10-K 1 a10-k20189292018.htm 10-K Document
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 29, 2018
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 001-36743
 
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Apple Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
California
 
94-2404110
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
One Apple Park Way
Cupertino, California
 
95014
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(408) 996-1010
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share
1.000% Notes due 2022
1.375% Notes due 2024
0.875% Notes due 2025
1.625% Notes due 2026
2.000% Notes due 2027
1.375% Notes due 2029
3.050% Notes due 2029
3.600% Notes due 2042
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
New York Stock Exchange LLC
(Title of each class)
 
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, as of March 30, 2018, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $828,880,000,000. Solely for purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by executive officers and directors of the Registrant as of such date have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officers and directors as affiliates is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purposes.
4,745,398,000 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding as of October 26, 2018.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2019 annual meeting of shareholders (the “2019 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2019 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.
 



Apple Inc.

Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 29, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page



This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks and uncertainties. Many of the forward-looking statements are located in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical or current fact. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by words such as “future,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” and similar terms. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and the Company’s actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors,” which are incorporated herein by reference. All information presented herein is based on the Company’s fiscal calendar. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in September and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company” and “Apple” as used herein refers collectively to Apple Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated. The Company assumes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.
PART I
Item 1.
Business
Company Background
The Company designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media devices and personal computers, and sells a variety of related software, services, accessories and third-party digital content and applications. The Company’s products and services include iPhone®, iPad®, Mac®, Apple Watch®, AirPods®, Apple TV®, HomePod™, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications, iOS, macOS®, watchOS® and tvOS™ operating systems, iCloud®, Apple Pay® and a variety of other accessory, service and support offerings. The Company sells and delivers digital content and applications through the iTunes Store®, App Store®, Mac App Store, TV App Store, Book Store and Apple Music® (collectively “Digital Content and Services”). The Company sells its products worldwide through its retail stores, online stores and direct sales force, as well as through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. In addition, the Company sells a variety of third-party Apple-compatible products, including application software and various accessories, through its retail and online stores. The Company sells to consumers, small and mid-sized businesses and education, enterprise and government customers. The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September. The Company is a California corporation established in 1977.
Business Strategy
The Company is committed to bringing the best user experience to its customers through its innovative hardware, software and services. The Company’s business strategy leverages its unique ability to design and develop its own operating systems, hardware, application software and services to provide its customers products and solutions with innovative design, superior ease-of-use and seamless integration. As part of its strategy, the Company continues to expand its platform for the discovery and delivery of digital content and applications through its Digital Content and Services, which allows customers to discover and download or stream digital content, iOS, Mac, Apple Watch and Apple TV applications, and books through either a Mac or Windows personal computer or through iPhone, iPad and iPod touch® devices (“iOS devices”), Apple TV, Apple Watch and HomePod. The Company also supports a community for the development of third-party software and hardware products and digital content that complement the Company’s offerings. The Company believes a high-quality buying experience with knowledgeable salespersons who can convey the value of the Company’s products and services greatly enhances its ability to attract and retain customers. Therefore, the Company’s strategy also includes building and expanding its own retail and online stores and its third-party distribution network to effectively reach more customers and provide them with a high-quality sales and post-sales support experience. The Company believes ongoing investment in research and development (“R&D”), marketing and advertising is critical to the development and sale of innovative products, services and technologies.
Products
iPhone
iPhone is the Company’s line of smartphones based on its iOS operating system. iPhone includes Siri®, an intelligent assistant, and Apple Pay, Touch ID® and Face ID® on qualifying devices. In September 2018, the Company introduced three new iPhones. iPhone Xs and Xs Max feature a Super Retina™ OLED display, an all-screen stainless steel and glass design, faster processors and enhanced cameras, and were available beginning in September 2018. iPhone XR features a Liquid Retina™ LCD display in an all-screen aluminum and glass design, and was available beginning in October 2018. The Company’s line of smartphones also includes iPhone 8, 8 Plus, 7 and 7 Plus models. iPhone works with the iTunes Store, App Store, Book Store and Apple Music for purchasing, organizing and playing digital content and apps.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 1


iPad
iPad is the Company’s line of multi-purpose tablets based on its iOS operating system, which includes iPad Pro®, iPad and iPad mini®. iPad includes Siri, Apple Pay and Touch ID. In March 2018, the Company released a new 9.7-inch iPad with Apple Pencil® compatibility. In October 2018, the Company introduced a new version of iPad Pro as well as a new Apple Pencil and Smart Keyboard Folio™. The new 11-inch and 12.9-inch iPad Pro models feature a Liquid Retina LCD display in an all-screen aluminum and glass design and integrate Face ID. iPad works with the iTunes Store, App Store, Book Store and Apple Music for purchasing, organizing and playing digital content and apps.
Mac
Mac is the Company’s line of desktop and portable personal computers based on its macOS operating system. Mac includes Siri and supports Apple Pay, and also includes Touch ID on qualifying devices. The Company’s desktop computers include iMac® 21.5-inch, iMac 21.5-inch with Retina® 4K display, iMac 27-inch with Retina 5K display, iMac Pro®, Mac Pro® and Mac mini®. The Company’s portable computers include MacBook®, MacBook Air®, MacBook Pro® and MacBook Pro with Touch Bar™. In October 2018, the Company introduced a new MacBook Air featuring a Retina display and Touch ID, and a new Mac mini with upgraded performance.
Operating Systems
iOS
iOS is the Company’s mobile operating system that serves as the foundation for iOS devices. Devices running iOS are compatible with both Mac and Windows personal computers and Apple’s iCloud services. In September 2018, the Company released iOS 12, which includes improved performance and responsiveness, new augmented reality capabilities and expressive communication features, and introduces Siri Shortcuts, enabling Siri to intelligently pair with third-party apps.
macOS
macOS is the Company’s desktop operating system and is built on an open-source UNIX-based foundation and provides an intuitive and integrated computer experience. Support for iCloud is built into macOS so users can access content and information from Mac, iOS devices and other supported devices and access downloaded content and apps from the iTunes Store. macOS Mojave, released in September 2018, is the 15th major release of macOS and makes apps such as News, Stocks, Voice Memos and Home available on the Mac for the first time. macOS Mojave also adds desktop and Finder® enhancements, such as Dark Mode, and introduces a full redesign of the Mac App Store.
watchOS
watchOS is the Company’s operating system for Apple Watch. In September 2018, the Company released watchOS 5, which helps users stay healthy and connected with new features including Activity Sharing competitions, auto-workout detection, advanced running features, Walkie-Talkie, Apple Podcasts and third-party apps on the Siri watch face.
tvOS
tvOS is the Company’s operating system for Apple TV. The tvOS operating system is based on the Company’s iOS platform and enables developers to create new apps and games specifically for Apple TV and deliver them to customers through the Apple TV App Store. tvOS incorporates Siri capabilities that allow searching across apps and services. In September 2018, the Company released tvOS 12, which supports enhanced sound quality and provides additional 4K high dynamic range (“HDR”) content.
Services
Digital Content and Services
The iTunes Store, available for iOS devices, Mac and Windows personal computers and Apple TV, allows customers to purchase and download or stream music and TV shows, rent or purchase movies and download free podcasts. The App Store, available for iOS devices, allows customers to discover and download apps and purchase in-app content. The Mac App Store, available for Mac computers, allows customers to discover, download and install Mac applications. The TV App Store allows customers access to apps and games specifically for Apple TV. The Book Store, available for iOS devices and Mac computers, features e-books from major and independent publishers. Apple Music offers users a curated listening experience with on-demand radio stations that evolve based on a user’s play or download activity and a subscription-based internet streaming service that also provides unlimited access to the Apple Music library.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 2


iCloud
iCloud is the Company’s cloud service which stores music, photos, contacts, calendars, mail, documents and more, keeping them up-to-date and available across multiple iOS devices, Mac and Windows personal computers and Apple TV. iCloud services include iCloud Drive®, iCloud Photos, Family Sharing, Find My iPhone, iPad or Mac, Find My Friends, Notes, iCloud Keychain® and iCloud Backup for iOS devices.
AppleCare
The Company offers a range of support options for its customers. These include assistance that is built into software products, electronic product manuals, online support including comprehensive product information as well as technical assistance, AppleCare + (“AC+”) and the AppleCare® Protection Plan (“APP”). AC+ and APP are fee-based services that extend the coverage of phone support eligibility and hardware repairs. AC+ offers additional coverage for instances of accidental damage and is available in certain countries for certain products. Additionally, AC+ with theft and loss protection is available for iPhone in the U.S.
Apple Pay
Apple Pay is the Company’s cashless payment service available in certain countries that offers an easy, secure and private way to pay. Apple Pay allows users to pay for purchases in participating stores accepting contactless payments and to pay for purchases within participating apps on qualifying devices. Apple Pay accepts credit and debit cards across major card networks and also supports reward programs and store-issued credit and debit cards. In December 2017, the Company released an update to iOS 11 and watchOS 4 introducing Apple Pay Cash in the U.S., allowing peer-to-peer payments using Apple Pay.
Other Products
Apple TV
Apple TV connects to consumers’ TVs and enables them to access digital content directly for streaming video, playing music and games, and viewing photos. Content from Apple Music and other media services is also available on Apple TV. Apple TV allows streaming digital content from Mac and Windows personal computers through Home Sharing and from compatible Mac and iOS devices through AirPlay®. Apple TV runs on the Company’s tvOS operating system and is based on apps built for the television. Additionally, the Apple TV remote features Siri, allowing users to search and access content with their voice. The Company offers Apple TV and Apple TV 4K®, which supports 4K and HDR content.
Apple Watch
Apple Watch is a personal electronic device that combines the watchOS user interface and technologies created specifically for a smaller device, including the Digital Crown®, a unique navigation tool that allows users to seamlessly scroll, zoom and navigate, and Force Touch, a technology that senses the difference between a tap and a press and allows users to access controls within apps. Apple Watch enables users to communicate from their wrist, track their health and fitness through activity and workout apps, and includes Siri and Apple Pay. In September 2018, the Company introduced Apple Watch Series 4, with a new design including a larger display and thinner case, and featuring new health monitoring capabilities.
Other
The Company also sells AirPods, Beats® products, HomePod, iPod touch and other Apple-branded and third-party accessories. AirPods are the Company’s wireless headphones that interact with Siri. In February 2018, the Company released HomePod, a high-fidelity wireless smart speaker that interacts with Siri and Apple Music.
Developer Programs
The Company’s developer programs support app developers with building, testing and distributing apps for iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS. Developer program membership provides access to beta software and advanced app capabilities (e.g., CloudKit®, HealthKit™ and Apple Pay), the ability to test apps using TestFlight®, distribution on the App Store, access to App Analytics and code-level technical support. Developer programs also exist for businesses creating apps for internal use (the Apple Developer Enterprise Program) and developers creating accessories for Apple devices (the MFi Program). All developers, even those who are not developer program members, can sign in with their Apple ID to post on the Apple Developer Forums and use Xcode®, the Company’s integrated development environment for creating apps for Apple platforms. Xcode includes project management tools; analysis tools to collect, display and compare app performance data; simulation tools to locally run, test and debug apps; and tools to simplify the design and development of user interfaces. All developers also have access to extensive technical documentation and sample code.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 3


Markets and Distribution
The Company’s customers are primarily in the consumer, small and mid-sized business, education, enterprise and government markets. The Company sells its products and resells third-party products in most of its major markets directly to consumers and small and mid-sized businesses through its retail and online stores and its direct sales force. The Company also employs a variety of indirect distribution channels, such as third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. During 2018, the Company’s net sales through its direct and indirect distribution channels accounted for 29% and 71%, respectively, of total net sales.
The Company believes that sales of its innovative and differentiated products and services are enhanced by knowledgeable salespersons who can convey the value of the hardware and software integration and demonstrate the unique solutions that are available on its products. The Company further believes providing direct contact with its targeted customers is an effective way to demonstrate the advantages of its products over those of its competitors and providing a high-quality sales and after-sales support experience is critical to attracting new and retaining existing customers.
To ensure a high-quality buying experience for its products in which service and education are emphasized, the Company continues to build and improve its distribution capabilities by expanding the number of its own retail stores worldwide. The Company’s retail stores are typically located at high-traffic locations in quality shopping malls and urban shopping districts. By operating its own stores and locating them in desirable high-traffic locations the Company is better positioned to ensure a high-quality customer buying experience and attract new customers. The stores are designed to simplify and enhance the presentation and marketing of the Company’s products and related solutions. The retail stores employ experienced and knowledgeable personnel who provide product advice, service and training, and offer a wide selection of third-party hardware, software and other accessories that complement the Company’s products.
The Company has also invested in programs to enhance reseller sales by placing high-quality Apple fixtures, merchandising materials and other resources within selected third-party reseller locations. Through the Apple Premium Reseller Program, certain third-party resellers focus on the Apple platform by providing a high level of product expertise, integration and support services.
The Company is committed to delivering solutions to help educators teach and students learn. The Company believes effective integration of technology into classroom instruction can result in higher levels of student achievement and has designed a range of products, services and programs to address the needs of education customers. The Company also supports mobile learning and real-time distribution of, and access to, education-related materials through iTunes U®, a platform that allows students and teachers to share and distribute educational media online. The Company sells its products to the education market through its direct sales force, select third-party resellers and its retail and online stores.
The Company also sells its hardware and software products to enterprise and government customers in each of its reportable segments. The Company’s products are deployed in these markets because of their performance, productivity, ease-of-use and seamless integration into information technology environments. The Company’s products are compatible with thousands of third-party business applications and services, and its tools enable the development and secure deployment of custom applications as well as remote device administration.
No single customer accounted for more than 10% of net sales in 2018, 2017 and 2016.
Competition
The markets for the Company’s products and services are highly competitive and the Company is confronted by aggressive competition in all areas of its business. These markets are characterized by frequent product introductions and rapid technological advances that have substantially increased the capabilities and use of mobile communication and media devices, personal computers and other digital electronic devices. Many of the Company’s competitors that sell mobile devices and personal computers based on other operating systems seek to compete primarily through aggressive pricing and very low cost structures. The Company’s financial condition and operating results can be adversely affected by these and other industry-wide downward pressures on gross margins. Principal competitive factors important to the Company include price, product and service features (including security features), relative price and performance, product and service quality and reliability, design innovation, a strong third-party software and accessories ecosystem, marketing and distribution capability, service and support and corporate reputation.
The Company is focused on expanding its market opportunities related to personal computers and mobile communication and media devices. These markets are highly competitive and include many large, well-funded and experienced participants. The Company expects competition in these markets to intensify significantly as competitors attempt to imitate some of the features of the Company’s products and applications within their own products or, alternatively, collaborate with each other to offer solutions that are more competitive than those they currently offer. These markets are characterized by aggressive price competition, frequent product introductions, evolving design approaches and technologies, rapid adoption of technological advancements by competitors and price sensitivity on the part of consumers and businesses.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 4


The Company’s services also face substantial competition, including from companies that have significant resources and experience and have established service offerings with large customer bases. The Company competes with business models that provide content to users for free. The Company also competes with illegitimate means to obtain third-party digital content and applications.
The Company’s future financial condition and operating results depend on the Company’s ability to continue to develop and offer new innovative products and services in each of the markets in which it competes. The Company believes it offers superior innovation and integration of the entire solution including the hardware (iOS devices, Mac, Apple Watch and Apple TV), software (iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS), online services and distribution of digital content and applications (Digital Content and Services). Some of the Company’s current and potential competitors have substantial resources and may be able to provide such products and services at little or no profit or even at a loss to compete with the Company’s offerings.
Supply of Components
Although most components essential to the Company’s business are generally available from multiple sources, certain components are currently obtained from single or limited sources. In addition, the Company competes for various components with other participants in the markets for mobile communication and media devices and personal computers. Therefore, many components used by the Company, including those that are available from multiple sources, are at times subject to industry-wide shortage and significant commodity pricing fluctuations that could materially adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
The Company uses some custom components that are not commonly used by its competitors, and new products introduced by the Company often utilize custom components available from only one source. When a component or product uses new technologies, initial capacity constraints may exist until the suppliers’ yields have matured or manufacturing capacity has increased. If the Company’s supply of components for a new or existing product were delayed or constrained, or if an outsourcing partner delayed shipments of completed products to the Company, the Company’s financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. The Company’s business and financial performance could also be materially adversely affected depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the original source, or to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source. Continued availability of these components at acceptable prices, or at all, may be affected if suppliers decide to concentrate on the production of common components instead of components customized to meet the Company’s requirements.
The Company has entered into agreements for the supply of many components; however, there can be no guarantee that the Company will be able to extend or renew these agreements on similar terms, or at all. Therefore, the Company remains subject to significant risks of supply shortages and price increases that could materially adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.
Substantially all of the Company’s hardware products are manufactured by outsourcing partners that are located primarily in Asia, with some Mac computers manufactured in the U.S. and Ireland. A significant concentration of this manufacturing is currently performed by a small number of outsourcing partners, often in single locations. Certain of these outsourcing partners are single-sourced suppliers of components and manufacturers for many of the Company’s products. Although the Company works closely with its outsourcing partners on manufacturing schedules, the Company’s financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected if its outsourcing partners were unable to meet their production commitments. The Company’s manufacturing purchase obligations typically cover its requirements for periods up to 150 days.
Research and Development
Because the industries in which the Company competes are characterized by rapid technological advances, the Company’s ability to compete successfully depends heavily upon its ability to ensure a continual and timely flow of competitive products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company continues to develop new technologies to enhance existing products and services, and to expand the range of its offerings through R&D, licensing of intellectual property and acquisition of third-party businesses and technology.
Intellectual Property
The Company currently holds a broad collection of intellectual property rights relating to certain aspects of its hardware devices, accessories, software and services. This includes patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, trade dress and other forms of intellectual property rights in the U.S. and a number of foreign countries. Although the Company believes the ownership of such intellectual property rights is an important factor in its business and that its success does depend in part on such ownership, the Company relies primarily on the innovative skills, technical competence and marketing abilities of its personnel.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 5


The Company regularly files patent applications to protect innovations arising from its research, development and design, and is currently pursuing thousands of patent applications around the world. Over time, the Company has accumulated a large portfolio of issued patents, including utility patents, design patents and others. The Company also holds copyrights relating to certain aspects of its products and services. No single intellectual property right is solely responsible for protecting the Company’s products. The Company believes the duration of its intellectual property rights is adequate relative to the expected lives of its products.
Many of the Company’s products are designed to include intellectual property obtained from third parties. It may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of the Company’s products, processes and services. While the Company has generally been able to obtain such licenses on commercially reasonable terms in the past, there is no guarantee that such licenses could be obtained in the future on reasonable terms or at all. Because of technological changes in the industries in which the Company competes, current extensive patent coverage and the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, it is possible that certain components of the Company’s products, processes and services may unknowingly infringe existing patents or intellectual property rights of others. From time to time, the Company has been notified that it may be infringing certain patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties.
Foreign and Domestic Operations and Geographic Data
During 2018, the Company’s domestic and international net sales accounted for 37% and 63%, respectively, of total net sales. Gross margins on the Company’s products in foreign countries and on products that include components obtained from foreign suppliers, can be adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and by international trade regulations, including duties, tariffs and antidumping penalties.
Business Seasonality and Product Introductions
The Company has historically experienced higher net sales in its first quarter compared to other quarters in its fiscal year due in part to seasonal holiday demand. Additionally, new product introductions can significantly impact net sales, product costs and operating expenses. Product introductions can also impact the Company’s net sales to its indirect distribution channels as these channels are filled with new product inventory following a product introduction, and channel inventory of a particular product often declines as the next related major product launch approaches. Net sales can also be affected when consumers and distributors anticipate a product introduction. However, neither historical seasonal patterns nor historical patterns of product introductions should be considered reliable indicators of the Company’s future pattern of product introductions, future net sales or financial performance.
Warranty
The Company offers a limited parts and labor warranty on its hardware products. The basic warranty period is typically one year from the date of purchase by the original end user. The Company also offers a 90-day limited warranty on the service parts used to repair the Company’s hardware products. In certain jurisdictions, local law requires that manufacturers guarantee their products for a period prescribed by statute, typically at least two years. In addition, where available, consumers may purchase APP or AC+, which extends service coverage on many of the Company’s hardware products.
Backlog
In the Company’s experience, the actual amount of product backlog at any particular time is not a meaningful indication of its future business prospects. In particular, backlog often increases immediately following new product introductions as customers anticipate shortages. Backlog is often reduced once customers believe they can obtain sufficient supply. Because of the foregoing, backlog should not be considered a reliable indicator of the Company’s ability to achieve any particular level of revenue or financial performance.
Employees
As of September 29, 2018, the Company had approximately 132,000 full-time equivalent employees.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 6


Available Information
The Company’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The Company is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and files or furnishes reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Such reports and other information filed by the Company with the SEC are available free of charge at investor.apple.com/investor-relations/sec-filings/default.aspx when such reports are available on the SEC’s website. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The Company periodically provides other information for investors on its corporate website, www.apple.com, and its investor relations website, investor.apple.com. This includes press releases and other information about financial performance, information on corporate governance and details related to the Company’s annual meeting of shareholders. The information contained on the websites referenced in this Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this filing. Further, the Company’s references to website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 7


Item 1A.
Risk Factors
The following discussion of risk factors contains forward-looking statements. These risk factors may be important to understanding other statements in this Form 10-K. The following information should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K.
The business, financial condition and operating results of the Company can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described below, any one or more of which could, directly or indirectly, cause the Company’s actual financial condition and operating results to vary materially from past, or from anticipated future, financial condition and operating results. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, operating results and stock price.
Because of the following factors, as well as other factors affecting the Company’s financial condition and operating results, past financial performance should not be considered to be a reliable indicator of future performance, and investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
Global and regional economic conditions could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and growth.
The Company has international operations with sales outside the U.S. representing a majority of the Company’s total net sales. In addition, a majority of the Company’s supply chain, and its manufacturing and assembly activities, are located outside the U.S. As a result, the Company’s operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions.
Adverse macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, slower growth or recession, new or increased tariffs, changes to fiscal and monetary policy, tighter credit, higher interest rates, high unemployment and currency fluctuations could materially adversely affect demand for the Company’s products and services. In addition, consumer confidence and spending could be adversely affected in response to financial market volatility, negative financial news, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, declines in income or asset values, changes to fuel and other energy costs, labor and healthcare costs and other economic factors.
In addition to an adverse impact on demand for the Company’s products, uncertainty about, or a decline in, global or regional economic conditions could have a significant impact on the Company’s suppliers, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, distributors, cellular network carriers and other channel partners. Potential effects include financial instability; inability to obtain credit to finance operations and purchases of the Company’s products; and insolvency.
A downturn in the economic environment could also lead to increased credit and collectibility risk on the Company’s trade receivables; the failure of derivative counterparties and other financial institutions; limitations on the Company’s ability to issue new debt; reduced liquidity; and declines in the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments. These and other economic factors could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and growth.
Global markets for the Company’s products and services are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change, and the Company may be unable to compete effectively in these markets.
The Company’s products and services are offered in highly competitive global markets characterized by aggressive price competition and resulting downward pressure on gross margins, frequent introduction of new products and services, short product life cycles, evolving industry standards, continual improvement in product price/performance characteristics, rapid adoption of technological advancements by competitors and price sensitivity on the part of consumers and businesses.
The Company’s ability to compete successfully depends heavily on its ability to ensure a continuing and timely introduction of innovative new products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company believes it is unique in that it designs and develops nearly the entire solution for its products, including the hardware, operating system, numerous software applications and related services. As a result, the Company must make significant investments in R&D. There can be no assurance that these investments will achieve expected returns, and the Company may not be able to develop and market new products and services successfully.
The Company currently holds a significant number of patents and copyrights and has registered, and applied to register, numerous patents, trademarks and service marks. In contrast, many of the Company’s competitors seek to compete primarily through aggressive pricing and very low cost structures, and emulating the Company’s products and infringing on its intellectual property. If the Company is unable to continue to develop and sell innovative new products with attractive margins or if competitors infringe on the Company’s intellectual property, the Company’s ability to maintain a competitive advantage could be adversely affected.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 8


The Company has a minority market share in the global smartphone, tablet and personal computer markets. The Company faces substantial competition in these markets from companies that have significant technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, as well as established hardware, software and digital content supplier relationships. In addition, some of the Company’s competitors have broader product lines, lower-priced products and a larger installed base of active devices. Competition has been particularly intense as competitors have aggressively cut prices and lowered product margins. Certain competitors may have the resources, experience or cost structures to provide products at little or no profit or even at a loss.
Additionally, the Company faces significant competition as competitors attempt to imitate the Company’s product features and applications within their own products or, alternatively, collaborate with each other to offer solutions that are more competitive than those they currently offer. The Company also expects competition to intensify as competitors attempt to imitate the Company’s approach to providing components seamlessly within their individual offerings or work collaboratively to offer integrated solutions.
Some of the markets in which the Company competes, including the market for personal computers, have from time to time experienced little to no growth or contracted. In addition, an increasing number of internet-enabled devices that include software applications and are smaller, simpler and cheaper than traditional personal computers compete with some of the Company’s existing products.
The Company’s services also face substantial competition, including from companies that have significant resources and experience and have established service offerings with large customer bases. The Company competes with business models that provide content to users for free. The Company also competes with illegitimate means to obtain third-party digital content and applications.
The Company’s financial condition and operating results depend substantially on the Company’s ability to continually improve its products and services in order to maintain their functional and design advantages. There can be no assurance the Company will be able to continue to provide products and services that compete effectively.
To remain competitive and stimulate customer demand, the Company must successfully manage frequent introductions and transitions of products and services.
Due to the highly volatile and competitive nature of the industries in which the Company competes, the Company must continually introduce new products, services and technologies, enhance existing products and services, effectively stimulate customer demand for new and upgraded products and services and successfully manage the transition to these new and upgraded products and services. The success of new product and service introductions depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to, timely and successful development, market acceptance, the Company’s ability to manage the risks associated with new product production ramp-up issues, the availability of application software for new products, the effective management of purchase commitments and inventory levels in line with anticipated product demand, the availability of products in appropriate quantities and at expected costs to meet anticipated demand and the risk that new products and services may have quality or other defects or deficiencies. Accordingly, the Company cannot determine in advance the ultimate effect of new product and service introductions and transitions.
The Company depends on the performance of carriers, wholesalers, retailers and other resellers.
The Company distributes its products through cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers, many of whom distribute products from competing manufacturers. The Company also sells its products and third-party products in most of its major markets directly to education, enterprise and government customers and consumers and small and mid-sized businesses through its retail and online stores.
Some carriers providing cellular network service for iPhone offer financing, installment payment plans or subsidies for users’ purchases of the device. There is no assurance that such offers will be continued at all or in the same amounts upon renewal of the Company’s agreements with these carriers or in agreements the Company enters into with new carriers.
The Company has invested and will continue to invest in programs to enhance reseller sales, including staffing selected resellers’ stores with Company employees and contractors, and improving product placement displays. These programs could require a substantial investment while providing no assurance of return or incremental revenue. The financial condition of these resellers could weaken, these resellers could stop distributing the Company’s products, or uncertainty regarding demand for some or all of the Company’s products could cause resellers to reduce their ordering and marketing of the Company’s products.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 9


The Company faces substantial inventory and other asset risk in addition to purchase commitment cancellation risk.
The Company records a write-down for product and component inventories that have become obsolete or exceed anticipated demand, or for which cost exceeds net realizable value. The Company also accrues necessary cancellation fee reserves for orders of excess products and components. The Company reviews long-lived assets, including capital assets held at its suppliers’ facilities and inventory prepayments, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate the assets may not be recoverable. If the Company determines that an impairment has occurred, it records a write-down equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. Although the Company believes its inventory, capital assets, inventory prepayments and other assets and purchase commitments are currently recoverable, no assurance can be given that the Company will not incur write-downs, fees, impairments and other charges given the rapid and unpredictable pace of product obsolescence in the industries in which the Company competes.
The Company orders components for its products and builds inventory in advance of product announcements and shipments. Manufacturing purchase obligations cover the Company’s forecasted component and manufacturing requirements, typically for periods up to 150 days. Because the Company’s markets are volatile, competitive and subject to rapid technology and price changes, there is a risk the Company will forecast incorrectly and order or produce excess or insufficient amounts of components or products, or not fully utilize firm purchase commitments.
Future operating results depend upon the Company’s ability to obtain components in sufficient quantities on commercially reasonable terms.
Because the Company currently obtains certain components from single or limited sources, the Company is subject to significant supply and pricing risks. Many components, including those that are available from multiple sources, are at times subject to industry-wide shortages and significant commodity pricing fluctuations that could materially adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results. While the Company has entered into agreements for the supply of many components, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to extend or renew these agreements on similar terms, or at all. Component suppliers may suffer from poor financial conditions, which can lead to business failure for the supplier or consolidation within a particular industry, further limiting the Company’s ability to obtain sufficient quantities of components on commercially reasonable terms. The effects of global or regional economic conditions on the Company’s suppliers, described in Global and regional economic conditions could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and growth above, also could affect the Company’s ability to obtain components. Therefore, the Company remains subject to significant risks of supply shortages and price increases that could materially adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.
The Company’s new products often utilize custom components available from only one source. When a component or product uses new technologies, initial capacity constraints may exist until the suppliers’ yields have matured or manufacturing capacity has increased. Continued availability of these components at acceptable prices, or at all, may be affected for any number of reasons, including if suppliers decide to concentrate on the production of common components instead of components customized to meet the Company’s requirements. If the Company’s supply of components for a new or existing product were delayed or constrained, or if an outsourcing partner delayed shipments of completed products to the Company, the Company’s financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. The Company’s business and financial performance could also be materially adversely affected depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the original source, or to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source.
The Company depends on component and product manufacturing and logistical services provided by outsourcing partners, many of which are located outside of the U.S.
Substantially all of the Company’s manufacturing is performed in whole or in part by outsourcing partners located primarily in Asia. A significant concentration of this manufacturing is currently performed by a small number of outsourcing partners, often in single locations. The Company has also outsourced much of its transportation and logistics management. While these arrangements may lower operating costs, they also reduce the Company’s direct control over production and distribution. Such diminished control may have an adverse effect on the quality or quantity of products or services, or the Company’s flexibility to respond to changing conditions. Although arrangements with these partners may contain provisions for warranty expense reimbursement, the Company may remain responsible to the consumer for warranty service in the event of product defects and could experience an unanticipated product defect or warranty liability. While the Company relies on its partners to adhere to its supplier code of conduct, material violations of the supplier code of conduct could occur.
The Company relies on single-sourced outsourcing partners in the U.S., Asia and Europe to supply and manufacture many components, and on outsourcing partners primarily located in Asia, for final assembly of substantially all of the Company’s hardware products. Any failure of these partners to perform may have a negative impact on the Company’s cost or supply of components or finished goods. In addition, manufacturing or logistics in these locations or transit to final destinations may be disrupted for a variety of reasons including, but not limited to, natural and man-made disasters, information technology system failures, commercial disputes, military actions, economic, business, labor, environmental, public health or political issues, or international trade disputes.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 10


The Company has invested in manufacturing process equipment, much of which is held at certain of its outsourcing partners, and has made prepayments to certain of its suppliers associated with long-term supply agreements. While these arrangements help ensure the supply of components and finished goods, if these outsourcing partners or suppliers experience severe financial problems or other disruptions in their business, such continued supply could be reduced or terminated and the recoverability of manufacturing process equipment or prepayments could be negatively impacted.
The Company’s products and services may be affected from time to time by design and manufacturing defects that could materially adversely affect the Company’s business and result in harm to the Company’s reputation.
The Company offers complex hardware and software products and services that can be affected by design and manufacturing defects. Sophisticated operating system software and applications, such as those offered by the Company, often have issues that can unexpectedly interfere with the intended operation of hardware or software products. Defects may also exist in components and products the Company purchases from third parties. Component defects could make the Company’s products unsafe and create a risk of environmental or property damage and personal injury. These risks may increase as the Company’s products are introduced into specialized applications, including healthcare. In addition, the Company’s service offerings may have quality issues and from time to time experience outages, service slowdowns or errors. As a result, the Company’s services may not perform as anticipated and may not meet customer expectations. There can be no assurance the Company will be able to detect and fix all issues and defects in the hardware, software and services it offers. Failure to do so could result in widespread technical and performance issues affecting the Company’s products and services. In addition, the Company may be exposed to product liability claims, recalls, product replacements or modifications, write-offs of inventory, property, plant and equipment, and/or intangible assets, and significant warranty and other expenses, including litigation costs and regulatory fines. Quality problems could also adversely affect the experience for users of the Company’s products and services, and result in harm to the Company’s reputation, loss of competitive advantage, poor market acceptance, reduced demand for products and services, delay in new product and services introductions and lost revenue.
The Company relies on access to third-party digital content, which may not be available to the Company on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
The Company contracts with numerous third parties to offer their digital content to customers. This includes the right to sell currently available music, movies, TV shows and books. The licensing or other distribution arrangements with these third parties are for relatively short terms and do not guarantee the continuation or renewal of these arrangements on reasonable terms, if at all. Some third-party content providers and distributors currently or in the future may offer competing products and services, and could take action to make it more difficult or impossible for the Company to license or otherwise distribute their content in the future. Other content owners, providers or distributors may seek to limit the Company’s access to, or increase the cost of, such content. The Company may be unable to continue to offer a wide variety of content at reasonable prices with acceptable usage rules, or continue to expand its geographic reach. Failure to obtain the right to make third-party digital content available, or to make such content available on commercially reasonable terms, could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Some third-party digital content providers require the Company to provide digital rights management and other security solutions. If requirements change, the Company may have to develop or license new technology to provide these solutions. There is no assurance the Company will be able to develop or license such solutions at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner. In addition, certain countries have passed or may propose and adopt legislation that would force the Company to license its digital rights management, which could lessen the protection of content and subject it to piracy and also could negatively affect arrangements with the Company’s content providers.
The Company’s future performance depends in part on support from third-party software developers.
The Company believes decisions by customers to purchase its hardware products depend in part on the availability of third-party software applications and services. There is no assurance that third-party developers will continue to develop and maintain software applications and services for the Company’s products. If third-party software applications and services cease to be developed and maintained for the Company’s products, customers may choose not to buy the Company’s products.
The Company believes the availability of third-party software applications and services for its products depends in part on the developers’ perception and analysis of the relative benefits of developing, maintaining and upgrading such software and services for the Company’s products compared to competitors’ platforms, such as Android for smartphones and tablets and Windows for personal computers. This analysis may be based on factors such as the market position of the Company and its products, the anticipated revenue that may be generated, expected future growth of product sales and the costs of developing such applications and services.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 11


The Company’s minority market share in the global smartphone, tablet and personal computer markets could make developers less inclined to develop or upgrade software for the Company’s products and more inclined to devote their resources to developing and upgrading software for competitors’ products with larger market share. If developers focus their efforts on these competing platforms, the availability and quality of applications for the Company’s devices may suffer.
The Company relies on the continued availability and development of compelling and innovative software applications for its products. The Company’s products and operating systems are subject to rapid technological change, and if third-party developers are unable to or choose not to keep up with this pace of change, third-party applications might not take advantage of these changes to deliver improved customer experiences or might not operate correctly and may result in dissatisfied customers.
The Company sells and delivers third-party applications for its products through the App Store, Mac App Store and TV App Store. The Company retains a commission from sales through these platforms. If developers reduce their use of these platforms to distribute their applications and offer in-app purchases to customers, then the volume of sales, and the commission that the Company earns on those sales, would decrease.
The Company relies on access to third-party intellectual property, which may not be available to the Company on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Many of the Company’s products include third-party intellectual property, which requires licenses from those third parties. Based on past experience and industry practice, the Company believes such licenses generally can be obtained on reasonable terms. There is, however, no assurance that the necessary licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or at all. Failure to obtain the right to use third-party intellectual property, or to use such intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms, could preclude the Company from selling certain products or services, or otherwise have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
The Company could be impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings, such as being found to have infringed on intellectual property rights.
The Company is subject to various legal proceedings and claims that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and have not yet been fully resolved, and new claims may arise in the future. In addition, agreements entered into by the Company sometimes include indemnification provisions which may subject the Company to costs and damages in the event of a claim against an indemnified third party.
Claims against the Company based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights have generally increased over time and may continue to increase. In particular, the Company has historically faced a significant number of patent claims relating to its cellular-enabled products, and new claims may arise in the future. For example, technology and other patent-holding companies frequently assert their patents and seek royalties and often enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. The Company is vigorously defending infringement actions in courts in a number of U.S. jurisdictions and before the U.S. International Trade Commission, as well as internationally in various countries. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the merit of particular claims, litigation may be expensive, time consuming, disruptive to the Company’s operations and distracting to management. In recognition of these considerations, the Company may enter into licensing agreements or other arrangements to settle litigation and resolve such disputes. No assurance can be given that such agreements can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These agreements may also significantly increase the Company’s operating expenses.
Except as described in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies,” in the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to loss contingencies for asserted legal and other claims, including matters related to infringement of intellectual property rights.
The outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company or an indemnified third party in a reporting period for amounts in excess of management’s expectations, the Company’s financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. Further, such an outcome could result in significant compensatory, punitive or trebled monetary damages, disgorgement of revenue or profits, remedial corporate measures or injunctive relief against the Company that could materially adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.
While the Company maintains insurance coverage for certain types of claims, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 12


The Company is subject to laws and regulations worldwide, changes to which could increase the Company’s costs and individually or in the aggregate adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company is subject to laws and regulations affecting its domestic and international operations in a number of areas. These U.S. and foreign laws and regulations affect the Company’s activities in areas including, but not limited to, labor, advertising, digital content, consumer protection, real estate, billing, e-commerce, promotions, quality of services, telecommunications, mobile communications and media, television, intellectual property ownership and infringement, tax, import and export requirements, anti-corruption, foreign exchange controls and cash repatriation restrictions, data privacy and data localization requirements, anti-competition, environmental, health and safety.
By way of example, laws and regulations related to mobile communications and media devices in the many jurisdictions in which the Company operates are extensive and subject to change. Such changes could include, among others, restrictions on the production, manufacture, distribution and use of devices, locking devices to a carrier’s network, or mandating the use of devices on more than one carrier’s network. These devices are also subject to certification and regulation by governmental and standardization bodies, as well as by cellular network carriers for use on their networks. These certification processes are extensive and time consuming, and could result in additional testing requirements, product modifications, or delays in product shipment dates, or could preclude the Company from selling certain products.
Compliance with these laws, regulations and similar requirements may be onerous and expensive, and they may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, further increasing the cost of compliance and doing business. Any such costs, which may rise in the future as a result of changes in these laws and regulations or in their interpretation, could individually or in the aggregate make the Company’s products and services less attractive to the Company’s customers, delay the introduction of new products in one or more regions, or cause the Company to change or limit its business practices. The Company has implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but there can be no assurance that the Company’s employees, contractors, or agents will not violate such laws and regulations or the Company’s policies and procedures.
The Company’s business is subject to the risks of international operations.
The Company derives a majority of its revenue and earnings from its international operations. Compliance with applicable U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, such as import and export requirements, anti-corruption laws, tax laws, foreign exchange controls and cash repatriation restrictions, data privacy and data localization requirements, environmental laws, labor laws and anti-competition regulations, increases the costs of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. Although the Company has implemented policies and procedures to comply with these laws and regulations, a violation by the Company’s employees, contractors or agents could nevertheless occur. In some cases, compliance with the laws and regulations of one country could violate the laws and regulations of another country. Violations of these laws and regulations could materially adversely affect the Company’s brand, international growth efforts and business.
The Company also could be significantly affected by other risks associated with international activities including, but not limited to, economic and labor conditions, increased duties, taxes and other costs, political instability and international trade disputes. Gross margins on the Company’s products in foreign countries, and on products that include components obtained from foreign suppliers, could be materially adversely affected by international trade regulations, including duties, tariffs and antidumping penalties. The Company is also exposed to credit and collectibility risk on its trade receivables with customers in certain international markets. There can be no assurance the Company can effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses.
The Company’s retail stores have required and will continue to require a substantial investment and commitment of resources and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
The Company’s retail stores have required substantial investment in equipment and leasehold improvements, information systems, inventory and personnel. The Company also has entered into substantial operating lease commitments for retail space. Certain stores have been designed and built to serve as high-profile venues to promote brand awareness. Because of their unique design elements, locations and size, these stores require substantially more investment than the Company’s more typical retail stores. Due to the high cost structure associated with the Company’s retail stores, a decline in sales or the closure or poor performance of individual or multiple stores could result in significant lease termination costs, write-offs of equipment and leasehold improvements and severance costs.
The Company’s retail operations are subject to many factors that pose risks and uncertainties and could adversely impact the Company’s financial condition and operating results, including macro-economic factors that could have an adverse effect on general retail activity. Other factors include, but are not limited to, the Company’s ability to manage costs associated with retail store construction and operation; manage relationships with existing retail partners; manage costs associated with fluctuations in the value of retail inventory; and obtain and renew leases in quality retail locations at a reasonable cost.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 13


Investment in new business strategies and acquisitions could disrupt the Company’s ongoing business and present risks not originally contemplated.
The Company has invested, and in the future may invest, in new business strategies or acquisitions. Such endeavors may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including distraction of management from current operations, greater than expected liabilities and expenses, inadequate return of capital and unidentified issues not discovered in the Company’s due diligence. These new ventures are inherently risky and may not be successful.
The Company’s business and reputation may be impacted by information technology system failures or network disruptions.
The Company may be subject to information technology system failures or network disruptions caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, acts of terrorism or war, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, or other events or disruptions. System redundancy and other continuity measures may be ineffective or inadequate, and the Company’s business continuity and disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Such failures or disruptions could adversely impact the Company’s business by, among other things, preventing access to the Company’s online services, interfering with customer transactions or impeding the manufacturing and shipping of the Company’s products. These events could materially adversely affect the Company’s reputation, financial condition and operating results.
There may be losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information, including personally identifiable information, that could subject the Company to significant reputational, financial, legal and operational consequences.
The Company’s business requires it to use and store confidential information including, among other things, personally identifiable information (“PII”) with respect to the Company’s customers and employees. The Company devotes significant resources to network and data security, including through the use of encryption and other security measures intended to protect its systems and data. But these measures cannot provide absolute security, and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information occur and could materially adversely affect the Company’s reputation, financial condition and operating results.
The Company’s business also requires it to share confidential information with suppliers and other third parties. Although the Company takes steps to secure confidential information that is provided to third parties, such measures are not always effective and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information occur and could materially adversely affect the Company’s reputation, financial condition and operating results.
For example, the Company may experience a security breach impacting the Company’s information technology systems that compromises the confidentiality, integrity or availability of confidential information. Such an incident could, among other things, impair the Company’s ability to attract and retain customers for its products and services, impact the Company’s stock price, materially damage supplier relationships, and expose the Company to litigation or government investigations, which could result in penalties, fines or judgments against the Company.
Although malicious attacks perpetrated to gain access to confidential information, including PII, affect many companies across various industries, the Company is at a relatively greater risk of being targeted because of its high profile and the value of the confidential information it creates, owns, manages, stores and processes.
The Company has implemented systems and processes intended to secure its information technology systems and prevent unauthorized access to or loss of sensitive data, including through the use of encryption and authentication technologies. As with all companies, these security measures may not be sufficient for all eventualities and may be vulnerable to hacking, employee error, malfeasance, system error, faulty password management or other irregularities. For example, third parties attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing user names, passwords or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access the Company’s information technology systems. To help protect customers and the Company, the Company monitors its services and systems for unusual activity and may freeze accounts under suspicious circumstances, which, among other things, may result in the delay or loss of customer orders or impede customer access to the Company’s products and services.
In addition to the risks relating to general confidential information described above, the Company may also be subject to specific obligations relating to health data and payment card data. Health data may be subject to additional privacy, security and breach notification requirements, and the Company may be subject to audit by governmental authorities regarding the Company’s compliance with these obligations. If the Company fails to adequately comply with these rules and requirements, or if health data is handled in a manner not permitted by law or under the Company’s agreements with healthcare institutions, the Company could be subject to litigation or government investigations, may be liable for associated investigatory expenses, and could also incur significant fees or fines.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 14


Under payment card rules and obligations, if cardholder information is potentially compromised, the Company could be liable for associated investigatory expenses and could also incur significant fees or fines if the Company fails to follow payment card industry data security standards. The Company could also experience a significant increase in payment card transaction costs or lose the ability to process payment cards if it fails to follow payment card industry data security standards, which would materially adversely affect the Company’s reputation, financial condition and operating results.
While the Company maintains insurance coverage that is intended to address certain aspects of data security risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.
The Company’s business is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws, rules, policies and other obligations regarding data protection.
The Company is subject to federal, state and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of PII. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also may restrict transfers of PII among the Company and its international subsidiaries. Several jurisdictions have passed laws in this area, and other jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing international requirements may cause the Company to incur substantial costs or require the Company to change its business practices. Noncompliance could result in significant penalties or legal liability.
The Company makes statements about its use and disclosure of PII through its privacy policy, information provided on its website and press statements. Any failure by the Company to comply with these public statements or with other federal, state or international privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others. In addition to reputational impacts, penalties could include ongoing audit requirements and significant legal liability.
The Company’s success depends largely on the continued service and availability of key personnel.
Much of the Company’s future success depends on the continued availability and service of key personnel, including its Chief Executive Officer, executive team and other highly skilled employees. Experienced personnel in the technology industry are in high demand and competition for their talents is intense, especially in Silicon Valley, where most of the Company’s key personnel are located.
The Company’s business may be impacted by political events, international trade disputes, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues, industrial accidents and other business interruptions.
Political events, international trade disputes, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues, industrial accidents and other business interruptions could harm or disrupt international commerce and the global economy, and could have a material adverse effect on the Company and its customers, suppliers, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, distributors, cellular network carriers and other channel partners.
International trade disputes could result in tariffs and other protectionist measures that could adversely affect the Company’s business. Tariffs could increase the cost of the Company’s products and the components and raw materials that go into making them. These increased costs could adversely impact the gross margin that the Company earns on its products. Tariffs could also make the Company’s products more expensive for customers, which could make the Company’s products less competitive and reduce consumer demand. Countries may also adopt other protectionist measures that could limit the Company’s ability to offer its products and services. Political uncertainty surrounding international trade disputes and protectionist measures could also have a negative effect on consumer confidence and spending, which could adversely affect the Company’s business.
Many of the Company’s operations and facilities as well as critical business operations of the Company’s suppliers and contract manufacturers are in locations that are prone to earthquakes and other natural disasters. In addition, such operations and facilities are subject to the risk of interruption by fire, power shortages, nuclear power plant accidents and other industrial accidents, terrorist attacks and other hostile acts, labor disputes, public health issues and other events beyond the Company’s control. Global climate change could result in certain types of natural disasters occurring more frequently or with more intense effects. Such events could make it difficult or impossible for the Company to manufacture and deliver products to its customers, create delays and inefficiencies in the Company’s supply and manufacturing chain, and result in slowdowns and outages to the Company’s service offerings. Following an interruption to its business, the Company could require substantial recovery time, experience significant expenditures in order to resume operations, and lose significant revenue. Because the Company relies on single or limited sources for the supply and manufacture of many critical components, a business interruption affecting such sources would exacerbate any negative consequences to the Company.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 15


The Company’s operations are also subject to the risks of industrial accidents at its suppliers and contract manufacturers. While the Company’s suppliers are required to maintain safe working environments and operations, an industrial accident could occur and could result in disruption to the Company’s business and harm to the Company’s reputation. Should major public health issues, including pandemics, arise, the Company could be adversely affected by more stringent employee travel restrictions, additional limitations in freight services, governmental actions limiting the movement of products between regions, delays in production ramps of new products and disruptions in the operations of the Company’s suppliers and contract manufacturers.
The Company expects its quarterly revenue and operating results to fluctuate.
The Company’s profit margins vary across its products, services, geographic segments and distribution channels. For example, gross margins on the Company’s hardware products vary across product lines and can change over time as a result of product transitions, pricing and configuration changes, and component, warranty and other cost fluctuations. The Company’s financial results may be materially adversely impacted as a result of shifts in the mix of products and services that the Company sells; shifts in the geographic, currency or channel mix of the Company’s sales; component cost increases; price competition; or the introduction of new products, including new products with higher cost structures.
The Company has typically experienced higher net sales in its first quarter compared to other quarters due in part to seasonal holiday demand. Additionally, new product introductions can significantly impact net sales, product costs and operating expenses. Further, the Company generates a majority of its net sales from a single product and a decline in demand for that product could significantly impact quarterly net sales. The Company could also be subject to unexpected developments, such as lower-than-anticipated demand for the Company’s products, issues with new product introductions, information technology system failures or network disruptions, or failure of one of the Company’s logistics, components supply, or manufacturing partners.
The Company’s stock price is subject to volatility.
The Company’s stock price has experienced substantial price volatility in the past and may continue to do so in the future. Additionally, the Company, the technology industry and the stock market as a whole have experienced extreme stock price and volume fluctuations that have affected stock prices in ways that may have been unrelated to these companies’ operating performance. Price volatility over a given period may cause the average price at which the Company repurchases its own stock to exceed the stock’s price at a given point in time. The Company believes its stock price should reflect expectations of future growth and profitability. The Company also believes its stock price should reflect expectations that its cash dividend will continue at current levels or grow and that its current share repurchase program will be fully consummated. Future dividends are subject to declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors, and the Company’s share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares. If the Company fails to meet expectations related to future growth, profitability, dividends, share repurchases or other market expectations, its stock price may decline significantly, which could have a material adverse impact on investor confidence and employee retention.
The Company’s financial performance is subject to risks associated with changes in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to local currencies.
The Company’s primary exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates relates to non–U.S. dollar–denominated sales and operating expenses worldwide. Gross margins on the Company’s products in foreign countries and on products that include components obtained from foreign suppliers could be materially adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Weakening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar adversely affects the U.S. dollar value of the Company’s foreign currency–denominated sales and earnings, and generally leads the Company to raise international pricing, potentially reducing demand for the Company’s products. In some circumstances, for competitive or other reasons, the Company may decide not to raise international pricing to offset the U.S. dollar’s strengthening, which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of the gross margins the Company earns on foreign currency–denominated sales.
Conversely, a strengthening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, while generally beneficial to the Company’s foreign currency–denominated sales and earnings, could cause the Company to reduce international pricing and incur losses on its foreign currency derivative instruments, thereby limiting the benefit. Additionally, strengthening of foreign currencies may increase the Company’s cost of product components denominated in those currencies, thus adversely affecting gross margins.
The Company uses derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not be effective to offset any, or more than a portion, of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 16


The Company is exposed to credit risk and fluctuations in the market values of its investment portfolio.
The Company’s investments can be negatively affected by liquidity, credit deterioration, financial results, market and economic conditions, political risk, sovereign risk, interest rate fluctuations or other factors. As a result, the value and liquidity of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities may fluctuate substantially. Therefore, although the Company has not realized any significant losses on its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, future fluctuations in their value could result in significant realized losses and could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
The Company is exposed to credit risk on its trade accounts receivable, vendor non-trade receivables and prepayments related to long-term supply agreements, and this risk is heightened during periods when economic conditions worsen.
The Company distributes its products through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. The Company also sells its products directly to small and mid-sized businesses and education, enterprise and government customers. A substantial majority of the Company’s outstanding trade receivables are not covered by collateral, third-party bank support or financing arrangements, or credit insurance. The Company’s exposure to credit and collectibility risk on its trade receivables is higher in certain international markets and its ability to mitigate such risks may be limited. The Company also has unsecured vendor non-trade receivables resulting from purchases of components by outsourcing partners and other vendors that manufacture sub-assemblies or assemble final products for the Company. In addition, the Company has made prepayments associated with long-term supply agreements to secure supply of inventory components. As of September 29, 2018, a significant portion of the Company’s trade receivables was concentrated within cellular network carriers, and its vendor non-trade receivables and prepayments related to long-term supply agreements were concentrated among a few individual vendors located primarily in Asia. While the Company has procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on its trade and vendor non-trade receivables, as well as long-term prepayments, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses.
The Company could be subject to changes in its tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or international tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities.
The Company is subject to taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, including Ireland, where a number of the Company’s subsidiaries are organized. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. The Company’s effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation, including in the U.S. and Ireland.
The Company is also subject to the examination of its tax returns and other tax matters by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. The Company regularly assesses the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If the Company’s effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S. or Ireland, or if the ultimate determination of the Company’s taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, the Company’s financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 17


Item 2.
Properties
The Company’s headquarters are located in Cupertino, California. As of September 29, 2018, the Company owned 16.5 million square feet and leased 24.3 million square feet of building space, primarily in the U.S. Additionally, the Company owned a total of 7,376 acres of land, primarily in the U.S.
As of September 29, 2018, the Company owned facilities and land for corporate functions, R&D and data centers at various locations throughout the U.S. Outside the U.S., the Company owned additional facilities and land for various purposes.
The Company believes its existing facilities and equipment, which are used by all reportable segments, are in good operating condition and are suitable for the conduct of its business. The Company has invested in internal capacity and strategic relationships with outside manufacturing vendors and continues to make investments in capital equipment as needed to meet anticipated demand for its products and services.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
The Company is subject to legal proceedings and claims that have not been fully resolved and that have arisen in the ordinary course of business. Except as described in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies,” in the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to loss contingencies for asserted legal and other claims.
The outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company in a reporting period for amounts in excess of management’s expectations, the Company’s financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. Refer to the risk factor The Company could be impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings, such as being found to have infringed on intellectual property rights in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors.” The Company settled certain matters during the fourth quarter of 2018 that did not individually or in the aggregate have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 18


PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol AAPL.
Holders
As of October 26, 2018, there were 23,712 shareholders of record.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Share repurchase activity during the three months ended September 29, 2018 was as follows (in millions, except number of shares, which are reflected in thousands, and per share amounts):
Periods
 
Total Number
of Shares Purchased
 
Average
Price
Paid Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of
Shares That May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs (1)
July 1, 2018 to August 4, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Open market and privately negotiated purchases
 
26,859

 
$
192.50

 
26,859

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
August 5, 2018 to September 1, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Open market and privately negotiated purchases
 
36,575

 
$
214.07

 
36,575

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 2, 2018 to September 29, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Open market and privately negotiated purchases
 
29,029

 
$
222.07

 
29,029

 
 
Total
 
92,463

 
 
 
 
 
$
70,970

 
(1)
On May 1, 2018, the Company announced the Board of Directors had authorized a program to repurchase up to $100 billion of the Company’s common stock, of which $29.0 billion had been utilized as of September 29, 2018. The remaining $71.0 billion in the table represents the amount available to repurchase shares under the authorized repurchase program as of September 29, 2018. The Company’s share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares. Under this program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 19


Company Stock Performance
The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total shareholder return, calculated on a dividend-reinvested basis, for the Company, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index for the five years ended September 29, 2018. The graph assumes $100 was invested in each of the Company’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index as of the market close on September 27, 2013. Note that historic stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
a10-k9_chartx38133a09.jpg
*
$100 invested on September 27, 2013 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Data points are the last day of each fiscal year for the Company’s common stock and September 30th for indexes.
Copyright© 2018 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
Copyright© 2018 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
 
 
September
2013
 
September
2014
 
September
2015
 
September
2016
 
September
2017
 
September
2018
Apple Inc.
 
$
100

 
$
149

 
$
173

 
$
174

 
$
242

 
$
359

S&P 500 Index
 
$
100

 
$
120

 
$
119

 
$
137

 
$
163

 
$
192

S&P Information Technology Index
 
$
100

 
$
129

 
$
132

 
$
162

 
$
209

 
$
275

Dow Jones U.S. Technology Supersector Index
 
$
100

 
$
130

 
$
130

 
$
159

 
$
203

 
$
266


Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 20


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
The information set forth below for the five years ended September 29, 2018, is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below (in millions, except number of shares, which are reflected in thousands, and per share amounts).
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net sales
$
265,595

 
$
229,234

 
$
215,639

 
$
233,715

 
$
182,795

Net income
$
59,531

 
$
48,351

 
$
45,687

 
$
53,394

 
$
39,510

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
12.01

 
$
9.27

 
$
8.35

 
$
9.28

 
$
6.49

Diluted
$
11.91

 
$
9.21

 
$
8.31

 
$
9.22

 
$
6.45

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends declared per share
$
2.72

 
$
2.40

 
$
2.18

 
$
1.98

 
$
1.82

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares used in computing earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
4,955,377

 
5,217,242

 
5,470,820

 
5,753,421

 
6,085,572

Diluted
5,000,109

 
5,251,692

 
5,500,281

 
5,793,069

 
6,122,663

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
$
237,100

 
$
268,895

 
$
237,585

 
$
205,666

 
$
155,239

Total assets
$
365,725

 
$
375,319

 
$
321,686

 
$
290,345

 
$
231,839

Non-current portion of term debt
$
93,735

 
$
97,207

 
$
75,427

 
$
53,329

 
$
28,987

Other non-current liabilities
$
45,180

 
$
40,415

 
$
36,074

 
$
33,427

 
$
24,826


Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 21


Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This section and other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contain forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical or current fact. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by words such as “future,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” and similar terms. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and the Company’s actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors,” which are incorporated herein by reference. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K. All information presented herein is based on the Company’s fiscal calendar. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in September and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company” and “Apple” as used herein refers collectively to Apple Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated. The Company assumes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.
Overview and Highlights
The Company designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media devices and personal computers, and sells a variety of related software, services, accessories and third-party digital content and applications. The Company’s products and services include iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple Watch, AirPods, Apple TV, HomePod, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications, iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS operating systems, iCloud, Apple Pay and a variety of other accessory, service and support offerings. The Company sells and delivers digital content and applications through the iTunes Store, App Store, Mac App Store, TV App Store, Book Store and Apple Music (collectively “Digital Content and Services”). The Company sells its products worldwide through its retail stores, online stores and direct sales force, as well as through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers and resellers. In addition, the Company sells a variety of third-party Apple-compatible products, including application software and various accessories, through its retail and online stores. The Company sells to consumers, small and mid-sized businesses and education, enterprise and government customers.
Fiscal Period
The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September. The Company’s fiscal years 2018 and 2016 spanned 52 weeks each, whereas fiscal year 2017 included 53 weeks. A 14th week was included in the first quarter of 2017, as is done every five or six years, to realign the Company’s fiscal quarters with calendar quarters.
Fiscal 2018 Highlights
Net sales increased 16% or $36.4 billion during 2018 compared to 2017, driven by higher net sales of iPhone, Services and Other Products. Net sales increased year-over-year in each of the geographic reportable segments.
In May 2018, the Company announced a new capital return program of $100 billion and raised its quarterly dividend from $0.63 to $0.73 per share beginning in May 2018. During 2018, the Company spent $73.1 billion to repurchase shares of its common stock and paid dividends and dividend equivalents of $13.7 billion.
Fiscal 2017 Highlights
Net sales increased 6% or $13.6 billion during 2017 compared to 2016, primarily driven by growth in Services, iPhone and Mac. The year-over-year increase in net sales reflected growth in each of the geographic reportable segments, with the exception of Greater China. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on net sales during 2017.
In May 2017, the Company announced an increase to its capital return program by raising the total size of the program from $250 billion to $300 billion. This included increasing its share repurchase authorization from $175 billion to $210 billion and raising its quarterly dividend from $0.57 to $0.63 per share beginning in May 2017. During 2017, the Company spent $33.0 billion to repurchase shares of its common stock and paid dividends and dividend equivalents of $12.8 billion. The $210 billion share repurchase program was completed in the third quarter of 2018.
The Company issued $24.0 billion of U.S. dollar–denominated term debt, €2.5 billion of euro-denominated term debt and C$2.5 billion of Canadian dollar–denominated term debt during 2017.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 22


Sales Data
The following table shows net sales by reportable segment and net sales and unit sales by product for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions and units in thousands):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net Sales by Reportable Segment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas
$
112,093

 
16
 %
 
$
96,600

 
12
 %
 
$
86,613

Europe
62,420

 
14
 %
 
54,938

 
10
 %
 
49,952

Greater China
51,942

 
16
 %
 
44,764

 
(8
)%
 
48,492

Japan
21,733

 
23
 %
 
17,733

 
5
 %
 
16,928

Rest of Asia Pacific
17,407

 
15
 %
 
15,199

 
11
 %
 
13,654

Total net sales
$
265,595

 
16
 %
 
$
229,234

 
6
 %
 
$
215,639

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Sales by Product:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
iPhone (1)
$
166,699

 
18
 %
 
$
141,319

 
3
 %
 
$
136,700

iPad (1)
18,805

 
(2
)%
 
19,222

 
(7
)%
 
20,628

Mac (1)
25,484

 
(1
)%
 
25,850

 
13
 %
 
22,831

Services (2)
37,190

 
24
 %
 
29,980

 
23
 %
 
24,348

Other Products (1)(3)
17,417

 
35
 %
 
12,863

 
16
 %
 
11,132

Total net sales
$
265,595

 
16
 %
 
$
229,234

 
6
 %
 
$
215,639

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unit Sales by Product:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
iPhone
217,722

 
 %
 
216,756

 
2
 %
 
211,884

iPad
43,535

 
 %
 
43,753

 
(4
)%
 
45,590

Mac
18,209

 
(5
)%
 
19,251

 
4
 %
 
18,484

 
(1)
Includes deferrals and amortization of related software upgrade rights and non-software services.
(2)
Includes revenue from Digital Content and Services, AppleCare, Apple Pay, licensing and other services. Services net sales in 2018 included a favorable one-time item of $236 million in connection with the final resolution of various lawsuits. Services net sales in 2017 included a favorable one-time adjustment of $640 million due to a change in estimate based on the availability of additional supporting information.
(3)
Includes sales of AirPods, Apple TV, Apple Watch, Beats products, HomePod, iPod touch and other Apple-branded and third-party accessories.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 23


Product Performance
iPhone
The following table presents iPhone net sales and unit sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions and units in thousands):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
166,699

 
18
%
 
$
141,319

 
3
%
 
$
136,700

Percentage of total net sales
63
%
 


 
62
%
 
 
 
63
%
Unit sales
217,722

 
%
 
216,756

 
2
%
 
211,884

iPhone net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to a different mix of iPhones resulting in higher average selling prices.
iPhone net sales increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due to higher iPhone unit sales and a different mix of iPhones with higher average selling prices. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on iPhone net sales during 2017.
iPad
The following table presents iPad net sales and unit sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions and units in thousands):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
18,805

 
(2
)%
 
$
19,222

 
(7
)%
 
$
20,628

Percentage of total net sales
7
%
 
 
 
8
%
 
 
 
10
%
Unit sales
43,535

 
 %
 
43,753

 
(4
)%
 
45,590

iPad net sales decreased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to a different mix of iPads resulting in lower average selling prices. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on iPad net sales during 2018.
iPad net sales decreased during 2017 compared to 2016 due to lower iPad unit sales and a different mix of iPads with lower average selling prices. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on iPad net sales during 2017.
Mac
The following table presents Mac net sales and unit sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions and units in thousands):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
25,484

 
(1
)%
 
$
25,850

 
13
%
 
$
22,831

Percentage of total net sales
10
%
 
 
 
11
%
 
 
 
11
%
Unit sales
18,209

 
(5
)%
 
19,251

 
4
%
 
18,484

Mac net sales decreased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to lower Mac unit sales, partially offset by a different mix of Macs with higher average selling prices. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Mac net sales during 2018.
Mac net sales increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to a different mix of Macs with higher average selling prices and higher Mac unit sales. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on Mac net sales during 2017.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 24


Services
The following table presents Services net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
37,190

 
24
%
 
$
29,980

 
23
%
 
$
24,348

Percentage of total net sales
14
%
 
 
 
13
%
 
 
 
11
%
The year-over-year growth in Services net sales in 2018 was due primarily to licensing, App Store and AppleCare. During 2018, the Company recognized a favorable one-time item of $236 million in connection with the final resolution of various lawsuits.
The year-over-year growth in Services net sales in 2017 was due primarily to increases in App Store and licensing sales. Services net sales in 2017 included a favorable one-time adjustment of $640 million due to a change in estimate based on the availability of additional supporting information.
Segment Operating Performance
The Company manages its business primarily on a geographic basis. The Company’s reportable segments consist of the Americas, Europe, Greater China, Japan and Rest of Asia Pacific. Americas includes both North and South America. Europe includes European countries, as well as India, the Middle East and Africa. Greater China includes China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Rest of Asia Pacific includes Australia and those Asian countries not included in the Company’s other reportable segments. Although the reportable segments provide similar hardware and software products and similar services, each one is managed separately to better align with the location of the Company’s customers and distribution partners and the unique market dynamics of each geographic region. Further information regarding the Company’s reportable segments can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 10, “Segment Information and Geographic Data.”
Americas
The following table presents Americas net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
112,093

 
16
%
 
$
96,600

 
12
%
 
$
86,613

Percentage of total net sales
42
%
 
 
 
42
%
 
 
 
40
%
Americas net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due to higher net sales of iPhone, Services and Other Products.
Americas net sales increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, Services and Mac.
Europe
The following table presents Europe net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
62,420

 
14
%
 
$
54,938

 
10
%
 
$
49,952

Percentage of total net sales
24
%
 
 
 
24
%
 
 
 
23
%
Europe net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Europe net sales during 2018.
Europe net sales increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on Europe net sales during 2017.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 25


Greater China
The following table presents Greater China net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
51,942

 
16
%
 
$
44,764

 
(8
)%
 
$
48,492

Percentage of total net sales
20
%
 
 
 
20
%
 
 
 
22
%
Greater China net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Greater China net sales during 2018.
Greater China net sales decreased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to lower net sales of iPhone, partially offset by higher net sales of Services. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on Greater China net sales during 2017.
Japan
The following table presents Japan net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
21,733

 
23
%
 
$
17,733

 
5
%
 
$
16,928

Percentage of total net sales
8
%
 
 
 
8
%
 
 
 
8
%
Japan net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services.
The year-over-year increase in Japan net sales in 2017 was due to higher net sales of Services and the strength in the Japanese yen relative to the U.S. dollar.
Rest of Asia Pacific
The following table presents Rest of Asia Pacific net sales information for 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Net sales
$
17,407

 
15
%
 
$
15,199

 
11
%
 
$
13,654

Percentage of total net sales
7
%
 
 
 
7
%
 
 
 
6
%
Rest of Asia Pacific net sales increased during 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone and Services. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Rest of Asia Pacific net sales during 2018.
Rest of Asia Pacific net sales increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to higher net sales of iPhone, Services and Mac. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on Rest of Asia Pacific net sales during 2017.
Gross Margin
Gross margin for 2018, 2017 and 2016 was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net sales
$
265,595

 
$
229,234

 
$
215,639

Cost of sales
163,756

 
141,048

 
131,376

Gross margin
$
101,839

 
$
88,186

 
$
84,263

Gross margin percentage
38.3
%
 
38.5
%
 
39.1
%
Gross margin increased in 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to a favorable shift in mix of iPhones with higher average selling prices and higher Services net sales, partially offset by higher product cost structures. Gross margin percentage decreased year-over-year due primarily to higher product cost structures, partially offset by higher Services net sales. The strength in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had a favorable impact on gross margin and gross margin percentage during 2018.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 26


Gross margin increased in 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to a shift in mix to Services and an overall increase in product volumes. Gross margin percentage decreased year-over-year due primarily to higher product costs, partially offset by a favorable shift in mix to Services. The weakness in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar had an unfavorable impact on gross margin and gross margin percentage during 2017.
The Company anticipates gross margin percentage during the first quarter of 2019 to be between 38.0% and 38.5%. The foregoing statement regarding the Company’s expected gross margin percentage in the first quarter of 2019 is forward-looking and could differ from actual results. The Company’s future gross margins can be impacted by multiple factors including, but not limited to, those set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors” and those described in this paragraph. In general, the Company believes gross margins will be subject to volatility and remain under downward pressure due to a variety of factors, including: continued industry-wide global product pricing pressures and product pricing actions that the Company may take in response to such pressures; increased competition; the Company’s ability to effectively stimulate demand for certain of its products; compressed product life cycles; potential increases in the cost of components and outside manufacturing services; the Company’s ability to manage product quality and warranty costs effectively; shifts in the mix of products and services, or in the geographic, currency or channel mix; fluctuations in exchange rates; and costs associated with the Company’s frequent introductions and transitions of products and services.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for 2018, 2017 and 2016 were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Research and development
$
14,236

 
23
%
 
$
11,581

 
15
%
 
$
10,045

Percentage of total net sales
5
%
 
 
 
5
%
 
 
 
5
%
Selling, general and administrative
$
16,705

 
9
%
 
$
15,261

 
8
%
 
$
14,194

Percentage of total net sales
6
%
 
 
 
7
%
 
 
 
7
%
Total operating expenses
$
30,941

 
15
%
 
$
26,842

 
11
%
 
$
24,239

Percentage of total net sales
12
%
 
 
 
12
%
 
 
 
11
%
Research and Development
The year-over-year growth in R&D expense in 2018 was driven primarily by increases in headcount-related expenses, infrastructure-related costs and material costs to support expanded R&D activities. R&D expense increased during 2017 compared to 2016 due primarily to increases in headcount-related expenses and material costs to support expanded R&D activities. The Company continues to believe that focused investments in R&D are critical to its future growth and competitive position in the marketplace, and to the development of new and updated products and services that are central to the Company’s core business strategy.
Selling, General and Administrative
The year-over-year growth in selling, general and administrative expense in 2018 was driven primarily by increases in in headcount-related expenses, professional services and infrastructure-related costs. The increase in selling, general and administrative expense in 2017 compared to 2016 was driven primarily by an increase in headcount-related expenses, variable selling expenses and infrastructure-related costs.
Other Income/(Expense), Net
Other income/(expense), net for 2018, 2017 and 2016 was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Interest and dividend income
$
5,686

 
 
 
$
5,201

 
 
 
$
3,999

Interest expense
(3,240
)
 
 
 
(2,323
)
 
 
 
(1,456
)
Other expense, net
(441
)
 
 
 
(133
)
 
 
 
(1,195
)
Total other income/(expense), net
$
2,005

 
(27
)%
 
$
2,745

 
104
%
 
$
1,348

The year-over-year decrease in other income/(expense), net during 2018 was due primarily to higher interest expense on debt and the impact of foreign exchange–related items, partially offset by higher interest income. The year-over-year increase in other income/(expense), net during 2017 was due primarily to higher interest income and the favorable impact of foreign exchange–related items, partially offset by higher interest expense on debt. The weighted-average interest rate earned by the Company on its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities was 2.16%, 1.99% and 1.73% in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 27


Provision for Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes and effective tax rates for 2018, 2017 and 2016 were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Provision for income taxes
$
13,372

 
$
15,738

 
$
15,685

Effective tax rate
18.3
%
 
24.6
%
 
25.6
%
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”), which significantly changed U.S. tax law. The Act lowered the Company’s U.S. statutory federal income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, while also imposing a deemed repatriation tax on previously deferred foreign income. By operation of law, the Company applied a blended U.S. statutory federal income tax rate of 24.5% for 2018 (the “2018 blended U.S. tax rate”). The Act also created a new minimum tax on certain future foreign earnings.
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2018 was lower than the 2018 blended U.S. tax rate due primarily to the lower tax rate on foreign earnings, partially offset by the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities as a result of the Act.
The Company’s effective tax rates for 2017 and 2016 were lower than the historical statutory federal income tax rate of 35% due primarily to certain undistributed foreign earnings, a substantial portion of which was generated by subsidiaries organized in Ireland, for which no U.S. taxes were provided when such earnings were intended to be indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S.
The lower effective tax rate in 2018 compared to 2017 was due primarily to the lower 2018 blended U.S. tax rate, partially offset by the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities as a result of the Act. The lower effective tax rate in 2017 compared to 2016 was due to a different geographic mix of earnings and higher U.S. R&D tax credits.
As a result of adopting Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”), in 2018, the Company records any excess tax benefits or deficiencies from its equity awards as part of the provision for income taxes. The Company anticipates that these excess tax benefits or deficiencies will have the greatest impact on its effective tax rates in the first and third quarters, as the majority of the Company’s equity awards vest in those quarters.
As of September 29, 2018, the Company had deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences, tax losses and tax credits of $6.3 billion and deferred tax liabilities of $426 million. Management believes it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, will be sufficient to recover the deferred tax assets. The Company will continue to evaluate the realizability of deferred tax assets quarterly by assessing the need for and the amount of a valuation allowance.
On August 30, 2016, the European Commission announced its decision that Ireland granted state aid to the Company by providing tax opinions in 1991 and 2007 concerning the tax allocation of profits of the Irish branches of two subsidiaries of the Company (the “State Aid Decision”). The State Aid Decision ordered Ireland to calculate and recover additional taxes from the Company for the period June 2003 through December 2014. The recovery amount was calculated to be €13.1 billion, plus interest of €1.2 billion. Irish legislative changes, effective as of January 2015, eliminated the application of the tax opinions from that date forward. The Company believes the State Aid Decision to be without merit and appealed to the General Court of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Ireland has also appealed the State Aid Decision. The Company believes that any incremental Irish corporate income taxes potentially due related to the State Aid Decision would be creditable against U.S. taxes, subject to any foreign tax credit limitations in the Act. As of September 29, 2018, the entire recovery amount plus interest was funded into escrow, where it will remain restricted from general use pending conclusion of all appeals.
On July 24, 2018, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the U.S. Tax Court's decision in Altera Corp v. Commissioner, regarding the inclusion of share-based compensation in cost-sharing arrangements with foreign subsidiaries. The reversal was subsequently withdrawn, and the Company believes adequate provision has been made for any adjustments that may result from the final resolution of the case.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Hedging
In August 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities (“ASU 2017-12”). ASU 2017-12 expands component and fair value hedging, specifies the presentation of the effects of hedging instruments, and eliminates the separate measurement and presentation of hedge ineffectiveness. The Company will adopt ASU 2017-12 in its first quarter of 2020 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method and is currently evaluating the impact of adoption on its consolidated financial statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 28


Income Taxes
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (“ASU 2016-16”), which requires the recognition of the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-16 in its first quarter of 2019 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method. Currently, the Company estimates recording $3 billion of net deferred tax assets on its Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets upon adoption. However, the ultimate impact of adopting ASU 2016-16 will depend on the balance of intellectual property transferred between its subsidiaries as of the adoption date, as well as the deferred tax impact of the new minimum tax on certain future foreign earnings. The Company will recognize incremental deferred income tax expense thereafter as these net deferred tax assets are utilized.
Leases
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”), which modifies lease accounting for lessees to increase transparency and comparability by recording lease assets and liabilities for operating leases and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-02 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method through a cumulative-effect adjustment at the beginning of its first quarter of 2020. While the Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02, based on the lease portfolio as of September 29, 2018, the Company anticipates recording lease assets and liabilities of approximately $8.9 billion on its Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, with no material impact to its Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. However, the ultimate impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 will depend on the Company’s lease portfolio as of the adoption date.
Financial Instruments
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments – Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”), which updates certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-01 in its first quarter of 2019 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method. Based on the composition of the Company’s investment portfolio, the adoption of ASU 2016-01 is not expected to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which modifies the measurement of expected credit losses of certain financial instruments. The Company will adopt ASU 2016-13 in its first quarter of 2021 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method. Based on the composition of the Company’s investment portfolio, current market conditions, and historical credit loss activity, the adoption of ASU 2016-13 is not expected to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”), which amends the existing accounting standards for revenue recognition. ASU 2014-09 is based on principles that govern the recognition of revenue at an amount an entity expects to be entitled when products are transferred to customers.
Subsequently, the FASB issued additional ASUs to clarify the guidance in ASU 2014-09. ASU 2014-09 and its related ASUs are collectively referred to herein as the “new revenue standard.” The new revenue standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of adoption. The Company will adopt the new revenue standard in its first quarter of 2019 utilizing the full retrospective transition method. The new revenue standard will not have a material impact on the amount and timing of revenue recognized in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 29


Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table presents selected financial information and statistics as of and for the years ended September 29, 2018, September 30, 2017 and September 24, 2016 (in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities (1)
$
237,100

 
$
268,895

 
$
237,585

Property, plant and equipment, net
$
41,304

 
$
33,783

 
$
27,010

Commercial paper
$
11,964

 
$
11,977

 
$
8,105

Total term debt
$
102,519

 
$
103,703

 
$
78,927

Working capital
$
14,473

 
$
27,831

 
$
27,863

Cash generated by operating activities (2)
$
77,434

 
$
64,225

 
$
66,231

Cash generated by/(used in) investing activities
$
16,066

 
$
(46,446
)
 
$
(45,977
)
Cash used in financing activities (2)
$
(87,876
)
 
$
(17,974
)
 
$
(20,890
)
(1)
As of September 29, 2018, total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities included $20.3 billion that was restricted from general use, related to the State Aid Decision and other agreements.
(2)
Refer to Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Polices” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K for more information on the prior period reclassification related to the Company’s adoption of ASU 2016-09.
The Company believes its existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to satisfy its working capital needs, capital asset purchases, outstanding commitments and other liquidity requirements associated with its existing operations over the next 12 months. The Company currently anticipates the cash used for future dividends, the share repurchase program and debt repayments will come from its current cash and cash generated from ongoing operating activities.
In connection with the State Aid Decision, as of September 29, 2018, the entire recovery amount of €13.1 billion plus interest of €1.2 billion was funded into escrow, where it will remain restricted from general use pending conclusion of all appeals.
The Company’s marketable securities investment portfolio is primarily invested in highly rated securities, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. The Company’s investment policy generally requires securities to be investment grade and limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer.
During 2018, cash generated by operating activities of $77.4 billion was a result of $59.5 billion of net income and an increase in the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $34.7 billion, partially offset by non-cash adjustments to net income of $16.8 billion. Cash generated by investing activities of $16.1 billion during 2018 consisted primarily of proceeds from maturities and sales of marketable securities, net of purchases, of $32.4 billion, partially offset by cash used to acquire property, plant and equipment of $13.3 billion. Cash used in financing activities of $87.9 billion during 2018 consisted primarily of cash used to repurchase common stock of $72.7 billion, cash used to pay dividends and dividend equivalents of $13.7 billion and cash used to repay term debt of $6.5 billion, partially offset by proceeds from the issuance of term debt, net of $7.0 billion.
During 2017, cash generated by operating activities of $64.2 billion was a result of $48.4 billion of net income, non-cash adjustments to net income of $20.8 billion and a decrease in the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $4.9 billion, which included a one-time payment of $1.9 billion related to a multi-year license agreement. Cash used in investing activities of $46.4 billion during 2017 consisted primarily of cash used for purchases of marketable securities, net of sales and maturities, of $33.1 billion and cash used to acquire property, plant and equipment of $12.5 billion. Cash used in financing activities of $18.0 billion during 2017 consisted primarily of cash used to repurchase common stock of $32.9 billion, cash used to pay dividends and dividend equivalents of $12.8 billion and cash used to repay term debt of $3.5 billion, partially offset by proceeds from the issuance of term debt, net of $28.7 billion and proceeds from commercial paper, net of $3.9 billion.
Capital Assets
The Company’s capital expenditures were $16.7 billion during 2018. The Company anticipates utilizing approximately $14.0 billion for capital expenditures during 2019, which includes product tooling and manufacturing process equipment; data centers; corporate facilities and infrastructure, including information systems hardware, software and enhancements; and retail store facilities.
Debt
The Company issues unsecured short-term promissory notes (“Commercial Paper”) pursuant to a commercial paper program. The Company uses the net proceeds from the commercial paper program for general corporate purposes, including dividends and share repurchases. As of September 29, 2018, the Company had $12.0 billion of Commercial Paper outstanding, with a weighted-average interest rate of 2.18% and maturities generally less than nine months.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 30


As of September 29, 2018, the Company had outstanding floating- and fixed-rate notes with varying maturities for an aggregate principal amount of $104.2 billion (collectively the “Notes”). During 2018, the Company issued $7.0 billion and repaid $6.5 billion of Notes. The Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into interest rate swaps to manage interest rate risk on the Notes. In addition, the Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into foreign currency swaps to manage foreign currency risk on the Notes.
Further information regarding the Company’s debt issuances and related hedging activity can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 2, “Financial Instruments” and Note 5, “Debt.”
Capital Return Program
During 2018, the Company repurchased 405.5 million shares of its common stock for $73.1 billion in connection with two separate share repurchase programs. Of the $73.1 billion, $44.0 billion was repurchased under the Company’s previous share repurchase program of up to $210 billion, thereby completing that program. On May 1, 2018, the Company announced the Board of Directors had authorized a new program to repurchase up to $100 billion of the Company’s common stock. The remaining $29.0 billion repurchased during 2018 was in connection with the new share repurchase program. The Company’s new share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares. Under this program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act.
On May 1, 2018, the Company also announced the Board of Directors raised the Company’s quarterly cash dividend from $0.63 to $0.73 per share, beginning with the dividend paid during the third quarter of 2018. The Company intends to increase its dividend on an annual basis, subject to declaration by the Board of Directors. The Company plans to use current cash and cash generated from ongoing operating activities to fund its share repurchase program and quarterly cash dividend.
Contractual Obligations
The following table presents certain payments due by the Company as of September 29, 2018, and excludes amounts already recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, except for term debt and the deemed repatriation tax payable (in millions):
 
Payments Due
in 2019
 
Payments Due
in 2020–2021
 
Payments Due
in 2022–2023
 
Payments Due
After 2023
 
Total
Term debt
$
8,797

 
$
18,933

 
$
17,978

 
$
58,485

 
$
104,193

Operating leases
1,298

 
2,507

 
1,838

 
3,984

 
9,627

Manufacturing purchase obligations (1)
41,548

 
2,469

 
1,183

 

 
45,200

Other purchase obligations
3,784

 
2,482

 
681

 
66

 
7,013

Deemed repatriation tax payable

 
5,366

 
5,942

 
22,281

 
33,589

Total
$
55,427

 
$
31,757

 
$
27,622

 
$
84,816

 
$
199,622

(1)
Represents amount expected to be paid under manufacturing-related supplier arrangements, substantially all of which is noncancelable.
Operating Leases
The Company’s retail store and other facility leases typically have original terms not exceeding 10 years and generally contain multi-year renewal options.
Manufacturing Purchase Obligations
The Company utilizes several outsourcing partners to manufacture sub-assemblies for the Company’s products and to perform final assembly and testing of finished products. These outsourcing partners acquire components and build product based on demand information supplied by the Company, which typically covers periods up to 150 days. The Company also obtains individual components for its products from a wide variety of individual suppliers.
Other Purchase Obligations
The Company’s other purchase obligations consist of noncancelable obligations to acquire capital assets, including product tooling and manufacturing process equipment, and noncancelable obligations related to advertising, licensing, R&D, internet and telecommunications services, content creation and other activities.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 31


Deemed Repatriation Tax Payable
As of September 29, 2018, a significant portion of the other non-current liabilities in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet consisted of the deemed repatriation tax payable imposed by the Act. The Company plans to pay the deemed repatriation tax payable in installments in accordance with the Act.
Other Non-Current Liabilities
The Company’s remaining other non-current liabilities primarily consist of items for which the Company is unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of payments; therefore, such amounts are not included in the above contractual obligation table.
Indemnification
Agreements entered into by the Company may include indemnification provisions which may subject the Company to costs and damages in the event of a claim against an indemnified third party. Except as disclosed in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies,” in the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to indemnification of third parties.
The Company offers an iPhone Upgrade Program, which is available to customers who purchase a qualifying iPhone in the U.S., the U.K. and mainland China. The iPhone Upgrade Program provides customers the right to trade in that iPhone for a specified amount when purchasing a new iPhone, provided certain conditions are met. The Company accounts for the trade-in right as a guarantee liability and recognizes arrangement revenue net of the fair value of such right, with subsequent changes to the guarantee liability recognized within revenue.
The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and executive officers. Under these agreements, the Company has agreed to indemnify such individuals to the fullest extent permitted by law against liabilities that arise by reason of their status as directors or officers of the Company, and to advance expenses incurred by such individuals in connection with related legal proceedings. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount of payments the Company could be required to make under these agreements due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each claim. While the Company maintains directors and officers liability insurance coverage, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and the Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and operating results require the Company’s management to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported in its consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results may differ from these estimates, and such differences may be material.
Management believes the Company’s critical accounting policies and estimates are those related to revenue recognition, valuation and impairment of marketable securities, inventory valuation, valuation of manufacturing-related assets and estimation of purchase commitment cancellation fees, warranty costs, income taxes, and legal and other contingencies. Management considers these policies critical because they are both important to the portrayal of the Company’s financial condition and operating results, and they require management to make judgments and estimates about inherently uncertain matters. The Company’s senior management has reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Audit and Finance Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 32


Revenue Recognition
Net sales consist primarily of revenue from the sale of hardware, software, digital content and applications, accessories, and service and support contracts. The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collection is probable. Product is considered delivered to the customer once it has been shipped and title, risk of loss and rewards of ownership have been transferred. For most of the Company’s product sales, these criteria are met at the time the product is shipped. For online sales to individuals, for some sales to education customers in the U.S., and for certain other sales, the Company defers revenue until the customer receives the product because the Company retains a portion of the risk of loss on these sales during transit. For payment terms in excess of the Company’s standard payment terms, revenue is recognized as payments become due unless the Company has positive evidence that the sales price is fixed or determinable, such as a successful history of collection, without concession, on comparable arrangements. The Company recognizes revenue from the sale of hardware products, software bundled with hardware that is essential to the functionality of the hardware and third-party digital content sold on the iTunes Store in accordance with general revenue recognition accounting guidance. The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with industry-specific software accounting guidance for the following types of sales transactions: (i) standalone sales of software products, (ii) sales of software upgrades and (iii) sales of software bundled with hardware not essential to the functionality of the hardware.
For multi-element arrangements that include hardware products containing software essential to the hardware product’s functionality, undelivered software elements that relate to the hardware product’s essential software and/or undelivered non-software services, the Company allocates revenue to all deliverables based on their relative selling prices. In such circumstances, the Company uses a hierarchy to determine the selling price to be used for allocating revenue to deliverables: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value (“VSOE”), (ii) third-party evidence of selling price (“TPE”) and (iii) best estimate of selling price (“ESP”). VSOE generally exists only when the Company sells the deliverable separately and is the price actually charged by the Company for that deliverable. ESPs reflect the Company’s best estimates of what the selling prices of elements would be if they were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis.
For sales of iPhone, iPad, Mac and certain other products, the Company has indicated it may from time to time provide future unspecified software upgrades to the device’s essential software and/or non-software services free of charge. Because the Company has neither VSOE nor TPE for the unspecified software upgrade rights or the non-software services, revenue is allocated to these rights and services based on the Company’s ESPs. Revenue allocated to the unspecified software upgrade rights and non-software services based on the Company’s ESPs is deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated period the software upgrades and non-software services are expected to be provided.
The Company’s process for determining ESPs involves management’s judgment and considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable. Should future facts and circumstances change, the Company’s ESPs and the future rate of related amortization for unspecified software upgrades and non-software services related to future sales of these devices could change. Factors subject to change include the unspecified software upgrade rights and non-software services offered, the estimated value of unspecified software upgrade rights and non-software services and the estimated period unspecified software upgrades and non-software services are expected to be provided.
The Company records reductions to revenue for estimated commitments related to price protection and other customer incentive programs. For transactions involving price protection, the Company recognizes revenue net of the estimated amount to be refunded, provided the refund amount can be reasonably and reliably estimated and the other conditions for revenue recognition have been met. The Company’s policy requires that, if refunds cannot be reliably estimated, revenue is not recognized until reliable estimates can be made or the price protection lapses. For the Company’s other customer incentive programs, the estimated cost is recognized at the later of the date at which the Company has sold the product or the date at which the program is offered. The Company also records reductions to revenue for expected future product returns based on the Company’s historical experience. Future market conditions and product transitions may require the Company to increase customer incentive programs that could result in reductions to future revenue. Additionally, certain customer incentive programs require management to estimate the number of customers who will actually redeem the incentive. Management’s estimates are based on historical experience and the specific terms and conditions of particular incentive programs. If a greater than estimated proportion of customers redeems such incentives, the Company would be required to record additional reductions to revenue, which would have an adverse impact on the Company’s operating results.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 33


Valuation and Impairment of Marketable Securities
The Company’s investments in available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses related to changes in the fair value of securities are generally recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax, in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the fair value of available-for-sale securities impact the Company’s net income only when such securities are sold or an other-than-temporary impairment is recognized. Realized gains and losses on the sale of securities are determined by specific identification of each security’s cost basis. The Company regularly reviews its investment portfolio to determine if any security is other-than-temporarily impaired, which would require the Company to record an impairment charge in the period any such determination is made. In making this determination, the Company evaluates, among other things, the duration and extent to which the fair value of a security is less than its cost; the financial condition of the issuer and any changes thereto; and the Company’s intent to sell, or whether it will more likely than not be required to sell, the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. The Company’s assessment of whether a security is other-than-temporarily impaired could change in the future due to new developments or changes in assumptions related to any particular security, which would have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Inventory Valuation, Valuation of Manufacturing-Related Assets and Estimation of Purchase Commitment Cancellation Fees
The Company purchases components and builds inventory in advance of product shipments and invests in manufacturing-related assets, including capital assets held at its suppliers’ facilities. In addition, the Company makes prepayments to certain of its suppliers associated with long-term supply agreements to secure supply of inventory. The Company performs a regular review of inventory that considers multiple factors including demand forecasts, product life cycle status, product development plans, current sales levels and component cost trends. If the Company determines inventories of components and products, including third-party products held for resale, have become obsolete or are in excess of anticipated demand or net realizable value, it records a write-down of the inventories. The Company also reviews its manufacturing-related capital assets and inventory prepayments for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If the Company determines that an asset is not recoverable, it records an impairment loss equal to the amount by which the carrying value of such an asset exceeds its fair value. Any write-downs and/or impairments the Company may be required to record would adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
The Company accrues for estimated purchase commitment cancellation fees related to inventory orders that have been canceled or are expected to be canceled. Manufacturing purchase obligations cover the Company’s forecasted component and manufacturing requirements, typically for periods up to 150 days. If there is an abrupt and substantial decline in demand for one or more of the Company’s products, a change in the Company’s product development plans, or an unanticipated change in technological requirements for any of the Company’s products, the Company may be required to record accruals for cancellation fees that would adversely affect its operating results.
Warranty Costs
The Company accrues the estimated cost of warranties in the period the related revenue is recognized based on historical and projected warranty claim rates, historical and projected cost per claim and knowledge of specific product failures outside of the Company’s typical experience. The Company regularly reviews these estimates and adjusts the amounts as necessary. If actual product failure rates or repair costs differ from estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liabilities would be required and could materially affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Income Taxes
The Company records a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of its reported operating results. The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that will be in effect for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is believed more likely than not to be realized.
The Company recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 34


Management believes it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, will be sufficient to recover the Company’s deferred tax assets. In the event that the Company determines all or part of its net deferred tax assets are not realizable in the future, the Company will record an adjustment to the valuation allowance and a corresponding charge to earnings in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of GAAP and complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with management’s expectations could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted the Act, which significantly changed U.S. tax law. The Act lowered the Company’s U.S. statutory federal income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, while also imposing a deemed repatriation tax on previously deferred foreign income. The Act also created a new minimum tax on certain future foreign earnings. The impact of the Act increased the Company’s provision for income taxes by $1.5 billion during 2018. This increase was composed of $2.0 billion related to the remeasurement of net deferred tax assets and liabilities and $1.2 billion associated with the deemed repatriation tax, partially offset by a $1.7 billion impact the deemed repatriation tax had on the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits. Certain amounts reported by the Company related to the Act are provisional estimates in accordance with the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118. Resolution of the Act’s effects different from the assumptions made by the Company could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Legal and Other Contingencies
As discussed in Part I, Item 3 of this Form 10-K under the heading “Legal Proceedings” and in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies,” the Company is subject to various legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. The Company records a liability when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable, the determination of which requires significant judgment. Except as described in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies” under the heading “Contingencies,” in the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to loss contingencies for asserted legal and other claims.
The outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company in a reporting period for amounts in excess of management’s expectations, the Company’s financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected.
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest Rate and Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company regularly reviews its foreign exchange forward and option positions and interest rate swaps, both on a stand-alone basis and in conjunction with its underlying foreign currency and interest rate exposures. Given the effective horizons of the Company’s risk management activities and the anticipatory nature of the exposures, there can be no assurance these positions will offset more than a portion of the financial impact resulting from movements in either foreign exchange or interest rates. Further, the recognition of the gains and losses related to these instruments may not coincide with the timing of gains and losses related to the underlying economic exposures and, therefore, may adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and operating results.
Interest Rate Risk
The Company’s exposure to changes in interest rates relates primarily to the Company’s investment portfolio and outstanding debt. While the Company is exposed to global interest rate fluctuations, the Company’s interest income and expense are most sensitive to fluctuations in U.S. interest rates. Changes in U.S. interest rates affect the interest earned on the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the fair value of those securities, as well as costs associated with hedging and interest paid on the Company’s debt.
The Company’s investment policy and strategy are focused on preservation of capital and supporting the Company’s liquidity requirements. The Company uses a combination of internal and external management to execute its investment strategy and achieve its investment objectives. The Company typically invests in highly rated securities, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. The Company’s investment policy generally requires securities to be investment grade and limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. To provide a meaningful assessment of the interest rate risk associated with the Company’s investment portfolio, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the impact a change in interest rates would have on the value of the investment portfolio assuming a 100 basis point parallel shift in the yield curve. Based on investment positions as of September 29, 2018 and September 30, 2017, a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates across all maturities would result in a $4.9 billion and $6.0 billion incremental decline in the fair market value of the portfolio, respectively. Such losses would only be realized if the Company sold the investments prior to maturity.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 35


As of September 29, 2018 and September 30, 2017, the Company had outstanding floating- and fixed-rate notes with varying maturities for an aggregate carrying amount of $102.5 billion and $103.7 billion, respectively. The Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into interest rate swaps to manage interest rate risk on its outstanding term debt. Interest rate swaps allow the Company to effectively convert fixed-rate payments into floating-rate payments or floating-rate payments into fixed-rate payments. Gains and losses on term debt are generally offset by the corresponding losses and gains on the related hedging instrument. A 100 basis point increase in market interest rates would cause interest expense on the Company’s debt as of September 29, 2018 and September 30, 2017 to increase by $399 million and $376 million on an annualized basis, respectively.
Further details regarding the Company’s debt is provided in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 5, “Debt.”
Foreign Currency Risk
In general, the Company is a net receiver of currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates, and in particular a strengthening of the U.S. dollar, will negatively affect the Company’s net sales and gross margins as expressed in U.S. dollars. There is a risk that the Company will have to adjust local currency product pricing due to competitive pressures when there has been significant volatility in foreign currency exchange rates.
The Company may enter into foreign currency forward and option contracts with financial institutions to protect against foreign exchange risks associated with certain existing assets and liabilities, certain firmly committed transactions, forecasted future cash flows and net investments in foreign subsidiaries. In addition, the Company has entered, and in the future may enter, into foreign currency contracts to partially offset the foreign currency exchange gains and losses on its foreign currency–denominated debt issuances. The Company generally hedges portions of its forecasted foreign currency exposure associated with revenue and inventory purchases, typically for up to 12 months. However, the Company may choose not to hedge certain foreign exchange exposures for a variety of reasons including, but not limited to, accounting considerations or the prohibitive economic cost of hedging particular exposures.
To provide a meaningful assessment of the foreign currency risk associated with certain of the Company’s foreign currency derivative positions, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis using a value-at-risk (“VAR”) model to assess the potential impact of fluctuations in exchange rates. The VAR model consisted of using a Monte Carlo simulation to generate thousands of random market price paths assuming normal market conditions. The VAR is the maximum expected loss in fair value, for a given confidence interval, to the Company’s foreign currency derivative positions due to adverse movements in rates. The VAR model is not intended to represent actual losses but is used as a risk estimation and management tool. Forecasted transactions, firm commitments and assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies were excluded from the model. Based on the results of the model, the Company estimates with 95% confidence, a maximum one-day loss in fair value of $592 million as of September 29, 2018 compared to a maximum one-day loss in fair value of $485 million as of September 30, 2017. Because the Company uses foreign currency instruments for hedging purposes, the losses in fair value incurred on those instruments are generally offset by increases in the fair value of the underlying exposures.
Actual future gains and losses associated with the Company’s investment portfolio, debt and derivative positions may differ materially from the sensitivity analyses performed as of September 29, 2018 due to the inherent limitations associated with predicting the timing and amount of changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and the Company’s actual exposures and positions.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 36


Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All financial statement schedules have been omitted, since the required information is not applicable or is not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the information required is included in the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 37


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except number of shares which are reflected in thousands and per share amounts)

 
Years ended
 
September 29,
2018
 
September 30,
2017
 
September 24,
2016
Net sales
$
265,595

 
$
229,234

 
$
215,639

Cost of sales
163,756

 
141,048

 
131,376

Gross margin
101,839


88,186


84,263

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
14,236

 
11,581

 
10,045

Selling, general and administrative
16,705

 
15,261

 
14,194

Total operating expenses
30,941


26,842


24,239

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
70,898

 
61,344

 
60,024

Other income/(expense), net
2,005

 
2,745

 
1,348

Income before provision for income taxes
72,903


64,089


61,372

Provision for income taxes
13,372

 
15,738

 
15,685

Net income
$
59,531


$
48,351


$
45,687

 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
12.01

 
$
9.27

 
$
8.35

Diluted
$
11.91

 
$
9.21

 
$
8.31

 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares used in computing earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
4,955,377

 
5,217,242

 
5,470,820

Diluted
5,000,109

 
5,251,692

 
5,500,281

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 38


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In millions)

 
Years ended
 
September 29,
2018
 
September 30,
2017
 
September 24,
2016
Net income
$
59,531

 
$
48,351

 
$
45,687

Other comprehensive income/(loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Change in foreign currency translation, net of tax effects of $(1), $(77) and $8, respectively
(525
)
 
224

 
75

 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in unrealized gains/losses on derivative instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of derivatives, net of tax benefit/(expense) of $(149), $(478) and $(7), respectively
523

 
1,315

 
7

Adjustment for net (gains)/losses realized and included in net income, net of tax expense/(benefit) of $(104), $475 and $131, respectively
382

 
(1,477
)
 
(741
)
Total change in unrealized gains/losses on derivative instruments, net of tax
905


(162
)

(734
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in unrealized gains/losses on marketable securities:
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of marketable securities, net of tax benefit/(expense) of $1,156, $425 and $(863), respectively
(3,407
)
 
(782
)
 
1,582

Adjustment for net (gains)/losses realized and included in net income, net of tax expense/(benefit) of $21, $35 and $(31), respectively
1

 
(64
)
 
56

Total change in unrealized gains/losses on marketable securities, net of tax
(3,406
)

(846
)

1,638

 
 
 
 
 
 
Total other comprehensive income/(loss)
(3,026
)

(784
)

979

Total comprehensive income
$
56,505


$
47,567


$
46,666

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 39


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except number of shares which are reflected in thousands and par value)

 
September 29,
2018
 
September 30,
2017
ASSETS:
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
25,913

 
$
20,289

Marketable securities
40,388

 
53,892

Accounts receivable, net
23,186

 
17,874

Inventories
3,956

 
4,855

Vendor non-trade receivables
25,809

 
17,799

Other current assets
12,087

 
13,936

Total current assets
131,339

 
128,645

 
 
 
 
Non-current assets:
 
 
 
Marketable securities
170,799

 
194,714

Property, plant and equipment, net
41,304

 
33,783

Other non-current assets
22,283

 
18,177

Total non-current assets
234,386

 
246,674

Total assets
$
365,725

 
$
375,319

 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
55,888

 
$
44,242

Other current liabilities
32,687

 
30,551

Deferred revenue
7,543

 
7,548

Commercial paper
11,964

 
11,977

Term debt
8,784

 
6,496

Total current liabilities
116,866

 
100,814

 
 
 
 
Non-current liabilities:
 
 
 
Deferred revenue
2,797

 
2,836

Term debt
93,735

 
97,207

Other non-current liabilities
45,180

 
40,415

Total non-current liabilities
141,712

 
140,458

Total liabilities
258,578

 
241,272

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies

 

 
 
 
 
Shareholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock and additional paid-in capital, $0.00001 par value: 12,600,000 shares authorized; 4,754,986 and 5,126,201 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
40,201

 
35,867

Retained earnings
70,400

 
98,330

Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)
(3,454
)
 
(150
)
Total shareholders’ equity
107,147

 
134,047

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$
365,725


$
375,319

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 40


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In millions, except number of shares which are reflected in thousands and per share amounts)

 
Common Stock and
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
 
Total Shareholders’ Equity
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Balances as of September 26, 2015
5,578,753

 
$
27,416

 
$
92,284

 
$
(345
)
 
$
119,355

Net income

 

 
45,687

 

 
45,687

Other comprehensive income/(loss)

 

 

 
979

 
979

Dividends and dividend equivalents declared at $2.18 per share or RSU

 

 
(12,188
)
 

 
(12,188
)
Repurchase of common stock
(279,609
)
 

 
(29,000
)
 

 
(29,000
)
Share-based compensation

 
4,262

 

 

 
4,262

Common stock issued, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
37,022

 
(806
)
 
(419
)
 

 
(1,225
)
Tax benefit from equity awards, including transfer pricing adjustments

 
379

 

 

 
379

Balances as of September 24, 2016
5,336,166

 
31,251

 
96,364

 
634

 
128,249

Net income

 

 
48,351

 

 
48,351

Other comprehensive income/(loss)

 

 

 
(784
)
 
(784
)
Dividends and dividend equivalents declared at $2.40 per share or RSU

 

 
(12,803
)
 

 
(12,803
)
Repurchase of common stock
(246,496
)
 

 
(33,001
)
 

 
(33,001
)
Share-based compensation

 
4,909

 

 

 
4,909

Common stock issued, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
36,531

 
(913
)
 
(581
)
 

 
(1,494
)
Tax benefit from equity awards, including transfer pricing adjustments

 
620

 

 

 
620

Balances as of September 30, 2017
5,126,201

 
35,867

 
98,330

 
(150
)
 
134,047

Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle

 

 
278

 
(278
)
 

Net income

 

 
59,531

 

 
59,531

Other comprehensive income/(loss)

 

 

 
(3,026
)
 
(3,026
)
Dividends and dividend equivalents declared at $2.72 per share or RSU

 

 
(13,735
)
 

 
(13,735
)
Repurchase of common stock
(405,549
)
 

 
(73,056
)
 

 
(73,056
)
Share-based compensation

 
5,443

 

 

 
5,443

Common stock issued, net of shares withheld for employee taxes
34,334

 
(1,109
)
 
(948
)
 

 
(2,057
)
Balances as of September 29, 2018
4,754,986

 
$
40,201

 
$
70,400

 
$
(3,454
)
 
$
107,147

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Apple Inc. | 2018 Form 10-K | 41


Apple Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
 
Years ended
 
September 29,
2018
 
September 30,
2017
 
September 24,
2016
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of the year
$
20,289

 
$
20,484

 
$
21,120

Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
59,531

 
48,351

 
45,687

Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash generated by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
10,903

 
10,157

 
10,505

Share-based compensation expense
5,340

 
4,840

 
4,210

Deferred income tax expense/(benefit)
(32,590
)
 
5,966

 
4,938

Other
(444
)
 
(166
)
 
486

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, net
(5,322
)
 
(2,093
)
 
527

Inventories
828

 
(2,723
)
 
217

Vendor non-trade receivables
(8,010
)
 
(4,254
)
 
(51
)
Other current and non-current assets
(423
)
 
(5,318
)
 
1,055

Accounts payable
9,175

 
8,966

 
2,117

Deferred revenue
(44
)
 
(626
)
 
(1,554
)
Other current and non-current liabilities
38,490

 
1,125

 
(1,906
)
Cash generated by operating activities
77,434


64,225


66,231

Investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of marketable securities
(71,356
)
 
(159,486
)
 
(142,428
)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities
55,881

 
31,775

 
21,258

Proceeds from sales of marketable securities
47,838

 
94,564

 
90,536

Payments for acquisition of property, plant and equipment
(13,313
)
 
(12,451
)
 
(12,734
)
Payments made in connection with business acquisitions, net
(721
)
 
(329
)
 
(297
)
Purchases of non-marketable securities
(1,871
)
 
(521
)
 
(1,388
)
Proceeds from non-marketable securities
353

 
126

 

Other
(745
)
 
(124
)
 
(924