. The level of the segment's acquisition activity is predicated upon many factors, including available capital, operating capacity, and market dynamics. The Company expects acquisition opportunities to continue to be available; however, the Company believes it may face increased competition and evolving capital requirements that may affect the environment and the form of future acquisitions.

        Most acquisitions closed by the Acquisitions segment have not included the acquisition of an active sales force, thus policies acquired through the segment are typically "closed" blocks of business (no new policies are being marketed). Therefore, in such instances, earnings and account values are expected to decline as the result of lapses, deaths, and other terminations of coverage, unless new acquisitions are made. The segment's revenues and earnings may fluctuate from year to year depending upon the level of acquisition activity. In transactions where some marketing activity was included, the Company either ceases future marketing efforts, redirects those efforts to another segment of the Company, or elects to continue marketing new policies as a component of other segments.

        The Company believes that its focused and disciplined approach to the acquisition process and its experience in the assimilation, conservation, and servicing of acquired policies provides a significant competitive advantage.

        On December 31, 2010, PLICO completed the acquisition of all of the outstanding stock of United Investors Life Insurance Company ("United Investors"), pursuant to a Stock Purchase Agreement, between PLICO, Torchmark Corporation ("Torchmark") and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Liberty National Life Insurance Company ("Liberty National") and United Investors. The Company accounted for this transaction under the purchase method of accounting as required by FASB guidance under the ASC Business Combinations topic. This guidance requires that the total purchase price be allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values at the acquisition date. The aggregate purchase price for United Investors was $364.0 million, including $156.9 million of adjusted statutory capital surplus.

        On occasion, the Company's other operating segments have acquired companies and/or blocks of policies. The results of these acquisitions are included in the segment's respective financials.

Annuities

        The Annuities segment markets fixed and variable annuity products. These products are primarily sold through broker-dealers, financial institutions, and independent agents and brokers.

        The Company's fixed annuities include modified guaranteed annuities which guarantee an interest rate for a fixed period. Because contract values for these annuities are "market-value adjusted" upon

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surrender prior to maturity, in certain interest rate environments, these products afford the Company with a measure of protection from the effects of changes in interest rates. The Company's fixed annuities also include single premium deferred annuities, single premium immediate annuities, and equity indexed annuities. Equity indexed annuities are not actively being marketed. The Company's variable annuities offer the policyholder the opportunity to invest in various investment accounts and offer optional features that guarantee the death and withdrawal benefits of the underlying annuity.

        The demand for annuity products is related to the general level of interest rates, performance of the equity markets, and perceived risk of insurance companies. The following table presents fixed and variable annuity sales:

For The Year Ended December 31,
  Fixed
Annuities
  Variable
Annuities
  Total
Annuities
 
 
  (Dollars In Millions)
 

2006

  $ 878   $ 323   $ 1,201  

2007

    1,194     472     1,666  

2008

    2,160     452     2,612  

2009

    1,225     796     2,021  

2010

    930     1,715     2,645  

Stable Value Products

        The Stable Value Products segment sells guaranteed funding agreements ("GFAs") to special purpose entities that in turn issue notes or certificates in smaller, transferable denominations. The segment also markets fixed and floating rate funding agreements directly to the trustees of municipal bond proceeds, institutional investors, bank trust departments, and money market funds. In addition, the segment also issues funding agreements to the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB"). During 2003, the Company registered a funding agreement-backed notes program with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Through this program, the Company is able to offer notes to both institutional and retail investors. The amount available under this program was increased by $4 billion in 2005 through a second registration. In February 2009, the Company updated the second registration in accordance with applicable SEC rules and such updated registration provides for the sale of the unsold portion of notes previously registered under the program. The segment's funding agreement-backed notes complement the Company's overall asset/liability management in that the terms of the funding agreements may be tailored to the needs of PLICO as the seller of the funding agreements, as opposed to solely meeting the needs of the buyer.

        Additionally, the segment markets guaranteed investment contracts ("GICs") to 401(k) and other qualified retirement savings plans. GICs are contracts which specify a return on deposits for a specified period and often provide flexibility for withdrawals at book value in keeping with the benefits provided by the plan. The demand for GICs is related to the relative attractiveness of the "fixed rate" investment option in a 401(k) plan compared to the equity-based investment options available to plan participants.

        The Company's emphasis is on a consistent and disciplined approach to product pricing and asset/liability management, careful underwriting of early withdrawal risks, and maintaining low distribution and administration costs. Most GIC contracts and funding agreements written by the Company have maturities of one to ten years.

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        The following table presents Stable Value Products sales:

For The Year Ended December 31,
  GICs   Funding
Agreements
  Total  
 
  (Dollars In Millions)
 

2006

  $ 294   $ 140   $ 434  

2007

    133     794     927  

2008

    166     1,803     1,969  

2009

             

2010

    133     625     758  

Asset Protection

        The Asset Protection segment markets extended service contracts and credit life and disability insurance to protect consumers' investments in automobiles, watercraft, and recreational vehicles ("RV"). In addition, the segment markets a guaranteed asset protection ("GAP") product. In the case of a total loss, GAP coverage covers the difference between the loan pay-off amount and an asset's actual cash value. The segment's products are primarily marketed through a national network of approximately 3,750 automobile, marine, and RV dealers. A network of direct employee sales representatives and general agents distribute these products to the dealer market.

        The following table presents the insurance and related product sales measured by new revenue:

For The Year Ended December 31,
  Sales  
 
  (Dollars In Millions)
 

2006

  $ 536  

2007

    552  

2008

    411  

2009

    305  

2010

    343  

        In 2010, approximately 95.9% of the segment's sales were through the automobile, marine, and RV dealer distribution channel and approximately 73.6% of the segment's sales were extended service contracts. A portion of the sales and resulting premiums are reinsured with producer-affiliated reinsurers.

Corporate and Other

        The Company has an additional segment referred to as Corporate and Other. The Corporate and Other segment primarily consists of net investment income (including the impact of carrying excess liquidity), expenses not attributable to the segments described above (including interest on debt), and a trading portfolio that was previously part of a variable interest entity. This segment includes earnings from several non-strategic or runoff lines of business, various investment-related transactions, the operations of several small subsidiaries, and the repurchase of non-recourse funding obligations. The earnings of this segment may fluctuate from year to year.

Investments

        As of December 31, 2010, the Company's investment portfolio was approximately $31.4 billion. The types of assets in which the Company may invest are influenced by various state laws which prescribe qualified investment assets. Within the parameters of these laws, the Company invests in assets giving consideration to such factors as liquidity and capital needs, investment quality, investment return, matching of assets and liabilities, and the overall composition of the investment portfolio by asset type and credit exposure. For further information regarding the Company's investments, the maturity of and the concentration of risk among the Company's invested assets, derivative financial instruments, and liquidity,

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see Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 4, Investment Operations, Note 22, Derivative Financial Instruments to consolidated financial statements, and Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

        The following table presents the reported values of the Company's invested assets:

 
  As of December 31,    
 
  2010   2009    
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   

Publicly issued bonds (amortized cost: 2010—$19,763,441; 2009—$18,376,802)

  $ 20,343,813     64.8 % $ 18,100,141     62.3 %  

Privately issued bonds (amortized cost: 2010—$4,239,452; 2009—$4,851,515)

    4,333,126     13.8     4,730,286     16.3    
                     
 

Fixed maturities

    24,676,939     78.6     22,830,427     78.6    

Equity securities (cost: 2010—$349,605; 2009—$280,615)

    359,412     1.1     275,497     0.9    

Mortgage loans

    4,892,829     15.6     3,877,087     13.3    

Investment real estate

    25,340     0.1     25,188     0.1    

Policy loans

    793,448     2.5     794,276     2.7    

Other long-term investments

    276,337     0.9     204,754     0.7    

Short-term investments

    352,824     1.2     1,049,609     3.7    
                     
 

Total investments

  $ 31,377,129     100.0 % $ 29,056,838     100.0 %  
                     

        Included in the preceding table are $3.0 billion and $2.9 billion of fixed maturities and $114.3 million and $250.8 million of short-term investments classified as trading securities as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The trading portfolio includes invested assets of $2.9 billion and $2.7 billion as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, held pursuant to modified coinsurance ("Modco") arrangements under which the economic risks and benefits of the investments are passed to third party reinsurers.

        As of December 31, 2010, the Company's fixed maturity investment holdings were approximately $24.7 billion. The approximate percentage distribution of the Company's fixed maturity investments by quality rating is as follows:

 
  As of December 31,    
Rating
  2010   2009    

AAA

    17.0 %   21.0 %  

AA

    4.8     4.9    

A

    17.9     17.6    

BBB

    47.8     42.9    

Below investment grade

    12.5     13.6    
             

    100.0 %   100.0 %  
             

        During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, the Company did not actively purchase securities below the BBB level.

        The Company does not have material exposure to financial guarantee insurance companies with respect to its investment portfolio. As of December 31, 2010, based upon amortized cost, $45.1 million of the Company's securities were guaranteed either directly or indirectly by third parties out of a total of $23.9 billion fixed maturity securities held by the Company (0.2% of total fixed maturity securities).

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        Declines in fair value for the Company's available-for-sale portfolio, net of related deferred acquisition costs ("DAC") and value of business acquired ("VOBA"), are charged or credited directly to shareowners' equity. Declines in fair value that are other-than-temporary are recorded as realized losses in the consolidated statements of income, net of any applicable non-credit component of the loss, which is recorded as an adjustment to other comprehensive income (loss).

        The distribution of the Company's fixed maturity investments by type is as follows:

 
  As of December 31,  
Type
  2010   2009  
 
  (Dollars In Millions)
 

Residential mortgage-backed securities

  $ 2,979.8   $ 3,917.5  

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

    312.6     1,124.3  

Other asset-backed securities

    927.1     1,120.8  

U.S. government-related securities

    1,572.1     811.3  

Other government-related securities

    327.8     608.5  

States, municipals, and political subdivisions

    1,123.8     400.2  

Corporate bonds

    17,433.7     14,847.8  
           
 

Total fixed income portfolio

  $ 24,676.9   $ 22,830.4  
           

        Within the Company's fixed maturity investments, it maintains portfolios classified as "available-for-sale" and "trading". The Company purchases its investments with the intent to hold to maturity by purchasing investments that match future cash flow needs. However, the Company may sell any of its investments to maintain proper matching of assets and liabilities. Accordingly, the Company classified $21.7 billion, or 87.9%, of its fixed maturities as "available-for-sale" as of December 31, 2010. These securities are carried at fair value on the Company's consolidated balance sheets.

        A portion of the Company's bond portfolio is invested in residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS"), commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS"), and other asset-backed securities (collectively referred to as asset-backed securities "ABS"). ABS are securities that are backed by a pool of assets from the investee. These holdings as of December 31, 2010, were approximately $4.2 billion. Mortgage-backed securities ("MBS") are constructed from pools of mortgages and may have cash flow volatility as a result of changes in the rate at which prepayments of principal occur with respect to the underlying loans. Excluding limitations on access to lending and other extraordinary economic conditions, prepayments of principal on the underlying loans can be expected to accelerate with decreases in market interest rates and diminish with increases in interest rates.

        The Company's CMBS decreased $811.7 million as of December 31, 2010, as compared to December 31, 2009. In the first quarter of 2010, the Company adopted ASU No. 2009-17 which resulted in the consolidation of two securitization trusts in the CMBS portfolio. These two securitizations are now included in the Company's mortgage loan portfolio and are categorized as types of loans that were previously a part of a variable interest entity ("VIE") securitization and thus subject to a contractual pooling and servicing agreement. These loans have been included on the Company's consolidated balance sheet beginning in the first quarter of 2010 in accordance with ASU No. 2009-17.

        The Company obtains ratings of its fixed maturities from Moody's Investors Service, Inc. ("Moody's"), Standard & Poor's Corporation ("S&P"), and/or Fitch Ratings ("Fitch"). If a fixed maturity is not rated by Moody's, S&P, or Fitch, the Company uses ratings from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC"), or the Company rates the fixed maturity based upon a comparison of the unrated issue to rated issues of the same issuer or rated issues of other issuers with similar risk characteristics. As of December 31, 2010, over 99.0% of the Company's fixed maturities were rated by Moody's, S&P, Fitch, and/or the NAIC.

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        As of December 31, 2010, the Company had securities in its available-for-sale portfolio which were rated below investment grade of $2.8 billion and had an amortized cost of $2.9 billion. In addition, included in its trading portfolio, the Company held $331.2 million of securities which were rated below investment grade. As of December 31, 2010, approximately $508.2 million of the below investment grade securities were not publicly traded.

        The following table presents the investment results from continuing operations of the Company:

 
   
   
   
  Realized Investment
Gains (Losses)
   
 
 
  Cash, Accrued
Investment
Income, and
Investments as of
December 31,
   
  Percentage
Earned on
Average of
Cash and
Investments
   
 
For The Year
Ended December 31,
  Net
Investment
Income
  Derivative
Financial
Instruments
  All Other
Investments
   
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
 
2006   $ 28,299,749   $ 1,419,778     6.0 % $ (21,516 ) $ 104,084      
2007     29,476,959     1,675,934     5.9     8,469     8,602      
2008     27,003,687     1,675,164     5.8     116,657     (584,492 )    
2009     29,547,513     1,665,036     5.9     (177,953 )   120,149      
2010     31,970,632     1,683,676     5.4     (138,249 )   112,856      

Mortgage Loans

        The Company invests a portion of its investment portfolio in commercial mortgage loans. As of December 31, 2010, the Company's mortgage loan holdings were approximately $4.9 billion. The Company has specialized in making loans on either credit-oriented commercial properties or credit-anchored strip shopping centers and apartments. The Company's underwriting procedures relative to its commercial loan portfolio are based, in the Company's view, on a conservative and disciplined approach. The Company concentrates on a small number of commercial real estate asset types associated with the necessities of life (retail, multi-family, professional office buildings, and warehouses). The Company believes these asset types tend to weather economic downturns better than other commercial asset classes in which the Company has chosen not to participate. The Company believes this disciplined approach has contributed to a relatively low delinquency and foreclosure rate throughout its history.

        The following table presents a breakdown of the Company's commercial mortgage loan portfolio by property type as of December 31, 2010:

Type
  Percentage of
Mortgage Loans
on Real Estate
 

Retail

    66.2 %

Office Buildings

    12.7  

Apartments

    12.2  

Warehouses

    7.0  

Other

    1.9  
       

    100.0 %
       

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        The Company specializes in originating mortgage loans on either credit-oriented or credit-anchored commercial properties. No single tenant's exposure represents more than 2.0% of mortgage loans. Approximately 74.9% of the mortgage loans are on properties located in the following states:

State
  Percentage of
Mortgage Loans
on Real Estate
 

Texas

    13.7 %

Georgia

    8.8  

Tennessee

    7.6  

Alabama

    7.1  

Florida

    7.0  

South Carolina

    5.2  

Ohio

    4.8  

Utah

    4.6  

North Carolina

    4.4  

Indiana

    3.1  

Pennsylvania

    3.1  

California

    2.8  

Michigan

    2.7  
       

    74.9 %
       

        During the year ended December 31, 2010, the Company funded approximately $310 million of new loans, with an average loan size of $4.5 million. The average size mortgage loan in the portfolio as of December 31, 2010, was $2.7 million and the weighted-average interest rate was 6.31%. The largest single mortgage loan was $33.8 million.

        Retail loans are predominantly on strip shopping centers anchored by one or more regional or national retail stores. The anchor tenants enter into long-term leases with the Company's borrowers. These centers provide the basic necessities of life, such as food, pharmaceuticals, clothing, and other services. The following were the five largest anchor tenants (measured by the Company's level of exposure) as of December 31, 2010:

Type
  Percentage of
Mortgage Loans
on Real Estate
 

Food Lion, Inc.

    2.0 %

Walgreen Corporation

    1.9  

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

    1.5  

Rite Aid Corporation

    1.3  

Tractor Supply Company

    1.3  
       

    8.0 %
       

        At the time of origination, the Company's mortgage lending criteria targets that the loan-to-value ratio on each mortgage is 75% or less. The Company targets projected rental payments from credit anchors (i.e., excluding rental payments from smaller local tenants) of 70% of the property's projected operating expenses and debt service. The Company also offers a commercial loan product under which the Company will permit a loan-to-value ratio of up to 85% in exchange for a participating interest in the cash flows from the underlying real estate. As of December 31, 2010, approximately $884.7 million of the Company's mortgage loans had this participation feature. Exceptions to these loan-to-value measures may be made if the Company believes the mortgage has an acceptable risk profile.

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        Many of the Company's mortgage loans have call options or interest rate reset option provisions between 3 and 10 years. However, if interest rates were to significantly increase, the Company may be unable to exercise the call options or increase the interest rates on its existing mortgage loans commensurate with the significantly increased market rates.

        As of December 31, 2010, delinquent mortgage loans, foreclosed properties, and restructured loans pursuant to a pooling and servicing agreement were less than 0.2% of invested assets. The Company does not expect these investments to adversely affect its liquidity or ability to maintain proper matching of assets and liabilities. The Company's mortgage loan portfolio consists of two categories of loans: 1) those not subject to a pooling and servicing agreement and 2) those previously a part of variable interest entity securitizations and thus subject to a contractual pooling and servicing agreement. The loans subject to a pooling and servicing agreement have been included on the Company's consolidated balance sheet beginning in the first quarter of 2010 in accordance with ASU 2009-17. For loans not subject to a pooling and servicing agreement, as of December 31, 2010, $9.4 million, or 0.2%, of the mortgage loan portfolio was nonperforming. In addition, as of December 31, 2010, $19.3 million, or 0.4%, of the mortgage loan portfolio that is subject to a pooling and servicing agreement was either nonperforming or has been restructured under the terms and conditions of the pooling and service agreement.

        It is the Company's policy to cease to carry accrued interest on loans that are over 90 days delinquent. For loans less than 90 days delinquent, interest is accrued unless it is determined that the accrued interest is not collectible. If a loan becomes over 90 days delinquent, it is the Company's general policy to initiate foreclosure proceedings unless a workout arrangement to bring the loan current is in place. For loans subject to a pooling and servicing agreement, there are certain additional restrictions and/or requirements related to workout proceedings, and as such, these loans may have different attributes and/or circumstances affecting the status of delinquency or categorization of those in nonperforming status.

Ratings

        Various Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations ("rating organizations") review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including the Company's insurance subsidiaries, and publish their financial strength ratings as indicators of an insurer's ability to meet policyholder and contract holder obligations. These ratings are important to maintaining public confidence in an insurer's products, its ability to market its products and its competitive position. The following table summarizes the financial strength ratings of the Company's significant member companies from the major independent rating organizations as of December 31, 2010:

Ratings
  A.M. Best   Fitch   Standard &
Poor's
  Moody's  

Insurance company financial strength rating:

                   
 

Protective Life Insurance Company

  A+   A   AA-     A2  
 

West Coast Life Insurance Company

  A+   A   AA-     A2  
 

Protective Life and Annuity Insurance Company

  A+   A   AA-      
 

Lyndon Property Insurance Company

  A-          

        The Company's ratings are subject to review and change by the rating organizations at any time and without notice. A downgrade or other negative action by a ratings organization with respect to the financial strength ratings of the Company's insurance subsidiaries could adversely affect sales, relationships with distributors, the level of policy surrenders and withdrawals, competitive position in the marketplace, and the cost or availability of reinsurance.

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Life Insurance In-Force

        The following table presents life insurance sales by face amount and life insurance in-force:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2010   2009   2008   2007   2006  
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

New Business Written

                               
 

Life Marketing

  $ 30,626,739   $ 50,621,394   $ 57,534,379   $ 89,463,255   $ 81,389,241  
 

Asset Protection

    1,191,268     1,376,012     2,077,540     2,786,447     3,095,205  
                       
   

Total

  $ 31,818,007   $ 51,997,406   $ 59,611,919   $ 92,249,702   $ 84,484,446  
                       

Business Acquired Acquisitions

 
$

13,185,627
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

224,498,169
 
                       

Insurance In-Force at End of Year(1)

                               
 

Life Marketing

  $ 552,590,776   $ 553,799,195   $ 544,248,010   $ 517,797,133   $ 453,937,534  
 

Acquisitions

    217,101,363 (2)   218,271,519     227,708,203     243,050,966     265,837,876  
 

Asset Protection

    2,625,886     3,019,142     3,651,779     4,333,952     4,718,018  
                       
   

Total

  $ 772,318,025   $ 775,089,856   $ 775,607,992   $ 765,182,051   $ 724,493,428  
                       
(1)
Reinsurance assumed has been included, reinsurance ceded (2010—$495,056,077; 2009—$515,136,471; 2008—$540,561,213; 2007—$531,984,866; 2006—$576,790,608) has not been deducted.

(2)
Includes Business Acquired Acquisitions of $13,185,627.

        The ratio of voluntary terminations of individual life insurance to mean individual life insurance in-force, which is determined by dividing the amount of insurance terminated due to lapses during the year by the mean of the insurance in-force at the beginning and end of the year, adjusted for the timing of major acquisitions is as follows:

As of December 31,
  Ratio of
Voluntary
Termination
 

2006

    3.9 %

2007

    4.5  

2008

    4.7  

2009

    4.9  

2010

    4.8  

Investment Products In-Force

        The amount of investment products in-force is measured by account balances. The following table includes the stable value product segment, acquisitions segment, and annuity segment account balances. A

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majority of the variable annuity account balances are reported in the Company's financial statements as liabilities related to separate accounts.

As of December 31,
  Stable Value
Products
  Modified
Guaranteed
Annuities
  Fixed
Annuities
  Variable
Annuities
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

2006

  $ 5,513,464   $ 2,424,218   $ 4,981,587   $ 4,302,413  

2007

    5,046,463     2,745,123     5,932,336     4,128,666  

2008

    4,960,405     3,497,482     6,087,419     3,220,519  

2009

    3,581,150     3,630,614     6,457,013     4,132,053  

2010

    3,076,233     3,517,922     7,145,935     6,390,847  

        Below are the fixed annuity account balances by segment:

As of December 31,
  Annuities   Acquisitions   Corporate &
Other
  Total  
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

2009

  $ 3,913,365   $ 2,442,279   $ 57,457   $ 6,413,101*  

2010

    4,692,900     2,347,329     60,255     7,100,484*  
*
Note that this amount does not agree to the total in the Fixed Annuities column in the table above as a result of immaterial amounts included within other segments.

        Below are the variable annuity account balances by segment:

As of December 31,
  Annuities   Acquisitions   Total  
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

2009

  $ 2,808,123   $ 1,323,930   $ 4,132,053  

2010

    4,429,084     1,961,763     6,390,847  

Underwriting

        The underwriting policies of the Company's insurance subsidiaries are established by management. With respect to individual insurance, the subsidiaries use information from the application and, in some cases, inspection reports, attending physician statements, and/or medical examinations to determine whether a policy should be issued as applied for, other than applied for, or rejected. Medical examinations of applicants are required for individual life insurance in excess of certain prescribed amounts (which vary based on the type of insurance) and for most individual insurance applied for by applicants over age 50. In the case of "simplified issue" policies, which are issued primarily through the Asset Protection segment, coverage is rejected if the responses to certain health questions contained in the application indicate adverse health of the applicant. For other than "simplified issue" policies, medical examinations are requested of any applicant, regardless of age and amount of requested coverage, if an examination is deemed necessary to underwrite the risk. Substandard risks may be referred to reinsurers for evaluation of the substandard risk.

        The Company's insurance subsidiaries generally require blood samples to be drawn with individual insurance applications above certain face amounts based on the applicant's age, except in the worksite and BOLI markets where limited blood testing is required. Blood samples are tested for a wide range of chemical values and are screened for antibodies to certain viruses. Applications also contain questions permitted by law regarding certain viruses which must be answered by the proposed insureds.

        Since 2006, the Company has utilized an advanced underwriting system, TeleLife®, for certain segments of its life business. TeleLife® streamlines the application process through a telephonic interview of the applicant, schedules medical exams, accelerates the underwriting process and the ultimate issuance of a policy mostly through electronic means, and reduces the number of attending physician statements.

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        The Company's maximum retention limit is $2,000,000 on certain of its traditional life and universal life products.

Reinsurance Ceded

        The Company's insurance subsidiaries cede life insurance to other insurance companies. The ceding insurance company remains liable with respect to ceded insurance should any reinsurer fail to meet the obligations assumed by it. The Company has also reinsured guaranteed minimum death benefit ("GMDB") claims relative to certain of its variable annuity contracts. During 2010, the Company discontinued the use of reinsurance on GMDB claims.

        For approximately 10 years prior to mid-2005, the Company entered into reinsurance contracts in which the Company ceded a significant percentage, approximately 90%, of its newly written life insurance business on a first dollar quota share basis. The Company's traditional life insurance was ceded under coinsurance contracts and universal life insurance was ceded under yearly renewable term ("YRT") contracts. In mid-2005, the Company substantially discontinued coinsuring its newly written traditional life insurance and moved to YRT reinsurance as discussed below. The Company continues to reinsure 90% of the mortality risk, but not the account values, on the majority of its newly written universal life insurance.

        The Company currently enters into reinsurance contracts with reinsurers under YRT contracts to provide coverage for insurance issued in excess of the amount it retains on any one life. The amount of insurance retained on any one life was $500,000 in years prior to mid-2005. In 2005, this retention was increased to amounts up to $1,000,000 for certain policies, and during 2008, was increased to $2,000,000 for certain policies.

        As of December 31, 2010, the Company had insurance in-force of $772.3 billion, of which approximately $495.1 billion was ceded to reinsurers. See Note 8, Reinsurance to consolidated financial statements for additional information related to the Company's use of reinsurance.

Policy Liabilities and Accruals

        The applicable insurance laws under which the Company's insurance subsidiaries operate require that each insurance company report policy liabilities to meet future obligations on the outstanding policies. These liabilities are the amounts which, with the additional premiums to be received and interest thereon compounded annually at certain assumed rates, are calculated in accordance with applicable law to be sufficient to meet the various policy and contract obligations as they mature. These laws specify that the liabilities shall not be less than liabilities calculated using certain named mortality tables and interest rates.

        The policy liabilities and accruals carried in the Company's financial reports presented on the basis of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") differ from those specified by the laws of the various states and carried in the insurance subsidiaries' statutory financial statements (presented on the basis of statutory accounting principles mandated by state insurance regulations). For policy liabilities other than those for universal life policies, annuity contracts, GICs, and funding agreements, these differences arise from the use of mortality and morbidity tables and interest rate assumptions which are deemed to be more appropriate for financial reporting purposes than those required for statutory accounting purposes, from the introduction of lapse assumptions into the calculation, and from the use of the net level premium method on all business. Policy liabilities for universal life policies, annuity contracts, GICs, and funding agreements are generally carried in the Company's financial reports at the account value of the policy or contract plus accrued interest, with certain exceptions as permitted by actuarial guidelines.

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Federal Income Tax

        Existing federal laws and regulations affect the taxation of the Company's products. Income tax payable by policyholders on investment earnings is deferred during the accumulation period of certain life insurance and annuity products. This favorable tax treatment may give certain of the Company's products a competitive advantage over other non-insurance products. To the extent that the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the "Code") is revised to reduce the tax-deferred status of life insurance and annuity products, or to increase the tax-deferred status of competing products, all life insurance companies, including the Company and its subsidiaries, will be adversely affected with respect to their ability to sell such products. Also, depending upon grandfathering provisions, the Company will be affected by the surrenders of existing annuity contracts and life insurance policies.

        Additionally, if enacted, proposed changes in the federal tax law would establish new tax-advantaged retirement and life savings plans that will reduce the tax advantage of investing in life insurance or annuity products. Such proposals include changes that create new non-life-insurance vehicles for tax-exempt savings, and such proposals sometimes include provisions for more generous annual limits on contributions, etc.

        In addition, life insurance products are often used to fund estate tax obligations. Legislation was enacted in 2001 that reduced the federal estate tax in years 2001 through 2009 and then completely eliminated the tax in 2010. This legislation sunsetted at the end of 2010, thus reinstating the tax at its pre-2001 level in 2011 and thereafter. During 2010, Congress enacted legislation that reduced the tax in years 2011 and 2012 from what it would have been pursuant to the 2001 legislation. In the absence of further action by Congress, the federal estate tax will revert back to pre-2001 levels in 2013 and thereafter. If the estate tax is significantly reduced or eliminated again in the future, the demand for certain life insurance products could be adversely affected.

        Additionally, the Company is subject to corporate income tax. The Company cannot predict what changes to tax law or interpretations of existing tax law may ultimately be enacted or adopted or whether such changes will adversely affect the Company.

        The Company's insurance subsidiaries are taxed by the federal government in a manner similar to other companies in its industry. However, certain restrictions apply regarding the consolidation of recently-acquired life insurance companies into the Company's consolidated U.S. income tax return. Additionally, restrictions apply to the combining, in a consolidated U.S. income tax return, of life-insurance-company and non-life-insurance-company taxable income and losses. For 2010, the Company will consolidate all of its subsidiaries into its consolidated U.S. income tax return except for Protective Life Insurance Company of New York. The former Chase life insurance companies that were merged into PLICO were consolidated as of their respective merger dates. The Company filed separate company returns for those merged companies prior to the merger.

Competition

        Life and health insurance is a mature and highly competitive industry. In recent years, the industry has experienced reduced growth in life insurance sales, though the aging population has increased the demand for retirement savings products. The Company encounters significant competition in all lines of business from other insurance companies, many of which have greater financial resources than the Company and which may have a greater market share, offer a broader range of products, services or features, assume a greater level of risk, have lower operating or financing costs, or have lower profitability expectations. The Company also faces competition from other providers of financial services. Competition could result in, among other things, lower sales or higher lapses of existing products.

        The Company's move away from reliance on reinsurance for newly written traditional life products results in a net reduction of current taxes, but an increase in deferred taxes. The Company allocates the

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benefits of reduced current taxes to the life marketing segment and the profitability and competitive position of certain products is dependent on the continuation of existing tax rules and interpretations and the Company's ability to generate future taxable income.

        The Company's ability to compete is dependent upon, among other things, its ability to attract and retain distributors to market its insurance and investment products, its ability to develop competitive and profitable products, its ability to maintain low unit costs, and its maintenance of adequate ratings from rating agencies.

        As technology evolves, comparison of a particular product of any company for a particular customer with competing products for that customer is more readily available, which could lead to increased competition as well as agent or customer behavior, including persistency that differs from past behavior.

Risk Management

        Risk management is a critical part of the Company's business, and the Company has adopted risk management processes in multiple aspects of its operations, including product development and management, business acquisitions, underwriting, investment management, asset-liability management, and technology development projects. The Company's risk management office, under the direction of the Chief Risk Officer, along with other departments, management groups and committees, have responsibilities for managing different risks throughout the Company. Risk management includes the assessment of risk, a decision process to determine which risks are acceptable and the ongoing monitoring and management of those risks. The primary objective of these risk management processes is to determine the acceptable level of variations the Company experiences from its expected results and to implement strategies designed to limit such variations to these levels.

Regulation

        The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to government regulation in each of the states in which it conducts business. Such regulation is vested in state agencies having broad administrative and in some instances discretionary power dealing with many aspects of the Company's business, which may include, among other things, premium rates and increases thereto, reserve requirements, marketing practices, advertising, privacy, policy forms, reinsurance reserve requirements, acquisitions, mergers, and capital adequacy, and is concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders and other customers rather than shareowners. At any given time, a number of financial and/or market conduct examinations of the Company's subsidiaries may be ongoing. From time to time, regulators raise issues during examinations or audits of the Company's subsidiaries that could, if determined adversely, have a material impact on the Company. The Company's insurance subsidiaries are required to obtain state regulatory approval for rate increases for certain health insurance products, and the Company's profits may be adversely affected if the requested rate increases are not approved in full by regulators in a timely fashion.

        The purchase of life insurance products is limited by state insurable interest laws, which generally require that the purchaser of life insurance name a beneficiary that has some interest in the continued life of the insured. To some extent, the insurable interest laws present a barrier to the life settlement, or "stranger-owned" industry, in which a financial entity acquires an interest in life insurance proceeds, and efforts have been made in some states to liberalize the insurable interest laws. To the extent these laws are relaxed, the Company's lapse assumptions may prove to be incorrect.

        The Company cannot predict whether or when regulatory actions may be taken that could adversely affect the Company or its operations. Interpretations of regulations by regulators may change and statutes, regulations and interpretations may be applied with retroactive impact, particularly in areas such as accounting or reserve requirements. Although the Company and its subsidiaries are subject to state regulation, in many instances the state regulatory models emanate from the NAIC. Some of the NAIC pronouncements, particularly as they affect accounting issues, take effect automatically in the various

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states without affirmative action by the states. With respect to some financial regulations and guidelines, states sometimes defer to the interpretation of the insurance department of the state of domicile. Neither the action of the domiciliary state nor the action of the NAIC is binding on a state. Accordingly, a state could choose to follow a different interpretation. Also, regulatory actions with prospective impact can potentially have a significant impact on currently sold products. The NAIC continues to work to reform state regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to life insurance reserves.

        At the federal level, bills are routinely introduced in both chambers of the United States Congress which could affect life insurers. In the past, Congress has considered legislation that would impact insurance companies in numerous ways, such as providing for an optional federal charter or a federal presence for insurance, pre-empting state law in certain respects to the regulation of reinsurance, increasing federal oversight in areas such as consumer protection and solvency regulation, and other matters. The Company cannot predict whether or in what form reforms will be enacted and, if so, whether the enacted reforms will positively or negatively affect the Company or whether any effects will be material.

        The Company's insurance subsidiaries are required to file detailed annual reports with the supervisory agencies in each of the jurisdictions in which they do business, and their business and accounts are subject to examination by such agencies at any time. Under the rules of the NAIC, insurance companies are examined periodically (generally every three to five years) by one or more of the supervisory agencies on behalf of the states in which they do business. At any given time, a number of financial and/or market conduct examinations of the Company's subsidiaries may be ongoing. To date, no such insurance department examinations have produced any significant adverse findings regarding any of the Company's insurance company subsidiaries.

        Under insurance guaranty fund laws, in most states insurance companies doing business therein can be assessed up to prescribed limits for policyholder losses incurred by insolvent companies. Although the Company cannot predict the amount of any future assessments, most insurance guaranty fund laws currently provide that an assessment may be excused or deferred if it would threaten an insurer's own financial strength.

        In addition, many states, including the states in which the Company's insurance subsidiaries are domiciled, have enacted legislation or adopted regulations regarding insurance holding company systems. These laws require registration of and periodic reporting by insurance companies domiciled within the jurisdiction which control or are controlled by other corporations or persons so as to constitute an insurance holding company system. These laws also affect the acquisition of control of insurance companies as well as transactions between insurance companies and companies controlling them. Most states, including Tennessee, where PLICO is domiciled, require administrative approval of the acquisition of control of an insurance company domiciled in the state or the acquisition of control of an insurance holding company whose insurance subsidiary is incorporated in the state. In Tennessee, the acquisition of 10% of the voting securities of an entity is deemed to be the acquisition of control for the purpose of the insurance holding company statute and requires not only the filing of detailed information concerning the acquiring parties and the plan of acquisition, but also administrative approval prior to the acquisition. The NAIC recently approved revisions to the NAIC Model Holding Company System Regulatory Act that, if enacted by the legislatures of the states in which the Company's insurance subsidiaries are domiciled, will subject such subsidiaries to increased reporting requirements.

        The states in which the Company's insurance subsidiaries are domiciled impose certain restrictions on the subsidiaries' ability to pay dividends to the Company. These restrictions are based in part on the prior year's statutory income and surplus. In general, dividends up to specified levels are considered ordinary and may be paid without prior approval. Dividends in larger amounts are subject to approval by the insurance commissioner of the state of domicile. The maximum amount that would qualify as ordinary dividends to the Company by its insurance subsidiaries in 2011 is estimated to be $344.7 million. No

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assurance can be given that more stringent restrictions will not be adopted from time to time by states in which the Company's insurance subsidiaries are domiciled; such restrictions could have the effect, under certain circumstances, of significantly reducing dividends or other amounts payable to the Company by such subsidiaries without affirmative prior approval by state regulatory authorities.

        The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Reform Act") makes sweeping changes to the regulation of financial services entities, products and markets. Certain provisions of the Reform Act are or may become applicable to the Company, its competitors or those entities with which the Company does business, including but not limited to: the establishment of federal regulatory authority over derivatives, the establishment of consolidated federal regulation and resolution authority over systemically important financial services firms, the establishment of the Federal Insurance Office, changes to the regulation of broker dealers and investment advisors, changes to the regulation of reinsurance, changes to regulations affecting the rights of shareholders, the imposition of additional regulation over credit rating agencies, and the imposition of concentration limits on financial institutions that restrict the amount of credit that may be extended to a single person or entity. The Reform Act also creates the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), an independent division of the Department of Treasury with jurisdiction over credit, savings, payment, and other consumer financial products and services, other than investment products already regulated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") or the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Certain of the Company's subsidiaries sell products that may be regulated by the CFPB. Numerous provisions of the Reform Act require the adoption of implementing rules and/or regulations. In addition, the Reform Act mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislation or regulation applicable to the insurance industry, the Company, its competitors or the entities with which the Company does business. Legislative or regulatory requirements imposed by or promulgated in connection with the Reform Act may impact the Company in many ways, including but not limited to: placing the Company at a competitive disadvantage relative to its competition or other financial services entities, changing the competitive landscape of the financial services sector and/or the insurance industry, making it more expensive for the Company to conduct its business, requiring the reallocation of significant company resources to government affairs, legal and compliance-related activities, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on the overall business climate as well as the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

        The Company's insurance subsidiaries may be subject to regulation by the United States Department of Labor when providing a variety of products and services to employee benefit plans governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA"). Severe penalties are imposed for breach of duties under ERISA.

        Certain policies, contracts, and annuities offered by the Company's subsidiaries are subject to regulation under the federal securities laws administered by the SEC. The federal securities laws contain regulatory restrictions and criminal, administrative, and private remedial provisions.

        Additional issues related to regulation of the Company and its insurance subsidiaries are discussed in Item 1A, Risk Factors and Cautionary Factors that may Affect Future Results and in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included herein.

Employees

        As of December 31, 2010, the Company had approximately 2,315 employees, of which 2,303 were full-time and 12 were part-time employees. Included in the total were approximately 1,517 employees in Birmingham, Alabama, of which 1,508 were full-time and 9 were part-time employees. The Company believes its relations with its employees are satisfactory. Most employees are covered by contributory major medical, dental, vision, group life, and long-term disability insurance plans. The cost of these benefits to the Company in 2010 was approximately $11.6 million. In addition, substantially all of the employees are covered by a defined benefit pension plan. In 2010, 2009, and 2008, the Company also matched employee

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contributions to its 401(k) Plan. See Note 14, Stock-Based Compensation and Note 15, Employee Benefit Plans to consolidated financial statements for additional information.

Available Information

        The Company files reports with the SEC, including Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other reports as required. The public may read and copy any materials the Company files with the SEC at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The Company is an electronic filer and the SEC maintains an internet site at www.sec.gov that contains the reports, proxy and information statements, and other information filed electronically by the Company.

        The Company makes available free of charge through its website, www.protective.com, the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information found on the Company's website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC

        The Company also has available copies of the Company's Proxy Statement and the 2010 Annual Report to Shareowners which will be furnished to anyone who requests such documents from the Company. Requests for copies should be directed to: Shareowner Relations, Protective Life Corporation, P. O. Box 2606, Birmingham, Alabama 35202, Telephone (205) 268-3573, Fax (205) 268-5547.

Executive Officers

        As of February 21, 2011, the Company's executive officers were as follows:

Name
  Age   Position

John D. Johns

    59  

Chairman of the Board, President, Chief Executive Officer and a Director

Richard J. Bielen

    50  

Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer

Edward M. Berko

    53  

Executive Vice President, Chief Risk Officer

Carolyn M. Johnson

    50  

Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer

Deborah J. Long

    57  

Executive Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel

Carl S. Thigpen

    54  

Executive Vice President, Chief Investment Officer

D. Scott Adams

    46  

Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer

Brent E. Griggs

    55  

Senior Vice President, Asset Protection

Carolyn King

    60  

Senior Vice President, Acquisitions and Corporate Development

Steven G. Walker

    51  

Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer

Judy Wilson

    52  

Senior Vice President, Stable Value Products

        All executive officers are elected annually and serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. None of the executive officers are related to any director of the Company or to any other executive officer.

        Mr. Johns has been Chairman of the Board of the Company since January 2003, and President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since December 2001. He has been a Director of the Company since May 1997. Mr. Johns has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1993.

        Mr. Bielen has been Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of the Company since June 2007. From August 2006 to June 2007, Mr. Bielen served as Executive Vice President, Chief Investment Officer, and Treasurer of the Company. From January 2002 to August 2006, Mr. Bielen served as Senior Vice President, Chief Investment Officer, and Treasurer of the Company. Mr. Bielen has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1991.

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        Mr. Berko has been Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of the Company since August 2009. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Berko served as Managing Director and Chief Risk Officer with MetLife, Inc. from 2005 to 2009.

        Ms. Johnson has been Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Company since June 2007. From November 2006 to June 2007, she served as Senior Vice President and Chief Operations and Technology Officer of the Company. Ms. Johnson served as Senior Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, Life and Annuity of the Company from May 2006 to November 2006. From August 2004 to May 2006, she served as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Life and Annuity of Protective Life Insurance Company. Ms. Johnson has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 2004.

        Ms. Long has been Executive Vice President, Secretary, and General Counsel of the Company since May 2007. From November 1996 to May 2007, Ms. Long served as Senior Vice President, Secretary, and General Counsel of the Company. Ms. Long has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1994.

        Mr. Thigpen has been Executive Vice President and Chief Investments Officer of the Company since June 2007. From January 2002 to June 2007, Mr. Thigpen served as Senior Vice President and Chief Mortgage and Real Estate Officer of the Company. Mr. Thigpen has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1984.

        Mr. Adams has been Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of the Company since April 2006. From May 2005 to March 2006, he served as an Executive Search Consultant for the wealth and investment management business sector with Anderson & Associates in Charlotte, NC.

        Mr. Griggs has been Senior Vice President, Asset Protection, of the Company since February 2003. Mr. Griggs has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1997.

        Ms. King has been Senior Vice President, Acquisitions and Corporate Development, of the Company since June 2007. From December 2003 to June 2007, Ms. King served as Senior Vice President, Acquisitions of the Company. Ms. King has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1995.

        Mr. Walker has been Senior Vice President, Controller, and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company since March 2004. Mr. Walker has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 2002.

        Ms. Wilson has been Senior Vice President, Stable Value Products of the Company since January 1995. Ms. Wilson has been employed by the Company and its subsidiaries since 1989.

        Certain of these executive officers also serve as executive officers and/or directors of various of the Company's subsidiaries.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors and Cautionary Factors that may Affect Future Results

        The operating results of companies in the insurance industry have historically been subject to significant fluctuations. The factors which could affect the Company's future results include, but are not limited to, general economic conditions and the known trends and uncertainties which are discussed more fully below.

The Company is exposed to the risks of natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics, malicious acts, terrorist acts and climate change, which could adversely affect the Company's operations and results.

        While the Company has obtained insurance, implemented risk management and contingency plans, and taken preventive measures and other precautions, no predictions of specific scenarios can be made nor can assurance be given that there are not scenarios that could have an adverse effect on the Company. A natural or man-made catastrophe, pandemic, malicious act, terrorist act, or the occurrence of climate change, could adversely affect the mortality, morbidity, or other experience of the Company or its reinsurers and have a significant negative impact on the Company. In addition, claims arising from the occurrence of such events or conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Such events or conditions could also have an adverse effect on lapses and surrenders of existing policies, as well as sales of new policies.

        In addition, such events or conditions could result in a decrease or halt in economic activity in large geographic areas, adversely affecting the marketing or administration of the Company's business within such geographic areas and/or the general economic climate, which in turn could have an adverse affect on the Company. Such events or conditions could also result in additional regulation or restrictions on the Company in the conduct of its business. The possible macroeconomic effects of such events or conditions could also adversely affect the Company's asset portfolio, as well as many other aspects of the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The Company's strategies for mitigating risks arising from its day-to-day operations may prove ineffective resulting in a material adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition.

        The Company's performance is highly dependent on its ability to manage risks that arise from a large number of its day-to-day business activities, including underwriting, claims processing, policy administration and servicing, execution of its investment strategy, financial and tax reporting and other activities, many of which are very complex. The Company also may rely on third parties for such activities. The Company seeks to monitor and control its exposure to risks arising out of or related to these activities through a variety of internal controls, management review processes, and other mechanisms. However, the occurrence of unforeseen or un-contemplated risks, or the occurrence of risks of a greater magnitude than expected, including those arising from a failure in processes, procedures or systems implemented by the Company or a failure on the part of employees or third parties upon which the Company relies in this regard, may have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition or results of operations.

The Company operates in a mature, highly competitive industry, which could limit its ability to gain or maintain its position in the industry and negatively affect profitability.

        The insurance industry is a mature and highly competitive industry. In recent years, the industry has experienced reduced growth in life insurance sales. The Company encounters significant competition in all lines of business from other insurance companies, many of which have greater financial resources and higher ratings than the Company and which may have a greater market share, offer a broader range of products, services or features, assume a greater level of risk, have lower operating or financing costs, or have different profitability expectations than the Company. The Company also faces competition from other providers of financial services. Competition could result in, among other things, lower sales or higher lapses of existing products. Consolidation and expansion among banks, insurance companies distributors,

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and other financial service companies with which the Company does business could also have an adverse affect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations if such companies require more favorable terms than previously offered to the Company or if such companies elect not to continue to do business with the Company following consolidation or expansion.

        The Company's ability to compete is dependent upon, among other things, its ability to attract and retain distribution channels to market its insurance and investment products, its ability to develop competitive and profitable products, its ability to maintain low unit costs, and its maintenance of adequate ratings from rating agencies.

        As technology evolves, comparison of a particular product of any company for a particular customer with competing products for that customer is more readily available, which could lead to increased competition as well as agent or customer behavior, including persistency that differs from past behavior.

The Company operates as a holding company and depends on the ability of its subsidiaries to transfer funds to it to meet its obligations and pay dividends.

        The Company operates as a holding company for its insurance and other subsidiaries and does not have any significant operations of its own. The Company's primary sources of funding are dividends from its operating subsidiaries; revenues from investment, data processing, legal, and management services rendered to subsidiaries; investment income; and external financing. These funding sources support the Company's general corporate needs including its common stock dividends and debt service. If the funding the Company receives from its subsidiaries is insufficient for it to fund its debt service and other holding company obligations, it may be required to raise funds through the incurrence of debt, the issuance of additional equity, or the sale of assets.

        The states in which the Company's insurance subsidiaries are domiciled impose certain restrictions on the subsidiaries' ability to pay dividends and make other payments to the Company. State insurance regulators may prohibit the payment of dividends or other payments to the Company by its insurance subsidiaries if they determine that the payments could be adverse to the policyholders or contract holders of the insurance subsidiaries.

The Company's policy claims fluctuate from period to period resulting in earnings volatility.

        The Company's results may fluctuate from period to period due to fluctuations in the amount of policy claims received. In addition, certain of the Company's lines of business may experience higher claims if the economy is growing slowly or in recession, or if equity markets decline. Also, insofar as the Company continues to retain a larger percentage of the risk of newly written life products than it has in the past, its financial results may have greater variability due to fluctuations in mortality results.

A ratings downgrade or other negative action by a ratings organization could adversely affect the Company.

        Various Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations ("rating organizations") review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including the Company's insurance subsidiaries, and publish their financial strength ratings as indicators of an insurer's ability to meet policyholder and contract holder obligations. While ratings are not a recommendation to buy the Company's securities or products, these ratings are important to maintaining public confidence in the Company, its products, its ability to market its products, and its competitive position. A downgrade or other negative action by a ratings organization with respect to the financial strength ratings of the Company's insurance subsidiaries could adversely affect the Company in many ways, including the following: reducing new sales of insurance and investment products; adversely affecting relationships with distributors and sales agents; increasing the number or amount of policy surrenders and withdrawals of funds; requiring a reduction in prices for the Company's insurance products and services in order to remain competitive; and adversely affecting the Company's ability to obtain reinsurance at a reasonable price, on reasonable terms or at all. A downgrade

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of sufficient magnitude could result in the Company, its insurance subsidiaries, or both being required to collateralize reserves, balances or obligations under reinsurance, funding, swap, and securitization agreements. A downgrade of sufficient magnitude could also result in the termination of funding and swap agreements.

        Rating organizations also publish credit ratings for the Company. Credit ratings are indicators of a debt issuer's ability to meet the terms of debt obligations in a timely manner. These ratings are important to the Company's overall ability to access certain types of liquidity. Downgrades of the Company's credit ratings, or an announced potential downgrade, could have a material adverse affect on the Company's financial conditions and results of operations in many ways, including the following: limiting the Company's access to capital markets; increasing the cost of debt; impairing its ability to raise capital to refinance maturing debt obligations; limiting its capacity to support the growth of its insurance subsidiaries; requiring it to pay higher amounts in connection with certain existing or future financing arrangements or transactions; and making it more difficult to maintain or improve the current financial strength ratings of its insurance subsidiaries. A downgrade of sufficient magnitude, in combination with other factors, could require the Company to post collateral pursuant to certain contractual obligations.

        Rating organizations assign ratings based upon several factors. While most of the factors relate to the rated company, some of the factors relate to the views of the rating organization, general economic conditions, and circumstances outside the rated company's control. In addition, rating organizations use various models and formulas to assess the strength of a rated company, and from time to time rating organizations have, in their discretion, altered the models. Changes to the models could impact the rating organizations' judgment of the rating to be assigned to the rated company. The Company cannot predict what actions the rating organizations may take, or what actions the Company may take in response to the actions of the rating organizations, which could adversely affect the Company.

The Company's results and financial condition may be negatively affected should actual experience differ from management's assumptions and estimates.

        In the conduct of business, the Company makes certain assumptions regarding mortality, morbidity, persistency, expenses, interest rates, equity market volatility, tax liability, business mix, frequency and severity of claims, contingent liabilities, investment performance, and other factors appropriate to the type of business it expects to experience in future periods. These assumptions are also used to estimate the amounts of deferred policy acquisition costs, policy liabilities and accruals, future earnings, and various components of the Company's balance sheet. These assumptions are used in the operation of the Company's business in making decisions crucial to the success of the Company, including the pricing of products and expense structures relating to products. The Company's actual experience, as well as changes in estimates, are used to prepare the Company's statements of income. To the extent the Company's actual experience and changes in estimates differ from original estimates, the Company's financial condition may be affected.

        Mortality, morbidity, and casualty expectations incorporate assumptions about many factors, including for example, how a product is distributed, for what purpose the product is purchased, the mix of customers purchasing the products, persistency and lapses, future progress in the fields of health and medicine, and the projected level of used vehicle values. Actual mortality, morbidity, and/or casualty experience will differ from expectations if actual results differ from those assumptions. In addition, continued activity in the viatical, stranger-owned, and/or life settlement industry could cause the Company's level of lapses to differ from its assumptions about persistency and lapses, which could negatively impact the Company's performance.

        The calculations the Company uses to estimate various components of its balance sheet and statements of income are necessarily complex and involve analyzing and interpreting large quantities of data. The Company currently employs various techniques for such calculations. From time to time it

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develops and implements more sophisticated administrative systems and procedures capable of facilitating the calculation of more precise estimates.

        Assumptions and estimates involve judgment, and by their nature are imprecise and subject to changes and revisions over time. Accordingly, the Company's results may be affected, positively or negatively, from time to time, by actual results differing from assumptions, by changes in estimates, and by changes resulting from implementing more sophisticated administrative systems and procedures that facilitate the calculation of more precise estimates.

The Company's financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted if the Company's assumptions regarding the fair value and future performance of its investments differ from actual experience.

        The Company makes assumptions regarding the fair value and expected future performance of its investments. Expectations that the Company's investments in mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities will continue to perform in accordance with their contractual terms are based on assumptions a market participant would use in determining the current fair value and consider the performance of the underlying assets. It is reasonably possible that the underlying collateral of these investments will perform worse than current market expectations and that such reduced performance may lead to adverse changes in the cash flows on the Company's holdings of these types of securities. This could lead to potential future write-downs within the Company's portfolio of mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. In addition, expectations that the Company's investments in corporate securities and/or debt obligations will continue to perform in accordance with their contractual terms are based on evidence gathered through its normal credit surveillance process. It is possible that issuers of the Company's investments in corporate securities will perform worse than current expectations. Such events may lead the Company to recognize potential future write-downs within its portfolio of corporate securities. It is also possible that such unanticipated events would lead the Company to dispose of those certain holdings and recognize the effects of any market movements in its financial statements.

        As a result of illiquid markets, the Company also makes certain assumptions when utilizing internal models to value certain of its investments. It is possible that actual results will differ from the Company's assumptions. Such events could result in a material change in the value of the Company's investments.

The use of reinsurance introduces variability in the Company's statements of income.

        The timing of premium payments to and receipt of expense allowances from reinsurers differs from the Company's receipt of customer premium payments and incurrence of expenses. These timing differences introduce variability in certain components of the Company's statements of income and may also introduce variability in the Company's quarterly results.

The Company could be forced to sell investments at a loss to cover policyholder withdrawals.

        Many of the products offered by the Company allow policyholders and contract holders to withdraw their funds under defined circumstances. The Company manages its liabilities and configures its investment portfolios so as to provide and maintain sufficient liquidity to support expected withdrawal demands and contract benefits and maturities. While the Company owns a significant amount of liquid assets, a certain portion of its assets are relatively illiquid. If the Company experiences unexpected withdrawal or surrender activity, it could exhaust its liquid assets and be forced to liquidate other assets, perhaps at a loss or on other unfavorable terms. If the Company's forced to dispose of assets at a loss or on unfavorable terms, it could have an adverse effect on the Company's financial condition. The degree of the adverse effect could vary in relation to the magnitude of the unexpected surrender or withdrawal activity.

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Interest rate fluctuations or significant and sustained periods of low interest rates could negatively affect the Company's interest earnings and spread income, or otherwise impact its business.

        Significant changes in interest rates expose insurance companies to the risk of not earning anticipated interest earnings on products without significant account balances, or not realizing anticipated spreads between the interest rate earned on investments and the credited interest rates paid on outstanding policies and contracts that have significant account balances. Both rising and declining interest rates can negatively affect the Company's interest earnings and spread income.

        From time to time, the Company has participated in securities repurchase transactions that have contributed to the Company's investment income. No assurance can be given that such transactions will continue to be entered into and contribute to the Company's investment income in the future.

        Changes in interest rates may also impact the Company's business in other ways. Lower interest rates may result in lower sales of certain of the Company's insurance and investment products. Certain of the Company's insurance and investment products guarantee a minimum credited interest rate, and the Company could become unable to earn its spread income should interest rates decrease significantly. The Company's expectation for future interest earnings and spreads is an important component in amortization of deferred acquisition costs ("DAC") and value of business acquired ("VOBA") and significantly lower interest earnings or spreads may cause it to accelerate amortization, thereby reducing net income in the affected reporting period. Additionally, during periods of declining interest rates, life insurance and annuity products may be relatively more attractive investments to consumers, resulting in increased premium payments on products with flexible premium features, repayment of policy loans and increased persistency, or a higher percentage of insurance policies remaining in force from year to year during a period when the Company's investments carry lower returns. Significant and sustained periods of reduced interest rates could result in an increase in the valuation of the future policy benefit or policyholder account balance liabilities associated with the Company's variable products that have death benefit or withdrawal benefit guarantees.

        Higher interest rates may create a less favorable environment for the origination of mortgage loans and decrease the investment income the Company receives in the form of prepayment fees, make-whole payments, and mortgage participation income. Higher interest rates may also increase the cost of debt and other obligations having floating rate or rate reset provisions and may result in lower sales of variable products. During periods of increasing market interest rates, the Company may offer higher crediting rates on interest-sensitive products, such as universal life insurance and fixed annuities, and it may increase crediting rates on in-force products to keep these products competitive. In addition, rapidly rising interest rates may cause increased policy surrenders, withdrawals from life insurance policies and annuity contracts, and requests for policy loans as policyholders and contractholders shift assets into higher yielding investments. Increases in crediting rates, as well as surrenders and withdrawals, could have an adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

        Additionally, the Company's asset/liability management programs and procedures incorporate assumptions about the relationship between short-term and long-term interest rates (i.e., the slope of the yield curve) and relationships between risk-adjusted and risk-free interest rates, market liquidity, and other factors. The effectiveness of the Company's asset/liability management programs and procedures may be negatively affected whenever actual results differ from these assumptions.

        In general, the Company's results are improved when the yield curve is positively sloped (i.e., when long-term interest rates are higher than short-term interest rates), and will be adversely affected by a flat or negatively sloped curve.

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Equity market volatility could negatively impact the Company's business.

        Volatility in equity markets may discourage purchasers of variable separate account products, such as variable annuities, that have returns linked to the performance of equity markets and may cause some existing customers to withdraw cash values or reduce investments in those products. The amount of policy fees received from variable products is affected by the performance of the equity markets, increasing or decreasing as markets rise or fall.

        Equity market volatility can also affect the profitability of variable products in other ways, in particular as a result of death benefit and withdrawal benefit guarantees in these products. The estimated cost of providing guaranteed minimum death benefits ("GMDB") and guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits ("GMWB") incorporates various assumptions about the overall performance of equity markets over certain time periods. Periods of significant and sustained downturns in equity markets or increased equity market volatility could result in an increase in the valuation of the future policy benefit or policyholder account balance liabilities associated with such products, resulting in a reduction to net income.

        The amortization of DAC relating to variable products and the estimated cost of providing GMDB and GMWB incorporate various assumptions about the overall performance of equity markets over certain time periods. The rate of amortization of DAC and the cost of providing GMDB and GMWB could increase if equity market performance is worse than assumed.

The Company's use of derivative financial instruments within its risk management strategy may not be effective or sufficient.

        The Company uses derivative financial instruments within its risk management strategy to mitigate risks to which it is exposed, including the adverse affects of domestic and/or international equity market levels and volatility and interest rate fluctuations on its variable annuity products with guaranteed benefit features. These derivative financial instruments may not effectively offset the changes in the carrying value of the guarantees due to, among other things, the time lag between changes in the value of such guarantees and the changes in the value of the derivative financial instruments purchased by the Company, extreme interest rate and/or equity market conditions, contract holder behavior different from the Company's expectations, and divergence between the performance of the underlying funds of such variable annuity products with guaranteed benefit features and the indices utilized by the Company in estimating its exposure to such guarantees.

        The Company may also choose not to hedge, in whole or in part, these or other risks that it has identified, due to, for example, the availability and/or cost of a suitable derivative financial instrument or, in reaction to extreme interest rate or equity market conditions, a decision to not purchase a derivative financial instrument that fully hedges certain risks. Additionally, the Company's estimates and assumptions made in connection with its use of any derivative financial instrument may fail to reflect or correspond to its actual long-term exposure in respect to identified risks. Derivative financial instruments held or purchased by the Company may also otherwise be insufficient to hedge the risks in relation to the Company's obligations. In addition, the Company may fail to identify risks, or the magnitude thereof, to which it is exposed. The above factors, either alone or in combination, may have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

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The Company is highly regulated and subject to numerous legal restrictions and regulations.

        The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to government regulation in each of the states in which they conduct business. Such regulation is vested in state agencies having broad administrative and in some instances discretionary power dealing with many aspects of the Company's business, which may include, among other things, premium rates and increases thereto, underwriting practices, reserve requirements, marketing practices, advertising, privacy, policy forms, reinsurance reserve requirements, acquisitions, mergers, and capital adequacy, and is concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders and other customers rather than shareowners. In addition, some state insurance departments may enact rules or regulations with extra-territorial application, effectively extending their jurisdiction to areas such as permitted insurance company investments that are normally the province of an insurance company's domiciliary state regulator. At any given time, a number of financial and/or market conduct examinations of the Company's subsidiaries may be ongoing. From time to time, regulators raise issues during examinations or audits of the Company's subsidiaries that could, if determined adversely, have a material impact on the Company. The Company's insurance subsidiaries are required to obtain state regulatory approval for rate increases for certain health insurance products, and the Company's profits may be adversely affected if the requested rate increases are not approved in full by regulators in a timely fashion.

        Under insurance guaranty fund laws in most states, insurance companies doing business therein can be assessed up to prescribed limits for policyholder losses incurred by insolvent companies. The Company cannot predict the amount or timing of any future assessments.

        The purchase of life insurance products is limited by state insurable interest laws, which in most jurisdictions require that the purchaser of life insurance name a beneficiary that has some interest in the sustained life of the insured. To some extent, the insurable interest laws present a barrier to the life settlement, or "stranger-owned" industry, in which a financial entity acquires an interest in life insurance proceeds, and efforts have been made in some states to liberalize the insurable interest laws. To the extent these laws are relaxed, the Company's lapse assumptions may prove to be incorrect.

        Although the Company and its subsidiaries are subject to state regulation, in many instances the state regulatory models emanate from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC"). State insurance regulators and the NAIC regularly re-examine existing laws and regulations applicable to insurance companies and their products. Changes in these laws and regulations, or in interpretations thereof, are often made for the benefit of the consumer and at the expense of the insurer and, thus, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. The NAIC may also be influenced by the initiatives and regulatory structures or schemes of international regulatory bodies, and those initiatives or regulatory structures or schemes may not translate readily into the regulatory structures or schemes or the legal system (including the interpretation or application of standards by juries) under which U.S. insurers must operate. Application of such initiatives or regulatory structures or schemes to the Company could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

        The Company is also subject to the risk that compliance with any particular regulator's interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator's interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. There is an additional risk that any particular regulator's interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may change over time to the Company's detriment, or that changes to the overall legal or market environment may cause the Company to change its practices in ways that may, in some cases, limit its growth or profitability.

        Some of the NAIC pronouncements, particularly as they affect accounting issues, take effect automatically in the various states without affirmative action by the states. Statutes, regulations, and interpretations may be applied with retroactive impact, particularly in areas such as accounting and reserve requirements. Also, regulatory actions with prospective impact can potentially have a significant impact on

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currently sold products. The NAIC continues to work to reform state regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to life insurance reserves.

        At the federal level, bills are routinely introduced in both chambers of the United States Congress ("Congress") which could affect life insurers. In the past, Congress has considered legislation that would impact insurance companies in numerous ways, such as providing for an optional federal charter. The Company cannot predict whether or in what form reforms will be enacted and, if so, whether the enacted reforms will positively or negatively affect the Company or whether any effects will be material.

        On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (the "Healthcare Act") into law. The Healthcare Act makes significant changes to the regulation of health insurance, imposing various conditions and requirements on the Company. The Healthcare Act may affect the small blocks of business the Company has offered or acquired over the years that is, or is deemed to be health insurance. The Healthcare Act may also affect the benefit plans the Company sponsors for employees or retirees and their dependents, the Company's expense to provide such benefits, the tax liabilities of the Company in connection with the provision of such benefits, the deductibility of certain compensation, and the Company's ability to attract or retain employees. In addition, the Company may be subject to regulations, guidance or determinations emanating from the various regulatory authorities authorized under the Healthcare Act. The Company cannot predict the effect that the Healthcare Act, or any regulatory pronouncement made thereunder, will have on its results of operations or financial condition.

        The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Reform Act") makes sweeping changes to the regulation of financial services entities, products and markets. Certain provisions of the Reform Act are or may become applicable to the Company, its competitors or those entities with which the Company does business, including but not limited to: the establishment of federal regulatory authority over derivatives, the establishment of consolidated federal regulation and resolution authority over systemically important financial services firms, the establishment of the Federal Insurance Office, changes to the regulation of broker dealers and investment advisors, changes to the regulation of reinsurance, changes to regulations affecting the rights of shareholders, the imposition of additional regulation over credit rating agencies, and the imposition of concentration limits on financial institutions that restrict the amount of credit that may be extended to a single person or entity. The Reform Act also creates the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), an independent division of the Department of Treasury with jurisdiction over credit, savings, payment, and other consumer financial products and services, other than investment products already regulated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") or the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Certain of the Company's subsidiaries sell products that may be regulated by the CFPB. Numerous provisions of the Reform Act require the adoption of implementing rules and/or regulations. In addition, the Reform Act mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislation or regulation applicable to the insurance industry, the Company, its competitors or the entities with which the Company does business. Legislative or regulatory requirements imposed by or promulgated in connection with the Reform Act may impact the Company in many ways, including but not limited to: placing the Company at a competitive disadvantage relative to its competition or other financial services entities, changing the competitive landscape of the financial services sector and/or the insurance industry, making it more expensive for the Company to conduct its business, requiring the reallocation of significant company resources to government affairs, legal and compliance-related activities, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on the overall business climate as well as the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

        The Company's subsidiaries may also be subject to regulation by the United States Department of Labor when providing a variety of products and services to employee benefit plans governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA"). Severe penalties are imposed for breach of duties under ERISA.

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        The Company may be subject to regulation by governments of the countries in which it currently, or may in the future, do business, as well as regulation by the U.S. Government with respect to its operations in foreign countries, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

        Certain policies, contracts, and annuities offered by the Company's subsidiaries are subject to regulation under the federal securities laws administered by the SEC. The federal securities laws contain regulatory restrictions and criminal, administrative, and private remedial provisions.

        Other types of regulation that could affect the Company and its subsidiaries include insurance company investment laws and regulations, state statutory accounting practices, anti-trust laws, minimum solvency requirements, state securities laws, federal privacy laws, insurable interest laws, federal anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism laws, and because the Company owns and operates real property, state, federal, and local environmental laws.

        The Company cannot predict what form any future changes to laws and/or regulations affecting participants in the financial services sector and/or insurance industry, including the Company and its competitors or those entities with which it does business, may take, or what effect, if any, such changes may have.

Changes to tax law or interpretations of existing tax law could adversely affect the Company and its ability to compete with non-insurance products or reduce the demand for certain insurance products.

        Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), income tax payable by policyholders on investment earnings is deferred during the accumulation period of certain life insurance and annuity products. This favorable tax treatment may give certain of the Company's products a competitive advantage over other non-insurance products. To the extent that the Code is revised to reduce the tax-deferred status of life insurance and annuity products, or to increase the tax-deferred status of competing products, all life insurance companies, including the Company's subsidiaries, would be adversely affected with respect to their ability to sell such products, and, depending upon grandfathering provisions, would be affected by the surrenders of existing annuity contracts and life insurance policies. For example, changes in laws or regulations could restrict or eliminate the advantages of certain corporate or bank-owned life insurance products. Changes in tax law, which have reduced the federal income tax rates on corporate dividends in certain circumstances, could make the tax advantages of investing in certain life insurance or annuity products less attractive. Additionally, changes in tax law based on proposals to establish new tax advantaged retirement and life savings plans, if enacted, could reduce the tax advantage of investing in certain life insurance or annuity products. In addition, life insurance products are often used to fund estate tax obligations. Legislation was enacted in 2001 that reduced the federal estate tax in years 2001 through 2009 and then completely it in 2010. This legislation sunsetted at the end of 2010, thus reinstating the tax at its pre-2001 level in 2011 and thereafter. During 2010, Congress enacted legislation that reduced the tax in years 2011 and 2012 from what it would have been pursuant to the 2001 legislation. In the absence of further action by Congress, the federal estate tax will revert back to its pre-2001 level in 2013 and thereafter. If the estate tax is significantly reduced or eliminated again in the future, the demand for certain life insurance products could be adversely affected. Additionally, the Company is subject to the federal corporation income tax, but currently benefits from certain tax benefits, including but not limited to, dividends-received deductions and insurance reserve deductions. Due to a number of factors, including the recent financial crisis and ongoing proposals from the U.S. Department of the Treasury, there is a risk that federal and/or state tax legislation could be enacted that would result in higher taxes on life insurance companies, such as the Company's insurance subsidiaries and/or policyholders. Whether such legislation will be enacted, and if so, the substance of such legislation is uncertain. However, if such legislation is enacted, it could include lessening or eliminating some or all of the tax advantages currently benefiting the Company, including those listed above. The Company cannot predict what changes to tax law or interpretations of existing tax law may ultimately be enacted or adopted or whether such changes could adversely affect the Company.

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        The Company's move away from relying on reinsurance for newly written traditional life products results in a net reduction of current taxes (but an increase in deferred taxes). The resulting benefit of reduced current taxes is attributed to the applicable life products and is an important component of the profitability of these products. The profitability and competitive position of these products is dependent on the continuation of current tax law and the ability to generate taxable income.

The Company may be required to establish a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets, which could materially adversely affect the Company's results of operations, financial condition, and capital position.

        Deferred tax assets refer to assets that are attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets in essence represent future savings of taxes that would otherwise be paid in cash. The realization of the deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of sufficient future taxable income, including capital gains. If it is determined that the deferred tax assets cannot be realized, a deferred tax valuation allowance must be established, with a corresponding charge to net income.

        Based on the Company's current assessment of future taxable income, including available tax planning opportunities, the Company anticipates that it is more likely than not that it will generate sufficient taxable income to realize its material deferred tax assets. If future events differ from the Company's current forecasts, a valuation allowance may need to be established, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, financial condition, and capital position.

Financial services companies are frequently the targets of litigation, including class action litigation, which could result in substantial judgments.

        A number of civil jury verdicts have been returned against insurers, broker-dealers, and other providers of financial services involving sales, underwriting practices, product design, product disclosure, administration, denial or delay of benefits, charging excessive or impermissible fees, recommending unsuitable products to customers, breaching fiduciary or other duties to customers, refund or claims practices, alleged agent misconduct, failure to properly supervise representatives, relationships with agents or other persons with whom the insurer does business, payment of sales or other contingent commissions, and other matters. Often these lawsuits have resulted in the award of substantial judgments that are disproportionate to the actual damages, including material amounts of punitive non-economic compensatory damages. In some states, juries, judges, and arbitrators have substantial discretion in awarding punitive and non-economic compensatory damages, which creates the potential for unpredictable material adverse judgments or awards in any given lawsuit or arbitration. Arbitration awards are subject to very limited appellate review. In addition, in some class action and other lawsuits, companies have made material settlement payments.

        Group health coverage issued through associations and credit insurance coverages have received some negative publicity in the media as well as increased regulatory consideration and review and litigation. The Company has a small closed block of group health insurance coverage that was issued to members of an association; a purported class action lawsuit is currently pending against the Company in connection with this business.

        A number of lawsuits and investigations regarding the method of paying claims have been initiated against life insurers. The Company offers payment methods that may be similar to those that have been the subject of such lawsuits and investigations.

        The Company, like other financial services companies in the ordinary course of business, is involved in litigation and arbitration. Although the Company cannot predict the outcome of any litigation or arbitration, the Company does not believe that any such outcome will have a material impact on the financial condition or results of operations of the Company.

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Publicly held companies in general and the financial services industry in particular are sometimes the target of law enforcement investigations and the focus of increased regulatory scrutiny.

        Publicly held companies in general and the financial services and insurance industries in particular are sometimes the target of law enforcement and regulatory investigations relating to the numerous laws and regulations that govern such companies. Some companies have been the subject of law enforcement or other actions resulting from such investigations. Resulting publicity about one company may generate inquiries into or litigation against other publicly held companies and/or financial service providers, even those who do not engage in the business lines or practices at issue in the original action. It is impossible to predict the outcome of such investigations or actions, whether they will expand into other areas not yet contemplated, whether they will result in changes in insurance regulation, whether activities currently thought to be lawful will be characterized as unlawful, or the impact, if any, of such scrutiny on the financial services and insurance industry or the Company. From time to time, the Company receives subpoenas, requests, or other inquires and responds to them in the ordinary course of business.

The Company's ability to maintain competitive unit costs is dependent upon the level of new sales and persistency of existing business.

        The Company's ability to maintain competitive unit costs is dependent upon a number of factors, such as the level of new sales, persistency (continuation or renewal) of existing business, and expense management. A decrease in sales or persistency without a corresponding reduction in expenses may result in higher unit costs.

        Additionally, a decrease in persistency may result in higher or more rapid amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs and thus higher unit costs, and lower reported earnings. Although many of the Company's products contain surrender charges, the charges decrease over time and may not be sufficient to cover the unamortized deferred policy acquisition costs with respect to the insurance policy or annuity contract being surrendered. Some of the Company's products do not contain surrender charge features and such products can be surrendered or exchanged without penalty. A decrease in persistency may also result in higher claims.

The Company's investments are subject to market, credit, legal, and regulatory risks. These risks could be heightened during periods of extreme volatility or disruption in financial and credit markets.

        The Company's invested assets and derivative financial instruments are subject to customary risks of credit defaults and changes in market values. These risks could be heightened during periods of extreme volatility or disruption in the financial and credit markets. A widening of credit spreads will increase the unrealized losses in the Company's investment portfolio. The factors affecting the financial and credit markets could lead to other-than-temporary impairments of assets in the Company's investment portfolio.

        The value of the Company's commercial mortgage loan portfolio depends in part on the financial condition of the tenants occupying the properties that the Company has financed. Factors that may affect the overall default rate on, and market value of, the Company's invested assets, derivative financial instruments, and mortgage loans include interest rate levels, financial market performance, and general economic conditions as well as particular circumstances affecting the businesses of individual borrowers and tenants.

        Significant continued financial and credit market volatility, changes in interest rates, credit spreads, credit defaults, real estate values, market illiquidity, declines in equity prices, acts of corporate malfeasance, ratings downgrades of the issuers or guarantors of these investments, and declines in general economic conditions, either alone or in combination, could have a material adverse impact on the Company's results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows through realized losses, impairments, changes in unrealized loss positions, and increased demands on capital. In addition, market volatility can make it difficult for the Company to value certain of its assets, especially if trading becomes less frequent.

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Valuations may include assumptions or estimates that may have significant period-to-period changes that could have an adverse impact on the Company's results of operations or financial condition.

        In addition, Congress and various regulatory agencies have recently considered several proposals being considered by Congress and various agencies that would facilitate or require servicers of residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS") to modify the principal amount of, and/or restructure the amounts payable pursuant to, the residential mortgage loans underlying such securities. Similarly, Congress has recently considered several proposals that would grant a bankruptcy court the ability to modify or restructure the payments owing on mortgage loans, which loan modifications could result in a discharge of underlying principal amounts. To the extent a principal loss is imposed by a bankruptcy court (a so-called "cramdown"), under some RMBS structures, the loss would be allocated among the various tranches differently than would a loss resulting from foreclosure, and thus under some RMBS structures could have a disproportionate effect on the higher rated tranches. The Company is unable to predict whether such proposals will continue to be considered and, if approved, what specific impact such proposals would have on its fixed income investment portfolio. However, a reduction in the principal amount of the mortgage loans securing a RMBS in the Company's portfolio could result in, among other things, a ratings downgrade of the individual RMBS, a reduction in the market value of the RMBS, and/or accelerated loss of principal on the RMBS. The occurrence of these events could have a material adverse impact on the Company's capital position for regulatory and other purposes, its business, and its results of operations.

The Company may not realize its anticipated financial results from its acquisitions strategy.

        The Company's acquisitions of companies and acquisitions or coinsurance of blocks of insurance business have increased its earnings in part by allowing the Company to position itself to realize certain operating efficiencies. However, there can be no assurance that the Company will have future suitable opportunities for, or sufficient capital available to fund, such transactions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company will realize the anticipated financial results from such transactions. The financial distress experienced by certain financial services industry participants as a result of continued challenging economic conditions may lead to favorable acquisition opportunities, although the Company's ability to pursue such opportunities may be limited due to a lack of access to sources of financing or other factors.

        The Company may be unable to complete an acquisition transaction. Completion of an acquisition transaction may be more costly or take longer than expected, or may have a different or more costly financing structure than initially contemplated. In addition, the Company may not be able to complete or manage multiple acquisition transactions at the same time, or the completion of such transactions may be delayed or be more costly than initially contemplated. The Company or other parties to the transaction, may be unable to obtain regulatory approvals required to complete an acquisition transaction. There may also be unforeseen liabilities that arise in connection with businesses or blocks of insurance business that the Company acquires.

        Additionally, in connection with its acquisition transactions that involve reinsurance, the Company assumes, or otherwise becomes responsible for, the obligations of policies and other liabilities of other insurers. Any regulatory, legal, financial, or other adverse development affecting the other insurer could also have an adverse affect on the Company.

The Company is dependent on the performance of others.

        The Company's results may be affected by the performance of others because the Company has entered into various arrangements involving other parties. For example, most of the Company's products are sold through independent distribution channels, variable annuity deposits are invested in funds managed by third parties, and certain modified coinsurance assets are managed by third parties. Also, a substantial portion of the United Investors Life Insurance Company acquired business is currently being

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administered by an affiliate of the seller. Additionally, the Company's operations are dependent on various technologies, some of which are provided and/or maintained by other parties. Any of the other parties upon which the Company depends may default on their obligations to the Company due to bankruptcy, insolvency, lack of liquidity, adverse economic conditions, operational failure, fraud, or other reasons. Such defaults could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

        Certain of these other parties may act on behalf of the Company or represent the Company in various capacities. Consequently, the Company may be held responsible for obligations that arise from the acts or omissions of these other parties.

        As with all financial services companies, the Company's ability to conduct business is dependent upon consumer confidence in the industry and its products. Actions of competitors and financial difficulties of other companies in the industry could undermine consumer confidence and adversely affect retention of existing business and future sales of the Company's insurance and investment products.

The Company's reinsurers could fail to meet assumed obligations, increase rates, or be subject to adverse developments that could affect the Company.

        The Company and its insurance subsidiaries cede material amounts of insurance and transfer related assets to other insurance companies through reinsurance. However, notwithstanding the transfer of related assets or other issues, the Company remains liable with respect to ceded insurance should any reinsurer fail to meet the assumed obligations. Therefore, the failure, insolvency, or inability or unwillingness to pay under the terms of the reinsurance agreement with the Company of one or more of the Company's reinsurers could negatively impact the Company's earnings and financial position.

        The Company's ability to compete is influenced by the availability of reinsurance. Premium rates charged by the Company are based, in part, on the assumption that reinsurance will be available at a certain cost. Under certain reinsurance agreements, the reinsurer may increase the rate it charges the Company for the reinsurance. Therefore, if the cost of reinsurance were to increase, if reinsurance were to become unavailable, if alternatives to reinsurance were not available to the Company, or if a reinsurer should fail to meet its obligations, the Company could be adversely affected.

        Recently, access to reinsurance has become more costly for the Company as well as the insurance industry in general. This could have a negative effect on the Company's ability to compete. In recent years, the number of life reinsurers has decreased as the reinsurance industry has consolidated. The decreased number of participants in the life reinsurance market results in increased concentration of risk for insurers, including the Company. If the reinsurance market further contracts, the Company's ability to continue to offer its products on terms favorable to it could be adversely impacted.

        In addition, reinsurers are facing many challenges regarding illiquid credit and/or capital markets, investment downgrades, rating agency downgrades, deterioration of general economic conditions, and other factors negatively impacting the financial services industry. If such events cause a reinsurer to fail to meet its obligations, the Company would be adversely impacted.

        The Company has implemented a reinsurance program through the use of captive reinsurers. Under these arrangements, an insurer owned by the Company serves as the reinsurer, and the consolidated books and tax returns of the Company reflects a liability consisting of the full reserve amount attributable to the reinsured business. The success of the Company's captive reinsurance program is dependent on a number of factors outside the control of the Company, including continued access to financial solutions, a favorable regulatory environment, and the overall tax position of the Company. If the captive reinsurance program is not successful, the Company would be adversely impacted.

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The occurrence of computer viruses, network security breaches, disasters, or other unanticipated events could affect the data processing systems of the Company or its business partners and could damage the Company's business and adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.

        A computer virus could affect the data processing systems of the Company or its business partners, destroying valuable data or making it difficult to conduct business. In addition, despite the Company's implementation of network security measures, its servers could be subject to physical and electronic break-ins and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with its computer systems.

        The Company retains confidential information in its computer systems and relies on sophisticated commercial technologies to maintain the security of those systems. Anyone who is able to circumvent the Company's security measures and penetrate the Company's computer systems could access, view, misappropriate, alter, or delete any information in the systems, including personally identifiable customer information, customer financial information, and proprietary business information. In addition, an increasing number of states require that customers be notified of unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of their information. Any compromise of the security of the Company's computer systems that results in inappropriate access, use, or disclosure of personally identifiable customer information could damage the Company's reputation in the marketplace, deter people from purchasing the Company's products, subject the Company to significant civil and criminal liability, and require the Company to incur significant technical, legal, and other expenses.

        In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a blackout, or a terrorist attack or war, the Company's computer systems may be inaccessible to its employees, customers, or business partners for an extended period of time. Even if the Company's employees are able to report to work, they may be unable to perform their duties for an extended period of time if the Company's data or systems are disabled or destroyed.

The Company's ability to grow depends in large part upon the continued availability of capital.

        The Company deploys significant amounts of capital to support its sales and acquisitions efforts. Although the Company believes it has sufficient capital to fund its immediate capital needs, the amount of capital available can vary significantly from period to period due to a variety of circumstances, some of which are not predictable, foreseeable, or within the Company's control. A lack of sufficient capital could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

New accounting rules, changes to existing accounting rules, or the grant of permitted accounting practices to competitors could negatively impact the Company.

        Like all publicly traded companies, the Company is required to comply with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). A number of organizations are instrumental in the development and interpretation of GAAP such as the SEC, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"), and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants ("AICPA"). GAAP is subject to constant review by these organizations and others in an effort to address emerging accounting rules and issue interpretative accounting guidance on a continual basis. The Company can give no assurance that future changes to GAAP will not have a negative impact on the Company. GAAP includes the requirement to carry certain investments and insurance liabilities at fair value. These fair values are sensitive to various factors including, but not limited to, interest rate movements, credit spreads, and various other factors. Because of this, changes in these fair values may cause increased levels of volatility in the Company's financial statements.

        The SEC has proposed that filers in the United States be required to report financial results in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, rather than GAAP. As currently proposed, the earliest this would become effective would begin with a large accelerated filer's fiscal year 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K. For

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large accelerated filers, the earliest reporting period for which the proposal would be effective would be 2014. For non-accelerated filers, the earliest reporting period for which the proposal would be effective would be fiscal year 2015. However, the report filed by issuers on Form 10-K for the first year in which such filer is required to report financial results in accordance with IFRS must include financial statements for the fiscal year of the report, as well as the two preceding fiscal years. Thus, a filer adopting IFRS in 2014 would need to file audited IFRS financial statements for fiscal years 2012, 2013, and 2014 in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended 2014. Despite the movement toward convergence of GAAP and IFRS, adherence to IFRS will be a complete change to the Company's accounting and reporting, and converting to IFRS will impose special demands on issuers in the areas of governance, employee training, internal controls, contract fulfillment, and disclosure. As convergence of GAAP and IFRS continues, it could result in significant changes in GAAP that would be implemented whether or not a transition to IFRS actually occurs. The changes to GAAP and ultimate conversion to IFRS will likely affect how the Company manages its business, as it will likely affect other business processes such as the design of compensation plans, product design, etc. The Company is unable to predict whether, and if so, when this proposal will be adopted and/or implemented.

        In addition, the Company's insurance subsidiaries are required to comply with statutory accounting principles ("SAP"). SAP and various components of SAP (such as actuarial reserving methodology) are subject to constant review by the NAIC and its task forces and committees as well as state insurance departments in an effort to address emerging issues and otherwise improve or alter financial reporting. Various proposals either are currently or have previously been pending before committees and task forces of the NAIC, some of which, if enacted, would negatively affect the Company. The NAIC is also currently working to reform model regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to life insurance reserves and the accounting for such reserves. The Company cannot predict whether or in what form reforms will be enacted by state legislatures and, if so, whether the enacted reforms will positively or negatively affect the Company. In addition, the NAIC Accounting Practices and Procedures manual provides that state insurance departments may permit insurance companies domiciled therein to depart from SAP by granting them permitted accounting practices. The Company cannot predict whether or when the insurance departments of the states of domicile of its competitors may permit them to utilize advantageous accounting practices that depart from SAP, the use of which is not permitted by the insurance departments of the states of domicile of the Company's insurance subsidiaries. With respect to regulations and guidelines, states sometimes defer to the interpretation of the insurance department of the state of domicile. Neither the action of the domiciliary state nor action of the NAIC is binding on a state. Accordingly, a state could choose to follow a different interpretation. The Company can give no assurance that future changes to SAP or components of SAP or the grant of permitted accounting practices to its competitors will not have a negative impact on the Company.

The Company's risk management policies, practices, and procedures could leave it exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risks, which could negatively affect its business or result in losses.

        The Company has developed risk management policies and procedures and expects to continue to enhance these in the future. Nonetheless, the Company's policies and procedures to identify, monitor, and manage both internal and external risks may not predict future exposures, which could be different or significantly greater than expected.

        These identified risks may not be the only risks facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company, or that it currently deems to be immaterial, may adversely affect its business, financial condition and/or operating results.

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Credit market volatility or disruption could adversely impact the Company's financial condition or results from operations.

        Significant volatility or disruption in credit markets could have an adverse impact in several ways on either the Company's financial condition or results from operations. Changes in interest rates and credit spreads could cause market price and cash flow variability in the fixed income instruments in the Company's investment portfolio. Significant volatility and lack of liquidity in the credit markets could cause issuers of the fixed-income securities in the Company's investment portfolio to default on either principal or interest payments on these securities. Additionally, market price valuations may not accurately reflect the underlying expected cash flows of securities within the Company's investment portfolio.

        The Company's statutory surplus is also impacted by widening credit spreads as a result of the accounting for the assets and liabilities on its fixed market value adjusted ("MVA") annuities. Statutory separate account assets supporting the fixed MVA annuities are recorded at fair value. In determining the statutory reserve for the fixed MVA annuities, the Company is required to use current crediting rates based on U.S. Treasuries. In many capital market scenarios, current crediting rates based on U.S. Treasuries are highly correlated with market rates implicit in the fair value of statutory separate account assets. As a result, the change in the statutory reserve from period to period will likely substantially offset the change in the fair value of the statutory separate account assets. However, in periods of volatile credit markets, actual credit spreads on investment assets may increase sharply for certain sub-sectors of the overall credit market, resulting in statutory separate account asset market value losses. Credit spreads are not consistently fully reflected in crediting rates based on U.S. Treasuries, and the calculation of statutory reserves will not substantially offset the change in fair value of the statutory separate account assets resulting in reductions in statutory surplus. This situation would result in the need to devote significant additional capital to support fixed MVA annuity products.

        Volatility or disruption in the credit markets could also impact the Company's ability to efficiently access financial solutions for purposes of issuing long-term debt for financing purposes, its ability to obtain financial solutions for purposes of supporting certain traditional and universal life insurance products for capital management purposes, or result in an increase in the cost of existing securitization structures.

        The ability of the Company to implement financing solutions designed to fund a portion of statutory reserves on both the traditional and universal life blocks of business is dependent upon factors such as the ratings of the Company, the size of the blocks of business affected, the mortality experience of the Company, the credit markets, and other factors. The Company cannot predict the continued availability of such solutions or the form that the market may dictate. To the extent that such financing solutions are not available, the Company's financial position could be adversely affected through impacts including, but not limited to, higher borrowing costs, surplus strain, lower sales capacity, and possible reduced earnings expectations.

Disruption of the capital and credit markets could negatively affect the Company's ability to meet its liquidity and financing needs.

        The Company needs liquidity to meet its obligations to its policyholders and its debt holders, and to pay its operating expenses. The Company's sources of liquidity include insurance premiums, annuity considerations, deposit funds, cash flow from investments and assets, and other income from its operations. In normal credit and capital market conditions, the Company's sources of liquidity also include a variety of short and long-term borrowing arrangements, including issuing debt securities, as well as raising capital by issuing a variety of equity securities.

        The Company's business is dependent on the capital and credit markets, including confidence in such markets. When the credit and capital markets are disrupted and confidence is eroded the Company may not be able to borrow or raise equity capital, or the cost of borrowing or raising equity capital may be prohibitively high. If the Company's internal sources of liquidity are inadequate during such periods, the

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Company could suffer negative effects from not being able to borrow or raise capital, or from having to do so on unfavorable terms. The negative effects could include being forced to sell assets at a loss, a lowering of the Company's credit ratings and the financial strength ratings of its insurance subsidiaries, and the possibility that customers, lenders, shareholders, ratings agencies, or regulators develop a negative perception of the Company's financial prospects, which could lead to further adverse effects on the Company.

Difficult conditions in the economy generally could adversely affect the Company's business and results from operations.

        A general economic slowdown could adversely affect the Company in many ways, including but not limited to, consumer behavior and pressure on the Company's investment portfolios. Consumer behavior could include decreased demand for the Company's products and elevated levels of policy lapses, policy loans, withdrawals, and surrenders. The Company's investment and mortgage loan portfolios could be adversely affected as a result of deteriorating financial and business conditions affecting the issuers of the securities in the Company's investment portfolio and the Company's commercial mortgage loan borrowers and their tenants.

Deterioration of general economic conditions could result in a severe and extended economic recession, which could materially adversely affect the Company's business and results of operations.

        On September 20, 2010, the National Bureau of Economic Research officially declared that the United States economy began to recover in June 2009 from the recession that began in December 2007. However, in making its announcement, it further stated that economic conditions since June 2009 have not been favorable nor has the economy returned to normal operating capacity. While economic indicators have fluctuated throughout 2010, continued concerns over a weakened labor market, deficit spending, the value of the U.S. dollar, the availability and cost of credit, and sustained declines in the housing market continue to exert negative pressure on the consumer confidence index.

        Like other financial institutions, and particularly life insurers, the Company has been adversely affected by these conditions. The continued presence of these conditions could have an adverse impact on the Company by, among other things, exerting downward pressure on the price of the Company's stock, decreasing demand for its insurance and investment products, and increasing the level of lapses and surrenders of its policies. The Company and its subsidiaries could also experience additional ratings downgrades from ratings agencies, unrealized losses, significant realized losses, impairments in its investment portfolio, and charges incurred as a result of mark-to-market and fair value accounting principles. If the current economic conditions worsen, the Company's ability to access sources of capital and liquidity may be further limited.

        Economic trends may worsen in 2011, thus contributing to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and markets. The Company cannot predict the occurrence of economic trends or the likelihood or timing of improvement in such trends.

The Company may not be able to protect its intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.

        The Company relies on a combination of contractual rights and copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws to establish and protect its intellectual property. Although the Company uses a broad range of measures to protect its intellectual property rights, third parties may infringe or misappropriate its intellectual property. The Company may have to litigate to enforce and protect its copyrights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets, and know-how or to determine their scope, validity, or enforceability, which represents a diversion of resources that may be significant in amount and may not prove successful. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to secure or enforce the protection of the Company's intellectual property assets could have a material adverse effect on its business and ability to compete.

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        The Company also may be subject to costly litigation in the event that another party alleges its operations or activities infringe upon that party's intellectual property rights. Third parties may have, or may eventually be issued, patents that could be infringed by the Company's products, methods, processes, or services. Any party that holds such a patent could make a claim of infringement against the Company. The Company may also be subject to claims by third parties for breach of copyright, trademark, trade secret, or license usage rights. Any such claims and any resulting litigation could result in significant liability for damages. If the Company were found to have infringed a third party patent or other intellectual property rights, it could incur substantial liability, and in some circumstances could be enjoined from providing certain products or services to its customers or utilizing and benefiting from certain methods, processes, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, or licenses, or alternatively could be required to enter into costly licensing arrangements with third parties, all of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations, and financial condition.

The Company could be adversely affected by an inability to access its credit facility.

        The Company relies on its credit facility as a potential source of liquidity. The availability of these funds could be critical to the Company's credit and financial strength ratings and its ability to meet obligations, particularly when alternative sources of credit are either difficult to access or costly. The availability of the Company's credit facility is dependent in part on the ability of the lenders to provide funds under the facility. The Company's credit facility contains various affirmative and negative covenants and events of default, including covenants requiring the Company to maintain a specified minimum consolidated net worth. The Company's right to make borrowings under the facility is subject to the fulfillment of certain conditions, including its compliance with all covenants. The Company's failure to comply with the covenants in the credit facility could restrict its ability to access this credit facility when needed. The Company's inability to access some or all of the line or credit under the credit facility could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The amount of statutory capital that the Company has and the amount of statutory capital that it must hold to maintain its financial strength and credit ratings and meet other requirements can vary significantly from time to time and is sensitive to a number of factors outside of the Company's control.

        The Company primarily conducts business through licensed insurance company subsidiaries. Insurance regulators have established regulations that provide minimum capitalization requirements based on risk-based capital ("RBC") formulas for life and property and casualty companies. The RBC formula for life insurance companies establishes capital requirements relating to insurance, business, asset, interest rate, and certain other risks.

        In any particular year, statutory surplus amounts and RBC ratios may increase or decrease depending on a variety of factors; the amount of statutory income or losses generated by the Company's insurance subsidiaries (which itself is sensitive to equity market and credit market conditions), the amount of additional capital its insurance subsidiaries must hold to support business growth, changes in the Company's reserve requirements, the Company's ability to secure capital market solutions to provide reserve relief, changes in equity market levels, the value of certain fixed-income and equity securities in its investment portfolio, the credit ratings of investments held in its portfolio, the value of certain derivative instruments, changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, credit market volatility, changes in consumer behavior, as well as changes to the NAIC RBC formula. Most of these factors are outside of the Company's control. The Company's financial strength and credit ratings are significantly influenced by the statutory surplus amounts and RBC ratios of its insurance company subsidiaries. Rating agencies may implement changes to their internal models that have the effect of increasing or decreasing the amount of statutory capital the Company must hold in order to maintain its current ratings. In addition, rating agencies may downgrade the investments held in the Company's portfolio, which could result in a reduction of the Company's capital and surplus and/or its RBC ratio.

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        In scenarios of equity market declines, the amount of additional statutory reserves the Company is required to hold for its variable product guarantees may increase at a rate greater than the rate of change of the markets. Increases in reserves could result in a reduction to the Company's capital, surplus, and/or RBC ratio. Also, in environments where there is not a correlative relationship between interest rates and spreads, the Company's market value adjusted annuity product can have a material adverse effect on the Company's statutory surplus position.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

        None.

Item 2.    Properties

        The Company's home office is located at 2801 Highway 280 South, Birmingham, Alabama. The Company owns two buildings consisting of 310,000 square feet constructed in two phases. Building 1 was constructed in 1974 and Building 2 was constructed in 1982. Additionally, the Company leases a third 310,000 square-foot building constructed in 2004. Parking is provided for approximately 2,594 vehicles.

        The Company leases administrative and marketing office space in 20 cities, including 23,586 square feet in Birmingham (excluding the home office building), with most leases being for periods of three to ten years. The aggregate annualized rent is approximately $8.3 million.

        The Company believes its properties are adequate and suitable for the Company's business as currently conducted and are adequately maintained. The above properties do not include properties the Company owns for investment only.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

        To the knowledge and in the opinion of management, there are no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business of the Company, to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of our properties is the subject. For additional information regarding legal proceedings see Item 1A, Risk Factors and Cautionary Factors that may Affect Future Results included herein.

Item 4.    Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

        No matter was submitted during the fourth quarter of 2010 to a vote of the Company's security holders.

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for the Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

        The Company's Common Stock is listed and principally traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE symbol: PL). The following table sets forth the highest and lowest closing prices of the Company's Common Stock, $0.50 par value, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange during the periods indicated, along with the dividends paid per share of Common Stock during the same periods.

 
  Range    
 
 
  High   Low   Dividends  

2010

                   
 

First Quarter

  $ 21.99   $ 16.59   $ 0.120  
 

Second Quarter

    25.43     19.72     0.140  
 

Third Quarter

    23.16     18.52     0.140  
 

Fourth Quarter

    27.37     21.93     0.140  

2009

                   
 

First Quarter

  $ 16.77   $ 2.92   $ 0.120  
 

Second Quarter

    13.48     5.51     0.120  
 

Third Quarter

    23.97     10.57     0.120  
 

Fourth Quarter

    22.64     15.80     0.120  

        On December 31, 2010, there were approximately 1,341 owners of record of the Company's common stock.

        The Company expects to continue to pay cash dividends, subject to its earnings and financial condition, regulatory requirements, capital needs, and other relevant factors. The Company's ability to pay cash dividends is dependent in part on cash dividends received by the Company from its life insurance subsidiaries and regulatory requirements. See Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Liquidity and Capital Resources" included herein. Such subsidiary dividends are restricted by the various insurance laws of the states in which the subsidiaries are incorporated. See Item 1, Business, "Regulation".

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

        The following table summarizes the Company's repurchases of its common stock:

Period
  Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
  Average
Price Paid
Per Share
  Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Programs
  Approximate
Value of
Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under the Program(1)
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands, Except Share Amounts)
 

January 1, 2008 through January 31, 2008

      $       $ 100,000  

February 1, 2008 through February 29, 2008

    129,900   $ 38.56     129,900   $ 94,988  

March 1, 2008 through March 31, 2008

    320,900   $ 37.77     320,900   $ 82,857  
                       
 

Total

    450,800   $ 38.00     450,800   $ 82,857  
                       
(1)
In May 2004, the Company announced the initiation of its $100 million share repurchase program, which commenced execution on February 12, 2008.

        On May 10, 2010, the Company's Board of Directors extended the Company's previously authorized $100 million share repurchase program. The current authorization extends through May 9, 2013. We did not repurchase any of our common stock under the share repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2010 or 2009. Future activity will depend upon many factors, including capital levels, rating agency expectations, and the relative attractiveness of alternative uses for capital. There were no shares repurchased during the year ended December 31, 2010. The remaining capacity, expressed in aggregate value of shares, which may be repurchased under the existing program, is approximately $82.9 million.

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,    
 
  2010   2009   2008   2007   2006    
 
  (Dollars In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)
   

INCOME STATEMENT DATA

                                 

Premiums and policy fees

  $ 2,625,394   $ 2,689,699   $ 2,692,553   $ 2,727,023   $ 2,317,337    

Reinsurance ceded

    (1,408,340 )   (1,527,053 )   (1,582,810 )   (1,600,684 )   (1,371,215 )  
                         

Net of reinsurance ceded

    1,217,054     1,162,646     1,109,743     1,126,339     946,122    

Net investment income

    1,683,676     1,665,036     1,675,164     1,675,934     1,419,778    

Realized investment gains (losses):

                                 
 

Derivative financial instruments

    (138,249 )   (177,953 )   116,657     8,469     (21,516 )  
 

All other investments

    154,366     300,194     (272,694 )   8,650     109,773    

Other-than-temporary impairment losses

    (75,341 )   (227,770 )   (311,798 )   (48 )   (5,689 )  
 

Portion of loss recognized in other comprehensive income (before taxes)

    33,831     47,725                
                         

Net impairment losses recognized in earnings

    (41,510 )   (180,045 )   (311,798 )   (48 )   (5,689 )  

Other income

    222,418     298,148     188,492     232,357     230,665    
                         
 

Total revenues

    3,097,755     3,068,026     2,505,564     3,051,701     2,679,133    

Total benefits and expenses

    2,708,892     2,651,248     2,580,695     2,615,613     2,247,225    

Income tax expense (benefit)

    129,067     145,290     (33,276 )   146,522     150,347    
                         

Net income (loss)

    259,796     271,488     (41,855 )   289,566     281,561    

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (445 )                  
                         

Net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners(1)

  $ 260,241   $ 271,488   $ (41,855 ) $ 289,566   $ 281,561    
                         

PER SHARE DATA

                                 

Net income (loss) from continuing operations—basic

  $ 3.01   $ 3.37   $ (0.59 ) $ 4.07   $ 3.98    

Net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners—basic

  $ 3.01   $ 3.37   $ (0.59 ) $ 4.07   $ 3.98    

Average shares outstanding—basic

    86,567,069     80,488,694     71,108,961     71,061,152     70,795,453    

Net income (loss) from continuing operations—diluted

  $ 2.97   $ 3.34   $ (0.59 ) $ 4.05   $ 3.94    

Net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners—diluted

  $ 2.97   $ 3.34   $ (0.59 ) $ 4.05   $ 3.94    

Average shares outstanding—diluted

    87,675,857     81,249,265     71,108,961 (2)   71,478,021     71,390,513    

Cash dividends paid per share

  $ 0.540   $ 0.480   $ 0.815   $ 0.890   $ 0.84    

Total Protective Life Corporation's Shareowners' Equity

  $ 38.88   $ 28.96   $ 10.89   $ 35.02   $ 33.06    

 

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2010   2009   2008   2007   2006  
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

BALANCE SHEET DATA

                               

Total assets

  $ 47,562,786   $ 42,311,587   $ 39,572,449   $ 41,786,041   $ 39,795,294  

Total stable value products and annuity account balances

    13,667,838     13,492,190     14,317,832     13,754,846     14,471,553  

Non-recourse funding obligations

    532,400     575,000     1,375,000     1,375,000     425,000  

Liabilities related to variable interest entities

                400,000     420,395  

Debt

    1,501,852     1,644,852     714,852     559,852     479,132  

Subordinated debt securities

    524,743     524,743     524,743     524,743     524,743  

Total Protective Life Corporation's shareowners' equity

    3,331,087     2,478,821     761,095     2,456,761     2,313,075  
(1)
Protective Life Corporation ("PLC")

(2)
Per the earnings per share guidance, the ASC Earnings Per Share Topic, no potential common shares are included in the computation of of diluted per share amounts when a loss from operations exists. See Note 16, Earnings (Loss) Per Share for additional information.

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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

        The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") should be read in conjunction with our consolidated audited financial statements and related notes included herein.

        Certain reclassifications have been made in the previously reported financial statements and accompanying notes to make the prior period amounts comparable to those of the current period. Such reclassifications had no effect on previously reported net income or shareowners' equity.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS—CAUTIONARY LANGUAGE

        This report reviews our financial condition and results of operations including our liquidity and capital resources. Historical information is presented and discussed, and where appropriate, factors that may affect future financial performance are also identified and discussed. Certain statements made in this report include "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate, or imply future results, performance, or achievements instead of historical facts and may contain words like "believe," "expect," "estimate," "project," "budget," "forecast," "anticipate," "plan," "will," "shall," "may," and other words, phrases, or expressions with similar meaning. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, which may cause actual results to differ materially from the results contained in the forward-looking statements, and we cannot give assurances that such statements will prove to be correct. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise. For more information about the risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could affect our future results, please refer to Item 1A, Risk Factors and Cautionary Factors that may Affect Future Results included herein.

OVERVIEW

    Our business

        We are a holding company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, with subsidiaries that provide financial services through the production, distribution, and administration of insurance and investment products. Founded in 1907, Protective Life Insurance Company ("PLICO") is our largest operating subsidiary. Unless the context otherwise requires, the "Company," "we," "us," or "our" refers to the consolidated group of Protective Life Corporation and our subsidiaries.

        We have several operating segments, each having a strategic focus. An operating segment is distinguished by products, channels of distribution, and/or other strategic distinctions. We periodically evaluate our operating segments as prescribed in the Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Segment Reporting Topic, and make adjustments to our segment reporting as needed.

        Our operating segments are Life Marketing, Acquisitions, Annuities, Stable Value Products, Asset Protection, and Corporate and Other.

    Life MarketingWe market universal life ("UL"), variable universal life, level premium term insurance ("traditional"), and bank-owned life insurance ("BOLI") products on a national basis primarily through networks of independent insurance agents and brokers, stockbrokers, and independent marketing organizations.

    Acquisitions—We focus on acquiring, converting, and servicing policies acquired from other companies. The segment's primary focus is on life insurance policies and annuity products that were sold to individuals. The level of the segment's acquisition activity is predicated upon many factors,

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      including available capital, operating capacity, and market dynamics. Policies acquired through the Acquisition segment are typically "closed" blocks of business (no new policies are being marketed). Therefore, in such instances, earnings and account values are expected to decline as the result of lapses, deaths, and other terminations of coverage unless new acquisitions are made.

    Annuities—We market fixed and variable annuity products. These products are primarily sold through broker-dealers, financial institutions, and independent agents and brokers.

    Stable Value Products—We sell guaranteed funding agreements ("GFAs") to special purpose entities that in turn issue notes or certificates in smaller, transferable denominations. The segment also markets fixed and floating rate funding agreements directly to the trustees of municipal bond proceeds, institutional investors, bank trust departments, and money market funds. In addition, the segment also issues funding agreements to the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB"). Additionally, the segment markets guaranteed investment contracts ("GICs") to 401(k) and other qualified retirement savings plans.

    Asset Protection—We market extended service contracts and credit life and disability insurance to protect consumers' investments in automobiles, watercraft, and recreational vehicles. In addition, the segment markets a guaranteed asset protection ("GAP") product. GAP coverage covers the difference between the loan pay-off amount and an asset's actual cash value in the case of a total loss.

    Corporate and Other—This segment primarily consists of net investment income (including the impact of carrying excess liquidity), expenses not attributable to the segments above (including interest on debt), and a trading portfolio that was previously part of a variable interest entity. This segment includes earnings from several non-strategic or runoff lines of business, various investment-related transactions, the operations of several small subsidiaries, and the repurchase of non-recourse funding obligations.

    Reinsurance Ceded

        For approximately 10 years prior to mid-2005, we entered into reinsurance contracts in which we ceded a significant percentage, generally 90%, of our newly written life insurance business on a first dollar quota share basis. Our traditional life insurance was ceded under coinsurance contracts and universal life insurance was ceded under yearly renewable term ("YRT") contracts. During this time, we obtained coinsurance on our traditional life business, while reducing the amount of capital deployed and increasing overall returns. In mid-2005, the Company substantially discontinued coinsuring its newly written traditional life insurance and moved to YRT reinsurance as discussed below. We continue to reinsure 90% of the mortality risk, but not the account values, on the majority of our newly written universal life insurance.

        We currently enter into reinsurance contracts with reinsurers under YRT contracts to provide coverage for insurance issued in excess of the amount it retains on any one life. The amount of insurance retained on any one life was $500,000 in years prior to mid-2005. In 2005, this retention was increased to amounts up to $1,000,000 for certain policies, and during 2008, was increased to $2,000,000 for certain policies.

        During recent years, the life reinsurance market continued the process of consolidation and tightening, resulting in a higher net cost of reinsurance for much of our life insurance business. We have also been challenged by changes in the reinsurance market which have impacted management of capital, particularly in our traditional life business which is required to hold reserves pursuant to the Valuation of Life Insurance Policies Model Regulation ("Regulation XXX"). In response to these challenges, in 2005 we reduced our overall reliance on reinsurance by changing from coinsurance to YRT reinsurance arrangements for newly issued traditional life products.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

        We reported strong financial results for 2010. Our focus in 2010 was on regaining sales and earnings momentum in our retail business lines, finding opportunities to leverage our industry-leading acquisitions capabilities, and strengthening our risk management infrastructure. We made substantial progress in 2010 on all of these fronts. The following are notable accomplishments:

    The acquisition of United Investors Life Insurance Company closed on December 31, 2010.

    During 2010, we completed fundings of certain term life insurance reserves utilizing letter of credit facilities. With the completion of this transaction, substantially all of the Company's redundant term life insurance reserves are funded beyond the peak level of those reserves.

    We further pursued and accomplished a strategic shift to increase universal life sales.

    We reported record variable annuity sales.

    We completed an insourcing initiative related to a block of business that is expected over time to materially reduce our unit cost related to that block.

        Our focus in 2011 will be on creating shareholder value by improving returns on invested capital and growing earnings while concurrently reducing leverage and improving our overall risk profile.

        Significant financial information related to each of our segments is included in "Results of Operations".

RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES

        The factors which could affect our future results include, but are not limited to, general economic conditions and the following risks and uncertainties:

    General

    exposure to the risks of natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics, malicious acts, terrorist acts and climate change, which could adversely affect our operations and results;
    the occurrence of computer viruses, network security breaches, disasters, or other unanticipated events could affect the data processing systems of us or those of our business partners and could damage our business and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations;
    our results and financial condition may be negatively affected should actual experience differ from management's assumptions and estimates;
    we may not realize our anticipated financial results from our acquisitions strategy;
    we are dependent on the performance of others;
    our risk management policies, practices, and procedures could leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risks, which could negatively affect our business or result in losses;
    our strategies for mitigating risks arising from our day-to-day operations may prove ineffective resulting in a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition;

    Financial environment

    interest rate fluctuations or significant and sustained periods of low interest rates could negatively affect our interest earnings and spread income, or otherwise impact our business;
    our investments are subject to market, credit, legal, and regulatory risks, which could be heightened during periods of extreme volatility or disruption in the financial and credit markets;
    equity market volatility could negatively impact our business;
    our use of derivative financial instruments within our risk management strategy may not be effective or sufficient;

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    credit market volatility or disruption could adversely impact our financial condition or results from operations;
    our ability to grow depends in large part upon the continued availability of capital;
    we could be adversely affected by a ratings downgrade or other negative action by a ratings organization;
    we could be forced to sell investments at a loss to cover policyholder withdrawals;
    disruption of the capital and credit markets could negatively affect our ability to meet our liquidity and financing needs;
    difficult conditions in the economy generally could adversely affect our business and results from operations;
    deterioration of general economic conditions could result in a severe and extended economic recession, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations;
    we may be required to establish a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and capital position;
    we could be adversely affected by an inability to access our credit facility;
    our financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted if our assumptions regarding the fair value and future performance of our investments differ from actual experience;
    the amount of statutory capital that we have and the amount of statutory capital that we must hold to maintain our financial strength and credit ratings and meet other requirements can vary significantly from time to time and is sensitive to a number of factors outside of our control;
    we operate as a holding company and depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to us to meet our obligations and pay dividends;

    Industry

    we are highly regulated and subject to numerous legal restrictions and regulations;
    changes to tax law or interpretations of existing tax law could adversely affect our ability to compete with non-insurance products or reduce the demand for certain insurance products;
    financial services companies are frequently the targets of litigation, including class action litigation, which could result in substantial judgments;
    publicly held companies in general and the financial services industry in particular are sometimes the target of law enforcement investigations and the focus of increased regulatory scrutiny;
    new accounting rules, changes to existing accounting rules, or the grant of permitted accounting practices to competitors could negatively impact us;
    use of reinsurance introduces variability in our statements of income;
    our reinsurers could fail to meet assumed obligations, increase rates, or be subject to adverse developments that could affect us;
    our policy claims fluctuate from period to period resulting in earnings volatility;

    Competition

    we operate in a mature, highly competitive industry, which could limit our ability to gain or maintain our position in the industry and negatively affect profitability;
    our ability to maintain competitive unit costs is dependent upon the level of new sales and persistency of existing business; and
    we may not be able to protect our intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.

        For more information about the risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could affect our future results, please see Part I, Item 1A of this report.

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

        Our accounting policies inherently require the use of judgments relating to a variety of assumptions and estimates, in particular expectations of current and future mortality, morbidity, persistency, expenses, and interest rates, as well as expectations around the valuations of securities. Because of the inherent uncertainty when using the assumptions and estimates, the effect of certain accounting policies under different conditions or assumptions could be materially different from those reported in the consolidated financial statements. A discussion of our various critical accounting policies is presented below.

        Evaluation of Other-Than-Temporary Impairments—One of the significant estimates related to available-for-sale securities is the evaluation of investments for other-than-temporary impairments. If a decline in the fair value of an available-for-sale security is judged to be other-than-temporary, the security's basis is adjusted and an other-than-temporary impairment is recognized through a charge in the statement of income (loss). The portion of this other-than-temporary impairment related to credit losses on a security is recognized in earnings, while the non-credit portion, representing the difference between fair value and the discounted expected future cash flows of the security, is recognized within other comprehensive income (loss). The fair value of the other-than-temporarily impaired investment becomes its new cost basis. For fixed maturities, we accrete the new cost basis to par or to the estimated future value over the expected remaining life of the security by adjusting the security's future yields, assuming that future expected cash flows on the securities can be properly estimated.

        Determining whether a decline in the current fair value of invested assets is other-than-temporary is both objective and subjective, and can involve a variety of assumptions and estimates, particularly for investments that are not actively traded in established markets. For example, assessing the value of certain investments requires that we perform an analysis of expected future cash flows or rates of prepayments. Other investments, such as collateralized mortgage or bond obligations, represent selected tranches of a structured transaction, supported in the aggregate by underlying investments in a wide variety of issuers. Management considers a number of factors when determining the impairment status of individual securities. These include the economic condition of various industry segments and geographic locations and other areas of identified risks. Although it is possible for the impairment of one investment to affect other investments, we engage in ongoing risk management to safeguard against and limit any further risk to our investment portfolio. Special attention is given to correlative risks within specific industries, related parties, and business markets.

        For certain securitized financial assets with contractual cash flows, including other asset-backed securities, the ASC Investments-Other Topic requires us to periodically update our best estimate of cash flows over the life of the security. If the fair value of a securitized financial asset is less than its cost or amortized cost and there has been a decrease in the present value of the estimated cash flows since the last revised estimate, considering both timing and amount, an other-than-temporary impairment charge is recognized. Estimating future cash flows is a quantitative and qualitative process that incorporates information received from third party sources along with certain internal assumptions and judgments regarding the future performance of the underlying collateral. Projections of expected future cash flows may change based upon new information regarding the performance of the underlying collateral. In addition, we consider our intent and ability to retain a temporarily depressed security until recovery.

        Each quarter we review investments with unrealized losses and test for other-than-temporary impairments. We analyze various factors to determine if any specific other-than-temporary asset impairments exist. These include, but are not limited to: 1) actions taken by rating agencies, 2) default by the issuer, 3) the significance of the decline, 4) an assessment of our intent to sell the security (including a more likely than not assessment of whether we will be required to sell the security) before recovering the security's amortized cost, 5) the time period during which the decline has occurred, 6) an economic analysis of the issuer's industry, and 7) the financial strength, liquidity, and recoverability of the issuer. Management performs a security by security review each quarter in evaluating the need for any

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other-than-temporary impairments. Although no set formula is used in this process, the investment performance, collateral position, and continued viability of the issuer are significant measures considered, and in some cases, an analysis regarding our expectations for recovery of the security's entire amortized cost basis through the receipt of future cash flows is performed. Once a determination has been made that a specific other-than-temporary impairment exists, the security's basis is adjusted and an other-than-temporary impairment is recognized. Equity securities that are other-than temporarily impaired are written down to fair value with a realized loss recognized in earnings. Other-than-temporary impairments to debt securities that we do not intend to sell and do not expect to be required to sell before recovering the security's amortized cost are written down to discounted expected future cash flows ("post impairment cost") and credit losses are recorded in earnings. The difference between the securities' discounted expected future cash flows and the fair value of the securities is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) as a non-credit portion of the recognized other-than-temporary impairment. When calculating the post impairment cost for residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS"), commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS"), and other asset-backed securities, we consider all known market data related to cash flows to estimate future cash flows. When calculating the post impairment cost for corporate debt securities, we consider all contractual cash flows to estimate expected future cash flows. To calculate the post impairment cost, the expected future cash flows are discounted at the original purchase yield. Debt securities that we intend to sell or expect to be required to sell before recovery are written down to fair value with the change recognized in earnings.

        During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, the Company recorded other-than-temporary impairments of investments of $75.3 million and $227.8 million, respectively. Of the $75.3 million of impairments for the year ended December 31, 2010, $41.5 million was recorded in earnings and $33.8 million was recorded in other comprehensive income (loss). Of the $227.8 million of impairments for the year ended December 31, 2009, $180.1 million was recorded in earnings and $47.7 million was recorded in other comprehensive income (loss). For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, there were $2.5 million and $19.6 million of other-than-temporary impairments related to equity securities. For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, there were $72.8 million and $208.2 million of other-than-temporary impairments related to debt securities, respectively. During these periods, there were no other-than-temporary impairments related to debt securities or equity securities that the Company intends to sell or expects to be required to sell.

        Our specific accounting policies related to our invested assets are discussed in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, and Note 4, Investment Operations, to the consolidated financial statements. As of December 31, 2010, we held $22.3 billion of available-for-sale investments, including $6.1 billion in investments with a gross unrealized loss of $381.7 million.

        Derivatives—We utilize a risk management strategy that incorporates the use of derivative financial instruments to reduce exposure to interest rate risk, inflation risk, currency exchange risk, volatility risk, and equity market risk. We have also entered into certain credit default swaps, from time to time, to enhance the return on our investment portfolio. Assessing the effectiveness of the hedging programs and evaluating the carrying values of the related derivatives often involve a variety of assumptions and estimates. We employ a variety of methods for determining the fair value of our derivative instruments. The fair values of swaps, interest rate swaptions, and options are based upon industry standard models which calculate the present-value of the projected cash flows of the derivatives using current and implied future market conditions. These models include market-observable estimates of volatility and interest rates in the determination of fair value. The use of different assumptions may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts, as well as the amount of reported net income (loss). In addition, measurements of ineffectiveness of hedging relationships are subject to interpretations and estimations, and any differences may result in material changes to our results of operations. As of December 31, 2010, the fair value of derivatives reported on our balance sheet in "other long-term investments" and "other liabilities" was $35.7 million and $243.5 million, respectively.

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        Reinsurance—For each of our reinsurance contracts, we must determine if the contract provides indemnification against loss or liability relating to insurance risk, in accordance with applicable accounting standards. We must review all contractual features, particularly those that may limit the amount of insurance risk to which we are subject or features that delay the timely reimbursement of claims. If we determine that the possibility of a significant loss from insurance risk will occur only under remote circumstances, we record the contract under a deposit method of accounting with the net amount payable/receivable reflected in other reinsurance assets or liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. Fees earned on the contracts are reflected as other revenues, as opposed to premiums, in our consolidated statements of income (loss).

        Our reinsurance is ceded to a diverse group of reinsurers. The collectability of reinsurance is largely a function of the solvency of the individual reinsurers. We perform periodic credit reviews on our reinsurers, focusing on, among other things, financial capacity, stability, trends, and commitment to the reinsurance business. We also require assets in trust, letters of credit, or other acceptable collateral to support balances due from reinsurers not authorized to transact business in the applicable jurisdictions. Despite these measures, a reinsurer's insolvency, inability, or unwillingness to make payments under the terms of a reinsurance contract could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. As of December 31, 2010, our third party reinsurance receivables amounted to $5.6 billion. These amounts include ceded reserve balances and ceded benefit payments.

        We account for reinsurance as required by Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") guidance under the ASC Financial Services Topic as applicable. In accordance with this guidance, costs for reinsurance are amortized as a level percentage of premiums for traditional life products and a level percentage of estimated gross profits for universal life products. Accordingly, ceded reserve and deferred acquisition cost balances are established using methodologies consistent with those used in establishing direct policyholder reserves and deferred acquisition costs. Establishing these balances requires the use of various assumptions including investment returns, mortality, persistency, and expenses. The assumptions made for establishing ceded reserves and ceded deferred acquisition costs are consistent with those used for establishing direct policyholder reserves and deferred acquisition costs.

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        Assumptions are also made regarding future reinsurance premium rates and allowance rates. Assumptions made for mortality, persistency, and expenses are consistent with those used for establishing direct policyholder reserves and deferred acquisition costs. Assumptions made for future reinsurance premium and allowance rates are consistent with rates provided for in our various reinsurance agreements. For certain of our reinsurance agreements, premium and allowance rates may be changed by reinsurers on a prospective basis, assuming certain contractual conditions are met (primarily that rates are changed for all companies with which the reinsurer has similar agreements). We do not anticipate any changes to these rates and, therefore, have assumed continuation of these non-guaranteed rates. To the extent that future rates are modified, these assumptions would be revised and both current and future results would be affected. For traditional life products, assumptions are not changed unless projected future revenues are expected to be less than future expenses. For universal life products, assumptions are periodically updated whenever actual experience and/or expectations for the future differ from that assumed. When assumptions are updated, changes are reflected in the income statement as part of an "unlocking" process. For the year ended December 31, 2010, there were no significant changes to reinsurance premium and allowance rates that would require an update of assumptions and subsequent unlocking of balances.

        Deferred acquisition costs and value of business acquired—We incur significant costs in connection with acquiring new insurance business. These costs, which vary with and are primarily related to the production of new business and coinsurance of blocks of policies, are deferred and amortized over future periods. The recovery of such costs is dependent on the future profitability of the related policies. The amount of future profit is dependent principally on investment returns, mortality, morbidity, persistency, and expenses to administer the business and certain economic variables, such as inflation. These costs are amortized over the expected lives of the contracts, based on the level and timing of either gross profits or gross premiums, depending on the type of contract. Revisions to estimates result in changes to the amounts expensed in the reporting period in which the revisions are made and could result in the impairment of the asset and a charge to income if estimated future profits are less than the unamortized deferred amounts. As of December 31, 2010, we had DAC/value of business acquired ("VOBA") of $3.9 billion.

        We had a DAC/VOBA asset of approximately $377.5 million related to our variable annuity product line with an account balance of $7.4 billion as of December 31, 2010. These amounts include $47.4 million and $2.4 billion, respectively, of VOBA asset and account balances associated with the variable annuity business of the Chase Insurance Group which has been 100% reinsured to Commonwealth Annuity and Life Insurance Company (formerly known as Allmerica Financial Life Insurance and Annuity Company) ("CALIC"), under a modified coinsurance agreement. We monitor the rate of amortization of DAC asset related to our variable annuity product line. Our monitoring methodologies employ varying assumptions about how much and how quickly the stock markets will appreciate. The primary assumptions used to project future profits as part of the analysis include: a long-term equity market growth rate of 8%, reversion to the mean methodology with no cap, reversion to the mean period of 10 years, and an amortization period of 30 years.

        We periodically review and update as appropriate our key assumptions on products using the ASC Financial Services-Insurance Topic, including future mortality, expenses, lapses, premium persistency, investment yields, and interest spreads. Changes to these assumptions result in adjustments which increase or decrease DAC amortization and/or benefits and expenses. The periodic review and updating of assumptions is referred to as "unlocking".

        Goodwill—Accounting for goodwill requires an estimate of the future profitability of the associated lines of business to assess the recoverability of the capitalized acquisition goodwill. We evaluate the carrying value of goodwill at the segment (or reporting unit) level at least annually and between annual evaluations if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to: 1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, 2) unanticipated competition, or 3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. When evaluating whether goodwill is impaired, we

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compare our estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit to which the goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit's carrying amount, including goodwill. We utilize a fair value measurement (which includes a discounted cash flows analysis) to assess the carrying value of the reporting units in consideration of the recoverability of the goodwill balance assigned to each reporting unit as of the measurement date. Our material goodwill balances are attributable to certain of our operating segments (which are each considered to be reporting units). The cash flows used to determine the fair value of our reporting units are dependent on a number of significant assumptions. Our estimates, which consider a market participant view of fair value, are subject to change given the inherent uncertainty in predicting future results and cash flows, which are impacted by such things as policyholder behavior, competitor pricing, capital limitations, new product introductions, and specific industry and market conditions. Additionally, the discount rate used is based on our judgment of the appropriate rate for each reporting unit based on the relative risk associated with the projected cash flows. As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, we performed our annual evaluation of goodwill and determined that no adjustment to impair goodwill was necessary. As of December 31, 2010, we had goodwill of $114.8 million.

        We consider our market capitalization in assessing the reasonableness of the fair values estimated for our reporting units in connection with our goodwill impairment testing. In considering our December 31, 2010 common equity price, which was lower than our book value per share, we noted there are several factors that would result in our market capitalization being lower than the fair value of our reporting units that are tested for goodwill impairment. Such factors that would not be reflected in the valuation of our reporting units with goodwill include, but are not limited to: a potential concern about future earnings growth, negative market sentiment, different valuation methodologies that resulted in low valuation, and increased risk premium for holding investments in MBS and commercial mortgage loans. Deterioration of or adverse market conditions for certain businesses may have a significant impact on the fair value of our reporting units. In our view, market capitalization being below book value does not invalidate our fair value assessment related to the recoverability of goodwill in our reporting units, and did not result in a triggering or impairment event.

        Insurance liabilities and reserves—Establishing an adequate liability for our obligations to policyholders requires the use of assumptions. Estimating liabilities for future policy benefits on life and health insurance products requires the use of assumptions relative to future investment yields, mortality, morbidity, persistency, and other assumptions based on our historical experience, modified as necessary to reflect anticipated trends and to include provisions for possible adverse deviation. Determining liabilities for our property and casualty insurance products also requires the use of assumptions, including the frequency and severity of claims, and the effectiveness of internal processes designed to reduce the level of claims. Our results depend significantly upon the extent to which our actual claims experience is consistent with the assumptions we used in determining our reserves and pricing our products. Our reserve assumptions and estimates require significant judgment and, therefore, are inherently uncertain. We cannot determine with precision the ultimate amounts that we will pay for actual claims or the timing of those payments. In addition, effective January 1, 2007, we adopted FASB guidance related to our equity indexed annuity product. FASB guidance under the ASC Derivatives and Hedging Topic requires that we fair value the liability related to this block of business at each balance sheet date, with changes in the fair value recorded through earnings. Changes in this liability may be significantly affected by interest rate fluctuations. As a result of the adoption of this guidance, we made certain modifications to the method used to determine fair value for our liability related to equity indexed annuities to take into consideration factors such as policyholder behavior, credit spreads, and other market considerations. As of December 31, 2010, we had total policy liabilities and accruals of $19.7 billion.

        Guaranteed minimum death benefits—We also establish liabilities for guaranteed minimum death benefits ("GMDB") on our variable annuity products. The methods used to estimate the liabilities employ assumptions about mortality and the performance of equity markets. We assume mortality of 65% of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners 1994 Variable Annuity GMDB Mortality Table. Future

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declines in the equity market would increase our GMDB liability. Differences between the actual experience and the assumptions used result in variances in profit and could result in losses. Our GMDB as of December 31, 2010, is subject to a dollar-for-dollar reduction upon withdrawal of related annuity deposits on contracts issued prior to January 1, 2003. As of December 31, 2010, the GMDB liability was $6.4 million.

        Guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits—We also establish liabilities for guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits ("GMWB") on our variable annuity products. The GMWB is valued in accordance with FASB guidance under the ASC Derivatives and Hedging Topic which utilizes the valuation technique prescribed by the ASC Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures Topic, which requires the liability to be marked-to-market using current implied volatilities for the equity indices. The methods used to estimate the liabilities employ assumptions about mortality, lapses, policyholder behavior, equity market returns, interest rates, and market volatility. We assume mortality of 65% of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners 1994 Variable Annuity GMDB Mortality Table. Differences between the actual experience and the assumptions used result in variances in profit and could result in losses. In the second quarter of 2010, the assumption for long term volatility used for projection purposes was updated to reflect market conditions. As of December 31, 2010, our net GMWB liability held was $19.6 million.

        Pension Benefits—Determining our obligations to employees under our defined benefit pension plan requires the use of estimates. The calculation of the liability related to our defined benefit pension plan requires assumptions regarding the appropriate weighted average discount rate, estimated rate of increase in the compensation of employees, and the expected long-term rate of return on the plan's assets. See Note 15, Employee Benefit Plans, to the consolidated financial statements for further information on this plan.

        Stock-Based Payments—Accounting for stock-based compensation plans may require the use of option pricing models to estimate our obligations. Assumptions used in such models relate to equity market volatility, the risk-free interest rate at the date of grant, expected dividend rates, and expected exercise dates. See Note 14, Stock-Based Compensation, to the consolidated financial statements for further information.

        Deferred taxes and uncertain tax positions—Deferred federal income taxes arise from the recognition of temporary differences between the basis of assets and liabilities determined for financial reporting purposes and the basis determined for income tax purposes. Such temporary differences are principally related to the marking to market value of investment assets, the deferral of policy acquisition costs, and the provision for future policy benefits and expenses. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when such differences reverse. Under GAAP, we test the value of deferred tax assets for impairment on a quarterly basis at the taxpaying component level within each tax jurisdiction, consistent with our filed tax returns. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized as future reductions of current taxes. In determining the need for a valuation allowance we consider carryback capacity, reversal of existing temporary differences, future taxable income, and tax planning strategies. The determination of any valuation allowance requires management to make certain judgments and assumptions regarding future operations that are based on our historical experience and our expectations of future performance.

        The ASC Income Taxes Topic prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of an expected or actual uncertain income tax return position and provides guidance on disclosure. Additionally, this interpretation requires, in order for us to recognize a benefit in our financial statements from a given tax return position, that there must be a greater than 50 percent chance of success with the relevant taxing authority with regard to that position. In making this analysis, we must assume that the taxing authority is fully informed of all of the facts regarding any issue. Our judgments and assumptions regarding uncertain tax positions are subject to change over

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time due to the enactment of new tax legislation, the issuance of revised or new regulations by the various tax authorities, and the issuance of new rulings by the courts.

        Contingent liabilities—The assessment of potential obligations for tax, regulatory, and litigation matters inherently involves a variety of estimates of potential future outcomes. We make such estimates after consultation with our advisors and a review of available facts. However, there can be no assurance that future outcomes will not differ from management's assessments.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        In the following discussion, segment operating income (loss) is defined as income (loss) before income tax excluding net realized investment gains and losses (net of the related DAC and VOBA and participating income from real estate ventures), and the cumulative effect of change in accounting principle. Periodic settlements of derivatives associated with corporate debt and certain investments and annuity products are included in realized gains and losses but are considered part of segment operating income (loss) because the derivatives are used to mitigate risk in items affecting segment operating income (loss). Management believes that segment operating income (loss) provides relevant and useful information to investors, as it represents the basis on which the performance of our business is internally assessed. Although the items excluded from segment operating income (loss) may be significant components in understanding and assessing our overall financial performance, management believes that segment operating income (loss) enhances an investor's understanding of our results of operations by highlighting the operating income (loss) usually attributable to the normal, recurring operations of our business. However, segment operating income (loss) should not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners. In addition, our segment operating income (loss) measures may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.

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        The following table presents a summary of results and reconciles segment operating income (loss) to consolidated net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners:

   
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
   
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
   
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 
 

Segment Operating Income (Loss)

                                   
   

Life Marketing

  $ 147,470   $ 137,826   $ 188,535     7.0 %   (26.9 )%    
   

Acquisitions

    111,143     133,760     136,479     (16.9 )   (2.0 )    
   

Annuities

    53,901     56,642     18,707     (4.8 )   n/m      
   

Stable Value Products

    39,207     61,963     89,811     (36.7 )   (31.0 )    
   

Asset Protection

    29,897     23,229     30,789     28.7     (24.6 )    
   

Corporate and Other

    (25,053 )   81,980     (105,986 )   n/m     n/m      
                                 
     

Total segment operating income

    356,565     495,400     358,335     (28.0 )   38.3      
   

Realized investment gains (losses)—investments(1)(3)

    107,715     125,352     (585,340 )                
   

Realized investment gains (losses)—derivatives(2)

    (74,972 )   (203,974 )   151,874                  
   

Income tax (expense) benefit

    (129,067 )   (145,290 )   33,276                  
                                 
     

Net income (loss) available to PLC's common shareowners

  $ 260,241   $ 271,488   $ (41,855 )   (4.1 )   n/m      
                                 
 

(1)    Realized investment gains (losses)—investments(3)

 
$

112,856
 
$

120,149
 
$

(584,492

)
               
     

Less: related amortization of DAC

    5,141     (5,203 )   848                  
                                 
 

  $ 107,715   $ 125,352   $ (585,340 )                
                                 
 

(2)    Realized investment gains (losses)—derivatives

 
$

(138,249

)

$

(177,953

)

$

116,657
                 
     

Less: settlements on certain interest rate swaps

    168     3,401     5,754                  
     

Less: derivative activity related to certain annuities

    (63,445 )   22,620     (40,971 )                
                                 
 

  $ (74,972 ) $ (203,974 ) $ 151,874                  
                                 

 


(3)    Includes other-than-temporary impairments of $41.5 million, $180.1 million, and $311.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.


 

 

 

 

 

 

For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

        Net income available to PLC's common shareowners for the year ended December 31, 2010, included a $138.8 million, or 28.0%, decrease in segment operating income. The decrease was primarily related to a $107.0 million decrease in the Corporate and Other segment, a $22.8 million decrease in the Stable Value Products segment, a $22.6 million decrease in the Acquisition segment, and a $2.7 million decrease in the Annuities segment. These decreases were partially offset by a $9.6 million increase in the Life Marketing segment and a $6.7 million increase in the Asset Protection segment. In addition, the Corporate and Other segment had a decrease in other income due to a gain of $126.3 million for the repurchase of surplus notes, net of deferred issue costs for the year ended December 31, 2009.

        We experienced net realized losses of $25.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to net realized losses of $57.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The losses realized for the year ended December 31, 2010, were primarily caused by a loss of $54.0 million related to equity and interest rate futures that were entered into to mitigate risk related to certain guaranteed minimum variable annuity benefits, a loss of $5.8 million related to GMWB embedded derivative valuation changes, $41.5 million of other-than-temporary impairment credit-related losses, and a loss of $8.4 million on interest rate swaps. Offsetting these losses were $41.4 million of gains related to the net activity related to the modified coinsurance portfolio and derivative activity and $56.5 million of gains related to investment securities sale activity.

    Life Marketing segment operating income was $147.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, representing an increase of $9.6 million, or 7.0%, from the year ended December 31, 2009.

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      The increase was primarily due to more favorable mortality results and higher investment income associated with growth in reserves, partially offset by higher operating expenses.

    Acquisitions segment operating income was $111.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, a decrease of $22.6 million, or 16.9%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the expected runoff in the blocks of business, higher operating expenses, and a planned one-time payment of $5.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2010 to complete insourcing the administration of a block of business.

    Annuities segment operating income was $53.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to $56.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, a decrease of $2.7 million. This change included an unfavorable $42.5 million variance related to fair value changes, of which $3.0 million was related to the equity indexed annuity ("EIA") product and $39.5 million was related to derivatives associated with the variable annuity ("VA") GMWB rider, caused primarily by changes in equity markets and lower interest rates. The remaining favorable $45.3 million variance in operating income was partly driven by a $19.3 million unlocking charge recorded within the VA line during the year ended December 31, 2009. Other items accounted for the remainder of the variance, including a $7.0 million reduction in death benefit payments on the VA line, a $9.6 million increase in earnings related to wider spreads and average account value growth of 47.6% in the single premium deferred annuity ("SPDA") line, and a $4.4 million increase in EIA earnings excluding fair value.

    Stable Value Products segment operating income was $39.2 million and decreased $22.8 million, or 36.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in operating earnings resulted from a decline in average account values and lower operating spreads. In addition, no income was generated from the early retirement of funding agreements backing medium-term notes for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared with $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. We also called certain retail notes, which have accelerated DAC amortization of $2.7 million on those called contracts. The operating spread decreased 30 basis points to 117 basis points during the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to an operating spread of 147 basis points for the year ended December 31, 2009.

    Asset Protection segment operating income was $29.9 million, representing an increase of $6.7 million, or 28.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. Credit insurance earnings decreased $4.4 million as compared to the prior year, primarily due to lower investment income, unfavorable loss experience, and a $0.9 million litigation settlement expense. Service contract earnings decreased $0.8 million, or 4.4% as compared to the prior year end. Earnings from the GAP product, increased $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the prior year end. Also, 2010 includes a $7.8 million excess reserve release in the first quarter of 2010 related to the final settlement in the runoff Lender's Indemnity line of business. Favorable loss experience in the GAP product line also contributed to the increase.

    Corporate and Other segment operating loss was $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to income of $82.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The variance was primarily due to a decrease in other income from a $126.3 million pre-tax gain on the repurchase of surplus notes, net of deferred issue costs that occurred in 2009, which was partially offset by a $19.0 million pre-tax gain on the repurchase of non-recourse funding obligations that was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2010. The segment experienced a negative variance related to mark-to-market adjustments on a portfolio of securities designated for trading. The trading portfolio accounted for a decrease of $36.5 million as compared to the prior year. Partially offsetting the decrease was growth in the segment's investment income due to deploying liquidity and yield improvements.

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For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

        Net income for the year ended December 31, 2009, included a $137.1 million increase in segment operating income. The increase was primarily related to a $188.0 million increase in the Corporate and Other segment, and a $37.9 million increase in the Annuities segment. These increases were partially offset by a $50.7 million decrease in the Life Marketing segment, a $2.7 million decrease in the Acquisitions segment, a $27.8 million decrease in the Stable Value Products segment, and a $7.6 million decrease in the Asset Protection segment. Changes in fair value related to the Corporate and Other trading portfolio and the Annuities segment increased operating earnings by $70.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.

        We experienced net realized losses of $57.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to net realized losses of $467.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The losses realized for the year ended December 31, 2009, were primarily caused by $180.1 million of other-than-temporary impairment credit-related losses. These losses were partially offset by mark-to-market gains of $39.3 million on interest rate swaps, $19.2 million of gains related to GMWB embedded derivative valuation changes, and $32.1 million of gains related to the net activity related to modified coinsurance portfolio and derivative activity.

    Life Marketing segment operating income was $137.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, representing a decrease of $50.7 million, or 26.9%, from the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease was primarily due to lower allocated investment income on the traditional line of business, less favorable mortality, higher insurance company operating expenses, and less favorable annual prospective unlocking in the third quarter of 2009, which was $7.3 million lower in 2009 than 2008.

    Acquisitions segment operating income was $133.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, representing a decrease of $2.7 million, or 2.0%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to expected runoff of the blocks of business partially offset by more favorable mortality results and lower operating expenses.

    Annuities segment operating income was $56.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, an increase of $37.9 million. This change included a favorable $39.7 million variance related to fair value changes, of which $4.3 million was related to the EIA product and $35.4 million was related to embedded derivatives associated with the VA GMWB rider. Offsetting this favorable change, unfavorable prospective unlocking of assumptions (DAC, GMWB, bonus interest, etc.) reduced earnings by $7.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. In addition, unfavorable mortality in the segment's single premium immediate annuity ("SPIA") block caused a $10.3 million unfavorable variance compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. These decreases were partially offset by wider spreads and the continued growth of the SPDA and market value adjusted ("MVA") lines, which accounted for an $11.9 million and $3.8 million increase in earnings, respectively.

    Stable Value Products segment operating income was $62.0 million and decreased $27.8 million, or 31.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease in operating earnings resulted from a decline in average account values. In addition, $1.9 million in other income was generated from the early retirement of funding agreements backing medium-term notes for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared with $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The operating spread remained flat at 147 basis points during the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008.

    Asset Protection segment operating income was $23.2 million, representing a decrease of $7.6 million, or 24.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. Earnings from core product lines decreased $9.2 million, or 28.0%, for the year

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      ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. Within the segment's core product lines, service contract earnings declined $10.4 million, or 36.2%, as compared to the prior year, primarily as a result of weak auto and marine sales and higher loss ratios in certain product lines. Credit insurance earnings decreased $0.9 million, or 36.2%, as compared to the prior year resulting from the sale of a small insurance subsidiary and its related operations during the first quarter of 2008. Earnings from other products increased $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the prior year primarily due to lower expenses in the GAP and Lender's Indemnity product lines and release of excess reserves in the runoff inventory protection product ("IPP") line, partially offset by unfavorable loss experience.

    Corporate and Other segment operating income was $82.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to a loss of $106.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The variance was primarily due to a pre-tax gain on the repurchase of surplus notes of $126.3 million, net of deferred issue costs, and positive mark-to-market adjustments of $49.8 million on a $272.6 million trading portfolio, representing a $123.9 million more favorable impact for the year ended December 31, 2009. This increase was partially offset by reduced yields on a large balance of cash and short-term investments and higher operating expenses.

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Life Marketing

Segment results of operations

        Segment results were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

REVENUES

                                   
 

Gross premiums and policy fees

  $ 1,575,764   $ 1,565,144   $ 1,500,566     0.7 %   4.3 %    
 

Reinsurance ceded

    (839,512 )   (911,703 )   (924,026 )   (7.9 )   (1.3 )    
                               
 

Net premiums and policy fees

    736,252     653,441     576,540     12.7     13.3      
 

Net investment income

    388,061     362,108     350,053     7.2     3.4      
 

Other income

    95,079     80,847     96,746     17.6     (16.4 )    
                               
   

Total operating revenues

    1,219,392     1,096,396     1,023,339     11.2     7.1      

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                                   
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    921,765     782,372     704,955     17.8     11.0      
 

Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs

    91,363     144,125     94,422     (36.6 )   52.6      
 

Other operating expenses

    58,794     32,073     35,427     83.3     (9.5 )    
                               
   

Total benefits and expenses

    1,071,922     958,570     834,804     11.8     14.8      

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX

    147,470     137,826     188,535     7.0     (26.9 )    
                               

OPERATING INCOME

  $ 147,470   $ 137,826   $ 188,535     7.0     (26.9 )    
                               

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        The following table summarizes key data for the Life Marketing segment:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

Sales By Product

                                   
 

Traditional

  $ 50,101   $ 96,932   $ 99,202     (48.3 )%   (2.3 )%    
 

Universal life

    115,660     62,025     52,832     86.5     17.4      
 

Variable universal life

    5,606     3,643     5,667     53.9     (35.7 )    
                               

  $ 171,367   $ 162,600   $ 157,701     5.4     3.1      
                               

Sales By Distribution Channel

                                   
 

Brokerage general agents

  $ 101,588   $ 101,381   $ 89,295     0.2     13.5      
 

Independent agents

    24,838     27,765     33,101     (10.5 )   (16.1 )    
 

Stockbrokers / banks

    36,633     30,131     30,546     21.6     (1.4 )    
 

BOLI / other

    8,308     3,323     4,759     n/m     (30.2 )    
                               

  $ 171,367   $ 162,600   $ 157,701     5.4     3.1      
                               

Average Life Insurance In-force(1)

                                   
 

Traditional

  $ 494,700,220   $ 489,818,145   $ 473,029,668     1.0     3.5      
 

Universal life

    55,831,192     53,164,320     52,760,473     5.0     0.8      
                               

  $ 550,531,412   $ 542,982,465   $ 525,790,141     1.4     3.3      
                               

Average Account Values

                                   
 

Universal life

  $ 5,563,162   $ 5,352,068   $ 5,270,175     3.9     1.6      
 

Variable universal life

    331,183     269,460     309,437     22.9     (12.9 )    
                               

  $ 5,894,345   $ 5,621,528   $ 5,579,612     4.9     0.8      
                               

Traditional Life Mortality Experience(2)

  $ 29,342   $ 8,598   $ 13,104                  

Universal Life Mortality Experience(2)

  $ 3,559   $ 5,921   $ 5,136                  

BOLI Mortality Experience(2)

  $ (124 ) $ 1,300   $ 1,650                  
(1)
Amounts are not adjusted for reinsurance ceded.
(2)
Represents the estimated pre-tax earnings impact resulting from mortality variances. We periodically review and update as appropriate our key assumptions in calculating mortality. Changes to these assumptions result in adjustments, which may increase or decrease previously reported mortality amounts.

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    Operating expenses detail

        Other operating expenses for the segment were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

Insurance companies:

                                   
 

First year commissions

  $ 207,939   $ 187,576   $ 192,773     10.9 %   (2.7 )%    
 

Renewal commissions

    36,509     37,492     38,465     (2.6 )   (2.5 )    
 

First year ceding allowances

    (9,418 )   (13,994 )   (19,055 )   (32.7 )   (26.6 )    
 

Renewal ceding allowances

    (188,956 )   (225,880 )   (229,042 )   (16.3 )   (1.4 )    
 

General & administrative

    163,013     156,685     159,818     4.0     (2.0 )    
 

Taxes, licenses, and fees

    34,218     32,096     29,803     6.6     7.7      
                               
   

Other operating expenses incurred

    243,305     173,975     172,762     39.9     0.7      
 

Less: commissions, allowances & expenses capitalized

    (274,999 )   (222,529 )   (229,671 )   23.6     (3.1 )    
                               
 

Other insurance company operating expenses

    (31,694 )   (48,554 )   (56,909 )   (34.7 )   (14.7 )    
                               

Marketing companies:

                                   
 

Commissions

    70,355     60,371     74,494     16.5     (19.0 )    
 

Other operating expenses

    20,133     20,256     17,842     (0.6 )   13.5      
                               
   

Other marketing company operating expenses

    90,488     80,627     92,336     12.2     (12.7 )    
                               

Other operating expenses

  $ 58,794   $ 32,073   $ 35,427     83.3     (9.5 )    
                               

For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $147.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, representing an increase of $9.6 million, or 7.0%, from the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase was primarily due to more favorable mortality results and higher investment income associated with growth in reserves, partially offset by higher operating expenses.

    Operating revenues

        Total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010, increased $123.0 million, or 11.2%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. This increase was the result of higher premiums and policy fees, higher investment income due to increases in net in-force reserves, and higher sales in the segment's marketing companies.

    Net premiums and policy fees

        Net premiums and policy fees increased by $82.8 million, or 12.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to an increase in retention levels on certain traditional life products and continued growth in universal life in-force business. Our maximum retention level for newly issued traditional life and universal life products is generally $2,000,000.

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    Net investment income

        Net investment income in the segment increased $26.0 million, or 7.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. Increased retained universal life reserves led to increased investment income of $20.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. Decreases in BOLI reserves in some quarters and generally lower yields led to lower BOLI investment income of $4.0 million in the same periods. In addition, traditional life investment income increased $7.9 million between 2009 and 2010. Growth in retained reserves explained most of the traditional life increase. Also, the impact of our traditional and universal life capital markets programs on investment income allocated to the segment caused an increase of $1.0 million between 2009 and 2010.

    Other income

        Other income increased $14.2 million, or 17.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase relates primarily to higher sales in the marketing companies and fees on variable universal life funds.

    Benefits and settlement expenses

        Benefits and settlement expenses increased by $139.4 million, or 17.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, due to growth in retained life insurance in-force, increased retention levels on certain newly written traditional life products, and higher credited interest on UL products resulting from increases in account values, partially offset by more favorable mortality. The estimated mortality impact to earnings related to traditional and universal life products, for the year ended December 31, 2010, was favorable by $32.8 million and was approximately $16.9 million more favorable than the estimated mortality impact on earnings for the year ended December 31, 2009. Additionally, the annual prospective unlocking process increased this line by $33.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the impact of changes in lapse and mortality assumptions. Unlocking increased 2010 benefits and settlements expenses $29.4 million, as compared to a decrease of $4.2 million during 2009.

    Amortization of DAC

        DAC amortization decreased $52.8 million, or 36.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease was primarily driven by a $34.8 million impact related to more favorable annual prospective unlocking on universal life and BOLI amortization and lower traditional life sales, partially offset by growth in retained universal life insurance in-force as compared to 2009. The effect of the annual prospective unlocking was primarily driven by lower lapses and mortality experience and their impact on the unlocking process. Unlocking increased 2010 amortization $32.1 million, as compared to decreasing 2009 amortization by $2.7 million.

    Other operating expenses

        Other operating expenses increased $26.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. This increase reflects higher marketing company expenses associated with higher sales, higher general administrative insurance company expenses, a reduction in reinsurance allowances, and interest expense of $10.4 million associated with a letter of credit facility designed to fund traditional life statutory reserves.

    Sales

        Sales for the segment increased $8.8 million, or 5.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. Lower sales levels of traditional products were primarily

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the result of pricing increases implemented on certain of our products. Additionally, a new universal life product, which supplemented and will eventually substantially replace traditional life products for new sales, was introduced during 2010. Universal life sales increased $53.6 million, or 86.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to our increased focus on the product line, including the introduction of new products.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $137.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, representing a decrease of $50.7 million, or 26.9%, from the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease was primarily due to lower allocated investment income on the traditional line of business, less favorable mortality, higher insurance company operating expenses, and less favorable annual prospective DAC unlocking in the third quarter of 2009, which was $7.3 million lower in 2009 than 2008.

    Operating revenues

        Total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009, increased $73.1 million, or 7.1%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. This increase was the result of higher premiums and policy fees in the segment's traditional and universal life lines and higher investment income in the universal life product line, due to increases in net in-force reserves, and were partially offset by lower other income due to lower sales in the segment's marketing companies and lower investment income on the Company's traditional product lines.

    Net premiums and policy fees

        Net premiums and policy fees increased by $76.9 million, or 13.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to an increase in retention levels on certain traditional life products and continued growth in universal life in-force business. Beginning in the third quarter of 2005, we reduced our reliance on reinsurance by changing from coinsurance to yearly renewable term reinsurance agreements and increased the maximum amount retained on any one life from $500,000 to $1,000,000 on certain of our newly written traditional life products (products written during the third quarter of 2005 and later). In addition to increasing net premiums, this change resulted in higher benefits and settlement expenses, and causes greater variability in financial results due to fluctuations in mortality results. Our maximum retention level for newly issued universal life products is generally $1,000,000. During 2008, we increased our retention limit to $2,000,000 on certain of our traditional and universal life products.

    Net investment income

        Net investment income in the segment increased $12.1 million, or 3.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The increase reflects the overall growth in universal life liabilities and retained reserves on new term business. The growth was largely offset by two significant items in 2009. First, we made a number of changes to our traditional life statutory reserving methodologies which had the effect of reducing our statutory reserves, thus reducing the investment income allocated to the segment by an estimated $11.6 million. Second, the impact of our traditional and universal life capital markets programs on investment income allocated to the segment was an estimated reduction of $4.7 million between 2008 and 2009.

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    Other income

        Other income decreased $15.9 million, or 16.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease relates primarily to lower broker-dealer revenues compared to 2008 levels due to less favorable market conditions.

    Benefits and settlement expenses

        Benefits and settlement expenses increased by $77.4 million, or 11.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, due to growth in retained life insurance in-force, increased retention levels on certain newly written traditional life products and higher credited interest on UL products resulting from increases in account values, partly offset by a reduction related to prospective unlocking in 2009 compared to 2008. The estimated mortality impact to earnings, related to traditional and universal life products, for the year ended December 31, 2009, was favorable by $14.5 million, and was approximately $3.7 million less favorable than the estimated mortality impact on earnings for the year ended December 31, 2008.

    Amortization of DAC

        DAC amortization increased $49.7 million, or 52.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The increase primarily relates to growth in retained life insurance in-force compared to 2008, and more favorable impacts of unlocking on amortization in 2008 ($23.2 million favorable) than 2009 ($2.7 million unfavorable).

    Other operating expenses

        Other operating expenses decreased $3.4 million, or 9.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. This decrease reflects lower marketing company expenses associated with lower broker dealer sales, lower general administrative expenses, and a reduction in reinsurance allowances, partly offset by higher insurance company expenses.

    Sales

        Sales for the segment increased $4.9 million, or 3.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, as increased universal life sales more than offset lower traditional sales. Lower sales levels of traditional products were primarily the result of pricing changes implemented on certain of our products and less favorable market conditions. Universal life sales increased $9.2 million, or 17.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to increased focus on the product line. In addition, variable universal life sales were subject to unfavorable market conditions and were $2.0 million lower for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008.

Reinsurance

        Currently, the Life Marketing segment reinsures significant amounts of its life insurance in-force. Pursuant to the underlying reinsurance contracts, reinsurers pay allowances to the segment as a percentage of both first year and renewal premiums. Reinsurance allowances represent the amount the reinsurer is willing to pay for reimbursement of acquisition costs incurred by the direct writer of the business. A portion of reinsurance allowances received is deferred as part of DAC and a portion is recognized immediately as a reduction of other operating expenses. As the non-deferred portion of allowances reduces operating expenses in the period received, these amounts represent a net increase to operating income during that period.

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        Reinsurance allowances do not affect the methodology used to amortize DAC or the period over which such DAC is amortized. However, they do affect the amounts recognized as DAC amortization. DAC on universal life-type, limited-payment long duration, and investment contracts business is amortized based on the estimated gross profits of the policies in-force. Reinsurance allowances are considered in the determination of estimated gross profits, and therefore, impact DAC amortization on these lines of business. Deferred reinsurance allowances on level term business as required by the ASC Financial Services-Insurance Topic are recorded as ceded DAC, which is amortized over estimated ceded premiums of the policies in-force. Thus, deferred reinsurance allowances on policies as required under the Financial Services-Insurance Topic may impact DAC amortization. A more detailed discussion of the components of reinsurance can be found in the Reinsurance section of Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements.

Impact of reinsurance

        Reinsurance impacted the Life Marketing segment line items as shown in the following table:

Life Marketing Segment
Line Item Impact of Reinsurance

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,    
 
  2010   2009   2008    
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   

REVENUES

                     
 

Reinsurance ceded

  $ (839,512 ) $ (911,703 ) $ (924,026 )  
                 

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                     
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    (825,951 )   (932,903 )   (981,646 )  
 

Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs

    (121,266 )   (52,186 )   (55,415 )  
 

Other operating expenses(1)

    (142,700 )   (141,282 )   (144,003 )  
                 

Total benefits and expenses

    (1,089,917 )   (1,126,371 )   (1,181,064 )  
                 

NET IMPACT OF REINSURANCE(2)

  $ 250,405   $ 214,668   $ 257,038    
                 

Allowances received

  $ (198,374 ) $ (239,874 ) $ (248,097 )  
 

Less: Amount deferred

    55,674     98,592     104,094    
                 

Allowances recognized (ceded other operating expenses)(1)

  $ (142,700 ) $ (141,282 ) $ (144,003 )  
                 
(1)
Other operating expenses ceded per the income statement are equal to reinsurance allowances recognized after capitalization.
(2)
Assumes no investment income on reinsurance. Foregone investment income would substantially reduce the favorable impact of reinsurance. The Company estimates that the impact of foregone investment income would reduce the net impact of reinsurance by 90% to 130%.

        The table above does not reflect the impact of reinsurance on our net investment income. By ceding business to the assuming companies, we forgo investment income on the reserves ceded. Conversely, the assuming companies will receive investment income on the reserves assumed, which will increase the assuming companies' profitability on the business we cede. The net investment income impact to us and the assuming companies has not been quantified. The impact of including foregone investment income would be to substantially reduce the favorable net impact of reinsurance reflected above. We estimate that the impact of foregone investment income would be to reduce the net impact of reinsurance presented in

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the table above by 90% to 130%. The Life Marketing segment's reinsurance programs do not materially impact the "other income" line of our income statement.

        As shown above, reinsurance had a favorable impact on the Life Marketing segment's operating income for the periods presented above. The impact of reinsurance is largely due to our quota share coinsurance program in place prior to mid-2005. Under that program, generally 90% of the segment's traditional new business was ceded to reinsurers. Since mid-2005, a much smaller percentage of overall term business was ceded due to our change in reinsurance strategy on traditional business discussed previously. As a result of that change, the relative impact of reinsurance on the Life Marketing segment's overall results is expected to decrease over time. While the significance of reinsurance is expected to decline over time, the overall impact of reinsurance for a given period may fluctuate due to variations in mortality and unlocking of balances under the ASC Financial Services-Insurance Topic.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

        The decrease in ceded premiums above for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, was caused primarily by lower ceded traditional life premiums and policy fees of $70.4 million.

        Ceded benefits and settlement expenses were lower for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, due to lower increases in ceded reserves partially offset by higher ceded claims. Traditional ceded benefits decreased $65.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, due to a lower increase in ceded reserves partly offset by lower ceded death benefits. Universal life ceded benefits decreased $41.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, due to a lower change in ceded reserves more than offsetting higher ceded claims. Ceded universal life claims were $29.8 million higher for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009.

        Ceded amortization of deferred policy acquisitions costs increased for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the differences in unlocking between the two periods.

        Total allowances recognized for the year ended December 31, 2010, increased from the year ended December 31, 2009, as the impact of growth in universal life sales more than offset the impact of the continued reduction in our traditional life reinsurance allowances.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

        The decrease in ceded premiums above for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, was caused primarily by lower ceded traditional life premiums and policy fees of $11.1 million.

        Ceded benefits and settlement expenses were lower for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, due to lower increases in ceded reserves and decreased ceded claims. Traditional ceded benefits increased $45.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, as a larger increase in ceded reserves more than offset lower ceded death benefits. Universal life ceded benefits decreased $91.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, due to lower ceded claims and a lower change in ceded reserves. Ceded universal life claims were $14.3 million lower for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008.

        Ceded amortization of deferred policy acquisitions costs decreased for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the same period in 2008, primarily due to the differences in unlocking between the two periods.

        Total allowances received for the year ended December 31, 2009, decreased from the year ended December 31, 2008, due to the change in our traditional life reinsurance strategy.

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Acquisitions

Segment results of operations

        Segment results were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

REVENUES

                                   
 

Gross premiums and policy fees

  $ 676,849   $ 724,488   $ 764,438     (6.6 )%   (5.2 )%    
 

Reinsurance ceded

    (430,151 )   (462,972 )   (487,698 )   (7.1 )   (5.1 )    
                               
 

Net premiums and policy fees

    246,698     261,516     276,740     (5.7 )   (5.5 )    
 

Net investment income

    458,703     479,743     530,028     (4.4 )   (9.5 )    
 

Other income

    5,886     6,059     6,735     (2.9 )   (10.0 )    
                               
   

Total operating revenues

    711,287     747,318     813,503     (4.8 )   (8.1 )    
 

Realized gains (losses)—investments

    116,044     281,963     (306,581 )                
 

Realized gains (losses)—derivatives

    (65,987 )   (252,100 )   209,800                  
                               
     

Total revenues

    761,344     777,181     716,722                  

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                                   
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    512,433     532,992     580,271     (3.9 )   (8.1 )    
 

Amortization of value of business acquired

    62,152     65,798     75,608     (5.5 )   (13.0 )    
 

Other operating expenses

    25,559     14,768     21,145     73.1     (30.2 )    
                               
   

Operating benefits and expenses

    600,144     613,558     677,024     (2.2 )   (9.4 )    
 

Amortization of VOBA related to realized gains (losses)—investments

    2,258     (6,773 )   (1,224 )                
                               
   

Total benefits and expenses

    602,402     606,785     675,800     (0.7 )   (10.2 )    

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX

    158,942     170,396     40,922     (6.7 )   n/m      
 

Less: realized gains (losses)

    50,057     29,863     (96,781 )                
 

Less: related amortization of VOBA

    (2,258 )   6,773     1,224                  
                               

OPERATING INCOME

  $ 111,143   $ 133,760   $ 136,479     (16.9 )   (2.0 )    
                               

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        The following table summarizes key data for the Acquisitions segment:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

Average Life Insurance In-Force(1)(5)

                                   
 

Traditional

  $ 184,634,382   $ 197,565,150   $ 211,085,105     (6.5 )%   (6.4 )%    
 

Universal life

    26,744,086     28,305,677     30,142,339     (5.5 )   (6.1 )    
                               

  $ 211,378,468   $ 225,870,827   $ 241,227,444     (6.4 )   (6.4 )    
                               

Average Account Values(6)

                                   
 

Universal life

  $ 2,698,920   $ 2,826,982   $ 2,942,528     (4.5 )   (3.9 )    
 

Fixed annuity(2)

    3,366,735 (4)   3,597,163 (4)   4,230,026 (4)   (6.4 )   (15.0 )    
 

Variable annuity

    134,299     131,195     171,758     2.4     (23.6 )    
                               

  $ 6,199,954   $ 6,555,340   $ 7,344,312     (5.4 )   (10.7 )    
                               

Interest Spread—UL & Fixed Annuities

                                   
 

Net investment income yield(3)

    5.92 %   5.95 %   6.06 %                
 

Interest credited to policyholders

    4.15     4.16     4.14                  
                               
   

Interest spread

    1.77 %   1.79 %   1.92 %                
                               
(1)
Amounts are not adjusted for reinsurance ceded.
(2)
Includes general account balances held within variable annuity products and is net of coinsurance ceded.
(3)
Includes available-for-sale and trading portfolios. Available-for-sale portfolio yields were 6.30%, 6.32%, and 6.34% for the year ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.
(4)
Certain changes in methodology were made in the current year. Prior years have been adjusted to make amounts comparable to current year.
(5)
Excludes $13,185,627 related to the United Investors acquisition.
(6)
Excludes account values related to the United Investors acquisition.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $111.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, a decrease of $22.6 million, or 16.9%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the expected runoff in the blocks of business, higher operating expenses, and a planned one-time payment of $5.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2010 to complete insourcing the administration of a block of business.

    Operating revenues

        Net premiums and policy fees decreased $14.8 million, or 5.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to runoff of the in-force business. Net investment income decreased $21.0 million, or 4.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, due to runoff of the segment's in-force business, resulting in a reduction of invested assets and lower investment income.

    Total benefits and expenses

        Total benefits and expenses decreased $4.4 million, or 0.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease related primarily to the expected runoff of the in-force business and fluctuations in mortality, partially offset by higher operating expenses and

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amortization of VOBA related to realized gains on investments. The variance in the amortization of VOBA related to realized gains (losses)—investments is due to the size of the gains or losses relative to the gross profits used to amortize VOBA in a given year.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $133.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, a decrease of $2.7 million, or 2.0%, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to expected runoff of the blocks of business partially offset by more favorable mortality results and lower operating expenses.

    Operating revenues

        Net premiums and policy fees decreased $15.2 million, or 5.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to runoff of the in-force business. Net investment income decreased $50.3 million, or 9.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, due to runoff of the segment's in-force business and lower overall yields, resulting in a reduction of invested assets and lower investment income.

    Total benefits and expenses

        Total benefits and expenses decreased $69.0 million, or 10.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease related primarily to the expected runoff of the in-force business, fluctuations in mortality, and lower operating expenses.

Reinsurance

        The Acquisitions segment currently reinsurers portions of both its life and annuity in-force. The cost of reinsurance to the segment is reflected in the chart shown below. A more detailed discussion of the components of reinsurance can be found in the Reinsurance section of Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements.

Impact of reinsurance

        Reinsurance impacted the Acquisitions segment line items as shown in the following table:


Acquisitions Segment
Line Item Impact of Reinsurance

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2010   2009   2008  
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
 

REVENUES

                   
 

Reinsurance ceded

  $ (430,151 ) $ (462,972 ) $ (487,698 )
               

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                   
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    (368,647 )   (391,493 )   (410,950 )
 

Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs

    (19,216 )   (11,151 )   (23,299 )
 

Other operating expenses

    (56,487 )   (61,689 )   (71,057 )
               

Total benefits and expenses

    (444,350 )   (464,333 )   (505,306 )
               

NET IMPACT OF REINSURANCE(1)

  $ 14,199   $ 1,361   $ 17,608  
               
(1)
Assumes no investment income on reinsurance. Foregone investment income would substantially reduce the favorable impact of reinsurance.

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        The segment's reinsurance programs do not materially impact the other income line of the income statement. In addition, net investment income generally has no direct impact on reinsurance cost. However, by ceding business to the assuming companies, we forgo investment income on the reserves ceded to the assuming companies. Conversely, the assuming companies will receive investment income on the reserves assumed which will increase the assuming companies' profitability on business assumed from the Company. For business ceded under modified coinsurance arrangements, the amount of investment income attributable to the assuming company is included as part of the overall change in policy reserves and, as such, is reflected in benefit and settlement expenses. The net investment income impact to us and the assuming companies has not been quantified as it is not fully reflected in our consolidated financial statements.

        The net impact of reinsurance increased $12.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, as decreases in ceded premiums more than offset decreases in ceded benefits and expenses, primarily due to a significant decrease in ceded claims expense.

        The net impact of reinsurance decreased $16.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, as decreases in ceded benefits, amortization of deferred acquisition costs, and expenses ceded to reinsurers involved with the Chase Insurance Group acquisition, more than offset decreases in ceded premiums, as a result of expected runoff of business.

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Annuities

Segment results of operations

        Segment results were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

REVENUES

                                   
 

Gross premiums and policy fees

  $ 42,786   $ 33,983   $ 34,538     25.9 %   (1.6 )%    
 

Reinsurance ceded

    (136 )   (152 )   (206 )   (10.5 )   (26.2 )    
                               
 

Net premiums and policy fees

    42,650     33,831     34,332     26.1     (1.5 )    
 

Net investment income

    482,264     440,097     347,551     9.6     26.6      
 

Realized gains (losses)—derivatives

    (63,445 )   22,620     (40,971 )   n/m     n/m      
 

Other income

    30,592     17,596     12,761     73.9     37.9      
                               
   

Total operating revenues

    492,061     514,144     353,673     (4.3 )   45.4      
 

Realized gains (losses)—investments

    10,175     (5,288 )   (12,917 )                
                               
   

Total revenues

    502,236     508,856     340,756     (1.3 )   49.3      

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                                   
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    407,455     350,850     310,800     16.1     12.9      
 

Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs and value of business acquired

    (6,065 )   79,688     (1,456 )   n/m     n/m      
 

Other operating expenses

    36,770     26,294     25,622     39.8     2.6      
                               
   

Operating benefits and expenses

    438,160     456,832     334,966     (4.1 )   36.4      
 

Amortization related to realized gains (losses)—investments

    2,883     2,240     2,072                  
                               
     

Total benefits and expenses

    441,043     459,072     337,038     (3.9 )   36.2      

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX

    61,193     49,784     3,718     22.9     n/m      
 

Less: realized gains (losses)

    10,175     (5,288 )   (12,917 )                
 

Less: amortization related to realized gains (losses)—investments

    (2,883 )   (1,570 )   (2,072 )                
                               

OPERATING INCOME

  $ 53,901   $ 56,642   $ 18,707     (4.8 )   n/m      
                               

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        The following table summarizes key data for the Annuities segment:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

Sales

                                   
 

Fixed annuity

  $ 930,294   $ 1,225,211   $ 2,160,156     (24.1 )%   (43.3 )%    
 

Variable annuity

    1,714,753     796,245     452,409     115.4     76.0      
                               

  $ 2,645,047   $ 2,021,456   $ 2,612,565     30.8     (22.6 )    
                               

Average Account Values

                                   
 

Fixed annuity(1)

  $ 7,920,539   $ 7,073,464   $ 5,630,864     12.0     25.6      
 

Variable annuity

    3,409,506     2,190,564     2,378,296     55.6     (7.9 )    
                               

  $ 11,330,045   $ 9,264,028   $ 8,009,160     22.3     15.7      
                               

Interest Spread—Fixed Annuities(2)

                                   
 

Net investment income yield

    6.04 %   6.18 %   6.12 %                
 

Interest credited to policyholders

    4.55     4.79     4.96                  
                               
   

Interest spread

    1.49 %   1.39 %   1.16 %                
                               

 

 
  As of December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

GMDB—Net amount at risk(3)

  $ 221,907   $ 393,986   $ 779,850     (43.7 )%   (49.5 )%    

GMDB Reserves

    6,107         782     n/m     n/m      

GMWB Reserves

    19,611     13,845     33,415     41.6     (58.6 )    

Account value subject to GMWB rider

    2,686,125     1,108,871     342,675     n/m     n/m      

S&P 500® Index

    1,258     1,115     903     12.8     23.5      
(1)
Includes general account balances held within variable annuity products.
(2)
Interest spread on average general account values.
(3)
Guaranteed death benefits in excess of contract holder account balance.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

    Segment operating income

        Segment operating income was $53.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to $56.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, a decrease of $2.7 million. This change included an unfavorable $42.5 million variance related to fair value changes, of which $3.0 million was related to the EIA product and $39.5 million was related to derivatives associated with the VA GMWB rider caused primarily by changes in equity markets and lower interest rates. The remaining favorable $45.2 million variance in operating income was partly driven by a $19.3 million unlocking charge recorded within the VA line during the year ended December 31, 2009. Other items accounted for the remainder of the variance, including a $7.0 million reduction in death benefit payments on the VA line, a $9.6 million increase in earnings related to wider spreads and average account value growth of 47.6% in the SPDA line, and a $4.4 million increase in EIA earnings excluding fair value.

    Operating revenues

        Segment operating revenues decreased $22.1 million, or 4.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to unfavorable fair value changes on

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derivatives associated with the VA GMWB rider and the EIA product of $39.5 million and $7.6 million, respectively. These losses were partially offset by increases in net investment income, policy fees, and other income. Average fixed account balances grew 12.0% and average variable account balances grew 55.6% for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, resulting in higher investment income, policy fees, and other income.

    Benefits and settlement expenses

        Benefits and settlement expenses increased $56.6 million, or 16.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. This increase was primarily the result of higher credited interest, an unfavorable change in unearned premium reserve amortization, and an unfavorable change in unlocking. The change in unearned premium amortization was primarily a result of fair value changes associated with the VA GMWB rider was $21.6 million. Offsetting these increases was a favorable change of $4.6 million related to EIA fair value adjustments. Favorable unlocking of $6.0 million was recorded in the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to $8.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2009.

    Amortization of DAC

        The decrease in DAC amortization for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, was primarily due to fair value changes on the VA GMWB rider. Fair value changes on the VA GMWB rider caused a decrease in amortization of $73.4 million. There was also a favorable variance in DAC unlocking of $5.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to unfavorable unlocking of $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.

    Sales

        Total sales increased $623.6 million, or 30.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. Sales of variable annuities increased $918.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to a more competitive product and more focus on the VA line of business. Sales of fixed annuities decreased $294.9 million, or 24.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in fixed annuity sales was driven by reduced sales in all the fixed annuity product lines and was primarily attributable to a lower interest rate environment. MVA sales decreased $256.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. SPDA sales decreased by $23.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

    Segment operating income

        Segment operating income was $56.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, an increase of $37.9 million. This change included a favorable $39.7 million variance related to fair value changes, of which $4.3 million was related to the EIA product and $35.4 million was related to embedded derivatives associated with the variable annuity GMWB rider. Offsetting this favorable change, unfavorable prospective unlocking of assumptions (DAC, GMWB, bonus interest, etc.) reduced earnings by $7.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. In addition, unfavorable mortality in the segment's SPIA block caused a $10.3 million unfavorable variance compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. These decreases were partially offset by wider spreads and the continued growth of the SPDA and MVA lines, which accounted for an $11.9 million and $3.8 million increase in earnings, respectively.

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    Operating revenues

        Segment operating revenues increased $160.5 million, or 45.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to an increase in net investment income, policy fee and other revenue, gains on derivatives, and the positive fair value changes on the variable annuity line mentioned above. Average account balances grew 15.7% for the year ended December 31, 2009, resulting in higher investment income.

    Benefits and settlement expenses

        Benefits and settlement expenses increased $40.1 million, or 12.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. This increase was primarily the result of higher credited interest and increased variable annuity death benefit payments. Offsetting this increase was a favorable change of $6.0 million in unlocking for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. Favorable unlocking of $2.5 million was recorded by the segment for the year ended December 31, 2008.

    Amortization of DAC

        The increase in DAC amortization (not related to realized capital gains and losses) for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, was primarily due to fair value gains, unlocking on the variable annuity line, increased policy fee revenue, and widening spreads on the SPDA and MVA lines. For the year ended December 31, 2009, DAC amortization was increased by $81.1 million primarily due to increased DAC amortization in the variable annuity line. There was unfavorable DAC unlocking of $14.1 million in the variable annuity line, which was partially offset by favorable DAC unlocking of $7.6 million in the MVA line. Favorable DAC unlocking of $0.3 million was recorded by the segment during the year ended December 31, 2008. In addition, fair value changes on the variable annuity GMWB rider caused an increase in amortization of $37.1 million.

    Sales

        Total sales decreased $591.1 million, or 22.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. Sales of fixed annuities decreased $934.9 million, or 43.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease in fixed annuity sales was driven by reduced sales in the EIA, MVA, and immediate annuity lines and was primarily attributable to a lower interest rate environment. Immediate annuity sales decreased $273.5 million, or 78.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to year ended December 31, 2008. SPDA sales increased by $57.0 million, or 7.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to expansion of our distribution channels. Sales of variable annuities increased $343.8 million, or 76.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to dislocation of some core competitors and improved sales management efforts.

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Stable Value Products

Segment results of operations

        Segment results were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

REVENUES

                                   
 

Net investment income

  $ 171,327   $ 221,688   $ 328,353     (22.7 )%   (32.5 )%    
 

Other income

        1,866     9,360     (100.0 )   (80.1 )    
 

Realized gains (losses)

    (3,444 )   (2,697 )   (6,427 )   27.7     (58.0 )    
                               
   

Total revenues

    167,883     220,857     331,286     (24.0 )   (33.3 )    

BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

                                   
 

Benefits and settlement expenses

    123,365     154,555     237,608     (20.2 )   (35.0 )    
 

Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs

    5,430     3,471     4,467     56.4     (22.3 )    
 

Other operating expenses

    3,325     3,565     5,827     (6.7 )   (38.8 )    
                               
   

Total benefits and expenses

    132,120     161,591     247,902     (18.2 )   (34.8 )    

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX

    35,763     59,266     83,384     (39.7 )   (28.9 )    
 

Less: realized gains (losses)

    (3,444 )   (2,697 )   (6,427 )                
                               

OPERATING INCOME

  $ 39,207   $ 61,963   $ 89,811     (36.7 )   (31.0 )    
                               

        The following table summarizes key data for the Stable Value Products segment:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

Sales

                                   
 

GIC

  $ 132,612   $   $ 166,284     n/m %   n/m %    
 

GFA—Direct Institutional

    625,000         1,061,651     n/m     n/m      
 

GFA—Registered Notes—Institutional

            450,000     n/m     n/m      
 

GFA—Registered Notes—Retail

            290,848     n/m     n/m      
                               

  $ 757,612   $   $ 1,968,783     n/m     n/m      
                               

Average Account Values

  $ 3,329,510   $ 4,091,199   $ 5,443,382     (18.6 )%   (24.8 )%    

Ending Account Values

  $ 3,076,233   $ 3,581,150   $ 4,960,405     (14.1 )%   (27.8 )%    

Operating Spread

                                   
 

Net investment income yield

    5.13 %   5.41 %   5.98 %                
 

Interest credited

    3.69     3.77     4.33                  
 

Operating expenses

    0.27     0.17     0.18                  
                               
   

Operating spread

    1.17 %   1.47% (1)   1.47% (1)                
                               
(1)
Excludes one-time funding agreement retirement gains.

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For The Year Ended December 31, 2010 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2009

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $39.2 million and decreased $22.8 million, or 36.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in operating earnings resulted from a decline in average account values and lower operating spreads. In addition, no income was generated from the early retirement of funding agreements backing medium-term notes for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared with $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. We also called certain retail notes, which has accelerated DAC amortization of $2.7 million on those called contracts. The operating spread decreased 30 basis points to 117 basis points for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to an operating spread of 147 basis points for the year ended December 31, 2009.

    Sales

        Total sales were $757.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010.

For The Year Ended December 31, 2009 as compared to The Year Ended December 31, 2008

    Segment operating income

        Operating income was $62.0 million and decreased $27.8 million, or 31.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease in operating earnings resulted from a decline in average account values. In addition, $1.9 million in other income was generated from the early retirement of funding agreements backing medium-term notes for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared with $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The operating spread remained flat at 147 basis points during the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2008.

    Sales

        During 2009, we chose not to participate in the stable value market.

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Asset Protection

Segment results of operations

        Segment results were as follows:

 
  For The Year Ended December 31,   Change    
 
 
  2010   2009   2008   2010   2009    
 
 
  (Dollars In Thousands)
   
   
   
 

REVENUES

                                   
 

Gross premiums and policy fees

  $ 305,831   $ 339,516   $ 363,169     (9.9 )%   (6.5 )%    
 

Reinsurance ceded

    (138,539 )   (152,222 )   (170,875 )   (9.0 )   (10.9 )