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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MAY 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                         TO                         .

Commission File No. 1-10635
nikelogoorange.jpg
NIKE, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Oregon
93-0584541
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
One Bowerman Drive, Beaverton, Oregon 97005-6453
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(503) 671-6453
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OF THE ACT:
Class B Common Stock
NKE
New York Stock Exchange
(Title of each class)
(Trading symbol)
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(G) OF THE ACT:
NONE
Indicate by check mark:
 
YES
NO
if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
þ
¨
if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
 
¨
þ
whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
þ
¨
whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
 
þ
¨
whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
if an emerging growth company, if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
¨
whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
 
þ
whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
 
þ
 
As of November 30, 2019, the aggregate market values of the Registrant's Common Stock held by non-affiliates were:
 
Class A
$
7,387,322,889

Class B
116,456,809,401

 
$
123,844,132,290

As of July 17, 2020, the number of shares of the Registrant's Common Stock outstanding were:
Class A
315,017,252

Class B
1,244,871,297

 
1,559,888,549

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Parts of Registrant's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on September 17, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.



Table of Contents


NIKE, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Table of Contents


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
NIKE, Inc. was incorporated in 1967 under the laws of the State of Oregon. As used in this report, the terms “we,” “us,” “NIKE” and the “Company” refer to NIKE, Inc. and its predecessors, subsidiaries and affiliates, collectively, unless the context indicates otherwise. Our NIKE digital commerce website is located at www.nike.com. On our NIKE corporate website, located at investors.nike.com, we post the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”): our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Our definitive Proxy Statements are also posted on our corporate website. All such filings on our corporate website are available free of charge. Copies of these filings are also available on the SEC's website (www.sec.gov). Also available on our corporate website are the charters of the committees of our Board of Directors, as well as our corporate governance guidelines and code of ethics; copies of any of these documents will be provided in print to any shareholder who submits a request in writing to NIKE Investor Relations, One Bowerman Drive, Beaverton, Oregon 97005-6453.
Our principal business activity is the design, development and worldwide marketing and selling of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. NIKE is the largest seller of athletic footwear and apparel in the world. We sell our products directly to consumers through NIKE-owned retail stores and digital platforms (which we refer to collectively as our “NIKE Direct” operations) and to retail accounts and a mix of independent distributors, licensees and sales representatives in virtually all countries around the world. We also offer interactive consumer experiences through our digital platforms. Virtually all of our products are manufactured by independent contractors. Nearly all footwear and apparel products are produced outside the United States, while equipment products are produced both in the United States and abroad.
PRODUCTS
We focus our NIKE Brand product offerings in six key categories: Running, NIKE Basketball, the Jordan Brand, Football (Soccer), Training and Sportswear (our sports-inspired lifestyle products). We also market products designed for kids, as well as for other athletic and recreational uses such as American football, baseball, cricket, golf, lacrosse, skateboarding, tennis, volleyball, walking, wrestling and other outdoor activities.
NIKE's athletic footwear products are designed primarily for specific athletic use, although a large percentage of the products are worn for casual or leisure purposes. We place considerable emphasis on innovation and high-quality construction in the development and manufacturing of our products. Sportswear, the Jordan Brand and Running are currently our top-selling footwear categories and we expect them to continue to lead in footwear sales.
We also sell sports apparel covering the above-mentioned categories, which feature the same trademarks and are sold predominantly through the same marketing and distribution channels as athletic footwear. Our sports apparel, similar to our athletic footwear products, is designed primarily for athletic use and also demonstrates our commitment to innovation and high-quality construction. Sportswear, Training and Running are currently our top-selling apparel categories and we expect them to continue to lead in apparel sales. We often market footwear, apparel and accessories in “collections” of similar use or by category. We also market apparel with licensed college and professional team and league logos.
We sell a line of performance equipment and accessories under the NIKE Brand name, including bags, socks, sport balls, eyewear, timepieces, digital devices, bats, gloves, protective equipment and other equipment designed for sports activities. We also sell small amounts of various plastic products to other manufacturers through our wholly-owned subsidiary, NIKE IHM, Inc., doing business as Air Manufacturing Innovation.
Our Jordan Brand designs, distributes and licenses athletic and casual footwear, apparel and accessories predominantly focused on basketball using the Jumpman trademark. Sales and operating results for Jordan Brand products are reported within the respective NIKE Brand geographic operating segments.
Our wholly-owned subsidiary brand, Converse, headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, designs, distributes and licenses casual sneakers, apparel and accessories under the Converse, Chuck Taylor, All Star, One Star, Star Chevron and Jack Purcell trademarks. Operating results of the Converse brand are reported on a stand-alone basis.


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In addition to the products we sell to our wholesale customers and directly to consumers through our NIKE Direct operations, we have also entered into license agreements that permit unaffiliated parties to manufacture and sell, using NIKE-owned trademarks, certain apparel, digital devices and applications and other equipment designed for sports activities.
SALES AND MARKETING
We experience moderate fluctuations in aggregate sales volume during the year. Historically, revenues in the first and fourth fiscal quarters have slightly exceeded those in the second and third quarters. However, the mix of product sales may vary considerably as a result of changes in seasonal and geographic demand for particular types of footwear, apparel and equipment, as well as other macroeconomic, operating and logistics-related factors, as evidenced by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Because NIKE is a consumer products company, the relative popularity and availability of various sports and fitness activities, as well as changing design trends, affect the demand for our products. We must, therefore, respond to trends and shifts in consumer preferences by adjusting the mix of existing product offerings, developing new products, styles and categories and influencing sports and fitness preferences through extensive marketing. Failure to respond in a timely and adequate manner could have a material adverse effect on our sales and profitability. This is a continuing risk. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors.
We report our NIKE Brand operations based on our internal geographic organization. Each NIKE Brand geographic segment operates predominantly in one industry: the design, development, marketing and selling of athletic footwear, apparel and equipment. The Company's reportable operating segments for the NIKE Brand are: North America; Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA); Greater China; and Asia Pacific & Latin America (APLA), and include results for the NIKE and Jordan brands. The Hurley brand results, prior to its divestiture in the beginning of the third quarter of fiscal 2020, are included in North America. Sales through our NIKE Direct operations are managed within each geographic operating segment.
Converse is also a reportable operating segment and operates predominately in one industry: the design, marketing, licensing and selling of casual sneakers, apparel and accessories. Converse direct to consumer operations, including digital commerce, are reported within the Converse operating segment results.
UNITED STATES MARKET
For fiscal 2020, NIKE Brand and Converse sales in the United States accounted for approximately 39% of total revenues, compared to 41% and 42% for fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018, respectively. We sell our NIKE Brand, Jordan Brand and Converse products to thousands of retail accounts in the United States, including a mix of footwear stores, sporting goods stores, athletic specialty stores, department stores, skate, tennis and golf shops and other retail accounts. In the United States, we utilize NIKE sales offices to solicit such sales. During fiscal 2020, our three largest United States customers accounted for approximately 24% of sales in the United States.
Our NIKE Direct and Converse direct to consumer operations sell NIKE Brand, Jordan Brand and Converse products to consumers through various digital platforms. In addition, our NIKE Direct and Converse direct to consumer operations sell products through the following number of retail stores in the United States:
U.S. RETAIL STORES
NUMBER

NIKE Brand factory stores
212

NIKE Brand in-line stores (including employee-only stores)
28

Converse stores (including factory stores)
98

TOTAL
338

In the United States, NIKE has seven significant distribution centers. Four are located in Memphis, Tennessee, two of which are owned and two of which are leased. Two other distribution centers, one located in Indianapolis, Indiana and one located in Dayton, Tennessee, are leased and operated by third-party logistics providers. One distribution center for Converse is located in Ontario, California, which is leased. There are other smaller distribution facilities located in various parts of the United States, some of which are leased or operated by third-parties.
INTERNATIONAL MARKETS
For fiscal 2020, non-U.S. NIKE Brand and Converse sales accounted for approximately 61% of total revenues, compared to 59% and 58% for fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018, respectively. We sell our products to retail accounts, through our own NIKE Direct operations and through a mix of independent distributors, licensees and sales representatives around the world. We sell to thousands of retail accounts and ship products from 74 distribution centers outside of the United States. During fiscal 2020, NIKE's three largest customers outside of the United States accounted for approximately 15% of total non-U.S. sales.

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In addition to NIKE and Converse owned digital commerce platforms in over 45 countries, our NIKE Direct and Converse direct to consumer businesses operate the following number of retail stores outside the United States:
NON-U.S. RETAIL STORES
NUMBER

NIKE Brand factory stores
643

NIKE Brand in-line stores (including employee-only stores)
52

Converse stores (including factory stores)
63

TOTAL
758

International branch offices and subsidiaries of NIKE are located in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Uruguay and Vietnam.
SIGNIFICANT CUSTOMER
No customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated net Revenues during fiscal 2020.
PRODUCT RESEARCH, DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
We believe our research, design and development efforts are key factors in our success. Technical innovation in the design and manufacturing process of footwear, apparel and athletic equipment receives continued emphasis as we strive to produce products that help to enhance athletic performance, reduce injury and maximize comfort, while reducing waste.
In addition to our own staff of specialists in the areas of biomechanics, chemistry, exercise physiology, engineering, digital technologies, industrial design, sustainability and related fields, we also utilize research committees and advisory boards made up of athletes, coaches, trainers, equipment managers, orthopedists, podiatrists, physicians and other experts who consult with us and review designs, materials, concepts for product and manufacturing process improvements and compliance with product safety regulations around the world. Employee athletes, athletes engaged under sports marketing contracts and other athletes wear-test and evaluate products during the design and development process.
As we continue to develop new technologies, we are simultaneously focused on the design of innovative products and experiences incorporating such technologies throughout our product categories and consumer applications. Using market intelligence and research, our various design teams identify opportunities to leverage new technologies in existing categories to respond to consumer preferences. The proliferation of NIKE Air, Zoom, Free, Flywire, Dri-Fit, Flyknit, Flyweave, FlyEase, ZoomX, React and Adaptive technologies, among others, throughout our Running, NIKE Basketball, Jordan Brand, Football (Soccer), Training and Sportswear categories, as well as Converse, typifies our dedication to designing innovative products.
MANUFACTURING
We are supplied by 122 footwear factories located in 12 countries. Virtually all of our footwear is manufactured outside of the United States by over 15 independent contract manufacturers, which often operate multiple factories. The largest single footwear factory accounted for approximately 9% of total fiscal 2020 NIKE Brand footwear production. For fiscal 2020, contract factories in Vietnam, Indonesia and China manufactured approximately 50%, 24% and 22% of total NIKE Brand footwear, respectively. We also have manufacturing agreements with independent contract manufacturers in Argentina and India to manufacture footwear for sale primarily within those countries. For fiscal 2020, four footwear contract manufacturers each accounted for greater than 10% of footwear production and in the aggregate accounted for approximately 61% of NIKE Brand footwear production.
We are supplied by 329 apparel factories located in 38 countries. The largest single apparel factory accounted for approximately 11% of total fiscal 2020 NIKE Brand apparel production. Virtually all of our apparel is manufactured outside of the United States by independent contract manufacturers which often operate multiple factories. For fiscal 2020, contract factories in Vietnam, China and Cambodia produced approximately 28%, 23% and 12% of total NIKE Brand apparel, respectively. For fiscal 2020, two apparel contract manufacturers accounted for more than 10% of apparel production, and the top five contract manufacturers in the aggregate accounted for approximately 48% of NIKE Brand apparel production.
The principal materials used in our footwear products are natural and synthetic rubber, plastic compounds, foam cushioning materials, natural and synthetic leather, nylon, polyester and canvas, as well as polyurethane films used to make NIKE Air-Sole cushioning components. During fiscal 2020, Air Manufacturing Innovation, a wholly-owned subsidiary, with facilities near Beaverton, Oregon, in Dong Nai Province, Vietnam and St. Charles, Missouri, as well as independent contractors in China and


2020 FORM 10-K 3



Table of Contents


Vietnam, were our suppliers of materials and cushioning components used in footwear. Air Manufacturing Innovation also manufactures and sells small amounts of various other plastic products to other manufacturers. The principal materials used in our apparel products are natural and synthetic fabrics and threads (both virgin and recycled); specialized performance fabrics designed to efficiently wick moisture away from the body, retain heat and repel rain and/or snow; and plastic and metal hardware. NIKE's independent contractors and suppliers buy raw materials for the manufacturing of our footwear, apparel and equipment products. Most raw materials are available and purchased by those independent contractors and suppliers in the countries where manufacturing takes place. NIKE's independent contract manufacturers and suppliers have thus far experienced little difficulty in satisfying raw material requirements for the production of our products.
Since 1972, Sojitz Corporation of America (“Sojitz America”), a large Japanese trading company and the sole owner of our redeemable preferred stock, has performed import-export financing services for us. During fiscal 2020, Sojitz America provided financing and purchasing services for NIKE Brand products sold in certain NIKE markets including Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, South Africa and Uruguay, excluding products produced and sold in the same country. Approximately 4% of NIKE Brand sales occurred in those countries. Any failure of Sojitz America to provide these services or any failure of Sojitz America's banks could disrupt our ability to acquire products from our suppliers and to deliver products to our customers in those markets. Such a disruption could result in canceled orders that would adversely affect sales and profitability. However, we believe that any such disruption would be short-term in duration due to the ready availability of alternative sources of financing at competitive rates.

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INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS AND TRADE
Our international operations and sources of supply are subject to the usual risks of doing business abroad, such as the implementation of, or potential changes in, foreign and domestic trade policies, increases in import duties, anti-dumping measures, quotas, safeguard measures, trade restrictions, restrictions on the transfer of funds and, in certain parts of the world, political instability and terrorism. We have not, to date, been materially affected by any such risk, but cannot predict the likelihood of such material effects occurring in the future.
In recent years, uncertain global and regional economic and political conditions have affected international trade and increased protectionist actions around the world. These trends are affecting many global manufacturing and service sectors, and the footwear and apparel industries, as a whole, are not immune. Companies in our industry are facing trade protectionism in many different regions, and in nearly all cases we are working together with industry groups to address trade issues and reduce the impact to the industry, while observing applicable competition laws. Notwithstanding our efforts, protectionist measures have resulted in increases in the cost of our products, and additional measures, if implemented, could adversely affect sales and/or profitability for NIKE, as well as the imported footwear and apparel industry as a whole.
We monitor protectionist trends and developments throughout the world that may materially impact our industry, and we engage in administrative and judicial processes to mitigate trade restrictions. We are actively monitoring actions that may result in additional anti-dumping measures and could affect our industry. We are also monitoring for and advocating against other impediments that may limit or delay customs clearance for imports of footwear, apparel and equipment. NIKE also advocates for trade liberalization for footwear and apparel in a number of regional and bilateral free trade agreements. Changes in U.S. trade policies, including new and potential tariffs or penalties on imported goods, may negatively affect U.S. corporations with production activities outside the U.S., including NIKE. There have also been discussions and commentary regarding retaliatory actions by countries affected by the new tariffs and other changes in U.S. trade policy, and certain foreign governments have instituted or are considering imposing retaliatory measures on certain U.S. goods, which could negatively affect U.S. corporations with business operations and/or consumer markets in those countries. Depending on the extent that certain new or proposed reforms are implemented by the U.S. government and the manner in which foreign governments respond to such reforms, it may become necessary for us to change the way we conduct business, which may adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, with respect to proposed trade restrictions targeting China, which represents an important sourcing country and consumer market for us, we are working with a broad coalition of global businesses and trade associations representing a wide variety of sectors to help ensure that any legislation enacted and implemented (i) addresses legitimate and core concerns, (ii) is consistent with international trade rules and (iii) reflects and considers China's domestic economy and the important role it has in the global economic community.
Where trade protection measures are implemented, we believe that we have the ability to develop, over a period of time, adequate alternative sources of supply for the products obtained from our present suppliers. If events prevented us from acquiring products from our suppliers in a particular country, our operations could be temporarily disrupted and we could experience an adverse financial impact. However, we believe we could abate any such disruption, and that much of the adverse impact on supply would, therefore, be of a short-term nature, although alternate sources of supply might not be as cost-effective and could have an ongoing adverse impact on profitability.
Our international operations are also subject to compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or "FCPA", and other anti-bribery laws applicable to our operations. We source a significant portion of our products from, and have important consumer markets, outside of the United States, and we have an ethics and compliance program to address compliance with the FCPA and similar laws by us, our employees, agents, suppliers and other partners.
COMPETITION
The athletic footwear, apparel and equipment industry is highly competitive on a worldwide basis. We compete internationally with a significant number of athletic and leisure footwear companies, athletic and leisure apparel companies, sports equipment companies and large companies having diversified lines of athletic and leisure footwear, apparel and equipment, including adidas, Anta, ASICS, Li Ning, lululemon athletica, Puma, Under Armour and V.F. Corporation, among others. The intense competition and the rapid changes in technology and consumer preferences in the markets for athletic and leisure footwear and apparel and athletic equipment, constitute significant risk factors in our operations.


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NIKE is the largest seller of athletic footwear and apparel in the world. Important aspects of competition in this industry are:
Product attributes such as quality; performance and reliability; new product style, design, innovation and development, as well as consumer price/value.
Consumer connection, engagement and affinity for brands and products, developed through marketing, promotion and digital experiences; social media interaction; customer support and service; identification with prominent and influential athletes, influencers, public figures, coaches, teams, colleges and sports leagues who endorse our brands and use our products and active engagement through sponsored sporting events and clinics.
Effective sourcing and distribution of products, with attractive merchandising and presentation at retail, both in-store and on digital platforms.
We believe that we are competitive in all of these areas.
TRADEMARKS AND PATENTS
We believe that our intellectual property rights are important to our brand, our success and our competitive position. We strategically pursue available protections of these rights and vigorously protect them against third-party theft and infringement.
We use trademarks on nearly all of our products and believe having distinctive marks that are readily identifiable is an important factor in creating a market for our goods, in identifying our brands and the Company, and in distinguishing our goods from the goods of others. We consider our NIKE and Swoosh Design trademarks to be among our most valuable assets and we have registered these trademarks in almost 170 jurisdictions worldwide. In addition, we own many other trademarks that we use in marketing our products. We own common law rights in the trade dress of several significant shoe designs and elements. For certain trade dress, we have sought and obtained trademark registrations.
We have copyright protection in our design, graphics and other original works. When appropriate, we also obtain registered copyrights.
We file for, own and maintain many U.S. and foreign utility and design patents protecting components, technologies, materials, manufacturing techniques, features, functionality, and industrial and aesthetic designs used in and for the manufacture of various athletic and leisure footwear and apparel, athletic equipment and digital devices and related software applications. These patents expire at various times.
We believe our success depends upon our capabilities in areas such as design, research and development, production and marketing and is supported by our intellectual property rights, such as trademarks, patents and trade secrets, among others.
We have followed a policy of applying for and registering intellectual property rights in the United States and select foreign countries on trademarks, inventions, innovations and designs that we deem valuable. We also continue to vigorously protect our intellectual property, including trademarks, patents and trade secrets against third-party infringement.
EMPLOYEES
As of May 31, 2020, we had approximately 75,400 employees worldwide, including retail and part-time employees. Management is committed to maintaining an environment where all NIKE employees have the opportunity to reach their full potential. None of our employees are represented by a union, except for certain employees in the APLA geography, where local law requires those employees to be represented by a trade union. Also, in some countries outside of the United States, local laws require employee representation by works councils (which may be entitled to information and consultation on certain Company decisions) or by organizations similar to a union. In certain European countries, we are required by local law to enter into and/or comply with industry-wide or national collective bargaining agreements. NIKE has never experienced a material interruption of operations due to labor disagreements.

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The executive officers of NIKE, Inc. as of July 24, 2020 are as follows:
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Mark G. Parker, Executive Chairman — Mr. Parker, 64, is Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors and served as President and Chief Executive Officer from 2006 - January 2020. He has been employed by NIKE since 1979 with primary responsibilities in product research, design and development, marketing and brand management. Mr. Parker was appointed divisional Vice President in charge of product development in 1987, corporate Vice President in 1989, General Manager in 1993, Vice President of Global Footwear in 1998 and President of the NIKE Brand in 2001.
 
 
 
 
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John J. Donahoe II, President and Chief Executive Officer — Mr. Donahoe, 60, was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer in January 2020 and has been a director since 2014. He brings expertise in digital commerce, technology and global strategy. He previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer at ServiceNow, Inc. Prior to joining ServiceNow, Inc., he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of eBay, Inc. He also held leadership roles at Bain & Company for two decades.
 
 
 
 
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Andrew Campion, Chief Operating Officer — Mr. Campion, 48, joined NIKE in 2007 as Vice President of Global Planning and Development, leading strategic and financial planning. He was appointed Chief Financial Officer of the NIKE Brand in 2010, responsible for leading all aspects of financial management for the Company's flagship brand. In 2014, he was appointed Senior Vice President, Strategy, Finance and Investor Relations. Mr. Campion assumed the role of Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in August 2015. In April 2020, he was appointed Chief Operating Officer and leads NIKE's global technology and digital transformation, demand and supply management, manufacturing, distribution and logistics, sustainability, workplace design and connectivity, and procurement. Prior to joining NIKE, he held leadership roles in strategic planning, mergers and acquisitions, financial planning and analysis, operations and planning, investor relations and tax at The Walt Disney Company.
 
 
 
 
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Matthew Friend, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer — Mr. Friend, 42, joined NIKE in 2009 as Senior Director of Corporate Strategy and Development, and was appointed Chief Financial Officer of Emerging Markets in 2011. In 2014, Mr. Friend was appointed Chief Financial Officer of Global Categories, Product and Functions, and was subsequently appointed Chief Financial Officer of the NIKE Brand in 2016. He was also appointed Vice President of Investor Relations in 2019. Mr. Friend was appointed as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of NIKE, Inc. in April 2020. Prior to joining NIKE, he worked in the financial industry including roles as VP of investment banking and mergers and acquisitions at Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley.
 
 
 
 
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Hilary K. Krane, Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and General Counsel — Ms. Krane, 56, joined NIKE as Vice President and General Counsel in 2010. In 2011, her responsibilities expanded, and she became Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Affairs. Ms. Krane was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and General Counsel in 2013. Prior to joining NIKE, Ms. Krane was General Counsel and Senior Vice President for Corporate Affairs at Levi Strauss & Co. from 2006 to 2010. From 1996 to 2006, she was a Partner and Assistant General Counsel at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
 
 
 
 
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Monique S. Matheson, Executive Vice President, Global Human Resources — Ms. Matheson, 53, joined NIKE in 1998, with primary responsibilities in the human resources function. She was appointed as Vice President and Senior Business Partner in 2011 and Vice President, Chief Talent and Diversity Officer in 2012. Ms. Matheson was appointed Executive Vice President, Global Human Resources in 2017.
 
 
 
 
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Heidi O'Neill, President of Consumer and Marketplace — Ms. O'Neill, 55, joined NIKE in 1998, and held a variety of leadership roles, including President of NIKE Direct, where she was responsible for NIKE's connection to its consumer globally through the Company's retail and digital-commerce business. She also led NIKE's women's business for seven years, growing it into a multi-billion dollar business, and leading the Company's North America apparel business as VP/GM. Ms. O'Neill was appointed as President of Consumer and Marketplace in April 2020 and is responsible for NIKE's Direct business, including all stores, e-commerce and apps globally.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Analyst Reports
Certain written and oral statements, other than purely historic information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to NIKE's business plans, objectives and expected operating results and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, made or incorporated by reference from time to time by NIKE or its representatives in this report, other reports, filings with the SEC, press releases, conferences or otherwise, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements include, without limitation, any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate or imply future results, performance or achievements, and may contain the words “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “project,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result” or words or phrases of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties are detailed from time to time in reports filed by NIKE with the SEC, including reports filed on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K, and include, among others, the following: health epidemics, pandemics and similar outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic; international, national and local political, civil, economic and market conditions; the size and growth of the overall athletic footwear, apparel and equipment markets; intense competition among designers, marketers, distributors and sellers of athletic footwear, apparel and equipment for consumers and endorsers; demographic changes; changes in consumer preferences; popularity of particular designs, categories of products and sports; seasonal and geographic demand for NIKE products; difficulties in anticipating or forecasting changes in consumer preferences, consumer demand for NIKE products and the various market factors described above; difficulties in implementing, operating and maintaining NIKE's increasingly complex information technology systems and controls, including, without limitation, the systems related to demand and supply planning and inventory control; interruptions in data and information technology systems; consumer data security; fluctuations and difficulty in forecasting operating results, including, without limitation, the fact that advance orders may not be indicative of future revenues due to changes in shipment timing, the changing mix of orders with shorter lead times, and discounts, order cancellations and returns; the ability of NIKE to sustain, manage or forecast its growth and inventories; the size, timing and mix of purchases of NIKE's products; increases in the cost of materials, labor and energy used to manufacture products; new product development and introduction; the ability to secure and protect trademarks, patents and other intellectual property; product performance and quality; customer service; adverse publicity, including without limitation, through social media or in connection with brand damaging events; the loss of significant customers or suppliers; dependence on distributors and licensees; business disruptions; increased costs of freight and transportation to meet delivery deadlines; increases in borrowing costs due to any decline in NIKE's debt ratings; changes in business strategy or development plans; general risks associated with doing business outside of the United States, including, without limitation, exchange rate fluctuations, inflation, import duties, tariffs, quotas, political and economic instability and terrorism; the potential impact of new laws, regulations or policy, including, without limitation, tariffs, import/export, trade and immigration regulations or policies; changes in government regulations; the impact of, including business and legal developments relating to, climate change and natural disasters; litigation, regulatory proceedings, sanctions or any other claims asserted against NIKE; the ability to attract and retain qualified employees, and any negative public perception with respect to key personnel or our corporate culture, values or purpose; the effects of NIKE's decision to invest in or divest of businesses and other factors referenced or incorporated by reference in this report and other reports.
Risk Factors
The risks included here are not exhaustive. Other sections of this report may include additional factors which could adversely affect NIKE's business and financial performance. Moreover, NIKE operates in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risks, nor can it assess the impact of all such risks on NIKE's business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.
Investors should also be aware that while NIKE does, from time to time, communicate with securities analysts, it is against NIKE's policy to disclose to them any material non-public information or other confidential commercial information. Accordingly, shareholders should not assume that NIKE agrees with any statement or report issued by any analyst irrespective of the content of the statement or report. Furthermore, NIKE has a policy against confirming financial forecasts or projections issued by others. Thus, to the extent that reports issued by securities analysts contain any projections, forecasts or opinions, such reports are not the responsibility of NIKE.
Our financial condition and results of operations have been and are expected to continue to be adversely affected by the coronavirus pandemic.
A novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and subsequently declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. To date, this pandemic and preventative measures taken to contain or mitigate the pandemic have caused, and are expected to continue to cause, business slowdown or shutdown in affected areas and significant disruption in the

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financial markets, both globally and in the United States. These events have led to and could continue to lead to a decline in discretionary spending by consumers, and in turn materially impact, our business, sales, financial condition and results of operations. We have experienced a negative impact on our sales, operations and financial results, and we cannot predict the degree to, or the time period over, which our sales, operations and financial results will continue to be affected by the pandemic and preventative measures. Risks presented by the COVID-19 pandemic include, but are not limited to:
Deterioration in economic conditions in the United States and globally;
Reduced consumer demand for our products as consumers seek to reduce or delay discretionary spending in response to the impacts of COVID-19, including as a result of a rise in unemployment rates and diminished consumer confidence;
Cancellation or postponement of sports seasons and sporting events in multiple countries, including in the United States, and bans on large public gatherings, which have reduced consumer spending on our products and could impact the effectiveness of our arrangements with key endorsers;
Decreased retail traffic as a result of store closures, reduced operating hours, social distancing restrictions and/or changes in consumer behavior;
The risk that any safety protocols in NIKE-owned or affiliated facilities will not be effective or not be perceived as effective, or that any virus-related illnesses will be linked or alleged to be linked to such facilities, whether accurate or not;
Incremental costs resulting from the adoption of preventative measures, including providing facial coverings and hand sanitizer, rearranging operations to follow social distancing protocols, conducting temperature checks and undertaking regular and thorough disinfecting of surfaces;
Disruption to our distribution centers and our third-party manufacturing partners and other vendors, including through the effects of facility closures, reductions in operating hours, labor shortages, and real time changes in operating procedures, including for additional cleaning and disinfection procedures;
Bankruptcies or other financial difficulties facing our wholesale customers, which could cause them to be unable to make or delay making payments to us, or result in cancellation or reduction of their orders;
Operational risk, including but not limited to cybersecurity risks, as a result of extended workforce remote work arrangements, and restrictions on employee travel;
Impacts to our distribution and logistics providers' ability to operate or increases in their operating costs. These supply chain effects may have an adverse effect on our ability to meet consumer demand, including digital demand, and could result in an increase in our costs of production and distribution, including increased freight and logistics costs and other expenses; and
Significant disruption of and volatility in global financial markets, which could have a negative impact on our ability to access capital in the future.
We continue to monitor the latest developments regarding the pandemic and have made certain assumptions regarding the pandemic for purposes of our operating, financial and tax planning projections, including assumptions regarding the duration and severity of the pandemic and the global macroeconomic impacts of the pandemic. However, we are unable to accurately predict the extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business, operations and financial condition due to the uncertainty of future developments. In particular, we believe the ultimate impacts on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition will depend on, among other things, the further spread and duration of COVID-19, the requirements to take action to help limit the spread of the illness, the availability, safety and efficacy of a vaccine and treatments for COVID-19 and the economic impacts of the pandemic. Even in those regions where we are beginning to experience business recovery should those regions fail to fully contain COVID-19 or suffer a COVID-19 relapse, those markets may not recover as quickly or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The pandemic may also affect our business, operations or financial condition in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks.
In addition, the impact of COVID-19 may also exacerbate other risks discussed in this Item 1A. Risk Factors, any of which could have a material effect on us.
Global economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
The uncertain state of the global economy continues to impact businesses around the world. If global economic and financial market conditions further deteriorate or do not improve, the following factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition:
Our sales are impacted by discretionary spending by consumers. Declines in consumer spending may result in reduced demand for our products, increased inventories, reduced orders from retailers for our products, order cancellations, lower revenues, higher discounts and lower gross margins.
In the future, we may be unable to access financing in the credit and capital markets at reasonable rates in the event we find it desirable to do so.


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We conduct transactions in various currencies, which creates exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates relative to the U.S. Dollar. Continued volatility in the markets and exchange rates for foreign currencies and contracts in foreign currencies could have a significant impact on our reported operating results and financial condition.
Continued volatility in the availability and prices for commodities and raw materials we use in our products and in our supply chain (such as cotton or petroleum derivatives) could have a material adverse effect on our costs, gross margins and profitability.
If retailers of our products experience declining revenues or experience difficulty obtaining financing in the capital and credit markets to purchase our products, this could result in reduced orders for our products, order cancellations, late retailer payments, extended payment terms, higher accounts receivable, reduced cash flows, greater expense associated with collection efforts and increased bad debt expense.
If retailers of our products experience severe financial difficulty, some may become insolvent and cease business operations, which could negatively impact the sale of our products to consumers.
If contract manufacturers of our products or other participants in our supply chain experience difficulty obtaining financing in the capital and credit markets to purchase raw materials or to finance capital equipment and other general working capital needs, it may result in delays or non-delivery of shipments of our products.
Our products, services and experiences face intense competition.
NIKE is a consumer products company and the relative popularity of various sports and fitness activities and changing design trends affect the demand for our products. The athletic footwear, apparel and equipment industry is highly competitive both in the United States and worldwide. We compete internationally with a significant number of athletic and leisure footwear companies, athletic and leisure apparel companies, sports equipment companies, private labels and large companies that have diversified lines of athletic and leisure footwear, apparel and equipment. We also compete with other companies for the production capacity of independent manufacturers that produce our products. Our NIKE Direct operations, both through our digital commerce operations and retail stores, also compete with multi-brand retailers, which sell our products through their digital platforms and physical stores, and with digital commerce platforms. In addition, we compete with respect to the digital experiences we are able to offer our consumers.
Product offerings, technologies, marketing expenditures (including expenditures for advertising and endorsements), pricing, costs of production, customer service, digital commerce platforms, digital services and experiences and social media presence are areas of intense competition. This, in addition to ongoing rapid changes in technology, a reduction in barriers to the creation of new footwear and apparel companies and consumer preferences in the markets for athletic and leisure footwear and apparel, athletic equipment, services and experiences, constitute significant risk factors in our operations. In addition, the competitive nature of retail, including shifts in the ways in which consumers shop, and the continued proliferation of digital commerce, constitutes a risk factor implicating our NIKE Direct and wholesale operations. If we do not adequately and timely anticipate and respond to our competitors, our costs may increase, demand for our products may decline, possibly significantly, or we may need to reduce wholesale or suggested retail prices for our products.
Failure to maintain our reputation, brand image and culture could negatively impact our business.
Our iconic brands have worldwide recognition, and our success depends on our ability to maintain and enhance our brand image and reputation. Maintaining, promoting and growing our brands will depend on our design and marketing efforts, including advertising and consumer campaigns, product innovation and product quality. Our commitment to product innovation and quality and our continuing investment in design (including materials) and marketing may not have the desired impact on our brand image and reputation. In addition, our success in maintaining, extending and expanding our brand image depends on our ability to adapt to a rapidly changing media environment, including our increasing reliance on social media and digital dissemination of advertising campaigns on our digital platforms and through our digital experiences. We could be adversely impacted if we fail to achieve any of these objectives.
Our brand value also depends on our ability to maintain a positive consumer perception of our corporate integrity, purpose and brand culture. Negative claims or publicity involving us, our culture and values, our products, services and experiences, consumer data, or any of our key employees, endorsers, sponsors or suppliers could seriously damage our reputation and brand image, regardless of whether such claims are accurate. For example, while we require our suppliers of our products to operate their business in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, we do not control their practices. Negative publicity relating to a violation or an alleged violation of policies or laws by such suppliers could damage our brand image and diminish consumer trust in our brand. Social media, which accelerates and potentially amplifies the scope of negative publicity, can increase the challenges of responding to negative claims. Adverse publicity about regulatory or legal action against us, or by us, could also damage our reputation and brand image, undermine consumer confidence in us and reduce long-term demand for our products, even if the regulatory or legal action is unfounded or not material to our operations. If the reputation, culture or image of any of our brands is tarnished or if we receive negative publicity, then our sales, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

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Our business is affected by seasonality, which could result in fluctuations in our operating results.
We experience moderate fluctuations in aggregate sales volume during the year. Historically, revenues in the first and fourth fiscal quarters have slightly exceeded those in the second and third fiscal quarters. However, the mix of product sales may vary considerably from time to time as a result of changes in seasonal or COVID-19 related cancellations or postponements and geographic demand for particular types of footwear, apparel and equipment and in connection with the timing of significant sporting events, such as the NBA Finals, Olympics or the World Cup, among others. In addition, our customers may cancel orders, change delivery schedules or change the mix of products ordered with minimal notice. As a result, we may not be able to accurately predict our quarterly sales. Accordingly, our results of operations are likely to fluctuate significantly from period to period. This seasonality, along with other factors that are beyond our control, including economic conditions, changes in consumer preferences, weather conditions, outbreaks of disease, social or political unrest, availability of import quotas, transportation disruptions and currency exchange rate fluctuations, could adversely affect our business and cause our results of operations to fluctuate. Our operating margins are also sensitive to a number of additional factors that are beyond our control, including manufacturing and transportation costs, shifts in product sales mix and geographic sales trends, all of which we expect to continue. Results of operations in any period should not be considered indicative of the results to be expected for any future period.
If we are unable to anticipate consumer preferences and develop new products, we may not be able to maintain or increase our revenues and profits.
Our success depends on our ability to identify, originate and define product trends as well as to anticipate, gauge and react to changing consumer demands in a timely manner. However, lead times for many of our products may make it more difficult for us to respond rapidly to new or changing product trends or consumer preferences. All of our products are subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. Our new products may not receive consumer acceptance as consumer preferences could shift rapidly to different types of performance products or away from these types of products altogether, and our future success depends in part on our ability to anticipate and respond to these changes. If we fail to anticipate accurately and respond to trends and shifts in consumer preferences by adjusting the mix of existing product offerings, developing new products, designs, styles and categories, and influencing sports and fitness preferences through extensive marketing, we could experience lower sales, excess inventories or lower profit margins, any of which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we market our products globally through a diverse spectrum of advertising and promotional programs and campaigns, including social media, mobile applications and online advertising. If we do not successfully market our products or if advertising and promotional costs increase, these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on technical innovation and high-quality products to compete in the market for our products.
Technical innovation and quality control in the design and manufacturing process of footwear, apparel and athletic equipment is essential to the commercial success of our products. Research and development play a key role in technical innovation. We rely upon specialists in the fields of biomechanics, chemistry, exercise physiology, engineering, digital technologies, industrial design, sustainability and related fields, as well as research committees and advisory boards made up of athletes, coaches, trainers, equipment managers, orthopedists, podiatrists and other experts to develop and test cutting-edge performance products. While we strive to produce products that help to enhance athletic performance, reduce injury and maximize comfort, if we fail to introduce technical innovation in our products, consumer demand for our products could decline, and if we experience problems with the quality of our products, we may incur substantial expense to remedy the problems and loss of consumer confidence.
Failure to continue to obtain or maintain high-quality endorsers of our products could harm our business.
We establish relationships with professional athletes, sports teams and leagues, as well as other public figures, including artists, designers and influencers, to develop, evaluate and promote our products, as well as establish product authenticity with consumers. However, as competition in our industry has increased, the costs associated with establishing and retaining such sponsorships and other relationships have increased. If we are unable to maintain our current associations with professional athletes, sports teams and leagues, or other public figures, or to do so at a reasonable cost, we could lose the high visibility or on-field authenticity associated with our products, and we may be required to modify and substantially increase our marketing investments. As a result, our brands, net revenues, expenses and profitability could be harmed.
Furthermore, if certain endorsers were to stop using our products contrary to their endorsement agreements, our business could be adversely affected. In addition, actions taken or statements made by athletes, teams or leagues, or other endorsers, associated with our products that harm the reputations of those athletes, teams or leagues, or endorsers, could also seriously harm our brand image with consumers and, as a result, could have an adverse effect on our sales and financial condition. In addition, poor performance by our endorsers, a failure to continue to correctly identify promising athletes, public figures or sports organizations, to use and endorse our products or a failure to enter into cost-effective endorsement arrangements with prominent athletes, public figures and sports organizations could adversely affect our brand, sales and profitability.



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Economic factors beyond our control, and changes in the global economic environment, including fluctuations in inflation and currency exchange rates, could result in lower revenues, higher costs and decreased margins and earnings.
A majority of our products are manufactured and sold outside of the United States, and we conduct purchase and sale transactions in various currencies, which creates exposure to the volatility of global economic conditions, including fluctuations in inflation and foreign currency exchange rates. Additionally, there has been, and may continue to be, volatility in currency exchange rates as a result of the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit” or new or proposed U.S. policy changes that impact the U.S. Dollar value relative to other international currencies. Our international revenues and expenses generally are derived from sales and operations in foreign currencies, and these revenues and expenses could be affected by currency fluctuations, specifically amounts recorded in foreign currencies and translated into U.S. Dollars for consolidated financial reporting, as weakening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. Dollar adversely affects the U.S. Dollar value of the Company's foreign currency-denominated sales and earnings. Currency exchange rate fluctuations could also disrupt the business of the independent manufacturers that produce our products by making their purchases of raw materials more expensive and more difficult to finance. Foreign currency fluctuations have adversely affected and could continue to have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may hedge certain foreign currency exposures to lessen and delay, but not to completely eliminate, the effects of foreign currency fluctuations on our financial results. Since the hedging activities are designed to lessen volatility, they not only reduce the negative impact of a stronger U.S. Dollar or other trading currency, but they also reduce the positive impact of a weaker U.S. Dollar or other trading currency. Our future financial results could be significantly affected by the value of the U.S. Dollar in relation to the foreign currencies in which we conduct business. The degree to which our financial results are affected for any given time period will depend in part upon our hedging activities.
We may be adversely affected by the financial health of our customers.
We extend credit to our customers based on an assessment of a customer's financial condition, generally without requiring collateral. To assist in the scheduling of production and the shipping of our products, we offer certain customers the opportunity to place orders five to six months ahead of delivery under our futures ordering program. These advance orders may be canceled under certain conditions, and the risk of cancellation may increase when dealing with financially unstable retailers or retailers struggling with economic uncertainty. In the past, some customers have experienced financial difficulties up to and including bankruptcies, which have had an adverse effect on our sales, our ability to collect on receivables and our financial condition. When the retail economy weakens or as consumer behavior shifts, retailers may be more cautious with orders. A slowing or changing economy in our key markets could adversely affect the financial health of our customers, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, product sales are dependent in part on high quality merchandising and an appealing retail environment to attract consumers, which requires continuing investments by retailers. Retailers that experience financial difficulties may fail to make such investments or delay them, resulting in lower sales and orders for our products.
Failure to accurately forecast consumer demand could lead to excess inventories or inventory shortages, which could result in decreased operating margins, reduced cash flows and harm to our business.
To meet anticipated demand for our products, we purchase products from manufacturers outside of our futures ordering program and in advance of customer orders, which we hold in inventory and resell to customers. There is a risk we may be unable to sell excess products ordered from manufacturers. Inventory levels in excess of customer demand may result in inventory write-downs, and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices could significantly impair our brand image and have an adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and cash flows. Conversely, if we underestimate consumer demand for our products or if our manufacturers fail to supply products we require at the time we need them, we may experience inventory shortages. Inventory shortages might delay shipments to customers, negatively impact retailer, distributor and consumer relationships and diminish brand loyalty. The difficulty in forecasting demand also makes it difficult to estimate our future results of operations, financial condition and cash flows from period to period. A failure to accurately predict the level of demand for our products could adversely affect our net revenues and net income, and we are unlikely to forecast such effects with any certainty in advance.
Our NIKE Direct operations have required and will continue to require a substantial investment and commitment of resources and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
Our NIKE Direct operations, including our retail stores and digital platforms, have required and will continue to require significant investment. Our NIKE Direct stores have required and will continue to require substantial fixed investment in equipment and leasehold improvements and personnel. We have entered into substantial operating lease commitments for retail space. Certain stores have been designed and built to serve as high-profile venues to promote brand awareness and marketing activities and to integrate with our digital platforms. Because of their unique design and technological elements, locations and size, these stores require substantially more investment than other stores. Due to the high fixed-cost structure associated with our NIKE Direct retail stores, a decline in sales, a shift in consumer behavior away from brick-and-mortar retail, or the closure, temporary or

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otherwise, or poor performance of individual or multiple stores could result in significant lease termination costs, write-offs of equipment and leasehold improvements and employee-related costs.
Many factors unique to retail operations, some of which are beyond our control, pose risks and uncertainties. Risks include, but are not limited to: credit card fraud; mismanagement of existing retail channel partners; and inability to manage costs associated with store construction and operation.
In addition, we have made significant investments in digital technologies and information systems for the digital aspect of our NIKE Direct operations, and our digital offerings will require continued investment in the development and upgrading of our technology platforms. In order to deliver high-quality digital experiences, our digital platforms must be designed effectively and work well with a range of other technologies, systems, networks, and standards that we do not control. We may not be successful in developing platforms that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks or standards. A growing portion of consumers access our NIKE Direct digital platforms, but in the event that it is more difficult for consumers to access and use our digital platforms, consumers find that our digital platforms do not effectively meet their needs or expectations or consumers choose not to access or use our digital platforms or use devices that do not offer access to our platforms, the success of our NIKE Direct operations could be adversely impacted. Our competitors may develop, or have already developed, digital experiences, features, content, services or technologies that are similar to ours or that achieve greater acceptance. 
We may not realize a satisfactory return on our investment in our NIKE Direct operations and management's attention from our other business opportunities could be diverted, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If the technology-based systems that give our consumers the ability to shop or interact with us online do not function effectively, our operating results, as well as our ability to grow our digital commerce business globally or to retain our customer base, could be materially adversely affected.
Many of our consumers shop with us through our digital platforms. Increasingly, consumers are using mobile-based devices and applications to shop online with us and with our competitors, and to do comparison shopping, as well as to engage with us and our competitors through digital experiences that are offered on mobile platforms. We are increasingly using social media and proprietary mobile applications to interact with our consumers and as a means to enhance their shopping experience. Any failure on our part to provide attractive, effective, reliable, user-friendly digital commerce platforms that offer a wide assortment of merchandise with rapid delivery options and that continually meet the changing expectations of online shoppers or any failure to provide attractive digital experiences to our customers could place us at a competitive disadvantage, result in the loss of digital commerce and other sales, harm our reputation with consumers, have a material adverse impact on the growth of our digital commerce business globally and could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. In addition, as use of our digital platforms continues to grow, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure to continue to satisfy our consumers' needs. If we fail to continue to effectively scale and adapt our digital platforms to accommodate increased consumer demand, our business may be subject to interruptions, delays or failures and consumer demand for our products and digital experiences could decline.
Risks specific to our digital commerce business also include diversion of sales from our and our retailers' brick and mortar stores, difficulty in recreating the in-store experience through direct channels and liability for online content. Our failure to successfully respond to these risks might adversely affect sales in our digital commerce business, as well as damage our reputation and brands.
We rely significantly on information technology to operate our business, including our supply chain and retail operations, and any failure, inadequacy or interruption of that technology could harm our ability to effectively operate our business.
We are heavily dependent on information technology systems and networks, including the Internet and third-party services (“Information Technology Systems”), across our supply chain, including product design, production, forecasting, ordering, manufacturing, transportation, sales and distribution, as well as for processing financial information for external and internal reporting purposes, retail operations and other business activities. Information Technology Systems are critical to many of our operating activities and our business processes and may be negatively impacted by any service interruption or shutdown. For example, our ability to effectively manage and maintain our inventory and to ship products to customers on a timely basis depends significantly on the reliability of these Information Technology Systems. Over a number of years, we have implemented Information Technology Systems in all of the geographical regions in which we operate. Our work to integrate, secure and enhance these systems and related processes in our global operations is ongoing and NIKE will continue to invest in these efforts. We cannot provide assurance, however, that the measures we take to secure and enhance these systems will be sufficient to protect our Information Technology Systems and prevent cyber-attacks, system failures or data or information loss. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, including as a result of security breaches, viruses, hackers, malware, natural disasters, vendor business interruptions or other causes, or failure to properly maintain, protect, repair or upgrade systems, or problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems could cause delays in product fulfillment and reduced efficiency of our operations, could require significant capital investments to remediate the problem which may not be sufficient to cover all


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eventualities, and may have an adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition. Further, like other companies in the retail industry, we have in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, cyber-attacks, including phishing, and other attempts to breach, or gain unauthorized access to, our systems. To date, these attacks have not had a material impact on our operations, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have an impact in the future.
We also use Information Technology Systems to process financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting, legal and tax requirements. If Information Technology Systems suffer severe damage, disruption or shutdown and our business continuity plans, or those of our vendors, do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, we could experience delays in reporting our financial results, which could result in lost revenues and profits, as well as reputational damage. Furthermore, we depend on Information Technology Systems and personal data collection for digital marketing, digital commerce, consumer engagement and the marketing and use of our digital products and services. We also rely on our ability to engage in electronic communications throughout the world between and among our employees as well as with other third parties, including customers, suppliers, vendors and consumers. Any interruption in Information Technology Systems may impede our ability to engage in the digital space and result in lost revenues, damage to our reputation, and loss of users.
We are subject to a complex array of laws and regulations and litigation and other legal and regulatory proceedings, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a multinational corporation with operations and distribution channels throughout the world, we are subject to and must comply with extensive laws and regulations in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we have operations and distribution channels. If we or our employees, agents, suppliers, and other partners fail to comply with any of these laws or regulations, such failure could subject us to fines, sanctions or other penalties that could negatively affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. We are involved in various types of claims, lawsuits, regulatory proceedings and government investigations relating to our business, our products and the actions of our employees and representatives, including contractual and employment relationships, product liability, antitrust, trademark rights and a variety of other matters. It is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of any such legal or regulatory proceedings or investigations, and we could in the future incur judgments, fines or penalties, or enter into settlements of lawsuits and claims that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and negatively impact our reputation. The global nature of our business means legal and compliance risks, such as anti-bribery, anti-corruption, fraud, trade, environmental, competition, privacy and other regulatory matters, will continue to exist and additional legal proceedings and other contingencies will arise from time to time, which could adversely affect us. In addition, the adoption of new laws or regulations, or changes in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations, may result in significant unanticipated legal and reputational risks. Any current or future legal or regulatory proceedings could divert management's attention from our operations and result in substantial legal fees.
Changes to U.S. or other countries' trade policies and tariff and import/export regulations or our failure to comply with such regulations may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in U.S. or international social, political, regulatory and economic conditions could impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, political and economic instability, geopolitical conflicts, political unrest, civil strife, terrorist activity, acts of war, public corruption, expropriation and other economic or political uncertainties in the United States or internationally could interrupt and negatively affect the sale of our products or other business operations. Any negative sentiment toward the United States as a result of any such changes could also adversely affect our business.
In addition, changes in laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment in the territories or countries where we currently sell our products or conduct our business could adversely affect our business. The U.S. presidential administration has instituted or proposed changes in trade policies that include the negotiation or termination of trade agreements, the imposition of higher tariffs on imports into the U.S., economic sanctions on individuals, corporations or countries, and other government regulations affecting trade between the U.S. and other countries where we conduct our business. It may be time-consuming and expensive for us to alter our business operations in order to adapt to or comply with any such changes.
Changes or proposed changes in U.S. or other countries' trade policies may result in restrictions and economic disincentives on international trade. Tariffs and other changes in U.S. trade policy have in the past and could in the future trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries, and certain foreign governments have instituted or are considering imposing retaliatory measures on certain U.S. goods. Further, any emerging protectionist or nationalist trends either in the United States or in other countries could affect the trade environment. The Company, similar to many other multinational corporations, does a significant amount of business that would be impacted by changes to the trade policies of the United States and foreign countries (including governmental action related to tariffs, international trade agreements, or economic sanctions). Such changes have the potential to adversely impact the U.S. economy or certain sectors thereof or the economy of another country in which we conduct operations, our industry and the global demand for our products, and as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Failure to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
We periodically discover counterfeit reproductions of our products or products that otherwise infringe our intellectual property rights. If we are unsuccessful in enforcing our intellectual property rights, continued sales of these products could adversely affect our sales and our brand and could result in a shift of consumer preference away from our products.
The actions we take to establish and protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to prevent imitation of our products by others. We also may be unable to prevent others from seeking to block sales of our products as violations of proprietary rights.
We may be subject to liability if third parties successfully claim we infringe on their intellectual property rights. Defending infringement claims could be expensive and time-consuming and might result in our entering into costly license agreements. We also may be subject to significant damages or injunctions against development, use, importation and/or sale of certain products.
We take various actions to prevent the unauthorized use and/or disclosure of our confidential information and intellectual property rights. These actions include contractual measures such as entering into non-disclosure and non-compete agreements and agreements relating to our collaborations with third parties and providing confidential information awareness training. Our controls and efforts to prevent unauthorized use and/or disclosure of confidential information and intellectual property rights might not always be effective. For example, confidential information related to business strategy, innovations, new technologies, mergers and acquisitions, unpublished financial results or personal data could be prematurely, inadvertently, or improperly used and/or disclosed, resulting in a loss of reputation, loss of intellectual property rights, a decline in our stock price and/or a negative impact on our market position, and could lead to damages, fines, penalties or injunctions.
In addition, the laws of certain countries may not protect or allow enforcement of intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. We may face significant expenses and liability in connection with the protection of our intellectual property rights, including outside the United States, and if we are unable to successfully protect our rights or resolve intellectual property conflicts with others, our business or financial condition may be adversely affected.
We are subject to data security and privacy risks that could negatively affect our results, operations or reputation.
In addition to our own sensitive and proprietary business information, we handle transactional and personal information about our wholesale customers and consumers and users of our digital experiences, which include online distribution channels and product engagement, adaptive products and personal fitness applications. Hackers and data thieves are increasingly sophisticated and operate social engineering, such as phishing, and large-scale, complex automated attacks that can evade detection for long periods of time. Any breach of our or our service providers' network, or other vendor systems, may result in the loss of confidential business and financial data, misappropriation of our consumers', users' or employees' personal information or a disruption of our business. Any of these outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business, including unwanted media attention, impairment of our consumer and customer relationships, damage to our reputation; resulting in lost sales and consumers, fines, lawsuits, or significant legal and remediation expenses. We also may need to expend significant resources to protect against, respond to and/or redress problems caused by any breach.
In addition, we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous, and sometimes conflicting, regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the United States, Europe and elsewhere. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018; and California passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (the "CCPA") which became effective on January 1, 2020. These laws impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provide certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under GDPR and CCPA) and regulations can be costly and time consuming, and any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks. Misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others, imposition of fines by governmental authorities and damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.
Our international operations involve inherent risks which could result in harm to our business.
Virtually all of our athletic footwear and apparel is manufactured outside of the United States, and the majority of our products are sold outside of the United States. Accordingly, we are subject to the risks generally associated with global trade and doing business abroad, which include foreign laws and regulations, varying consumer preferences across geographic regions, political unrest, disruptions or delays in cross-border shipments and changes in economic conditions in countries in which our products are manufactured or where we sell products. This includes, for example, the uncertainty surrounding the effect of Brexit, including changes to the legal and regulatory framework that apply to the United Kingdom and its relationship with the European Union, as well as new and proposed changes affecting tax laws and trade policy in the United States and elsewhere as further described below under “We could be subject to changes in tax rates, adoption of new tax laws, additional tax liabilities or increased volatility in our effective tax rate” and “Changes to U.S. or other countries' trade policies and tariff and import/export regulations or our failure to comply with such regulations may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and


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results of operations.” The U.S. presidential administration has indicated a focus on policy reforms that discourage U.S. corporations from outsourcing manufacturing and production activities to foreign jurisdictions, including through tariffs or penalties on goods manufactured outside the United States, which may require us to change the way we conduct business and adversely affect our results of operations. The administration has also targeted the specific practices of certain U.S. multinational corporations in public statements which, if directed at us, could harm our reputation or otherwise negatively impact our business.
In addition, disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, terrorist acts and military conflict have increased the risks of doing business abroad. These factors, among others, could affect our ability to manufacture products or procure materials, our ability to import products, our ability to sell products in international markets and our cost of doing business. If any of these or other factors make the conduct of business in a particular country undesirable or impractical, our business could be adversely affected. In addition, many of our imported products are subject to duties, tariffs or quotas that affect the cost and quantity of various types of goods imported into the United States and other countries. Any country in which our products are produced or sold may eliminate, adjust or impose new quotas, duties, tariffs, safeguard measures, anti-dumping duties, cargo restrictions to prevent terrorism, restrictions on the transfer of currency, climate change legislation, product safety regulations or other charges or restrictions, any of which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Furthermore, we are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as well as the anti-corruption laws of other countries in which we operate. Although we implement policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with these laws, our employees, contractors and agents, as well as those companies to which we outsource certain of our business operations, may take actions in violation of our policies. Any such violation could result in sanctions or other penalties and have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and operating results.
Our products are subject to risks associated with overseas sourcing, manufacturing and financing.
The principal materials used in our apparel products — natural and synthetic fabrics and threads, specialized performance fabrics designed to efficiently wick moisture away from the body, retain heat or repel rain and/or snow as well as plastic and metal hardware — are available in countries where our manufacturing takes place. The principal materials used in our footwear products — natural and synthetic rubber, plastic compounds, foam cushioning materials, natural and synthetic leather, natural and synthetic fabrics and threads, nylon, canvas and polyurethane films — are also locally available to manufacturers. Both our apparel and footwear products are dependent upon the ability of our unaffiliated contract manufacturers to locate, train, employ and retain adequate personnel. NIKE contractors and suppliers buy raw materials and are subject to wage rates that are oftentimes regulated by the governments of the countries in which our products are manufactured.
There could be a significant disruption in the supply of fabrics or raw materials from current sources or, in the event of a disruption, our contract manufacturers might not be able to locate alternative suppliers of materials of comparable quality at an acceptable price or at all. Further, our unaffiliated contract manufacturers have experienced and may continue to experience in the future, unexpected increases in work wages, whether government mandated or otherwise and increases in compliance costs due to governmental regulation concerning certain metals used in the manufacturing of our products. In addition, we cannot be certain that our unaffiliated manufacturers will be able to fill our orders in a timely manner. If we experience significant increases in demand, or reductions in the availability of materials, or need to replace an existing manufacturer, there can be no assurance additional supplies of fabrics or raw materials or additional manufacturing capacity will be available when required on terms acceptable to us, or at all, or that any supplier or manufacturer would allocate sufficient capacity to us in order to meet our requirements. In addition, even if we are able to expand existing or find new manufacturing or sources of materials, we may encounter delays in production and added costs as a result of the time it takes to train suppliers and manufacturers in our methods, products, quality control standards and labor, health and safety standards. Any delays, interruption or increased costs in labor or wages, or the supply of materials or manufacture of our products could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet retail customer and consumer demand for our products and result in lower revenues and net income both in the short- and long-term.
Because independent manufacturers make a majority of our products outside of our principal sales markets, our products must be transported by third parties over large geographic distances. Delays in the shipment or delivery of our products due to the availability of transportation, work stoppages, port strikes, infrastructure congestion or other factors, and costs and delays associated with consolidating or transitioning between manufacturers, could adversely impact our financial performance. In addition, manufacturing delays or unexpected demand for our products may require us to use faster, but more expensive, transportation methods such as air freight, which could adversely affect our profit margins. The cost of oil is a significant component in manufacturing and transportation costs, so increases in the price of petroleum products can adversely affect our profit margins. Changes in U.S. trade policies, including new and potential changes to import tariffs and existing trade policies and agreements, could also have a significant impact on our activities in foreign jurisdictions, and could adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, Sojitz America performs import-export financing services and purchasing services for NIKE Brand products sold in certain countries and any failure of Sojitz America to provide these services or any failure of Sojitz America's banks could have an

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adverse effect on our ability to acquire products from our suppliers and to deliver products to our customers in the countries in which Sojitz provides services, which could in turn adversely affect our sales and profitability.
We could be subject to changes in tax rates, adoption of new tax laws, additional tax liabilities or increased volatility in our effective tax rate.
We are subject to the tax laws in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Current economic and political conditions make tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, in any jurisdiction subject to significant change.
We earn a substantial portion of our income in foreign countries and are subject to the tax laws of those jurisdictions. For example, effective January 1, 2020, the tax law in the Netherlands, one of the Company's major jurisdictions, changed.
Other proposals to reform foreign tax laws could significantly impact how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings. Although we cannot predict whether or in what form these proposals will pass, several of the proposals considered, if enacted into law, could have an adverse impact on our income tax expense and cash flows.
Portions of our operations are subject to a reduced tax rate or are free of tax under various tax holidays and rulings. We also utilize tax rulings and other agreements to obtain certainty in treatment of certain tax matters. These holidays and rulings expire in whole or in part from time to time and may be extended when certain conditions are met, or terminated if certain conditions are not met. The impact of any changes in conditions would be the loss of certainty in treatment thus potentially impacting our effective income tax rate. For example, in January 2019, the European Commission opened a formal investigation to examine whether the Netherlands has breached State Aid rules when granting certain tax rulings to the Company. If this matter is adversely resolved, the Netherlands may be required to assess additional amounts with respect to current and prior periods and the Company's Netherlands income taxes in the future could increase.
We are also subject to the examination of our tax returns by the United States Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax provisions are adequate, the final determination of tax audits and any related disputes could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of audits or related disputes could have an adverse effect on our financial statements for the period or periods for which the applicable final determinations are made. For example, we and our subsidiaries are also engaged in a number of intercompany transactions across multiple tax jurisdictions. Although we believe we have clearly reflected the economics of these transactions and the proper local transfer pricing documentation is in place, tax authorities may propose and sustain adjustments that could result in changes that may impact our mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates.
Consolidation of retailers or concentration of retail market share among a few retailers may increase and concentrate our credit risk and impair our ability to sell products.
The athletic footwear, apparel and equipment retail markets in some countries are dominated by a few large athletic footwear, apparel and equipment retailers with many stores and accelerating digital commerce capabilities. The market shares of these retailers may increase through acquisitions and construction of additional stores and investments in digital capacity, and as a result of attrition as struggling retailers exit the market. Consolidation of our retailers will concentrate our credit risk with a smaller set of retailers, any of whom may experience declining sales or a shortage of liquidity, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, increasing market share concentration among a few retailers in a particular country or region increases the risk that if any one of them substantially reduces their purchases of our products, we may be unable to find sufficient retail outlets for our products to sustain the same level of sales and revenues.
We are subject to the risk our licensees may not generate expected sales or maintain the value of our brands.
We currently license, and expect to continue licensing, certain of our proprietary rights, such as trademarks or copyrighted material, to third parties. If our licensees fail to successfully market and sell licensed products, or fail to obtain sufficient capital or effectively manage their business operations, customer relationships, labor relationships, supplier relationships or credit risks, it could adversely affect our revenues, both directly from reduced royalties received and indirectly from reduced sales of our other products.
We also rely on our licensees to help preserve the value of our brands. Although we attempt to protect our brands through approval rights over the design, production processes, quality, packaging, merchandising, distribution, advertising and promotion of our licensed products, we cannot completely control the use of our licensed brands by our licensees. The misuse of a brand by or negative publicity involving a licensee could have a material adverse effect on that brand and on us.
Failure of our contractors or our licensees' contractors to comply with our code of conduct, local laws and other standards could harm our business.
We work with hundreds of contractors outside of the United States to manufacture our products, and we also have license agreements that permit unaffiliated parties to manufacture or contract for the manufacture of products using our intellectual property. We require the contractors that directly manufacture our products and our licensees that make products using our intellectual property (including, indirectly, their contract manufacturers) to comply with a code of conduct and other environmental,


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health and safety standards for the benefit of workers. We also require our direct contractors and the contractors of our licensees to comply with applicable standards for product safety. Notwithstanding their contractual obligations, from time to time contractors may not comply with such standards or applicable local law or our licensees may fail to enforce such standards or applicable local law on their contractors. If one or more of our direct or indirect contractors violates or fails to comply with or is accused of violating or failing to comply with such standards and laws, this could harm our reputation or result in a product recall and, as a result, could have an adverse effect on our sales and financial condition. Negative publicity regarding production methods, alleged unethical or illegal practices or workplace or related conditions of any of our suppliers, manufacturers or licensees could adversely affect our brand image and sales, force us to locate alternative suppliers, manufacturers or licenses or result in the imposition of additional regulations, including new or additional quotas, tariffs, product safety regulations or other regulatory measures, by governmental authorities.
If one or more of our counterparty financial institutions default on their obligations to us or fail, we may incur significant losses.
As part of our hedging activities, we enter into transactions involving derivative financial instruments, which may include forward contracts, commodity futures contracts, option contracts, collars and swaps with various financial institutions. In addition, we have significant amounts of cash, cash equivalents and other investments on deposit or in accounts with banks or other financial institutions in the United States and abroad. As a result, we are exposed to the risk of default by or failure of counterparty financial institutions. The risk of counterparty default or failure may be heightened during economic downturns and periods of uncertainty in the financial markets. If one of our counterparties were to become insolvent or file for bankruptcy, our ability to recover losses incurred as a result of default, or our assets deposited or held in accounts with such counterparty, may be limited by the counterparty's liquidity or the applicable laws governing the insolvency or bankruptcy proceedings. In the event of default or failure of one or more of our counterparties, we could incur significant losses, which could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We rely on a concentrated source base of contract manufacturers to supply a significant portion of our footwear products.
NIKE is supplied by 122 footwear factories located in 12 countries. We do not own or operate any of the footwear manufacturing facilities and depend upon independent contract manufacturers to manufacture all of the footwear products we sell. In fiscal 2020, four footwear contract manufacturers each accounted for greater than 10% of fiscal 2020 footwear production and in aggregate accounted for approximately 61% of NIKE Brand footwear production in fiscal 2020. Our ability to meet our customers' needs depends on our ability to maintain a steady supply of products from our independent contract manufacturers. If one or more of our significant suppliers were to sever their relationship with us or significantly alter the terms of our relationship, including due to changes in applicable trade policies, or be unable to perform, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may not be able to obtain replacement products in a timely manner, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales, financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, if any of our primary contract manufacturers fail to make timely shipments, do not meet our quality standards or otherwise fail to deliver us product in accordance with our plans, there could be a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Certain of our manufacturers are highly specialized and only produce a specific type of product. Such manufacturing partners may go out of business if consumer preferences or market conditions change such that there is no longer sufficient demand for the types of products they produce. If, in the future, the relevant products are again in demand and the specialized manufacturers no longer exist, we may not be able to locate replacement facilities to manufacture certain products in a timely manner or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales, financial condition or results of operations.
Our success depends on our global distribution facilities.
We distribute our products to customers directly from the factory and through distribution centers located throughout the world. Our ability to meet customer expectations, manage inventory, complete sales and achieve objectives for operating efficiencies and growth, particularly in emerging markets, depends on the proper operation of our distribution facilities, the development or expansion of additional distribution capabilities and the timely performance of services by third parties (including those involved in shipping product to and from our distribution facilities). Our distribution facilities have in the past and could be interrupted by information technology problems, disasters such as earthquakes or fires or outbreaks of disease or government actions taken to mitigate their spread. Any significant failure in our distribution facilities could result in an adverse effect on our business. We maintain business interruption insurance, but it may not adequately protect us from adverse effects caused by significant disruptions in our distribution facilities.
The market for prime real estate is competitive.
Our ability to effectively obtain real estate to open new retail stores and otherwise conduct our operations, both domestically and internationally, depends on the availability of real estate that meets our criteria for traffic, square footage, co-tenancies, lease economics, demographics and other factors. We also must be able to effectively renew our existing real estate leases. In addition, from time to time, we seek to downsize, consolidate, reposition or close some of our real estate locations, which may require modification of an existing lease. Failure to secure adequate new locations or successfully modify leases for existing

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locations, or failure to effectively manage the profitability of our existing fleet of retail stores, could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Additionally, the economic environment may make it difficult to determine the fair market rent of real estate properties domestically and internationally. This could impact the quality of our decisions to exercise lease options at previously negotiated rents and to renew expiring leases at negotiated rents. Any adverse effect on the quality of these decisions could impact our ability to retain real estate locations adequate to meet our targets or efficiently manage the profitability of our existing fleet of stores, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Extreme weather conditions and natural disasters could negatively impact our operating results and financial condition.
Extreme weather conditions in the areas in which our retail stores, suppliers, manufacturers, customers, distribution centers, headquarters and vendors are located could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Moreover, natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes and tsunamis, whether occurring in the United States or abroad, and their related consequences and effects, including energy shortages and public health issues, have in the past temporarily disrupted, and could in the future disrupt, our operations, the operations of our vendors, manufacturers and other suppliers or have in the past and could result in economic instability that may negatively impact our operating results and financial condition. In particular, if a natural disaster were to occur in an area in which we or our suppliers, manufacturers, customers, distribution centers and vendors are located, our continued success would depend, in part, on the safety and availability of the relevant personnel and facilities and proper functioning of our or third parties' computer, telecommunication and other systems and operations. In addition, a severe weather event could negatively impact retail traffic to our stores or stores that carry our products and could have an adverse impact on consumer spending, any of which could in turn result in negative point-of-sale trends for our merchandise. Further, climate change may increase both the frequency and severity of extreme weather conditions and natural disasters, which may affect our business operations, either in a particular region or globally, as well as the activities of our third-party vendors and other suppliers, manufacturers and customers. In addition, the physical changes prompted by climate change could result in changes in regulations or consumer preferences, which could in turn affect our business, operating results and financial condition. We believe the diversity of locations in which we operate, our operational size and our Information Technology Systems position us well, but if we were to experience a local or regional disaster or other business continuity event, we could still experience operational challenges, in particular depending upon how a local or regional event may affect our human capital across our operations or with regard to particular aspects of our operations, such as key executive officers or personnel. Further, if we are unable to find alternative suppliers, replace capacity at key manufacturing or distribution locations or quickly repair damage to our Information Technology Systems or supply systems, we could be late in delivering, or be unable to deliver, products to our customers. These events could result in reputational damage, lost sales, cancellation charges or markdowns, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our financial results may be adversely affected if substantial investments in businesses and operations fail to produce expected returns.
From time to time, we may invest in technology, business infrastructure, new businesses, product offering and manufacturing innovation and expansion of existing businesses, such as our NIKE Direct operations, which require substantial cash investments and management attention. We believe cost-effective investments are essential to business growth and profitability; however, significant investments are subject to typical risks and uncertainties inherent in developing a new business or expanding an existing business. The failure of any significant investment to provide expected returns or profitability could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and divert management attention from more profitable business operations. See also “Our NIKE Direct operations have required and will continue to require a substantial investment and commitment of resources and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.”
The success of our business depends, in part, on high-quality employees, including key personnel as well as our ability to maintain our workplace culture and values.
Our success depends in part on the continued service of high-quality employees, including key executive officers and personnel. The loss of the services of key individuals, or any negative perception with respect to these individuals, or our workplace culture or values, could harm our business. Our success also depends on our ability to recruit, retain and engage our personnel sufficiently, both to maintain our current business and to execute our strategic initiatives. Competition for employees in our industry is intense and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining such personnel. In addition, shifts in U.S. immigration policy could negatively impact our ability to attract, hire and retain highly skilled employees who are from outside the United States. We also believe that our corporate culture has been a key driver of our success, and we have invested substantial time and resources in building, maintaining and evolving our culture. Any failure to preserve and evolve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit employees.


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Our business operations and financial performance could be adversely affected by changes in our relationship with our workforce or changes to United States or foreign employment regulations.
We have significant exposure to changes in domestic and foreign laws governing our relationships with our workforce, including wage and hour laws and regulations, fair labor standards, minimum wage requirements, overtime pay, unemployment tax rates, workers' compensation rates, citizenship requirements and payroll taxes, which could have a direct impact on our operating costs. A significant increase in minimum wage or overtime rates in countries where we have workforces could have a significant impact on our operating costs and may require that we relocate those operations or take other steps to mitigate such increases, all of which may cause us to incur additional costs. There is also a risk of potential claims that we have violated laws related to discrimination and harassment, health and safety, wage and hour laws, criminal activity, personal injury and other claims. In addition, if there were a significant increase in the number of members of our workforce who are members of labor organizations or become parties to collective bargaining agreements, we could be vulnerable to a strike, work stoppage or other labor action, which could have an adverse effect on our business.
The sale of a large number of shares of common stock by our principal stockholder could depress the market price of our common stock.
As of June 30, 2020, Swoosh, LLC beneficially owned approximately 75% of our Class A Common Stock. If, on June 30, 2020, all of these shares were converted into Class B Common Stock, the commensurate ownership percentage of our Class B Common Stock would be approximately 16%. The shares are available for resale, subject to the requirements of the U.S. securities laws and the terms of the limited liability company agreement governing Swoosh, LLC. The sale or prospect of a sale of a substantial number of these shares could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. Swoosh, LLC was formed by Philip H. Knight, our Chairman Emeritus, to hold the majority of his shares of Class A Common Stock. Swoosh, LLC is controlled by Mr. Knight's son and NIKE director, Travis Knight.
Changes in our credit ratings or macroeconomic conditions may affect our liquidity, increasing borrowing costs and limiting our financing options.
Our long-term debt is currently rated Investment Grade by Standard & Poor's and Moody's Investors Service. If our credit ratings are lowered, borrowing costs for our existing facilities or for future long-term debt or short-term credit facilities may increase and our financing options, including our access to the unsecured credit market or the capital markets, could be adversely affected. We may also be subject to restrictive covenants that would reduce our flexibility to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, make restricted payments, pledge assets as security, make investments, loans, advances, guarantees and acquisitions, undergo fundamental changes and enter into transactions with affiliates. Failure to comply with such covenants could result in a default, and as a result, the commitments of our lenders under our credit agreements may be terminated and the maturity of amounts owed may be accelerated. In addition, macroeconomic conditions, such as increased volatility or disruption in the credit markets, could adversely affect our ability to refinance existing debt.
If our internal controls are ineffective, our operating results could be adversely affected.
Our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls or fraud. Even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed and we could fail to meet our financial reporting obligations.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity, and the amount of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, inventory reserves, contingent payments under endorsement contracts, accounting for property, plant and equipment and definite-lived assets, hedge accounting for derivatives, stock-based compensation, income taxes and other contingencies. Our operating results may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the price of our Class B Common Stock.

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Anti-takeover provisions may impair an acquisition of the Company or reduce the price of our common stock.
There are provisions within our articles of incorporation and Oregon law intended to protect shareholder interests by providing the Board of Directors a means to attempt to deny coercive takeover attempts or to negotiate with a potential acquirer in order to obtain more favorable terms. Such provisions include a control share acquisition statute, a freeze-out statute, two classes of stock that vote separately on certain issues, and the fact that holders of Class A Common Stock elect three-quarters of the Board of Directors rounded down to the next whole number. However, such provisions could discourage, delay or prevent an unsolicited merger, acquisition or other change in control of our company that some shareholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which shareholders might receive a premium for their common stock over the prevailing market price. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests for control of the Company.
We may fail to meet market expectations, which could cause the price of our stock to decline.
Our Class B Common Stock is traded publicly, and at any given time various securities analysts follow our financial results and issue reports on us. These reports include information about our historical financial results as well as analysts' opinions of our future performance, which may, in part, be based upon any guidance we have provided. Analysts' estimates are often different from our estimates or expectations. If our operating results are below the estimates or expectations of public market analysts and investors, our stock price could decline. In the past, securities class action litigation has been brought against NIKE and other companies following a decline in the market price of their securities. If our stock price is volatile for any reason, we may become involved in this type of litigation in the future. Any litigation could result in reputational damage, substantial costs and a diversion of management's attention and resources needed to successfully run our business.


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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The following is a summary of principal properties owned or leased by NIKE:
The NIKE World Campus, owned by NIKE and located near Beaverton, Oregon, USA, is an approximately 400-acre site consisting of over 40 buildings which, together with adjacent leased properties, functions as our world headquarters and is occupied by approximately 12,800 employees engaged in management, research, design, development, marketing, finance and other administrative functions serving nearly all of our segments. We lease a similar, but smaller, administrative facility in Hilversum, the Netherlands, which serves as the headquarters for our Europe, Middle East & Africa geography and management of certain brand functions for our non-U.S. operations. We also lease an office complex in Shanghai, China, our headquarters for our Greater China geography, occupied by employees focused on implementing our wholesale, NIKE Direct and merchandising strategies in the region, among other functions.
In the United States, NIKE has seven significant distribution centers. Four are located in Memphis, Tennessee, two of which are owned and two of which are leased. Two other distribution centers, one located in Indianapolis, Indiana and one located in Dayton, Tennessee, are leased and operated by third-party logistics providers. One distribution center for Converse is located in Ontario, California, which is leased. NIKE has a number of distribution facilities outside the United States, some of which are leased and operated by third-party logistics providers. The most significant distribution facilities outside the United States are located in Laakdal, Belgium; Taicang, China; Tomisato, Japan and Incheon, Korea, all of which we own, as well as in Suzhou, China, which is leased and operated by a third-party logistics provider.
Air Manufacturing Innovation manufactures cushioning components used in footwear at NIKE-owned and leased facilities located near Beaverton, Oregon, and in Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, as well as at NIKE-owned facilities in St. Charles, Missouri.
Aside from the principal properties described above, we lease many offices worldwide for sales and administrative purposes. We lease 1,091 retail stores worldwide, which primarily consist of factory stores. See “United States Market” and “International Markets” for additional information regarding our retail stores. Our leases expire at various dates through the year 2043.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
There are no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business, to which we are a party or of which any of our property is the subject.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
NIKE's Class B Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol NKE. At July 17, 2020, there were 23,114 holders of record of NIKE's Class B Common Stock and 14 holders of record of NIKE's Class A Common Stock. These figures do not include beneficial owners who hold shares in nominee name. The Class A Common Stock is not publicly traded, but each share is convertible upon request of the holder into one share of Class B Common Stock. Refer to Selected Quarterly Financial Data in Part II, Item 6 of this Report for dividends declared on the Class A and Class B Common Stock.
In June 2018, the Board of Directors approved a four-year, $15 billion share repurchase program. As of May 31, 2020, the Company had repurchased 45.2 million shares at an average price of $89.00 per share for a total approximate cost of $4.0 billion under this program.
All share repurchases were made under NIKE's publicly announced program and there are no other programs under which the Company repurchases shares. The following table presents a summary of share repurchases made during the quarter ended May 31, 2020:
PERIOD
TOTAL NUMBER OF SHARES PURCHASED

AVERAGE PRICE
PAID PER SHARE

APPROXIMATE DOLLAR
VALUE OF SHARES THAT
MAY YET BE PURCHASED
UNDER THE PLANS
OR PROGRAMS
(IN MILLIONS)

March 1 — March 31, 2020
1,872,265

$
85.08

$
10,981

April 1 — April 30, 2020

$

$
10,981

May 1 — May 31, 2020

$

$
10,981

 
1,872,265

$
85.08

 


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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph demonstrates a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns for NIKE's Class B Common Stock; the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index; the Standard & Poor's Apparel, Accessories & Luxury Goods Index; and the Dow Jones U.S. Footwear Index. The graph assumes an investment of $100 on May 31, 2015 in each of the indices and our Class B Common Stock. Each of the indices assumes that all dividends were reinvested on the day of issuance.
COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN AMONG NIKE, INC.; S&P 500 INDEX; THE DOW JONES U.S. FOOTWEAR INDEX; AND S&P APPAREL, ACCESSORIES & LUXURY GOODS INDEX
linechart_return.jpg
The Dow Jones U.S. Footwear Index consists of NIKE, Deckers Outdoor Corporation, Skechers U.S.A., Inc., Steven Madden, Ltd. and Wolverine World Wide, Inc. Because NIKE is part of the Dow Jones U.S. Footwear Index, the price and returns of NIKE stock have a substantial effect on this index. The Standard & Poor's Apparel, Accessories & Luxury Goods Index consists of Hanesbrands Inc., PVH Corporation, Ralph Lauren Corporation, Tapestry, Inc., Under Armour, Inc. and V.F. Corporation. The Dow Jones U.S. Footwear Index and the Standard & Poor's Apparel, Accessories & Luxury Goods Index include companies in two major lines of business in which the Company competes. The indices do not encompass all of the Company's competitors, nor all product categories and lines of business in which the Company is engaged.
The stock performance shown on the performance graph above is not necessarily indicative of future performance. The Company will not make or endorse any predictions as to future stock performance.
The performance graph above is being furnished solely to accompany this Report pursuant to Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K, is not being filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and is not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of the Company, whether made before or after the date hereof, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
All share and per share amounts are reflective of the two-for-one stock split that began trading at the split-adjusted price on December 24, 2015.
(In millions, except per share data and financial ratios)
FINANCIAL HISTORY
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Year Ended May 31,
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues(1)
$
37,403

$
39,117

$
36,397

$
34,350

$
32,376

Gross profit
16,241

17,474

15,956

15,312

14,971

Gross margin(1)
43.4
%
44.7
%
43.8
%
44.6
%
46.2
%
Net income(1)(2)
2,539

4,029

1,933

4,240

3,760

Earnings per common share:(2)
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
1.63

2.55

1.19

2.56

2.21

Diluted
1.60

2.49

1.17

2.51

2.16

Weighted average common shares outstanding
1,558.8

1,579.7

1,623.8

1,657.8

1,697.9

Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding
1,591.6

1,618.4

1,659.1

1,692.0

1,742.5

Cash dividends declared per common share
0.955

0.86

0.78

0.70

0.62

Cash provided (used) by operations(1)
2,485

5,903

4,955

3,846

3,399

At May 31,
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and equivalents(3)
$
8,348

$
4,466

$
4,249

$
3,808

$
3,138

Short-term investments
439

197

996

2,371

2,319

Inventories(1)
7,367

5,622

5,261

5,055

4,838

Working capital
12,272

8,659

9,094

10,587

9,667

Operating lease right-of-use assets, net(4)
3,097





Total assets(4)(5)(6)
31,342

23,717

22,536

23,259

21,379

Long-term debt(3)
9,406

3,464

3,468

3,471

1,993

Total operating lease liabilities(4)
3,358





Redeemable preferred stock
0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Shareholders' equity(6)
8,055

9,040

9,812

12,407

12,258

Market capitalization
153,553

120,951

114,983

87,084

92,867

Financial Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
Return on equity(2)(6)
29.7
%
42.7
%
17.4
%
34.4
%
30.1
%
Return on assets(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
9.2
%
17.4
%
8.4
%
19.0
%
17.5
%
Inventory turns
3.3

4.0

4.0

3.8

3.8

Current ratio at May 31(3)(4)
2.5

2.1

2.5

2.9

2.8

Price/Earnings ratio at May 31(2)
61.6

31.0

61.4

21.1

25.6

(1)
Fiscal 2020 reflects the impacts of COVID-19 on our results of operations and financial condition. Refer to Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information.
(2)
Fiscal 2018 reflects the impact from the enactment of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Refer to Note 9 — Income Taxes in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
(3)
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, the Company issued $6 billion of senior unsecured notes. Refer to Note 8 — Long-Term Debt in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
(4)
Fiscal 2020 reflects the impact from the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Refer to Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
(5)
Fiscal 2019 reflects the impact from the adoption of ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). Refer to Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
(6)
Fiscal 2019 reflects the impact from the adoption of ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. Refer to Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.


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SELECTED QUARTERLY FINANCIAL DATA
(UNAUDITED)
1ST QUARTER
 
2ND QUARTER
 
3RD QUARTER
 
4TH QUARTER
(In millions, except per share data)
2020
2019
 
2020
2019
 
2020
2019
 
2020
2019
Revenues(1)
$
10,660

$
9,948

 
$
10,326

$
9,374

 
$
10,104

$
9,611

 
$
6,313

$
10,184

Gross profit
4,871

4,397

 
4,544

4,105

 
4,473

4,339

 
2,353

4,633

Gross margin(1)
45.7
%
44.2
%
 
44.0
%
43.8
%
 
44.3
%
45.1 %

 
37.3
%
45.5
%
Net income (loss)(1)
1,367

1,092

 
1,115

847

 
847

1,101

 
(790
)
989

Earnings (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
0.87

0.69

 
0.71

0.54

 
0.54

0.70

 
(0.51
)
0.63

Diluted
0.86

0.67

 
0.70

0.52

 
0.53

0.68

 
(0.51
)
0.62

Weighted average common
shares outstanding
1,562.4

1,594.0

 
1,560.6

1,581.4

 
1,556.3

1,572.8

 
1,555.7

1,570.2

Diluted weighted average common
shares outstanding
1,597.5

1,634.4

 
1,594.4

1,620.7

 
1,591.6

1,609.6

 
1,555.7

1,607.5

Cash dividends declared per
common share
0.22

0.20

 
0.245

0.22

 
0.245

0.22

 
0.245

0.22

(1)
The third and fourth quarters of fiscal 2020 reflect the impacts of COVID-19 on our results of operations and financial condition. Refer to Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NIKE designs, develops, markets and sells athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services worldwide. We are the largest seller of athletic footwear and apparel in the world. We sell our products through NIKE-owned retail stores and through digital platforms (which we refer to collectively as our “NIKE Direct” operations), to retail accounts and to a mix of independent distributors, licensees and sales representatives in virtually all countries around the world. Our goal is to deliver value to our shareholders by building a profitable global portfolio of branded footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories businesses. Our strategy is to achieve long-term revenue growth by creating innovative, “must-have” products, building deep personal consumer connections with our brands and delivering compelling consumer experiences through digital platforms and at retail.
Since fiscal 2018, through the Consumer Direct Offense and our Triple Double strategy, we have focused on doubling the impact of innovation, increasing our speed and agility to market and growing our direct connections with consumers. In June 2020, we announced a new digitally empowered phase of the Consumer Direct Offense strategy: Consumer Direct Acceleration. This strategic acceleration will focus on three specific areas. First, creating the marketplace of the future through more premium, consistent and seamless consumer experiences that more closely align with what consumers want and need. This strategy will lead with NIKE Digital and our own stores, as well as through select strategic partners who share our marketplace vision. Second, we will align our product creation and category organizations around a new consumer construct focused on Men’s, Women’s and Kids'. This approach allows us to create product that better meets individual consumer needs, including more specialization of our category approach, while re-aligning and simplifying our offense to accelerate our largest growth opportunities. In particular, we’ll be reinvesting in our Women’s and Kids’ businesses and will also simplify our operating model across the remainder of the company to optimize effectiveness. Third, we will unify investments in data and analytics, demand sensing, insight gathering, inventory management and other areas against an end-to-end technology foundation to accelerate our digital transformation. We believe this unified approach will accelerate growth and unlock more efficiency for our business, while driving speed and responsiveness as we serve consumers globally.
On July 22, 2020, management announced a series of leadership and operating model changes to streamline and speed up strategic execution. These changes are expected to lead to a net loss of jobs, resulting in pre-tax, one-time employee termination costs of approximately $200 million to $250 million, which is expected to be incurred primarily during the first half of fiscal 2021, in the form of cash expenditures. These amounts are subject to change until such time as all details are finalized.
This next phase of our Consumer Direct Offense is expected to drive sustainable growth and profitability as we accelerate NIKE to a digital-first company. We are committed to the execution of this strategy, despite the short-term adverse impacts to our business from a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19). As such, our long-term financial goals on average, per year, remain the same and are outlined below:
High single-digit revenue growth;
Gross margin expansion of as much as 50 basis points;
Slight selling and administrative expense leverage;
Mid-teens earnings per share growth; and
Low-thirties percentage rate of return on invested capital.
COVID-19 UPDATE
COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and subsequently declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. To date, COVID-19 has surfaced in nearly all regions around the world and resulted in travel restrictions and business slowdowns or shutdowns in affected areas. As a result, COVID-19 has impacted our business globally, including through store closures, reduced operating hours and decreased retail traffic. In particular, the outbreak and preventive measures taken to help curb the spread had material adverse impacts on our operations and business results in Greater China during the third quarter of fiscal 2020, following the temporary closure of, or reduced operating hours in, approximately 75% of NIKE-owned and partner stores within the region. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, our results of operations were further impacted as approximately 90% of our NIKE Brand stores across North America, EMEA and APLA, excluding Korea, were closed for approximately 8 weeks. The majority of Converse direct to consumer stores were also closed for a significant portion of the fourth quarter. Additionally, certain of our wholesale partners closed stores or reduced operating hours during the fourth quarter, resulting in lower than expected sales and a slowing of receipt of shipments of our products. The combined effect of store closures and reduced wholesale shipments caused higher than normal inventory levels at May 31, 2020, as Inventories grew 31% compared to the prior year. In order to manage future inventory growth and ensure a return to normalized levels we are modifying our buying plans and canceling certain pre-COVID-19 factory purchases, shifting product offer dates to meet near-term demand, as well as shifting available inventory into our digital channel and increasing digital fulfillment capacity specifically in


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North America and EMEA. Additionally, we are investing in targeted promotions and markdowns to accelerate liquidation of excess inventory while continuing to protect the long-term health of our product franchises.
COVID-19 also impacted our distribution centers, our third-party manufacturing partners and other vendors, including through the effects of facility closures, reductions in operating hours, labor shortages and real time changes in operating procedures to accommodate social distancing guidelines and additional cleaning and disinfection procedures.
In response to the uncertainty of the pandemic described above, we enhanced our liquidity position during the fourth quarter through the issuance of $6 billion in senior unsecured notes, the temporary suspension of our share repurchase program and by entering into a new committed credit facility agreement, which provides for an additional $2 billion of borrowings. Refer to Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional discussion.
Throughout the third and fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, our digital commerce remained open, supported by the employees in the distribution centers. During the fourth quarter, NIKE Brand digital remained our fastest growing channel, growing 79% on a currency-neutral basis with each of our geographies growing over 50%. Beginning in mid-May, stores within our NIKE Direct operations gradually began reopening. As of July 17, 2020, over 90% of our NIKE Direct stores have reopened across the globe, with 100% open in Greater China, over 90% open in both EMEA and North America, and APLA open over 70%. As of July 17, 2020, substantially all Converse direct to consumer stores have reopened to serve consumers.
We continue to monitor the rapidly evolving situation and guidance from international and domestic authorities, including federal, state and local public health authorities and may take additional actions based on their recommendations. In these circumstances, there may be developments outside our control requiring us to adjust our operating plan. As such, given the dynamic nature of this situation, the Company cannot reasonably estimate the impacts of COVID-19 on our future financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. However, we do expect they will have a material adverse impact on our future revenue growth as well as our overall profitability and may continue to lead to higher than normal inventory levels in various markets, revised payment terms with certain of our wholesale customers, higher sales-related reserves, factory cancellation costs and a volatile effective tax rate driven by changes in the mix of earnings across the Company's jurisdictions.
On March 27, 2020, in response to COVID-19, the United States government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act"). The CARES Act is a relief package consisting of various stimulus measures, such as tax payment deferrals, various business incentives and makes certain technical corrections to the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The enactment of such legislation, while favorable, did not have a material impact on our fiscal 2020 Consolidated Financial Statements.
FISCAL 2020 OVERVIEW
Fiscal 2020 NIKE, Inc. Revenues declined 4% to $37.4 billion, as revenue growth of 7% for the first nine months of fiscal 2020 was more than offset by a 38% decline in the fourth quarter due to the impacts of COVID-19. The NIKE Brand, which represents over 90% of NIKE, Inc. Revenues, experienced a 4% decline, down 2% on a currency-neutral basis, driven by declines across nearly all geographies, partially offset by 11% currency-neutral growth in Greater China. NIKE Direct grew 8% on a currency-neutral basis driven by 49% growth in digital, with all geographies growing strong double digits, while wholesale revenues declined 7%. Revenues for Converse declined 3% and 1%, on a reported and currency-neutral basis, respectively, as revenue growth in Asia was more than offset by declines in North America, Europe and licensee markets.
Income before income taxes decreased 40% for fiscal 2020, primarily due to lower revenues and gross margin resulting from the impacts of COVID-19, as well as higher selling and administrative expense. For the first nine months of fiscal 2020, gross margin expanded 30 basis points compared to the first nine months of fiscal 2019. However, this was more than offset by a decline of 820 basis points in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, primarily due the impacts of COVID-19. For fiscal 2020, NIKE, Inc. gross margin decreased 130 basis points as higher full-price average selling price (ASP), on a wholesale equivalent basis, was more than offset by higher product costs due to incremental tariffs in the U.S., as well as factory cancellation charges, higher inventory obsolescence reserves and the negative rate impacts of supply chain costs on a lower volume of wholesale shipments in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020. Selling and administrative expense increased, due to higher operating overhead expense partially offset by lower demand creation expense. Operating overhead expense increased due to higher wage-related expenses, as a result of our continued investment in end-to-end digital capabilities, and higher bad debt expense, partially offset by lower travel and related spend. Demand creation expense decreased primarily due to lower retail brand presentation costs and sports marketing expenses as sporting events were postponed or canceled and a majority of stores were closed globally during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020. These decreases were partially offset by higher digital brand marketing costs.
Diluted earnings per common share reflects a 2% decline in the weighted average diluted common shares outstanding, driven by our share repurchase program.
As we continue to execute against the Consumer Direct Offense, we are focused on optimizing country operating models across our global portfolio and we remain committed to investing in our most significant growth opportunities. During the third quarter of fiscal 2020, we announced our intention to sell our NIKE Brand businesses in Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay to strategic third-party distributors in an effort to more personally serve consumers in these respective marketplaces while driving

2020 FORM 10-K 28



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sustainable, profitable growth. These transactions are expected to close in the first half of fiscal 2021. As a result of this decision, the related assets and liabilities of these entities were classified as held-for-sale on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of May 31, 2020. Additionally, we recognized a non-recurring impairment charge of $405 million, within Other (income) expense, net on the Consolidated Statements of Income, classified within Corporate. This charge was primarily due to the anticipated release of non-cash cumulative foreign currency translation losses, and could fluctuate due to changes in exchange rates up to the date of close. In future quarters, as we shift from a wholesale and direct to consumer operating model to a distributor operating model within these countries, we expect consolidated NIKE, Inc. and APLA revenue growth will be reduced due to differences in commercial terms. However, we expect the future operating model to have a favorable impact on our overall profitability as we reduce selling and administrative expenses, as well as lessen exposure to foreign exchange rate volatility.
On October 29, 2019, we signed a definitive agreement to sell the assets and liabilities of our wholly-owned subsidiary brand, Hurley. The transaction closed on December 6, 2019, and the impacts of the divestiture are not considered material to the Company.
While foreign currency markets remain volatile, in part due to geopolitical dynamics leading to a stronger U.S. Dollar, we continue to see opportunities to drive future growth and profitability. We remain committed to effectively managing our business to achieve our financial goals over the long-term by executing against the operational strategies outlined above.
For discussion related to the results of operations and changes in financial condition for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 refer to Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our fiscal 2019 Form 10-K, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on July 23, 2019.
USE OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we discuss non-GAAP financial measures, including references to wholesale equivalent revenues, currency-neutral revenues, as well as Total NIKE Brand earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and Total NIKE, Inc. EBIT, which should be considered in addition to, and not in lieu of, the financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). References to wholesale equivalent revenues are intended to provide context as to the total size of our NIKE Brand market footprint if we had no NIKE Direct operations. NIKE Brand wholesale equivalent revenues consist of (1) sales to external wholesale customers and (2) internal sales from our wholesale operations to our NIKE Direct operations, which are charged at prices comparable to those charged to external wholesale customers. Additionally, currency-neutral revenues are calculated using actual exchange rates in use during the comparative prior year period to enhance the visibility of the underlying business trends excluding the impact of translation arising from foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. EBIT is calculated as Net Income before Interest expense (income), net and Income tax expense in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures when evaluating the Company's performance, including when making financial and operating decisions. Additionally, management believes these non-GAAP financial measures provide investors with additional financial information that should be considered when assessing our underlying business performance and trends. However, references to wholesale equivalent revenues, currency-neutral revenues and EBIT should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for other financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled non-GAAP measures used by other companies.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
FISCAL 2020
FISCAL 2019
% CHANGE
FISCAL 2018
% CHANGE
Revenues(1)
$
37,403

$
39,117

-4
 %
$
36,397

7
 %
Cost of sales
21,162

21,643

-2
 %
20,441

6
 %
Gross profit
16,241

17,474

-7
 %
15,956

10
 %
Gross margin(1)
43.4
%
44.7
%
 
43.8
%

Demand creation expense
3,592

3,753

-4
 %
3,577

5
 %
Operating overhead expense
9,534

8,949

7
 %
7,934

13
 %
Total selling and administrative expense
13,126

12,702

3
 %
11,511

10
 %
% of revenues
35.1
%
32.5
%
 
31.6
%

Interest expense (income), net
89

49


54


Other (income) expense, net
139

(78
)

66


Income before income taxes
2,887

4,801

-40
 %
4,325

11
 %
Income tax expense(2)
348

772

-55
 %
2,392

-68
 %
Effective tax rate
12.1
%
16.1
%
 
55.3
%

NET INCOME(1)
$
2,539

$
4,029

-37
 %
$
1,933

108
 %
Diluted earnings per common share
$
1.60

$
2.49

-36
 %
$
1.17

113
 %
(1)
Fiscal 2020 reflects the impacts of COVID-19 on our results of operations. Refer to discussion of our results below for additional information.
(2)
Fiscal 2018 reflects the impact from the enactment of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Refer to Note 9 — Income Taxes in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS
REVENUES
(Dollars in millions)
FISCAL 2020
FISCAL 2019
% CHANGE

% CHANGE EXCLUDING CURRENCY CHANGES(1)

FISCAL 2018
% CHANGE

% CHANGE EXCLUDING CURRENCY CHANGES(1)

NIKE, Inc. Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NIKE Brand Revenues by:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Footwear
$
23,305

$
24,222

-4
 %
-2
 %
$
22,268

9
 %
12
 %
Apparel
10,953

11,550

-5
 %
-3
 %
10,733

8
 %
11
 %
Equipment
1,280

1,404

-9
 %
-6
 %
1,396

1
 %
4
 %
Global Brand Divisions(2)
30

42

-29
 %
-26
 %
88

-52
 %
-53
 %
Total NIKE Brand Revenues
35,568

37,218

-4
 %
-2
 %
34,485

8
 %
11
 %
Converse
1,846

1,906

-3
 %
-1
 %
1,886

1
 %
3
 %
Corporate(3)
(11
)
(7
)


26



TOTAL NIKE, INC. REVENUES
$
37,403

$
39,117

-4
 %
-2
 %
$
36,397

7
 %
11
 %
Supplemental NIKE Brand Revenues Details:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NIKE Brand Revenues by:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales to Wholesale Customers
$
23,156

$
25,423

-9
 %
-7
 %
$
23,969

6
 %
10
 %
Sales through NIKE Direct
12,382

11,753

5
 %
8
 %
10,428

13
 %
16
 %
Global Brand Divisions(2)
30

42

-29
 %
-26
 %
88

-52
 %
-53
 %
TOTAL NIKE BRAND REVENUES
$
35,568

$
37,218

-4
 %
-2
 %
$
34,485

8
 %
11