10-K 1 d680668d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

Commission File Number 001-33653

 

LOGO

(Exact Name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Ohio   31-0854434

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

38 Fountain Square Plaza

Cincinnati, Ohio 45263

(Address of principal executive offices)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 972-3030

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class:

  

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Common Stock, Without Par Value    The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Depositary Shares Representing a 1/1000th Ownership Interest in a Share of 6.625% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series I    The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes: ☒ No: ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes: ☐ No: ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes: ☒ No: ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes: ☒ No: ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ☒ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☐ Emerging growth company ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark whether the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes: ☐ No: ☒

There were 647,259,351 shares of the Bancorp’s Common Stock, without par value, outstanding as of January 31, 2019. The Aggregate Market Value of the Voting Stock held by non-affiliates of the Bancorp was $19,429,251,571 as of June 30, 2018.

 

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DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

This report incorporates into a single document the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) with respect to annual reports on Form 10-K and annual reports to shareholders. Sections of the Bancorp’s Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

Only those sections of this 2018 Annual Report to Shareholders that are specified in this Cross Reference Index constitute part of the registrant’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. No other information contained in this 2018 Annual Report to Shareholders shall be deemed to constitute any part of this Form 10-K nor shall any such information be incorporated into the Form 10-K and shall not be deemed “filed” as part of the registrant’s Form 10-K.

10-K Cross Reference Index

 

PART I   
Item 1.   Business      19-25  
  Employees      57  
  Segment Information      60-68,193-196  
  Average Balance Sheets      53  
  Analysis of Net Interest Income and Net Interest Income Changes      52-54  
  Investment Securities Portfolio      73-74, 126-127  
  Loan and Lease Portfolio      72-73, 128-129  
  Risk Elements of Loan and Lease Portfolio      79-93  
  Deposits      74-76  
  Return on Equity and Assets      43  
  Short-term Borrowings      76-77, 152  
Item 1A.   Risk Factors      26-37  
Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments      37  
Item 2.   Properties      37  
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings      37  
Item 4.   Mine Safety Disclosures      37  
  Executive Officers of the Bancorp      38  
PART II   
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      39  
Item 6.   Selected Financial Data      43  
Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      44-104  
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      104  
Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      104-197  
Item 9.   Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      198  
Item 9A.   Controls and Procedures      198  
Item 9B.   Other Information      200  
PART III   
Item 10.   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      200  
Item 11.   Executive Compensation      200  
Item 12.   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      200  
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      200  
Item 14.   Principal Accounting Fees and Services      200  
PART IV   
Item 15.   Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules      200-204  
Item 16.   Form 10–K Summary      204  
SIGNATURES      205  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains statements that we believe are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Rule 175 promulgated thereunder, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Rule 3b-6 promulgated thereunder. These statements relate to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business. They usually can be identified by the use of forward-looking language such as “will likely result,” “may,” “are expected to,” “is anticipated,” “potential,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “projected,” “intends to,” or may include other similar words or phrases such as “believes,” “plans,” “trend,” “objective,” “continue,” “remain,” or similar expressions, or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “might,” “can,” or similar verbs. You should not place undue reliance on these statements, as they are subject to risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to the risk factors set forth in the Risk Factors section in Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind these risks and uncertainties, as well as any cautionary statements we may make. Moreover, you should treat these statements as speaking only as of the date they are made and based only on information then actually known to us. There are a number of important factors that could cause future results to differ materially from historical performance and these forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to: (1) deteriorating credit quality; (2) loan concentration by location or industry of borrowers or collateral; (3) problems encountered by other financial institutions; (4) inadequate sources of funding or liquidity; (5) unfavorable actions of rating agencies; (6) inability to maintain or grow deposits; (7) limitations on the ability to receive dividends from subsidiaries; (8) cyber-security risks; (9) Fifth Third’s ability to secure confidential information and deliver products and services through the use of computer systems and telecommunications networks; (10) failures by third-party service providers; (11) inability to manage strategic initiatives and/or organizational changes; (12) inability to implement technology system enhancements; (13) failure of internal controls and other risk management systems; (14) losses related to fraud, theft or violence; (15) inability to attract and retain skilled personnel; (16) adverse impacts of government regulation; (17) governmental or regulatory changes or other actions; (18) failures to meet applicable capital requirements; (19) regulatory objections to Fifth Third’s capital plan; (20) regulation of Fifth Third’s derivatives activities; (21) deposit insurance premiums; (22) assessments for the orderly liquidation fund; (23) replacement of LIBOR; (24) weakness in the national or local economies; (25) global political and economic uncertainty or negative actions; (26) changes in interest rates; (27) changes and trends in capital markets; (28) fluctuation of Fifth Third’s stock price; (29) volatility in mortgage banking revenue; (30) litigation, investigations, and enforcement proceedings by governmental authorities; (31) breaches of contractual covenants, representations and warranties; (32) competition and changes in the financial services industry; (33) changing retail distribution strategies, customer preferences and behavior; (34) risks relating to the potential merger with MB Financial, Inc. and Fifth Third’s ability to realize anticipated benefits of the merger; (35) difficulties in identifying, acquiring or integrating suitable strategic partnerships, investments or acquisitions; (36) potential dilution from future acquisitions; (37) loss of income and/or difficulties encountered in the sale and separation of businesses, investments or other assets; (38) results of investments or acquired entities; (39) changes in accounting standards or interpretation or declines in the value of Fifth Third’s goodwill or other intangible assets; (40) inaccuracies or other failures from the use of models; (41) effects of critical accounting policies and judgments or the use of inaccurate estimates; (42) weather-related events or other natural disasters; and (43) the impact of reputational risk created by these or other developments on such matters as business generation and retention, funding and liquidity.

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

General Information

Fifth Third Bancorp (the “Bancorp” or “Fifth Third”), an Ohio corporation organized in 1975, is a bank holding company (“BHC”) as defined by the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”), and has elected to be treated as a financial holding company (“FHC”) under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (“GLBA”) and regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “FRB”).

The Bancorp is a diversified financial services company headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio and is the indirect holding company of Fifth Third Bank (the “Bank”). As of December 31, 2018, Fifth Third had $146 billion in assets and operates 1,121 full-service Banking Centers and 2,419 Fifth Third branded ATMs in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Florida, Tennessee, West Virginia, Georgia and North Carolina. The Bancorp operates four main businesses: Commercial Banking, Branch Banking, Consumer Lending and Wealth & Asset Management. Fifth Third is among the largest money managers in the Midwest and, as of December 31, 2018, had $356 billion in assets under care, of which it managed $37 billion for individuals, corporations and not-for-profit organizations. Investor information and press releases can be viewed at www.53.com. Fifth Third’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ® Global Select Market under the symbol “FITB.”

The Bancorp’s subsidiaries provide a wide range of financial products and services to the commercial, financial, retail, governmental, educational, energy and healthcare sectors. This includes a wide range of checking, savings and money market accounts, wealth management solutions, payments and commerce solutions, insurance services and credit products such as commercial loans and leases, mortgage loans, credit cards, installment loans and auto loans. These products and services are delivered through a variety of channels including the Company’s Banking Centers, other offices, telephone sales, the internet and mobile applications. Fifth Third Bank has deposit insurance provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) through the Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”). Refer to Exhibit 21 filed as an attachment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a list of subsidiaries of the Bancorp as of February 15, 2019.

Additional information regarding the Bancorp’s businesses is included in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Availability of Financial Information

The Bancorp files reports with the SEC. Those reports include the annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and proxy statements, as well as any amendments to those reports. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The Bancorp’s annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are accessible at no cost on the Bancorp’s web site at www.53.com on a same day basis after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.

Competition

The Bancorp, primarily through Fifth Third Bank, competes for deposits, loans and other banking services in its principal

geographic markets as well as in selected national markets as opportunities arise. In addition to traditional financial institutions, the Bancorp competes with securities dealers, brokers, mortgage bankers, investment advisors, specialty finance, telecommunications, technology and insurance companies as well as large retailers. These companies compete across geographic boundaries and provide customers with meaningful alternatives to traditional banking services in nearly all significant products. The increasingly competitive environment is a result primarily of changes in regulation, changes in technology, product delivery systems and the accelerating pace of consolidation among financial service providers. These competitive trends are likely to continue.

Acquisitions and Investments

The Bancorp’s strategy for growth includes strengthening its presence in core markets, expanding into contiguous markets and broadening its product offerings while taking into account the integration and other risks of growth. The Bancorp evaluates strategic acquisition and investment opportunities and conducts due diligence activities in connection with possible transactions. As a result, discussions, and in some cases, negotiations regarding acquisitions and investments may take place and future transactions involving cash, debt or equity securities may occur. These typically involve the payment of a premium over book value and current market price, and therefore, some dilution of book value and net income per share may occur with any future transactions.

Regulation and Supervision

In addition to the generally applicable state and federal laws governing businesses and employers, the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank are subject to extensive regulation by federal and state laws and regulations applicable to financial institutions and their parent companies. Virtually all aspects of the business of the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank are subject to specific requirements or restrictions and general regulatory oversight. The principal objectives of state and federal banking laws and regulations and the supervision, regulation and examination of banks and their parent companies (such as the Fifth Third Bank and the Bancorp) by bank regulatory agencies are the maintenance of the safety and soundness of financial institutions, maintenance of the federal deposit insurance system and the protection of consumers or classes of consumers, rather than the protection of shareholders or debtholders of a bank or the parent company of a bank. The Bancorp and its subsidiaries are subject to an extensive regulatory framework of complex and comprehensive federal and state laws and regulations addressing the provision of banking and other financial services and other aspects of the Bancorp’s businesses and operations. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”) and recent legislation modifying Dodd-Frank, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) of 2018, will continue to impact the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank. To the extent the following material describes statutory or regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statute or regulation.

Regulators

The Bancorp and/or Fifth Third Bank are subject to regulation and supervision primarily by the FRB, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) and the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions (the “Division”) and additionally by certain other functional regulators and self-regulatory organizations.

 

 

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The Bancorp is also subject to regulation by the SEC by virtue of its status as a public company and due to the nature of some of its businesses. Fifth Third Bank is subject to regulation by the FDIC, which insures Fifth Third Bank’s deposits as permitted by law.

The federal and state laws and regulations that are applicable to banks and to BHCs regulate, among other matters, the scope of the Bancorp’s and/or Fifth Third Bank’s businesses, their activities, their investments, their capital and liquidity levels, their ability to make capital distributions (such as share repurchases and dividends), their reserves against deposits, the timing of the availability of deposited funds, the amount of loans to individual and related borrowers and the nature, the amount of and collateral for certain loans, and the amount of interest that may be charged on loans, as applicable. Various federal and state consumer laws and regulations also affect the services provided to consumers.

The Bancorp and/or Fifth Third Bank are required to file various reports with and are subject to examination by regulators, including the FRB and the Division. The FRB, the Division and the CFPB have the authority to issue orders for BHCs and/or banks to cease and desist from certain banking practices and violations of conditions imposed by, or violations of agreements with, the FRB, the Division and the CFPB. Certain of the Bancorp’s and/or Fifth Third Bank’s regulators are also empowered to assess civil money penalties against companies or individuals in certain situations, such as when there is a violation of a law or regulation. Applicable state and federal laws also grant certain regulators the authority to impose additional requirements and restrictions on the activities of the Bancorp and/or Fifth Third Bank and, in some situations, the imposition of such additional requirements and restrictions will not be publicly available information.

Acquisitions

The BHCA requires the prior approval of the FRB for a BHC to acquire substantially all the assets of a bank or to acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of any bank, BHC or savings association, or to increase any such non-majority ownership or control of any bank, BHC or savings association, or to merge or consolidate with any BHC.

The BHCA generally prohibits a BHC from acquiring a direct or indirect interest in or control of more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of a company that is not a bank or a BHC and from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks or furnishing services to its banking subsidiaries, except that it may engage in and may own shares of companies engaged in certain activities the FRB has determined to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be proper incident thereto.

Financial Holding Companies

A FHC is permitted to engage directly or indirectly in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a BHC under the BHCA. Permitted activities for a FHC include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking and other activities that are declared by the FRB, in cooperation with the Treasury Department, to be “financial in nature or incidental thereto” or are declared by the FRB unilaterally to be “complementary” to financial activities. In addition, a FHC is allowed to conduct permissible new financial activities or acquire permissible non-bank financial companies

with after-the-fact notice to the FRB. A BHC may elect to become a FHC if each of its banking subsidiaries is well capitalized, is well managed and has at least a “Satisfactory” rating under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”). Dodd-Frank also extended the well capitalized and well managed requirement to the BHC. To maintain FHC status, a holding company must continue to meet certain requirements. The failure to meet such requirements could result in material restrictions on the activities of the FHC and may also adversely affect the FHC’s ability to enter into certain transactions (including mergers and acquisitions) or obtain necessary approvals in connection therewith, as well as loss of FHC status. If restrictions are imposed on the activities of an FHC, such information may not necessarily be available to the public.

Dividends

The Bancorp depends in part upon dividends received from its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including Fifth Third Bank, to fund its activities, including the payment of dividends. The Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank are subject to various federal and state restrictions on their ability to pay dividends. The FRB has authority to prohibit BHCs from paying dividends if such payment is deemed to be an unsafe or unsound practice.

The FRB has indicated generally that it may be an unsafe or unsound practice for BHCs to pay dividends unless a BHC’s net income is sufficient to fund the dividends and the expected rate of earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. In addition, the Bancorp’s ability to make capital distributions, including dividends is subject to the FRB’s non-objection to the Bancorp’s capital plan as part of the FRB’s Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (“CCAR”) process discussed below (see Systemically Significant Companies and Capital).

Source of Strength

Under long-standing FRB policy and now as codified in Dodd-Frank, a BHC is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to each of its banking subsidiaries and to commit resources to their support. This support may be required at times when the BHC may not have the resources to provide it.

FDIC Assessments

Under the FDIC’s assessment system for determining payments to the DIF insured depository institutions with more than $10 billion in assets (“large IDIs”) are assessed under a complex “scorecard” methodology that seeks to capture both the probability that an individual large IDI will fail and the magnitude of the impact on the DIF if such a failure occurs. The assessment base of a large IDI is its total assets less tangible equity. This assessment base affords the FDIC much greater flexibility to vary its assessment system based upon the different asset classes that large IDIs normally hold on their balance sheets.

During the first quarter of 2016, the FDIC issued a final rule implementing a 4.5 bps surcharge on the quarterly FDIC insurance assessments of large IDIs. Fifth Third Bank became subject to the FDIC surcharge on July 1, 2016. The surcharge continued through September 30, 2018 when the reserve ratio reached 1.36% of insured deposits, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%.

Transactions with Affiliates

Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and the FRB’s Regulation W restrict transactions between a bank and its affiliates, including a parent BHC.

 

 

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Fifth Third Bank is subject to these restrictions, which include quantitative and qualitative limits on the amounts and types of transactions that may take place, including extensions of credit to affiliates, investments in the stock or securities of affiliates, purchases of assets from affiliates and certain other transactions with affiliates. These restrictions also require that credit transactions with affiliates be collateralized and that transactions with affiliates be on market terms or better for the bank. Generally, a bank’s covered transactions with any affiliate are limited to 10% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus and covered transactions with all affiliates are limited to 20% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus. Dodd-Frank expanded the scope of these regulations, including by applying them to the credit exposure arising under derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions.

Community Reinvestment Act

The CRA generally requires insured depository institutions, including Fifth Third Bank, to identify the communities they serve and to make loans and investments and provide services that meet the credit needs of those communities. The CRA requires the FRB to evaluate the performance of state member banks (including Fifth Third Bank) with respect to these CRA obligations. Depository institutions must maintain comprehensive records of their CRA activities for purposes of these examinations. The FRB must take into account the institution’s record of performance in meeting the credit needs of the entire community served, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. For purposes of CRA examinations, the FRB rates each institution’s compliance with the CRA as “Outstanding,” “Satisfactory,” “Needs to Improve” or “Substantial Noncompliance.” The FRB conducted a regularly scheduled examination covering 2014 through 2016 to determine Fifth Third Bank’s compliance with the CRA. This CRA examination resulted in a change in rating from “Needs to Improve” to “Outstanding”.

Capital Generally

The Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank are subject to the FRB’s capital adequacy rules. Failure to meet capital requirements could subject the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank to a variety of restrictions and enforcement actions.

Systemically Significant Companies and Capital

In 2013, the U.S. banking regulators approved final regulatory capital rules (the “Final Capital Rules”) that substantially revised the risk-based capital requirements applicable to BHCs and their depository institution subsidiaries, such as the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank, as compared to the previous U.S. risk-based and leverage capital rules. The Final Capital Rules were based on the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s (“Basel Committee”) capital framework for enhancing international capital standards (referred to as Basel III) and also implemented certain provisions of Dodd-Frank.

The Final Capital Rules, among other things, (i) include a new capital measure “Common Equity Tier I” (“CET1”), (ii) specify that Tier I capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier I capital” instruments meeting specified requirements, (iii) define CET1 narrowly by requiring that most adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital and (iv) expand the scope of the adjustments as compared to prior capital rules. CET1 capital

consists of common stock instruments that meet the eligibility criteria in the final rules, including common stock and related surplus, net of treasury stock, retained earnings, certain minority interests and, for certain firms, accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”). Under the Final Capital Rules, the Bancorp made a one-time election (the “Opt-out Election”) to filter certain AOCI components, with the result that those components are not recognized in the Bancorp’s CET1.

The Final Capital Rules require banking organizations to maintain a capital conservation buffer. For more information related to the capital conservation buffer, refer to Note 27 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The Final Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, deferred tax assets dependent upon future taxable income and significant common stock investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. In September 2017, the U.S. banking regulators proposed to revise and simplify the deductions for these items for banking organizations, such as the Bancorp, that are not subject to the “advanced approaches” under the Final Capital Rules.

The Final Capital Rules were effective for the Bancorp on January 1, 2015, with certain provisions subject to phase-in periods. In November 2017, the U.S. banking regulators revised the Final Capital Rules to extend the current transitional treatment of the deductions described above for non-advanced approaches banking organizations until the September 2017 proposal is finalized.

The FRB’s rules require BHCs with $50 billion or more in consolidated assets to establish risk committees and require BHCs with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets to comply with enhanced liquidity and overall risk management standards, including company-run liquidity stress testing using various time horizons and a buffer of highly liquid assets based on projected funding needs for a 30-day time horizon. These liquidity-related provisions are designed to be complementary to the Final LCR Rule applicable to BHCs (as discussed below).

BHCs with $100 billion or more in consolidated assets must submit capital plans to the FRB on an annual basis and those BHCs are generally required to receive the FRB’s non-objection to their capital plan before making a capital distribution, such as a share repurchase or dividend. In addition, even with an approved capital plan, a BHC must seek the approval of the FRB before making a capital distribution if, among other reasons, the BHC would not meet its regulatory capital requirements after making the proposed capital distribution.

Under its CCAR process, the FRB annually evaluates capital adequacy, internal capital adequacy, assessment processes and capital distribution plans of BHCs with $100 billion or more in assets. The CCAR process is intended to help ensure that those BHCs have robust, forward-looking capital planning processes that account for each company’s unique risks and that permit continued operations during times of economic and financial stress. The mandatory elements of the capital plan are an assessment of the expected uses and sources of capital over a nine-quarter planning horizon, a description of all planned capital actions over the planning horizon, a discussion of any expected changes to the BHC’s business plan that are likely to have a material impact on its capital adequacy or liquidity, a detailed description of the BHC’s process for assessing capital adequacy and the BHC’s capital policy.

 

 

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A BHC’s ability to make capital distributions – that is, dividends and share repurchases – is subject to limitations if the amount of the BHC’s actual capital issuances are less than the amounts indicated in the BHC’s capital plan as to which it received a non-objection from the FRB. The 2019 capital plan must be submitted to the FRB by April 5, 2019.

In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provides a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions and not to the Bancorp or Fifth Third Bank. The impact of Basel IV will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the U.S. banking regulators.

In April 2018, the FRB proposed a rule to establish stress buffer requirements. Under the proposal, the stress capital buffer (“SCB”) would replace the 2.5% component of the capital conservation buffer discussed below. The SCB, subject to a minimum of 2.5%, would reflect stressed losses in the supervisory severely adverse scenario of the FRB’s supervisory stress tests and would also include four quarters of planned common stock dividends. The proposal would also introduce a stress leverage buffer requirement, similar to the SCB, which would apply to the Tier 1 leverage ratio. In addition, the proposal would require BHCs to reduce their planned capital distributions if those distributions would not be consistent with the applicable capital buffer constraints based on the BHCs’ own baseline scenario projections. The FRB has stated that it intends to propose revisions to the stress buffer requirements that would be applicable to Category IV BHCs to align with the proposed two-year supervisory stress testing cycle for Category IV BHCs.

Pursuant to Title I of Dodd-Frank, certain U.S. BHCs are subject to enhanced prudential standards and early remediation requirements. On May 24, 2018, the EGRRCPA was signed into law. Among other regulatory changes, the EGRRCPA amends various sections of Dodd-Frank, the most impactful of which include changes to section 165 to raise the asset threshold above which the FRB is required to apply the enhanced prudential standards in section 165 to BHCs to $250 billion. The EGRRCPA’s increased asset threshold took effect immediately for BHCs with total consolidated assets less than $100 billion. The increased asset threshold generally will become effective 18 months after the date of enactment for BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion, including the Bancorp. The FRB is authorized, however, during the 18-month period to exempt, by order, any BHC with assets between $100 billion and $250 billion from any enhanced prudential standard requirement. The FRB is also authorized to apply any enhanced prudential standard requirement to any BHC with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets that would otherwise be exempt under the EGRRCPA, if the FRB determines that such action is appropriate to address risks to financial stability and promote safety and soundness, taking into consideration certain factors including the

BHC’s capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including financial activities of subsidiaries), size and any other risk-related factors that the FRB deems appropriate. U.S. globally systematically important banks (“G-SIBs”) and BHCs with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to Dodd-Frank’s enhanced prudential standard requirements.

Under the EGRRCPA, BHCs with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets are subject to “periodic” supervisory stress tests to determine whether they have adequate capital available to absorb losses as a result of adverse economic conditions. On October 31, 2018, the FRB released two notices of proposed rulemaking (“Tailoring NPRs”) related to the EGRRCPA. The proposed rules would establish four risk-based categories of institutions and tailor the application of capital and liquidity requirements, as well as stress testing and other enhanced prudential standards, for each category. These proposals are subject to modification through the federal rulemaking process in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act, but based upon the Bancorp’s interpretation of the Tailoring NPRs, the Bancorp expects that it would qualify as a Category IV BHC subject to the least stringent of the proposed enhanced prudential requirements. As proposed, Category IV BHCs would be subject to FRB supervisory stress testing on a two-year cycle.

The Tailoring NPRs indicated that the FRB expects to revise its guidance relating to capital planning to align with the proposed categories of standards set forth in the Tailoring NPRs and the impact of the future proposal on Bancorp and its capital planning process will depend on the final form of the FRB’s revised guidance.

The Tailoring NPR’s will likely be finalized in 2019, but timing is uncertain as to when the FRB, and other federal regulators, will release proposed amendments to the capital plan rules and SCB for comment. However, on February 5, 2019, the FRB announced that less-complex firms with consolidated assets between $100 billion and $250 billion will be afforded regulatory relief by moving these firms to an extended stress test cycle. As a result, the Bancorp will not be subject to a supervisory stress test during the 2019 cycle and its capital distributions for this year will be largely based on the results from the 2018 supervisory stress test. Additionally, the FRB will propose for notice and comment a final capital distribution method for firms on an extended stress test cycle in future years sometime in early 2019.

Liquidity Regulation

Liquidity risk management and supervision have become increasingly important since the financial crisis. In addition to the liquidity buffer requirement discussed above, the Bancorp is subject to the U.S. banking regulators final rule (the “Final LCR Rule”) implementing the Basel Committee’s Liquidity Coverage Ratio requirement (“LCR”), which is designed to ensure that banking entities maintain an adequate level of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets (“HQLA”) under an acute 30-day liquidity stress scenario. The LCR Rule applies in modified, less stringent form to BHCs, such as the Bancorp, having $50 billion or more but less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets and less than $10 billion in total on-balance sheet foreign exposure. The LCR is the ratio of an institution’s HQLA (the numerator) over projected net cash out-flows over the 30-day horizon (the denominator), in each case, as calculated pursuant to the Final LCR Rule. The Final LCR Rule became fully phased-in on January 1, 2017 and a subject institution must maintain an LCR equal to at least 100%.

 

 

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Only specific classes of assets, including U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations and agency mortgaged-backed securities, qualify under the rule as HQLA, with classes of assets deemed relatively less liquid and/or subject to greater degree of credit risk subject to certain haircuts and caps for purposes of calculating the numerator under the Final LCR Rule. The total net cash outflows amount is determined under the rule by applying prescribed outflow and inflow rates against the balances of the banking organization’s funding sources, obligations, transactions and assets over the 30-day stress period. Inflows that can be included to offset outflows are limited to 75% of outflows (which effectively means that banking organizations must hold HQLA equal to 25% of outflows even if outflows perfectly match inflows over the stress period). The total net cash outflow amount for the modified LCR applicable to the Bancorp is capped at 70% of the outflow rate that applies to the full LCR. The LCR is a minimum requirement and the FRB can impose additional liquidity requirements as a supervisory matter.

In addition to the LCR, the Basel III framework also included a second standard, referred to as the net stable funding ratio (“NSFR”), which is designed to promote more medium-and long-term funding of the assets and activities of banks over a one-year time horizon. In May 2016, the U.S. banking regulators proposed a rule to implement the NSFR. As proposed, the most stringent requirements would apply to firms with $250 billion or more in assets or $10 billion or more in on-balance sheet foreign exposure. Holding companies with less than $250 billion, but more than $50 billion in assets and less than $10 billion in on-balance foreign exposure, such as the Bancorp, would be subject to a less stringent, modified NFSR requirement. As proposed the NSFR rule would have taken effect on January 1, 2018; however, the U.S. banking regulators have not issued a final rule.

As proposed, the Tailoring NPRs would eliminate LCR and NSFR requirements for Category IV BHCs. The ultimate benefits or consequences of the EGRRCPA and the Tailoring NPRs on the Bancorp, Fifth Third Bank and their respective subsidiaries and activities will be subject to the final form of the Tailoring NPRs and additional rulemakings issued by the FRB and other federal regulators. The Bancorp cannot predict future changes in the applicable laws, regulations and regulatory agency policies, yet such changes may have a material impact on the Bancorp’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

Privacy and Data Security

The FRB, FDIC and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines (the “Guidelines) for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. The Guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its Board of Directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to create, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. In addition, various U.S. regulators, including the FRB and the SEC, have increased their focus on cyber-security through guidance, examinations and regulations. The Bancorp has adopted a customer information security program that has been approved by the Bancorp’s Board of Directors.

The GLBA requires financial institutions to implement policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, the statute requires explanations to consumers

on policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information and, except as otherwise required by law, prohibits disclosing such information except as provided in the banking subsidiary’s policies and procedures. The Bancorp’s banking subsidiary has implemented a privacy policy.

Anti-Money Laundering and Sanctions

The Bancorp is subject to federal laws that are designed to counter money laundering and terrorist financing, and transactions with persons, companies or foreign governments sanctioned by the United States. These include the Bank Secrecy Act, the Money Laundering Control Act, the USA PATRIOT Act and regulations for the International Emergency Economic Powers Act and the Trading with the Enemy Act, as administered by the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. These laws obligate depository institutions and broker-dealers to verify their customers’ identity, conduct customer due diligence, report on suspicious activity, file reports of transactions in currency and conduct enhanced due diligence on certain accounts. They also prohibit U.S. persons from engaging in transactions with certain designated restricted countries and persons. Depository institutions and broker-dealers are required by their federal regulators to maintain robust policies and procedures in order to ensure compliance with these obligations.

Failure to comply with these laws or maintain an adequate compliance program can lead to significant monetary penalties and reputational damage and federal regulators evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering when determining whether to approve a proposed bank merger, acquisition, restructuring, or other expansionary activity. There have been a number of significant enforcement actions by regulators, as well as state attorneys general and the Department of Justice, against banks, broker-dealers and non-bank financial institutions with respect to these laws and some have resulted in substantial penalties, including criminal pleas. The Bancorp’s Board has approved policies and procedures that the Bancorp believes comply with these laws.

Executive Compensation

Pursuant to Dodd-Frank, the SEC adopted rules in 2011 requiring that each public company give its shareholders the opportunity to vote on the compensation of its executives at least once every three years. The SEC also adopted rules on disclosure and voting requirements for golden parachute compensation that is payable to named executive officers in connection with sale transactions.

The SEC’s rules also direct the stock exchanges to prohibit listing classes of equity securities of a company if a company’s compensation committee members are not independent. The rules also provide that a company’s compensation committee may only select a compensation consultant, legal counsel or other advisor after taking into consideration factors to be identified by the SEC that affect the independence of a compensation consultant, legal counsel or other advisor.

In August 2015, the SEC adopted final rules implementing the pay ratio provisions of Dodd-Frank by requiring companies to disclose the ratio of the compensation of its chief executive officer to the median compensation of its employees. For a registrant with a fiscal year ending on December 31, such as Bancorp, the pay ratio was first required as part of its executive compensation disclosure in proxy statements or Form 10-Ks filed starting in 2018.

 

 

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Dodd-Frank provides that the SEC must issue rules directing the stock exchanges to prohibit listing any security of a company unless the company develops and implements a policy providing for disclosure of the policy of the company on incentive-based compensation that is based on financial information required to be reported under the securities laws. In the event the company is required to prepare an accounting restatement due to the material noncompliance of the company with any financial reporting requirement under the securities laws, the company will recover from any current or former executive officer of the company who received incentive-based compensation during the three-year period preceding the date on which the company is required to prepare the restatement based on the erroneous data, any exceptional compensation above what would have been paid under the restatement.

Dodd-Frank required the SEC to adopt a rule to require that each company disclose in the proxy materials for its annual meetings whether an employee or board member is permitted to purchase financial instruments designed to hedge or offset decreases in the market value of equity securities granted as compensation or otherwise held by the employee or board member. The SEC adopted final rules requiring this disclosure on December 18, 2018. The Bancorp will be required to comply with this new rule beginning July 1, 2019.

In June 2016, the SEC and the federal banking agencies issued a proposed rule to implement the incentive-based compensation provisions of section 956 of Dodd-Frank. The proposal would establish new requirements for incentive-based compensation at institutions with assets of at least $1 billion. No final rule has been issued.

Debit Card Interchange Fees

Dodd-Frank provides for a set of new rules requiring that interchange transaction fees for electric debit transactions be “reasonable” and proportional to certain costs associated with processing the transactions. The FRB was given authority to, among other things, establish standards for assessing whether interchange fees are reasonable and proportional. The FRB has issued a final rule establishing certain standards and prohibitions pursuant to Dodd-Frank, including establishing standards for debit card interchange fees and allowing for an upward adjustment if the issuer develops and implements policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent fraud. The rule imposes requirements on the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank and may negatively impact the Bancorp’s revenues and results of operations.

FDIC Matters and Resolution Planning

Title II of Dodd-Frank creates an orderly liquidation process that the FDIC can employ for failing systemically important financial companies. Additionally, Dodd-Frank codifies many of the temporary changes that had already been implemented, such as permanently increasing the amount of deposit insurance to $250,000.

The FDIC’s rules require an insured depository institution with $50 billion or more in total assets to submit periodic contingency plans to the FDIC for resolution in the event of the institution’s failure. Fifth Third Bank is subject to this rule and submitted its most recent resolution plan pursuant to this rule on June 30, 2018.

The FRB’s and FDIC’s rule implementing the resolution planning requirements of Section 165(d) of Dodd-Frank requires BHCs with assets of $100 billion or more and nonbank financial

firms designated by FSOC for supervision by the FRB to annually submit resolution plans to the FDIC and FRB. Each plan shall describe the company’s strategy for rapid and orderly resolution in bankruptcy during times of financial distress. Under the rule, companies must submit their resolution plans on a staggered basis. The Bancorp submitted its most recent resolution plan on December 31, 2017. The FRB has stated that it intends to issue a proposal that would address the applicability of resolution planning requirements to BHCs with total consolidated assets between $100 billion and $250 billion, including the Bancorp.

Proprietary Trading and Investing in Certain Funds

Dodd-Frank sets forth restrictions on banking organizations’ ability to engage in proprietary trading and sponsor or invest in “covered funds,” such as private equity and hedge funds (the “Volcker Rule”). The Volcker Rule generally prohibits any banking entity from engaging in short-term proprietary trading for its own account, but permits transactions in certain securities (such as securities of the U.S. government), transactions on behalf of customers and activities such as market making, underwriting and risk-mitigating hedging. In addition, the Volcker Rule limits the sponsorship of or investment in a covered fund by any banking entity. The Volcker Rule also prohibits certain types of transactions between a banking entity and any covered fund that is sponsored by the banking entity or for which it serves as investment manager or investment advisor, similar to those transactions between banks and their affiliates that are limited as described above. The FRB granted extensions to banking entities, including the Bancorp, to conform to the requirements of the Volcker Rule with respect to “illiquid funds”, as defined in the Volcker Rule. The Bancorp is also required to maintain a satisfactory Volcker Rule compliance program. In July 2018, the FRB, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, FDIC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and SEC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards.

Derivatives

Title VII of Dodd-Frank includes measures to broaden the scope of derivative instruments subject to regulation by requiring clearing and exchange trading of certain derivatives, imposing new capital and margin requirements for certain market participants and imposing position limits on certain over-the-counter derivatives. Fifth Third Bank is provisionally registered with the CFTC as a swap dealer. As with the Volcker Rule, Fifth Third Bank is required to maintain a satisfactory compliance program to monitor its activities under these regulations. Certain regulations implementing Title VII of Dodd-Frank have not been finalized. The ultimate impact of these regulations, and the time it will take to comply, continues to remain uncertain. The final regulations could impose additional operational and compliance costs and may require the restructuring of certain businesses and may negatively impact revenues and results of operations.

Future Legislative and Regulatory Initiatives

Federal and state legislators as well as regulatory agencies may introduce or enact new laws and rules, or amend existing laws and rules, that may affect

 

 

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the regulation of financial institutions and their holding companies. The impact of any future legislative or regulatory changes cannot

be predicted. However, such changes could affect Bancorp’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risks listed below present risks that could have a material impact on the Bancorp’s financial condition, the results of its operations or its business. Some of these risks are interrelated and the occurrence of one or more of them may exacerbate the effect of others.

CREDIT RISKS

Deteriorating credit quality has adversely impacted Fifth Third in the past and may adversely impact Fifth Third in the future.

When Fifth Third lends money or commits to lend money the Bancorp incurs credit risk or the risk of loss if borrowers do not repay their loans, leases, credit cards, derivative obligations, or other credit obligations. The performance of these credit portfolios significantly affects the Bancorp’s financial results and condition. If the current economic environment were to deteriorate, more customers may have difficulty in repaying their credit obligations which could result in a higher level of credit losses and reserves for credit losses. Fifth Third reserves for credit losses by establishing reserves through a charge to earnings. The amount of these reserves is based on Fifth Third’s assessment of credit losses inherent in the credit portfolios including unfunded credit commitments. The process for determining the amount of the ALLL and the reserve for unfunded commitments is critical to Fifth Third’s financial results and condition. It requires difficult, subjective and complex judgments about the environment, including analysis of economic or market conditions that might impair the ability of borrowers to repay their loans.

Fifth Third might underestimate the credit losses inherent in its portfolios and have credit losses in excess of the amount reserved. Fifth Third might increase the reserve because of changing economic conditions, including falling home prices or higher unemployment, or other factors such as changes in borrower’s behavior or changing protections in credit agreements. As an example, borrowers may “strategically default,” or discontinue making payments on their real estate-secured loans if the value of the real estate is less than what they owe, even if they are still financially able to make the payments.

Fifth Third believes that both the ALLL and the reserve for unfunded commitments are adequate to cover inherent losses at December 31, 2018; however, there is no assurance that they will be sufficient to cover future credit losses, especially if housing and employment conditions decline. In the event of significant deterioration in economic conditions, Fifth Third may be required to increase reserves in future periods, which would reduce earnings.

For more information, refer to the Credit Risk Management subsection of the Risk Management section of MD&A and the Allowance for Loan and Losses and Reserve for Unfunded Commitments subsections of the Critical Accounting Policies section of MD&A.

Fifth Third may have more credit risk and higher credit losses to the extent loans are concentrated by location or industry of the borrowers or collateral.

Fifth Third’s credit risk and credit losses can increase if its loans are concentrated to borrowers engaged in the same or similar activities or to borrowers who as a group may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by economic or market conditions. Deterioration in economic conditions, housing conditions and commodity and real estate values in certain states or locations

could result in materially higher credit losses if loans are concentrated in those locations. Fifth Third has significant exposures to businesses in certain economic sectors such as manufacturing, real estate, financial services, insurance and healthcare, and weaknesses in those businesses may adversely impact Fifth Third’s business, results of operations or financial condition. Additionally Fifth Third has a substantial portfolio of commercial and residential real estate loans and weaknesses in residential or commercial real estate markets may adversely impact Fifth Third’s business, results of operations or financial condition.

Problems encountered by financial institutions larger than or similar to Fifth Third could adversely affect financial markets generally and have direct and indirect adverse effects on Fifth Third.

Fifth Third has exposure to counterparties in the financial services industry and other industries, and routinely executes transactions with such counterparties, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds and other institutional clients. Many of Fifth Third’s transactions with other financial institutions expose Fifth Third to credit risk in the event of default of a counterparty or client. In addition, Fifth Third’s credit risk may be affected when the collateral it holds cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure. The commercial soundness of many financial institutions may be closely interrelated as a result of credit, trading, clearing or other relationships between the institutions. As a result, concerns about, or a default or threatened default by, one institution could lead to significant market-wide liquidity and credit problems, losses or defaults by other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which the Bancorp interacts on a daily basis, and therefore could adversely affect Fifth Third.

LIQUIDITY RISKS

Fifth Third must maintain adequate sources of funding and liquidity.

Fifth Third must maintain adequate funding sources in the normal course of business to support its operations and fund outstanding liabilities, as well as meet regulatory expectations. Fifth Third primarily relies on bank deposits to be a low cost and stable source of funding for the loans Fifth Third makes and the operations of Fifth Third’s business. Core deposits, which include transaction deposits and other time deposits, have historically provided Fifth Third with a sizeable source of relatively stable and low-cost funds (average core deposits funded 72% of average total assets for the year ending December 31, 2018). In addition to customer deposits, sources of liquidity include investments in the securities portfolio, Fifth Third’s sale or securitization of loans in secondary markets and the pledging of loans and investment securities to access secured borrowing facilities through the FHLB and the FRB, and Fifth Third’s ability to raise funds in domestic and international money and capital markets.

Fifth Third’s liquidity and ability to fund and run the business could be materially adversely affected by a variety of conditions and factors, including financial and credit market disruptions and volatility or a lack of market or customer confidence in financial markets in general similar to what occurred during the financial crisis in 2008 and early 2009, which may result in a loss of customer deposits or outflows of cash or collateral and/or ability to access capital markets on favorable terms.

 

 

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Other conditions and factors that could materially adversely affect Fifth Third’s liquidity and funding include:

   

a lack of market or customer confidence in Fifth Third or negative news about Fifth Third or the financial services industry generally, which also may result in a loss of deposits and/or negatively affect the ability to access the capital markets;

   

the loss of customer deposits due to competition from other banks or due to alternative investments;

   

inability to sell or securitize loans or other assets,

   

increased regulatory requirements,

   

and reductions in one or more of Fifth Third’s credit ratings.

A reduced credit rating could adversely affect Fifth Third’s ability to borrow funds and raise the cost of borrowings substantially and could cause creditors and business counterparties to raise collateral requirements or take other actions that could adversely affect Fifth Third’s ability to raise liquidity or capital. Many of the above conditions and factors may be caused by events over which Fifth Third has little or no control such as what occurred during the financial crisis. There can be no assurance that significant disruption and volatility in the financial markets will not occur again in the future.

Recent regulatory changes relating to liquidity and risk management may also negatively impact Fifth Third’s results of operations and competitive position. Various regulations have been adopted to impose more stringent liquidity requirements for large financial institutions, including Fifth Third. These regulations address, among other matters, liquidity stress testing and minimum liquidity requirements. Given the overlap and complex interactions of these new and prospective liquidity-related regulations with other regulatory changes, including the capital and resolution and recovery framework applicable to Fifth Third, the full impact of these regulations will remain uncertain until their full implementation. Although the application of certain of these regulations to banking organizations such as Fifth Third are expected to be modified, including in connection with the implementation of the EGRRCPA, there remains uncertainty as to the timing, scope and nature of any changes to regulatory requirements. Uncertainty about the timing and scope of changes as well as the cost of complying with a new regulatory regime may negatively impact Fifth Third’s business.

If Fifth Third is unable to continue to fund assets through customer bank deposits or access capital markets on favorable terms or if Fifth Third suffers an increase in borrowing costs or otherwise fails to manage liquidity effectively, then Fifth Third’s liquidity, operating margins and financial results and condition may be materially adversely affected. Fifth Third may also need to raise additional capital and liquidity through the issuance of stock, which could dilute the ownership of existing stockholders, or reduce or even eliminate common stock dividends or share repurchases to preserve capital and liquidity.

Fifth Third and/or the holders of its securities could be adversely affected by unfavorable ratings from rating agencies.

Fifth Third’s ability to access the capital markets is important to its overall funding profile. This access is affected by the ratings assigned by rating agencies to Fifth Third, certain of its subsidiaries and particular classes of securities they issue. The

interest rates that Fifth Third pays on its securities are also influenced by, among other things, the credit ratings that it, its subsidiaries and/or its securities receive from recognized rating agencies. A downgrade to Fifth Third or its subsidiaries’ credit rating could affect its ability to access the capital markets, increase its borrowing costs and negatively impact its profitability. A ratings downgrade to Fifth Third, its subsidiaries or their securities could also create obligations or liabilities of Fifth Third under the terms of its outstanding securities that could increase Fifth Third’s costs or otherwise have a negative effect on its results of operations or financial condition. Additionally, a downgrade of the credit rating of any particular security issued by Fifth Third or its subsidiaries could negatively affect the ability of the holders of that security to sell the securities and the prices at which any such securities may be sold.

If Fifth Third is unable to maintain or grow its deposits, it may be subject to paying higher funding costs.

The total amount that Fifth Third pays for funding costs is dependent, in part, on Fifth Third’s ability to maintain or grow its deposits. If Fifth Third is unable to sufficiently maintain or grow its deposits to meet liquidity objectives, it may be subject to paying higher funding costs. Fifth Third competes with banks and other financial services companies for deposits. If competitors raise the rates they pay on deposits, Fifth Third’s funding costs may increase, either because Fifth Third raises rates to avoid losing deposits or because Fifth Third loses deposits and must rely on more expensive sources of funding. Also, customers typically move money from bank deposits to alternative investments during rising interest rate environments, an environment that the U.S. has seen recently and is expected to see over the medium-term. Customers may also move noninterest-bearing deposits to interest-bearing accounts increasing the cost of those deposits. Checking and savings account balances and other forms of customer deposits may decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. Fifth Third’s bank customers could take their money out of Fifth Third Bank and put it in alternative investments, causing Fifth Third to lose a lower cost source of funding. Higher funding costs reduce Fifth Third’s net interest margin and net interest income.

The Bancorp’s ability to receive dividends from its subsidiaries accounts for most of its revenue and could affect its liquidity and ability to pay dividends.

Fifth Third Bancorp is a separate and distinct legal entity from its subsidiaries. Fifth Third Bancorp typically receives substantially all of its revenue from dividends from its subsidiaries. These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on Fifth Third Bancorp’s stock and interest and principal on its debt. Various federal and/or state laws and regulations, as well as regulatory expectations, limit the amount of dividends that the Bancorp’s banking subsidiary and certain nonbank subsidiaries may pay. Regulatory scrutiny of liquidity and capital levels at bank holding companies and insured depository institution subsidiaries has resulted in increased regulatory focus on all aspects of capital planning, including dividends and other distributions to shareholders of banks such as the parent bank holding companies. Also, Fifth Third Bancorp’s right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of that subsidiary’s creditors.

 

 

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Limitations on the Bancorp’s ability to receive dividends from its subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect on its liquidity and ability to pay dividends on stock or interest and principal on its debt and to engage in share repurchases. For further information refer to Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

OPERATIONAL RISKS

Fifth Third is exposed to cyber-security risks, including denial of service, hacking and identity theft, which could result in the disclosure, theft or destruction of confidential information.

Fifth Third relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. This includes the use of networks, the internet, digital applications and the telecommunications and computer systems of third parties to perform business activities. Additionally, digital and mobile technologies are leveraged to interact with customers, which increases the risk of information security breaches. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in disruptions to Fifth Third’s accounting, deposit, loan and other systems, and adversely affect its customer relationships. While Fifth Third has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of these possible events, there can be no assurance that any such failure, interruption or security breach will not occur or, if any does occur, that it can be sufficiently remediated.

There have been increasing efforts on the part of third parties, including through cyber-attacks, to breach data security at financial institutions or with respect to financial transactions. There have been several recent instances involving financial services, credit bureaus and consumer-based companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or customer information or the destruction or theft of corporate data, by both private individuals and foreign governments. In addition, because the techniques used to cause such security breaches change frequently, often are not recognized until launched against a target and may originate from less regulated and remote areas around the world, Fifth Third may be unable to proactively address these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Furthermore, there has been a well-publicized series of apparently related distributed denial of service attacks on large financial services companies, including Fifth Third Bank, and “ransom” attacks where hackers have requested payments in exchange for not disclosing customer information.

Cyber threats are rapidly evolving and Fifth Third may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks. These risks are heightened through the increasing use of digital and mobile solutions which allow for rapid money movement and increase the difficulty to detect and prevent fraudulent transactions. Fifth Third may incur increasing costs in an effort to minimize these risks or in the investigation of such cyber-attacks or related to the protection of the Bancorp’s customers from identity theft as a result of such attacks. Fifth Third may also be required to incur significant costs in connection with any regulatory investigation or civil litigation resulting from a cyber-attack. Despite its efforts, the occurrence of any failure, interruption or security breach of Fifth Third’s systems or third-party service providers (or providers to such third-party service providers), particularly if widespread or resulting in financial losses to customers, could also seriously damage Fifth Third’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in substantial remediation costs, additional cyber-security protection costs and increased insurance premiums, subject it to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose it to civil litigation and financial liability.

Fifth Third relies on its systems and certain third-party service providers and certain failures could materially adversely affect operations.

Fifth Third’s operations, including its financial and accounting systems, use computer systems and telecommunications networks operated by both Fifth Third and third-party service providers. Additionally, Fifth Third collects, processes and stores sensitive consumer data by utilizing those and other systems and networks. Fifth Third has security, backup and recovery systems in place, as well as a business continuity plan to ensure the systems will not be inoperable. Fifth Third also has security to prevent unauthorized access to the systems. In addition, Fifth Third requires its third-party service providers to maintain similar controls. However, Fifth Third cannot be certain that the measures will be successful.

A security breach in these systems or the loss or corruption of confidential information such as business results, transaction records and related information could adversely impact Fifth Third’s ability to provide timely and accurate financial information in compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, which could result in sanctions from regulatory authorities, significant reputational harm and the loss of confidence in Fifth Third. Additionally, security breaches or the loss, theft or corruption of confidential customer information such as social security numbers, credit card numbers, account balances or other information could result in losses by our customers, litigation, regulatory sanctions, lost customers and revenue, increased costs and significant reputational harm.

Fifth Third’s necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process its transaction volume poses the risk that technical system flaws or employee errors, tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses and may be difficult to detect. Fifth Third may also be subject to disruptions of its operating systems arising from events that are beyond its control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages).

Third parties with which the Bancorp does business both domestically and offshore, as well as vendors and other third parties with which the Bancorp’s customers do business, can also be sources of operational risk to the Bancorp, particularly where activities of customers are beyond the Bancorp’s security and control systems, such as through the use of the internet, personal computers, tablets, smart phones and other mobile services. Security breaches affecting the Bancorp’s customers, or systems breakdowns or failures, security breaches or employee misconduct affecting such other third parties, may require the Bancorp to take steps to protect the integrity of its own operational systems or to safeguard confidential information of the Bancorp or its customers, thereby increasing the Bancorp’s operational costs and potentially diminishing customer satisfaction. If personal, confidential or proprietary information of customers or clients in the Bancorp’s possession were to be mishandled or misused, the Bancorp could suffer significant regulatory consequences, reputational damage and financial loss. Such mishandling or misuse could include circumstances where, for example, such information was erroneously provided to parties who are not permitted to have the information, either through the fault of the Bancorp’s systems, employees or counterparties, or where such information was intercepted or otherwise compromised by third parties.

 

 

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The Bancorp may be subject to disruptions of its operating systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond the Bancorp’s control, which may include, for example, security breaches; electrical or telecommunications outages; failures of computer components or servers or other damage to the Bancorp’s property or assets; natural disasters or severe weather conditions; health emergencies; or events arising from local or larger-scale political events, including outbreaks of hostilities or terrorist acts. For example, it has been reported that there is a fundamental security flaw in computer chips found in many types of computing devices, including phones, tablets, laptops and desktops. While the Bancorp believes that its current resiliency plans are both sufficient and adequate, there can be no assurance that such plans will fully mitigate all potential business continuity risks to the Bancorp or its customers and clients.

Any failures or disruptions of the Bancorp’s systems or operations could give rise to losses in service to customers and clients, adversely affect the Bancorp’s business and results of operations by subjecting the Bancorp to losses or liability, or require the Bancorp to expend significant resources to correct the failure or disruption, as well as by exposing the Bancorp to reputational harm, litigation, regulatory fines or penalties or losses not covered by insurance. The Bancorp could also be adversely affected if it loses access to information or services from a third-party service provider as a result of a security breach or system or operational failure or disruption affecting the third-party service provider.

Fifth Third may not be able to effectively manage organizational changes and implement key initiatives in a timely fashion, or at all, due to competing priorities which could adversely affect its business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

Fifth Third is subject to rapid changes in technology, regulation and product innovation, and faces intense competition for customers, sources of revenue, capital, services, qualified employees and other essential business resources. In order to meet these challenges, Fifth Third is or may be engaged in numerous critical strategic initiatives at the same time. Accomplishing these initiatives may be complex, time intensive and require significant financial, technological, management and other resources. These initiatives may consume management’s attention and may compete for limited resources. In addition, organizational changes may need to be implemented throughout Fifth Third as a result of the new products, services, partnerships and processes that arise from the execution of the various strategic initiatives. Fifth Third may have difficulty managing these organizational changes and executing these initiatives effectively in a timely fashion, or at all. Fifth Third’s failure to do so could expose it to litigation or regulatory action and may damage Fifth Third’s business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

Fifth Third may not be able to successfully implement future information technology system enhancements, which could adversely affect Fifth Third’s business operations and profitability.

Fifth Third invests significant resources in information technology system enhancements in order to provide functionality and security at an appropriate level. Fifth Third may not be able to successfully implement and integrate future system enhancements, or may not be able to do so on a cost-effective basis. Such sanctions could include fines and result in reputational harm and have other negative effects. In addition, future system enhancements could have higher than expected costs and/or result in operating inefficiencies, which could

increase the costs associated with the implementation as well as ongoing operations. Failure to properly utilize system enhancements that are implemented in the future could result in impairment charges that adversely impact Fifth Third’s financial condition and results of operations and could result in significant costs to remediate or replace the defective components. In addition, Fifth Third may incur significant training, licensing, maintenance, consulting and amortization expenses during and after systems implementations, and any such costs may continue for an extended period of time.

Fifth Third’s framework for managing risks may not be effective in mitigating its risk and loss.

Fifth Third’s risk management framework seeks to mitigate risk and loss. Fifth Third has established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor, report and analyze the types of risk to which it is subject, including liquidity risk, credit risk, market risk, legal risk, compliance risk, strategic risk, reputational risk and operational risk related to its employees, systems and vendors, among others. Any system of control and any system to reduce risk exposure, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. A failure in Fifth Third’s internal controls could have a significant negative impact not only on its earnings, but also on the perception that customers, regulators and investors may have of Fifth Third. Fifth Third continues to devote a significant amount of effort, time and resources to improving its controls and ensuring compliance with complex regulations.

Additionally, instruments, systems and strategies used to hedge or otherwise manage exposure to various types of market compliance, credit, liquidity, operational and business risks and enterprise-wide risk could be less effective than anticipated. As a result, Fifth Third may not be able to effectively mitigate its risk exposures in particular market environments or against particular types of risk. If Fifth Third’s risk management framework proves ineffective, Fifth Third could incur litigation, negative regulatory consequences, reputational damages among other adverse consequences and Fifth Third could suffer unexpected losses that may affect its financial condition or results of operations.

Fifth Third may experience losses related to fraud, theft or violence.

Fifth Third may experience losses incurred due to customer or employee fraud, theft or physical violence. Additionally, physical violence may negatively affect Fifth Third’s key personnel, facilities or systems. These losses may be material and negatively affect Fifth Third’s results of operations, financial condition or prospects. These losses could also lead to significant reputational risks and other effects. The sophistication of external fraud actors continues to increase, and in some cases includes large criminal rings, which increases the resources and infrastructure needed to thwart these attacks. The industry fraud threat continues to evolve, including but not limited to card fraud, check fraud, social engineering and phishing attacks for identity theft and account takeover. Fifth Third continues to invest in fraud prevention in the forms of people and systems designed to prevent, detect and mitigate the customer and financial impacts.

Fifth Third could suffer if it fails to attract and retain skilled personnel.

Fifth Third’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key individuals. Competition for qualified candidates in the activities and markets that Fifth Third serves is intense, which may increase Fifth Third’s expenses and may result in Fifth Third not being able to hire candidates or retain them.

 

 

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If Fifth Third is not able to hire qualified candidates or retain its key personnel, Fifth Third may be unable to execute its business strategies and may suffer adverse consequences to its business, operations and financial condition.

Compensation paid by financial institutions such as Fifth Third is heavily regulated, particularly under Dodd-Frank, which regulation affects the amount and form of compensation Fifth Third pays to hire and retain talented employees. If Fifth Third is unable to attract and retain qualified employees, or do so at rates necessary to maintain its competitive position, or if compensation costs required to attract and retain employees become more expensive, Fifth Third’s performance, including its competitive position, could be materially adversely affected.

REGULATORY COMPLIANCE RISKS

Fifth Third is subject to extensive governmental regulation which could adversely impact Fifth Third or the businesses in which Fifth Third is engaged.

Government regulation and legislation subject Fifth Third and other financial institutions to restrictions, oversight and/or costs that may have an impact on Fifth Third’s business, financial condition, results of operations or the price of its common stock.

Fifth Third is subject to extensive state and federal regulation, supervision and legislation that govern almost all aspects of its operations and limit the businesses in which Fifth Third may engage. These laws and regulations may change from time to time and are primarily intended for the protection of consumers and depositors and are not designed to protect security-holders. The impact of any changes to laws and regulations or other actions by regulatory agencies may negatively impact Fifth Third or its ability to increase the value of its business. Additionally, actions by regulatory agencies or significant litigation against Fifth Third could cause it to devote significant time and resources to defending itself and may lead to penalties that materially affect Fifth Third and its shareholders. Future changes in the laws, including tax laws, or regulations or their interpretations or enforcement may also be materially adverse to Fifth Third and its shareholders or may require Fifth Third to expend significant time and resources to comply with such requirements.

Fifth Third cannot predict whether any pending or future legislation will be adopted or the substance and impact of any such new legislation on Fifth Third. Changes in regulation could affect Fifth Third in a substantial way and could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, legislation or regulatory reform could affect the behaviors of third parties that Fifth Third deals with in the course of business, such as rating agencies, insurance companies and investors. The extent to which Fifth Third can adjust its strategies to offset such adverse impacts also is not known at this time.

In addition, changes in laws or regulations that affect Fifth Third’s customers and business partners could negatively affect Fifth Third’s revenues and expenses. Certain changes in laws such as recent tax law reforms that impose limitations on the deductibility of interest may decrease the demand for Fifth Third’s products or services and could negatively affect its revenues and results of operations. Other changes in laws or regulations could cause Fifth Third’s third-party service providers

and other vendors to increase the prices they charge to Fifth Third and negatively affect Fifth Third’s expenses and financial results.

Fifth Third is subject to various regulatory requirements that may limit its operations and potential growth.

Under federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to the safety and soundness of insured depository institutions and their holding companies, the FRB, the FDIC, the CFPB and the Division have the authority to compel or restrict certain actions by the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank. The Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank are subject to such supervisory authority and, more generally, must, in certain instances, obtain prior regulatory approval before engaging in certain activities or corporate decisions. There can be no assurance that such approvals, if required, would be forthcoming or that such approvals would be granted in a timely manner. Failure to receive any such approval, if required, could limit or impair the Bancorp’s operations, restrict its growth, ability to compete, innovate or participate in industry consolidation and/or affect its dividend policy. Such actions and activities subject to prior approval include, but are not limited to, increasing dividends or capital distributions by the Bancorp or Fifth Third Bank, entering into a merger or acquisition transaction, acquiring or establishing new branches, and entering into certain new businesses.

Failure by the Bancorp or Fifth Third Bank to meet the applicable eligibility requirements for FHC status (including capital and management requirements and that Fifth Third Bank maintain at least a “Satisfactory” CRA rating) may result in restrictions on certain activities of the Bancorp, including the commencement of new activities and mergers with or acquisitions of other financial institutions and could ultimately result in the loss of financial holding company status.

Fifth Third and other financial institutions are subject to scrutiny from government authorities, including bank regulatory authorities, stemming from broader systemic regulatory concerns, including with respect to stress testing, liquidity and capital levels, asset quality, provisioning, AML/BSA, consumer compliance and other prudential matters and efforts to ensure that financial institutions take steps to improve their risk management and prevent future crises.

In this regard, government authorities, including the bank regulatory agencies and law enforcement, are also pursuing aggressive enforcement actions with respect to compliance and other legal matters involving financial activities, which heightens the risks associated with actual and perceived compliance failures and may also adversely affect Fifth Third’s ability to enter into certain transactions or engage in certain activities, or obtain necessary regulatory approvals in connection therewith. The government enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess significant civil or criminal monetary penalties, fines, or restitution; to issue cease and desist or removal orders; and to initiate injunctive actions against banking organizations and institution-affiliated parties. These enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices.

In some cases, regulatory agencies may take supervisory actions that may not be publicly disclosed, which restrict or limit a financial institution. Finally, as part of Fifth Third’s regular examination process, the Bancorp and Fifth Third Bank’s respective regulators may advise it and its banking subsidiary to operate under various restrictions as a prudential matter. Such supervisory actions or restrictions, if and in whatever manner imposed, could negatively affect Fifth Third’s ability to engage in new activities and certain transactions, as well as have a material adverse effect on Fifth Third’s business and results of operations and may not be publicly disclosed.

 

 

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Fifth Third could face serious negative consequences if its third-party service providers, business partners or investments fail to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations.

Fifth Third is expected to oversee the legal and regulatory compliance of its business endeavors, including those performed by third-party service providers, business partners, other vendors and certain companies in which Fifth Third has invested. Legal authorities and regulators could hold Fifth Third responsible for failures by these parties to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations. These failures could expose Fifth Third to significant litigation or regulatory action that could limit its activities or impose significant fines or other financial losses. Additionally, Fifth Third could be subject to significant litigation from consumers or other parties harmed by these failures and could suffer significant losses of business and revenue, as well as reputational harm as a result of these failures.

As a regulated entity, the Bancorp is subject to certain capital requirements that may limit its operations and potential growth.

As a BHC and an FHC, the Bancorp is subject to the comprehensive, consolidated supervision and regulation of the FRB, including risk-based and leverage capital requirements, investment practices, dividend policy and growth. The Bancorp must maintain certain risk-based and leverage capital ratios as required by the FRB which can change depending upon general economic conditions and the Bancorp’s particular condition, risk profile and growth plans. Compliance with the capital requirements, including leverage ratios, may limit operations that require the intensive use of capital and could adversely affect the Bancorp’s ability to expand or maintain present business levels.

U.S. federal banking agencies’ capital rules implementing Basel III became effective for the Bancorp on January 1, 2015, subject to phase-in periods for certain components and other provisions. The need to maintain more and higher quality capital as well as greater liquidity could limit Fifth Third’s business activities, including lending and the ability to expand, either organically or through acquisitions as well as the ability to make capital distributions. Moreover, although the capital requirements are being phased in over time, U.S. federal banking agencies take into account expectations regarding the ability of banks to meet the capital requirements, including under stressed conditions, in approving actions that represent uses of capital, such as dividend increases and share repurchases.

Failure by Fifth Third Bank to meet applicable capital requirements could subject it to a variety of enforcement remedies available to the federal regulatory authorities. These include limitations on the ability to pay dividends and/or repurchase shares, the issuance by the regulatory authority of a capital directive to increase capital and the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC.

The Bancorp’s ability to pay or increase dividends on its common stock or to repurchase its capital stock is restricted.

The Bancorp’s ability to pay dividends or repurchase stock is subject to regulatory requirements and the need to meet regulatory expectations. As part of CCAR, the Bancorp’s capital plan is subject to an annual assessment by the FRB, and the FRB may object to the Bancorp’s capital plan if the Bancorp does not demonstrate an ability to maintain capital above the minimum

regulatory capital ratios under baseline and stressful conditions throughout a nine-quarter planning horizon. If the FRB objects to the Bancorp’s capital plan, it would be subject to limitations on its ability to make capital distributions (including paying dividends and repurchasing stock).

Regulation of Fifth Third by the CFTC imposes additional operational and compliance costs.

The CFTC and SEC regulate the U.S. derivatives markets pursuant to the authority provided under Title VII of Dodd-Frank. While most of the provisions related to derivatives markets are now in effect, several additional requirements await final regulations from the relevant regulatory agencies for derivatives, the CFTC and the SEC. One aspect of this regulatory regime for derivatives is that substantial oversight responsibility has been provided to the CFTC, which, as a result, now has a meaningful supervisory role with respect to some of Fifth Third’s businesses. In 2014, Fifth Third Bank provisionally registered as a swap dealer with the CFTC and became subject to new substantive requirements, including real time trade reporting and robust record keeping requirements, business conduct requirements (including daily valuations, disclosure of material risks associated with swaps and disclosure of material incentives and conflicts of interest) and mandatory clearing and exchange trading of all standardized swaps designated by the relevant regulatory agencies as required to be cleared. Although the ultimate impact will depend on the promulgation of all final regulations, Fifth Third’s derivatives activity is subject to FRB margin requirements and may also be subject to capital requirements specific to this derivatives activity. These requirements will collectively impose implementation and ongoing compliance burdens on Fifth Third and will introduce additional legal risk (including as a result of newly applicable antifraud and anti-manipulation provisions and private rights of action). Once finalized, the rules may raise the costs and liquidity burden associated with Fifth Third’s derivatives activities and could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Deposit insurance premiums levied against Fifth Third Bank may increase if the number of bank failures increase or the cost of resolving failed banks increases.

The FDIC maintains a DIF to protect insured depositors in the event of bank failures. The DIF is funded by fees assessed on insured depository institutions including Fifth Third Bank. Future deposit premiums paid by Fifth Third Bank depend on FDIC rules, which are subject to change, the level of the DIF and the magnitude and cost of future bank failures. Fifth Third Bank may be required to pay significantly higher FDIC premiums if market developments change such that the DIF balance is reduced or the FDIC changes its rules to require higher premiums.

If an orderly liquidation of a systemically important BHC or non-bank financial company were triggered, Fifth Third could face assessments for the Orderly Liquidation Fund.

Dodd-Frank created authority for the orderly liquidation of systemically important BHCs and non-bank financial companies and is based on the FDIC’s bank resolution model. The Secretary of the U.S. Treasury may trigger liquidation under this authority only after consultation with the President of the United States and after receiving a recommendation from the board of the FDIC and the FRB upon a two-thirds vote. Liquidation proceedings will be funded by the Orderly Liquidation Fund established under Dodd-Frank, which will borrow from the U.S. Treasury and impose risk-based assessments on covered financial companies.

 

 

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Risk-based assessments would be made, first, on entities that received more in the resolution than they would have received in the liquidation to the extent of such excess and second, if necessary, on, among others, bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more, such as Fifth Third. Any such assessments may adversely affect Fifth Third’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

MARKET RISKS

The replacement of LIBOR could adversely affect Fifth Third’s revenue or expenses and the value of those assets or obligations.

LIBOR and certain other “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, publicly announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot be guaranteed after 2021. While there is no consensus on what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, a group of large banks, the Alternative Reference Rate Committee or ARRC, selected and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York started in May 2018 to publish the Secured Overnight Finance Rate or SOFR as an alternative to LIBOR. SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by Treasury securities, given the depth and robustness of the U.S. Treasury repurchase market. Furthermore, the Bank of England has commenced publication of a reformed Sterling Overnight Index Average or SONIA, comprised of a broader set of overnight Sterling money market transactions, as of April 23, 2018. The SONIA has been recommended as the alternative to Sterling LIBOR by the Working Group on Sterling Risk-Free Reference Rates. At this time, it is impossible to predict whether SOFR and SONIA will become accepted alternatives to LIBOR.

The market transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate, including SOFR or SONIA, is complex and could have a range of adverse effects on Fifth Third’s business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, any such transition could:

   

adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, and the revenue and expenses associated with, the Bancorp’s floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;

   

adversely affect the value of the Bancorp’s floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;

   

prompt inquiries or other actions from regulators in respect of the Bancorp’s preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate;

   

result in disputes, litigation or other actions with counterparties regarding the interpretation and

 

enforceability of certain fallback language in LIBOR-based securities; and

   

require the transition to or development of appropriate systems and analytics to effectively transition the Bancorp’s risk management processes from LIBOR-based products to those based on the applicable alternative pricing benchmark, such as SOFR or reformed SONIA.

The manner and impact of this transition, as well as the effect of these developments on Fifth Third’s funding costs, loan and investment and trading securities portfolios, asset-liability management, and business, is uncertain.

Weakness in the U.S. economy, including within Fifth Third’s geographic footprint, has adversely affected Fifth Third in the past and may adversely affect Fifth Third in the future.

If the strength of the U.S. economy in general or the strength of the local economies in which Fifth Third conducts operations declines, this could result in, among other things, a decreased demand for Fifth Third’s products and services, a deterioration in credit quality or a reduced demand for credit, including a resultant effect on Fifth Third’s loan portfolio and ALLL and in the receipt of lower proceeds from the sale of loans and foreclosed properties. These factors could result in higher delinquencies, greater charge-offs and increased losses in future periods, which could materially adversely affect Fifth Third’s financial condition and results of operations.

Global political and economic uncertainties and changes may adversely affect Fifth Third.

Global financial markets, including the United States, face political and economic uncertainties that may delay investment and hamper economic activity. International events such as trade disputes, separatist movements, leadership changes and political and military conflicts could adversely affect global financial activity and markets and could negatively affect the U.S. economy. Additionally, the FRB and other major central banks have begun the process of removing or reducing monetary accommodation, increasing the risk of recession and may also negatively impact asset values and credit spreads that were impacted by extraordinary monetary stimulus. These potential negative effects on financial markets and economic activity could lead to reduced revenues, increased costs, increased credit risks and volatile markets, and could negatively impact Fifth Third’s businesses, results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in interest rates could affect Fifth Third’s income and cash flows.

Fifth Third’s income and cash flows depend to a great extent on the difference between the interest rates earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and investment securities and the interest rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowings. These rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond Fifth Third’s control, including general economic conditions in the U.S. or abroad and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies (in particular, the FRB). Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence the origination of loans, the prepayment speed of loans, the purchase of investments, the generation of deposits and the rates received on loans and investment securities and paid on deposits or other sources of funding as well as customers’ ability to repay loans.

 

 

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The impact of these changes may be magnified if Fifth Third does not effectively manage the relative sensitivity of its assets and liabilities to changes in market interest rates. Fluctuations in these areas may adversely affect Fifth Third, its customers and its shareholders.

Changes and trends in the capital markets may affect Fifth Third’s income and cash flows.

Fifth Third enters into and maintains trading and investment positions in the capital markets on its own behalf and manages investment positions on behalf of its customers. These investment positions include derivative financial instruments. The revenues and profits Fifth Third derives from managing proprietary and customer trading and investment positions are dependent on market prices. Market changes and trends may result in a decline in wealth and asset management revenue or investment or trading losses that may impact Fifth Third. Losses on behalf of its customers could expose Fifth Third to reputational issues, litigation, credit risks or loss of revenue from those clients and customers. Additionally, losses in Fifth Third’s trading and investment positions could lead to a loss with respect to those investments and may adversely affect Fifth Third’s income, cash flows and funding costs.

Fifth Third’s stock price is volatile.

Fifth Third’s stock price has been volatile in the past and several factors could cause the price to fluctuate substantially in the future. These factors include, without limitation:

   

Actual or anticipated variations in earnings;

   

Changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections;

   

Fifth Third’s announcements of developments related to its businesses;

   

Operating and stock performance of other companies deemed to be peers;

   

Actions by government regulators and changes in the regulatory regime;

   

New technology used or services offered by traditional and non-traditional competitors;

   

News reports of trends, concerns and other issues related to the financial services industry;

   

U.S. and global economic conditions;

   

Natural disasters;

   

Geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism, military conflicts and withdrawal from the EU by the U.K. or other EU members.

The price for shares of Fifth Third’s common stock may fluctuate significantly in the future and these fluctuations may be unrelated to Fifth Third’s performance. General market price declines or market volatility in the future could adversely affect the price for shares of Fifth Third’s common stock and the current market price of such shares may not be indicative of future market prices.

Fifth Third’s mortgage banking net revenue can be volatile from quarter to quarter.

Fifth Third earns revenue from the fees it receives for originating mortgage loans and for servicing mortgage loans. When rates rise, the demand for mortgage loans tends to fall, reducing the revenue Fifth Third receives from loan originations. At the same time, revenue from MSRs can increase through increases in fair value. When rates fall, mortgage originations tend to increase and the value of MSRs tends to decline, also with some offsetting revenue

effect. Even though the origination of mortgage loans can act as a “natural hedge,” the hedge is not perfect, either in amount or timing. For example, the negative effect on revenue from a decrease in the fair value of residential MSRs is immediate, but any offsetting revenue benefit from more originations and the MSRs relating to the new loans would accrue over time. It is also possible that even if interest rates were to fall, mortgage originations may also fall or any increase in mortgage originations may not be enough to offset the decrease in the MSRs value caused by the lower rates.

Fifth Third typically uses derivatives and other instruments to hedge its mortgage banking interest rate risk. Fifth Third generally does not hedge all of its risks and the fact that Fifth Third attempts to hedge any of the risks does not mean Fifth Third will be successful. Hedging is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and constant monitoring. Fifth Third may use hedging instruments tied to U.S. Treasury rates, LIBOR or Eurodollars that may not perfectly correlate with the value or income being hedged. Fifth Third could incur significant losses from its hedging activities. There may be periods where Fifth Third elects not to use derivatives and other instruments to hedge mortgage banking interest rate risk.

LEGAL RISKS

Fifth Third and/or its affiliates are or may become involved from time to time in information-gathering requests, investigations and litigation, regulatory or other enforcement proceedings by various governmental regulatory agencies and law enforcement authorities, as well as self-regulatory agencies which may lead to adverse consequences.

Fifth Third and/or its affiliates are or may become involved from time to time in information-gathering requests, reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental regulatory agencies and law enforcement authorities, as well as self-regulatory agencies, regarding their respective customers and businesses, as well as their sales practices, data security, product offerings, compensation practices and other compliance issues. Also, a violation of law or regulation by another financial institution may give rise to an inquiry or investigation by regulators or other authorities of the same or similar practices by Fifth Third. In addition, the complexity of the federal and state regulatory and enforcement regimes in the U.S. means that a single event or topic may give rise to numerous and overlapping investigations and regulatory proceedings. In addition, Fifth Third and certain of its directors and officers have been named from time to time as defendants in various class actions and other litigation relating to Fifth Third’s business and activities, as well as regulatory or other enforcement proceedings. Past, present and future litigation have included or could include claims for substantial compensatory and/or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. Enforcement authorities may seek admissions of wrongdoing and, in some cases, criminal pleas as part of the resolutions of matters and any such resolution of a matter involving Fifth Third which could lead to increased exposure to private litigation, could adversely affect Fifth Third’s reputation and could result in limitations on Fifth Third’s ability to do business in certain jurisdictions.

 

 

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Each of the matters described above may result in material adverse consequences, including without limitation, adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other actions, amendments and/or restatements of Fifth Third’s SEC filings and/or financial statements, as applicable, and/or determinations of material weaknesses in its disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, responding to information-gathering requests, reviews, investigations and proceedings, regardless of the ultimate outcome of the matter, could be time-consuming and expensive.

Like other large financial institutions and companies, Fifth Third is also subject to risk from potential employee misconduct, including non-compliance with policies and improper use or disclosure of confidential information. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory or other enforcement action against Fifth Third could materially adversely affect its business, financial condition or results of operations and/or cause significant reputational harm to its business. The outcome of lawsuits and regulatory proceedings may be difficult to predict or estimate. Although Fifth Third establishes accruals for legal proceedings when information related to the loss contingencies represented by those matters indicates both that a loss is probable and that the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated, Fifth Third does not have accruals for all legal proceedings where it faces a risk of loss. In addition, due to the inherent subjectivity of the assessments and unpredictability of the outcome of legal proceedings, amounts accrued may not represent the ultimate loss to Fifth Third from the legal proceedings in question. Thus, Fifth Third’s ultimate losses may be higher, and possibly significantly so, than the amounts accrued for legal loss contingencies, which could adversely affect Fifth Third’s results of operations.

In addition, there has been a trend of public settlements with governmental agencies that may adversely affect other financial institutions, to the extent such settlements are used as a template for future settlements. The uncertain regulatory enforcement environment makes it difficult to estimate probable losses, which can lead to substantial disparities between legal reserves and actual settlements or penalties.

For further information on specific legal and regulatory proceedings refer to Note 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Fifth Third may be required to repurchase residential mortgage loans or reimburse investors and others as a result of breaches in contractual representations and warranties.

Fifth Third sells residential mortgage loans to various parties, including GSEs and other financial institutions that purchase residential mortgage loans for investment or private label securitization. Fifth Third may be required to repurchase residential mortgage loans, indemnify the securitization trust, investor or insurer, or reimburse the securitization trust, investor or insurer for credit losses incurred on loans in the event of a breach of contractual representations or warranties that is not remedied within a specified period (usually 60 days or less) after Fifth Third receives notice of the breach. Contracts for residential mortgage loan sales to the GSEs include various types of specific remedies and penalties that could be applied to inadequate responses to repurchase requests. If economic conditions and the housing market deteriorate or future investor repurchase demand and Fifth Third’s success at appealing repurchase requests differ from past experience, Fifth Third could have increased repurchase obligations and increased loss severity on repurchases, requiring material additions to the repurchase reserve.

STRATEGIC RISKS

If Fifth Third does not respond to intense competition and rapid changes in the financial services industry or otherwise adapt to changing customer preferences, its financial performance may suffer.

Fifth Third’s ability to deliver strong financial performance and returns on investment to shareholders will depend in part on its ability to expand the scope of available financial services to meet the needs and demands of its customers. In addition to the challenge of competing against other banks in attracting and retaining customers for traditional banking services, Fifth Third’s competitors also include securities dealers, brokers, mortgage bankers, investment advisors and specialty finance, telecommunications, technology and insurance companies as well as large retailers who seek to offer one-stop financial services in addition to other products and services desired by consumers that may include services that banks have not been able or allowed to offer to their customers in the past or may not be currently able or allowed to offer. Many of these other firms may be significantly larger than Fifth Third and may have access to customers and financial resources that are beyond Fifth Third’s capability. Fifth Third competes with these firms with respect to capital, access to capital, revenue generation, products, services, transaction execution, innovation, reputation and price.

This increasingly competitive environment is primarily a result of changes in customer preferences, regulation, changes in technology and product delivery systems, as well as the accelerating pace of consolidation among financial service providers. Rapidly changing technology and consumer preferences may require Fifth Third to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services in order to compete and meet customer demands. Fifth Third may not be able to do so or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. As a result, Fifth Third’s ability to effectively compete to retain or acquire new business may be impaired, and its business, financial condition or results of operations, may be adversely affected.

Fifth Third may make strategic investments and may expand an existing line of business or enter into new lines of business to remain competitive. If Fifth Third’s chosen strategies, for example, the NorthStar Strategy initiatives, are not appropriate to allow Fifth Third to effectively compete or Fifth Third does not execute them in an appropriate or timely manner, Fifth Third’s business and results may suffer. Additionally, these strategies, products and lines of business may bring with them unforeseeable or unforeseen risks and may not generate the expected results or returns, which could adversely affect Fifth Third’s results of operations or future growth prospects and cause Fifth Third to fail to meet its stated goals and expectations.

Changes in retail distribution strategies and consumer behavior may adversely impact Fifth Third’s investments in its bank premises and equipment and other assets and may lead to increased expenditures to change its retail distribution channel.

Fifth Third has significant investments in bank premises and equipment for its branch network including its 1,121 full-service banking centers and 28 parcels of land held for the development of future banking centers of which 15 properties are developed or in the process of being developed as branches, as well as its retail work force and other branch banking assets.

 

 

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Advances in technology such as e-commerce, telephone, internet and mobile banking, and in-branch self-service technologies including automatic teller machines and other equipment, as well as changing customer preferences for these other methods of accessing Fifth Third’s products and services, could affect the value of Fifth Third’s branch network or other retail distribution assets and may cause it to change its retail distribution strategy, close and/or sell certain branches or parcels of land held for development and restructure or reduce its remaining branches and work force. Further advances in technology and/or changes in customer preferences could have additional changes in Fifth Third’s retail distribution strategy and/or branch network. These actions could lead to losses on these assets or could adversely impact the carrying value of other long-lived assets and may lead to increased expenditures to renovate and reconfigure remaining branches or to otherwise reform its retail distribution channel.

Difficulties in identifying suitable opportunities or combining the operations of acquired entities or assets with Fifth Third’s own operations or assessing the effectiveness of businesses in which we make strategic investments or with which we enter into strategic contractual relationships may prevent Fifth Third from achieving the expected benefits from these acquisitions, investments or relationships.

Inherent uncertainties exist when assessing, acquiring or integrating the operations of another business or investment or relationship opportunity. Fifth Third may not be able to fully achieve its strategic objectives and planned operating efficiencies relevant to an acquisition or strategic relationship. In addition, the markets and industries in which Fifth Third and its potential acquisition and investment targets operate are highly competitive. Acquisition or investment targets may lose customers or otherwise perform poorly or unprofitably, or in the case of an acquired business or strategic relationship, cause Fifth Third to lose customers or perform poorly or unprofitably. Future acquisition and investment activities and efforts to monitor newly acquired businesses or reap the benefits of a new strategic relationship may require Fifth Third to devote substantial time and resources and may cause these acquisitions, investments and relationships to be unprofitable or cause Fifth Third to be unable to pursue other business opportunities.

After completing an acquisition, Fifth Third may find that certain material information was not adequately disclosed during the due diligence process or that certain items were not accounted for properly in accordance with financial accounting and reporting standards. Fifth Third may also not realize the expected benefits of the acquisition due to lower financial results pertaining to the acquired entity or assets. For example, Fifth Third could experience higher charge-offs than originally anticipated related to the acquired loan portfolio. Additionally, acquired companies or businesses may increase Fifth Third’s risk of regulatory action or restrictions related to the operations of the acquired business.

Future acquisitions may dilute current shareholders’ ownership of Fifth Third and may cause Fifth Third to become more susceptible to adverse economic events.

Future business acquisitions could be material to Fifth Third and it may issue additional shares of stock to pay for those acquisitions, which would dilute current shareholders’ ownership interests. Acquisitions also could require Fifth Third to use substantial cash or other liquid assets or to incur debt. In those events, Fifth Third could become more susceptible to economic downturns, dislocations in capital markets and competitive pressures.

Fifth Third may sell or consider selling one or more of its businesses or investments. Should it determine to sell such a business or investment, it may not be able to generate gains on sale or related increase in shareholders’ equity commensurate with desirable levels. Moreover, if Fifth Third sold such businesses or investments, the loss of income could have an adverse effect on its earnings and future growth.

Fifth Third owns, or owns a minority stake in, as applicable, several non-strategic businesses, investments and other assets that are not significantly synergistic with its core financial services businesses or, in the future, may no longer be aligned with Fifth Third’s strategic plans or regulatory expectations. If Fifth Third were to sell one or more of its businesses or investments, it would be subject to market forces that may affect the timing, pricing or result in an unsuccessful sale. If Fifth Third were to complete the sale of any of its businesses, investments and/or interests in third parties, it would lose the income from the sold businesses and/or interests, including those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, and such loss of income could have an adverse effect on its future earnings and growth. Additionally, Fifth Third may encounter difficulties in separating the operations of any businesses it sells, which may affect its business or results of operations.

GENERAL BUSINESS RISKS

Changes in accounting standards or interpretations could impact Fifth Third’s reported earnings and financial condition.

The accounting standard setters, including the FASB, the SEC and other regulatory agencies, periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of Fifth Third’s consolidated financial statements. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued a new current expected credit loss rule, which will require banks to record, at the time of origination, credit losses expected throughout the life of the asset portfolio on loans and held-to-maturity securities, as opposed to the current practice of recording losses when it is probable that a loss event has occurred. For additional information, refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how Fifth Third records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, Fifth Third could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, which would result in the recasting of Fifth Third’s prior period financial statements.

Fifth Third uses models for business planning purposes that may not adequately predict future results.

Fifth Third uses financial models to aid in its planning for various purposes including its capital and liquidity needs and other purposes. The models used may not accurately account for all variables and may fail to predict outcomes accurately and/or may overstate or understate certain effects. As a result of these potential failures, Fifth Third may not adequately prepare for future events and may suffer losses or other setbacks due to these failures.

Also, information Fifth Third provides to the public or to its regulators based on models could be inaccurate or misleading due to inadequate design or implementation, for example. Decisions that its regulators make, including those related to capital distributions to its shareholders, could be affected adversely due to the perception that the models used to generate the relevant information are unreliable or inadequate.

 

 

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The preparation of financial statements requires Fifth Third to make subjective determinations and use estimates that may vary from actual results and materially impact its results of operations or financial position.

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make significant estimates that affect the financial statements. If new information arises that results in a material change to a reserve amount, such a change could result in a change to previously announced financial results. Refer to the Critical Accounting Policies section of MD&A for more information regarding management’s significant estimates.

Weather-related events or other natural disasters may have an effect on the performance of Fifth Third’s loan portfolios, especially in its coastal markets, thereby adversely impacting its results of operations.

Fifth Third’s footprint stretches from the upper Midwestern to lower Southeastern regions of the United States and it has offices in many other areas of the country. Some of these regions have experienced weather events including hurricanes, tornadoes, fires and other natural disasters. The nature and level of these events and the impact of global climate change upon their frequency and severity cannot be predicted. If large scale events occur, they may significantly impact its loan portfolios by damaging properties pledged as collateral as well as impairing its borrowers’ ability to repay their loans.

Fifth Third is exposed to reputational risk.

Fifth Third’s actual or alleged conduct in activities, such as certain sales and lending practices, data security, corporate governance and acquisitions, behavior of employees, association with particular customers, business partners, investment or vendors, as well as developments from any of the other risks described above, may result in negative public opinion and may damage Fifth Third’s reputation. Actions taken by government regulators, shareholder activists and community organizations may also damage Fifth Third’s reputation. Additionally, whereas negative public opinion once was primarily driven by adverse news coverage in traditional media, the advent and expansion of social media facilitates the rapid dissemination of information or misinformation. Though Fifth Third monitors social media channels, the potential remains for rapid and widespread dissemination of inaccurate, misleading or false information that could damage Fifth Third’s reputation. Negative public opinion can adversely affect Fifth Third’s ability to attract and keep customers and can increase the risk that it will be a target of litigation and regulatory action.

RISKS RELATED TO MERGER WITH MB FINANCIAL, INC. (“MB FINANCIAL”)

The acquisition of MB Financial will dilute current shareholders’ ownership of Fifth Third and may cause Fifth Third to become more susceptible to adverse economic events.

Fifth Third will issue a substantial number of additional shares of stock in its merger with MB Financial, which will dilute current shareholders’ ownership interests and increase Fifth Third’s dividend payments. Fifth Third will also use substantial cash or other liquid assets or incur debt to fund the merger. This liquidity need combined with 2019 maturities and liquidity needed to satisfy rating agency requirements will elevate capital markets execution risk. As a result, Fifth Third could become more

susceptible to economic downturns, market conditions and competitive pressures.

Fifth Third and MB Financial will incur transaction and integration costs in connection with the merger.

Each of Fifth Third and MB Financial has incurred and expects that it will incur additional significant, non-recurring costs in connection with consummating the merger. In addition, Fifth Third will incur additional integration costs following the completion of the merger as Fifth Third integrates the businesses of the two companies, including facilities and systems consolidation costs and employment-related costs. There can be no assurances that the expected benefits and efficiencies related to the combined businesses will be realized to offset these transaction and integration costs over time.

Fifth Third may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the merger and may face increased risks as a result of it.

Inherent uncertainties exist when assessing, acquiring, or integrating the operations of another business or investment or relationship opportunity. Fifth Third may not be able to fully achieve its strategic objectives and planned operating efficiencies in its acquisition of MB Financial, Inc. Additionally, Fifth Third may face additional risks as a result of the acquisition.

The success of the merger, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend on, among other things, Fifth Third’s ability to combine the businesses of Fifth Third and MB Financial in a manner that permits growth opportunities, including, among other things, enhanced revenues and revenue synergies, an expanded market reach and operating efficiencies, and does not materially disrupt the existing customer relationships of Fifth Third or MB Financial or result in decreased revenues due to any loss of customers. If Fifth Third is not able to successfully achieve these objectives, the anticipated benefits of the merger may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected. Failure to achieve these anticipated benefits could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy and could have an adverse effect on the combined company’s business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Employees that Fifth Third wishes to retain may elect to terminate their employment as a result of the merger, which could delay or disrupt the integration process. It is possible that the integration process could result in the disruption of Fifth Third’s or MB Financial’s ongoing businesses or cause inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect the ability of Fifth Third or MB Financial to maintain relationships with customers and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the merger.

After completing the acquisition, Fifth Third may find that certain material information was not adequately disclosed during the due diligence process or that certain items were not accounted for properly in accordance with financial accounting and reporting standards. Fifth Third may also not realize the expected benefits of the acquisition and may face increased risks pertaining to the acquired entity or assets. For example, Fifth Third could experience greater credit risk and higher charge-offs than originally anticipated related to the acquired loan portfolio. Additionally, the acquisition may increase Fifth Third’s compliance and legal risks including increased litigation or regulatory actions such as fines or restrictions related to the business practices or operations of the acquired business.

 

 

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Regulatory approvals may not be received, may take longer than expected or may impose conditions that are not presently anticipated or cannot be met.

Before the transactions contemplated in the merger agreement can be completed, various approvals must be obtained from the bank regulatory and other governmental authorities. In deciding whether to grant these approvals, the relevant governmental entities will consider a variety of factors, including the regulatory standing of each of the parties and the effect of the merger on competition. An adverse development in either party’s regulatory standing or other factors could result in an inability to obtain one or more of the required regulatory approvals or delay receipt of required approvals.

The FRB has stated that if supervisory issues arise during processing of an application for approval of a merger transaction, a banking organization will be expected to withdraw its application pending resolution of such supervisory concerns. Accordingly, if there is an adverse development in either party’s regulatory standing, Fifth Third may be required to withdraw its application for approval of the proposed merger and, if possible, resubmit it after the applicable supervisory concerns have been resolved.

The terms of the approvals that are granted may impose conditions, limitations, obligations or costs, or place restrictions on the conduct of the combined company’s business or require changes to the terms of the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement. There can be no assurance that regulators will not impose any such conditions, limitations, obligations or restrictions and that such conditions, limitations, obligations or restrictions will not have the effect of delaying the completion of any of the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement, imposing additional material costs on or materially limiting the revenues of the combined company following the merger or otherwise reduce the anticipated benefits of the merger if the merger were consummated successfully within the expected timeframe. Nor can there be any assurance that any such conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not result in the delay or abandonment of the merger. Additionally, the completion of the merger is conditioned on the absence of certain orders, injunctions or decrees by any court or regulatory agency of competent jurisdiction that would prohibit or make illegal the completion of any of the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement.

Fifth Third and MB Financial believe that the proposed merger should not raise significant regulatory concerns and that Fifth Third will be able to obtain all requisite regulatory approvals in a timely manner. In addition, despite the parties’ commitments to use their reasonable best efforts to comply with conditions imposed by regulatory entities, under the terms of the merger agreement, Fifth Third and MB Financial will not be required to take actions that would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on Fifth Third and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, after giving effect to the merger (measured on a scale relative to MB Financial and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole).

The merger agreement may be terminated in accordance with its terms and the merger may not be completed.

The merger agreement is subject to a number of conditions which must be fulfilled in order to complete the transaction. Those conditions include: receipt of requisite regulatory approvals, absence of orders prohibiting completion of any of the proposed transactions, approval of the Fifth Third common shares to be

issued in connection with the merger for listing on the NASDAQ, the accuracy of the representations and warranties by both parties (subject to the materiality standards set forth in the merger agreement), the performance by both parties of their covenants and agreements and the receipt by both parties of legal opinions from their respective tax counsels. These conditions to the closing of the merger may not be fulfilled in a timely manner or at all, and, accordingly, the merger may not be completed. In addition, the parties can mutually decide to terminate the merger agreement at any time, or Fifth Third or MB Financial may elect to terminate the merger agreement in certain other circumstances, as set forth in the agreement.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

There are no SEC staff comments regarding Fifth Third’s periodic or current reports under the Exchange Act that are pending resolution.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

The Bancorp’s executive offices and the main office of Fifth Third Bank are located on Fountain Square Plaza in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio in a 32-story office tower, a five-story office building with an attached parking garage and a separate ten-story office building known as the Fifth Third Center, the William S. Rowe Building and the 530 Building, respectively. The Bancorp’s main operations campus is located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and is comprised of a three-story building with an attached parking garage known as the George A. Schaefer, Jr. Operations Center, and a two-story building with surface parking known as the Madisonville Office Building. Fifth Third Bank owns 100% of these buildings.

At December 31, 2018, the Bancorp, through its banking and non-banking subsidiaries, operated 1,121 banking centers, of which 795 were owned, 224 were leased and 102 for which the buildings are owned but the land is leased. The banking centers are located in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Florida, Tennessee, West Virginia, Georgia and North Carolina. The Bancorp’s significant owned properties are owned free from mortgages and major encumbrances.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Refer to Note 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for information regarding legal proceedings, which is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE BANCORP

Officers are appointed annually by the Board of Directors at the meeting of Directors immediately following the Annual Meeting of Shareholders. The names, ages and positions of the Executive Officers of the Bancorp as of March 1, 2019 are listed below along with their business experience during the past five years:

Greg D. Carmichael, 57. Chairman of the Board since February 2018, Chief Executive Officer of the Bancorp since November 2015 and President since September 2012. Previously, Mr. Carmichael was Chief Operating Officer of the Bancorp from June 2006 to August 2015, Executive Vice President of the Bancorp from June 2006 to September 2012 and Chief Information Officer of the Bancorp from June 2003 to June 2006.

Lars C. Anderson, 57. Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Bancorp since August 2015. Previously, Mr. Anderson was Vice Chairman of Comerica Incorporated and Comerica Bank since December 2010.

Frank R. Forrest, 64. Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of the Bancorp since April 2014. Previously, Mr. Forrest was Executive Vice President and Chief Risk and Credit Officer of the Bancorp since September 2013. Prior to that, Mr. Forrest served with Bank of America Merrill Lynch. From March 2012 until June 2013, Mr. Forrest served as Managing Director and Quality Control Executive for Legacy Asset Services, a division of Bank of America. From September 2008 until March 2012, Mr. Forrest was Managing Director and Global Debt Products Executive for Global Corporate and Investment Banking. Formerly from January 2007 to September 2008, Mr. Forrest was Risk Management Executive for Commercial Banking.

Mark D. Hazel, 53. Senior Vice President and Controller of the Bancorp since February 2010. Prior to that, Mr. Hazel was the Assistant Bancorp Controller since 2006 and was the Controller of Nonbank entities since 2003.

James C. Leonard, 49. Executive Vice President since September 2015 and Treasurer of the Bancorp since October 2013. Previously, Mr. Leonard was Senior Vice President from October 2013 to September 2015, the Director of Business Planning and Analysis from 2006 to 2013 and the Chief Financial Officer of the Commercial Banking Division from 2001 to 2006.

Philip R. McHugh, 54. Executive Vice President of the Bancorp since December 2014, and Head of Regional Banking, Wealth and Asset Management, and Business Banking of the Bancorp since August 2018. Previously, Mr. McHugh was Executive Vice President of Fifth Third Bank since June 2011 and was Senior Vice President of Fifth Third Bank from June 2010 through June

2011. Prior to that, Mr. McHugh was the President and CEO of the Louisville Affiliate of Fifth Third Bank from January 2005 through June 2010.

Jude A. Schramm, 46. Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer since March 2018. Previously, Mr. Schramm served as Chief Information Officer for GE Aviation and held various positions at GE beginning in 2001.

Robert P. Shaffer, 49. Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resource Officer since February 2017. Previously, Mr. Shaffer was Chief Auditor from August 2007 to February 2017. He was named Executive Vice President in 2010 and Senior Vice President in 2004. Prior to that, he held various positions within Fifth Third’s audit division.

Timothy N. Spence, 40. Executive Vice President and Head of Consumer Bank, Payments, and Strategy since August 2018. Previously, Mr. Spence was Head of Payments, Strategy and Digital Solutions since 2017, and Chief Strategy Officer of the Bancorp since September 2015. Previously, Mr. Spence was a senior partner in the Financial Services practice at Oliver Wyman since 2006, a global strategy and risk management consulting firm.

Teresa J. Tanner, 50. Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer since September 2015. Previously, Ms. Tanner was the Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of the Bancorp since February 2010 and Senior Vice President and Director of Enterprise Learning since September 2008. Prior to that, she was Human Resources Senior Vice President and Senior Business Partner for the Information Technology and Central Operations divisions since July 2006. Previously, she was Vice President and Senior Business Partner for Operations since September 2004.

Tayfun Tuzun, 54. Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Bancorp since October 2013. Previously, Mr. Tuzun was the Senior Vice President and Treasurer of the Bancorp from December 2011 to October 2013. Prior to that, Mr. Tuzun was the Assistant Treasurer and Balance Sheet Manager of Fifth Third Bancorp. Previously, Mr. Tuzun was the Structured Finance Manager since 2007.

Susan B. Zaunbrecher, 59. Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and Corporate Secretary since May 2018. Previously, Ms. Zaunbrecher was a partner at the law firm Dinsmore and Shohl LLP.

 

 

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

The Bancorp’s common stock is traded in the over-the-counter market and is listed under the symbol “FITB” on the NASDAQ® Global Select Market System.

See a discussion of dividend limitations that the subsidiaries can pay to the Bancorp discussed in Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated herein by reference. Additionally, as of December 31, 2018, the Bancorp had 38,562 shareholders of record.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities  

 

 
Period    Total Number
of Shares
Purchased(a)
     Average Price Paid
Per Share
   

 

Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs

   

Maximum Number of    

Shares that May Yet be    
Purchased Under the Plans    
or Programs(b)    

 

 

 

October 2018

     5,904,503      $ 26.01           5,808,786       69,671,828      

November 2018

     9,141,525        27.35           9,107,546       60,564,282      

December 2018

     28,849        23.41           -       60,564,282      

 

 

Total

     15,074,877      $                     26.82           14,916,332       60,564,282      

 

 
(a)

Includes 158,545 shares repurchased during the fourth quarter of 2018 in connection with various employee compensation plans of the Bancorp. These purchases do not count against the maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the Board of Directors’ authorization.

(b)

During the first quarter of 2018, the Bancorp announced that its Board of Directors had authorized management to purchase 100 million shares of the Bancorp’s common stock through the open market or in any private transactions. The authorization does not include specific price targets or an expiration date. This share repurchase authorization replaces the Board’s previous authorization pursuant to which approximately 13 million shares remained available for repurchase by the Bancorp.

See further discussion on share repurchase transactions and stock-based compensation in Note 22 and Note 23 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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The following performance graphs do not constitute soliciting material and should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other Company filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent the Bancorp specifically incorporates the performance graphs by reference therein.

Total Return Analysis

The graphs below summarize the cumulative return experienced by the Bancorp’s shareholders over the years 2013 through 2018, and 2008 through 2018, respectively, compared to the S&P 500 Stock and the S&P Banks indices.

FIFTH THIRD BANCORP VS. MARKET INDICES

 

LOGO

 

LOGO

 

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LOGO

2018 ANNUAL REPORT

FINANCIAL CONTENTS

 

Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms

     42  

Selected Financial Data

     43  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

  

Overview

     44  

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

     47  

Recent Accounting Standards

     49  

Critical Accounting Policies

     49  

Statements of Income Analysis

     52  

Business Segment Review

     60  

Fourth Quarter Review

     69  

Balance Sheet Analysis

     72  

Risk Management – Overview

     78  

Credit Risk Management

     79  

Market Risk Management

     93  

Liquidity Risk Management

     97  

Operational Risk Management

     99  

Compliance Risk Management

     99  

Capital Management

     100  

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

     103  

Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments

     104  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     105  

Financial Statements

  

Consolidated Balance Sheets

     106  

Consolidated Statements of Income

     107  

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

     108  

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity

     109  

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

     110  

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

      

Summary of Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies

  111   Legal and Regulatory Proceedings      160  

Supplemental Cash Flow Information

  124   Related Party Transactions      162  

Restrictions on Cash, Dividends and Other Capital Actions

  124   Income Taxes      165  

Investment Securities

  126   Retirement and Benefit Plans      167  

Loans and Leases

  128   Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income      171  

Credit Quality and the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

  130   Common, Preferred and Treasury Stock      173  

Bank Premises and Equipment

  138   Stock-Based Compensation      174  

Goodwill

  139   Other Noninterest Income and Other Noninterest Expense      178  

Intangible Assets

  140   Earnings Per Share      179  

Variable Interest Entities

  141   Fair Value Measurements      180  

Sales of Receivables and Servicing Rights

  144   Regulatory Capital Requirements and Capital Ratios      190  

Derivative Financial Instruments

  146   Parent Company Financial Statements      191  

Other Assets

  151   Business Segments      193  

Short-Term Borrowings

  152   Pending Acquisition      197  

Long-Term Debt

  153   Subsequent Events      197  

Commitments, Contingent Liabilities and Guarantees

  156     

Management’s Assertion as to the Effectiveness of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

  198     

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

  199     

Consolidated Ten Year Comparison

  206     

Directors and Officers

 

207

    

Corporate Information

      

 

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GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Fifth Third Bancorp provides the following list of abbreviations and acronyms as a tool for the reader that are used in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

ALCO: Asset Liability Management Committee

ALLL: Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

AOCI: Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

APR: Annual Percentage Rate

ARM: Adjustable Rate Mortgage

ASF: Available Stable Funding

ASU: Accounting Standards Update

ATM: Automated Teller Machine

BCBS: Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

BHC: Bank Holding Company

BHCA: Bank Holding Company Act

BOLI: Bank Owned Life Insurance

BPO: Broker Price Opinion

bps: Basis Points

CCAR: Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review

CDC: Fifth Third Community Development Corporation

CET1: Common Equity Tier 1

CFPB: United States Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

CRA: Community Reinvestment Act

C&I: Commercial and Industrial

DCF: Discounted Cash Flow

DFA: Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform & Consumer Protection Act

DTCC: Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation

DTI: Debt-to-Income

ERM: Enterprise Risk Management

ERMC: Enterprise Risk Management Committee

EVE: Economic Value of Equity

FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board

FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

FFIEC: Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council

FHA: Federal Housing Administration

FHLB: Federal Home Loan Bank

FHLMC: Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

FICA: Federal Insurance Contributions Act

FICO: Fair Isaac Corporation (credit rating)

FINRA: Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

FNMA: Federal National Mortgage Association

FOMC: Federal Open Market Committee

FRB: Federal Reserve Bank

FTE: Fully Taxable Equivalent

FTP: Funds Transfer Pricing

FTS: Fifth Third Securities

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

GNMA: Government National Mortgage Association

GSE: United States Government Sponsored Enterprise

HQLA: High Quality Liquid Assets

IPO: Initial Public Offering

 

IRC: Internal Revenue Code

IRLC: Interest Rate Lock Commitment

IRS: Internal Revenue Service

ISDA: International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc.

LCR: Liquidity Coverage Ratio

LIBOR: London Interbank Offered Rate

LIHTC: Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

LLC: Limited Liability Company

LTV: Loan-to-Value

MD&A: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area

MSR: Mortgage Servicing Right

N/A: Not Applicable

NAV: Net Asset Value

NII: Net Interest Income

NM: Not Meaningful

NPR: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

NSFR: Net Stable Funding Ratio

OAS: Option-Adjusted Spread

OCC: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency

OCI: Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

OREO: Other Real Estate Owned

OTTI: Other-Than-Temporary Impairment

PCA: Prompt Corrective Action

PSA: Performance Share Award

RCC: Risk Compliance Committee

RSA: Restricted Stock Award

RSF: Required Stable Funding

RSU: Restricted Stock Unit

SAR: Stock Appreciation Right

SBA: Small Business Administration

SCB: Stress Capital Buffer

SEC: United States Securities and Exchange Commission

SLB: Stress Leverage Buffer

TBA: To Be Announced

TCJA: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

TDR: Troubled Debt Restructuring

TILA: Truth in Lending Act

TRA: Tax Receivable Agreement

TruPS: Trust Preferred Securities

U.S.: United States of America

U.S. GAAP: United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

VA: United States Department of Veterans Affairs

VIE: Variable Interest Entity

VRDN: Variable Rate Demand Note

 

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SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

As of and for the years ended December 31 ($ in millions, except for per share data)         2018             2017(j)             2016(j)             2015(j)             2014(j)         

Income Statement Data

         

Net interest income (U.S. GAAP)

  $ 4,140       3,798       3,615        3,533        3,579      

Net interest income (FTE)(a)(b)

    4,156       3,824       3,640        3,554        3,600      

Noninterest income

    2,790       3,224       2,696        3,003        2,473      

Total revenue(a)

    6,946       7,048       6,336        6,557        6,073      

Provision for loan and lease losses

    237       261       343        396        315      

Noninterest expense

    3,928       3,782       3,760        3,647        3,592      

Net income attributable to Bancorp

    2,193       2,180       1,547        1,685        1,451      

Net income available to common shareholders

    2,118       2,105       1,472        1,610        1,384      

Common Share Data

         

Earnings per share - basic

  $ 3.11       2.86       1.92        2.00        1.65      

Earnings per share - diluted

    3.06       2.81       1.91        1.97        1.63      

Cash dividends declared per common share

    0.74       0.60       0.53        0.52        0.51      

Book value per share

    23.07       21.43       19.62        18.31        17.22      

Market value per share

    23.53       30.34       26.97        20.10        20.38      

Financial Ratios

         

Return on average assets

    1.54     1.55       1.09        1.20        1.10      

Return on average common equity

    14.5       13.9       9.7        11.2        9.9      

Return on average tangible common equity(b)

    17.5       16.6       11.6        13.5        12.0      

Dividend payout

    23.8       21.0       27.6        26.0        30.9      

Average total Bancorp shareholders’ equity as a percent of average assets

    11.23       11.69       11.57        11.24        11.53      

Tangible common equity as a percent of tangible assets(b)(i)

    8.71       8.83       8.77        8.50        8.36      

Net interest margin(a)(b)

    3.22       3.03       2.88        2.88        3.10      

Net interest rate spread(a)(b)

    2.87       2.76       2.66        2.69        2.94      

Efficiency(a)(b)

    56.5       53.7       59.3        55.6        59.2      

Credit Quality

         

Net losses charged-off

  $ 330       298       362        446        575      

Net losses charged-off as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases

    0.35     0.32       0.39        0.48        0.64      

ALLL as a percent of portfolio loans and leases

    1.16       1.30       1.36        1.37        1.47      

Allowance for credit losses as a percent of portfolio loans and leases(c)

    1.30       1.48       1.54        1.52        1.62      

Nonperforming portfolio assets as a percent of portfolio loans and leases and OREO

    0.41       0.53       0.80        0.70        0.82      

Average Balances

         

Loans and leases, including held for sale

  $ 93,876       92,731       94,320        93,339        91,127      

Securities and other short-term investments

    35,029       33,562       31,965        30,245        24,866      

Assets

            142,183       140,527       142,173        139,999        131,847      

Transaction deposits(d)

    97,914       96,052       95,371        95,244        89,715      

Core deposits(e)

    102,020       99,823       99,381        99,295        93,477      

Wholesale funding(f)

    20,573       20,360       21,813        20,210        19,154      

Bancorp shareholders’ equity

    15,970       16,424       16,453        15,742        15,196      
Regulatory Capital and Liquidity Ratios   Basel III (g)(k)            Basel I(h)      

CET1 capital

    10.24     10.61       10.39        9.82        -      

Tier I risk-based capital

    11.32       11.74       11.50        10.93        10.83      

Total risk-based capital

    14.48       15.16       15.02        14.13        14.33      

Tier I leverage

    9.72       10.01       9.90        9.54        9.66      

Modified LCR

    128       129       128              -      
(a)

Amounts presented on an FTE basis. The FTE adjustment for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was $16, $26, $25, $21 and $21, respectively.

(b)

These are non-GAAP measures. For further information, refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of MD&A.

(c)

The allowance for credit losses is the sum of the ALLL and the reserve for unfunded commitments.

(d)

Includes demand deposits, interest checking deposits, savings deposits, money market deposits and foreign office deposits.

(e)

Includes transaction deposits and other time deposits.

(f)

Includes certificates $100,000 and over, other deposits, federal funds purchased, other short-term borrowings and long-term debt.

(g)

Under the U.S. banking agencies’ Basel III Final Rule, assets and credit equivalent amounts of off-balance sheet exposures are calculated according to the standardized approach for risk-weighted assets. The resulting values are added together resulting in the Bancorp’s total risk-weighted assets. Under the banking agencies’ Final Rule published in November 2017 pertaining to certain regulatory items for banks subject to the standardized approach, the Bancorp is no longer subject to certain transition provisions and phase-outs beyond 2017.

(h)

These capital ratios were calculated under the Supervisory Agencies general risk-based capital rules (Basel I) which were in effect prior to January 1, 2015.

(i)

Excludes unrealized gains and losses.

(j)

Effective in the fourth quarter of 2018, Fifth Third retrospectively applied a change in its accounting policy for investments in affordable housing projects that qualify for LIHTC in accordance with ASU 2014-01. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

(k)

The regulatory capital data and ratios have not been restated as a result of the Bancorp’s change in accounting for investments in affordable housing projects that qualify for LIHTC. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (MD&A)

The following is Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of certain significant factors that have affected Fifth Third Bancorp’s (the “Bancorp” or “Fifth Third”) financial condition and results of operations during the periods included in the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are a part of this filing. Reference to the Bancorp incorporates the parent holding company and all consolidated subsidiaries. The Bancorp’s banking subsidiary is referred to as the Bank.

OVERVIEW

 

This overview of MD&A highlights selected information in the financial results of the Bancorp and may not contain all of the information that is important to you. For a more complete understanding of trends, events, commitments, uncertainties, liquidity, capital resources and critical accounting policies and estimates, you should carefully read this entire document. Each of these items could have an impact on the Bancorp’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, refer to the Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms in this report for a list of terms included as a tool for the reader of this annual report on Form 10-K. The abbreviations and acronyms identified therein are used throughout this MD&A, as well as the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Net interest income, net interest margin, net interest rate spread and the efficiency ratio are presented in MD&A on an FTE basis. The FTE basis adjusts for the tax-favored status of income from certain loans and securities held by the Bancorp that are not taxable for federal income tax purposes. The Bancorp believes this presentation to be the preferred industry measurement of net interest income as it provides a relevant comparison between taxable and non-taxable amounts. The FTE basis for presenting net interest income is a non-GAAP measure. For further information, refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of MD&A.

The Bancorp’s revenues are dependent on both net interest income and noninterest income. For the year ended December 31, 2018, net interest income on an FTE basis and noninterest income provided 60% and 40% of total revenue, respectively. The Bancorp derives the majority of its revenues within the U.S. from customers domiciled in the U.S. Revenue from foreign countries and external customers domiciled in foreign countries was immaterial to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Changes in interest rates, credit quality, economic trends and the capital markets are primary factors that drive the performance of the Bancorp. As discussed later in the Risk Management section of MD&A, risk identification, assessment, management, monitoring and independent governance reporting of risk are important to the management of risk and to the financial performance and capital strength of the Bancorp.

Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on assets such as loans, leases and securities, and interest expense incurred on liabilities such as deposits, other short-term borrowings and long-term debt. Net interest income is affected by the general level of interest rates, the relative level of short-term and long-term interest rates, changes in interest rates and changes in the amount and composition of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Generally, the rates of interest the Bancorp earns on its assets and pays on its liabilities are established for a period of time. The change in market interest rates over time exposes the Bancorp to interest rate risk through potential adverse changes to net interest income and financial position. The Bancorp manages this risk by continually analyzing and adjusting the composition of its assets and liabilities based on their payment streams and interest rates, the timing of their maturities and their sensitivity to changes in market interest rates. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, the Bancorp enters into certain derivative transactions as part of its overall strategy to manage its interest rate and prepayment risks. The Bancorp is also exposed to the risk of loss on its loan and

lease portfolio as a result of changing expected cash flows caused by borrower credit events, such as loan defaults and inadequate collateral.

Noninterest income is derived from service charges on deposits, wealth and asset management revenue, corporate banking revenue, card and processing revenue, mortgage banking net revenue, net securities gains or losses and other noninterest income. Noninterest expense includes personnel costs, net occupancy expense, technology and communication costs, card and processing expense, equipment expense and other noninterest expense.

Worldpay, Inc. and Worldpay Holding, LLC Transactions

On January 16, 2018, Vantiv, Inc. completed its previously announced acquisition of Worldpay Group plc. with the resulting combined company named Worldpay, Inc. As a result of this transaction, the Bancorp recognized a gain of $414 million in other noninterest income during the first quarter of 2018 associated with the dilution in its ownership interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC from approximately 8.6% to approximately 4.9%.

On June 27, 2018, the Bancorp completed the sale of 5 million shares of Class A common stock of Worldpay, Inc. The Bancorp had previously received these Class A shares in exchange for Class B Units of Worldpay Holding, LLC. The Bancorp recognized a gain of $205 million related to the sale. As a result of the sale, the Bancorp beneficially owns approximately 3.3% of Worldpay’s equity through its ownership of approximately 10.3 million Class B Units. At December 31, 2018, the Bancorp’s remaining interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC of $420 million continues to be accounted for as an equity method investment given the nature of Worldpay Holding, LLC’s structure as a limited liability company and contractual arrangements between Worldpay Holding, LLC and the Bancorp.

GS Holdings Transaction

In May 2018, GreenSky, Inc. launched an IPO and issued 38 million shares of Class A common stock for a valuation of $23 per share. In connection with this IPO, the Bancorp’s investment in GreenSky, LLC, which was comprised of 252,550 membership units, was converted to 2,525,498 units of the newly formed GreenSky Holdings, LLC (“GS Holdings”), representing a 1.4% interest in GS Holdings. The Bancorp’s units in GS Holdings are exchangeable on a one-to-one basis for Class A common stock or cash.

At the time of the IPO, the Bancorp recognized a $16 million gain on its investment in GreenSky, LLC, which was included in other noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income for the year ended December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2018, the investment in GS Holdings was $24 million, which was included in equity securities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Accelerated Share Repurchase Transactions

During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Bancorp entered into or settled a number of accelerated share repurchase transactions. As part of these transactions, the Bancorp entered into forward contracts in which the final number of shares delivered at settlement was based generally on a discount to the average daily volume weighted-average price of the Bancorp’s common stock during the term of the repurchase agreements.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

For more information on the accelerated share repurchase program, refer to Note 22 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. For a summary of the Bancorp’s accelerated share repurchase transactions

that were entered into or settled during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, refer to Table 1.

 

 

TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF ACCELERATED SHARE REPURCHASE TRANSACTIONS

 

 

Repurchase Date   Amount ($ in millions)    

 

Shares Repurchased on 
Repurchase Date 

    Shares Received from
Forward Contract Settlement
    Total Shares  
Repurchased  
    Settlement Date      

 

 

December 20, 2016

  $ 155       4,843,750       1,044,362       5,888,112       February 6, 2017  

May 1, 2017

    342       11,641,971       2,248,250       13,890,221       July 31, 2017  

August 17, 2017

    990       31,540,480       4,291,170       35,831,650       December 18, 2017  

December 19, 2017

    273       7,727,273       824,367       8,551,640       March 19, 2018  

February 12, 2018

    318       8,691,318       1,015,731       9,707,049       March 26, 2018  

May 25, 2018

    235       6,402,244       1,172,122       7,574,366       June 15, 2018  

 

 

 

Open Market Share Repurchase Transactions

Between July 20, 2018 and August 2, 2018, the Bancorp repurchased 16,945,020 shares, or approximately $500 million, of its outstanding common stock through open market repurchase transactions, which settled between July 24, 2018 and August 6, 2018.

Between October 24, 2018 and November 9, 2018, the Bancorp repurchased 14,916,332 shares, or approximately $400 million, of its outstanding common stock through open market repurchase transactions, which settled between October 26, 2018 and November 14, 2018. For more information on the open market share repurchase program, refer to Note 22 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Senior Notes Offerings

On March 14, 2018, the Bancorp issued and sold $650 million of senior notes to third-party investors. The senior notes bear a fixed-rate of interest of 3.95% per annum. The notes are unsecured, senior obligations of the Bancorp. Payment of the full principal amounts of the notes is due upon maturity on March 14, 2028. These fixed-rate senior notes will be redeemable by the Bancorp, in whole or in part, on or after the date that is 30 days prior to the maturity date at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest up to, but excluding, the redemption date.

On June 5, 2018, the Bancorp issued and sold $250 million of senior notes to third-party investors. The senior notes bear a floating-rate of three-month LIBOR plus 47 bps. The notes are unsecured, senior obligations of the Bancorp. Payment of the full principal amounts of the notes is due upon maturity on June 4, 2021. These floating-rate senior notes will be redeemable by the Bancorp, in whole or in part, on or after the date that is 30 days prior to the maturity date at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest up to, but excluding, the redemption date.

On July 26, 2018 the Bank issued and sold, under its bank notes program, $1.55 billion in aggregate principal amount of unsecured senior bank notes. The bank notes consisted of $500 million of 3.35% senior fixed-rate notes, with a maturity of three years, due on July 26, 2021; $300 million of senior floating-rate notes at three-month LIBOR plus 44 bps, with a maturity of three years, due on July 26, 2021; and $750 million of 3.95% senior fixed-rate notes, with a maturity of seven years, due July 28, 2025. The Bank entered into interest rate swaps to convert the fixed-rate notes due in 2021 and 2025 to a floating-rate, which resulted in an effective interest rate of one-month LIBOR plus 53 bps and 104 bps, respectively. These bank notes will be redeemable by the Bank, in whole or in part, on or after the date that is 30 days prior to the maturity date at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest up to, but excluding, the redemption date. For additional information on these senior notes offerings, refer to Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial

Statements.

For further information on subsequent events related to long-term debt, refer to Note 31 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

2018 Branch Optimization Plan

Customer interactions and service and sales activity in Branch Banking continue to evolve with changing demographics and technology applications. Customers are increasingly utilizing digital tools to interact with their financial institutions in conducting their transactions while still utilizing physical branches for consultations and new product and service initiation. During the past three years, these developments and other business strategies led to a net decrease of 133 in the number of retail branches, or 11% of the Bancorp’s total branch count, through consolidations and sales.

The Bancorp continues to evaluate its retail network distribution in light of changes in customer behavior while developing new analytical tools that provide enhanced capabilities to optimize the profitability and growth potential of branches. In slower growth mature markets these developments enable the Bancorp to achieve efficiencies through well-executed branch consolidations without materially impacting deposit flows and/or revenue growth while maintaining the service quality standards. While continuing to evaluate such actions, the Bancorp is also focused on achieving higher retail household and deposit growth in other parts of its footprint – mainly in markets that exhibit faster economic growth and where the Bancorp has significant opportunities to capture higher market share. To that extent, based on the strategic business evaluation that was performed during the second quarter of 2018, over the next 2-3 years, as part of the 2018 Branch Optimization Plan, the Bancorp plans to close between 100-125 branches in more mature markets and open between 100-125 new branches in higher growth markets where the Bancorp already has an existing retail branch presence. With the existing local presence and familiarity with the customer demographics, and with newly developed analytical tools, the Bancorp expects to achieve higher growth rates as a result of these actions.

As of December 31, 2018, the Bancorp had closed 31 branches under the 2018 Branch Optimization Plan. The Bancorp expects to identify the remaining branches to be closed under the 2018 Branch Optimization Plan prior to December 31, 2019. As part of the adoption of the 2018 Branch Optimization Plan, the Bancorp has also elected to sell 21 parcels of land which had previously been held for future branch expansion. For further information about the 2018 Branch Optimization plan, refer to Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Change in Accounting Policy

Effective in the fourth quarter of 2018, the Bancorp changed its accounting policy for qualifying LIHTC investments from the equity method to the proportional amortization method as it was management’s determination to be the preferable method.

 

 

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The proportional amortization method provides an improved presentation for the reporting of these investments by presenting the investment performance net of taxes as a component of income tax expense, which more fairly represents the economics and provides users with a better understanding of the returns from such investments than the prior equity method. Additionally, the proportional amortization method has been elected as a preferred accounting method for LIHTC investments by many of the Bancorp’s peers. Changing the accounting policy for LIHTC investments from the equity method of accounting to the

proportional amortization method will make the Bancorp’s presentation of the LIHTC investments comparable to that of its peers. The adoption of the proportional amortization method was applied retrospectively and resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment to reduce retained earnings by $134 million as of January 1, 2016. Unless otherwise noted, all prior period information has been restated to conform to the accounting policy change. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information including the impact of adoption on prior period financial statements.

 

 

TABLE 2: CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME    

 

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions, except per share data)        2018          2017             2016            2015            2014           

 

 

Interest income (FTE)(a)

   $ 5,199        4,515        4,218       4,049       4,051     

Interest expense

     1,043        691        578       495       451     

 

 

Net Interest Income (FTE)(a)

     4,156        3,824        3,640       3,554       3,600     

Provision for loan and lease losses

     237        261        343       396       315     

 

 

Net Interest Income After Provision for Loan and Lease Losses (FTE)(a)

     3,919        3,563        3,297       3,158       3,285     

Noninterest income

     2,790        3,224        2,696       3,003       2,473     

Noninterest expense

     3,928        3,782        3,760       3,647       3,592     

 

 

Income Before Income Taxes (FTE)(a)

     2,781        3,005        2,233       2,514       2,166     

Fully taxable equivalent adjustment

     16        26        25       21       21     

Applicable income tax expense

     572        799        665       814       692     

 

 

Net Income

     2,193        2,180        1,543       1,679       1,453     

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

     -        -        (4     (6     2     

 

 

Net Income Attributable to Bancorp

     2,193        2,180        1,547       1,685       1,451     

Dividends on preferred stock

     75        75        75       75       67     

 

 

Net Income Available to Common Shareholders

   $         2,118        2,105        1,472       1,610       1,384     

 

 

Earnings per share - basic

   $ 3.11        2.86        1.92       2.00       1.65     

Earnings per share - diluted

   $ 3.06        2.81        1.91       1.97       1.63     

 

 

Cash dividends declared per common share

   $ 0.74        0.60        0.53       0.52       0.51     

 

 
(a)

These are non-GAAP measures. For further information, refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of MD&A.

 

Earnings Summary

The Bancorp’s net income available to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $2.1 billion, or $3.06 per diluted share, which was net of $75 million in preferred stock dividends. The Bancorp’s net income available to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $2.1 billion, or $2.81 per diluted share, which was net of $75 million in preferred stock dividends.

Net interest income on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was $4.2 billion and $3.8 billion for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Net interest income was positively impacted by increases in yields on average loans and leases and average taxable securities and an increase in average taxable securities for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. Additionally, net interest income was positively impacted by the decisions of the FOMC to raise the target range of the federal funds rate 25 bps in December 2017, March 2018, June 2018, September 2018 and December 2018. These positive impacts were partially offset by increases in the rates paid on average interest-bearing core deposits and average long-term debt during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest margin on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was 3.22% and 3.03% for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Noninterest income decreased $434 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to a decrease in other noninterest income, partially offset by increases in corporate banking revenue, wealth and asset management revenue and card and processing revenue. Other noninterest income decreased $470 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the gain on sale of Worldpay,

Inc. shares recognized in the prior year, a reduction in equity method income from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC, the impact of the net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment and income from the TRA associated with Worldpay, Inc. recognized in the prior year. These reductions were partially offset by the gain related to Vantiv, Inc.’s acquisition of Worldpay Group plc., an increase in private equity investment income, as well as a decrease in the loss on the swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares. Corporate banking revenue increased $85 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase from the prior year was primarily driven by increases in lease remarketing fees, institutional sales revenue, syndication fees and contract revenue from commercial customer derivatives. Wealth and asset management revenue increased $25 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in private client service fees and brokerage fees. Card and processing revenue increased $16 million from the year ended December 31 2017 primarily due to increases in the number of actively used cards and customer spend volume.

Noninterest expense increased $146 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in personnel costs and technology and communications expenses, partially offset by a decrease in other noninterest expense. Personnel costs increased $126 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by increases in base compensation, performance-based compensation and severance costs. The increase in base compensation was primarily due to an increase in the Bancorp’s minimum wage as a result of benefits received from the TCJA and personnel additions associated with strategic investments and acquisitions.

 

 

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Technology and communications expense increased $40 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven primarily by increased investment in regulatory, compliance and growth initiatives. Other noninterest expense decreased $17 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in the benefit from the reserve for unfunded commitments, gains on partnership investments and decreases in professional service fees and FDIC insurance and other taxes, partially offset by increases in marketing expense and loan and lease expense.

For more information on net interest income, noninterest income and noninterest expense, refer to the Statements of Income Analysis section of MD&A.

Credit Summary

The provision for loan and lease losses was $237 million and $261 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Net losses charged-off as a percent of average portfolio

loans and leases decreased to 0.35% during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 0.32% during the year ended December 31, 2017. At December 31, 2018, nonperforming portfolio assets as a percent of portfolio loans and leases and OREO decreased to 0.41% compared to 0.53% at December 31, 2017. For further discussion on credit quality, refer to the Credit Risk Management subsection of the Risk Management section of MD&A.

Capital Summary

The Bancorp’s capital ratios exceed the “well-capitalized” guidelines as defined by the PCA requirements of the U.S. banking agencies. As of December 31, 2018, as calculated under the Basel III standardized approach, the CET1 capital ratio was 10.24%, the Tier I risk-based capital ratio was 11.32%, the Total risk-based capital ratio was 14.48% and the Tier I leverage ratio was 9.72%.

 

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

 

 

The following are non-GAAP measures which provide useful insight to the reader of the Consolidated Financial Statements but should be supplemental to primary U.S. GAAP measures and should not be read in isolation or relied upon as a substitute for the primary U.S. GAAP measures.

The FTE basis adjusts for the tax-favored status of income from certain loans and securities held by the Bancorp that are not

taxable for federal income tax purposes. The Bancorp believes this presentation to be the preferred industry measurement of net interest income as it provides a relevant comparison between taxable and non-taxable amounts.

 

 

The following table reconciles the non-GAAP financial measures of net interest income on an FTE basis, interest income on an FTE basis, net interest margin, net interest rate spread and the efficiency ratio to U.S. GAAP:

 

TABLE 3: NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES - FINANCIAL MEASURES AND RATIOS ON AN FTE BASIS

 

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)            2018         2017                2016            

 

 

Net interest income (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 4,140         3,798        3,615      

Add: FTE adjustment

     16         26        25      

 

 

Net interest income on an FTE basis (1)

   $ 4,156         3,824        3,640      

Interest income (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 5,183         4,489        4,193      

Add: FTE adjustment

     16         26        25      

 

 

Interest income on an FTE basis (2)

   $ 5,199         4,515        4,218      

Interest expense (3)

   $ 1,043         691        578      

Noninterest income (4)

     2,790         3,224        2,696      

Noninterest expense (5)

     3,928         3,782        3,760      

Average interest-earning assets (6)

                 128,905         126,293        126,285      

Average interest-bearing liabilities (7)

     89,959         85,090        85,332      

Ratios:

       

Net interest margin on an FTE basis (1) / (6)

     3.22       3.03        2.88      

Net interest rate spread on an FTE basis ((2) / (6)) - ((3) / (7))

     2.87         2.76        2.66      

Efficiency ratio on an FTE basis (5) / ((1) + (4))

     56.5         53.7        59.3      

 

 

 

The Bancorp believes return on average tangible common equity is an important measure for comparative purposes with other financial institutions, but is not defined under U.S. GAAP, and therefore is considered a non-GAAP financial measure. This measure is useful for evaluating the performance of a business as it calculates the

return available to common shareholders without the impact of intangible assets and their related amortization.

 

 

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The following table reconciles the non-GAAP financial measure of return on average tangible common equity to U.S. GAAP:

 

TABLE 4:  NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURE - RETURN ON AVERAGE TANGIBLE COMMON EQUITY

 

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)          2018     2017              

 

 

Net income available to common shareholders (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 2,118       2,105         

Add: Intangible amortization, net of tax

     4       1         

 

 

Tangible net income available to common shareholders (1)

   $ 2,122       2,106         

Average Bancorp shareholders’ equity (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 15,970       16,424         

Less:  Average preferred stock

     (1,331     (1,331)        

  Average goodwill

     (2,462     (2,425)        

  Average intangible assets

     (29     (18)        

 

 

Average tangible common equity (2)

   $             12,148       12,650         

Return on average tangible common equity (1) / (2)

     17.5       16.6         

 

 

 

The Bancorp considers various measures when evaluating capital utilization and adequacy, including the tangible equity ratio and tangible common equity ratio, in addition to capital ratios defined by the U.S. banking agencies. These calculations are intended to complement the capital ratios defined by the U.S. banking agencies for both absolute and comparative purposes. Because U.S. GAAP does not include capital ratio measures, the Bancorp believes there

are no comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures to these ratios. These ratios are not formally defined by U.S. GAAP or codified in the federal banking regulations and, therefore, are considered to be non-GAAP financial measures. The Bancorp encourages readers to consider its Consolidated Financial Statements in their entirety and not to rely on any single financial measure.

 

The following table reconciles non-GAAP capital ratios to U.S. GAAP:

 

TABLE 5:  NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES - CAPITAL RATIOS

 

 

 
As of December 31 ($ in millions)            2018     2017              

 

 

Total Bancorp Shareholders’ Equity (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 16,250       16,200         

Less:  Preferred stock

     (1,331     (1,331)        

  Goodwill

     (2,478     (2,445)        

  Intangible assets

     (40     (27)        

  AOCI

     112       (73)        

 

 

Tangible common equity, excluding unrealized gains / losses (1)

     12,513       12,324         

Add: Preferred stock

     1,331       1,331         

 

 

Tangible equity (2)

   $ 13,844       13,655         

 

 

Total Assets (U.S. GAAP)

   $ 146,069       142,081         

Less:  Goodwill

     (2,478     (2,445)        

  Intangible assets

     (40     (27)        

  AOCI, before tax

     142       (92)        

 

 

Tangible assets, excluding unrealized gains / losses (3)

   $             143,693       139,517         

 

 

Ratios:

    

Tangible equity as a percentage of tangible assets (2) / (3)

     9.63      9.79         

Tangible common equity as a percentage of tangible assets (1) / (3)

     8.71       8.83         

 

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

RECENT ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

 

Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides a discussion of the significant new accounting standards applicable

to the Bancorp during 2018 and the expected impact of significant accounting standards issued, but not yet required to be adopted.

 

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

The Bancorp’s Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Certain accounting policies require management to exercise judgment in determining methodologies, economic assumptions and estimates that may materially affect the Bancorp’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The Bancorp’s critical accounting policies include the accounting for the ALLL, reserve for unfunded commitments, income taxes, valuation of servicing rights, fair value measurements, goodwill and legal contingencies. There have been no material changes to the valuation techniques or models described below during the year ended December 31, 2018.

ALLL

The Bancorp disaggregates its portfolio loans and leases into portfolio segments for purposes of determining the ALLL. The Bancorp’s portfolio segments include commercial, residential mortgage and consumer. The Bancorp further disaggregates its portfolio segments into classes for purposes of monitoring and assessing credit quality based on certain risk characteristics. For an analysis of the Bancorp’s ALLL by portfolio segment and credit quality information by class, refer to Note 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The Bancorp maintains the ALLL to absorb probable loan and lease losses inherent in its portfolio segments. The ALLL is maintained at a level the Bancorp considers to be adequate and is based on ongoing quarterly assessments and evaluations of the collectability and historical loss experience of loans and leases. Credit losses are charged and recoveries are credited to the ALLL. Provisions for loan and lease losses are based on the Bancorp’s review of the historical credit loss experience and such factors that, in management’s judgment, deserve consideration under existing economic conditions in estimating probable credit losses. The Bancorp’s strategy for credit risk management includes a combination of conservative exposure limits significantly below legal lending limits and conservative underwriting, documentation and collections standards. The strategy also emphasizes diversification on a geographic, industry and customer level, regular credit examinations and quarterly management reviews of large credit exposures and loans experiencing deterioration of credit quality.

The Bancorp’s methodology for determining the ALLL requires significant management judgment and is based on historical loss rates, current credit grades, specific allocation on loans modified in a TDR and impaired commercial credits above specified thresholds and other qualitative adjustments. Allowances on individual commercial loans, TDRs and historical loss rates are reviewed quarterly and adjusted as necessary based on changing borrower and/or collateral conditions and actual collection and charge-off experience. An unallocated allowance is maintained to recognize the imprecision in estimating and measuring losses when evaluating allowances for pools of loans.

Larger commercial loans included within aggregate borrower relationship balances exceeding $1 million that exhibit probable or observed credit weaknesses, as well as loans that have been modified in a TDR, are subject to individual review for impairment. The Bancorp considers the current value of collateral, credit quality of any guarantees, the guarantor’s liquidity and willingness to cooperate, the loan structure and other factors when evaluating whether an individual loan is impaired. Other factors may include

the industry and geographic region of the borrower, size and financial condition of the borrower, cash flow and leverage of the borrower and the Bancorp’s evaluation of the borrower’s management. When individual loans are impaired, allowances are determined based on management’s estimate of the borrower’s ability to repay the loan given the availability of collateral and other sources of cash flow, as well as an evaluation of legal options available to the Bancorp. Allowances for impaired loans are measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, fair value of the underlying collateral or readily observable secondary market values. The Bancorp evaluates the collectability of both principal and interest when assessing the need for a loss accrual.

Historical credit loss rates are applied to commercial loans that are not impaired or are impaired, but smaller than the established threshold of $1 million and thus not subject to specific allowance allocations. The loss rates are derived from migration analyses for several portfolio stratifications, which track the historical net charge-off experience sustained on loans according to their internal risk grade. The risk grading system utilized for allowance analysis purposes encompasses ten categories.

Homogenous loans and leases in the residential mortgage and consumer portfolio segments are not individually risk graded. Rather, standard credit scoring systems and delinquency monitoring are used to assess credit risks and allowances are established based on the expected net charge-offs. Loss rates are based on the trailing twelve month net charge-off history by loan category. Historical loss rates may be adjusted for certain prescriptive and qualitative factors that, in management’s judgment, are necessary to reflect losses inherent in the portfolio. The prescriptive loss rate factors include adjustments for delinquency trends, LTV trends, refreshed FICO score trends and product mix.

The Bancorp also considers qualitative factors in determining the ALLL. These include adjustments for changes in policies or procedures in underwriting, monitoring or collections, economic conditions, portfolio mix, lending and risk management personnel, results of internal audit and quality control reviews, collateral values and geographic concentrations. The Bancorp considers home price index trends in its footprint and the volatility of collateral valuation trends when determining the collateral value qualitative factor.

When evaluating the adequacy of allowances, consideration is given to regional geographic concentrations and the closely associated effect changing economic conditions have on the Bancorp’s customers. Refer to the Allowance for Credit Losses subsection of the Risk Management section of MD&A for a discussion on the Bancorp’s ALLL sensitivity analysis.

Reserve for Unfunded Commitments

The reserve for unfunded commitments is maintained at a level believed by management to be sufficient to absorb estimated probable losses related to unfunded credit facilities and is included in other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The determination of the adequacy of the reserve is based upon an evaluation of the unfunded credit facilities, including an assessment of historical commitment utilization experience, credit risk grading and historical loss rates based on credit grade migration. This process takes into consideration the same risk elements that are analyzed in the determination of the adequacy of the Bancorp’s ALLL, as previously discussed. Net adjustments to the reserve for unfunded commitments are included in other noninterest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Income.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Income Taxes

The income tax laws of the jurisdictions in which the Bancorp operates are complex and may be subject to different interpretations. The Bancorp evaluates and assesses the relative risks and appropriate tax treatment of transactions and filing positions after considering statutes, regulations, judicial precedent and other information. The Bancorp maintains tax accruals consistent with its evaluation of these items.

Changes in the estimate of tax accruals occur periodically due to changes in tax rates, interpretation of tax laws and regulations and other guidance issued by tax authorities and the status of examinations conducted by tax authorities, as well as the expiration of statutes of limitations. These changes may significantly impact the Bancorp’s tax accruals, deferred taxes and income tax expense and may significantly impact the operating results of the Bancorp.

Deferred taxes are determined using the balance sheet method. Under this method, the net deferred tax asset or liability is calculated based on the difference between the book and tax bases of the assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates and laws. Significant management judgment is required to determine the realizability of deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets are recognized when management believes that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized. Where management has determined that it is not more likely than not that certain deferred tax assets will be realized, a valuation allowance is maintained. For additional information on income taxes, refer to Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Valuation of Servicing Rights

When the Bancorp sells loans through either securitizations or individual loan sales in accordance with its investment policies, it often obtains servicing rights. The Bancorp may also purchase servicing rights. Effective January 1, 2017, the Bancorp elected to prospectively adopt the fair value method for all existing classes of its residential mortgage servicing rights portfolio. Upon this election, all servicing rights in these classes are measured at fair value at each reporting date and changes in the fair value of servicing rights are reported in earnings in the period in which the changes occur. Servicing rights are valued using internal OAS models. Significant management judgment is necessary to identify key economic assumptions used in estimating the fair value of the servicing rights including the prepayment speeds of the underlying loans, the weighted-average life, the OAS spread and the weighted-average coupon rate, as applicable. The primary risk of material changes to the value of the servicing rights resides in the potential volatility in the economic assumptions used, particularly the prepayment speeds. In order to assist in the assessment of the fair value of servicing rights, the Bancorp obtains external valuations of the servicing rights portfolio from third parties and participates in peer surveys that provide additional confirmation of the reasonableness of key assumptions utilized in the internal OAS model. Prior to the election of the fair value method, servicing rights were initially recorded at fair value and subsequently

amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing revenue. Servicing rights were assessed for impairment monthly, based on fair value, with temporary impairment recognized through a valuation allowance and other-than-temporary impairment recognized through a write-off of the servicing asset and related valuation allowance. For additional information on servicing rights, refer to Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Fair Value Measurements

The Bancorp measures certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Bancorp employs various valuation approaches to measure fair value including the market, income and cost approaches. The market approach uses prices or relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities. The income approach involves discounting future amounts to a single present amount and is based on current market expectations about those future amounts. The cost approach is based on the amount that currently would be required to replace the service capacity of the asset.

U.S. GAAP establishes a fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the instrument’s fair value measurement. For additional information on the fair value hierarchy and fair value measurements, refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The Bancorp’s fair value measurements involve various valuation techniques and models, which involve inputs that are observable, when available. Valuation techniques and parameters used for measuring assets and liabilities are reviewed and validated by the Bancorp on a quarterly basis. Additionally, the Bancorp monitors the fair values of significant assets and liabilities using a variety of methods including the evaluation of pricing runs and exception reports based on certain analytical criteria, comparison to previous trades and overall review and assessments for reasonableness. The level of management judgment necessary to determine fair value varies based upon the methods used in the determination of fair value. Financial instruments that are measured at fair value using quoted prices in active markets (Level 1) require minimal judgment. The valuation of financial instruments when quoted market prices are not available (Levels 2 and 3) may require significant management judgment to assess whether quoted prices for similar instruments exist, the impact of changing market conditions including reducing liquidity in the capital markets and the use of estimates surrounding significant unobservable inputs. Table 6 provides a summary of the fair value of financial instruments carried at fair value on a recurring basis and the amounts of financial instruments valued using Level 3 inputs.

 

 

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TABLE 6: FAIR VALUE SUMMARY

           

 

 
As of ($ in millions)          December 31, 2018                     December 31, 2017              

 

   

 

 

 
           Balance                   Level 3                       Balance                    Level 3               

 

 

Assets carried at fair value

  $          35,792        1,124        34,287        1,003       

As a percent of total assets

       25            24        1       

Liabilities carried at fair value

  $          1,012        133        633        142       

As a percent of total liabilities

                 1        -       

 

 

 

Refer to Note 26 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on fair value measurements including a description of the valuation methodologies used for significant financial instruments.

Goodwill

Business combinations entered into by the Bancorp typically include the acquisition of goodwill. U.S. GAAP requires goodwill to be tested for impairment at the Bancorp’s reporting unit level on an annual basis, which for the Bancorp is September 30, and more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion on the methodology used by the Bancorp to assess goodwill for impairment.

Impairment exists when a reporting unit’s carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. In testing goodwill for impairment, U.S. GAAP permits the Bancorp to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. In this qualitative assessment, the Bancorp evaluates events and circumstances which may include, but are not limited to, the general economic environment, banking industry and market conditions, the overall financial performance of the Bancorp, the performance of the Bancorp’s common stock, the key financial performance metrics of the Bancorp’s reporting units and events affecting the reporting units to determine if it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the two-step impairment test is required or the decision to bypass the qualitative assessment is elected, the Bancorp would be required to perform the first step (Step 1) of the goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any.

The fair value of a reporting unit is the price that would be received to sell the unit as a whole in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As none of the Bancorp’s reporting units are publicly traded, individual reporting unit fair value determinations cannot be directly correlated to the Bancorp’s stock price. The determination of the fair value of a reporting unit is a subjective process that involves the use of estimates and judgments, particularly related to cash flows, the appropriate discount rates and an applicable control premium. The Bancorp employs an income-based approach, utilizing the reporting unit’s forecasted cash flows (including a terminal value approach to estimate cash flows beyond the final year of the forecast) and the reporting unit’s estimated cost of equity as the discount rate. Significant management judgment is necessary in the preparation of each reporting unit’s forecasted cash flows surrounding expectations for earnings projections, growth and credit loss expectations and

actual results may differ from forecasted results. Additionally, the Bancorp determines its market capitalization based on the average of the closing price of the Bancorp’s stock during the month including the measurement date, incorporating an additional control premium, and compares this market-based fair value measurement to the aggregate fair value of the Bancorp’s reporting units in order to corroborate the results of the income approach.

When required to perform Step 2, the Bancorp compares the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount exceeds the implied fair value, an impairment loss equal to that excess amount is recognized. A recognized impairment loss cannot exceed the carrying amount of that goodwill and cannot be reversed in future periods even if the fair value of the reporting unit subsequently recovers.

During Step 2, the Bancorp determines the implied fair value of goodwill for a reporting unit by assigning the fair value of the reporting unit to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit (including any unrecognized intangible assets) as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Significant management judgment is necessary in the identification and valuation of unrecognized intangible assets and the valuation of the reporting unit’s recorded assets and liabilities. The excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the amounts assigned to its assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. This assignment process is only performed for purposes of testing goodwill for impairment. The Bancorp does not adjust the carrying values of recognized assets or liabilities (other than goodwill, if appropriate), nor does it recognize previously unrecognized intangible assets in the Consolidated Financial Statements as a result of this assignment process. Refer to Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the Bancorp’s goodwill.

Legal Contingencies

The Bancorp and its subsidiaries are parties to numerous claims and lawsuits as well as threatened or potential actions or claims concerning matters arising from the conduct of its business activities. The outcome of claims or litigation and the timing of ultimate resolution are inherently difficult to predict and significant judgment may be required in the determination of both the probability of loss and whether the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable. The Bancorp’s estimates are subjective and are based on the status of legal and regulatory proceedings, the merit of the Bancorp’s defenses and consultation with internal and external legal counsel. An accrual for a potential litigation loss is established when information related to the loss contingency indicates both that a loss is probable and that the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Refer to Note 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the Bancorp’s legal proceedings.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

STATEMENTS OF INCOME ANALYSIS

 

Net Interest Income

Net interest income is the interest earned on loans and leases (including yield-related fees), securities and other short-term investments less the interest paid for core deposits (includes transaction deposits and other time deposits) and wholesale funding (includes certificates $100,000 and over, other deposits, federal funds purchased, other short-term borrowings and long-term debt). The net interest margin is calculated by dividing net interest income by average interest-earning assets. Net interest rate spread is the difference between the average yield earned on interest-earning assets and the average rate paid on interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest margin is typically greater than net interest rate spread due to the interest income earned on those assets that are funded by noninterest-bearing liabilities, or free funding, such as demand deposits or shareholders’ equity.

Tables 7 and 8 present the components of net interest income, net interest margin and net interest rate spread for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, as well as the relative impact of changes in the average balance sheet and changes in interest rates on net interest income. Nonaccrual loans and leases and loans and leases held for sale have been included in the average loan and lease balances. Average outstanding securities balances are based on amortized cost with any unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale debt and other securities included in average other assets.

Net interest income on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was $4.2 billion and $3.8 billion for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Net interest income was positively impacted by increases in yields on average loans and leases of 58 bps and yields on average taxable securities of 13 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest income also benefited from an increase in average taxable securities of $1.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. Additionally, net interest income was positively impacted by the decisions of the FOMC to raise the target range of the federal funds rate 25 bps in December 2017, March 2018, June 2018, September 2018 and December 2018. These positive impacts were partially offset by increases in the rates paid on average interest-bearing core deposits and average long-term debt for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The rates paid on average interest-bearing core deposits and average long-term debt increased 33 bps and 32 bps, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period in the prior year.

Net interest rate spread on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was 2.87% during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 2.76% during the year ended December 31, 2017. Yields on average interest-earning assets increased 46 bps, partially offset by a 35 bps increase in rates paid on average interest-bearing liabilities for the

year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net interest margin on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was 3.22% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 3.03% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase for the year ended December 31, 2018 was driven primarily by the previously mentioned increase in the net interest rate spread partially offset by a decrease in average free funding balances. The decrease in average free funding balances was driven by a decrease in average demand deposits of $2.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.

Interest income on an FTE basis from loans and leases (non-GAAP) increased $590 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by the previously mentioned increase in yields on average loans and leases, as well as an increase in the volume of average other consumer loans and average commercial and industrial loans. For more information on the Bancorp’s loan and lease portfolio, refer to the Loans and Leases subsection of the Balance Sheet Analysis section of MD&A. Interest income from investment securities and other short-term investments increased $94 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of the aforementioned increases in average taxable securities and yields on average taxable securities.

Interest expense on core deposits increased $250 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to an increase in the cost of average interest-bearing core deposits to 70 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 37 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in the cost of average interest-bearing core deposits was primarily due to increases in the rates paid on average interest checking deposits and average money market deposits. Refer to the Deposits subsection of the Balance Sheet Analysis section of MD&A for additional information on the Bancorp’s deposits.

Interest expense on wholesale funding increased $102 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the aforementioned increase in the rates paid on average long-term debt coupled with an increase in average long-term debt. Refer to the Borrowings subsection of the Balance Sheet Analysis section of MD&A for additional information on the Bancorp’s borrowings. Average wholesale funding represented 23% and 24% of average interest-bearing liabilities during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. For more information on the Bancorp’s interest rate risk management, including estimated earnings sensitivity to changes in market interest rates, see the Market Risk Management subsection of the Risk Management section of MD&A.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

TABLE 7: CONSOLIDATED AVERAGE BALANCE SHEET AND ANALYSIS OF NET INTEREST INCOME ON AN FTE BASIS

 

 

 
For the years ended December 31    2018     2017     2016  

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
($ in millions)    Average
Balance
    Revenue/
Cost
    

    Average    
    Yield/    

    Rate    

    Average
Balance
    Revenue/
Cost
    

    Average    
    Yield/    

    Rate    

    Average
Balance
    Revenue/
Cost
    

    Average    
    Yield/    

    Rate    

 

 

 

Assets:

                     

Interest-earning assets:

                     

Loans and leases:(a)

                     

Commercial and industrial loans

   $ 42,668       1,826        4.28   $ 41,577       1,514        3.64   $ 43,184       1,413        3.27%  

Commercial mortgage loans

     6,661       298        4.47       6,844       256        3.74       6,899       229        3.32     

Commercial construction loans

     4,793       240        5.01       4,374       179        4.09       3,648       125        3.42     

Commercial leases

     3,795       108        2.84       4,011       82        2.04       3,916       105        2.69     

 

 

Total commercial loans and leases

     57,917       2,472        4.27       56,806       2,031        3.58       57,647       1,872        3.25     

 

 

Residential mortgage loans

     16,150       580        3.59       16,053       566        3.53       15,101       535        3.54     

Home equity

     6,631       326        4.92       7,308       310        4.24       7,998       302        3.78     

Automobile loans

     8,993       304        3.38       9,407       275        2.92       10,708       290        2.71     

Credit card

     2,280       279        12.25       2,141       253        11.84       2,205       214        9.69     

Other consumer loans

     1,905       132        6.94       1,016       68        6.68       661       44        6.56     

 

 

Total consumer loans

     35,959       1,621        4.51       35,925       1,472        4.10       36,673       1,385        3.78     

 

 

Total loans and leases

   $ 93,876       4,093        4.36   $ 92,731       3,503        3.78   $ 94,320       3,257        3.45%  

Securities:

                     

Taxable

     33,487       1,079        3.22       32,106       993        3.09       30,019       950        3.16     

Exempt from income taxes(a)

     66       2        3.37       66       4        5.45       80       3        4.51     

Other short-term investments

     1,476       25        1.68       1,390       15        1.04       1,866       8        0.44     

 

 

Total interest-earning assets

   $ 128,905       5,199        4.03   $ 126,293       4,515        3.57   $ 126,285       4,218        3.34%  

Cash and due from banks

     2,200            2,224            2,303       

Other assets

     12,203            13,236            14,870       

Allowance for loan and lease losses

     (1,125          (1,226          (1,285     

 

 

Total assets

   $ 142,183          $ 140,527          $ 142,173       

 

 

Liabilities and Equity:

                     

Interest-bearing liabilities:

                     

Interest checking deposits

   $ 29,818       252        0.85   $ 26,382       109        0.41   $ 25,143       58        0.23%  

Savings deposits

     13,330       14        0.10       13,958       8        0.06       14,346       7        0.05     

Money market deposits

     21,769       162        0.74       20,231       74        0.37       19,523       53        0.27     

Foreign office deposits

     363       1        0.33       388       1        0.20       497       1        0.16     

Other time deposits

     4,106       59        1.44       3,771       46        1.23       4,010       49        1.24     

 

 

Total interest-bearing core deposits

     69,386       488        0.70       64,730       238        0.37       63,519       168        0.26     

Certificates $100,000 and over

     2,426       41        1.69       2,564       36        1.38       2,735       36        1.30     

Other deposits

     476       9        1.94       277       3        1.05       333       1        0.41     

Federal funds purchased

     1,509       30        1.97       557       6        1.01       506       2        0.39     

Other short-term borrowings

     1,611       29        1.82       3,158       30        0.96       2,845       10        0.36     

Long-term debt

     14,551       446        3.06       13,804       378        2.74       15,394       361        2.35     

 

 

Total interest-bearing liabilities

   $ 89,959       1,043        1.16   $ 85,090       691        0.81   $ 85,332       578        0.68%  

Demand deposits

     32,634            35,093            35,862       

Other liabilities

     3,603            3,897            4,497       

 

 

Total liabilities

   $ 126,196          $ 124,080          $ 125,691       

Total equity

   $ 15,987          $ 16,447          $ 16,482       

 

 

Total liabilities and equity

   $   142,183          $   140,527          $   142,173       

 

 

Net interest income (FTE)(b)

     $   4,156          $   3,824          $ 3,640     

Net interest margin (FTE)(b)

          3.22          3.03          2.88%  

Net interest rate spread (FTE)(b)

          2.87            2.76            2.66     

Interest-bearing liabilities to interest-earning assets

          69.79            67.37            67.57     

 

 
(a)

The FTE adjustments included in the above table were $16, $26 and $25 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

(b)

Net interest income (FTE), net interest margin (FTE) and net interest rate spread (FTE) are non-GAAP measures. For further information, refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of MD&A.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

TABLE 8: CHANGES IN NET INTEREST INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO VOLUME AND YIELD/RATE(a)

 

 

 
For the years ended December 31    2018 Compared to 2017            2017 Compared to 2016  

 

    

 

 

 
($ in millions)        Volume     Yield/Rate          Total                Volume           Yield/Rate      Total          

 

 

Assets:

                 

Interest-earning assets:

                 

Loans and leases:

                 

Commercial and industrial loans

   $ 41       271        312          (54     155        101     

Commercial mortgage loans

     (7     49        42          (2)       29        27     

Commercial construction loans

     18       43        61          27       27        54     

Commercial leases

     (4     30        26          3       (26)        (23)    

 

 

Total commercial loans and leases

     48       393        441          (26)       185        159     

 

 

Residential mortgage loans

     3       11        14          34       (3)        31     

Home equity

     (31     47        16          (27)       35        8     

Automobile loans

     (12     41        29          (37)       22        (15)    

Credit card

     17       9        26          (7)       46        39     

Other consumer loans

     61       3        64          23       1        24     

 

 

Total consumer loans

     38       111        149          (14)       101        87     

 

 

Total loans and leases

   $ 86       504        590          (40)       286        246     

Securities:

                 

Taxable

     44       42        86          64       (21)        43     

Exempt from income taxes

     (1     (1)        (2        -       1        1     

Other short-term investments

     1       9        10          (2)       9        7     

 

 

Total change in interest income

   $ 130       554                  684          22       275                  297     

 

 

Liabilities:

                 

Interest-bearing liabilities:

                 

Interest checking deposits

   $ 15       128        143          4       47        51     

Savings deposits

     -       6        6          (1)       2        1     

Money market deposits

     7       81        88          1       20        21     

Foreign office deposits

     -       -        -          -       -        -     

Other time deposits

     5       8        13          (3)       -        (3)    

 

 

Total interest-bearing core deposits

     27       223        250          1       69        70     

Certificates $100,000 and over

     (2     7        5          (2)       2        -     

Other deposits

     3       3        6          -       2        2     

Federal funds purchased

     15       9        24          1       3        4     

Other short-term borrowings

     (20     19        (1        1       19        20     

Long-term debt

     22       46        68          (39     56        17     

 

 

Total change in interest expense

   $ 45       307        352          (38     151        113     

 

 

Total change in net interest income

   $                 85       247        332          60       124        184     

 

 
(a)

Changes in interest not solely due to volume or yield/rate are allocated in proportion to the absolute dollar amount of change in volume and yield/rate.

 

Provision for Loan and Lease Losses

The Bancorp provides as an expense an amount for probable losses within the loan and lease portfolio that is based on factors previously discussed in the Critical Accounting Policies section of MD&A. The provision is recorded to bring the ALLL to a level deemed appropriate by the Bancorp to cover losses inherent in the portfolio. Actual credit losses on loans and leases are charged against the ALLL. The amount of loans and leases actually removed from the Consolidated Balance Sheets is referred to as a charge-off. Net charge-offs include current period charge-offs less recoveries on previously charged-off loans and leases.

The provision for loan and lease losses was $237 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $261 million for the same period in the prior year. The decrease in provision expense for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the prior year

was primarily due to a decrease in the level of commercial criticized assets combined with overall improved credit quality, partially offset by an increase in outstanding commercial loan balances and an increase in consumer reserve rates for certain products. The ALLL declined $93 million from December 31, 2017 to $1.1 billion at December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2018, the ALLL as a percent of portfolio loans and leases decreased to 1.16%, compared to 1.30% at December 31, 2017.

Refer to the Credit Risk Management subsection of the Risk Management section of MD&A as well as Note 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more detailed information on the provision for loan and lease losses, including an analysis of loan and lease portfolio composition, nonperforming assets, net charge-offs and other factors considered by the Bancorp in assessing the credit quality of the loan and lease portfolio and the ALLL.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Noninterest Income

Noninterest income decreased $434 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The following table presents the components of noninterest income:

 

TABLE 9: COMPONENTS OF NONINTEREST INCOME

             

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018          2017           2016           2015           2014         

 

 

Service charges on deposits

   $ 549       554        558        563        560        

Wealth and asset management revenue

     444       419        404        418        407        

Corporate banking revenue

     438       353        432        384        430        

Card and processing revenue

     329       313        319        302        295        

Mortgage banking net revenue

     212       224        285        348        310        

Other noninterest income

     887       1,357        688        979        450        

Securities (losses) gains, net

     (54     2        10        9        21        

Securities (losses) gains, net - non-qualifying hedges on MSRs

     (15     2        -        -        -        

 

 

Total noninterest income

   $       2,790       3,224        2,696        3,003        2,473        

 

 

 

Service charges on deposits

Service charges on deposits decreased $5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to a decrease of $13 million in commercial deposit fees, partially offset by an increase of $8 million in consumer deposit fees.

Wealth and asset management revenue

Wealth and asset management revenue increased $25 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase from the prior year was primarily due to increases of $16 million and $10 million, respectively, in private client service fees and brokerage fees. These increases were driven by an increase in average assets under management as a result of market performance and increased asset inflows during the year ended December 31, 2018. The Bancorp’s trust and registered investment advisory businesses had approximately $356 billion and $362 billion in total assets under care as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and managed $37 billion in assets for individuals, corporations and not-for-profit organizations as of both December 31, 2018 and 2017.

Corporate banking revenue

Corporate banking revenue increased $85 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31,

2017. The increase from the prior year was primarily driven by increases in lease remarketing fees, institutional sales revenue, syndication fees and contract revenue from commercial customer derivatives of $46 million, $18 million, $13 million and $11 million, respectively. The increase in lease remarketing fees for the year ended December 31, 2018 included the impact of a $52 million impairment charge related to certain operating lease assets that was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2017. These benefits were partially offset by decreases of $7 million and $6 million, respectively, in letter of credit fees and business lending fees from the year ended December 31, 2017.

Card and processing revenue

Card and processing revenue increased $16 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by increases in the number of actively used cards and customer spend volume.

Mortgage banking net revenue

Mortgage banking net revenue decreased $12 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

 

The following table presents the components of mortgage banking net revenue:

 

TABLE 10: COMPONENTS OF MORTGAGE BANKING NET REVENUE

      

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018     2017     2016         

 

 

Origination fees and gains on loan sales

   $ 100       138       186        

Net mortgage servicing revenue:

      

Gross mortgage servicing fees

     216                   206       199        

MSR amortization

     -       -                   (131)       

Net valuation adjustments on MSRs and free-standing derivatives purchased to economically hedge MSRs

               (104     (120     31        

 

 

Net mortgage servicing revenue

     112       86       99        

 

 

Mortgage banking net revenue

   $ 212       224       285        

 

 

 

Origination fees and gains on loan sales decreased $38 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by a decrease in originations and lower margins due to the interest rate environment. Residential mortgage loan originations decreased to $7.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $8.2 billion for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net mortgage servicing revenue increased $26 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to a decrease in net negative valuation adjustments on MSRs of $16 million and an increase in gross mortgage servicing fees of $10 million. Refer to Table 11 for the components of net valuation adjustments on the MSR portfolio and the impact of the non-qualifying hedging strategy.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

TABLE 11: COMPONENTS OF NET VALUATION ADJUSTMENTS ON MSRs    

      

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018         2017         2016        

 

 

Changes in fair value and settlement of free-standing derivatives purchased
to economically hedge the MSR portfolio

   $ (21     2       24        

Changes in fair value:

      

Due to changes in inputs or assumptions

     42       (1     -        

Other changes in fair value

     (125     (121     -        

Recovery of MSR impairment

     -       -       7        

 

 

Net valuation adjustments on MSRs and free-standing derivatives
purchased to economically hedge MSRs

   $           (104     (120     31        

 

 

 

Mortgage rates increased during the year ended December 31, 2018 which caused modeled prepayment speeds to slow. The fair value of the MSR portfolio increased $42 million due to changes to inputs to the valuation model including prepayment speeds and OAS spread assumptions and decreased $125 million due to the passage of time, including the impact of regularly scheduled repayments, paydowns and payoffs for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Mortgage rates decreased during the year ended December 31, 2017 which caused the modeled prepayment speeds to increase, which led to fair value adjustments on servicing rights. The fair value of the MSR portfolio decreased $1 million due to changes to inputs to the valuation model including prepayment speeds and OAS spread assumptions and decreased $121 million due to passage of time, including the impact of regularly scheduled repayments, paydowns and payoffs for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Further detail on the valuation of MSRs can be found in Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The Bancorp maintains a non-qualifying hedging strategy to manage a portion of

the risk associated with changes in the valuation of the MSR portfolio. Refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on the free-standing derivatives used to economically hedge the MSR portfolio.

In addition to the derivative positions used to economically hedge the MSR portfolio, the Bancorp acquires various securities as a component of its non-qualifying hedging strategy. The Bancorp recognized net losses of $15 million during the year ended December 31, 2018, and net gains of $2 million during the year ended December 31, 2017, recorded in securities (losses) gains, net - non-qualifying hedges on MSRs in the Bancorp’s Consolidated Statements of Income.

The Bancorp’s total residential mortgage loans serviced at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $79.2 billion and $76.1 billion, respectively, with $63.2 billion and $60.0 billion, respectively, of residential mortgage loans serviced for others.

 

 

Other noninterest income    

The following table presents the components of other noninterest income:

 

TABLE 12: COMPONENTS OF OTHER NONINTEREST INCOME    

         

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)      2018      2017       2016           

 

 

Gain related to Vantiv, Inc.’s acquisition of Worldpay Group plc.

     $ 414             -       -        

Gain on sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares

       205             1,037       -        

Operating lease income

       84             96       102        

Private equity investment income

       63             36       11        

BOLI income

       56             52       53        

Cardholder fees

       56             54       46        

Consumer loan and lease fees

       23             23       23        

Banking center income

       21             20       20        

Income from the TRA associated with Worldpay, Inc.

       20             44       313        

Insurance income

       20             8       11        

Net gains (losses) on loan sales

       2             (2     10        

Equity method income from interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC

       1             47       66        

Loss on swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares

       (59)            (80     (56)       

Net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment

       (43)            -       (13)       

Valuation adjustments on the warrant associated with Worldpay Holding, LLC

       -             -       64        

Gain on sales of certain retail branches

       -             -       19        

Gain on sale and exercise of the warrant associated with Worldpay Holding, LLC

       -             -       9        

Other, net

       24             22       10        

 

 

Total other noninterest income

     $       887             1,357       688        

 

 

 

Other noninterest income decreased $470 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the gain on sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares recognized in the prior year, a reduction in equity method income from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC, the impact of the net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment and income from the TRA associated with Worldpay, Inc. recognized in the prior year. These reductions were partially offset by the gain related to Vantiv, Inc.’s acquisition of Worldpay Group plc., an increase in private equity investment

income, as well as a decrease in the loss on the swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares.

The Bancorp recognized a $205 million gain on the sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to a $1.0 billion gain on the sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Bancorp also recognized a $414 million gain related to Vantiv, Inc.’s acquisition of Worldpay Group plc. for the year ended December 31, 2018. For more information, refer to Note 18 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Equity method income from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC decreased $46 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to a decrease in the Bancorp’s ownership percentage in Worldpay Holding, LLC from approximately 8.6% as of December 31, 2017 to approximately 3.3% as of December 31, 2018 and the impact of a reduction in Worldpay Holding, LLC’s net income for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the prior year. Income from the TRA associated with Worldpay Inc. was $20 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $44 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment increased $43 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period in the prior year. This increase was driven by the impact of impairment charges of $45 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $7 million during the year ended December 31, 2017. For more

information, refer to Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Private equity investment income increased $27 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to valuation adjustments on certain private equity investments. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Bancorp recognized negative valuation adjustments of $59 million related to the Visa total return swap compared to negative valuation adjustments of $80 million during the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease from the prior period was primarily attributable to the impact of litigation developments during 2017. For additional information on the valuation of the swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares, refer to Note 16, Note 17 and Note 26 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

Noninterest Expense

Noninterest expense increased $146 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to increases in personnel costs (salaries, wages and incentives plus employee benefits) and technology and communications expense, partially offset by a decrease in other

noninterest expense. Additionally, the Bancorp recognized $31 million in merger-related expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

 

The following table presents the components of noninterest expense:

 

TABLE 13: COMPONENTS OF NONINTEREST EXPENSE

                    

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018          2017           2016           2015           2014             

 

 

Salaries, wages and incentives

   $ 1,783        1,633          1,612          1,525          1,449          

Employee benefits

     332        356          339          323          334          

Net occupancy expense

     292        295          299          321          313          

Technology and communications

     285        245          234          224          212          

Card and processing expense

     123        129          132          153          141          

Equipment expense

     123        117          118          124          121          

Other noninterest expense

     990        1,007          1,026          977          1,022          

 

 

Total noninterest expense

   $         3,928        3,782          3,760          3,647          3,592          

 

 

Efficiency ratio on an FTE basis(a)

     56.5      53.7          59.3          55.6          59.2          

 

 
(a)

This is a non-GAAP measure. For further information, refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of MD&A.

 

Personnel costs increased $126 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by increases in base compensation, performance-based compensation and severance costs. The increase in base compensation was primarily due to an increase in the Bancorp’s minimum wage as a result of benefits received from the TCJA and personnel additions associated with strategic investments and

acquisitions. Full-time equivalent employees totaled 17,437 at December 31, 2018 compared to 18,125 at December 31, 2017.

Technology and communications expense increased $40 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven primarily by increased investment in regulatory, compliance and growth initiatives.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following table presents the components of other noninterest expense:

 

TABLE 14: COMPONENTS OF OTHER NONINTEREST EXPENSE

            

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)      2018          2017            2016           

 

 

Marketing

     $ 147        114          104        

FDIC insurance and other taxes

       119        127          126        

Loan and lease

       112        102          110        

Operating lease

       76        87          86        

Professional service fees

       67        83          61        

Losses and adjustments

       61        59          73        

Data processing

       57        58          51        

Travel

       52        46          45        

Postal and courier

       35        42          46        

Recruitment and education

       32        35          37        

Donations

       21        28          23        

Supplies

       13        14          14        

Insurance

       13        12          15        

(Gain) loss on partnership investments

       (4      14          25        

(Benefit from) provision for the reserve for unfunded commitments

       (30      -          23        

Other, net

       219        186          187        

 

 

Total other noninterest expense

     $           990        1,007          1,026        

 

 

 

Other noninterest expense decreased $17 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in the benefit from the reserve for unfunded commitments, gains on partnership investments and decreases in professional service fees and FDIC insurance and other taxes, partially offset by increases in marketing expense and loan and lease expense.

The benefit from the reserve for unfunded commitments increased $30 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to overall improved credit quality. Gains on partnership investments were $4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to losses of $14 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Professional service fees decreased $16 million for the year ended

December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to decreases in legal and consulting fees. FDIC insurance and other taxes decreased $8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the elimination of the FDIC surcharge in the fourth quarter of 2018. Marketing expense increased $33 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to promotional offers during the year ended December 31, 2018. Loan and lease expense increased $10 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by an increase in loan servicing expenses on point-of-sale loans as a result of growth in point-of-sale originations.

 

 

Applicable Income Taxes

Applicable income tax expense for all periods includes the benefit from tax-exempt income, tax-advantaged investments, certain gains on sales of leveraged leases that are exempt from federal taxation and tax credits (and other related tax benefits), partially offset by the effect of proportional amortization of qualifying LIHTC investments and certain nondeductible expenses. The tax credits are associated with the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit program established under Section 42 of the IRC, the New Markets Tax Credit program established under Section 45D of the IRC, the Rehabilitation Investment Tax Credit program established under Section 47 of the IRC and the Qualified Zone Academy Bond program established under Section 1397E of the IRC.

The effective tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were primarily impacted by $189 million and $206 million, respectively, of low-income housing tax credits and other tax benefits and $23 million and $34 million of tax benefits from tax exempt income in 2018 and 2017, respectively and were partially offset by $154 million and $223 million of proportional amortization related to qualifying LIHTC investments. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017 was also impacted by a $253 million benefit from the remeasurement of deferred taxes as a result of the reduction in the federal income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent for years beginning after December 31, 2017. The decrease in the effective tax rate from the year ended December 31, 2016 to the year ended December 31, 2017 was primarily related to the remeasurement of deferred taxes mentioned

above, partially offset by the impact of an increase in income before taxes.

The U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation, the TCJA, on December 22, 2017. The TCJA made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code including, but not limited to, reducing the federal statutory corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. U.S. GAAP requires the Bancorp to recognize the tax effects of changes in tax laws and rates on its deferred taxes in the period in which the law is enacted. As a result, for the year ended December 31, 2017, the Bancorp remeasured its deferred tax assets and liabilities and recognized an income tax benefit of approximately $253 million. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Bancorp was subject to a federal statutory corporate tax rate of 35 percent. For years beginning after December 31, 2017, the Bancorp is subject to a federal statutory corporate tax rate of 21 percent.

For stock-based awards, U.S. GAAP requires that the tax consequences for the difference between the expense recognized for financial reporting and the Bancorp’s actual tax deduction for the stock-based awards be recognized through income tax expense in the interim periods in which they occur. The Bancorp cannot predict its stock price or whether and when its employees will exercise stock-based awards in the future. Based on its stock price at December 31, 2018, the Bancorp estimates that it may be necessary to recognize $6 million of additional income tax benefit over the next twelve months related to the settlement of stock-based awards, primarily in the first half of 2019. However, the amount of income tax expense or benefit recognized upon settlement may vary significantly from expectations based on the Bancorp’s stock price and the number of SARs exercised by employees.

 

 

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The Bancorp’s income before income taxes, applicable income tax expense and effective tax rate are as follows:

 

TABLE 15: APPLICABLE INCOME TAXES              

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018     2017      2016      2015      2014          

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $         2,765                   2,979                    2,208                    2,493                    2,145          

Applicable income tax expense

     572       799        665        814        692          

Effective tax rate

     20.7     26.8        30.1        32.6        32.3          

 

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

BUSINESS SEGMENT REVIEW

 

The Bancorp reports on four business segments: Commercial Banking, Branch Banking, Consumer Lending and Wealth and Asset Management. Additional information on each business segment is included in Note 29 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Results of the Bancorp’s business segments are presented based on its management structure and management accounting practices. The structure and accounting practices are specific to the Bancorp; therefore, the financial results of the Bancorp’s business segments are not necessarily comparable with similar information for other financial institutions. The Bancorp refines its methodologies from time to time as management’s accounting practices and businesses change.

The Bancorp manages interest rate risk centrally at the corporate level. By employing an FTP methodology, the business segments are insulated from most benchmark interest rate volatility, enabling them to focus on serving customers through the origination of loans and acceptance of deposits. The FTP methodology assigns charge and credit rates to classes of assets and liabilities, respectively, based on the estimated amount and timing of cash flows for each transaction. Assigning the FTP rate based on matching the duration of the cash flows allocates interest income and interest expense to each business segment so its resulting net interest income is insulated from future changes in benchmark interest rates. The Bancorp’s FTP methodology also allocates the contribution to net interest income of the asset-generating and deposit-providing businesses on a duration-adjusted basis to better attribute the driver of the performance. As the asset and liability durations are not perfectly matched, the residual impact of the FTP methodology is captured in General Corporate and Other. The charge and credit rates are determined using the FTP rate curve, which is based on an estimate of Fifth Third’s marginal borrowing cost in the wholesale funding markets. The FTP curve is constructed using the U.S. swap curve, brokered CD pricing and unsecured debt pricing.

The Bancorp adjusts the FTP charge and credit rates as dictated by changes in interest rates for various interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities and by the review of behavioral assumptions, such as prepayment rates on interest-earning assets and the estimated durations for indeterminate-lived deposits. Key assumptions, including the credit rates provided for deposit accounts, are reviewed annually. Credit rates for deposit products and charge rates for loan products may be reset more frequently in response to changes in market conditions. The credit rates for several deposit products were reset January 1, 2018 to reflect the current market rates and updated market assumptions. These rates were generally higher than those in place during 2017, thus net interest income for deposit-providing business segments was positively impacted during 2018. FTP charge rates on assets were affected by the prevailing level of interest rates and by the duration and repricing characteristics of the portfolio. As overall market rates increased, the FTP charge increased for asset-generating business segments during 2018.

The Bancorp’s methodology for allocating provision for loan and lease losses expense to the business segments includes charges or benefits associated with changes in criticized commercial loan levels in addition to actual net charge-offs experienced by the loans and leases owned by each business segment. Provision for loan and lease losses expense attributable to loan and lease growth and changes in ALLL factors is captured in General Corporate and Other. The financial results of the business segments include allocations for shared services and headquarters expenses. Additionally, the business segments form synergies by taking advantage of cross-sell opportunities and funding operations by accessing the capital markets as a collective unit.

The results of operations and financial position for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 were adjusted to reflect changes in internal expense allocation methodologies as well as a change in accounting policy for qualifying LIHTC investments.

 

 

The following table summarizes net income (loss) by business segment:

 

TABLE 16: NET INCOME (LOSS) BY BUSINESS SEGMENT

       

 

 

For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)

     2018               2017                2016        

 

 

Income Statement Data

       

Commercial Banking

   $             1,139       827        1,014        

Branch Banking

     702       455        390        

Consumer Lending

     (1     17        50        

Wealth and Asset Management

     97       65        86        

General Corporate and Other

     256       816        3        

 

 

Net income

   $             2,193       2,180        1,543        

 

 

 

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Commercial Banking

Commercial Banking offers credit intermediation, cash management and financial services to large and middle-market businesses and government and professional customers. In addition to the traditional lending and depository offerings, Commercial Banking

products and services include global cash management, foreign exchange and international trade finance, derivatives and capital markets services, asset-based lending, real estate finance, public finance, commercial leasing and syndicated finance.    

 

 

The following table contains selected financial data for the Commercial Banking segment:

 

TABLE 17: COMMERCIAL BANKING

       

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018      2017       2016          

 

 

Income Statement Data

       

Net interest income (FTE)(a)

   $ 1,729       1,678        1,839        

(Benefit from) provision for loan and lease losses

     (26     38        76        

Noninterest income:

       

Corporate banking revenue

     432       348        430        

Service charges on deposits

     273       287        292        

Other noninterest income

     212       203        185        

Noninterest expense:

       

Personnel costs

     344       294        296        

Other noninterest expense

     919       940        932        

 

 

Income before income taxes (FTE)

     1,409       1,244        1,442        

Applicable income tax expense(a)(b)

     270       417        428        

 

 

Net income

   $ 1,139       827        1,014        

 

 

Average Balance Sheet Data

       

Commercial loans and leases, including held for sale

   $       54,748           53,743            54,597        

Demand deposits

     16,560       19,519        20,735        

Interest checking deposits

     12,203       9,080        8,582        

Savings and money market deposits

     4,128       5,337        6,686        

Other time deposits and certificates $100,000 and over

     377       899        1,046        

Foreign office deposits

     362       372        496        

 

 
(a)

Includes FTE adjustments of $16, $26 and $25 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

(b)

Applicable income tax expense for all periods includes the tax benefit from tax-exempt income, tax-advantaged investments and tax credits partially offset by the effect of certain nondeductible expenses. Refer to the Applicable Income Taxes subsection of the Statements of Income Analysis section of MD&A for additional information.

 

Comparison of the year ended 2018 with 2017

Net income was $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to net income of $827 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in net income was driven by increases in noninterest income and net interest income on an FTE basis and a decrease in the provision for loan and lease losses partially offset by an increase in noninterest expense.

Net interest income on an FTE basis increased $51 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by increases in yields on average commercial loans and leases and increases in FTP credits on interest checking deposits. These increases were partially offset by increases in FTP charge rates on loans and leases, increases in the rates paid on core deposits and decreases in FTP credits on demand deposits driven by lower average balances.

Provision for loan and lease losses decreased $64 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by a decrease in commercial criticized asset levels partially offset by an increase in net charge-offs. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases decreased to 18 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 19 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest income increased $79 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by an increase in corporate banking revenue and other noninterest income partially offset by a decrease in service charges on deposits. Corporate banking revenue increased $84 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by increases in lease remarketing fees, institutional sales revenue, syndication fees, contract revenue from commercial customer derivatives and foreign exchange fees partially offset by

decreases in letter of credit fees and business lending fees. The increase in lease remarketing fees for the year ended December 31, 2018 included the impact of $52 million of impairment charges related to certain operating lease assets that were recognized during the year ended December 31, 2017. Other noninterest income increased $9 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in private equity investment income. Service charges on deposits decreased $14 million from the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest expense increased $29 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to an increase in personnel costs partially offset by a decrease in other noninterest expense. Personnel costs increased $50 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increased incentive compensation and base compensation. Other noninterest expense decreased $21 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the impact of gains and losses on partnership investments and decreases in operating lease expense and consulting expense partially offset by an increase in corporate overhead allocations.

Average commercial loans increased $1.0 billion from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in average commercial and industrial loans and average commercial construction loans partially offset by decreases in average commercial leases and average commercial mortgage loans. Average commercial and industrial loans increased $973 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 as a result of an increase in loan originations, a decrease in payoffs and an increase in drawn balances on existing revolving lines of credit. Average commercial construction loans increased $404 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in draw levels on existing commitments.

 

 

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Average commercial leases decreased $218 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of a planned reduction in indirect non-relationship based lease originations. Average commercial mortgage loans decreased $154 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to an increase in paydowns in the fourth quarter of 2017 and lower loan origination activity through the first two quarters of 2018.

Average core deposits decreased $1.1 billion from the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was driven by decreases in average demand deposits of $3.0 billion and average savings and money market deposits of $1.2 billion compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to lower average balances per account. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in average interest checking deposits of $3.1 billion compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to balance migration from demand deposit accounts and an increase in average balances per commercial customer account as well as the acquisition of new commercial customers.

Comparison of the year ended 2017 with 2016

Net income was $827 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net income of $1.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in net income was driven by decreases in net interest income and noninterest income and an increase in noninterest expense partially offset by a decrease in the provision for loan and lease losses.

Net interest income on an FTE basis decreased $161 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by increases in FTP charge rates on loans and leases and increases in the rates paid of core deposits. The decrease in net interest income was partially offset by increases in yields on average commercial loans and leases of 37 bps from the year ended December 31, 2016.

Provision for loan and lease losses decreased $38 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by a decrease in net charge-offs on commercial and industrial loans partially offset by a reduction in the benefit from commercial criticized assets. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases decreased to 19 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 33 bps for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Noninterest income decreased $69 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by a decrease in corporate

banking revenue partially offset by an increase in other noninterest income. Corporate banking revenue decreased $82 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by a decrease in lease remarketing fees of $62 million which included $52 million of impairment charges related to certain operating lease assets for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $20 million during the year ended December 31, 2016. Additionally, corporate banking revenue included a $15 million decrease in foreign exchange fees and a $6 million decrease in letter of credit fees for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. Other noninterest income increased $18 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by an increase in private equity investment income primarily due to gains on the sale of certain private equity investments.

Noninterest expense increased $6 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily as a result of an increase in other noninterest expense driven by increases in corporate overhead allocations partially offset by decreases in losses on partnership investments.

Average commercial loans decreased $854 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to a decrease in average commercial and industrial loans partially offset by an increase in average commercial construction loans. Average commercial and industrial loans decreased $1.7 billion from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily as a result of deliberate exits from certain loans that did not meet the Bancorp’s risk-adjusted profitability targets and softer loan demand. Average commercial construction loans increased $725 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to increases in demand and draw levels on existing commitments.

Average core deposits decreased $2.2 billion from the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily driven by decreases in average savings and money market deposits and average demand deposits which decreased $1.3 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively, from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to lower average balances per account. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in average interest checking deposits of $498 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to the acquisition of new customers.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Branch Banking

Branch Banking provides a full range of deposit and loan products to individuals and small businesses through 1,121 full-service banking centers. Branch Banking offers depository and loan products, such as checking and savings accounts, home equity loans

and lines of credit, credit cards and loans for automobiles and other personal financing needs, as well as products designed to meet the specific needs of small businesses, including cash management services.

 

 

The following table contains selected financial data for the Branch Banking segment:

 

TABLE 18: BRANCH BANKING

        

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018       2017       2016            

 

 

Income Statement Data

        

Net interest income

   $ 2,034        1,782        1,669        

Provision for loan and lease losses

     171        153        138        

Noninterest income:

        

Service charges on deposits

     275        265        265        

Card and processing revenue

     266        251        253        

Wealth and asset management revenue

     150        141        140        

Other noninterest income

     63        99        97        

Noninterest expense:

        

Personnel costs

     536        526        520        

Net occupancy and equipment expense

     225        228        234        

Card and processing expense

     121        127        128        

Other noninterest expense

     846        800        801        

 

 

Income before income taxes

     889        704        603        

Applicable income tax expense

     187        249        213        

 

 

Net income

   $ 702        455        390        

 

 

Average Balance Sheet Data

        

Consumer loans, including held for sale

   $ 13,034            13,008            13,572        

Commercial loans

     1,938        1,918        1,870        

Demand deposits

           14,336        13,895        13,332        

Interest checking deposits

     10,187        10,226        9,659        

Savings and money market deposits

     29,473        27,603        25,974        

Other time deposits and certificates $100,000 and over

     5,348        4,965        5,205        

 

 

 

Comparison of the year ended 2018 with 2017

Net income was $702 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to net income of $455 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was driven by an increase in net interest income partially offset by increases in noninterest expense and the provision for loan and lease losses.

Net interest income increased $252 million from the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to increases in FTP credit rates on core deposits as well as increases in interest income on other consumer loans driven by higher average balances. These benefits were partially offset by increases in FTP charge rates on loans and leases and increases in the rates paid on savings and money market deposits. In addition, the increase in net interest income was partially offset by the impact of a $12 million benefit in the first quarter of 2017 related to a revised estimate of refunds to be offered to certain bankcard customers.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $18 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in net charge-offs on other consumer loans and credit card. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases increased to 114 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 102 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest income decreased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by a decrease in other noninterest income partially offset by increases in card and processing revenue, service charges on deposits and wealth and asset management revenue. Other noninterest income decreased $36 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the impact of impairments on bank premises and equipment. Card and processing revenue increased $15 million from the year

ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by increases in the number of actively used cards and customer spend volume. Service charges on deposits increased $10 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in consumer deposit fees. Wealth and asset management revenue increased $9 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by increases in private client service fees and brokerage fees.

Noninterest expense increased $47 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in other noninterest expense and personnel costs. Other noninterest expense increased $46 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in corporate overhead allocations and loan and lease expense. Personnel costs increased $10 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to higher base compensation driven by an increase in the Bancorp’s minimum wage as a result of benefits received from the TCJA.

Average consumer loans increased $26 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by an increase in average other consumer loans of $1.0 billion primarily due to growth in point-of-sale loan originations. This increase from the year ended December 31, 2017 was partially offset by decreases in average home equity loans of $530 million and average residential mortgage loans of $310 million as payoffs exceeded new loan production.

Average core deposits increased $2.6 billion from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by growth in average savings and money market deposits of $1.9 billion and growth in average demand deposits of $441 million. Average savings and money market deposits increased as a result of promotional rate offers facilitated by the rising-rate environment and growth in the Fifth Third Preferred Banking program.

 

 

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Average demand deposits increased primarily due to an increase in average balances per customer account and the acquisition of new customers driven by increased marketing efforts. Other time deposits and certificates $100,000 and over increased $383 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to shifting customer preferences as a result of the rising-rate environment.

Comparison of the year ended 2017 with 2016

Net income was $455 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net income of $390 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was driven by an increase in net interest income partially offset by an increase in the provision for loan and lease losses.

Net interest income increased $113 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to an increase in FTP credits driven by an increase in average core deposits, an increase in FTP credit rates on core deposits and increases in yields on average consumer and commercial loans. These benefits to net interest income were partially offset by increases in FTP charge rates on loans and leases and increases in the rates paid on core deposits. Additionally, interest income from credit cards included the impact of a $12 million benefit related to a revised estimate of refunds offered to certain bankcard customers in the first quarter of 2017 compared to a $16 million reduction in interest income for the expected refunds in the fourth quarter of 2016.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $15 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 as net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases increased to 102 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 91 bps for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Noninterest income increased $1 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by an increase in other noninterest income partially offset by a decrease in card and processing revenue. Other noninterest income increased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to impairment charges on bank premises and equipment of $7 million recognized during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $32 million recognized during the year ended December 31, 2016 as well as an increase of $8 million in ATM transaction fees from the year ended December 31, 2016. These positive impacts for the year

ended December 31, 2017 were partially offset by the recognition of $19 million of gains on the sales of retail branch operations in the St. Louis and Pittsburgh MSAs during the year ended December 31, 2016, as well as a gain of $11 million on the sale of the agent bankcard loan portfolio during the second quarter of 2016. Card and processing revenue decreased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by higher rewards costs.

Noninterest expense decreased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to decreases in net occupancy and equipment expense and other noninterest expense partially offset by an increase in personnel costs. Net occupancy and equipment expense decreased $6 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to a decrease in rent expense driven by a reduction in the number of full-service banking centers and ATM locations. Other noninterest expense decreased $1 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by a decrease in corporate overhead allocations partially offset by increases in marketing expense and FDIC insurance and other taxes. Personnel costs increased $6 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to an increase in incentive compensation partially offset by a decrease in base compensation.

Average consumer loans decreased $564 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by a decrease in average home equity loans and average residential mortgage loans of $547 million and $236 million, respectively, as payoffs exceeded new loan production. These declines were partially offset by an increase in average other consumer loans of $285 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to growth in point-of-sale loan originations.

Average core deposits increased $2.5 billion from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by growth in average savings and money market deposits of $1.6 billion, growth in average interest checking deposits of $567 million and growth in average demand deposits of $563 million. The growth in average savings and money market deposits, average interest checking deposits and average demand deposits was driven by an increase in average balances per customer account and acquisition of new customers.

 

 

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Consumer Lending

Consumer Lending includes the Bancorp’s residential mortgage, home equity, automobile and other indirect lending activities. Direct lending activities include the origination, retention and servicing of residential mortgage and home equity loans or lines of credit, sales and securitizations of those loans, pools of loans or lines of credit

and all associated hedging activities. Indirect lending activities include extending loans to consumers through correspondent lenders and automobile dealers.

 

 

The following table contains selected financial data for the Consumer Lending segment:

 

TABLE 19: CONSUMER LENDING        

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018     2017      2016        

 

 

Income Statement Data

       

Net interest income

   $ 237       240        248        

Provision for loan and lease losses

     42       40        44        

Noninterest income:

       

Mortgage banking net revenue

     206       217        277        

Other noninterest income

     (1     20        26        

Noninterest expense:

       

Personnel costs

     192       189        195        

Other noninterest expense

     210       222        235        

 

 

(Loss) income before income taxes

     (2     26        77        

Applicable income tax (benefit) expense

     (1     9        27        

 

 

Net (loss) income

   $ (1     17        50        

 

 

Average Balance Sheet Data

       

Residential mortgage loans, including held for sale

   $       11,803               11,494        10,530        

Home equity

     243       293        356        

Automobile loans

     8,676       8,939                10,172        

 

 

 

Comparison of the year ended 2018 with 2017

Consumer Lending incurred a net loss of $1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to net income of $17 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was driven by a decrease in noninterest income partially offset by a decrease in noninterest expense.

Net interest income decreased $3 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by an increase in FTP charge rates on loans and leases partially offset by increases in yields on average automobile loans and average residential mortgage loans.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2017. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases increased to 21 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 20 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest income decreased $32 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by decreases in other noninterest income and mortgage banking net revenue. Other noninterest income decreased $21 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in the loss on securities related to non-qualifying hedges on MSRs resulting from increased interest rates. Mortgage banking net revenue decreased $11 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by a decrease in mortgage origination fees and gains on loan sales partially offset by an increase in net mortgage servicing revenue. Refer to the Noninterest Income subsection of the Statements of Income Analysis section of MD&A for additional information on the fluctuations in mortgage banking net revenue.

Noninterest expense decreased $9 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by a decrease in other noninterest expense partially offset by an increase in personnel costs. Other noninterest expense decreased $12 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to decreases in corporate overhead allocations and operational losses. Personnel costs increased $3 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in base compensation.

Average consumer loans decreased $4 million from the year ended December 31, 2017. Average automobile loans decreased $263 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 as payoffs exceeded new loan production due to a strategic shift focusing on improving risk-adjusted returns. Average home equity decreased $50 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 as the vintage portfolio continues to pay down. Average residential mortgage loans increased $309 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by the continued retention of certain agency conforming ARMs and certain other fixed-rate loans.

Comparison of the year ended 2017 with 2016

Net income was $17 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net income of $50 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was driven by a decrease in noninterest income partially offset by a decrease in noninterest expense.

Net interest income decreased $8 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by an increase in FTP charges on loans and leases partially offset by an increase in yields on average automobile loans.

Provision for loan and lease losses decreased $4 million from the year ended December 31, 2016. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases decreased to 20 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 22 bps for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Noninterest income decreased $66 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven primarily by a decrease in mortgage banking net revenue. Mortgage banking net revenue decreased $60 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by decreases of $48 million and $12 million in mortgage origination fees and gains on loan sales and net mortgage servicing revenue, respectively. Refer to the Noninterest Income subsection of the Statements of Income Analysis section of MD&A for additional information on the fluctuations in mortgage banking net revenue.

 

 

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Noninterest expense decreased $19 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by decreases in other noninterest expense and personnel costs. Other noninterest expense decreased $13 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by a decrease in corporate overhead allocations. Personnel costs decreased $6 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by decreases in incentive and base compensation.

Average consumer loans decreased $332 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 as a decrease in average automobile loans was partially offset by an increase in average residential mortgage loans. Average automobile loans decreased $1.2 billion from the

year ended December 31, 2016 as payoffs exceeded new loan production due to a strategic shift focusing on improving risk-adjusted returns. Average residential mortgage loans, including held for sale, increased $964 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to the continued retention of certain agency conforming ARMs and certain other fixed-rate loans originated during the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

 

Wealth and Asset Management

Wealth and Asset Management provides a full range of investment alternatives for individuals, companies and not-for-profit organizations. Wealth and Asset Management is made up of four main businesses: FTS; Fifth Third Insurance Agency; Fifth Third Private Bank; and Fifth Third Institutional Services. FTS offers full-service retail brokerage services to individual clients and broker-dealer services to the institutional marketplace. Fifth Third

Insurance Agency assists clients with their financial and risk management needs. Fifth Third Private Bank offers holistic strategies to affluent clients in wealth planning, investing, insurance and wealth protection. Fifth Third Institutional Services provides advisory services for institutional clients including states and municipalities.

 

 

The following table contains selected financial data for the Wealth and Asset Management segment:

 

TABLE 20: WEALTH AND ASSET MANAGEMENT                 

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)    2018        2017        2016          

 

 

Income Statement Data

            

Net interest income

   $ 182          154          168          

Provision for loan and lease losses

     12          6          1          

Noninterest income:

            

Wealth and asset management revenue

     429          407          391          

Other noninterest income

     27          12          8          

Noninterest expense:

            

Personnel costs

     202          181          168          

Other noninterest expense

     302          287          264          

 

 

Income before income taxes

     122          99          134          

Applicable income tax expense

     25          34          48          

 

 

Net income

   $ 97          65          86          

 

 

Average Balance Sheet Data

            

Loans and leases, including held for sale

   $         3,421          3,277          3,135          

Core deposits

     9,332          8,782          8,554          

 

 

 

Comparison of the year ended 2018 with 2017

Net income was $97 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to net income of $65 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in net income was driven by increases in noninterest income and net interest income partially offset by increases in noninterest expense and the provision for loan and lease losses.

Net interest income increased $28 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in FTP credit rates on interest checking deposits and savings and money market deposits as well as increases in yields on average loans and leases. These positive impacts were partially offset by increases in the rates paid on interest checking deposits as well as an increase in FTP charge rates on loans and leases.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $6 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by an increase in net charge-offs partially offset by the impact of the benefit of lower commercial criticized assets. Net charge-offs as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases increased to 52 bps for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 11 bps for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest income increased $37 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to increases in wealth and asset management revenue and other noninterest income. Wealth and asset management revenue increased $22 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in private

client service fees and brokerage fees. These increases were driven by an increase in average assets under management as a result of market performance and increased asset production. Other noninterest income increased $15 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to an increase in insurance income as a result of the full year impact of acquisitions from 2017.

Noninterest expense increased $36 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to increases in personnel costs and other noninterest expense. Personnel costs increased $21 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 due to higher base compensation and incentive compensation primarily driven by the aforementioned acquisitions completed during 2017. Other noninterest expense increased $15 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by an increase in corporate overhead allocations.

Average loans and leases increased $144 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 driven by increases in average commercial and industrial loans and average residential mortgage loans due to increases in loan origination activity. These increases were partially offset by a decline in average home equity balances.

Average core deposits increased $550 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in average interest checking deposits and average savings and money market deposits.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Comparison of the year ended 2017 with 2016

Net income was $65 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net income of $86 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in net income was driven by an increase in noninterest expense and a decrease in net interest income partially offset by an increase in noninterest income.

Net interest income decreased $14 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to increases in FTP charge rates on loans and leases as well as increases in the rates paid on interest checking deposits. These negative impacts were partially offset by increases in interest income on loans and leases as a result of increases in yields and average balances. The decrease was also partially offset by an increase in FTP credits on interest checking deposits and savings and money market deposits.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $5 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by an increase in net charge-offs on commercial and industrial loans.

Noninterest income increased $20 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 due to increases in wealth and asset management revenue and other noninterest income. Wealth and asset management revenue increased $16 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to an increase in private client service fees driven by an increase in assets under management as a result of strong market performance and the impact of an acquisition in the second quarter of 2017. Other noninterest income increased $4 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by an increase in insurance income as a result of acquisitions in the first and fourth quarters of 2017.

Noninterest expense increased $36 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 due to increases in other noninterest expense and personnel costs. Other noninterest expense increased $23 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by an increase in corporate overhead allocations. Personnel costs increased $13 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 due to higher base compensation primarily driven by the aforementioned acquisitions completed during 2017 as well as higher incentive compensation.

Average loans and leases increased $142 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by an increase in average residential mortgage loans due to increases in new loan origination activity. This increase was partially offset by a decline in average home equity balances.

Average core deposits increased $228 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to increases in average interest checking deposits and average savings and money market deposits.

General Corporate and Other

General Corporate and Other includes the unallocated portion of the investment securities portfolio, securities gains and losses, certain non-core deposit funding, unassigned equity, unallocated provision for loan and lease losses expense or a benefit from the reduction of the ALLL, the payment of preferred stock dividends and certain support activities and other items not attributed to the business segments.

Comparison of the year ended 2018 with 2017

Net interest income increased $4 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by an increase in the benefit related to the FTP charge rates on loans and leases as well as an increase in interest income on taxable securities. These benefits were partially offset by increases in FTP credit rates on deposits allocated to the business segments and increases in interest expense on long-term debt and federal funds purchased.

Provision for loan and lease losses increased $14 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to the decrease in the allocation of provision expense to the business segments driven by a decrease in commercial criticized assets.

Noninterest income decreased $510 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily driven by the recognition of a $1.0 billion gain on the sale of Vantiv, Inc. (now Worldpay, Inc.) shares during the third quarter of 2017. The decrease was partially offset by the recognition of a $205 million gain on the sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares during the second quarter of 2018 and a $414 million gain related to Vantiv, Inc.’s acquisition of Worldpay Group plc. during the first quarter of 2018. Additionally, equity method earnings from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC decreased $46 million from the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily due to a decrease in the Bancorp’s ownership interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC and the impact of a reduction in Worldpay Holding, LLC net income. Income from the TRA associated with Worldpay, Inc. decreased to $20 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $44 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. These decreases were partially offset by a decrease in the loss on the swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Bancorp recognized negative valuation adjustments of $59 million related to the Visa total return swap compared to negative valuation adjustments of $80 million during the year ended December 31, 2017.

Noninterest expense increased $49 million from the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to increases in personnel expenses, technology and communications expense and marketing expense partially offset by an increase in corporate overhead allocations from General Corporate and Other to the other business segments and an increased benefit from the reserve for unfunded commitments from the year ended December 31, 2017.

Comparison of the year ended 2017 with 2016

Net interest income increased $254 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by an increase in the benefit related to the FTP charges on loans and leases as well as an increase in interest income on taxable securities. These positive impacts were partially offset by increases in FTP credit rates on deposits allocated to the business segments, a decrease in interest income on loans and leases as well as an increase in interest expense on long-term debt.

Provision for loan and lease losses decreased $60 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to a reduction in the benefit for commercial criticized assets allocated to the business segments coupled with an increase in the benefit from the reduction in the ALLL.

Noninterest income increased $643 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily driven by the recognition of a $1.0 billion gain on the sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares during the third quarter of 2017. The increase was partially offset by the impact of a $280 million gain recognized during the third quarter of 2016 from the termination and settlement of gross cash flows from the existing Worldpay, Inc. TRA and the expected obligation to terminate and settle the remaining Worldpay, Inc. TRA cash flows upon the exercise of put or call options. This termination did not impact the TRA payments of $44 million and $33 million recognized in 2017 and 2016, respectively. The year ended December 31, 2016 also included positive valuation adjustments on the stock warrant associated with Worldpay Holding, LLC of $64 million. The stock warrant was not outstanding during 2017 as the Bancorp exercised the remaining warrant in Worldpay Holding, LLC during the fourth quarter of 2016 and recognized a gain of $9 million.

 

 

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The increase in noninterest income from December 31, 2016 was partially offset by negative valuation adjustments related to the Visa total return swap of $80 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared with $56 million for the prior year. Additionally, equity method earnings from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC decreased $19 million from the year ended December 31, 2016. Noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2016 also included a gain of $11 million on the sale-leaseback of an office complex during the third quarter of 2016.

Noninterest expense increased $2 million from the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to increases in personnel costs and technology and communications expense partially offset by a decrease in the provision for the reserve for unfunded commitments and an increase in corporate overhead allocations from General Corporate and Other to the other business segments.

 

 

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FOURTH QUARTER REVIEW

 

The Bancorp’s 2018 fourth quarter net income available to common shareholders was $432 million, or $0.64 per diluted share, compared to net income available to common shareholders of $421 million, or $0.61 per diluted share, for the third quarter of 2018 and net income available to common shareholders of $504 million, or $0.70 per diluted share, for the fourth quarter of 2017.

Net interest income on an FTE basis was $1.1 billion for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $38 million from the third quarter of 2018 and $122 million from the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase from both the previous quarter and fourth quarter of 2017 was reflective of growth in commercial and industrial loans and the securities portfolio balance as well as higher short-term market rates, partially offset by increases in the rates paid on average interest-bearing core deposits and average long-term debt. The increase in net interest income in comparison to the fourth quarter of 2017 was also impacted by a $27 million remeasurement related to the tax treatment of leveraged leases resulting from the TCJA in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Noninterest income was $575 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $12 million compared to the third quarter of 2018 and a decrease of $2 million compared to the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase from the third quarter of 2018 was primarily due to increases in corporate banking revenue and other noninterest income, partially offset by an increase in securities losses, net. The year-over-year decrease was primarily the result of an increase in securities losses, net and decreases in other noninterest income, partially offset by an increase in corporate banking revenue.

Service charges on deposits were $135 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, a decrease of $4 million compared to the previous quarter and $3 million compared to the fourth quarter of 2017. The decreases from both the previous quarter and the fourth quarter of 2017 were primarily driven by a decrease in commercial deposit fees.

Corporate banking revenue was $130 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $30 million compared to the third quarter of 2018 and $53 million compared to the fourth quarter of 2017. The increases from both the previous quarter and the fourth quarter of 2017 were primarily driven by increases in institutional sales revenue and syndication fees. The increase compared to the fourth quarter of 2017 was also impacted by a $25 million lease remarketing impairment in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Mortgage banking net revenue was $54 million for the fourth quarter of 2018 compared to $49 million in the third quarter of 2018 and $54 million in the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase in mortgage banking net revenue compared to the third quarter of 2018 was primarily driven by lower negative net valuation adjustments on MSRs partially offset by lower origination fees and gains on loan sales. Mortgage banking net revenue is affected by net valuation adjustments, which include MSR valuation adjustments caused by fluctuating OAS spreads, earning rates and prepayment speeds, as well as mark-to-market adjustments on free-standing derivatives used to economically hedge the MSR portfolio. Net negative valuation adjustments on MSRs were $24 million and $33 million in the fourth and third quarters of 2018, respectively, and $32 million in the fourth quarter of 2017. Originations for the fourth quarter of 2018 were $1.6 billion, compared with $1.9 billion in both the previous quarter and the fourth quarter of 2017. Originations for the fourth quarter of 2018 resulted in gains of $23 million on mortgages sold, compared with gains of $25 million for the previous quarter and $32 million for the fourth quarter of 2017. Gross mortgage servicing fees were $54 million in the fourth quarter of 2018, $56 million in the third quarter of 2018 and $54 million in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Wealth and asset management revenue was $109 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, a decrease of $5 million from the previous quarter and an increase of $3 million from the fourth quarter of 2017. The decrease from the third quarter of 2018 was primarily driven by lower institutional trust and brokerage fees. The increase compared to the fourth quarter of 2017 was primarily driven by increases in private client service fees and brokerage fees.

Card and processing revenue was $84 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $2 million from the third quarter of 2018 and $4 million from the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase from both the third quarter of 2018 and the fourth quarter of 2017 reflected increased customer credit card spend volume, partially offset by higher rewards.

Other noninterest income was $93 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $7 million compared to the third quarter of 2018 and a decrease of $30 million from the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase from the third quarter of 2018 was primarily due to a benefit from the positive valuation adjustment on the Visa total return swap and revenue recognized from Worldpay, Inc. related to the TRA, partially offset by a decrease in private equity investment income and the impact of the net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment. The decrease in other noninterest income from the fourth quarter of 2017 was primarily due to a decrease in revenues from the TRA associated with Worldpay, Inc., a reduction in equity method income from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC and a decrease in private equity investment income. These reductions were partially offset by an increase in the benefit from the positive valuation adjustment on the Visa total return swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares.

The net losses on investment securities were $32 million for the fourth quarter of 2018 compared to $6 million in the third quarter of 2018 and net gains of $1 million for the fourth quarter of 2017. The increase in losses from both the previous quarter and the fourth quarter of 2017 was primarily related to unrealized losses on equity securities. Net gains on securities held as non-qualifying hedges for MSRs were $2 million for the fourth quarter of 2018 compared to net losses of $1 million for the third quarter of 2018 and $2 million for the fourth quarter of 2017.

Noninterest expense was $977 million for the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of $7 million from the previous quarter and $2 million from the fourth quarter of 2017. The increases in noninterest expense compared to both the previous quarter and the fourth quarter of 2017 were primarily related to increases in technology and communications expense and personnel costs, partially offset by decreases in other noninterest expense. The increase in technology and communications expense was driven primarily by increased investment in regulatory, compliance and growth initiatives. The increase in personnel costs was driven by increases in base and performance-based compensation. The increase in base compensation was primarily due to an increase in the Bancorp’s minimum wage as a result of benefits received from the TCJA and personnel additions associated with strategic investments and acquisitions. The decrease in other noninterest expense from the third quarter of 2018 included a reduction in FDIC insurance and other taxes due to the elimination of the FDIC surcharge, partially offset by an increase in professional service fees. The decrease in other noninterest expense from the fourth quarter of 2017 was primarily due to a reduction in donations expense and the aforementioned decrease in FDIC insurance and other taxes, partially offset by an increase in marketing expense. Additionally, the Bancorp recognized $27 million in merger-related expenses during the fourth quarter of 2018.

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The ALLL as a percentage of portfolio loans and leases was 1.16% as of December 31, 2018, compared to 1.17% as of September 30, 2018 and 1.30% as of December 31, 2017. The provision for loan and lease losses was $95 million in the fourth quarter of 2018 compared with $86 million in the third quarter of 2018 and $67 million in the fourth quarter of 2017. Net losses

charged-off were $83 million in the fourth quarter of 2018, or 35 bps of average portfolio loans and leases on an annualized basis, compared with net losses charged-off of $72 million in the third quarter of 2018 and $76 million in the fourth quarter of 2017.

 

 

TABLE 21: QUARTERLY INFORMATION (unaudited)  

For the three months ended

($ in millions, except per share data)

        12/31/2018           9/30/2018    6/30/2018           3/31/2018  
         Pre-LIHTC
Adjustment
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted  

Net interest income (FTE)(a)(c)

  $      1,085         1,085           1,047         1,047           1,024         1,024           999         999   

Provision for loan and lease losses(c)

       95         95           86         86           33         33           23         23   

Noninterest income(c)

       575         575           563         563           743         743           909         909   

Noninterest expense(b)

       1,013         977           1,008         970           1,037         982           1,046        1,000   

Net income attributable to Bancorp(b)

       451         455           433         436           586         602           704         701   

Net income available to common shareholders(b)

       428         432           418         421           563         579           689         686   

Earnings per share - basic(b)

       0.65         0.65           0.62         0.62           0.81         0.84           0.99         0.98   

Earnings per share - diluted(b)

       0.64         0.64           0.61         0.61           0.80         0.82           0.97         0.96   

    

                                                                                       

For the three months ended

($ in millions, except per share data)

        12/31/2017           9/30/2017    6/30/2017           3/31/2017  
         As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted          As          
Originally    
Reported    
     As Adjusted  

Net interest income (FTE)(a)(c)

  $      963         963           977         977           945         945           939         939   

Provision for loan and lease losses(c)

       67         67           67         67           52         52           74         74   

Noninterest income(c)

       577         577           1,561         1,561           564         564           523         523   

Noninterest expense(b)

       1,073         975           975         936           957         921           986         951   

Net income attributable to Bancorp(b)

       509         527           1,014         992           367         359           305         302   

Net income available to common shareholders(b)

       486         504           999         977           344         336           290         287   

Earnings per share - basic(b)

       0.68         0.71           1.37         1.34           0.46         0.45           0.38         0.38   

Earnings per share - diluted(b)

         0.67         0.70             1.35         1.32             0.45         0.44             0.38         0.37   
(a)

Amounts presented on an FTE basis. The FTE adjustment was $4 for the three months ended December 31, 2018, September 30, 2018 and June 30, 2018 and $3 for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The FTE adjustment was $7 for the both the three months ended December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2017 and $6 for both the three months ended June 30, 2017 and March 31, 2017.

(b)

Effective in the fourth quarter of 2018, Fifth Third retrospectively applied a change in its accounting policy for investments in affordable housing projects that qualify for LIHTC in accordance with ASU 2014-01. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

(c)

Net interest income, provision for loan and lease losses and noninterest income were not impacted as a result of the Bancorp’s change in accounting policy for investments in affordable housing projects that qualify for LIHTC in accordance with ASU 2014-01. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

 

COMPARISON OF THE YEAR ENDED 2017 WITH 2016

The Bancorp’s net income available to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $2.1 billion, or $2.81 per diluted share, which was net of $75 million in preferred stock dividends. The Bancorp’s net income available to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $1.5 billion, or $1.91 per diluted share, which was net of $75 million in preferred stock dividends.

The provision for loan and lease losses decreased to $261 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $343 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to the decrease in the level of commercial criticized assets, which reflected improvement in the national economy and stabilization of commodity prices, and a decrease in outstanding loan balances. Net losses charged-off as a percent of average portfolio loans and leases decreased to 0.32% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 0.39% for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Net interest income on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was $3.8 billion and $3.6 billion for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Net interest income was positively impacted by an increase in yields on average loans and leases, an increase in average taxable securities and a decrease in average long-term debt for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. Additionally, net interest income was positively

impacted by the decisions of the FOMC to raise the target range of the federal funds rate 25 bps in December 2016, March 2017, June 2017 and December 2017. These positive impacts were partially offset by a decrease in average loans and leases and increases in the rates paid on average other short-term borrowings, average long-term debt and average interest-bearing core deposits for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest margin on an FTE basis (non-GAAP) was 3.03% and 2.88% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Noninterest income increased $528 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to an increase in other noninterest income, partially offset by decreases in corporate banking revenue and mortgage banking net revenue. Other noninterest income increased $669 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to the gain on sale of Worldpay, Inc. shares, an increase in private equity investment income and the impact of the net losses on disposition and impairment of bank premises and equipment for the year ended December 31, 2016. These benefits were partially offset by the impact of certain transactions that occurred during the year ended December 31, 2016 which included the impact of income from the TRA transactions associated with Worldpay, Inc., positive valuation adjustments and the gain on sale of the warrant associated with Worldpay Holding, LLC and gains on the sales of certain retail branch operations.

 

 

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The year ended December 31, 2017 also included an increase in the loss on the swap associated with the sale of Visa, Inc. Class B Shares and a reduction in equity method income from the Bancorp’s interest in Worldpay Holding, LLC. Corporate banking revenue decreased $79 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to decreases in lease remarketing fees, foreign exchange fees and letter of credit fees. Mortgage banking net revenue decreased $61 million from the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to a decrease in origination fees and gains on loan sales.

Noninterest expense increased $22 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to increases in personnel costs and technology and communications expense, partially offset by a decrease in other noninterest expense. Personnel costs increased $38 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 driven by increases in base compensation,

medical and FICA expenses and long-term incentive compensation, partially offset by a decrease in severance costs related to the Bancorp’s voluntary early retirement program in 2016. The increase in personnel costs also included the impact of one-time employee bonuses that the Bancorp paid as a result of benefits received from the TCJA. Technology and communication expense increased $11 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to increased investment in regulatory, compliance and growth initiatives. Other noninterest expense decreased $19 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily due to decreases in the provision for the reserve for unfunded commitments, losses and adjustments and losses on partnership investments, partially offset by increases in professional service fees and marketing expense.

 

 

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BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS

 

Loans and Leases

The Bancorp classifies its commercial loans and leases based upon primary purpose and consumer loans based upon product or collateral. Table 22 summarizes end of period loans and leases,

including loans and leases held for sale and Table 23 summarizes average total loans and leases, including loans and leases held for sale.

 

 

TABLE 22: COMPONENTS OF LOANS AND LEASES (INCLUDING LOANS AND LEASES HELD FOR SALE)  

 

 
As of December 31 ($ in millions)        2018      2017      2016      2015      2014      

 

 

Commercial loans and leases:

              

Commercial and industrial loans

   $ 44,407            41,170            41,736            42,151            40,801      

Commercial mortgage loans

     6,977        6,610        6,904        6,991        7,410      

Commercial construction loans

     4,657        4,553        3,903        3,214        2,071      

Commercial leases

     3,600        4,068        3,974        3,854        3,721      

 

 

Total commercial loans and leases

     59,641        56,401        56,517        56,210        54,003      

 

 

Consumer loans:

              

Residential mortgage loans

     16,041        16,077        15,737        14,424        13,582      

Home equity

     6,402        7,014        7,695        8,336        8,886      

Automobile loans

     8,976        9,112        9,983        11,497        12,037      

Credit card

     2,470        2,299        2,237        2,360        2,401      

Other consumer loans

     2,342        1,559        680        658        436      

 

 

Total consumer loans

     36,231        36,061        36,332        37,275        37,342      

 

 

Total loans and leases

   $         95,872        92,462        92,849        93,485        91,345      

 

 

Total portfolio loans and leases (excluding loans and leases held for sale)

   $ 95,265        91,970        92,098        92,582        90,084      

 

 

 

Total loans and leases increased $3.4 billion from December 31, 2017. The increase from December 31, 2017 was the result of a $3.2 billion, or 6%, increase in commercial loans and leases as well as a $170 million increase in consumer loans.

Commercial loans and leases increased from December 31, 2017 due to increases in commercial and industrial loans, commercial mortgage loans and commercial construction loans, partially offset by a decrease in commercial leases. Commercial and industrial loans increased $3.2 billion, or 8%, from December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of an increase in loan originations, a decrease in payoffs and an increase in drawn balances on existing revolving lines of credit during the year ended December 31, 2018. Commercial mortgage loans increased $367 million, or 6% from December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in loan originations and increases in permanent financing from the Bancorp’s commercial construction loan portfolio. Commercial construction loans increased $104 million, or 2%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in draw levels on existing commitments.

Commercial leases decreased $468 million, or 12%, from December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of a planned reduction in indirect non-relationship based lease originations.

Consumer loans and leases increased from December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in other consumer loans and credit card, partially offset by a decrease in home equity and automobile loans. Other consumer loans increased $783 million, or 50%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to growth in point-of-sale loan originations. Credit card increased $171 million, or 7%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in balance active customers and an increase in card usage resulting in an increase in the average balance per active customer. Home equity decreased $612 million, or 9%, from December 31, 2017 as payoffs exceeded new loan production. Automobile loans decreased $136 million, or 1%, from December 31, 2017 as payoffs exceeded new loan production due to a strategic shift focusing on improving risk-adjusted returns.

 

 

TABLE 23: COMPONENTS OF AVERAGE LOANS AND LEASES (INCLUDING LOANS AND LEASES HELD FOR SALE)  

 

 
For the years ended December 31 ($ in millions)        2018      2017      2016      2015      2014      

 

 

Commercial loans and leases:

              

Commercial and industrial loans

   $ 42,668            41,577            43,184            42,594            41,178      

Commercial mortgage loans

     6,661        6,844        6,899        7,121        7,745      

Commercial construction loans

     4,793        4,374        3,648        2,717        1,492      

Commercial leases

     3,795        4,011        3,916        3,796        3,585      

 

 

Total commercial loans and leases

     57,917        56,806        57,647        56,228        54,000      

 

 

Consumer loans:

              

Residential mortgage loans

     16,150        16,053        15,101        13,798        13,344      

Home equity

     6,631        7,308        7,998        8,592        9,059      

Automobile loans

     8,993        9,407        10,708        11,847        12,068      

Credit card

     2,280        2,141        2,205        2,303        2,271      

Other consumer loans

     1,905        1,016        661        571        385      

 

 

Total consumer loans

     35,959        35,925        36,673        37,111        37,127      

 

 

Total average loans and leases

   $         93,876        92,731        94,320        93,339        91,127      

 

 

Total average portfolio loans and leases (excluding loans and leases held for sale)

   $ 93,216        92,068        93,426        92,423        90,485      

 

 

 

Total average loans and leases increased $1.1 billion, or 1%, from December 31, 2017 as a result of a $1.1 billion, or 2%, increase in average commercial loans and leases and a $34 million increase in average consumer loans.

Average commercial loans and leases increased from December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in average commercial and industrial loans and average commercial construction loans, partially offset by decreases in average commercial leases and average commercial mortgage loans.

 

 

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Average commercial and industrial loans increased $1.1 billion, or 3%, from December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of an increase in loan originations, a decrease in payoffs and an increase in drawn balances on existing revolving lines of credit. Average commercial construction loans increased $419 million, or 10%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in draw levels on existing commitments. Average commercial leases decreased $216 million, or 5%, from December 31, 2017 primarily as a result of a planned reduction in indirect non-relationship based lease originations. Average commercial mortgage loans decreased $183 million, or 3%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in paydowns in the fourth quarter of 2017 and lower loan origination activity through the first two quarters of 2018.

Average consumer loans increased from December 31, 2017 primarily due to increases in other consumer loans, credit card and residential mortgage loans, partially offset by decreases in home

equity and automobile loans. Average other consumer loans increased $889 million, or 88%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to growth in point-of-sale loan originations. Average credit card increased $139 million, or 6%, from December 31, 2017 primarily due to an increase in balance active customers and an increase in card usage resulting in an increase in the average balance per active customer. Average residential mortgage loans increased $97 million, or 1%, from December 31, 2017 primarily driven by the continued retention of certain agency conforming ARMs and certain other fixed-rate loans. Average home equity decreased $677 million, or 9%, from December 31, 2017 as payoffs exceeded new loan production. Average automobile loans decreased $414 million, or 4%, from December 31, 2017 as payoffs exceeded new loan production due to a strategic shift focusing on improving risk-adjusted returns.

 

 

Investment Securities

The Bancorp uses investment securities as a means of managing interest rate risk, providing collateral for pledging purposes and for liquidity to satisfy regulatory requirements. Total investment securities were $33.6 billion and $32.7 billion at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The taxable available-for-sale debt and other investment securities portfolio had an effective duration of 5.0 years at December 31, 2018 compared to 4.7 years at December 31, 2017.

Debt securities are classified as available-for-sale when, in management’s judgment, they may be sold in response to, or in anticipation of, changes in market conditions. Securities that management has the intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity and reported at amortized cost. Debt securities are classified as trading when bought and held principally

for the purpose of selling them in the near term. At December 31, 2018, the Bancorp’s investment portfolio consisted primarily of AAA-rated available-for-sale debt and other securities. The Bancorp held an immaterial amount in below-investment grade available-for-sale debt and other securities at both December 31, 2018 and 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2018 the Bancorp did not recognize any OTTI on its available-for-sale debt and other securities. For the year ended December 31, 2017 the Bancorp recognized $54 million of OTTI on its available-for-sale debt and other securities, included in securities (losses) gains, net, in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the Bancorp’s methodology for both classifying investment securities and evaluating securities in an unrealized loss position for OTTI.

 

 

The following table summarizes the end of period components of investment securities:

 

TABLE 24: COMPONENTS OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES

 

 

 
As of December 31 ($ in millions)    2018          2017          2016          2015          2014          

 

 

Available-for-sale debt and other securities (amortized cost basis):

              

  U.S. Treasury and federal agencies securities

   $ 98        98        547        1,155        1,545      

  Obligations of states and political subdivisions securities

     2        43        44        50        185      

  Mortgage-backed securities:

              

    Agency residential mortgage-backed securities(a)

     16,403        15,281        15,525        14,811        11,968      

    Agency commercial mortgage-backed securities

     10,770        10,113        9,029        7,795        4,465      

    Non-agency commercial mortgage-backed securities

     3,305        3,247        3,076        2,801        1,489      

  Asset-backed securities and other debt securities

     1,998        2,183        2,106        1,363        1,324      

  Other securities(b)

     552        612        607        604        600      

 

 

Total available-for-sale debt and other securities

   $         33,128                31,577                30,934                28,579                21,576      

 

 

Held-to-maturity securities (amortized cost basis):