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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 25, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             .
Commission File Number: 001-36743
aapl-20210925_g1.jpg
Apple Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
California94-2404110
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Apple Park Way
Cupertino, California
95014
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(408) 996-1010
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share
AAPL
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.000% Notes due 2022
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.375% Notes due 2024
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.000% Notes due 2025
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.875% Notes due 2025
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.625% Notes due 2026
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
2.000% Notes due 2027
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.375% Notes due 2029
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
3.050% Notes due 2029
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.500% Notes due 2031
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
3.600% Notes due 2042
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes       No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes       No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, as of March 26, 2021, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $2,021,360,000,000. Solely for purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by executive officers and directors of the Registrant as of such date have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officers and directors as affiliates is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purposes.
16,406,397,000 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding as of October 15, 2021.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2022 annual meeting of shareholders (the “2022 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2022 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.



Apple Inc.

Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 25, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page



This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks and uncertainties. Many of the forward-looking statements are located in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical or current fact. For example, statements in this Form 10-K regarding the potential future impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business and results of operations are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by words such as “future,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” and similar terms. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and the Company’s actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors.” The Company assumes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.
Unless otherwise stated, all information presented herein is based on the Company’s fiscal calendar, and references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in September and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company” and “Apple” as used herein refers collectively to Apple Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.
PART I
Item 1.    Business
Company Background
The Company designs, manufactures and markets smartphones, personal computers, tablets, wearables and accessories, and sells a variety of related services. The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September.
Products
iPhone
iPhone® is the Company’s line of smartphones based on its iOS operating system. In October and November 2020, the Company released iPhone 12, iPhone 12 mini, iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max, all with 5G technology. In September 2021, the Company released iPhone 13, iPhone 13 mini, iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max.
Mac
Mac® is the Company’s line of personal computers based on its macOS® operating system. In November 2020, the Company released new versions of MacBook Air®, 13-inch MacBook Pro® and Mac mini®, and in May 2021, the Company released a redesigned iMac®, all powered by the Apple M1 chip. In October 2021, the Company released a redesigned MacBook Pro, available in 14- and 16-inch models and powered by the Apple M1 Pro or M1 Max chip.
iPad
iPad® is the Company’s line of multipurpose tablets based on its iPadOS® operating system. In October 2020, the Company released a new iPad Air®, and in April 2021, the Company released a new iPad Pro® powered by the Apple M1 chip. In September 2021, the Company released an updated iPad and a new iPad mini®.
Wearables, Home and Accessories
Wearables, Home and Accessories includes AirPods®, Apple TV®, Apple Watch®, Beats® products, HomePod®, iPod touch® and accessories. AirPods are the Company’s wireless headphones that interact with Siri®. In December 2020, the Company released AirPods Max™, new over-ear wireless headphones, and in October 2021, the Company released the third generation of AirPods. Apple Watch is the Company’s line of smart watches based on its watchOS® operating system. In September 2021, the Company announced Apple Watch Series 7, which was available starting in October 2021.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 1


Services
Advertising
The Company’s advertising services include various third-party licensing arrangements and the Company’s own advertising platforms.
AppleCare
The Company offers a portfolio of fee-based service and support products under the AppleCare® brand. The offerings provide priority access to Apple technical support, access to the global Apple authorized service network for repair and replacement services, and in many cases additional coverage for instances of accidental damage and/or theft and loss, depending on the country and type of product.
Cloud Services
The Company’s cloud services store and keep customers’ content up-to-date and available across multiple Apple devices and Windows personal computers.
Digital Content
The Company operates various platforms, including the App Store®, that allow customers to discover and download applications and digital content, such as books, music, video, games and podcasts.
The Company also offers digital content through subscription-based services, including Apple Arcade®, a game subscription service; Apple Music®, which offers users a curated listening experience with on-demand radio stations; Apple News+®, a subscription news and magazine service; and Apple TV+SM, which offers exclusive original content. During 2021, the Company released Apple Fitness+SM, a personalized fitness service.
Payment Services
The Company offers payment services, including Apple Card®, a co-branded credit card, and Apple Pay®, a cashless payment service.
Markets and Distribution
The Company’s customers are primarily in the consumer, small and mid-sized business, education, enterprise and government markets. The Company sells its products and resells third-party products in most of its major markets directly to consumers, small and mid-sized businesses, and education, enterprise and government customers through its retail and online stores and its direct sales force. The Company also employs a variety of indirect distribution channels, such as third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. During 2021, the Company’s net sales through its direct and indirect distribution channels accounted for 36% and 64%, respectively, of total net sales.
Competition
The markets for the Company’s products and services are highly competitive, and are characterized by aggressive price competition and resulting downward pressure on gross margins, frequent introduction of new products and services, short product life cycles, evolving industry standards, continual improvement in product price and performance characteristics, rapid adoption of technological advancements by competitors, and price sensitivity on the part of consumers and businesses. Many of the Company’s competitors seek to compete primarily through aggressive pricing and very low cost structures, and by imitating the Company’s products and infringing on its intellectual property.
The Company’s ability to compete successfully depends heavily on ensuring the continuing and timely introduction of innovative new products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company designs and develops nearly the entire solution for its products, including the hardware, operating system, numerous software applications and related services. Principal competitive factors important to the Company include price, product and service features (including security features), relative price and performance, product and service quality and reliability, design innovation, a strong third-party software and accessories ecosystem, marketing and distribution capability, service and support, and corporate reputation.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 2


The Company is focused on expanding its market opportunities related to smartphones, personal computers, tablets, wearables and accessories, and services. The Company faces substantial competition in these markets from companies that have significant technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, as well as established hardware, software, and service offerings with large customer bases. In addition, some of the Company’s competitors have broader product lines, lower-priced products and a larger installed base of active devices. Competition has been particularly intense as competitors have aggressively cut prices and lowered product margins. Certain competitors have the resources, experience or cost structures to provide products at little or no profit or even at a loss. The Company’s services compete with business models that provide content to users for free and use illegitimate means to obtain third-party digital content and applications. The Company faces significant competition as competitors imitate the Company’s product features and applications within their products, or collaborate to offer integrated solutions that are more competitive than those they currently offer.
Supply of Components
Although most components essential to the Company’s business are generally available from multiple sources, certain components are currently obtained from single or limited sources. The Company also competes for various components with other participants in the markets for smartphones, personal computers, tablets, wearables and accessories. Therefore, many components used by the Company, including those that are available from multiple sources, are at times subject to industry-wide shortage and significant commodity pricing fluctuations.
The Company uses some custom components that are not commonly used by its competitors, and new products introduced by the Company often utilize custom components available from only one source. When a component or product uses new technologies, initial capacity constraints may exist until the suppliers’ yields have matured or their manufacturing capacities have increased. The continued availability of these components at acceptable prices, or at all, may be affected if suppliers decide to concentrate on the production of common components instead of components customized to meet the Company’s requirements.
The Company has entered into agreements for the supply of many components; however, there can be no guarantee that the Company will be able to extend or renew these agreements on similar terms, or at all.
Substantially all of the Company’s hardware products are manufactured by outsourcing partners that are located primarily in Asia, with some Mac computers manufactured in the U.S. and Ireland.
Research and Development
Because the industries in which the Company competes are characterized by rapid technological advances, the Company’s ability to compete successfully depends heavily upon its ability to ensure a continual and timely flow of competitive products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company continues to develop new technologies to enhance existing products and services, and to expand the range of its offerings through research and development (“R&D”), licensing of intellectual property and acquisition of third-party businesses and technology.
Intellectual Property
The Company currently holds a broad collection of intellectual property rights relating to certain aspects of its hardware devices, accessories, software and services. This includes patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, trade dress and other forms of intellectual property rights in the U.S. and various foreign countries. Although the Company believes the ownership of such intellectual property rights is an important factor in its business and that its success does depend in part on such ownership, the Company relies primarily on the innovative skills, technical competence and marketing abilities of its personnel.
The Company regularly files patent applications to protect innovations arising from its research, development and design, and is currently pursuing thousands of patent applications around the world. Over time, the Company has accumulated a large portfolio of issued patents, including utility patents, design patents and others. The Company also holds copyrights relating to certain aspects of its products and services. No single intellectual property right is solely responsible for protecting the Company’s products. The Company believes the duration of its intellectual property rights is adequate relative to the expected lives of its products.
In addition to Company-owned intellectual property, many of the Company’s products and services are designed to include intellectual property owned by third parties. It may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of the Company’s products, processes and services. While the Company has generally been able to obtain such licenses on commercially reasonable terms in the past, there is no guarantee that such licenses could be obtained in the future on reasonable terms or at all.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 3


Business Seasonality and Product Introductions
The Company has historically experienced higher net sales in its first quarter compared to other quarters in its fiscal year due in part to seasonal holiday demand. Additionally, new product and service introductions can significantly impact net sales, cost of sales and operating expenses. The timing of product introductions can also impact the Company’s net sales to its indirect distribution channels as these channels are filled with new inventory following a product launch, and channel inventory of an older product often declines as the launch of a newer product approaches. Net sales can also be affected when consumers and distributors anticipate a product introduction.
Human Capital
The Company believes it has a talented, motivated, and dedicated team, and is committed to supporting the development of all of its team members and to continuously building on its strong culture. As of September 25, 2021, the Company had approximately 154,000 full-time equivalent employees.
Workplace Practices and Policies
The Company is committed to providing a workplace free of harassment or discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, veteran status, caste or other legally protected characteristic. The Company is an equal opportunity employer committed to inclusion and diversity.
Compensation and Benefits
The Company believes that compensation should not only be competitive; it should be equitable and should enable employees to share in the Company’s success as shareholders of the Company. The Company recognizes its people are most likely to thrive when they have the resources to meet their needs and the time and support to succeed in their professional and personal lives. In support of this, the Company offers a wide variety of benefits to employees around the world.
Growth and Development
The Company invests in tools and resources that support employees’ individual growth and development. The Company also provides classes and seminars to foster understanding and critical thinking about the Company’s culture, organization and values.
Inclusion and Diversity
The Company is committed to hiring inclusively, providing training and development opportunities, fostering an inclusive culture, and ensuring equitable pay for employees, and is continuing to focus on increasing diverse representation at every level of the Company.
The Company has initiatives in place to implement its commitment to increase diverse representation, including creating diverse interview panels and candidate slates, focusing on robust diversity recruiting efforts, and expanding diversity outreach efforts through organizations that serve and engage talent from underrepresented communities. The Company also offers team members access to ongoing inclusion and diversity education, and support throughout their career journey and helps them find community and connection through employee groups that create spaces for belonging, learning, and growing inclusivity, diversity and equity efforts.
Engagement
The Company believes that open and honest communication among team members, managers and leadership fosters an open, collaborative work environment where everyone can participate, develop and thrive. Team members are encouraged to come to their managers with questions, feedback or concerns, and the Company regularly conducts surveys that gauge employee sentiment in areas like career development, manager performance and inclusivity.
Health and Safety
The Company is committed to protecting its employees everywhere it operates. The Company identifies potential risks associated with workplace activities in order to develop measures to mitigate possible hazards. The Company supports employees with general safety training and puts specific programs in place for those working in potentially high-hazard environments, including chemical management, laser safety, equipment and machinery safety, hazardous materials management and electrical safety. The Company has taken additional measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, including providing information resources, testing, face masks and personal protective equipment, and case support. The Company also offers special sick leave for employees with possible COVID-19 symptoms, as well as comprehensive health coverage.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 4


Available Information
The Company’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Such reports and other information filed by the Company with the SEC are available free of charge at investor.apple.com/investor-relations/sec-filings/default.aspx when such reports are available on the SEC’s website. The Company periodically provides other information for investors on its corporate website, www.apple.com, and its investor relations website, investor.apple.com. This includes press releases and other information about financial performance, information on environmental, social and corporate governance and details related to the Company’s annual meeting of shareholders. The information contained on the websites referenced in this Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this filing. Further, the Company’s references to website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 5


Item 1A.    Risk Factors
The Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition, as well as the price of the Company’s stock, can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including those described below. When any one or more of these risks materialize from time to time, the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition, as well as the price of the Company’s stock, can be materially and adversely affected.
Because of the following factors, as well as other factors affecting the Company’s results of operations and financial condition, past financial performance should not be considered to be a reliable indicator of future performance, and investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods. This discussion of risk factors contains forward-looking statements.
This section should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K.
Risks Related to COVID-19
The Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as the price of the Company’s stock, have been adversely affected and could in the future be materially adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 has had, and continues to have, a significant impact around the world, prompting governments and businesses to take unprecedented measures in response. Such measures have included restrictions on travel and business operations, temporary closures of businesses, and quarantine and shelter-in-place orders. The COVID-19 pandemic has at times significantly curtailed global economic activity and caused significant volatility and disruption in global financial markets.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken by many countries in response have adversely affected and could in the future materially adversely impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as the price of the Company’s stock. During the course of the pandemic, certain of the Company’s component suppliers and manufacturing and logistical service providers have experienced disruptions, resulting in supply shortages that affected sales worldwide, and similar disruptions could occur in the future. The Company’s retail stores, as well as channel partner points of sale, have been temporarily closed at various times. In many cases, as stores and points of sale have reopened, they are subject to operating restrictions to protect public health and the health and safety of employees and customers. The Company has at times required substantially all of its employees to work remotely.
The Company continues to monitor the situation and take appropriate actions in accordance with the recommendations and requirements of relevant authorities. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the Company’s operational and financial performance remains uncertain and will depend on many factors outside the Company’s control, including the timing, extent, trajectory and duration of the pandemic, the emergence of new variants, the development, availability, distribution and effectiveness of vaccines and treatments, the imposition of protective public safety measures, and the impact of the pandemic on the global economy and demand for consumer products. Additional future impacts on the Company may include, but are not limited to, material adverse effects on demand for the Company’s products and services, the Company’s supply chain and sales and distribution channels, the Company’s ability to execute its strategic plans, and the Company’s profitability and cost structure.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Macroeconomic and Industry Risks
The Company’s operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions and adverse economic conditions can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company has international operations with sales outside the U.S. representing a majority of the Company’s total net sales. In addition, the Company’s global supply chain is large and complex and a majority of the Company’s supplier facilities, including manufacturing and assembly sites, are located outside the U.S. As a result, the Company’s operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions.
Adverse macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, slower growth or recession, new or increased tariffs and other barriers to trade, changes to fiscal and monetary policy, tighter credit, higher interest rates, high unemployment and currency fluctuations can materially adversely affect demand for the Company’s products and services. In addition, consumer confidence and spending can be adversely affected in response to financial market volatility, negative financial news, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, declines in income or asset values, changes to fuel and other energy costs, labor and healthcare costs and other economic factors.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 6


In addition to an adverse impact on demand for the Company’s products, uncertainty about, or a decline in, global or regional economic conditions can have a significant impact on the Company’s suppliers, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, distributors, cellular network carriers and other channel partners. Potential effects include financial instability; inability to obtain credit to finance operations and purchases of the Company’s products; and insolvency.
A downturn in the economic environment can also lead to increased credit and collectibility risk on the Company’s trade receivables; the failure of derivative counterparties and other financial institutions; limitations on the Company’s ability to issue new debt; reduced liquidity; and declines in the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments. These and other economic factors can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s business can be impacted by political events, trade and other international disputes, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues, industrial accidents and other business interruptions.
Political events, trade and other international disputes, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues, industrial accidents and other business interruptions can harm or disrupt international commerce and the global economy, and could have a material adverse effect on the Company and its customers, suppliers, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, distributors, cellular network carriers and other channel partners.
The Company has a large, global business, and the Company believes that it generally benefits from growth in international trade. Trade and other international disputes can result in tariffs, sanctions, and other measures that restrict international trade and can adversely affect the Company’s business. For example, tensions between the U.S. and China have led to a series of tariffs being imposed by the U.S. on imports from China mainland, as well as other business restrictions. Tariffs increase the cost of the Company’s products and the components and raw materials that go into making them. These increased costs adversely impact the gross margin that the Company earns on its products. Tariffs can also make the Company’s products more expensive for customers, which could make the Company’s products less competitive and reduce consumer demand. Countries may also adopt other measures, such as controls on imports or exports of goods, technology or data, that could adversely impact the Company’s operations and supply chain and limit the Company’s ability to offer its products and services as designed. These measures can require the Company to take various actions, including changing suppliers, restructuring business relationships, and ceasing to offer third-party applications on its platforms. Changing the Company’s operations in accordance with new or changed trade restrictions can be expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to the Company’s operations and distracting to management. Such restrictions can be announced with little or no advance notice and the Company may not be able to effectively mitigate all adverse impacts from such measures. Political uncertainty surrounding trade and other international disputes could also have a negative effect on consumer confidence and spending, which could adversely affect the Company’s business.
Many of the Company’s operations and facilities, as well as critical business operations of the Company’s suppliers and contract manufacturers, are in locations that are prone to earthquakes and other natural disasters. In addition, such operations and facilities are subject to the risk of interruption by fire, power shortages, nuclear power plant accidents and other industrial accidents, terrorist attacks and other hostile acts, ransomware and other cybersecurity attacks, labor disputes, public health issues, including pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and other events beyond the Company’s control. Global climate change is resulting in certain types of natural disasters occurring more frequently or with more intense effects. Such events can make it difficult or impossible for the Company to manufacture and deliver products to its customers, create delays and inefficiencies in the Company’s supply and manufacturing chain, and result in slowdowns and outages to the Company’s service offerings. Following an interruption to its business, the Company can require substantial recovery time, experience significant expenditures to resume operations, and lose significant sales. Because the Company relies on single or limited sources for the supply and manufacture of many critical components, a business interruption affecting such sources would exacerbate any negative consequences to the Company.
The Company’s operations are also subject to the risks of industrial accidents at its suppliers and contract manufacturers. While the Company’s suppliers are required to maintain safe working environments and operations, an industrial accident could occur and could result in disruption to the Company’s business and harm to the Company’s reputation. Major public health issues, including pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have adversely affected, and could in the future adversely affect, the Company due to their impact on the global economy and demand for consumer products; the imposition of protective public safety measures, such as stringent employee travel restrictions and limitations on freight services and the movement of products between regions; and disruptions in the Company’s supply chain and sales and distribution channels, resulting in interruptions of the supply of current products and delays in production ramps of new products.
While the Company maintains insurance coverage for certain types of losses, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses that may arise.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 7


Global markets for the Company’s products and services are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change, and the Company may be unable to compete effectively in these markets.
The Company’s products and services are offered in highly competitive global markets characterized by aggressive price competition and resulting downward pressure on gross margins, frequent introduction of new products and services, short product life cycles, evolving industry standards, continual improvement in product price and performance characteristics, rapid adoption of technological advancements by competitors, and price sensitivity on the part of consumers and businesses.
The Company’s ability to compete successfully depends heavily on ensuring the continuing and timely introduction of innovative new products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company designs and develops nearly the entire solution for its products, including the hardware, operating system, numerous software applications and related services. As a result, the Company must make significant investments in R&D. There can be no assurance these investments will achieve expected returns, and the Company may not be able to develop and market new products and services successfully.
The Company currently holds a significant number of patents, trademarks and copyrights and has registered, and applied to register, additional patents, trademarks and copyrights. In contrast, many of the Company’s competitors seek to compete primarily through aggressive pricing and very low cost structures, and by imitating the Company’s products and infringing on its intellectual property. Effective intellectual property protection is not consistently available in every country in which the Company operates. If the Company is unable to continue to develop and sell innovative new products with attractive margins or if competitors infringe on the Company’s intellectual property, the Company’s ability to maintain a competitive advantage could be adversely affected.
The Company has a minority market share in the global smartphone, personal computer and tablet markets. The Company faces substantial competition in these markets from companies that have significant technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, as well as established hardware, software and digital content supplier relationships. In addition, some of the Company’s competitors have broader product lines, lower-priced products and a larger installed base of active devices. Competition has been particularly intense as competitors have aggressively cut prices and lowered product margins. Certain competitors have the resources, experience or cost structures to provide products at little or no profit or even at a loss. Some of the markets in which the Company competes have from time to time experienced little to no growth or contracted overall.
Additionally, the Company faces significant competition as competitors imitate the Company’s product features and applications within their products or collaborate to offer solutions that are more competitive than those they currently offer. The Company also expects competition to intensify as competitors imitate the Company’s approach to providing components seamlessly within their offerings or work collaboratively to offer integrated solutions.
The Company’s services also face substantial competition, including from companies that have significant resources and experience and have established service offerings with large customer bases. The Company competes with business models that provide content to users for free. The Company also competes with illegitimate means to obtain third-party digital content and applications.
The Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition depend substantially on the Company’s ability to continually improve its products and services to maintain their functional and design advantages. There can be no assurance the Company will be able to continue to provide products and services that compete effectively.
Business Risks
To remain competitive and stimulate customer demand, the Company must successfully manage frequent introductions and transitions of products and services.
Due to the highly volatile and competitive nature of the industries in which the Company competes, the Company must continually introduce new products, services and technologies, enhance existing products and services, effectively stimulate customer demand for new and upgraded products and services, and successfully manage the transition to these new and upgraded products and services. The success of new product and service introductions depends on a number of factors, including timely and successful development, market acceptance, the Company’s ability to manage the risks associated with production ramp-up issues, the availability of application software for the Company’s products, the effective management of purchase commitments and inventory levels in line with anticipated product demand, the availability of products in appropriate quantities and at expected costs to meet anticipated demand, and the risk that new products and services may have quality or other defects or deficiencies. There can be no assurance the Company will successfully manage future introductions and transitions of products and services.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 8


The Company depends on component and product manufacturing and logistical services provided by outsourcing partners, many of which are located outside of the U.S.
Substantially all of the Company’s manufacturing is performed in whole or in part by outsourcing partners located primarily in Asia. A significant concentration of this manufacturing is currently performed by a small number of outsourcing partners, often in single locations. The Company has also outsourced much of its transportation and logistics management. While these arrangements can lower operating costs, they also reduce the Company’s direct control over production and distribution. Such diminished control has from time to time and may in the future have an adverse effect on the quality or quantity of products manufactured or services provided, or adversely affect the Company’s flexibility to respond to changing conditions. Although arrangements with these partners may contain provisions for product defect expense reimbursement, the Company generally remains responsible to the consumer for warranty and out-of-warranty service in the event of product defects and experiences an unanticipated product defect liability from time to time. While the Company relies on its partners to adhere to its supplier code of conduct, violations of the supplier code of conduct occur from time to time and can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company relies on single-source outsourcing partners in the U.S., Asia and Europe to supply and manufacture many components, and on outsourcing partners primarily located in Asia, for final assembly of substantially all of the Company’s hardware products. Any failure of these partners to perform can have a negative impact on the Company’s cost or supply of components or finished goods. In addition, manufacturing or logistics in these locations or transit to final destinations can be disrupted for a variety of reasons, including natural and man-made disasters, information technology system failures, commercial disputes, military actions, economic, business, labor, environmental, public health or political issues, or international trade disputes.
The Company has invested in manufacturing process equipment, much of which is held at certain of its outsourcing partners, and has made prepayments to certain of its suppliers associated with long-term supply agreements. While these arrangements help ensure the supply of components and finished goods, if these outsourcing partners or suppliers experience severe financial problems or other disruptions in their business, such continued supply can be reduced or terminated, and the recoverability of manufacturing process equipment or prepayments can be negatively impacted.
Future operating results depend upon the Company’s ability to obtain components in sufficient quantities on commercially reasonable terms.
Because the Company currently obtains certain components from single or limited sources, the Company is subject to significant supply and pricing risks. Many components, including those that are available from multiple sources, are at times subject to industry-wide shortages and significant commodity pricing fluctuations that can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the global semiconductor industry is experiencing high demand and shortages of supply, which has adversely affected, and could materially adversely affect, the Company’s ability to obtain sufficient quantities of components and products on commercially reasonable terms or at all. While the Company has entered into agreements for the supply of many components, there can be no assurance the Company will be able to extend or renew these agreements on similar terms, or at all. Component suppliers may suffer from poor financial conditions, which can lead to business failure for the supplier or consolidation within a particular industry, further limiting the Company’s ability to obtain sufficient quantities of components on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The effects of global or regional economic conditions on the Company’s suppliers, described in “The Company’s operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions and adverse economic conditions can materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition,” above, can also affect the Company’s ability to obtain components. Therefore, the Company remains subject to significant risks of supply shortages and price increases that can materially adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s new products often utilize custom components available from only one source. When a component or product uses new technologies, initial capacity constraints may exist until the suppliers’ yields have matured or their manufacturing capacities have increased. The continued availability of these components at acceptable prices, or at all, can be affected for any number of reasons, including if suppliers decide to concentrate on the production of common components instead of components customized to meet the Company’s requirements. When the Company’s supply of components for a new or existing product has been delayed or constrained, or when an outsourcing partner has delayed shipments of completed products to the Company, the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition have been adversely affected and future delays or constraints could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. The Company’s business and financial performance could also be materially adversely affected depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the source, or to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 9


The Company’s products and services may be affected from time to time by design and manufacturing defects that could materially adversely affect the Company’s business and result in harm to the Company’s reputation.
The Company offers complex hardware and software products and services that can be affected by design and manufacturing defects. Sophisticated operating system software and applications, such as those offered by the Company, often have issues that can unexpectedly interfere with the intended operation of hardware or software products. Defects can also exist in components and products the Company purchases from third parties. Component defects could make the Company’s products unsafe and create a risk of environmental or property damage and personal injury. These risks may increase as the Company’s products are introduced into specialized applications, including healthcare. In addition, the Company’s service offerings can have quality issues and from time to time experience outages, service slowdowns or errors. As a result, the Company’s services from time to time have not performed as anticipated and may not meet customer expectations. There can be no assurance the Company will be able to detect and fix all issues and defects in the hardware, software and services it offers. Failure to do so can result in widespread technical and performance issues affecting the Company’s products and services. In addition, the Company can be exposed to product liability claims, recalls, product replacements or modifications, write-offs of inventory, property, plant and equipment, and/or intangible assets, and significant warranty and other expenses, including litigation costs and regulatory fines. Quality problems can also adversely affect the experience for users of the Company’s products and services, and result in harm to the Company’s reputation, loss of competitive advantage, poor market acceptance, reduced demand for products and services, delay in new product and service introductions and lost sales.
The Company is exposed to the risk of write-downs on the value of its inventory and other assets, in addition to purchase commitment cancellation risk.
The Company records a write-down for product and component inventories that have become obsolete or exceed anticipated demand, or for which cost exceeds net realizable value. The Company also accrues necessary cancellation fee reserves for orders of excess products and components. The Company reviews long-lived assets, including capital assets held at its suppliers’ facilities and inventory prepayments, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate the assets may not be recoverable. If the Company determines that an impairment has occurred, it records a write-down equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. Although the Company believes its inventory, capital assets, inventory prepayments and other assets and purchase commitments are currently recoverable, there can be no assurance the Company will not incur write-downs, fees, impairments and other charges given the rapid and unpredictable pace of product obsolescence in the industries in which the Company competes.
The Company orders components for its products and builds inventory in advance of product announcements and shipments. Manufacturing purchase obligations cover the Company’s forecasted component and manufacturing requirements, typically for periods up to 150 days. Because the Company’s markets are volatile, competitive and subject to rapid technology and price changes, there is a risk the Company will forecast incorrectly and order or produce excess or insufficient amounts of components or products, or not fully utilize firm purchase commitments.
The Company relies on access to third-party intellectual property, which may not be available to the Company on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
The Company’s products and services are designed to include intellectual property owned by third parties, which requires licenses from those third parties. In addition, because of technological changes in the industries in which the Company currently competes or in the future may compete, current extensive patent coverage and the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, the Company’s products and services may unknowingly infringe existing patents or intellectual property rights of others. From time to time, the Company has been notified that it may be infringing certain patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties. Based on experience and industry practice, the Company believes licenses to such third-party intellectual property can generally be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. However, there can be no assurance the necessary licenses can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Failure to obtain the right to use third-party intellectual property, or to use such intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms, can preclude the Company from selling certain products or services, or otherwise have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s future performance depends in part on support from third-party software developers.
The Company believes decisions by customers to purchase its hardware products depend in part on the availability of third-party software applications and services. There can be no assurance third-party developers will continue to develop and maintain software applications and services for the Company’s products. If third-party software applications and services cease to be developed and maintained for the Company’s products, customers may choose not to buy the Company’s products.
The Company believes the availability of third-party software applications and services for its products depends in part on the developers’ perception and analysis of the relative benefits of developing, maintaining and upgrading such software and services for the Company’s products compared to competitors’ platforms, such as Android for smartphones and tablets, Windows for personal computers and tablets, and PlayStation, Nintendo and Xbox for gaming platforms. This analysis may be based on factors such as the market position of the Company and its products, the anticipated revenue that may be generated, expected future growth of product sales, and the costs of developing such applications and services.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 10


The Company’s minority market share in the global smartphone, personal computer and tablet markets can make developers less inclined to develop or upgrade software for the Company’s products and more inclined to devote their resources to developing and upgrading software for competitors’ products with larger market share. When developers focus their efforts on these competing platforms, the availability and quality of applications for the Company’s devices can suffer.
The Company relies on the continued availability and development of compelling and innovative software applications for its products. The Company’s products and operating systems are subject to rapid technological change, and when third-party developers are unable to or choose not to keep up with this pace of change, their applications can fail to take advantage of these changes to deliver improved customer experiences and can operate incorrectly and can result in dissatisfied customers.
The Company distributes third-party applications for its products through the App Store. For the vast majority of applications, developers keep all of the revenue they generate on the App Store. The Company only retains a commission from sales of applications and sales of digital services or goods within an application. From time to time, the Company has made changes to its App Store, including actions taken in response to competition, market and legal conditions. The Company may make further business changes in the future. New legislative initiatives, such as the proposed European Union (“EU”) Digital Markets Act, could, if enacted, require further changes. The Company is also subject to litigation and investigations relating to the App Store, which have resulted in changes to the Company’s business practices, and may in the future result in further changes. These changes could include how and to what extent the Company charges developers for access to its platforms and manages distribution of apps outside of the App Store. This could reduce the volume of sales, and the commission that the Company earns on those sales, would decrease. If the rate of the commission that the Company retains on such sales is reduced, or if it is otherwise narrowed in scope or eliminated, the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Failure to obtain or create digital content that appeals to the Company’s customers, or to make such content available on commercially reasonable terms, could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company contracts with numerous third parties to offer their digital content to customers. This includes the right to sell, or offer subscriptions to, third-party content, as well as the right to incorporate specific content into the Company’s own services. The licensing or other distribution arrangements for this content can be for relatively short time periods and do not guarantee the continuation or renewal of these arrangements on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Some third-party content providers and distributors currently or in the future may offer competing products and services, and can take actions to make it difficult or impossible for the Company to license or otherwise distribute their content. Other content owners, providers or distributors may seek to limit the Company’s access to, or increase the cost of, such content. The Company may be unable to continue to offer a wide variety of content at commercially reasonable prices with acceptable usage rules.
The Company also produces its own digital content, which can be costly to produce due to intense and increasing competition for talent, content and subscribers, and may fail to appeal to the Company’s customers. The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused additional restrictions on production and increased costs for digital content.
Some third-party digital content providers require the Company to provide digital rights management and other security solutions. If requirements change, the Company may have to develop or license new technology to provide these solutions. There can be no assurance the Company will be able to develop or license such solutions at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner.
The Company’s success depends largely on the continued service and availability of highly skilled employees, including key personnel.
Much of the Company’s future success depends on the continued availability and service of key personnel, including its Chief Executive Officer, executive team and other highly skilled employees. Experienced personnel in the technology industry are in high demand and competition for their talents is intense, especially in Silicon Valley, where most of the Company’s key personnel are located. The Company believes that its distinctive and inclusive culture is a significant driver of its success. If the Company is unable to nurture and maintain its culture, it could adversely affect the Company’s ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees and materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company depends on the performance of carriers, wholesalers, retailers and other resellers.
The Company distributes its products through cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers, many of whom distribute products from competing manufacturers. The Company also sells its products and resells third-party products in most of its major markets directly to consumers, small and mid-sized businesses, and education, enterprise and government customers through its retail and online stores and its direct sales force.
Some carriers providing cellular network service for the Company’s products offer financing, installment payment plans or subsidies for users’ purchases of the device. There can be no assurance such offers will be continued at all or in the same amounts.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 11


The Company has invested and will continue to invest in programs to enhance reseller sales, including staffing selected resellers’ stores with Company employees and contractors, and improving product placement displays. These programs can require a substantial investment while not assuring return or incremental sales. The financial condition of these resellers could weaken, these resellers could stop distributing the Company’s products, or uncertainty regarding demand for some or all of the Company’s products could cause resellers to reduce their ordering and marketing of the Company’s products.
The Company’s business and reputation are impacted by information technology system failures and network disruptions.
The Company and its global supply chain are exposed to information technology system failures or network disruptions caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, acts of terrorism or war, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, ransomware or other cybersecurity incidents, or other events or disruptions. System redundancy and other continuity measures may be ineffective or inadequate, and the Company’s or its vendors’ business continuity and disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Such failures or disruptions can adversely impact the Company’s business by, among other things, preventing access to the Company’s online services, interfering with customer transactions or impeding the manufacturing and shipping of the Company’s products. These events could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
Losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information, including personal information, could subject the Company to significant reputational, financial, legal and operational consequences.
The Company’s business requires it to use and store confidential information, including personal information, with respect to the Company’s customers and employees. The Company devotes significant resources to network and data security, including through the use of encryption and other security measures intended to protect its systems and data. But these measures cannot provide absolute security, and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information occur and could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s business also requires it to share confidential information with suppliers and other third parties. The Company relies on global suppliers that are also exposed to ransomware and other malicious attacks that can disrupt business operations. Although the Company takes steps to secure confidential information that is provided to or accessible by third parties working on the Company’s behalf, such measures are not always effective and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information occur. Such incidents and other malicious attacks could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company experiences malicious attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to its systems on a regular basis. These attacks seek to compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of confidential information or disrupt normal business operations, and could, among other things, impair the Company’s ability to attract and retain customers for its products and services, impact the price of the Company’s stock, materially damage commercial relationships, and expose the Company to litigation or government investigations, which could result in penalties, fines or judgments against the Company. Globally, attacks are expected to continue accelerating in both frequency and sophistication with increasing use by actors of tools and techniques that are designed to circumvent controls, avoid detection, and remove or obfuscate forensic evidence, all of which hinders the Company’s ability to identify, investigate and recover from incidents.
Although malicious attacks perpetrated to gain access to confidential information, including personal information, affect many companies across various industries, the Company is at a relatively greater risk of being targeted because of its high profile and the value of the confidential information it creates, owns, manages, stores and processes.
The Company has implemented systems and processes intended to secure its information technology systems and prevent unauthorized access to or loss of sensitive data, and mitigate the impact of unauthorized access, including through the use of encryption and authentication technologies. As with all companies, these security measures may not be sufficient for all eventualities and may be vulnerable to hacking, ransomware attacks, employee error, malfeasance, system error, faulty password management or other irregularities. For example, third parties can fraudulently induce the Company’s or its vendors’ employees or customers into disclosing user names, passwords or other sensitive information, which can, in turn, be used for unauthorized access to the Company’s or its vendors’ systems and services. To help protect customers and the Company, the Company deploys and makes available technologies like multifactor authentication, monitors its services and systems for unusual activity and may freeze accounts under suspicious circumstances, which, among other things, can result in the delay or loss of customer orders or impede customer access to the Company’s products and services.
While the Company maintains insurance coverage that is intended to address certain aspects of data security risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 12


Investment in new business strategies and acquisitions could disrupt the Company’s ongoing business, present risks not originally contemplated and adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company has invested, and in the future may invest, in new business strategies or acquisitions. Such endeavors may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including distraction of management from current operations, greater-than-expected liabilities and expenses, economic, political, legal and regulatory challenges associated with operating in new businesses, regions or countries, inadequate return on capital, potential impairment of tangible and intangible assets, and significant write-offs. Investment and acquisition transactions are exposed to additional risks, including failing to obtain required regulatory approvals on a timely basis or at all, or the imposition of onerous conditions that could delay or prevent the Company from completing a transaction or otherwise limit the Company’s ability to fully realize the anticipated benefits of a transaction. These new ventures are inherently risky and may not be successful. The failure of any significant investment could adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s retail stores have required and will continue to require a substantial investment and commitment of resources and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
The Company’s retail stores have required substantial investment in equipment and leasehold improvements, information systems, inventory and personnel. The Company also has entered into substantial lease commitments for retail space. Certain stores have been designed and built to serve as high-profile venues to promote brand awareness. Because of their unique design elements, locations and size, these stores require substantially more investment than the Company’s more typical retail stores. Due to the high cost structure associated with the Company’s retail stores, a decline in sales or the closure or poor performance of an individual store or multiple stores, including as a result of protective public safety measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in significant lease termination costs, write-offs of equipment and leasehold improvements and severance costs.
The Company’s retail operations are subject to many factors that pose risks and uncertainties and could adversely impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, including macro-economic factors that could have an adverse effect on general retail activity. Other factors include the Company’s ability to: manage costs associated with retail store construction and operation; manage relationships with existing retail partners; manage costs associated with fluctuations in the value of retail inventory; and obtain and renew leases in quality retail locations at a reasonable cost.
Legal and Regulatory Compliance Risks
The Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings or government investigations.
The Company is subject to various claims, legal proceedings and government investigations that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and have not yet been fully resolved, and new matters may arise in the future. In addition, agreements entered into by the Company sometimes include indemnification provisions which can subject the Company to costs and damages in the event of a claim against an indemnified third party. The number of claims, legal proceedings and government investigations involving the Company, and the alleged magnitude of such claims, proceedings and government investigations, has generally increased over time and may continue to increase.
The Company has faced and continues to face a significant number of patent claims relating to its cellular-enabled products, and new claims may arise in the future. For example, technology and other patent-holding companies frequently assert their patents and seek royalties and often enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. The Company is vigorously defending infringement actions in courts in several U.S. jurisdictions, as well as internationally in various countries. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the merit of particular claims, defending against litigation or responding to government investigations can be expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to the Company’s operations and distracting to management. In recognition of these considerations, the Company may enter into agreements or other arrangements to settle litigation and resolve such challenges. There can be no assurance such agreements can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These agreements can also significantly increase the Company’s cost of sales and operating expenses and require the Company to change its business practices and limit the Company’s ability to offer certain products and services.
Except as described in Part I, Item 3 of this Form 10-K under the heading “Legal Proceedings” and in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 10, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies,” in the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss greater than a recorded accrual, concerning loss contingencies for asserted legal and other claims.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 13


The outcome of litigation or government investigations is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company or an indemnified third party in a reporting period for amounts above management’s expectations, the Company’s results of operations and financial condition for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. Further, such an outcome can result in significant compensatory, punitive or trebled monetary damages, disgorgement of revenue or profits, remedial corporate measures or injunctive relief against the Company, and can require the Company to change its business practices and limit the Company’s ability to offer certain products and services, all of which could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
While the Company maintains insurance coverage for certain types of claims, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.
The Company is subject to complex and changing laws and regulations worldwide, which exposes the Company to potential liabilities, increased costs and other adverse effects on the Company’s business.
The Company’s global operations are subject to complex and changing laws and regulations on subjects, including antitrust; privacy, data security and data localization; consumer protection; advertising, sales, billing and e-commerce; product liability; intellectual property ownership and infringement; digital platforms; Internet, telecommunications, and mobile communications; media, television, film and digital content; availability of third-party software applications and services; labor and employment; anticorruption; import, export and trade; foreign exchange controls and cash repatriation restrictions; anti–money laundering; foreign ownership and investment; tax; and environmental, health and safety, including electronic waste, recycling, and climate change.
Compliance with these laws and regulations is onerous and expensive, increasing the cost of conducting the Company’s global operations. Changes to laws and regulations can adversely affect the Company’s business by increasing the Company’s costs, limiting the Company’s ability to offer a product or service to customers, requiring changes to the Company’s supply chain and business practices or otherwise making the Company’s products and services less attractive to customers. The Company has implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but there can be no assurance the Company’s employees, contractors or agents will not violate such laws and regulations or the Company’s policies and procedures. If the Company is found to have violated laws and regulations, it could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. Regulatory changes and other actions that materially adversely affect the Company’s business may be announced with little or no advance notice and the Company may not be able to effectively mitigate all adverse impacts from such measures.
The technology industry, including, in some instances, the Company, is subject to intense media, political and regulatory scrutiny, which exposes the Company to increasing regulation, government investigations, legal actions and penalties.
From time to time, the Company has made changes to its App Store, including actions taken in response to competition, market and legal conditions. The Company may make further business changes in the future. New legislative initiatives, such as the proposed EU Digital Markets Act, could, if enacted, require further changes. These changes could include how and to what extent the Company charges developers for access to its platforms and manages distribution of apps outside of the App Store.
The Company is also currently subject to antitrust investigations in various jurisdictions around the world, which can result in legal proceedings and claims against the Company that could, individually or in the aggregate, have a materially adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the Company is the subject of investigations in Europe and other jurisdictions relating to App Store terms and conditions. If such investigations result in adverse findings against the Company, the Company could be exposed to significant fines and may be required to make changes to its App Store business, all of which could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. The Company is also subject to litigation relating to the App Store, which has resulted in changes to the Company’s business practices, and may in the future result in further changes.
Further, the Company has commercial relationships with other companies in the technology industry that are or may become subject to investigations and litigation that, if resolved against those other companies, could adversely affect the Company’s commercial relationships with those business partners and materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the Company earns revenue from licensing arrangements with other companies to offer their search services on the Company’s platforms and apps, and certain of these arrangements are currently subject to government investigations and legal proceedings.
There can be no assurance the Company’s business will not be materially adversely affected, individually or in the aggregate, by the outcomes of such investigations, litigation or changes to laws and regulations in the future. Changes to the Company’s business practices to comply with new laws and regulations or in connection with other legal proceedings could negatively impact the reputation of the Company’s products for privacy and security and otherwise adversely affect the experience for users of the Company’s products and services, and result in harm to the Company’s reputation, loss of competitive advantage, poor market acceptance, reduced demand for products and services, and lost sales.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 14


The Company’s business is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws, rules, policies and other obligations regarding data protection.
The Company is subject to federal, state and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of various types of personal information. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also restrict transfers of personal information among the Company and its international subsidiaries. Several jurisdictions have passed laws in this area, and additional jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions or have laws that are pending. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing requirements causes the Company to incur substantial costs and has required and may in the future require the Company to change its business practices. Noncompliance could result in significant penalties or legal liability.
The Company makes statements about its use and disclosure of personal information through its privacy policy, information provided on its website, press statements and other privacy notices provided to customers. Any failure by the Company to comply with these public statements or with other federal, state or international privacy or data protection laws and regulations could result in inquiries or proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others. In addition to reputational impacts, penalties could include ongoing audit requirements and significant legal liability.
In addition to the risks generally relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personal information, the Company is also subject to specific obligations relating to information considered sensitive under applicable laws, such as health data, financial data and biometric data. Health data is subject to additional privacy, security and breach notification requirements, and the Company is subject to audit by governmental authorities regarding the Company’s compliance with these obligations. If the Company fails to adequately comply with these rules and requirements, or if health data is handled in a manner not permitted by law or under the Company’s agreements with healthcare institutions, the Company can be subject to litigation or government investigations, and can be liable for associated investigatory expenses, and can also incur significant fees or fines.
Financial data, such as payment card data, is also subject to additional requirements. Under payment card rules and obligations, if cardholder information is potentially compromised, the Company can be liable for associated investigatory expenses and can also incur significant fees or fines if the Company fails to follow payment card industry data security standards. The Company could also experience a significant increase in payment card transaction costs or lose the ability to process payment cards if it fails to follow payment card industry data security standards, which would materially adversely affect the Company’s business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
Financial Risks
The Company expects its quarterly net sales and results of operations to fluctuate.
The Company’s profit margins vary across its products, services, geographic segments and distribution channels. For example, the gross margins on the Company’s products and services vary significantly and can change over time. The Company’s gross margins are subject to volatility and downward pressure due to a variety of factors, including: continued industry-wide global product pricing pressures and product pricing actions that the Company may take in response to such pressures; increased competition; the Company’s ability to effectively stimulate demand for certain of its products and services; compressed product life cycles; potential increases in the cost of components, outside manufacturing services, and developing, acquiring and delivering content for the Company’s services; the Company’s ability to manage product quality and warranty costs effectively; shifts in the mix of products and services, or in the geographic, currency or channel mix, including to the extent that regulatory changes require the Company to modify its product and service offerings; fluctuations in foreign exchange rates; and the introduction of new products or services, including new products or services with higher cost structures. These and other factors could have a materially adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
The Company has historically experienced higher net sales in its first quarter compared to other quarters in its fiscal year due in part to seasonal holiday demand. Additionally, new product and service introductions can significantly impact net sales, cost of sales and operating expenses. Further, the Company generates a significant portion of its net sales from a single product and a decline in demand for that product could significantly impact quarterly net sales. The Company could also be subject to unexpected developments, such as lower-than-anticipated demand for the Company’s products or services, issues with new product or service introductions, information technology system failures or network disruptions, or failure of one of the Company’s logistics, components supply, or manufacturing partners.
The Company’s financial performance is subject to risks associated with changes in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to local currencies.
The Company’s primary exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates relates to non–U.S. dollar–denominated sales, cost of sales and operating expenses worldwide. Gross margins on the Company’s products in foreign countries and on products that include components obtained from foreign suppliers could be materially adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 15


The weakening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar adversely affects the U.S. dollar value of the Company’s foreign currency–denominated sales and earnings, and generally leads the Company to raise international pricing, potentially reducing demand for the Company’s products. In some circumstances, for competitive or other reasons, the Company may decide not to raise international pricing to offset the U.S. dollar’s strengthening, which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of the gross margins the Company earns on foreign currency–denominated sales.
Conversely, a strengthening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, while generally beneficial to the Company’s foreign currency–denominated sales and earnings, could cause the Company to reduce international pricing and incur losses on its foreign currency derivative instruments, thereby limiting the benefit. Additionally, strengthening of foreign currencies may increase the Company’s cost of product components denominated in those currencies, thus adversely affecting gross margins.
The Company uses derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not be effective to offset any, or more than a portion, of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place.
The Company is exposed to credit risk and fluctuations in the values of its investment portfolio.
The Company’s investments can be negatively affected by changes in liquidity, credit deterioration, financial results, market and economic conditions, political risk, sovereign risk, interest rate fluctuations or other factors. As a result, the value and liquidity of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents, and marketable and non-marketable securities may fluctuate substantially. Therefore, although the Company has not realized any significant losses on its cash, cash equivalents, and marketable and non-marketable securities, future fluctuations in their value could result in significant losses and could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
The Company is exposed to credit risk on its trade accounts receivable, vendor non-trade receivables and prepayments related to long-term supply agreements, and this risk is heightened during periods when economic conditions worsen.
The Company distributes its products through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. The Company also sells its products directly to small and mid-sized businesses and education, enterprise and government customers. A substantial majority of the Company’s outstanding trade receivables are not covered by collateral, third-party bank support or financing arrangements, or credit insurance, and a significant portion of the Company’s trade receivables can be concentrated within cellular network carriers or other resellers. The Company’s exposure to credit and collectibility risk on its trade receivables is higher in certain international markets and its ability to mitigate such risks may be limited. The Company also has unsecured vendor non-trade receivables resulting from purchases of components by outsourcing partners and other vendors that manufacture subassemblies or assemble final products for the Company. In addition, the Company has made prepayments associated with long-term supply agreements to secure supply of inventory components. As of September 25, 2021, the Company’s vendor non-trade receivables and prepayments related to long-term supply agreements were concentrated among a few individual vendors located primarily in Asia. While the Company has procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on its trade and vendor non-trade receivables, as well as long-term prepayments, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses.
The Company is subject to changes in tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or international tax legislation and exposure to additional tax liabilities.
The Company is subject to taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, including Ireland, where a number of the Company’s subsidiaries are organized. Due to economic and political conditions, tax laws and tax rates for income taxes and other non-income taxes in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. The Company’s effective tax rates are affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, the introduction of new taxes, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation, including in the U.S. and Ireland.
The Company is also subject to the examination of its tax returns and other tax matters by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. The Company regularly assesses the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If the Company’s effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S. or Ireland, or if the ultimate determination of the Company’s taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 16


General Risks
The price of the Company’s stock is subject to volatility.
The Company’s stock has experienced substantial price volatility in the past and may continue to do so in the future. Additionally, the Company, the technology industry and the stock market as a whole have, from time to time, experienced extreme stock price and volume fluctuations that have affected stock prices in ways that may have been unrelated to these companies’ operating performance. Price volatility may cause the average price at which the Company repurchases its stock in a given period to exceed the stock’s price at a given point in time. The Company believes the price of its stock should reflect expectations of future growth and profitability. The Company also believes the price of its stock should reflect expectations that its cash dividend will continue at current levels or grow, and that its current share repurchase program will be fully consummated. Future dividends are subject to declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors, and the Company’s share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares. If the Company fails to meet expectations related to future growth, profitability, dividends, share repurchases or other market expectations, the price of the Company’s stock may decline significantly, which could have a material adverse impact on investor confidence and employee retention.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
The Company’s headquarters are located in Cupertino, California. As of September 25, 2021, the Company owned or leased facilities and land for corporate functions, R&D, data centers, retail and other purposes at locations throughout the U.S. and in various places outside the U.S. The Company believes its existing facilities and equipment, which are used by all reportable segments, are in good operating condition and are suitable for the conduct of its business.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
The Company is subject to legal proceedings and claims that have not been fully resolved and that have arisen in the ordinary course of business. The Company’s material legal proceedings are described below and in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 10, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies.”
The outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company in a reporting period for amounts above management’s expectations, the Company’s financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. The Company settled certain matters during the fourth quarter of 2021 that did not individually or in the aggregate have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results.
Epic Games
Epic Games, Inc. (“Epic”) filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “Northern California District Court”) against the Company alleging violations of federal and state antitrust laws and California’s unfair competition law based upon the Company’s operation of its App Store. The Company filed a counterclaim for breach of contract. On September 10, 2021, the Northern California District Court ruled in favor of the Company with respect to nine out of the ten counts included in Epic’s claim, and in favor of the Company with respect to the Company’s claims for breach of contract. The Northern California District Court found that certain provisions of the Company’s App Store Review Guidelines violate California’s unfair competition law and issued an injunction. Epic appealed the decision. The Company filed a cross-appeal and is seeking a stay of the injunction pending appeal.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 17


PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the symbol AAPL.
Holders
As of October 15, 2021, there were 23,502 shareholders of record.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Share repurchase activity during the three months ended September 25, 2021 was as follows (in millions, except number of shares, which are reflected in thousands, and per share amounts):
PeriodsTotal Number
of Shares Purchased
Average Price
Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of
Shares That May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs (1)
June 27, 2021 to July 31, 2021:
Open market and privately negotiated purchases59,216 $143.54 59,216 
August 1, 2021 to August 28, 2021:
May 2021 ASR4,921 
(2)
4,921 
Open market and privately negotiated purchases42,343 $147.61 42,343 
August 29, 2021 to September 25, 2021:
Open market and privately negotiated purchases35,041 $149.81 35,041 
Total141,521 $60,851 
(1)As of September 25, 2021, the Company was authorized to purchase up to $315 billion of the Company’s common stock under a share repurchase program announced on April 28, 2021 (the “Program”), of which $254.1 billion had been utilized. The remaining $60.9 billion in the table represents the amount available to repurchase shares under the Program as of September 25, 2021. The Program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares. Under the Program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act.
(2)In May 2021, the Company entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement (“ASR”) to purchase up to $5.0 billion of the Company’s common stock. In August 2021, the purchase period for this ASR ended and an additional 5 million shares were delivered and retired. In total, 36 million shares were delivered under this ASR at an average repurchase price of $137.20.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 18


Company Stock Performance
The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total shareholder return, calculated on a dividend-reinvested basis, for the Company, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index for the five years ended September 25, 2021. The graph assumes $100 was invested in each of the Company’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index as of the market close on September 23, 2016. Note that past stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
aapl-20210925_g2.jpg
*$100 invested on September 23, 2016 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Data points are the last day of each fiscal year for the Company’s common stock and September 30th for indexes.
Copyright© 2021 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
Copyright© 2021 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
September 2016September 2017September 2018September 2019September 2020September 2021
Apple Inc.
$100 $139 $207 $204 $422 $556 
S&P 500 Index
$100 $119 $140 $146 $168 $218 
S&P Information Technology Index
$100 $129 $169 $184 $271 $349 
Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index
$100 $128 $168 $178 $265 $362 
Item 6.    [Reserved]
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 19


Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K. This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020. Discussions of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 are not included in this Form 10-K, and can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 26, 2020.
Fiscal Year Highlights
COVID-19 Update
The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and continues to have, a significant impact around the world, prompting governments and businesses to take unprecedented measures, such as restrictions on travel and business operations, temporary closures of businesses, and quarantine and shelter-in-place orders. The COVID-19 pandemic has at times significantly curtailed global economic activity and caused significant volatility and disruption in global financial markets. The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken by many countries in response have affected and could in the future materially impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as the price of the Company’s stock.
During 2021, aspects of the Company’s business continued to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with many of the Company’s retail stores, as well as channel partner points of sale, temporarily closed at various times, and a significant number of the Company’s employees working remotely. The Company has reopened all of its retail stores and substantially all of its other facilities, subject to operating restrictions to protect public health and the health and safety of employees and customers, and it continues to work on safely reopening the remainder of its facilities, subject to local rules and regulations. During the fourth quarter of 2021, certain of the Company’s component suppliers and logistical service providers experienced disruptions, resulting in supply shortages that affected sales worldwide. Similar disruptions could occur in the future.
The extent of the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s operational and financial performance is uncertain and will depend on many factors outside the Company’s control, including the timing, extent, trajectory and duration of the pandemic, the emergence of new variants, the development, availability, distribution and effectiveness of vaccines and treatments, the imposition of protective public safety measures, and the impact of the pandemic on the global economy and demand for consumer products. Refer to Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors” for more information.
Fiscal 2021 Highlights
Total net sales increased 33% or $91.3 billion during 2021 compared to 2020, driven by growth in all Products and Services categories. Year-over-year net sales during 2021 also grew in each of the Company’s reportable segments.
In April 2021, the Company announced an increase to its current share repurchase program authorization from $225 billion to $315 billion and raised its quarterly dividend from $0.205 to $0.22 per share beginning in May 2021. During 2021, the Company repurchased $85.5 billion of its common stock and paid dividends and dividend equivalents of $14.5 billion.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 20


Products and Services Performance
The following table shows net sales by category for 2021, 2020 and 2019 (dollars in millions):
2021Change2020Change2019
Net sales by category:
iPhone (1)
$191,973 39 %$137,781 (3)%$142,381 
Mac (1)
35,190 23 %28,622 11 %25,740 
iPad (1)
31,862 34 %23,724 11 %21,280 
Wearables, Home and Accessories (1)(2)
38,367 25 %30,620 25 %24,482 
Services (3)
68,425 27 %53,768 16 %46,291 
Total net sales$365,817 33 %$274,515 %$260,174 
(1)Products net sales include amortization of the deferred value of unspecified software upgrade rights, which are bundled in the sales price of the respective product.
(2)Wearables, Home and Accessories net sales include sales of AirPods, Apple TV, Apple Watch, Beats products, HomePod, iPod touch and accessories.
(3)Services net sales include sales from the Company’s advertising, AppleCare, cloud, digital content, payment and other services. Services net sales also include amortization of the deferred value of services bundled in the sales price of certain products.
iPhone
iPhone net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales from the Company’s new iPhone models launched in the first quarter and fourth quarter of 2021 and a favorable mix of iPhone sales.
Mac
Mac net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of MacBook Air, MacBook Pro and iMac.
iPad
iPad net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPad Air and iPad Pro.
Wearables, Home and Accessories
Wearables, Home and Accessories net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of accessories and Apple Watch.
Services
Services net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales from advertising, the App Store and cloud services.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 21


Segment Operating Performance
The Company manages its business primarily on a geographic basis. The Company’s reportable segments consist of the Americas, Europe, Greater China, Japan and Rest of Asia Pacific. Americas includes both North and South America. Europe includes European countries, as well as India, the Middle East and Africa. Greater China includes China mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Rest of Asia Pacific includes Australia and those Asian countries not included in the Company’s other reportable segments. Although the reportable segments provide similar hardware and software products and similar services, each one is managed separately to better align with the location of the Company’s customers and distribution partners and the unique market dynamics of each geographic region. Further information regarding the Company’s reportable segments can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 11, “Segment Information and Geographic Data.”
The following table shows net sales by reportable segment for 2021, 2020 and 2019 (dollars in millions):
2021Change2020Change2019
Net sales by reportable segment:
Americas
$153,306 23 %$124,556 %$116,914 
Europe
89,307 30 %68,640 14 %60,288 
Greater China
68,366 70 %40,308 (8)%43,678 
Japan
28,482 33 %21,418 — %21,506 
Rest of Asia Pacific
26,356 35 %19,593 10 %17,788 
Total net sales$365,817 33 %$274,515 %$260,174 
Americas
Americas net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, Services and Mac.
Europe
Europe net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, Services and iPad. The movement of foreign currencies in Europe relative to the U.S. dollar had a net favorable impact on Europe net sales during 2021.
Greater China
Greater China net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, iPad and Services. The strength of the Chinese renminbi relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Greater China net sales during 2021.
Japan
Japan net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services.
Rest of Asia Pacific
Rest of Asia Pacific net sales increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, iPad and Services. The movement of foreign currencies in the Rest of Asia Pacific relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Rest of Asia Pacific net sales during 2021.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 22


Gross Margin
Products and Services gross margin and gross margin percentage for 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (dollars in millions):
202120202019
Gross margin:
Products$105,126 $69,461 $68,887 
Services47,710 35,495 29,505 
Total gross margin$152,836 $104,956 $98,392 
Gross margin percentage:
Products35.3 %31.5 %32.2 %
Services69.7 %66.0 %63.7 %
Total gross margin percentage41.8 %38.2 %37.8 %
Products Gross Margin
Products gross margin increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher Products volume, a different Products mix and the strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Products gross margin percentage increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to a different Products mix, improved leverage and the strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar.
Services Gross Margin
Services gross margin increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to higher Services net sales and a different Services mix. Services gross margin percentage increased during 2021 compared to 2020 due primarily to a different Services mix and improved leverage, partially offset by higher Services costs.
The Company’s future gross margins can be impacted by a variety of factors, as discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors.” As a result, the Company believes, in general, gross margins will be subject to volatility and downward pressure.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (dollars in millions):
2021Change2020Change2019
Research and development
$21,914 17 %$18,752 16 %$16,217 
Percentage of total net sales
%%%
Selling, general and administrative
$21,973 10 %$19,916 %$18,245 
Percentage of total net sales
%%%
Total operating expenses
$43,887 13 %$38,668 12 %$34,462 
Percentage of total net sales
12 %14 %13 %
Research and Development
The year-over-year growth in R&D expense in 2021 was driven primarily by increases in headcount-related expenses, R&D-related professional services and infrastructure-related costs. The Company continues to believe that focused investments in R&D are critical to its future growth and competitive position in the marketplace, and to the development of new and updated products and services that are central to the Company’s core business strategy.
Selling, General and Administrative
The year-over-year growth in selling, general and administrative expense in 2021 was driven primarily by increases in headcount-related expenses, variable selling expenses and professional services.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 23


Other Income/(Expense), Net
Other income/(expense), net (“OI&E”) for 2021, 2020 and 2019 was as follows (dollars in millions):
2021Change2020Change2019
Interest and dividend income
$2,843 $3,763 $4,961 
Interest expense
(2,645)(2,873)(3,576)
Other income/(expense), net60 (87)422 
Total other income/(expense), net
$258 (68)%$803 (56)%$1,807 
The year-over-year decrease in OI&E during 2021 was due primarily to lower interest income and net losses on marketable securities, partially offset by positive fair value adjustments on non-marketable securities and lower interest expense on term debt.
Provision for Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes, effective tax rate and statutory federal income tax rate for 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (dollars in millions):
202120202019
Provision for income taxes
$14,527 $9,680 $10,481 
Effective tax rate
13.3 %14.4 %15.9 %
Statutory federal income tax rate
21 %21 %21 %
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2021 was lower than the statutory federal income tax rate due primarily to a lower effective tax rate on foreign earnings, tax benefits from share-based compensation and foreign-derived intangible income deductions. The Company’s effective tax rate for 2020 was lower than the statutory federal income tax rate due primarily to the lower tax rate on foreign earnings, including the impact of tax settlements, and tax benefits from share-based compensation.
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2021 was lower compared to 2020 due primarily to higher tax benefits from foreign-derived intangible income deductions and share-based compensation and the favorable impact of changes in unrecognized tax benefits, partially offset by a one-time adjustment in 2020 of U.S. foreign tax credits in response to regulations issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury in December 2019.
During 2021, the Company established deferred tax assets (“DTAs”) for foreign tax credit carryforwards in Ireland and increased DTAs for R&D tax credit carryforwards in California, which resulted in a combined $3.5 billion increase in the valuation allowance on the Company’s DTAs, with no effect on net income. Management believes it is more likely than not that forecasted income, together with future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, will be sufficient to realize substantially all of the Company’s remaining DTAs.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The Company believes its balances of cash, cash equivalents and unrestricted marketable securities, which totaled $172.6 billion as of September 25, 2021, along with cash generated by ongoing operations and continued access to debt markets, will be sufficient to satisfy its cash requirements and capital return program over the next 12 months and beyond.
The Company’s material cash requirements include the following contractual and other obligations.
Debt
As of September 25, 2021, the Company had outstanding floating- and fixed-rate notes with varying maturities for an aggregate principal amount of $118.1 billion (collectively the “Notes”), with $9.6 billion payable within 12 months. Future interest payments associated with the Notes total $39.5 billion, with $2.9 billion payable within 12 months.
The Company also issues unsecured short-term promissory notes (“Commercial Paper”) pursuant to a commercial paper program. As of September 25, 2021, the Company had $6.0 billion of Commercial Paper outstanding, all of which was payable within 12 months.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 24


Leases
The Company has lease arrangements for certain equipment and facilities, including retail, corporate, manufacturing and data center space. As of September 25, 2021, the Company had fixed lease payment obligations of $14.6 billion, with $1.8 billion payable within 12 months.
Manufacturing Purchase Obligations
The Company utilizes several outsourcing partners to manufacture subassemblies for the Company’s products and to perform final assembly and testing of finished products. The Company also obtains individual components for its products from a wide variety of individual suppliers. Outsourcing partners acquire components and build product based on demand information supplied by the Company, which typically covers periods up to 150 days. As of September 25, 2021, the Company had manufacturing purchase obligations of $54.8 billion, with $54.7 billion payable within 12 months. The Company’s manufacturing purchase obligations are primarily noncancelable.
Other Purchase Obligations
The Company’s other purchase obligations primarily consist of noncancelable obligations to acquire capital assets, including product tooling and manufacturing process equipment, and noncancelable obligations related to advertising, content creation and Internet and telecommunications services. As of September 25, 2021, the Company had other purchase obligations of $8.3 billion, with $4.8 billion payable within 12 months.
Deemed Repatriation Tax Payable
As of September 25, 2021, the balance of the deemed repatriation tax payable imposed by the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Act”) was $24.6 billion, none of which is payable within 12 months.
In addition to its cash requirements, the Company has a capital return program authorized by the Board of Directors. The Program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares. As of September 25, 2021, the Company’s quarterly cash dividend was $0.22 per share. The Company intends to increase its dividend on an annual basis, subject to declaration by the Board of Directors.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and the Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and operating results require the Company’s management to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported. Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Uncertain Tax Positions
The Company is subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. The evaluation of the Company’s uncertain tax positions involves significant judgment in the interpretation and application of GAAP and complex domestic and international tax laws, including the Act and matters related to the allocation of international taxation rights between countries. Although management believes the Company’s reserves are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different from that which is reflected in the Company’s reserves. Reserves are adjusted considering changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax examination or the refinement of an estimate. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with management’s expectations could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Legal and Other Contingencies
The Company is subject to various legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, the outcomes of which are inherently uncertain. The Company records a liability when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable, the determination of which requires significant judgment. Resolution of legal matters in a manner inconsistent with management’s expectations could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 25


Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest Rate and Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company regularly reviews its foreign exchange forward and option positions and interest rate swaps, both on a stand-alone basis and in conjunction with its underlying foreign currency and interest rate exposures. Given the effective horizons of the Company’s risk management activities and the anticipatory nature of the exposures, there can be no assurance these positions will offset more than a portion of the financial impact resulting from movements in either foreign exchange or interest rates. Further, the recognition of the gains and losses related to these instruments may not coincide with the timing of gains and losses related to the underlying economic exposures and, therefore, may adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Interest Rate Risk
The Company’s exposure to changes in interest rates relates primarily to the Company’s investment portfolio and outstanding debt. While the Company is exposed to global interest rate fluctuations, the Company’s interest income and expense are most sensitive to fluctuations in U.S. interest rates. Changes in U.S. interest rates affect the interest earned on the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the fair value of those securities, as well as costs associated with hedging and interest paid on the Company’s debt.
The Company’s investment policy and strategy are focused on the preservation of capital and supporting the Company’s liquidity requirements. The Company uses a combination of internal and external management to execute its investment strategy and achieve its investment objectives. The Company typically invests in highly rated securities, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. The Company’s investment policy generally requires securities to be investment grade and limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. To provide a meaningful assessment of the interest rate risk associated with the Company’s investment portfolio, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the impact a change in interest rates would have on the value of the investment portfolio assuming a 100 basis point parallel shift in the yield curve. Based on investment positions as of September 25, 2021 and September 26, 2020, a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates across all maturities would result in a $4.1 billion and $3.1 billion incremental decline in the fair market value of the portfolio, respectively. Such losses would only be realized if the Company sold the investments prior to maturity.
As of September 25, 2021 and September 26, 2020, the Company had outstanding floating- and fixed-rate notes with varying maturities for an aggregate carrying amount of $118.7 billion and $107.4 billion, respectively. The Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into interest rate swaps to manage interest rate risk on its outstanding term debt. Interest rate swaps allow the Company to effectively convert fixed-rate payments into floating-rate payments or floating-rate payments into fixed-rate payments. Gains and losses on term debt are generally offset by the corresponding losses and gains on the related hedging instrument. A 100 basis point increase in market interest rates would cause interest expense on the Company’s debt as of September 25, 2021 and September 26, 2020 to increase by $186 million and $218 million on an annualized basis, respectively.
Foreign Currency Risk
In general, the Company is a net receiver of currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates, and in particular a strengthening of the U.S. dollar, will negatively affect the Company’s net sales and gross margins as expressed in U.S. dollars. There is a risk that the Company will have to adjust local currency pricing due to competitive pressures when there has been significant volatility in foreign currency exchange rates.
The Company may enter into foreign currency forward and option contracts with financial institutions to protect against foreign exchange risks associated with certain existing assets and liabilities, certain firmly committed transactions, forecasted future cash flows and net investments in foreign subsidiaries. In addition, the Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into foreign currency contracts to partially offset the foreign currency exchange gains and losses on its foreign currency–denominated debt issuances. The Company generally hedges portions of its forecasted foreign currency exposure associated with revenue and inventory purchases, typically for up to 12 months. However, the Company may choose not to hedge certain foreign exchange exposures for a variety of reasons including, but not limited to, accounting considerations or the prohibitive economic cost of hedging particular exposures.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 26


To provide an assessment of the foreign currency risk associated with certain of the Company’s foreign currency derivative positions, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis using a value-at-risk (“VAR”) model to assess the potential impact of fluctuations in exchange rates. The VAR model consisted of using a Monte Carlo simulation to generate thousands of random market price paths assuming normal market conditions. The VAR is the maximum expected loss in fair value, for a given confidence interval, to the Company’s foreign currency derivative positions due to adverse movements in rates. The VAR model is not intended to represent actual losses but is used as a risk estimation and management tool. Forecasted transactions, firm commitments and assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies were excluded from the model. Based on the results of the model, the Company estimates with 95% confidence, a maximum one-day loss in fair value of $550 million as of September 25, 2021, compared to a maximum one-day loss in fair value of $551 million as of September 26, 2020. Because the Company uses foreign currency instruments for hedging purposes, the losses in fair value incurred on those instruments are generally offset by increases in the fair value of the underlying exposures.
Actual future gains and losses associated with the Company’s investment portfolio, debt and derivative positions may differ materially from the sensitivity analyses performed as of September 25, 2021 due to the inherent limitations associated with predicting the timing and amount of changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and the Company’s actual exposures and positions.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 27


Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Index to Consolidated Financial StatementsPage
All financial statement schedules have been omitted, since the required information is not applicable or is not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the information required is included in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 28


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except number of shares which are reflected in thousands and per share amounts)

Years ended
September 25,
2021
September 26,
2020
September 28,
2019
Net sales:
   Products$297,392 $220,747 $213,883 
   Services68,425 53,768 46,291 
Total net sales365,817 274,515 260,174 
Cost of sales:
   Products192,266 151,286 144,996 
   Services20,715 18,273 16,786 
Total cost of sales212,981 169,559 161,782 
Gross margin152,836 104,956 98,392 
Operating expenses:
Research and development
21,914 18,752 16,217 
Selling, general and administrative
21,973 19,916 18,245 
Total operating expenses
43,887 38,668 34,462 
Operating income
108,949 66,288 63,930 
Other income/(expense), net
258 803 1,807 
Income before provision for income taxes
109,207 67,091 65,737 
Provision for income taxes
14,527 9,680 10,481 
Net income
$94,680 $57,411 $55,256 
Earnings per share:
Basic
$5.67 $3.31 $2.99 
Diluted
$5.61 $3.28 $2.97 
Shares used in computing earnings per share:
Basic
16,701,272 17,352,119 18,471,336 
Diluted
16,864,919 17,528,214 18,595,651 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 29


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In millions)

Years ended
September 25,
2021
September 26,
2020
September 28,
2019
Net income
$94,680 $57,411 $55,256 
Other comprehensive income/(loss):
Change in foreign currency translation, net of tax
501 88 (408)
Change in unrealized gains/losses on derivative instruments, net of tax:
Change in fair value of derivative instruments32 79 (661)
Adjustment for net (gains)/losses realized and included in net income
1,003 (1,264)23 
Total change in unrealized gains/losses on derivative instruments1,035 (1,185)(638)
Change in unrealized gains/losses on marketable debt securities, net of tax:
Change in fair value of marketable debt securities
(694)1,202 3,802 
Adjustment for net (gains)/losses realized and included in net income
(273)(63)25 
Total change in unrealized gains/losses on marketable debt securities
(967)1,139 3,827 
Total other comprehensive income/(loss)
569 42 2,781 
Total comprehensive income
$95,249 $57,453 $58,037 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 30


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except number of shares which are reflected in thousands and par value)

September 25,
2021
September 26,
2020
ASSETS:
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$34,940 $38,016 
Marketable securities
27,699 52,927 
Accounts receivable, net
26,278 16,120 
Inventories
6,580 4,061 
Vendor non-trade receivables
25,228 21,325 
Other current assets
14,111 11,264 
Total current assets
134,836 143,713 
Non-current assets:
Marketable securities
127,877 100,887 
Property, plant and equipment, net
39,440 36,766 
Other non-current assets
48,849 42,522 
Total non-current assets
216,166 180,175 
Total assets
$351,002 $323,888 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable
$54,763 $42,296 
Other current liabilities
47,493 42,684 
Deferred revenue
7,612 6,643 
Commercial paper
6,000 4,996 
Term debt
9,613 8,773 
Total current liabilities
125,481 105,392 
Non-current liabilities:
Term debt
109,106 98,667 
Other non-current liabilities
53,325 54,490 
Total non-current liabilities
162,431 153,157 
Total liabilities
287,912 258,549 
Commitments and contingencies
Shareholders’ equity:
Common stock and additional paid-in capital, $0.00001 par value: 50,400,000 shares authorized; 16,426,786 and 16,976,763 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
57,365 50,779 
Retained earnings
5,562 14,966 
Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)
163 (406)
Total shareholders’ equity
63,090 65,339 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$351,002 $323,888 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 31


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In millions, except per share amounts)

Years ended
September 25,
2021
September 26,
2020
September 28,
2019
Total shareholders’ equity, beginning balances$65,339 $90,488 $107,147 
Common stock and additional paid-in capital:
Beginning balances50,779 45,174 40,201 
Common stock issued
1,105 880 781 
Common stock withheld related to net share settlement of equity awards
(2,627)(2,250)(2,002)
Share-based compensation8,108 6,975 6,194 
Ending balances57,365 50,779 45,174 
Retained earnings:
Beginning balances14,966 45,898 70,400 
Net income94,680 57,411 55,256 
Dividends and dividend equivalents declared(14,431)(14,087)(14,129)
Common stock withheld related to net share settlement of equity awards
(4,151)(1,604)(1,029)
Common stock repurchased(85,502)(72,516)(67,101)
Cumulative effects of changes in accounting principles (136)2,501 
Ending balances5,562 14,966 45,898 
Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss):
Beginning balances(406)(584)(3,454)
Other comprehensive income/(loss)569 42 2,781 
Cumulative effects of changes in accounting principles 136 89 
Ending balances163 (406)(584)
Total shareholders’ equity, ending balances$63,090 $65,339 $90,488 
Dividends and dividend equivalents declared per share or RSU$0.85 $0.795 $0.75 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 32


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
Years ended
September 25,
2021
September 26,
2020
September 28,
2019
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning balances
$39,789 $50,224 $25,913 
Operating activities:
Net income
94,680 57,411 55,256 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash generated by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
11,284 11,056 12,547 
Share-based compensation expense
7,906 6,829 6,068 
Deferred income tax benefit(4,774)(215)(340)
Other
(147)(97)(652)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net
(10,125)6,917 245 
Inventories
(2,642)(127)(289)
Vendor non-trade receivables
(3,903)1,553 2,931 
Other current and non-current assets
(8,042)(9,588)873 
Accounts payable
12,326 (4,062)(1,923)
Deferred revenue
1,676 2,081 (625)
Other current and non-current liabilities
5,799 8,916 (4,700)
Cash generated by operating activities104,038 80,674 69,391 
Investing activities:
Purchases of marketable securities
(109,558)(114,938)(39,630)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities
59,023 69,918 40,102 
Proceeds from sales of marketable securities
47,460 50,473 56,988 
Payments for acquisition of property, plant and equipment
(11,085)(7,309)(10,495)
Payments made in connection with business acquisitions, net
(33)(1,524)(624)
Purchases of non-marketable securities
(131)(210)(1,001)
Proceeds from non-marketable securities
387 92 1,634 
Other
(608)(791)(1,078)
Cash generated by/(used in) investing activities(14,545)(4,289)45,896 
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
1,105 880 781 
Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards
(6,556)(3,634)(2,817)
Payments for dividends and dividend equivalents
(14,467)(14,081)(14,119)
Repurchases of common stock
(85,971)(72,358)(66,897)
Proceeds from issuance of term debt, net
20,393 16,091 6,963 
Repayments of term debt
(8,750)(12,629)(8,805)
Proceeds from/(Repayments of) commercial paper, net1,022 (963)(5,977)
Other
(129)(126)(105)
Cash used in financing activities
(93,353)(86,820)(90,976)
Increase/(Decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(3,860)(10,435)24,311 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, ending balances
$35,929 $39,789 $50,224 
Supplemental cash flow disclosure:
Cash paid for income taxes, net
$25,385 $9,501 $15,263 
Cash paid for interest
$2,687 $3,002 $3,423 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 33


Apple Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Preparation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Apple Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively “Apple” or the “Company”). Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Certain prior period amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation.
The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September. An additional week is included in the first fiscal quarter every five or six years to realign the Company’s fiscal quarters with calendar quarters. The Company’s fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 spanned 52 weeks each. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months and periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in September and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Financial Instruments – Credit Losses
At the beginning of the first quarter of 2021, the Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which modifies the measurement of expected credit losses on certain financial instruments. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
Advertising Costs
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company generally measures share-based compensation based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant, and recognizes expense on a straight-line basis for its estimate of equity awards that will ultimately vest. Further information regarding share-based compensation can be found in Note 9, “Benefit Plans.”
Earnings Per Share
The following table shows the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share for 2021, 2020 and 2019 (net income in millions and shares in thousands):
202120202019
Numerator:
Net income
$94,680 $57,411 $55,256 
Denominator:
Weighted-average basic shares outstanding
16,701,272 17,352,119 18,471,336 
Effect of dilutive securities
163,647 176,095 124,315 
Weighted-average diluted shares
16,864,919 17,528,214 18,595,651 
Basic earnings per share
$5.67 $3.31 $2.99 
Diluted earnings per share
$5.61 $3.28 $2.97 
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 34


The Company applies the treasury stock method to determine the dilutive effect of potentially dilutive securities. Potentially dilutive securities representing 62 million shares of common stock were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share for 2019 because their effect would have been antidilutive.
Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
All highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase are classified as cash equivalents.
The Company’s investments in marketable debt securities have been classified and accounted for as available-for-sale. The Company classifies its marketable debt securities as either short-term or long-term based on each instrument’s underlying contractual maturity date. Unrealized gains and losses on marketable debt securities classified as available-for-sale are recognized in other comprehensive income/(loss) (“OCI”).
The Company’s investments in marketable equity securities are classified based on the nature of the securities and their availability for use in current operations. The Company’s marketable equity securities are measured at fair value with gains and losses recognized in other income/(expense), net (“OI&E”).
The cost of securities sold is determined using the specific identification method.
Inventories
Inventories are measured using the first-in, first-out method.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which for buildings is the lesser of 40 years or the remaining life of the building; between one and five years for machinery and equipment, including product tooling and manufacturing process equipment; and the shorter of lease term or useful life for leasehold improvements. Capitalized costs related to internal-use software are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from five to seven years. Depreciation and amortization expense on property and equipment was $9.5 billion, $9.7 billion and $11.3 billion during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Noncash investing activities involving property, plant and equipment resulted in a net decrease to accounts payable and other current liabilities of $2.9 billion during 2019.
Restricted Cash and Restricted Marketable Securities
The Company considers cash and marketable securities to be restricted when withdrawal or general use is legally restricted. The Company reports restricted cash as other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and determines current or non-current classification based on the expected duration of the restriction. The Company reports restricted marketable securities as current or non-current marketable securities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the classification of the underlying securities.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging
All derivative instruments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. The accounting treatment for derivative gains and losses is based on intended use and hedge designation.
Gains and losses arising from amounts that are included in the assessment of cash flow hedge effectiveness are initially deferred in accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) (“AOCI”) and subsequently reclassified into earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings, and in the same line item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. For options designated as cash flow hedges, the Company excludes time value from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and recognizes it on a straight-line basis over the life of the hedge in the Consolidated Statements of Operations line item to which the hedge relates. Changes in the fair value of amounts excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness are recognized in OCI.
Gains and losses arising from amounts that are included in the assessment of fair value hedge effectiveness are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations line item to which the hedge relates along with offsetting losses and gains related to the change in value of the hedged item. For foreign exchange forward contracts designated as fair value hedges, the Company excludes the forward carry component from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and recognizes it in OI&E on a straight-line basis over the life of the hedge. Changes in the fair value of amounts excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness are recognized in OCI.
Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair values of derivative instruments that are not designated as accounting hedges are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations line items to which the derivative instruments relate.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 35


The Company presents derivative assets and liabilities at their gross fair values in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company classifies cash flows related to derivative instruments as operating activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Fair Value Measurements
The fair values of the Company’s money market funds and certain marketable equity securities are based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. The valuation techniques used to measure the fair value of the Company’s debt instruments and all other financial instruments, which generally have counterparties with high credit ratings, are based on quoted market prices or model-driven valuations using significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
Note 2 – Revenue Recognition
Net sales consist of revenue from the sale of iPhone, Mac, iPad, Services and other products. The Company recognizes revenue at the amount to which it expects to be entitled when control of the products or services is transferred to its customers. Control is generally transferred when the Company has a present right to payment and title and the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products or services are transferred to its customers. For most of the Company’s Products net sales, control transfers when products are shipped. For the Company’s Services net sales, control transfers over time as services are delivered. Payment for Products and Services net sales is collected within a short period following transfer of control or commencement of delivery of services, as applicable.
The Company records reductions to Products net sales related to future product returns, price protection and other customer incentive programs based on the Company’s expectations and historical experience.
For arrangements with multiple performance obligations, which represent promises within an arrangement that are distinct, the Company allocates revenue to all distinct performance obligations based on their relative stand-alone selling prices (“SSPs”). When available, the Company uses observable prices to determine SSPs. When observable prices are not available, SSPs are established that reflect the Company’s best estimates of what the selling prices of the performance obligations would be if they were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis. The Company’s process for estimating SSPs without observable prices considers multiple factors that may vary depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each performance obligation including, where applicable, prices charged by the Company for similar offerings, market trends in the pricing for similar offerings, product-specific business objectives and the estimated cost to provide the performance obligation.
The Company has identified up to three performance obligations regularly included in arrangements involving the sale of iPhone, Mac, iPad and certain other products. The first performance obligation, which represents the substantial portion of the allocated sales price, is the hardware and bundled software delivered at the time of sale. The second performance obligation is the right to receive certain product-related bundled services, which include iCloud®, Siri and Maps. The third performance obligation is the right to receive, on a when-and-if-available basis, future unspecified software upgrades relating to the software bundled with each device. The Company allocates revenue and any related discounts to these performance obligations based on their relative SSPs. Because the Company lacks observable prices for the undelivered performance obligations, the allocation of revenue is based on the Company’s estimated SSPs. Revenue allocated to the delivered hardware and bundled software is recognized when control has transferred to the customer, which generally occurs when the product is shipped. Revenue allocated to the product-related bundled services and unspecified software upgrade rights is deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated period they are expected to be provided. Cost of sales related to delivered hardware and bundled software, including estimated warranty costs, are recognized at the time of sale. Costs incurred to provide product-related bundled services and unspecified software upgrade rights are recognized as cost of sales as incurred.
For certain long-term service arrangements, the Company has performance obligations for services it has not yet delivered. For these arrangements, the Company does not have a right to bill for the undelivered services. The Company has determined that any unbilled consideration relates entirely to the value of the undelivered services. Accordingly, the Company has not recognized revenue, and has elected not to disclose amounts, related to these undelivered services.
For the sale of third-party products where the Company obtains control of the product before transferring it to the customer, the Company recognizes revenue based on the gross amount billed to customers. The Company considers multiple factors when determining whether it obtains control of third-party products including, but not limited to, evaluating if it can establish the price of the product, retains inventory risk for tangible products or has the responsibility for ensuring acceptability of the product. For third-party applications sold through the App Store and certain digital content sold through the Company’s other digital content stores, the Company does not obtain control of the product before transferring it to the customer. Therefore, the Company accounts for such sales on a net basis by recognizing in Services net sales only the commission it retains.
The Company has elected to record revenue net of taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities, with the collected taxes recorded within other current liabilities until remitted to the relevant government authority.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 36


Deferred Revenue
As of September 25, 2021 and September 26, 2020, the Company had total deferred revenue of $11.9 billion and $10.2 billion, respectively. As of September 25, 2021, the Company expects 64% of total deferred revenue to be realized in less than a year, 26% within one-to-two years, 8% within two-to-three years and 2% in greater than three years.
Disaggregated Revenue
Net sales disaggregated by significant products and services for 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in millions):
202120202019
iPhone (1)
$191,973 $137,781 $142,381 
Mac (1)
35,190 28,622 25,740 
iPad (1)
31,862 23,724 21,280 
Wearables, Home and Accessories (1)(2)
38,367 30,620 24,482 
Services (3)
68,425 53,768 46,291 
Total net sales (4)
$365,817 $274,515 $260,174 
(1)Products net sales include amortization of the deferred value of unspecified software upgrade rights, which are bundled in the sales price of the respective product.
(2)Wearables, Home and Accessories net sales include sales of AirPods, Apple TV, Apple Watch, Beats products, HomePod, iPod touch and accessories.
(3)Services net sales include sales from the Company’s advertising, AppleCare, cloud, digital content, payment and other services. Services net sales also include amortization of the deferred value of services bundled in the sales price of certain products.
(4)Includes $6.7 billion of revenue recognized in 2021 that was included in deferred revenue as of September 26, 2020, $5.0 billion of revenue recognized in 2020 that was included in deferred revenue as of September 28, 2019, and $5.9 billion of revenue recognized in 2019 that was included in deferred revenue as of September 29, 2018.
The Company’s proportion of net sales by disaggregated revenue source was generally consistent for each reportable segment in Note 11, “Segment Information and Geographic Data” for 2021, 2020 and 2019.
Apple Inc. | 2021 Form 10-K | 37


Note 3 – Financial Instruments
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
The following tables show the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities by significant investment category as of September 25, 2021 and September 26, 2020 (in millions):
2021
Adjusted
Cost
Unrealized
Gains
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Cash and
Cash
Equivalents
Current
Marketable
Securities
Non-Current
Marketable
Securities
Cash
$17,305 $— $— $17,305 $17,305 $ $ 
Level 1 (1):
Money market funds9,608   9,608 9,608