10-K 1 form10k.htm  
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
      For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 001-08443
 
TELOS CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland
52-0880974
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
19886 Ashburn Road, Ashburn, Virginia
20147
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (703) 724-3800

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

12% Cumulative Exchangeable Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer    
Accelerated filer                              
Non-accelerated filer      (Do not check if a smaller reportingcompany) 
Smaller reporting company  
 
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2017:  Not applicable

As of March 26, 2018, the registrant had outstanding 45,213,461 shares of Class A Common Stock, no par value; and 4,037,628 shares of Class B Common Stock, no par value.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Certain of the information required in Part III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to the Registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 11, 2018.
 
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
   
Page
     
PART I
   
     
Item 1.
3
Item 1A.
9
Item 1B.
12
Item 2.
12
Item 3.
12
Item 4.
12
     
PART II
   
     
Item 5.
13
Item 6.
13
Item 7.
14
Item 7A.
27
Item 8.
28
Item 9.
62
Item 9A
62
Item 9B.
63
     
PART III
   
     
Item 10.
64
Item 11.
64
Item 12.
64
Item 13.
64
Item 14.
64
     
PART IV
   
     
Item 15.
65
Item 16.
67
 
68

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This annual report contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. In addition, in the future the Company, and others on its behalf, may make statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements may include, without limitation, statements relating to the Company's plans, objectives or goals; future economic performance or prospects; the potential effect on the Company's future performance of certain contingencies; and assumptions underlying any such statements.

Words such as "believes," "anticipates," "expects," "intends" and "plans" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. The forward-looking statements are and will be based upon management's then current views and assumptions regarding future events and operating performance and are only applicable as of the dates of such statements. The Company does not intend to update these forward-looking statements except as may be required by applicable laws.

By their very nature, forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, both general and specific, and risks exist that predictions, forecasts, projections and other outcomes described or implied in forward-looking statements will not be achieved. The Company cautions you that a number of important factors could cause results to differ materially from the plans, objectives, expectations, estimates and intentions expressed in such forward-looking statements, including without limitation the risks described under the caption "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the Company's forward-looking statements.

PART I
Item 1.  Business

Overview

Telos Corporation, together with its subsidiaries, (the "Company" or "Telos" or "We") is an information technology leader focused on designing and providing advanced technologies to deliver solutions that empower and protect the world's most demanding enterprises. We empower our customers with secure solutions that leverage mobile communication, cloud technology, and real-time collaboration.  We protect vital assets that include the critical operational and tactical systems of our customers so that they can safely conduct their global missions. Our customer base consists primarily of military, intelligence and civilian agencies of the federal government and NATO allies around the world.

We generate approximately 83.1% of our revenues by delivering these solutions at a fixed price to our customers. This focus on fixed price delivery has enabled us to significantly reduce life cycle costs for our customers. We have been able to achieve this by investing in intellectual property development so that we can use automation, when appropriate.

While we were incorporated in 1971, we liquidated and/or sold our original businesses and refocused on delivering secure solutions beginning in 1997. Our Company includes Telos Corporation, Xacta Corporation, Teloworks, Inc., and a 50% interest in Telos Identity Management Solutions, LLC ("Telos ID").

We were incorporated in Maryland, our headquarters are located at 19886 Ashburn Road, Ashburn, VA 20147, and our telephone number is (703) 724-3800. Our website is www.telos.com.

Our Mission

Our mission is to protect critical information assets with solutions and services for cyber security, secure mobility, and identity management.

We believe that our customer focus is the foundation of our success to date. We also believe that this focus is critical for the creation of long-term value.

How We Provide Value to Our Customers

We serve our customers by developing solutions that are quickly and efficiently deployed so that our customers have the assurance that they can safely conduct their vital missions around the world. Some of the key benefits we offer our customers include:

Protecting and Securing Assets. Whether we are guarding access to systems, networks, communications, or people, our solutions work to protect what is most important to today's security-conscious enterprises.

Applying Specialized Expertise. Our teams of security professionals, such as those we provide to protect the Pentagon's critical networks, are some of the industry's most experienced in the design and operation of communications systems that must be reliable and secured 24/7.

Achieving Regulatory Compliance. From embedding the latest security standards in our information assurance software, to complying with network security requirements on a particular military base, our solutions give our customers the confidence in their ability to meet established security regulations.

Ensuring the Reliability of Operations. Our testing is comprehensive, assuring our customers of a dependable product when delivered. Our support is worldwide, extending from helpdesk resources for government agencies throughout the country to field support overseas.

Leveraging Customers' Existing Infrastructure. Our pre-deployment assessment of our customers' environments, ranging from secure network site surveys to evaluations of physical security access, assures our customers of the technical and operational compatibility of our solutions.

Selected Examples of How We Accomplish Our Mission

We protect the systems of our customers through the development and delivery of our Xacta software ("Xacta"). Xacta is the premier solution for continuous assessment and authorization, and is used throughout the Department of Defense ("DoD"), intelligence communities and civilian government. We have performed thousands of certifications and our product has been adopted by numerous enterprises as their solution of choice for risk management and ongoing compliance.

We streamline and automate the process of selecting, applying, and monitoring security controls for cloud-based systems and applications so that security-conscious organizations can migrate their workloads to the cloud faster and more efficiently. Our solutions make it easier to automate compliance and generate associated documentation, streamlining our customers' ability to demonstrate that they meet the relevant security standards in their respective industries.

We offer Telos Ghost, a cybersecurity solution that gives organizations an anonymous way to do business, connect with global resources, and conduct research online.  Telos Ghost eliminates cyber attack surfaces by obfuscating and encrypting data, masking user identity and location, and hiding network resources. It is useful for intelligence gathering, cyber threat protection, securing critical infrastructure, and protecting communications and applications.

We protect and extend the wireless networks of our customers with secure mobility solutions that reduce their exposure to risk and assure they can safely communicate across the enterprise and around the world. Our solutions help customers securely connect to any information source, using any device, over any wireless medium, providing access to real-time information that is secure, accurate, and reliable.

We protect and enhance the communications of our customers through the development and delivery of our Telos Automated Message Handling System ("AMHS"), which has been adopted by the DoD to carry all official message traffic and is implemented throughout all branches of the military, the intelligence community, and other critical civilian agencies. AMHS is also used by U.S. Central Command to meet its critical organization and communications requirements in the CENTCOM Theater of Operations including Iraq and Afghanistan.

Through an exclusive subcontractor relationship with Telos ID, we assess, design, and deliver identity and access solutions to protect national security assets, people, and facilities. Among these programs is the leading designated aviation channeling service for the general aviation industry, serving nearly 70 airports, airlines, and aviation customers across the country. Telos ID also supports the premier federal identity application, which has issued almost 43,100,000 smart card based secure credentials for active duty uniformed service personnel, Selected Reserve, DoD civilian employees, and eligible contractor personnel. Additionally, we provide near real-time data collection on personnel movement and location information for operating forces, government civil servants, and government contractors in specified operational theaters. This system has captured over 554,000,000 scans by more than 2,700,000 U.S. Government, U.S. Military and company contractors since its inception.

We would not be able to design, deliver, install, and support any of our solutions without our employees. They are a vital element of our success. We provide competitive pay and benefits and a work environment that promotes employee retention.

Solutions For Our Customers

Our solution development philosophy involves responding to proven market demand with rapid development and continuous innovation in an effort to meet and anticipate our customers' dynamic and evolving requirements.  

Our solutions consist of the following:

Cyber Operations and Defense:
o
Cyber Security – Solutions and services that assure the security of our customers' information, systems, and networks, including the Xacta suite for IT governance, risk management, and compliance. Our information and cyber security consulting services include security assessments, digital forensics, and continuous compliance monitoring.

o
Secure Mobility – Design, engineering and delivery of secure solutions that empower the mobile and deployed workforce in business and government. Our solutions protect sensitive communication while delivering voice, data, and video at the point of work in classified and unclassified environments.

Identity Management (formerly Telos ID) – Solutions that establish trusted identities in order to ensure authenticated physical access to offices, workstations, and other facilities; secure digital access to databases, host systems, and other IT resources; and protect people and organizations against insider threats.

IT and Enterprise Solutions – We have the experience with solution development and global integration to meet the requirements of business and government enterprises with secure IT solutions, from organizational messaging and data visualization to network construction and management.

The Technology Behind Our Solutions

Techniques: We employ development and production methodologies such as Agile and ISO 9001 to ensure predictability, repeatability, and quality. Techniques such as continuous integration are employed to accelerate the solution development and testing process while at the same time reducing cost and improving quality. We believe such techniques are critical for providing our customers with a high quality user experience.

Architecture:  The nature of our customers' missions requires our solutions to be highly secure and scalable. Aside from architecting our solutions with these core objectives in mind, we also employ open standards and technologies that afford a high degree of flexibility and interoperability needed to support web-based and netcentric operations.

Intellectual Property

We invest in the creation of intellectual property and employ various forms of legal intellectual property protection mechanisms including the use of copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws in North America and other jurisdictions. We have intellectual property reviews as an integral part of our development process in order to identify intellectual property as early as possible in the development process so the appropriate form of protection can be obtained. We also vigorously control access to intellectual property via physical and logical protection mechanisms. All of our employees sign agreements that govern intellectual property ownership and confidentiality. We also enter into intellectual property, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with partners and other third parties.

Patents, Trademarks, Trade Secrets and Licenses

We have made it a practice of obtaining patent, copyright and/or trademark protection on our products, processes and marks where possible. We own a number of patents and copyrights, which we believe to be of material importance to the Company. Our patents and copyrights extend for varying periods of time based on the date of application or registration. Generally, registered copyright protection continues for a term of at least 70 years. Trademark and service mark protection for registered marks generally continues for as long as the marks are used.

Telos and Xacta are trademarks of Telos Corporation. Telos ID is a trademark of Telos ID.

Sales and Marketing

We target decision makers in government agencies and departments, and commercial businesses who have a need for secure enterprise solutions. Decisions regarding contract awards by our customers typically are based upon an assessment of the quality of our past performance, responsiveness to proposal requirements, uniqueness of the offering itself, price, and other competitive factors.

Our products and services in many instances combine a wide range of skills drawn from each of our major product and service offerings. Accordingly, we must maintain expert knowledge of federal agency policies, procedures and operations.
   
We employ marketing and business development professionals who identify, qualify, and sell opportunities for us. Virtually all of our officers and managers, including the chief executive officer, other executive officers, vice presidents, and division managers, actively engage in new business development.

We have strategic business relationships with certain companies in the information technology industry. These strategic partners have business objectives compatible with ours, and offer products and services that complement ours. We intend to continue developing such relationships wherever they support our marketing, growth and solution offering objectives.

The majority of our business is awarded through submission of formal competitive bids. Commercial bids are frequently negotiated as to terms and conditions such as schedule, specifications, delivery and payment. However, in government proposals, in most cases, the customer specifies the terms, conditions and form of the contract.

Our contracts and subcontracts are generally composed of a wide range of contract types including indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity ("IDIQ") and government-wide acquisition contracts (known as "GWACs") which are generally firm fixed-priced or time-and-materials contracts. For 2017, 2016, and 2015, the Company's revenue derived from firm fixed-price contracts was 83.1%, 76.0%, and 77.0%, respectively, cost plus contracts was 7.4%, 16.4%, and 12.0%, respectively, and time-and-material contracts was 9.5%, 7.6%, and 11.0%, respectively.

We derive substantially all of our revenues from contracts and subcontracts with the U.S. Government. Our revenues are generated from a number of contract vehicles and task orders. Over the past several years we have sought to diversify and improve our operating margins through an evolution of our business from an emphasis on product reselling to that of an advanced solutions and services provider. To that end, although we continue to offer resold products through our contract vehicles, we have focused on selling solutions and services and outsourcing product sales, as well as designing and delivering Telos manufactured technology products. In general, we believe our contract portfolio is characterized as having low to moderate financial risk due to the limited number of long-term fixed price development contracts.

Our  IT solutions primarily involve the design and integration of commercial off-the-shelf IT products into integrated solutions deliverables. Such equipment is generally available from several sources, although several factors including technical specifications, proprietary or brand-specific equipment requirements, or contractual channel agreements may limit the availability of sourcing options. We utilize more than 300 vendors as direct materials suppliers, subcontractors, and service providers. The vendors utilized in any given measurement period vary based on the mix and the timing of the solutions delivered, but typically our contracts are a smaller subset that comprises the majority of the direct cost of sales on an annual basis. Therefore, while a smaller subset of suppliers, subcontractors, and service providers may be employed to deliver the majority of the revenue for a particular period, were there to be an unforeseen disruption to one of these vendors, the delay would likely be short-term in nature due to the existence of alternate sourcing options.
We derived substantially all of our revenues from contracts and subcontracts with the U.S. Government. Revenue by customer sector for the last three fiscal years is as follows:

   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
               
(dollar amounts in thousands)
             
                                     
Federal
 
$
101,519
     
94.2
%
 
$
130,415
     
96.7
%
 
$
117,328
     
97.3
%
State & Local, and Commercial
   
6,208
     
5.8
%
   
4,453
     
3.3
%
   
3,306
     
2.7
%
                                                 
Total
 
$
107,727
     
100.0
%
 
$
134,868
     
100.0
%
 
$
120,634
     
100.0
%

We build market awareness of Telos and our solutions through a variety of marketing programs, including regular briefings with industry analysts, public relations activities, government relations initiatives, web seminars, trade show exhibitions, speaking engagements and web site marketing. When appropriate, we pursue joint marketing and selling efforts with our strategic partners.

Our People and Culture

As of December 31, 2017, we employed 508 people, which includes 61 from Teloworks, and 75 from Telos ID. Of our employees, 308 hold security clearances of secret or higher.

Our people are proficient in many fields such as computer science, information security and vulnerability testing, networking technologies, physics, engineering, operations research, mathematics, economics, and business administration. We place a high value on our people. As a result, we seek to remain competitive in terms of salary structures, incentive compensation programs, fringe benefits, opportunities for growth, and individual recognition and award programs.

Our management team is committed to maintaining a corporate culture that fosters mutual respect and job satisfaction for our people, while delivering innovation and value to customers and shareholders. This commitment is reflected in our core values.

Always with integrity, at Telos we:

Build trusted relationships,
Work hard together,
Design and deliver superior solutions, and
Have fun doing it.

These values are woven throughout the fabric of Telos. They are reflected in our hiring practices, reinforced regularly, and reviewed during appraisals. They are written into annual and quarterly objectives for staff and managers alike, as well as department and company business goals. Employees are encouraged to challenge themselves and each other to exhibit the core values in everyday activities.

Our employees also are given avenues of communication and interaction should they observe activities that are inconsistent with the Company's core values. Encouraged first to speak openly about any issues, a hotline provides an opportunity to express concerns anonymously.

We consider the foundational value of integrity to be a non-negotiable requirement of employment, and an expectation of suppliers, partners, and our customers. We guard our reputation and will take aggressive action to protect it. An essential part of our brand promise is that we always engage employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and investors with integrity.

Competition

We operate in a highly competitive marketplace. There are other companies that provide solutions similar to ours. Although these companies provide offerings that overlap with some of our solutions, we are not aware of any single company that provides competitive solutions in all of the areas where we compete. The companies that our solution areas compete with range from integrators that provide products and services such as Booz Allen Hamilton, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, SAIC and Daon, to more software-specific organizations such as Agiliance and RSA Archer.

The majority of our business is in response to competitive requests from potential and current customers. Decisions regarding contract awards by our customers typically are based upon an assessment of the quality of our past performance, responsiveness to proposal requirements, uniqueness of the offering itself, price, and other competitive factors.

Aside from other companies that compete in our space, we sometimes face indirect competition from solutions that are developed "in-house" by some of our customers.

Government Contracts and Regulation

Our business is heavily regulated. We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government and other contracts. These laws and regulations, among other things: 

·
impose specific and unique cost accounting practices that may differ from Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") in the United States of America and therefore require reconciliation;

·
impose acquisition regulations that define reimbursable and non-reimbursable costs; and

·
restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the export of certain products and technical data.

Government contracts are subject to congressional funding. Consequently, at the outset of a program, a contract is usually partially funded, and Congress annually determines if additional funds are to be appropriated to the contract. All of our customers have the right to terminate their contract with us at their convenience or in the event that we default.

A portion of our business is classified by the U.S. Government and cannot be specifically described. The operating results of these classified programs are included in our consolidated financial statements.

Backlog

Many of our contracts with the U.S. Government are funded year to year by the procuring U.S. Government agency as determined by the fiscal requirements of the U.S. Government and the respective procuring agency. Such a contracting process results in two distinct categories of backlog:  funded and unfunded.  Total backlog consists of the aggregate contract revenues remaining to be earned by us at a given time over the life of our contracts, whether funded or not.  Funded backlog consists of the aggregate contract revenues remaining to be earned by us at a given time, but only to the extent, in the case of U.S. Government contracts, when funded by the procuring U.S. Government agency and allotted to the specific contracts.  Unfunded backlog is the difference between total backlog and funded backlog.  Included in unfunded backlog are revenues which may be earned only when and if customers exercise delivery orders and/or renewal options to continue such existing contracts.

A number of contracts that we undertake extend beyond one year, and accordingly portions of contracts are carried forward from one year to the next as part of the backlog. Because many factors affect the scheduling and continuation of projects, no assurance can be given as to when revenue will be realized on projects included in our backlog.

At December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had total backlog from existing contracts of approximately $256.3 million and $90.5 million, respectively.  Such amounts are the maximum possible value of additional future orders for systems, products, maintenance and other support services presently allowable under those contracts, including renewal options available on the contracts if fully exercised by the customer.

Funded backlog as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $98.5 million and $59.7 million, respectively.

While backlog remains a measurement consideration, in recent years we, as well as other U.S. Government contractors, experienced a material change in the manner in which the U.S. Government procures equipment and services. These procurement changes include the growth in the use of General Services Administration ("GSA") schedules which authorize agencies of the U.S. Government to purchase significant amounts of equipment and services. The use of the GSA schedules results in a significantly shorter and much more flexible procurement cycle, as well as increased competition with many companies holding such schedules. Along with the GSA schedules, the U.S. Government is awarding a large number of omnibus contracts with multiple awardees. Such contracts generally require extensive marketing efforts by the multiple awardees to procure such business. The use of GSA schedules and omnibus contracts, while generally not providing immediate backlog, provide areas of growth that we continue to aggressively pursue.

Seasonality

We derive substantially all of our revenue from U.S. Government contracting, and as such we are annually subject to the seasonality of the U.S. Government purchasing. As the U.S. Government fiscal year ends on September 30, it is not uncommon for U.S. Government agencies to award extra tasks in the weeks immediately prior to the end of its fiscal year in order to avoid the loss of unexpended fiscal year funds. As a result of this cyclicality, we have historically experienced higher revenues in the third and fourth fiscal quarters, ending September 30 and December 31, respectively, with the pace of orders substantially reduced during the first and second fiscal quarters ending March 31 and June 30, respectively.



Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to other information in this Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be carefully considered in evaluating the Company and its businesses because these factors currently have, or may have, a significant impact on our business, operating results or financial condition. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K as a result of the risk factors discussed below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

Our inability to maintain sufficient access to the capital markets to provide the necessary capital to fund our operations would have a significant impact on our business.
Our primary sources of funds to meet our liquidity and capital requirements are an Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") with Republic Capital Access, LLC ("RCA") and a Financing and Security Agreement (the "Financing Agreement") with Action Capital Corporation ("Action Capital"). Under the Purchase Agreement, we may offer for sale, and RCA, in its sole discretion may purchase, up to $10 million of eligible accounts receivable relating to U.S. government prime contracts or subcontracts outstanding at any given time. Under the Financing Agreement, Action Capital agreed to provide advances of up to 90% of the net amount of certain acceptable customer accounts. The maximum outstanding principal amount of advances under the Financing Agreement is $5 million. The willingness of RCA to purchase our accounts receivable under the Purchase Agreement and of Action Capital to make advances under the Financing Agreement, and our ability to obtain additional financing, may be limited due to various factors, including the eligibility of our accounts receivable under those agreements, the status of our business, global credit market conditions, or perceptions of our business or industry by RCA, Action Capital, or other potential sources of financing. In January 2017, we borrowed $11 million under a credit agreement with Enlightenment Capital Solutions Fund II, L.P. to raise additional working capital and retire certain long-term obligations. If we are unable to maintain the Purchase Agreement and the Financing Agreement, we would need to obtain additional credit to fund our future operations. If credit is available in that event, lenders may impose more restrictive terms and higher interest rates that may reduce our borrowing capacity, increase our costs, or reduce our operating flexibility. The failure to maintain, extend, renew or replace our new sources of financing with a comparable arrangement or arrangements that provide similar amounts of liquidity for the Company would have a material negative impact on our overall liquidity, financial and operating results.

We depend on the U.S. Government for a significant portion of our sales and a significant decline in U.S. Government defense spending could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our sales are highly concentrated with the U.S. Government. The customer relationship with the U.S. Government involves certain risks that are unique. The programs in which we participate must compete with other programs and policy imperatives during the budget and appropriations process.  In each of the past three years, substantially all of our net sales were to the U.S. Government, particularly the DoD. U.S. defense spending has historically been cyclical. Defense budgets have received their strongest support when perceived threats to national security raise the level of concern over the country's safety. As these threats subside, spending on the military tends to decrease. Rising budget deficits, increasing national debt, the cost of the global war on terrorism, and increasing costs for entitlement programs continue to put pressure on all areas of discretionary spending, which could ultimately impact the defense budget.

However, U.S. government appropriations have been and continue to be affected by larger U.S. government budgetary issues and related legislation. In 2011, Congress enacted the Budget Control Act of 2011 (the "BCA"), which established specific limits on annual appropriations for fiscal years 2012-2021. The BCA has been amended a number of times, most recently by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (the "BBA"). As a result, DoD funding levels have fluctuated over this period and have been difficult to predict, but the impact of the BCA has been to essentially freeze DoD spending for the past five years.

According to the Congressional Research Service, federal outlays devoted to defense programs have fallen as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in every year since enactment of the BCA. Moreover, under the BCA, National Defense Discretionary Budget Authority in FY 2017 was $551 billion, which was actually $4 billion less than the amount authorized in FY 2012.

The BBA of 2018 will permit appropriations for DoD to significantly increase in FY 2018 and FY 2019, but Congress must still approve and the President must sign into law appropriations legislation in each of these fiscal years to actually provide this additional funding. As of March 19, 2018, DoD and all other federal agencies have been operating for nearly six months of FY 2018 under a series of Continuing Resolutions, which have limited funding levels to FY 2017 amounts, have not authorized new spending initiatives and have greatly limited the ability of DoD and other agencies to enter into new contracts.

After FY 2018 appropriations are finalized, Congress and the President must then agree on FY 2019 appropriations legislation prior to October 1, 2018; failing to do so by then will likely mean DoD will again be funded for an unknown period of time under another Continuing Resolution, which would again restrict new spending initiatives.  This is consistent with the practice for a number of years, where the U.S. government has been unable to complete its budget and appropriation process prior to the beginning of the next fiscal year, resulting in actual or threatened governmental shut-downs and repeated use for extended time periods each year of Continuing Resolutions to fund the government.

Finally, while the two-year budget agreement enacted in February 2018 as part of the BBA allows for significantly increased defense appropriations in both fiscal years 2018 and 2019, if the underlying BCA is not further amended before FY 2020, the much lower spending limits for defense and non-defense spending imposed by the BCA will again take effect in FY 2020.

As a result of these and any other possible unforeseen factors, future U.S. Government defense spending levels are difficult to predict. Significant changes in defense spending or changes in U.S. Government priorities, policies and requirements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Our U.S. government contracts are subject to competitive bidding, both upon initial issuance and re-competition. If we are unable to successfully compete in the bidding process or if we fail to win re-competitions, it could adversely affect our operating performance and lead to an unexpected loss of revenue.
Substantially all of our U.S. government contracts are awarded through a competitive bidding process upon initial award and renewal, and we expect that this will continue to be the case. There is often significant competition and pricing pressure as a result of this process. The competitive bidding process presents a number of risks, including the following:

we may expend substantial funds and time to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may ultimately be awarded to one of our competitors;
we may be unable to accurately estimate the resources and costs that will be required to perform any contract we are awarded, which could result in substantial cost overruns;
we may encounter expense and delay if our competitors protest or challenge awards of contracts, and any such protest or challenge could result in a requirement to resubmit bids on modified specifications or in the termination, reduction or modification of the awarded contract. Additionally, the protest of contracts awarded to us may result in the delay of program performance and the generation of revenue while the protest is pending; and
if we are not given the opportunity to re-compete for U.S. government contracts previously awarded to us, we may incur expenses to protect such decision and ultimately may not succeed in competing for or winning such contract renewal.

The U.S. government contracts for which we compete typically have multiple option periods, and if we fail to win a contract or a task order, we generally will be unable to compete again for that contract for several years. If we fail to win new contracts or to receive renewal contracts upon re-competition, it may result in additional costs and expenses and possible loss of revenue, and we will not have an opportunity to compete for these contract opportunities again until such contracts expire.

U.S. Government contracts generally are not fully funded at inception and are subject to amendment or termination, which places a significant portion of our revenues at risk and could adversely impact our earnings.
Our U.S. Government sales are funded by customer budgets, which operate on an October-to-September fiscal year. In February of each year, the President of the United States presents to the Congress the budget for the upcoming fiscal year. This budget proposes funding levels for every federal agency and is the result of months of policy and program reviews throughout the Executive branch. From February through September of each year, the appropriations and authorization committees of Congress review the President's budget proposals and establish the funding levels for the upcoming fiscal year in appropriations and authorization legislation. Once these levels are enacted into law, the Executive Office of the President administers the funds to the agencies. There are two primary risks associated with this process. First, the process may be delayed or disrupted. Changes in congressional schedules, negotiations for program funding levels or unforeseen world events can interrupt the funding for a program or contract. Second, funds for multi-year contracts can be changed in subsequent years in the appropriations process. In addition, the U.S. Government has increasingly relied on indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity ("IDIQ") contracts and other procurement vehicles that are subject to a competitive bidding and funding process even after the award of the basic contract, adding an additional element of uncertainty to future funding levels. Delays in the funding process or changes in funding can impact the timing of available funds or can lead to changes in program content or termination at the government's convenience. The loss of anticipated funding or the termination of multiple or large programs could have an adverse effect on our future sales and earnings.

We are subject to substantial oversight from federal agencies that have the authority to suspend our ability to bid on contracts.
As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to oversight by many agencies and entities of the U.S. Government that may investigate and make inquiries of our business practices and conduct audits of contract performance and cost accounting. Depending on the results of any such audits and investigations, the U.S. Government may make claims against us. Under U.S. Government procurement regulations and practices, an indictment of a U.S. Government contractor could result in that contractor being fined and/or suspended for a period of time from eligibility for bidding on, or for the award of, new U.S. Government contracts. A conviction could result in debarment for a specified period of time. To the best of management's knowledge, there are no pending investigations, inquiries, claims or audits against the Company likely to have a material adverse effect on our business or our consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position.

We enter into fixed-price and other contracts that could subject us to losses if we experience cost growth that cannot be billed to customers.
   Generally, our customer contracts are either fixed-priced or cost reimbursable contracts. Under fixed-priced contracts, which represented approximately 83.1% of our 2017 revenues, we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur and, consequently, we carry the burden of any cost overruns. Due to their nature, fixed-priced contracts inherently have more risk than cost reimbursable contracts, particularly fixed-price development contracts where the costs to complete the development stage of the program can be highly variable, uncertain and difficult to estimate. Under cost reimbursable contracts, subject to a contract-ceiling amount in certain cases, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and paid a fee, which may be fixed or performance based. If our costs exceed the contract ceiling and are not authorized by the customer or are not allowable under the contract or applicable regulations, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement for all such costs and our fees may be reduced or eliminated. Because many of our contracts involve advanced designs and innovative technologies, we may experience unforeseen technological difficulties and cost overruns. Under both types of contracts, if we are unable to control costs or if our initial cost estimates are incorrect, we can lose money on these contracts. In addition, some of our contracts have provisions relating to cost controls and audit rights, and if we fail to meet the terms specified in those contracts, we may not realize their full benefits. Lower earnings caused by cost overruns and cost controls would have a negative impact on our results of operations.

We depend on third parties in order to fully perform under our contracts and the failure of a third party to perform could have an adverse impact on our earnings.
We rely on subcontractors and other companies to provide raw materials, major components and subsystems for our products or to perform a portion of the services that we provide to our customers. Occasionally, we rely on only one or two sources of supply, which, if disrupted, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers. We depend on these subcontractors and vendors to fulfill their contractual obligations in a timely and satisfactory manner in full compliance with customer requirements. If one or more of our subcontractors or suppliers is unable to satisfactorily provide on a timely basis the agreed-upon supplies or perform the agreed-upon services, our ability to perform our obligations as a prime contractor may be adversely affected.

Our future profitability depends, in part, on our ability to develop new technologies and maintain a qualified workforce to meet the needs of our customers.
Virtually all of the products that we produce and sell are highly engineered and require sophisticated manufacturing and system integration techniques and capabilities. The government market in which we primarily operate is characterized by rapidly changing technologies. The product and program needs of our government and commercial customers change and evolve regularly. Accordingly, our future performance in part depends on our ability to identify emerging technological trends, develop and manufacture competitive products, and bring those products to market quickly at cost-effective prices. In addition, because of the highly specialized nature of our business, we must be able to hire and retain the skilled and appropriately qualified personnel necessary to perform the services required by our customers. If we are unable to develop new products that meet customers' changing needs or successfully attract and retain qualified personnel, future sales and earnings may be adversely affected.

The business environment in which we operate is highly competitive and may impair our ability to achieve revenue growth.
We operate in industry segments that are diverse. Based upon our current market analysis, there is no single company or small group of companies in a dominant competitive position. Some large competitors offer capabilities in a number of markets that overlap many of the same areas in which we offer services, while certain companies are focused upon only one or a few of such markets.  Some of the firms that compete with us in multiple areas include: Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin and General Dynamics. In addition, we compete with smaller specialty companies, including risk and compliance management companies, organizational messaging companies, and security consulting organizations, and companies that provide secure network offerings. If we do not compete effectively, we may suffer price reductions, reduced gross margins, and loss of market share.

Some of our security solutions have lengthy sales and implementation cycles, which could impact significantly our results of operations if projected orders are not realized.
We market the majority of our security solutions directly to U.S. Government customers. The sale and implementation of our services to these entities typically involves a lengthy education process and a significant technical evaluation and commitment of capital and other resources. This process is also subject to the risk of delays associated with customers' internal budgeting and other procedures for approving large capital expenditures, deploying new technologies within their networks and testing and accepting new technologies that affect key operations. As a result, the sales and implementation cycles associated with certain of our services can be lengthy. Our quarterly and annual operating results could be materially harmed if orders forecasted for a specific customer for a particular quarter are not realized.

Our business could be negatively affected by cyber or other security threats or other disruptions.
As a U.S. defense contractor, we face cyber threats, threats to the physical security of our facilities and employees, and terrorist acts, as well as the potential for business disruptions associated with information technology failures, natural disasters, or public health crises. We routinely experience cyber security threats, threats to our information technology infrastructure and attempts to gain access to our sensitive information, as do our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners. We may experience similar security threats at customer sites that we operate and manage as a contractual requirement. Prior cyber attacks directed at us have not had a material impact on our financial results, and we believe our threat detection and mitigation processes and procedures are adequate. The threats we face vary from attacks common to most industries to more advanced and persistent, highly organized adversaries who target us because we protect national security information. If we are unable to protect sensitive information, our customers or governmental authorities could question the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures.  Due to the evolving nature of these security threats, however, the impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. Occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our internal operations, the services we provide to our customers, loss of competitive advantages derived from our research and development efforts or other intellectual property, early obsolescence of our products and services, our future financial results, or our reputation.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, our revenues may be impacted adversely by the unauthorized use of our products and services.
Our success depends on our internally developed technologies, patents and other intellectual property. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our trade secrets or other forms of intellectual property without authorization. Furthermore, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights in those countries to the same extent U.S. law protects these rights in the United States. In addition, it is possible that others may independently develop substantially equivalent intellectual property. If we do not effectively protect our intellectual property, our business could suffer. In the future, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. This type of litigation, regardless of its outcome, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical resources.

If we are unable to license third-party technology that is used in our products and services to perform key functions, the loss could have an adverse affect on our revenues.
The third-party technology licenses used by us may not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our business could suffer if we lost the rights to use these technologies. A third-party could claim that the licensed software infringes a patent or other proprietary right. Litigation between the licensor and a third-party or between us and a third-party could lead to royalty obligations for which we are not indemnified or for which indemnification is insufficient, or we may not be able to obtain any additional license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The loss of, or our inability to obtain or maintain, any of these technology licenses could delay the introduction of new products or services until equivalent technology, if available, is identified, licensed and integrated. This could harm our business.

We are involved in a number of legal proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of litigation and other contingencies with certainty.
Our business may be adversely affected by the outcome of legal proceedings and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty. As required by GAAP, we estimate loss contingencies and establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies where liability is deemed probable and reasonably estimable in light of the facts and circumstances known to us at a particular point in time. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a liability or as a reserve against assets in our financial statements. For a description of our current legal proceedings, see Note 13 – Commitments, Contingencies and Subsequent Events to the consolidated financial statements.

Any potential future acquisitions, strategic investments, divestitures, mergers or joint ventures may subject us to significant risks, any of which could harm our business.
Our long-term strategy may include identifying and acquiring, investing in or merging with suitable candidates on acceptable terms, or divesting of certain business lines or activities. In particular, over time, we may acquire, make investments in, or merge with providers of product offerings that complement our business or may terminate such activities. Mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures include a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including but not limited to:
diversion of management attention from running our existing business;
possible material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting;
increased expenses including legal, administrative and compensation expenses related to newly hired or terminated employees;
increased costs to integrate the technology, personnel, customer base and business practices of the acquired company with us;
potential exposure to material liabilities not discovered in the due diligence process;
potential adverse effects on reported operating results due to possible write-down of goodwill and other intangible assets associated with acquisitions; and
unavailability of acquisition financing or unavailability of such financing on reasonable terms.

Any acquired business, technology, service or product could significantly under-perform relative to our expectations, and may not achieve the benefits we expect from possible acquisitions. For all these reasons, our pursuit of an acquisition, investment, divestiture, merger, or joint venture could cause its actual results to differ materially from those anticipated.
 
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We lease approximately 191,700 square feet of space for our corporate headquarters, integration facility, and primary service depot in Ashburn, Virginia. The lease expires in May 2029.

We sublease 27,000 square feet of space at the Ashburn, Virginia facility to our affiliate, Telos ID, which space serves as Telos ID's corporate headquarters. This sublease will expire on December 31, 2018.

We lease additional office space in five separate facilities located in California, Colorado, Maryland, New Jersey and Nevada under various leases expiring through January 2024.

We believe that the current space is substantially adequate to meet our operating requirements.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Information regarding legal proceedings may be found in Note 13 – Commitments, Contingencies and Subsequent Events to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

No public market exists for our Class A or Class B Common Stock. As of March 5, 2018, there were 206 record holders of our Class A Common Stock and 10 record holders of our Class B Common Stock. We have not paid dividends on either class of our Common Stock during the last two fiscal years. For a discussion of restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, see Item 7 – Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources and Note 6 – Current Liabilities and Debt Obligations to the consolidated financial statements.

Our 12% Cumulative Exchangeable Redeemable Preferred Stock ("Public Preferred Stock") trades over the OTC Bulletin Board and the OTCQB marketplace under the symbol "TLSRP". See Note 7 – Redeemable Preferred Stock to the consolidated financial statements.

No public market exists for our Series A-1 and Series A-2 Redeemable Preferred Stock ("Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock").  See Note 7 – Redeemable Preferred Stock to the consolidated financial statements.

As of December 31, 2017, there were 45,213,461 and 4,037,628 shares issued and outstanding of Class A and Class B Common Stock, respectively.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following should be read in connection with the accompanying information presented in Item 7 and Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

OPERATING RESULTS

   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
   
(amounts in thousands)
 
Sales
 
$
107,727
   
$
134,868
   
$
120,634
   
$
127,562
   
$
207,394
 
Operating income (loss)
   
414
     
2,112
     
(3,617
)
   
(11,644
)
   
6,111
 
(Loss) income before income taxes
   
(6,265
)
   
(3,335
)
   
(9,237
)
   
(16,600
)
   
867
 
Net loss attributable to Telos Corporation
   
(5,833
)
   
(7,175
)
   
(15,940
)
   
(12,288
)
   
(2,618
)


FINANCIAL CONDITION

   
As of December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
   
(amounts in thousands)
 
Total assets
 
$
74,361
   
$
56,799
   
$
59,964
   
$
73,820
   
$
88,609
 
Senior term loan (1)
   
10,786
     
----
     
----
     
----
     
----
 
Senior credit facility, long-term (1)
   
----
     
----
     
7,144
     
8,590
     
19,141
 
Subordinated debt, long-term (1)
   
2,289
     
----
     
2,500
     
----
     
----
 
Capital lease obligations, long-term (2)
   
17,980
     
18,990
     
19,908
     
20,735
     
14,901
 
Deferred income taxes, long-term (3)
   
741
     
3,391
     
3,199
     
----
     
----
 
Senior redeemable preferred stock (4)
   
----
     
2,092
     
2,025
     
1,958
     
1,891
 
Public preferred stock (4)
   
131,565
     
127,742
     
123,919
     
120,097
     
116,274
 


(1)
See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 regarding our debt obligations.
(2)
See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 regarding our capital lease obligations.
(3)
See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 regarding our income taxes.
(4)
See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 regarding our redeemable preferred stock.


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

General
Our goal is to deliver superior IT solutions that meet or exceed our customers' expectations. We focus on secure enterprise solutions that address the unique requirements of the federal government, the military, and the intelligence community, as well as commercial enterprises that require secure solutions. Our IT solutions consist of the following:

Cyber Operations and Defense:
o
Cyber Security – Solutions and services that assure the security of our customers' information, systems, and networks, including the Xacta suite for IT governance, risk management, and compliance. Our information and cyber security consulting services include security assessments, digital forensics, and continuous compliance monitoring.

o
Secure Mobility – Design, engineering and delivery of secure solutions that empower the mobile and deployed workforce in business and government.  Our solutions protect sensitive communication while delivering voice, data, and video at the point of work in classified and unclassified environments.

Identity Management (formerly Telos ID) – Solutions that establish trusted identities in order to ensure authenticated physical access to offices, workstations, and other facilities; secure digital access to databases, host systems, and other IT resources; and protect people and organizations against insider threats.

IT and Enterprise Solutions – We have the experience with solution development and global integration to meet the requirements of business and government enterprises with secure IT solutions, from organizational messaging and data visualization to network construction and management.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts receivable, allowance for inventory obsolescence, the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, potential impairments of goodwill and intangible assets, estimated pension-related costs for our foreign subsidiaries and accretion of Public Preferred Stock.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

        The following is a summary of the most critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") ASC 605-10-S99. We consider amounts earned upon evidence that an arrangement has been obtained, services are delivered, fees are fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Additionally, revenues on arrangements requiring the delivery of more than one product or service are recognized in accordance with ASC 605-25, "Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables," which addresses and requires the separation and allocation at the inception of the arrangement of all deliverables based on their relative selling prices. This determination is made first by employing vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE"), to the extent it exists, then third-party evidence ("TPE") of selling price, to the extent that it exists. Given the nature of the deliverables contained in our multi-element arrangements, which often involve the design and/or delivery of complex or technical solutions to the government, we have not obtained TPE of selling prices on multi-element arrangements due to the significant differentiation which makes obtaining comparable pricing of products with similar functionality impractical. Therefore we do not utilize TPE. If VSOE and TPE are not determinable, we use our best estimate of selling price ("ESP") as defined in ASC 605-25, which represents our best estimate of the prices under the terms and conditions of a particular order for the various elements if they were sold on a stand-alone basis.

We recognize revenues for software arrangements upon persuasive evidence of an arrangement, delivery of the software, and determination that collection of a fixed or determinable license fee is probable. Revenues for software licenses sold on a subscription basis are recognized ratably over the related license period. For arrangements where the sale of software licenses are bundled with other products, including software products, upgrades and enhancements, post-contract customer support ("PCS"), and installation, the relative fair value of each element is determined based on VSOE. VSOE is defined by ASC 985-605, "Software Revenue Recognition," and is limited to the price charged when the element is sold separately or, if the element is not yet sold separately, the price set by management having the relevant authority. When VSOE exists for undelivered elements, the remaining consideration is allocated to delivered elements using the residual method. If VSOE does not exist for the allocation of revenue to the various elements of the arrangement, all revenue from the arrangement is deferred until the earlier of the point at which (1) such VSOE does exist or (2) all elements of the arrangement are delivered. PCS revenues, upon being unbundled from a software license fee, are recognized ratably over the PCS period. Software arrangements requiring significant production, modification, or customization of the software are accounted for in accordance with ASC 605-35 "Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts."

We may use subcontractors and suppliers in the course of performing contracts and under certain contracts we provide supplier procurement services and materials for our customers. Some of these arrangements may fall within the scope of ASC 605-45, "Reporting Revenue Gross as a Principal versus Net as an Agent." We presume that revenues on our contracts are recognized on a gross basis, as we generally provide significant value-added services, assume credit risk, and reserve the right to select subcontractors and suppliers, but we evaluate the various criteria specified in the guidance in making the determination of whether revenue should be recognized on a gross or net basis.

A description of the business lines, the typical deliverables, and the revenue recognition criteria in general for such deliverables follows:

Cyber Operations and Defense – Our Cyber Operations and Defense business line consists of Cyber Security and Secure Mobility solutions areas.

Regarding our deliverables of Cyber Security solutions, we provide Xacta software and cybersecurity services to our customers. The software and accompanying services fall within the scope of ASC 985-605, "Software Revenue Recognition," as discussed above. We provide consulting services to our customers under either a firm-fixed price ("FFP") or time-and-management ("T&M") basis. Such contracts fall under the scope of ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for FFP services is recognized on a proportional performance basis. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones as appropriate under a particular contract, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred. For cost plus fixed fee ("CPFF") contracts, revenue is recognized in proportion to the allowable costs incurred unless indicated otherwise in the terms of the contract.

Regarding our deliverables of Secure Mobility solutions, we provide wireless and wired networking solutions consisting of hardware and services to our customers. The solutions within the Secure Mobility group are generally sold as FFP bundled solutions. Certain of these networking solutions involve contracts to design, develop, or modify complex electronic equipment configurations to a buyer's specification or to provide network engineering services, and as such fall within the scope of ASC 605-35. Revenue is earned upon percentage of completion based upon proportional performance, such performance generally being defined by performance milestones. Certain other solutions fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99, such as resold information technology products, like laptops, printers, networking equipment and peripherals, and ASC 605-25, such as delivery orders for multiple solutions deliverables. For product sales, revenue is recognized upon proof of acceptance by the customer, otherwise it is deferred until such time as the proof of acceptance is obtained. For example, in delivery orders for Department of Defense customers, which comprise the majority of the Company's customers, such acceptance is achieved with a signed Department of Defense Form DD-250 or electronic invoicing system equivalent. Services provided under these contracts are generally provided on a FFP basis, and as such fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for services is recognized based on proportional performance, as the work progresses. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M services contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred.

Identity Management (formerly Telos ID) – We provide our identity assurance and access management solutions and services and sell information technology products, such as computer laptops and specialized printers, and consumables, such as identity cards, to our customers. The solutions are generally sold as FFP bundled solutions, which would typically fall within the scope of ASC 605-25 and ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for services is recognized based on proportional performance, as the work progresses. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred.

IT & Enterprise Solutions – We provide the Automated Message Handling System ("AMHS") as well as related services to our customers. The system and accompanying services fall within the scope of ASC 985-605, as fully discussed above. Other services fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99 for arrangements that include only T&M contracts and ASC 605-25 for contracts with multiple deliverables such as T&M elements and FFP services. Under such arrangements, the T&M elements are established by direct costs. Revenue is recognized on T&M contracts according to specified rates as direct labor and other direct costs are incurred. For CPFF contracts, revenue is recognized in proportion to the allowable costs incurred unless indicated otherwise in the terms of the contract. Revenue for FFP services is recognized on a proportional performance basis. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred.

Estimating future costs and, therefore, revenues and profits, is a process requiring a high degree of management judgment. In the event of a change in total estimated contract cost or profit, the cumulative effect of a change is recorded in the period the change in estimate occurs. To the extent contracts are incomplete at the end of an accounting period, revenue is recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, on a proportional performance basis, using costs incurred in relation to total estimated costs, or costs are deferred as appropriate under the terms of a particular contract. In the event cost estimates indicate a loss on a contract, the total amount of such loss, excluding overhead and general and administrative expense, is recorded in the period in which the loss is first estimated.

Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, where cost is determined primarily on the weighted average cost method. Inventories consist primarily of purchased customer off-the-shelf hardware and software, and component computer parts used in connection with system integration services that we perform. Inventories also include spare parts utilized to support certain maintenance contracts. Spare parts inventory is amortized on a straight-line basis over two to five years, which represents the shorter of the warranty period or estimated useful life of the asset. An allowance for obsolete, slow-moving or non-salable inventory is provided for all other inventory. This allowance is based on our overall obsolescence experience and our assessment of future inventory requirements.

Goodwill and other intangible assets
We evaluate the impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other," which requires goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets to be assessed on at least an annual basis for impairment using a fair value basis. Between annual evaluations, if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount, then impairment must be evaluated. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to: (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate, or (2) a loss of key contracts or customers.

As the result of an acquisition, we record any excess purchase price over the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired as goodwill. An allocation of the purchase price to tangible and intangible net assets acquired is based upon our valuation of the acquired assets. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to annual impairment tests. We complete our goodwill impairment tests as of December 31st each year. Additionally, we make evaluations between annual tests if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The evaluation is based on the estimation of the fair values of our three reporting units, Cyber Operations and Defense ("CO&D"), Identity Management, and IT & Enterprise Solutions, of which goodwill is housed in the CO&D reporting unit, in comparison to the reporting unit's net asset carrying values. Our discounted cash flows required management judgment with respect to forecasted revenue streams and operating margins, capital expenditures and the selection and use of an appropriate discount rate. We utilized the weighted average cost of capital as derived by certain assumptions specific to our facts and circumstances as the discount rate. The net assets attributable to the reporting units are determined based upon the estimated assets and liabilities attributable to the reporting units in deriving its free cash flows. In addition, the estimate of the total fair value of our reporting units is compared to the market capitalization of the Company. The Company's assessment resulted in a fair value that was greater than the Company's carrying value, therefore the second step of the impairment test, as prescribed by the authoritative literature, was not required to be performed and no impairment of goodwill was recorded as of December 31, 2017. Subsequent reviews may result in future periodic impairments that could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations in the period recognized. Recent operating results have reduced the projection of future cash flow growth potential, which indicates that certain negative potential events, such as a material loss or losses on contracts, or failure to achieve projected growth could result in impairment in the future. We estimate fair value of our reporting unit and compare the valuation with the respective carrying value for the reporting unit to determine whether any goodwill impairment exists. If we determine through the impairment review process that goodwill is impaired, we will record an impairment charge in our consolidated statements of operations. Goodwill is amortized and deducted over a 15-year period for tax purposes.

Other intangible assets consist primarily of customer relationship enhancements. Other intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of 5 years. The amortization is based on a forecast of approximately equal annual customer orders over the 5-year period. Other intangible assets are subject to impairment review if there are events or changes in circumstances that indicate that the carrying amount is not recoverable. As of June 30, 2016, the intangible assets had been fully amortized and no impairment charges had been taken.

Income Taxes
We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740-10, "Income Taxes." Under ASC 740-10, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences of temporary differences and income tax credits. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured by applying enacted statutory tax rates that are applicable to the future years in which deferred tax assets or liabilities are expected to be settled or realized for differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities. Any change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in net income in the period in which the tax rate change is enacted. We record a valuation allowance that reduces deferred tax assets when it is "more likely than not" that deferred tax assets will not be realized. We are required to establish a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Based on available evidence, realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income. We considered projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and reversal of taxable temporary differences in making this assessment. As such, we have determined that a full valuation allowance is required as of December 31, 2017 and 2016. We are not able to use temporary taxable differences related to goodwill as a source of future taxable income. As a result of a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, a deferred tax liability (hanging credit) related to goodwill remained on our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2017 and 2016.  Due to the tax reform enacted on December 22, 2017, net operating losses generated  in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 will have an indefinite carryforward period, which will be available to offset future taxable income created by the reversal of temporary taxable differences related to goodwill.  As a result, we have adjusted the valuation allowance on our deferred taxes at December 31, 2017.  See additional information on tax reform and its impact on our income taxes in Note 9 – Income Taxes.

Results of Operations
We derive substantially all of our revenues from contracts and subcontracts with the U.S. Government. Our revenues are generated from a number of contract vehicles and task orders. Over the past several years we have sought to diversify and improve our operating margins through an evolution of our business from an emphasis on product reselling to that of an advanced solutions technologies provider. To that end, although we continue to offer resold products through our contract vehicles, we have focused on selling solutions and outsourcing product sales, as well as designing and delivering Telos manufactured and branded technologies.  We  believe our contract portfolio is characterized as having low to moderate financial risk due to the limited number of long-term fixed price development contracts. Our firm fixed-price activities consist principally of contracts for the products and services at established contract prices. Our time-and-material contracts generally allow the pass-through of allowable costs plus a profit margin.  For 2017, 2016, and 2015, the Company's revenue derived from firm fixed-price contracts was 83.1%, 76.0%, and 77.0%, respectively, cost plus contracts was 7.4%, 16.4%, and 12.0%, respectively, and time-and-material contracts was 9.5%, 7.6%, and 11.0%, respectively.

We provide different solutions and are party to contracts of varying revenue types under the NETCENTS (Network-Centric Solutions) and NETCENTS-2 contracts to the U.S. Air Force. NETCENTS and NETCENTS-2 are indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity ("IDIQ") and government-wide acquisition contracts ("GWAC"), therefore any government customer may utilize the NETCENTS and NETCENTS-2 vehicles to meet its purchasing needs. Consequently, revenue earned on the underlying NETCENTS and NETCENTS-2 delivery orders varies from period to period according to the customer and solution mix for the products and services delivered during a particular period, unlike a standalone contract with one separately identified customer. The contracts themselves do not fund any orders and they state that the contracts are for an indefinite delivery and indefinite quantity. The majority of our task/delivery orders have periods of performance of less than 12 months, which contributes to the variances between interim and annual reporting periods. The period of performance for the original NETCENTS contract ended on September 30, 2013. Previously awarded task orders that contain periods of performance that extended past September 30, 2013, including exercisable option years under existing task orders, were not affected by the contract expiration. We were selected for an award on the NETCENTS replacement contract, NETCENTS-2 Network Operations and Infrastructure Solutions Small Business Companion, on March 27, 2014. Although no protest was filed over the Telos contract award, protests filed by other bidders resulted in a recommendation by the Government Accountability Office ("GAO") that the U.S. Air Force re-evaluate proposals and make a new source selection decision. Subsequent to the Air Force's reevaluation of the NETCENTS-2 procurement related to the protests, we were selected for an award on April 3, 2015 and the contract was opened for issuance of new orders in May 2015. We have also been awarded other IDIQ/GWACs, including the Department of Homeland Security's EAGLE II and blanket purchase agreements under our GSA schedule. However, we have not been awarded significant delivery orders under EAGLE II.

On August 31, 2015, we were notified that we were not awarded the re-compete of a contract within our IT and Enterprise Solutions (formerly Secure Communications) area for a government agency. The contract had a total funded value of over $45 million over the prior three years and accounted for approximately 11% of revenue for 2015. We filed a protest of the award with the United States Court of Federal Claims ("COFC"), which entered a final order denying the protest on February 29, 2016. On March 4, 2016, we filed an appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, appealing the decision of the COFC, and the appellate court affirmed the judgement of the lower court on December 13, 2016. We continued to perform under the contract through the period of performance, which ended on May 22, 2016.

On October 13, 2016, we were notified that we were not awarded the re-compete of a contract within our Cyber Operations & Defense area for a government agency that we had bid as part of a joint venture. The contract had a total funded value of over $22 million over the prior three years and accounted for approximately 6% of revenue for 2016. The joint venture filed a protest of the award to another bidder with the GAO on October 24, 2016, which denied the protest on February 2, 2017. The joint venture then filed a claim with the COFC on February 10, 2017, together with a motion seeking to stay and enjoin the transition of the contract. The COFC denied the requests for injunctive relief on February 14, 2017, but initiated a one-month extension on the current contract so as to allow the CODC to address the joint venture's protest, hold a hearing and issue a decision in advance of any final contract transition. On April 27, 2017, the COFC issued a final decision in favor of the government.  The period of performance on the contract ended on May 2, 2017.

On March 23, 2018, the U.S. Government passed an omnibus appropriations bill for fiscal year 2018 (the "Consolidated Appropriations Act) (the U.S. Government's fiscal year begins on October 1 and ends on September 30). The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides funding to finance all U.S. Government activities through September 30, 2018, including a base budget for the DoD of $589.5 billion, which represents an increase of approximately $61 billion above the amounts enacted in the Defense Appropriations Act of 2017. The Consolidated Appropriations Act also includes funding of $65.2 billion for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO).

On February 9, 2018, the U.S. Government passed the BBA. The BBA raised DoD fiscal year 2018 and 2019 spending caps to $700 billion and $716 billion, respectively.
Currently, U.S. defense spending through fiscal year 2021 remains subject to statutory spending limits established by the Budget Control Act. The spending limits were modified for fiscal years 2013 through 2017 by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. These acts, however, do not provide relief to the spending limits beyond fiscal year 2019. If Congress approves the President's budget proposal or other appropriation legislation with funding levels that exceed the spending limits, automatic across-the-board spending reductions, known as sequestration, would be triggered to reduce funding back to the spending limits. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 raised the limits on DoD spending caps in fiscal year 2018 and 2019 to $700 billion and $716 billion, respectively. However, continued budget uncertainty and the risk of future sequestration cuts remain unless the Budget Control Act is repealed or significantly modified. Our programs could be materially reduced, extended, or terminated as a result of the U.S. Government's continuing assessment of priorities, changes in government priorities, the implementation of sequestration (particularly in those circumstances where sequestration is implemented across-the-board without regard to national priorities), or other budget cuts in lieu of sequestration.
On February 9, 2018, Congress passed the BBA, which suspended the debt limit through March 1, 2019. Congress will need to raise the debt limit on that date in order for the U.S. Government to continue borrowing money. If the debt ceiling is not raised in the future, the U.S. Government may not be able to pay for expenditures or fulfill its funding obligations and there could be significant disruption to all discretionary programs. Although we believe that key defense, intelligence and homeland security programs would receive priority, the effect on individual programs or Telos cannot be predicted at this time.
We anticipate there will continue to be a significant amount of debate and negotiations within the U.S. Government over defense spending and the debt ceiling. In the context of these negotiations, it is possible that existing cuts to government programs could be kept in place, replaced with different spending cuts, and/or replaced with a package of broader reforms to reduce the federal deficit.

Statement of Operations Data
The following table sets forth certain consolidated financial data and related percentages for the periods indicated:


   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2015
   
2015
 
   
(dollar amounts in thousands)
 
                                     
 
Revenue
 
$
107,727
     
100.0
%
 
$
134,868
     
100.0
%
 
$
120,634
     
100.0
%
Cost of sales
   
67,161
     
62.3
     
91,422
     
67.8
     
89,961
     
74.6
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
40,152
     
37.3
     
41,334
     
30.6
     
34,290
     
28.4
 
 
Operating income (loss)
   
414
     
0.4
     
2,112
     
1.6
     
(3,617
)
   
(3.0
)
Other income (expenses):
                                               
Non-operating income
   
11
     
----
     
18
     
----
     
19
     
----
 
Interest expense
   
(6,690
)
   
(6.2
)
   
(5,465
)
   
(4.1
)
   
(5,639
)
   
(4.6
)
 
Loss before income taxes
   
(6,265
)
   
(5.8
)
   
(3,335
)
   
(2.5
)
   
(9,237
)
   
(7.6
)
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
   
2,767
     
2.6
     
(334
)
   
(2.0
)
   
(4,265
)
   
(3.5
)
Net loss
   
(3,498
)
   
(3.2
)
   
(3,669
)
   
(2.7
)
   
(13,502
)
   
(11.1
)
 
Less:  Net income attributable to non-controlling interest
   
(2,335
)
   
(2.2
)
   
(3,506
)
   
(2.6
)
   
(2,438
)
   
(2.0
)
 
Net loss attributable to Telos Corporation
 
$
(5,833
)
   
(5.4
)%
 
$
(7,175
)
   
(5.3
)%
 
$
(15,940
)
   
(13.1
)%


Years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015

Revenue.  Revenue decreased by 20.1% to $107.7 million for 2017 from $134.9 million for 2016.  Such decrease primarily consists of a decrease in sales from the U.S. Air Force NETCENTS-2 contract. As discussed above, NETCENTS-2 is an IDIQ contract utilized by multiple government customers and sales under NETCENTS-2 varied from period to period according to the solution mix and timing of deliverables for a particular period. Services revenue decreased by 27.7% to $81.6 million for 2017 from $112.9 million for 2016, primarily attributable to decreases in sales of $29.7 million of Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions under several NETCENTS delivery orders for Telos-installed solutions, and $4.5 million of IT & Enterprise solutions, due primarily to the loss of a contract as discussed above, offset by an increase in sales of $3.0 million of Identity Management solutions. The change in product and services revenue varies from period to period depending on the mix of solutions sold and the nature of such solutions, as well as the timing of deliverables. Product revenue increased by 18.8% to $26.1 million for 2017 from $22.0 million for 2016, primarily attributable to increases in sales of $2.2 million of Identity Management solutions, $1.7 million of resold products in Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions, and $1.0 million of proprietary software in IT & Enterprise solutions, offset by a decrease in sales of $0.7 million of Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions in proprietary software.

Revenue increased by 11.8% to $134.9 million for 2016 from $120.6 million for 2015. Such increase primarily consists of an increase in sales from the U.S. Air Force NETCENTS-2 contract. Services revenue increased by 15.6% to $112.9 million for 2016 from $97.7 million for 2015, primarily attributable to increases in sales of $11.7 million of Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions, $9.2 million of Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions under several NETCENTS delivery orders for Telos-installed solutions, and $2.8 million of Identity Management solutions, offset by a decrease in sales of $8.5 million of IT & Enterprise solutions due to the loss of a contract as discussed above. Product revenue decreased by 4.3% to $22.0 million for 2016 from $23.0 million for 2015, primarily attributable to a decrease in sales of $2.3 million of Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions in resold products and $0.4 million of IT & Enterprise solutions and, offset by increases in sales of $1.2 million of Identity Management solutions, and $0.5 million of proprietary software sales in Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions.

Cost of sales.  Cost of sales decreased by 26.5% to $67.2 million for 2017 from $91.4 million for 2016 as a result of decreases in revenue. Cost of sales for services decreased by $27.6 million, and as a percentage of services revenue decreased by 7.5%, due to a change in the mix and nature of the programs including an increase in sales of certain Telos-installed solutions in Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions under NETCENTS-2 and due to other contracts in Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions, as well as the loss of a contract in IT & Enterprise Solutions as discussed above. Cost of sales for product increased by $3.4 million, primarily due to increases in product revenue for resold products, and as a percentage of product revenue increased by 2.9%, primarily due to declines in resold product margins and proprietary software margins.

Cost of sales increased by 1.6% to $91.4 million for 2016 from $90.0 million for 2015 as a result of increases in revenue. Cost of sales for services increased by $4.5 million, and as a percentage of services revenue decreased by 6.1%, due to a change in the mix and nature of the programs including an increase in sales of certain Telos-installed solutions in Cyber Operations and Defense in Secure Mobility solutions under NETCENTS-2 and other contracts, as well as the loss of a contract in IT & Enterprise Solutions as discussed above. Cost of sales for product decreased by $3.0 million, primarily due to decreases in product revenue for resold product, and as a percentage of product revenue decreased by 10.5%, primarily due to improved resold product margins primarily in Telos ID. The increase in cost of sales is not necessarily indicative of a trend as the mix of solutions sold and the nature of such solutions can vary from period to period, and further can be affected by the timing of deliverables.

Gross profit.  Gross profit decreased by 6.6% to $40.6 million for 2017 from $43.4 million for 2016. Gross margin increased to 37.7% for 2017 from 32.2% for 2016, due to various changes in the mix of contracts in all business lines, primarily increases in sales of Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions.

Gross profit increased by 41.6% to $43.4 million for 2016 from $30.7 million for 2015. Gross margin increased to 32.2% for 2016 from 25.4% for 2015, due to various changes in the mix of contracts in all business lines, primarily increases in sales of Cyber Operations and Defense in Cyber Security solutions.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses.  Selling, general, and administrative expenses decreased 2.9% to $40.2 million for 2017 from $41.3 million for 2016. Such decrease is primarily attributable to decreases in amortization of other intangible assets of $1.1 million, bonuses of $0.6 million, and bank and financing fees of $0.5 million, offset by an increase in outside services of $1.1 million.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased 20.5% to $41.3 million for 2016 from $34.3 million for 2015. Such increase is primarily attributable to increases in bonuses of $4.1 million, labor costs of $2.6 million, and outside services of $1.5 million, offset by a decrease in amortization of other intangible assets of $1.1 million.

Interest expense.  Interest expenses increased 22.4% to $6.7 million for 2017 from $5.5 million for 2016, primarily due to an increase in interest on the EnCap senior term loan.

Interest expenses decreased 3.1% to $5.5 million for 2016 from $5.6 million for 2015, primarily due to a decrease in interest on senior credit facilities (as defined below).

Components of interest expense are as follows:

   
December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
   
(amounts in thousands)
 
Commercial and subordinated note interest incurred
 
$
2,848
   
$
1,575
   
$
1,750
 
Preferred stock interest accrued
   
3,842
     
3,890
     
3,889
 
 
Total
 
$
6,690
   
$
5,465
   
$
5,639
 

Provision for income taxes.  Income tax benefit was $2.8 million for 2017, compared to income tax provision of $0.3 million for 2016, primarily due to the decrease in the hanging credit deferred tax liability as a result of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Income tax provision was $0.3 million for 2016, compared to $4.3 million for 2015, primarily due to pretax loss of $3.3 million for 2016, compared to $9.2 million for 2015.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As described in more detail below, we maintain a Credit Agreement with EnCap, a Purchase Agreement with RCA and a Financing Agreement with Action Capital. The willingness of RCA to purchase our accounts receivable under the Purchase Agreement and of Action Capital to make advances under the Financing Agreement, and our ability to obtain additional financing, may be limited due to various factors, including the eligibility of our receivables, the status of our business, global credit market conditions, and perceptions of our business or industry by EnCap, RCA, Action Capital, or other potential sources of financing. If we are unable to maintain the Purchase Agreement and the Financing Agreement, we would need to obtain additional credit to fund our future operations. If credit is available in that event, lenders may impose more restrictive terms and higher interest rates that may reduce our borrowing capacity, increase our costs, or reduce our operating flexibility. The failure to maintain, extend, renew or replace the Purchase Agreement and the Financing Agreement with a comparable arrangement or arrangements that provide similar amounts of liquidity for the Company would have a material negative impact on our overall liquidity, financial and operating results.

On July 15, 2016, Telos repaid the entire balance of our revolving credit facility (the "Facility") with Wells Fargo Capital Finance, LLC ("Wells Fargo") utilizing proceeds generated through the new financing arrangements with RCA and Action Capital, entered into concurrently with the payoff of the Facility, and terminated the Facility. At the time of the Facility repayment, the outstanding loan balance, including accrued interest and fees, was $5.4 million. Additionally, Wells Fargo required the Company to collateralize, by cash deposit, $0.3 million for an outstanding letter of credit and as general returned item collateral.  Under the terms of the payoff letter for the Facility, RCA paid $5.7 million directly to Wells Fargo with the Company receiving the residual amount from the sale of $7.4 million of Purchased Receivables to RCA.
   
Additionally, at the time of the Facility repayment, approximately $2.5 million of receivables were eligible to be financed through the Action Capital credit facility at the time of closing. The Company elected not to use this credit facility to effect the payoff, instead electing to finance the payoff through the RCA facility. Since receivables under the RCA facility are sold to RCA, current assets were utilized to pay off the Facility. The Company utilizes the RCA and Action Capital facilities in concert to meet its operating, investing and financing cash flow requirements. 
 
While the Company's decision to pay off a current liability (which was a noncurrent liability in the previous period) utilizing current assets (even though it had a noncurrent financing option for a substantial amount of the payoff available to it) had a negative effect on working capital at that time, the effect was mitigated through earnings from operations.

While a variety of factors related to sources and uses of cash, such as timeliness of accounts receivable collections, vendor credit terms, or significant collateral requirements, ultimately impact our liquidity, such factors may or may not have a direct impact on our liquidity based on how the transactions associated with such circumstances impact our availability under our credit arrangements. For example, a contractual requirement to post collateral for a duration of several months, depending on the materiality of the amount, could have an immediate negative effect on our liquidity, as such a circumstance would utilize cash resources without a near-term cash inflow back to us. Likewise, the release of such collateral could have a corresponding positive effect on our liquidity, as it would represent an addition to our cash resources without any corresponding near-term cash outflow. Similarly, a slow-down of payments from a customer, group of customers or government payment office would not have an immediate and direct effect on our availability unless the slowdown was material in amount and over an extended period of time. Any of these examples would have an impact on our cash resources, our financing arrangements, and therefore our liquidity.

Management may determine that, in order to reduce capital and liquidity requirements, planned spending on capital projects and indirect expense growth may be curtailed, subject to growth in operating results. Additionally, management may seek to put in place a credit facility with a commercial bank, although no assurance can be given that such a facility could be put in place under terms acceptable to the Company. Should management determine that additional capital is required, management would likely look first to the sources of funding discussed above to meet any requirements, although no assurances can be given that these investors would be able to invest or that the Company and the investors would agree upon terms for such investments.

Our working capital was $(4.1) million and $(8.6) million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Although no assurances can be given, we expect that our financing arrangements with EnCap, RCA and Action Capital, collectively, are sufficient to maintain the liquidity we require to meet our operating, investing and financing needs for the next 12 months.

Cash used in operating activities was $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to cash provided by operating activities of $13.9 million for 2016, and cash provided by operating activities of $2.7 million for 2015. Cash provided by operating activities is primarily driven by our operating income, the timing of receipt of customer payments, the timing of payments to vendors and employees, and the timing of inventory turnover, adjusted for certain non cash items that do not impact cash flows from operating activities.  In 2017, net loss was $3.5 million, which included $2.8 million of income tax benefit. In 2016, net loss was $3.7 million, which included $0.3 million of income tax provision and $1.1 million of amortization of intangible assets. In 2015, net loss was $13.5 million, which included $4.3 million of income tax provision and $2.3 million of amortization of intangible assets.
Cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 was $2.2 million, $0.6 million, and $0.4 million, respectively, which, for the year ended December 31, 2017, consisted primarily of the capitalization of software development costs of $1.5 million and the purchases of property and equipment.
Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $2.8 million, compared to cash used in financing activities of $12.6 million for 2016, and $2.3 million for 2015. The financing activities in 2017 consisted primarily of net proceeds of $9.4 million from the EnCap senior term loan, redemption of $2.1 million of senior preferred stock, repayments of $0.9 million under capital leases, and distributions of $3.7 million to the Class B Member of Telos ID.  The financing activities in 2016 consisted primarily of net repayments of $6.7 million under the facilities, repayments of $3.2 million of a term loan, repayments of $0.8 million under capital leases, and distributions of $1.9 million to the Class B Member of Telos ID. The financing activities in 2015 consisted primarily of net repayments of $1.3 million under the Facility, repayments of $2.3 million of a term loan, proceeds of $2.5 million from subordinated debt, repayments of $0.8 million under capital leases, proceeds of $2.0 million from sale of 10% of Telos ID membership interest, and distributions of $2.4 million to the Class B Member of Telos ID.
Additionally, our capital structure consists of redeemable preferred stock and common stock. The capital structure is complex and requires an understanding of the terms of the instruments, certain restrictions on scheduled payments and redemptions of the various instruments, and the interrelationship of the instruments especially as it relates to the subordination hierarchy. Therefore, a thorough understanding of how our capital structure impacts our liquidity is necessary and accordingly we have disclosed the relevant information about each instrument as follows:

Enlightenment Capital Credit Agreement
On January 25, 2017, we entered into a Credit Agreement (the "Credit Agreement") with Enlightenment Capital Solutions Fund II, L.P., as agent (the "Agent"), and the lenders party thereto (the "Lenders"), (together referenced as "EnCap"). The Credit Agreement provides for an $11 million senior term loan (the "Loan") with a maturity date of January 25, 2022, subject to acceleration in the event of customary events of default.

All borrowings under the Credit Agreement will accrue interest at the rate of 13.0% per annum (the "Accrual Rate"). If, at the request of the Company, the Agent executes an intercreditor agreement with another senior lender under which the Agent and the Lenders subordinate their liens (an "Alternative Interest Rate Event"), the interest rate will increase to 14.5% per annum. After the occurrence and during the continuance of any event of default, the interest rate will increase 2.0%. The Company is obligated to pay accrued interest in cash on a monthly basis at a rate of not less than 10.0% per annum or, during the continuance of an Alternate Interest Rate Event, 11.5% per annum. The Company may elect to pay the remaining interest in cash, by payment-in-kind (by addition to the principal amount of the Loan) or by combination of cash and payment-in-kind. Upon thirty days prior written notice, the Company may prepay any portion or the entire amount of the Loan.

An amount of approximately $1.1 million was netted from the proceeds on the Loan as a prepayment of all interest due and payable at the Accrual Rate during the period from January 25, 2017 to October 31, 2017. A separate fee letter executed by the Company and the Agent, dated January 25, 2017, sets forth the fees payable to the Agent in connection with the Credit Agreement.

The Credit Agreement contains representations, warranties, covenants, terms and conditions customary for transactions of this type. In connection with the Credit Agreement, the Agent has been granted, for the benefit of the Lenders, a security interest in and general lien upon various property of the Company, subject to certain permitted liens and any intercreditor agreement. The occurrence of an event of default under the Credit Agreement could result in the Loan and other obligations becoming immediately due and payable and allow the Lenders to exercise all rights and remedies available to them under the Credit Agreement or as a secured party under the UCC, in addition to all other rights and remedies available to them.  While we did not earn sufficient revenue to meet the revenue covenant in Section 7.15(d) of the Credit Agreement, the Lenders agreed to waive our compliance with the covenant as of September 30, 2017.

In connection with the Credit Agreement, on January 25, 2017, the Company issued warrants (each, a "Warrant") to Agent and certain of the Lenders representing in the aggregate the right to purchase in accordance with their terms 1,135,284.333 shares of the Class A Common Stock of the Company, no par value per share, which is equivalent to approximately 2.5% of the common equity interests of the Company on a fully diluted basis. The exercise price is $1.321 per share and each Warrant expires on January 25, 2027. The value of the warrants were determined to be de minimis and no value was allocated to them on a relative fair value basis in accounting for the debt instrument.

Effective February 23, 2017, the Credit Agreement was amended to change the required timing of certain post-closing items to allow for more time to complete the legal and administrative requirements around such items. On April 18, 2017, the Credit Agreement was further amended (the "Second Amendment") to incorporate the parties' agreement to subordinate certain debt owed by the Company to the affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (the "Subordinated Debt") and to redeem all outstanding shares of the Series A-1 Redeemable Preferred Stock and the Series A-2 Redeemable Preferred Stock, including those owned by Mr. John R.C. Porter and his affiliates, for an aggregate redemption price of $2.1 million.

In connection with the Second Amendment and that subordination of debt, on April 18, 2017, we also entered into Subordination and Intercreditor Agreements (the "Intercreditor Agreements") with affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (together referenced as "Porter"), in which Porter agreed that the Subordinated Debt is fully subordinated to the amended Credit Agreement and related documents, and that required payments, if any, under the Subordinated Debt are permitted only if certain conditions are met.

The Credit Agreement also includes an $825,000 exit fee, which is payable upon any repayment or prepayment of the loan. This amount has been included in the total principal due and treated as an unamortized discount on the debt, which will be amortized over the term of the loan, using the effective interest method at a rate of 15.0%. We incurred fees and transaction costs of approximately $374,000 related to the issuance of the Credit Agreement, which are being amortized over the life of the Credit Agreement.

We incurred interest expense in the amount of $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, under the Credit Agreement.

On March 30, 2018, the Credit Agreement was amended (the "Third Amendment") to waive certain covenant defaults and to reset the covenants for 2018 measurement periods to more accurately reflect the Company's projected performance for the year. The measurement against the covenants for consolidated leverage ratio and consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio were agreed to not be measured as of December 31, 2017 and were reset for 2018 measurement periods. Additionally, a minimum revenue covenant and a net working capital covenant were added. In consideration of these amendments, the interest rate on the loan was increased by 1%, which will revert back to the original rate upon achievement of two consecutive quarters of a specified fixed charge coverage ratio as defined in the agreement.  The Company may elect to pay the increase in interest expense in cash or by payment-in-kind (by addition to the principal amount of the Loan).   Contemporaneously with the Third Amendment, Mr. Wood agreed to transfer 50,000 shares of the Company's Class A Common Stock owned by him to EnCap.

Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement
On July 15, 2016, we entered into an Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") with Republic Capital Access, LLC ("RCA" or "Buyer"), pursuant to which we may offer for sale, and RCA, in its sole discretion, may purchase, eligible accounts receivable relating to U.S. government prime contracts or subcontracts of the Company (collectively, the "Purchased Receivables"). Upon purchase, RCA becomes the absolute owner of any such Purchased Receivables, which are payable directly to RCA, subject to certain repurchase obligations of the Company. The total amount of Purchased Receivables is subject to a maximum limit of $10 million of outstanding Purchased Receivables (the "Maximum Amount") at any given time. The Purchase Agreement had an initial term expiring on June 30, 2018 and automatically renews for successive 12-month renewal periods unless terminated in writing by either the Company or RCA. On March 2, 2018, the term of the Purchase Agreement was extended to June 30, 2020. No fee or consideration of any kind was paid in connection with this extension.

The initial purchase price of a Purchased Receivable is equal to 90% of the face value of the receivable if the account debtor is an agency of the U.S. government, and 85% if the account debtor is not an agency of the U.S. government; provided, however, that RCA has the right to adjust these initial purchase price rates in its sole discretion. After collection by RCA of the portion of a Purchased Receivable in excess of the initial purchase price, RCA shall pay the Company the residual 10% or 15% of such Purchased Receivable, as appropriate, less (i) a discount factor equal to 0.30%, for federal government prime contracts (or 0.56% for non-federal government investment grade account obligors or 0.62% for non-federal government non-investment grade account obligors) of the face amounts of Purchased Receivables; (ii) a program access fee equal to 0.008% of the daily ending account balance for each day that the Purchased Receivable is outstanding; (iii) a commitment fee equal to 1% per annum of Maximum Amount minus the amount of Purchased Receivables outstanding; and (iv) fees, costs and expenses relating to the preparation, administration and enforcement of the Purchase Agreement and any other related agreements. At the time the Purchase Agreement was signed, the Company received proceeds in an amount equal to $6.3 million, net of an initial enrollment fee equal to $25,000. Those proceeds were used to repay the outstanding amount under the Facility to Wells Fargo.

The Purchase Agreement provides that in the event, but only to the extent, that the conveyance of Purchased Receivables by the Company is characterized by a court or other governmental authority as a loan rather than a sale, the Company shall be deemed to have granted RCA, effective as of the date of the first purchase under the Purchase Agreement, a security interest in all of the Company's right, title and interest in, to and under all of the Purchased Receivables, whether now or hereafter owned, existing or arising.

The Company provides a power of attorney to RCA to take certain actions in the Company's stead, including (a) to sell, assign or transfer in whole or in part any of the Purchased Receivables; (b) to demand, receive and give releases to any account debtor with respect to amounts due under any Purchased Receivables; (c) to notify all account debtors with respect to the Purchased Receivables; and (d) to take any actions necessary to perfect RCA's interests in the Purchased Receivables.

The Company is liable to Buyer for any fraudulent statements and all representations, warranties, covenants, and indemnities made by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement. It is considered an event of default if (a) the Company fails to pay any amounts it owes to RCA when due (subject to a cure period); (b) the Company has voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy proceedings commenced by or against it; (c) the Company is no longer solvent or is generally not paying its debts as they become due; (d) any voluntary liens, garnishments, attachments, or the like are issued against or attach to the Purchased Receivables; (e) the Company breaches any warranty, representation, or covenant (subject to a cure period); (f) the Company is not in compliance or has otherwise defaulted under any document or obligation in favor of RCA or an RCA affiliate; or (g) the Purchase Agreement or any material provision terminates (other than in accordance with the terms of the Purchase Agreement) or ceases to be effective or to be a binding obligation of the Company. If any such event of default occurs, then RCA may take certain actions, including ceasing to buy any eligible receivables, declaring any indebtedness or other obligations immediately due and payable, or terminating the Purchase Agreement.

Financing and Security Agreement
On July 15, 2016, we entered into a Financing and Security Agreement (the "Financing Agreement") with Action Capital Corporation ("Action Capital"), pursuant to which Action Capital agreed to provide the Company with advances of up to 90% of the net amount of certain acceptable customer accounts of the Company that have been assigned as collateral to Action Capital (the "Acceptable Accounts"). The maximum outstanding principal amount of advances under the Financing Agreement was $5 million. The Financing Agreement has a term of two years, provided that the Company may terminate it at any time without penalty upon written notice. At the time the Financing Agreement was signed, the Company did not borrow any amounts under the Financing Agreement.

The Company shall pay Action Capital interest on the advances outstanding under the Financing Agreement at a rate equal to the prime rate of Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. in effect on the last business day of the prior month plus 2%, and a monthly fee equal to 0.50%. All interest calculations are based on a year of 360 days. The Company's obligations under the Financing Agreement are secured by certain assets of the Company pertaining to the Acceptable Accounts, including all accounts, accounts receivable, earned and unbilled revenue, contract rights, chattel paper, documents, instruments, general intangibles, reserves, reserve accounts, rebates, books and records, and all proceeds of the foregoing.

Pursuant to the terms of the Financing Agreement, Action Capital shall have full recourse against the Company when an Acceptable Account is not paid in full by the respective customer within 90 days of the date of purchase or if for any reason it ceases to be an Acceptable Account, including the right to charge-back any such Acceptable Account. It is considered an event of default if the Company breaches any covenant or warranty, knowingly provides false or incorrect material information to Action Capital, or otherwise defaults on any of its material obligations under the Financing Agreement or any other material agreements with Action Capital (subject to a cure period). If any such events of default occur, then Action Capital may take certain actions, including declaring any indebtedness immediately due and payable, requiring any customers with Acceptable Accounts to make payments directly to Action Capital, exercising its power of attorney from the Company to take actions in the Company's stead with respect to any of Company's Acceptable Accounts, or terminating the Financing Agreement.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were no outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement.

Senior Revolving Credit Facility
As of December 31, 2015, the interest rate on the Facility was 5.75%. We incurred interest expense in the amount of $0.2 million and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, on the Facility. The effective weighted average interest rate on the outstanding borrowings under the Facility was 6.7% for the year ended December 31, 2015.

On March 30, 2016 the Facility was amended (the "Seventeenth Amendment") to extend the maturity date to January 1, 2017. The Seventeenth Amendment also amended the terms of the Facility, reducing the total credit available from $20 million to $10 million effective as of the date of the amendment, which more appropriately reflected the Company's projected utilization of the Facility. The Seventeenth Amendment fixed the interest rate at the higher of the Wells Fargo Bank "prime rate" plus 2.25%, the Federal Funds rate plus 2.75%, or the 3-month LIBOR rate plus 3.25%. The Seventeenth Amendment also increased the minimum excess availability requirement under the revolving component from $1.25 million to $2.0 million, effective as of the date of the amendment, and increased the requirement to $2.5 million, effective July 1, 2016, and $3.0 million, effective November 1, 2016, if the Company did not receive $5 million of equity or subordinated debt investment by June 1, 2016. If such capital investment was not received by June 1, 2016, we would pay a fee of $100,000 to Wells Fargo, which was paid in June 2016. In consideration for the closing of the Seventeenth Amendment, we paid Wells Fargo a fee of $100,000, plus expenses related to the closing.

On May 16, 2016, the Facility was amended to extend the maturity date to April 1, 2017. In connection with the Purchase Agreement and the Financing Agreement, we terminated the Facility with Wells Fargo, effective as of July 15, 2016, prior to its maturity date of April 1, 2017, and repaid all amounts outstanding under the Facility; other than (1) the obligations of the Company under the Facility and related loan documents with respect to letters of credits and fees, charges, costs and expenses related thereto, (2) the obligations of the Company under the Facility and related loan documents to reimburse Wells Fargo for costs and expenses that may become due and payable after the date of the termination of the Facility, and (3) any customary contingent indemnification obligations. The Company paid an early termination fee of $100,000, and no other early termination fees or prepayment penalties were incurred by the Company in connection with the termination of the Facility.

Subordinated Debt
On March 31, 2015, the Company entered into Subordinated Loan Agreements and Subordinated Promissory Notes ("Porter Notes") with affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (together referenced as "Porter"). Mr. Porter and Toxford Corporation, of which Mr. Porter is the sole shareholder, own 34.9% of our Class A Common Stock. Under the terms of the Porter Notes, Porter lent the Company $2.5 million on or about March 31, 2015. Telos also entered into Subordination and Intercreditor Agreements (the "Subordination Agreements") with Porter and Wells Fargo, in which the Porter Notes are fully subordinated to the Facility and any subsequent senior lenders (including Action Capital), and payments under the Porter Notes are permitted only if certain conditions are met. According to the terms of the Porter Notes, the outstanding principal sum bears interest at the fixed rate of twelve percent (12%) per annum which would be payable in arrears in cash on the 20th day of each May, August, November and February, with the first interest payment date due on August 20, 2015. The Porter Notes do not call for amortization payments and are unsecured. The Porter Notes, in whole or in part, may be repaid at any time without premium or penalty. The unpaid principal, together with interest, was originally due and payable in full on July 1, 2017.

On April 18, 2017, we amended and restated the Porter Notes to reduce the interest rate from twelve percent (12%) to six percent (6%) per annum, to be accrued, and extended the maturity date from July 1, 2017 to July 25, 2022. Telos also entered into the Intercreditor Agreements with Porter and EnCap, in which the Porter Notes are fully subordinated to the Credit Agreement and any subsequent senior lenders (including Action Capital), and payments under the Porter Notes are permitted only if certain conditions are met. All other terms remain in full force and effect. We incurred interest expense in the amount of $292,000, $300,000, and $229,000 for 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively, on the Porter Notes. As a result of the amendment and restatement of the Porter Notes, we recorded a gain on extinguishment of debt of approximately $1 million, which consisted of the remeasurement of the debt at fair value. As the extinguishment was with a related party, the transaction was deemed to be a capital transaction and the gain was recorded in the Company's stockholders' deficit as of December 31, 2017.

Public Preferred Stock
A maximum of 6,000,000 shares of the Public Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share, has been authorized for issuance. We initially issued 2,858,723 shares of the Public Preferred Stock pursuant to the acquisition of the Company during fiscal year 1990. The Public Preferred Stock was recorded at fair value on the date of original issue, November 21, 1989, and we made periodic accretions under the interest method of the excess of the redemption value over the recorded value. We adjusted our estimate of accrued accretion in the amount of $1.5 million in the second quarter of 2006.  The Public Preferred Stock was fully accreted as of December 2008.  We declared stock dividends totaling 736,863 shares in 1990 and 1991. Since 1991, no other dividends, in stock or cash, have been declared. In November 1998, we retired 410,000 shares of the Public Preferred Stock. The total number of shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016, was 3,185,586. The Public Preferred Stock is quoted as "TLSRP" on the OTCQB marketplace and the OTC Bulletin Board.

Since 1991, no dividends were declared or paid on our Public Preferred Stock, based upon our interpretation of restrictions in our Articles of Amendment and Restatement, limitations in the terms of the Public Preferred Stock instrument, specific dividend payment restrictions in the Facility and the Porter Notes to which the Public Preferred Stock is subject, other senior obligations currently or previously in existence, and Maryland law limitations in existence prior to October 1, 2009. Subsequent to the 2009 Maryland law change, dividend payments continue to be prohibited except under certain specific circumstances as set forth in Maryland Code Section 2-311, which the Company did not satisfy as of the measurement dates. Pursuant to the terms of the Articles of Amendment and Restatement, we were scheduled, but not required, to redeem the Public Preferred Stock in five annual tranches during the period 2005 through 2009. However, due to our substantial senior obligations currently or previously in existence, limitations set forth in the covenants in the Credit Agreement and the Porter Notes, foreseeable capital and operational requirements, and restrictions and prohibitions of our Articles of Amendment and Restatement, we were and remain unable to meet the redemption schedule set forth in the terms of the Public Preferred Stock as of the measurement dates. Moreover, the Public Preferred Stock is not payable on demand, nor callable, for failure to redeem the Public Preferred Stock in accordance with the redemption schedule set forth in the instrument. Therefore, we classify these securities as noncurrent liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.

On January 25, 2017, we became parties with certain of our subsidiaries to the Credit Agreement with EnCap. Under the Credit Agreement, we agreed that, until full and final payment of the obligations under the Credit Agreement, we would not make any distribution or declare or pay any dividends (other than common stock) on our stock, or purchase, acquire, or redeem any stock, or exchange any stock for indebtedness, or retire any stock. Additionally, the Porter Notes contain similar prohibitions on dividend payments or stock redemptions.

Accordingly, as stated above, we will continue to classify the entirety of our obligation to redeem the Public Preferred Stock as a long-term obligation. The Credit Agreement and the Porter Notes prohibit, among other things, the redemption of any stock, common or preferred, other than as described above. The Public Preferred Stock by its terms also cannot be redeemed if doing so would violate the terms of an agreement regarding the borrowing of funds or the extension of credit which is binding upon us or any of our subsidiaries, and it does not include any other provisions that would otherwise require any acceleration of the redemption of or amortization payments with respect to the Public Preferred Stock. Thus, the Public Preferred Stock is not and will not be due on demand, nor callable, within 12 months from December 31, 2017.  This classification is consistent with ASC 210-10, "Balance Sheet" and 470-10, "Debt" and the FASB ASC Master Glossary definition of "Current Liabilities."

ASC 210-10 and the FASB ASC Master Glossary define current liabilities as follows: The term current liabilities is used principally to designate obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require the use of existing resources properly classifiable as current assets, or the creation of other current liabilities. As a balance sheet category, the classification is intended to include obligations for items which have entered into the operating cycle, such as payables incurred in the acquisition of materials and supplies to be used in the production of goods or in providing services to be offered for sale; collections received in advance of the delivery of goods or performance of services; and debts that arise from operations directly related to the operating cycle, such as accruals for wages, salaries, commissions, rentals, royalties, and income and other taxes. Other liabilities whose regular and ordinary liquidation is expected to occur within a relatively short period of time, usually twelve months, are also intended for inclusion, such as short-term debts arising from the acquisition of capital assets, serial maturities of long-term obligations, amounts required to be expended within one year under sinking fund provisions, and agency obligations arising from the collection or acceptance of cash or other assets for the account of third persons.

ASC 470-10 provides the following: The current liability classification is also intended to include obligations that, by their terms, are due on demand or will be due on demand within one year (or operating cycle, if longer) from the balance sheet date, even though liquidation may not be expected within that period. It is also intended to include long-term obligations that are or will be callable by the creditor either because the debtor's violation of a provision of the debt agreement at the balance sheet date makes the obligation callable or because the violation, if not cured within a specified grace period, will make the obligation callable.

If, pursuant to the terms of the Public Preferred Stock, we do not redeem the Public Preferred Stock in accordance with the scheduled redemptions described above, the terms of the Public Preferred Stock require us to discharge our obligation to redeem the Public Preferred Stock as soon as we are financially capable and legally permitted to do so. Therefore, by its very terms, the Public Preferred Stock is not due on demand or callable for failure to make a scheduled payment pursuant to its redemption provisions and is properly classified as a noncurrent liability.

We pay dividends on the Public Preferred Stock when and if declared by the Board of Directors. The Public Preferred Stock accrues a semi-annual dividend at the annual rate of 12% ($1.20) per share, based on the liquidation preference of $10 per share and is fully cumulative. Dividends in additional shares of the Public Preferred Stock for 1990 and 1991 were paid at the rate of 6% of a share for each $.60 of such dividends not paid in cash. For the cash dividends payable since December 1, 1995, we have accrued $99.7 million and $95.9 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We accrued dividends on the Public Preferred Stock of $3.8 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, which was recorded as interest expense. Prior to the effective date of ASC 480-10 on July 1, 2003, such dividends were charged to stockholders' accumulated deficit.

Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock
The Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was senior to all other outstanding equity of the Company, including the Public Preferred Stock. The Series A-1 ranked on a parity with the Series A-2. The components of the authorized Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock were 1,250 shares of Series A-1 and 1,750 shares of Series A-2 Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, each with $.01 par value. The Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock carried a cumulative per annum dividend rate of 14.125% of its liquidation value of $1,000 per share. The dividends were payable semiannually on June 30 and December 31 of each year. We had not declared dividends on our Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock since its issuance, other than in connection with the redemptions from 2010 to 2013. The liquidation preference of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was the face amount of the Series A-1 and A-2 ($1,000 per share), plus all accrued and unpaid dividends.

Due to the terms of the Credit Agreement, the Porter Notes, other senior obligations currently or previously in existence, the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock and applicable provisions of Maryland law governing the payment of distributions, we had been precluded from redeeming the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock and paying any accrued and unpaid dividends on the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, other than the redemptions that occurred from 2010 to 2013. In addition, certain holders of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock had entered into standby agreements whereby, among other things, those holders would not demand any payments in respect of dividends or redemptions of their instruments and the maturity dates of the instruments have been extended. As a result of such standby agreements, as of December 31, 2016, instruments held by Toxford Corporation ("Toxford"), the holder of 76.4% of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, would mature on May 31, 2018. 

At December 31, 2016, the total number of shares of Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock issued and outstanding was 197 shares and 276 shares for Series A-1 and Series A-2, respectively. Due to the limitations, contractual restrictions, and agreements described above, the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was classified as noncurrent as of December 31, 2016.

At December 31, 2016, cumulative undeclared, unpaid dividends relating to Senior Redeemable Preferred stock totaled $1.6 million. In accordance with the requirements of the Second Amendment to the EnCap Credit Agreement, we redeemed all outstanding shares of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock on April 18, 2017 for $2.1 million.

We accrued dividends on the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock of $20,000, $67,000, and $67,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, which were reported as interest expense. Prior to the effective date of ASC 480-10, "Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity," on July 1, 2003, such dividends were charged to stockholders' deficit.

Contractual Obligations

The following summarizes our contractual obligations and our redeemable preferred stock at December 31, 2017 (in thousands):

         
Payments due by Period
 
   
Total
   
2018
     
2019 - 2021
     
2022 - 2024
   
2025 and later
 
                                   
Capital lease obligations (1)
 
$
25,356
   
$
1,948
   
$
6,141
   
$
6,609
   
$
10,658
 
Senior term loan (2)
   
16,903
     
1,450
     
4,354
     
11,099
     
----
 
Subordinated debt (3)
   
3,905
     
----
     
----
     
3,905
     
----
 
Operating lease obligations
   
2,740
     
516
     
1,504
     
720
     
----
 
   
$
48,904
   
$
3,914
   
$
11,999
   
$
22,333
   
$
10,658
 
                                         
Public preferred stock (4)
   
131,565
                                 
Total
 
$
180,469
                                 
 
   (1)   Includes interest expense:
 
$
6,363
   
$
935
   
$
2,462
   
$
1,826
   
$
1,140
 
(2)   Amount represents the carrying value as of December 31, 2017, plus interest and fee accrual of $5.9 million, is due and payable in full on January 25, 2022.
(3)   Amount represents the carrying value as of December 31, 2017, plus interest accrual of $1.6 million, is due and payable in full on July 25, 2022.
(4    In accordance with ASC 480, the public preferred stock was reclassified from equity to liability in July 2003.  Amount represents the carrying value as of December 31, 2017, and includes accrual of accumulated dividends and accretion of $125.2 million.  Payment of such amount presumes conditions precedent being satisfied (See Note 7 – Redeemable Preferred Stock) and as such, redemption date is unknown and accordingly payment is not reflected in a particular period. Amount does not reflect additional dividends and accretion through the redemption date as such date is unknown. Such additional dividends accrue annually in the amount of $3.8 million. Such accretion has been fully accreted as of December 31, 2008.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements (as defined in Item 303, paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K) that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, sales or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures for property and equipment were $0.7 million, $0.6 million, and $0.4 million for 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. We presently anticipate capital expenditures of approximately $2.2 million in 2018; however, there can be no assurance that this level of capital expenditures will occur. We believe that available cash and borrowings under the Purchase Agreement and Financing Agreement will be sufficient to generate adequate amounts of cash to fund our projected capital expenditures for 2018.

Capital Leases and Related Obligations
We have various lease agreements for property and equipment that, pursuant to ASC 840, "Leases," require us to record the present value of the minimum lease payments for such equipment and property as an asset in our consolidated financial statements. Such assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the term of the related lease or their useful life, whichever is shorter.

Inflation
The rate of inflation has been moderate over the past five years and, accordingly, has not had a significant impact on the Company. We have generally been able to pass through any increased costs to customers through higher prices to the extent permitted by competitive pressures.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of recently issued accounting pronouncements.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Until July 15, 2016, we were exposed to interest rate volatility with regard to our variable rate debt obligations under the Facility. The effective weighted average interest rate on the outstanding borrowings under the Facility was 6.7% for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 
Page
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
29
   
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
30
   
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
31
   
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016
32 - 33
   
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015
34 - 35
   
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Deficit for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015
36
   
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
37 – 61


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Shareholders and Board of Directors
Telos Corporation
Ashburn, Virginia
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Telos Corporation (the "Company") and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' deficit, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and subsidiaries at December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.


/s/ BDO USA, LLP
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2007
McLean, Virginia

April 2, 2018
TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(amounts in thousands)

   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Revenue (Note 5)
                 
Services
 
$
81,606
   
$
112,881
   
$
97,659
 
Products
   
26,121
     
21,987
     
22,975
 
     
107,727
     
134,868
     
120,634
 
Costs and expenses
                       
Cost of sales – Services
   
49,965
     
77,578
     
73,079
 
Cost of sales – Products
   
17,196
     
13,844
     
16,882
 
     
67,161
     
91,422
     
89,961
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
40,152
     
41,334
     
34,290
 
                         
Operating income (loss)
   
414
     
2,112
     
(3,617
)
Other income (expenses)
                       
Non-operating income
   
11
     
18
     
19
 
Interest expense
   
(6,690
)
   
(5,465
)
   
(5,639
)
Loss before income taxes
   
(6,265
)
   
(3,335
)
   
(9,237
)
Benefit (provision) for income taxes (Note 9)
   
2,767
     
(334
)
   
(4,265
)
                         
Net loss
   
(3,498
)
   
(3,669
)
   
(13,502
)
                         
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interest (Note 2)
   
(2,335
)
   
(3,506
)
   
(2,438
)
Net loss attributable to Telos Corporation
 
$
(5,833
)
 
$
(7,175
)
 
$
(15,940
)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES  
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
 (amounts in thousands)

   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Net loss
 
$
(3,498
)
 
$
(3,669
)
 
$
(13,502
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
                       
Foreign currency translation adjustments
   
7
     
(12
)
   
(6
)
Actuarial loss on pension liability adjustments, net of tax
   
--
     
--
     
(2
)
Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
   
7
     
(12
)
   
(8
)
Comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interest
   
(2,335
)
   
(3,506
)
   
(2,438
)
Comprehensive loss attributable to Telos Corporation
 
$
(5,826
)
 
$
(7,187
)
 
$
(15,948
)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in thousands)

ASSETS

   
December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Current assets (Note 6)
           
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
600
   
$
659
 
Accounts receivable, net of reserve of $411 and $429, respectively (Note 5)
   
24,520
     
19,087
 
Inventories, net of obsolescence reserve of $1,484 and $1,672, respectively (Note 1)
   
13,520
     
3,552
 
Deferred program expenses
   
2,071
     
186
 
Other current assets
   
1,439
     
1,521
 
 
Total current assets
   
42,150
     
25,005
 
Property and equipment (Note 1)
               
Furniture and equipment
   
8,964
     
6,912
 
Leasehold improvements
   
2,389
     
2,399
 
Property and equipment under capital leases
   
30,832
     
30,829
 
     
42,185
     
40,140
 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization
   
(25,841
)
   
(24,023
)
     
16,344
     
16,117
 
 
Goodwill (Note 3)
   
14,916
     
14,916
 
Other assets
   
1,011
     
761
 
Total assets
 
$
74,421
   
$
56,799
 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in thousands, except share data)

LIABILITIES, REDEEMABLE PREFERRED STOCK,
AND STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

   
December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Current liabilities
           
Accounts payable and other accrued payables (Note 6)
 
$
25,693
   
$
15,317
 
Accrued compensation and benefits
   
7,456
     
8,071
 
Deferred revenue
   
10,073
     
4,900
 
Subordinated debt short-term (Note 6)
   
--
     
3,029
 
Capital lease obligations – short-term (Note 10)
   
1,013
     
918
 
Other current liabilities
   
1,990
     
1,406
 
Total current liabilities
   
46,225
     
33,641
 
Senior term loan, net of unamortized discount and issuance costs (Note 6)
   
10,786
     
--
 
Subordinated debt (Note 6)
   
2,289
     
--
 
Capital lease obligations (Note 10)
   
17,980
     
18,990
 
Deferred income taxes (Note 9)
   
741
     
3,391
 
Senior redeemable preferred stock (Note 7)
   
--
     
2,092
 
Public preferred stock (Note 7)
   
131,565
     
127,742
 
Other liabilities (Note 9)
   
872
     
919
 
Total liabilities
   
210,458
     
186,775
 
Commitments, contingencies and subsequent events (Notes 10 and 13)
   
--
     
--
 
                 
Stockholders' deficit (Note 8)
               
Telos stockholders' deficit
               
Class A common stock, no par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, 45,213,461 shares issued and outstanding
   
65
     
65
 
Class B common stock, no par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, 4,037,628 shares issued and outstanding
   
13
     
13
 
Additional paid-in capital
   
4,310
     
3,229
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income
   
32
     
25
 
Accumulated deficit
   
(141,370
)
   
(135,537
)
Total Telos stockholders' deficit
   
(136,950
)
   
(132,205
)
Non-controlling interest in subsidiary (Note 2)
   
913
     
2,229
 
Total stockholders' deficit
   
(136,037
)
   
(129,976
)
Total liabilities, redeemable preferred stock, and stockholders' deficit
 
$
74,421
   
$
56,799
 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(amounts in thousands)

   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Operating activities:
                 
Net loss
 
$
(3,498
)
 
$
(3,669
)
 
$
(13,502
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
                       
Stock-based compensation
   
50
     
--
     
--
 
Dividends of preferred stock as interest expense
   
3,843
     
3,890
     
3,889
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
1,999
     
2,898
     
4,291
 
Provision for inventory obsolescence
   
73
     
215
     
92
 
(Benefit) provision for doubtful accounts receivable
   
(18
)
   
(56
)
   
113
 
Amortization of debt issuance costs
   
160
     
65
     
152
 
Deferred income tax (benefit) provision
   
(2,710
)
   
192
     
5,113
 
Loss on disposal of fixed asssets
   
4
     
--
     
11
 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
                       
(Increase) decrease in accounts receivable
   
(5,415
)
   
14
     
3,364
 
(Increase) decrease in inventories
   
(10,041
)
   
(866
)
   
352
 
(Increase) decrease in deferred program expenses
   
(1,886
)
   
548
     
657
 
Decrease in other current assets and other assets
   
1,086
     
1,824
     
1,330
 
Increase (decrease) in accounts payable and other accrued payables
   
10,376
     
3,722
     
(3,840
)
(Decrease) increase in accrued compensation and benefits
   
(615
)
   
3,316
     
552
 
Increase in deferred revenue
   
5,173
     
1,434
     
122
 
Increase in other current liabilities and other liabilities
   
828
     
328
     
27
 
Cash (used in) provided by operating activities
   
(591
)
   
13,855
     
2,723
 
Investing activities:
                       
Capitalized software development costs
   
(1,481
)
   
--
     
--
 
Purchases of property and equipment
   
(748
)
   
(624
)
   
(394
)
Cash used in investing activities
   
(2,229
)
   
(624
)
   
(394
)
Financing activities:
                       
Proceeds from senior credit facilities
   
--
     
70,032
     
139,072
 
Repayments of senior credit facilities
   
--
     
(75,640
)
   
(139,118
)
Repayments of term loan
   
--
     
(3,200
)
   
(2,300
)
Decrease in book overdrafts
   
--
     
(1,083
)
   
(1,298
)
Proceeds from senior term loan
   
9,439
     
--
     
--
 
Proceeds from subordinated debt
   
--
     
--
     
2,500
 
Redemption of senior preferred stock
   
(2,112
)
   
--
     
--
 
Payments under capital lease obligations
   
(915
)
   
(827
)
   
(772
)
Proceeds from sale of Telos ID 10% membership interest
   
--
     
0
     
2,000
 
Distributions to Telos ID Class B member – non-controlling interest
   
(3,651
)
   
(1,912
)
   
(2,387
)
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities
   
2,761
     
(12,630
)
   
(2,303
)
(Decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
   
(59
)
   
601
     
26
 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of the year
   
659
     
58
     
32
 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year
 
$
600
   
$
659
   
$
58
 

   
Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
                 
Cash paid during the year for:
                 
Interest
 
$
2,395
   
$
1,320
   
$
1,523
 
Income taxes
 
$
26
   
$
60
   
$
65
 
Noncash:
                       
Dividends of preferred stock as interest expense
 
$
3,843
   
$
3,890
   
$
3,889
 
Debt issuance costs and prepayment of interest on senior term loan
 
$
1,561
   
$
--
   
$
--
 
Gain on extinguishment of subordinated debt
 
$
1,031
   
$
--
   
$
--
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT
(amounts in thousands)

   
Telos Corporation
             
   
Class A
Common
Stock
   
Class B
Common
Stock
   
Additional
Paid–in Capital
   
Accumulated
Other Comprehen-sive Income
   
Accumulated
Deficit
   
Non-Controlling Interest
   
Total
Stockholders'
Deficit
 
Balance December 31, 2014
 
$
65
   
$
13
   
$
3,229
   
$
45
   
$
(112,422
)
 
$
584
   
$
(108,486
)
Net (loss) income
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(15,940
)
   
2,438
     
(13,502
)
Foreign currency translation loss
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
(6
)
   
--
     
--
     
(6
)
Pension liability adjustments
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
(2
)
   
--
     
--
     
(2
)
Distributions
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(2,387
)
   
(2,387
)
Balance December 31, 2015
 
$
65
   
$
13
   
$
3,229
   
$
37
   
$
(128,362
)
 
$
635
   
$
(124,383
)
Net (loss) income
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(7,175
)
   
3,506
     
(3,669
)
Foreign currency translation loss
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
(12
)
   
--
     
--
     
(12
)
Distributions
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(1,912
)
   
(1,912
)
Balance December 31, 2016
 
$
65
   
$
13
   
$
3,229
   
$
25
   
$
(135,537
)
 
$
2,229
   
$
(129,976
)
Net (loss) income
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(5,833
)
   
2,335
     
(3,498
)
Gain on extinguishment of subordinated debt
   
--
     
--
     
1,031
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
1,031
 
Stock-based compensation
   
--
     
--
     
50
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
50
 
Foreign currency translation gain
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
7
     
--
     
--
     
7
 
Distributions
   
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
--
     
(3,651
)
   
(3,651
)
Balance December 31, 2017
 
$
65
   
$
13
   
$
4,310
   
$
32
   
$
(141,370
)
 
$
913
   
$
(136,037
)



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

TELOS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Business and Organization
Telos Corporation, together with its subsidiaries, (the "Company" or "Telos" or "We") is an information technology solutions and services company addressing the needs of U.S. Government and commercial customers worldwide. We own all of the issued and outstanding share capital of Xacta Corporation, a subsidiary that develops, markets and sells government-validated secure enterprise solutions to government and commercial customers. We also own all of the issued and outstanding share capital of Ubiquity.com, Inc., a holding company for Xacta Corporation. We also have a 50% ownership interest in Telos Identity Management Solutions, LLC ("Telos ID") and a 100% ownership interest in Teloworks, Inc. ("Teloworks").

Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Telos and its subsidiaries, including Ubiquity.com, Inc., Xacta Corporation, and Teloworks, all of whose issued and outstanding share capital is owned by the Company. We have also consolidated the results of operations of Telos ID (see Note 2 – Non-controlling Interests). Intercompany transactions have been eliminated on consolidation.

In preparing these consolidated financial statements, we have evaluated subsequent events through the date that these consolidated financial statements were issued.

Segment Reporting
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available and evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and assess performance. We currently operate in one operating and reportable business segment for financial reporting purposes. Our Chief Executive Officer is the CODM. The CODM only evaluates profitability based on consolidated results.

Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts receivable, allowance for inventory obsolescence, the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, potential impairments of goodwill and intangible assets, estimated pension-related costs for our foreign subsidiaries and accretion of Public Preferred Stock. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") ASC 605-10-S99. We consider amounts earned upon evidence that an arrangement has been obtained, services are delivered, fees are fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Additionally, revenues on arrangements requiring the delivery of more than one product or service are recognized in accordance with ASC 605-25, "Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables," which addresses and requires the separation and allocation at the inception of the arrangement of all deliverables based on their relative selling prices. This determination is made first by employing vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE"), to the extent it exists, then third-party evidence ("TPE") of selling price, to the extent that it exists. Given the nature of the deliverables contained in our multi-element arrangements, which often involve the design and/or delivery of complex or technical solutions to the government, we have not obtained TPE of selling prices on multi-element arrangements due to the significant differentiation which makes obtaining comparable pricing of products with similar functionality impractical. Therefore we do not utilize TPE.  If VSOE and TPE are not determinable, we use our best estimate of selling price ("ESP") as defined in ASC 605-25, which represents our best estimate of the prices under the terms and conditions of a particular order for the various elements if they were sold on a stand-alone basis.

We recognize revenues for software arrangements upon persuasive evidence of an arrangement, delivery of the software, and determination that collection of a fixed or determinable license fee is probable. Revenues for software licenses sold on a subscription basis are recognized ratably over the related license period. For arrangements where the sale of software licenses are bundled with other products, including software products, upgrades and enhancements, post-contract customer support ("PCS"), and installation, the relative fair value of each element is determined based on VSOE. VSOE is defined by ASC 985-605, "Software Revenue Recognition," and is limited to the price charged when the element is sold separately or, if the element is not yet sold separately, the price set by management having the relevant authority. When VSOE exists for undelivered elements, the remaining consideration is allocated to delivered elements using the residual method. If VSOE does not exist for the allocation of revenue to the various elements of the arrangement, all revenue from the arrangement is deferred until the earlier of the point at which (1) such VSOE does exist or (2) all elements of the arrangement are delivered. PCS revenues, upon being unbundled from a software license fee, are recognized ratably over the PCS period. Software arrangements requiring significant production, modification, or customization of the software are accounted for in accordance with ASC 605-35 "Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts."

We may use subcontractors and suppliers in the course of performing contracts and under certain contracts we provide supplier procurement services and materials for our customers. Some of these arrangements may fall within the scope of ASC 605-45, "Reporting Revenue Gross as a Principal versus Net as an Agent." We presume that revenues on our contracts are recognized on a gross basis, as we generally provide significant value-added services, assume credit risk, and reserve the right to select subcontractors and suppliers, but we evaluate the various criteria specified in the guidance in making the determination of whether revenue should be recognized on a gross or net basis.

A description of the business lines, the typical deliverables, and the revenue recognition criteria in general for such deliverables follows:

Cyber Operations and Defense – Our Cyber Operations and Defense business line consists of Cyber Security and Secure Mobility solutions areas.

Regarding our deliverables of Cyber Security solutions, we provide Xacta software and cybersecurity services to our customers. The software and accompanying services fall within the scope of ASC 985-605, "Software Revenue Recognition," as discussed above. We provide consulting services to our customers under either a firm-fixed price ("FFP") or time-and-materials ("T&M") basis. Such contracts fall under the scope of ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for FFP services is recognized on a proportional performance basis. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones as appropriate under a particular contract, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred. For cost plus fixed fee ("CPFF") contracts, revenue is recognized in proportion to the allowable costs incurred unless indicated otherwise in the terms of the contract.

Regarding our deliverables of Secure Mobility solutions, we provide wireless and wired networking solutions consisting of hardware and services to our customers. The solutions within the Secure Mobility group are generally sold as FFP bundled solutions. Certain of these networking solutions involve contracts to design, develop, or modify complex electronic equipment configurations to a buyer's specification or to provide network engineering services, and as such fall within the scope of ASC 605-35. Revenue is earned upon percentage of completion based upon proportional performance, such performance generally being defined by performance milestones. Certain other solutions fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99, such as resold information technology products, like laptops, printers, networking equipment and peripherals, and ASC 605-25, such as delivery orders for multiple solutions deliverables. For product sales, revenue is recognized upon proof of acceptance by the customer, otherwise it is deferred until such time as the proof of acceptance is obtained. For example, in delivery orders for Department of Defense customers, which comprise the majority of the Company's customers, such acceptance is achieved with a signed Department of Defense Form DD-250 or electronic invoicing system equivalent. Services provided under these contracts are generally provided on a FFP basis, and as such fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for services is recognized based on proportional performance, as the work progresses. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M services contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred.

Identity Management (formerly Telos ID) – We provide our identity assurance and access management solutions and services and sell information technology products, such as computer laptops and specialized printers, and consumables, such as identity cards, to our customers. The solutions are generally sold as FFP bundled solutions, which would typically fall within the scope of ASC 605-25 and ASC 605-10-S99. Revenue for services is recognized based on proportional performance, as the work progresses. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred. Revenue is recognized under T&M contracts based upon specified billing rates and other direct costs as incurred.

IT & Enterprise Solutions – We provide the Automated Message Handling System ("AMHS") as well as related services to our customers. The system and accompanying services fall within the scope of ASC 985-605, as fully discussed above. Other services fall within the scope of ASC 605-10-S99 for arrangements that include only T&M contracts and ASC 605-25 for contracts with multiple deliverables such as T&M elements and FFP services.  Under such arrangements, the T&M elements are established by direct costs. Revenue is recognized on T&M contracts according to specified rates as direct labor and other direct costs are incurred. For CPFF contracts, revenue is recognized in proportion to the allowable costs incurred unless indicated otherwise in the terms of the contract. Revenue for FFP services is recognized on a proportional performance basis. FFP services may be billed to the customer on a percentage-of-completion basis or based upon milestones, which may approximate the proportional performance of the services under the agreements, as specified in such agreements. To the extent that customer billings exceed the performance of the specified services, the revenue would be deferred.

Estimating future costs and, therefore, revenues and profits, is a process requiring a high degree of management judgment. In the event of a change in total estimated contract cost or profit, the cumulative effect of a change is recorded in the period the change in estimate occurs. To the extent contracts are incomplete at the end of an accounting period, revenue is recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, on a proportional performance basis, using costs incurred in relation to total estimated costs, or costs are deferred as appropriate under the terms of a particular contract. In the event cost estimates indicate a loss on a contract, the total amount of such loss, excluding overhead and general and administrative expense, is recorded in the period in which the loss is first estimated.

Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Our cash management program utilizes zero balance accounts. Accordingly, all book overdraft balances have been reclassified to accounts payable and other accrued payables, to the extent that availability of funds exists on our revolving credit facility.

Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are stated at the invoiced amount, less allowances for doubtful accounts. Collectability of accounts receivable is regularly reviewed based upon managements' knowledge of the specific circumstances related to overdue balances. The allowance for doubtful accounts is adjusted based on such evaluation. Accounts receivable balances are written off against the allowance when management deems the balances uncollectible.

Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, where cost is determined on the weighted average method. Substantially all inventories consist of purchased customer off-the-shelf hardware and software, and component computer parts used in connection with system integration services that we perform. An allowance for obsolete, slow-moving or nonsalable inventory is provided for all other inventory. This allowance is based on our overall obsolescence experience and our assessment of future inventory requirements. This charge is taken primarily due to the age of the specific inventory and the significant additional costs that would be necessary to upgrade to current standards as well as the lack of forecasted sales for such inventory in the near future. Gross inventory is $15.0 million and $5.2 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.  As of December 31, 2017, it is management's judgment that we have fully provided for any potential inventory obsolescence.

The components of the allowance for inventory obsolescence are set forth below (in thousands):

   
Balance
Beginning of
Year
   
Additions Charge to Costs and Expense
   
Recoveries
   
Balance
End of
Year
 
                         
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
$
1,672
   
$
73
   
$
(261
)
 
$
1,484
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
$
1,457
   
$
215
   
$
--
   
$
1,672
 
Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
$
1,366
   
$
92
   
$
(1
)
 
$
1,457
 

Property and Equipment
   Property and equipment is recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method at rates based on the estimated useful lives of the individual assets or classes of assets as follows:

Buildings
20   Years
Machinery and equipment
3-5   Years
Office furniture and fixtures
5   Years
Leasehold improvements
Lesser of life of lease or useful life of asset

Leased property meeting certain criteria is capitalized at the present value of the related minimum lease payments. Amortization of property and equipment under capital leases is computed on the straight-line method over the lesser of the term of the related lease and the useful life of the related asset.

Upon sale or retirement of property and equipment, the costs and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts, and any gain or loss on such disposition is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, such amounts are negligible. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to operations as incurred.

Long-lived assets, such as fixed assets, are reviewed for impairment whenever circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its estimated fair value. Considerable management judgment is necessary to estimate its fair value. Accordingly, actual results could differ from such estimates. No events have been identified that caused an evaluation of the recoverability of long-lived assets.

Our policy on internal use software is in accordance with ASC 350, "Intangibles- Goodwill and Other." This standard requires companies to capitalize qualifying computer software costs which are incurred during the application development stage and amortize them over the software's estimated useful life. We expensed all such software development costs in 2017, 2016, and 2015, as we believe that such amounts are immaterial.

Depreciation and amortization expense related to property and equipment, including property and equipment under capital leases was $2.0 million, $1.8 million, and $2.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively.

Income Taxes
We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740-10, "Income Taxes."  Under ASC 740-10, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences of temporary differences and income tax credits.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured by applying enacted statutory tax rates that are applicable to the future years in which deferred tax assets or liabilities are expected to be settled or realized for differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities.  Any change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in net income in the period in which the tax rate change is enacted.  We record a valuation allowance that reduces deferred tax assets when it is "more likely than not" that deferred tax assets will not be realized. We are required to establish a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Based on available evidence, realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income.  We considered projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and reversal of taxable temporary differences in making this assessment. As such, we have determined that a full valuation allowance is required as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.  We are not able to use temporary taxable differences related to goodwill as a source of future taxable income. As a result of a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, a deferred tax liability ("hanging credit") related to goodwill remains on our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2017 and 2016. Due to the tax reform enacted on December 22, 2017, net operating losses generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 will have an indefinite carryforward period, which will be available to offset future taxable income created by the reversal of temporary taxable differences related to goodwill.  As a result, we have adjusted the valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017.  See additional information on tax reform and its impact on our income taxes in Note 9 – Income Taxes.

We follow the provisions of ASC 74-10 related to accounting for uncertainty in income taxes. The accounting estimates related to liabilities for uncertain tax positions require us to make judgments regarding the sustainability of each uncertain tax position based on its technical merits. If we determine it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained based on its technical merits, we record the impact of the position in our consolidated financial statements at the largest amount that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. These estimates are updated at each reporting date based on the facts, circumstances and information available. We are also required to assess at each reporting date whether it is reasonably possible that any significant increases or decreases to our unrecognized tax benefits will occur during the next 12 months.

Goodwill and other intangible assets
We evaluate the impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, which requires goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets to be assessed on at least an annual basis for impairment using a fair value basis. Between annual evaluations, if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount, then impairment must be evaluated. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to: (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate, or (2) a loss of key contracts or customers.

As the result of an acquisition, we record any excess purchase price over the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired as goodwill. An allocation of the purchase price to tangible and intangible net assets acquired is based upon our valuation of the acquired assets. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to annual impairment tests. We complete our goodwill impairment tests as of December 31st each year. Additionally, we make evaluations between annual tests if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The evaluation is based on the estimation of the fair values of our three reporting units, Cyber Operations and Defense ("CO&D"), Identity Management, and IT & Enterprise Solutions, of which goodwill is housed in the CO&D reporting unit, in comparison to the reporting unit's net asset carrying values. Our discounted cash flows required management judgment with respect to forecasted revenue streams and operating margins, capital expenditures and the selection and use of an appropriate discount rate. We utilized the weighted average cost of capital as derived by certain assumptions specific to our facts and circumstances as the discount rate. The net assets attributable to the reporting units are determined based upon the estimated assets and liabilities attributable to the reporting units in deriving its free cash flows. In addition, the estimate of the total fair value of our reporting units is compared to the market capitalization of the Company. The Company's assessment resulted in a fair value that was greater than the Company's carrying value, therefore the second step of the impairment test, as prescribed by the authoritative literature, was not required to be performed and no impairment of goodwill was recorded as of December 31, 2017. Subsequent reviews may result in future periodic impairments that could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations in the period recognized. Recent operating results have reduced the projection of future cash flow growth potential, which indicates that certain negative potential events, such as a material loss or losses on contracts, or failure to achieve projected growth could result in impairment in the future. We estimate fair value of our reporting unit and compare the valuation with the respective carrying value for the reporting unit to determine whether any goodwill impairment exists. If we determine through the impairment review process that goodwill is impaired, we will record an impairment charge in our consolidated statements of operations. Goodwill is amortized and deducted over a 15-year period for tax purposes.

Other intangible assets consist primarily of customer relationship enhancements. Other intangible assets were amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of 5 years. The amortization was based on a forecast of approximately equal annual customer orders over the 5-year period. Other intangible assets were subject to impairment review if there were events or changes in circumstances that indicated that the carrying amount was not recoverable. The other intangible assets were fully amortized as of June 30, 2016.
Stock-Based Compensation
Compensation cost is recognized based on the requirements of ASC 718, "Stock Compensation," for all share-based awards granted.  Since June 2008, we have issued restricted stock (Class A common) to our executive officers, directors and employees. In May 2017, we granted 5,005,000 shares of restricted stock to our executive officers and employees. Such stock is subject to a vesting schedule as follows:  25% of the restricted stock vests immediately on the date of grant, thereafter, an additional 25% will vest annually on the anniversary of the date of grant subject to continued employment or services. As of December 31, 2017, there were 3,723,750 shares of restricted stock that remained subject to vesting. In the event of death of the employee or a change in control, as defined by the Telos Corporation 2008 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan, the 2013 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan, all unvested shares shall automatically vest in full. In accordance with ASC 718, we recorded immaterial compensation expense for any of the issuances as the value of the common stock was nominal, based on the deduction of our outstanding debt, capital lease obligations, and preferred stock from an estimated enterprise value, which was estimated based on discounted cash flow analysis, comparable public company analysis, and comparable transaction analysis. Additionally, we determined that a significant change in the valuation estimate for common stock would not have a significant effect on the consolidated financial statements.

Software Development Costs
Software development costs for software to be sold, leased or otherwise marketed, such costs are expensed as incurred until technological feasibility is reached, at which time additional costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Technological feasibility is established when all planning, designing, coding and testing activities have been completed, and all risks have been identified. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we capitalized $1.5 million of software development costs, which are amortized over the estimated product life of 2 years on a straight-line basis. Amortization expense was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company analyzes the net realizable value of capitalized software development costs on at least an annual basis and has determined that there is no indication of impairment of the capitalized software development costs as forecasted future sales are adequate to support amortization costs. During 2017, 2016 and 2015, we incurred salary costs for research and development of approximately $3.2 million, $2.6 million and $2.1 million, respectively, which were included as part of the selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

Earnings (Loss) per Share
As we do not have publicly held common stock or potential common stock, no earnings per share data is reported for any of the years presented.

Comprehensive Income
Comprehensive income includes changes in equity (net assets) during a period from non-owner sources. Our accumulated other comprehensive income was comprised of a loss from foreign currency translation of $75,000 and $82,000 as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively; and actuarial gain on pension liability adjustments in Teloworks of $107,000 as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.

Financial Instruments
We use various methods and assumptions to estimate the fair value of our financial instruments. Due to their short-term nature, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximates fair value. The fair value of long-term debt is based on the discounted cash flows for similar term borrowings based on market prices for the same or similar issues. See Note 4 – Fair Value Measurements for fair value disclosures of the senior redeemable preferred stock.

Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based on relevant market information. These estimates are subjective in nature and involve matters of judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. Changes in assumptions could significantly affect the estimates.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers," which requires an entity to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. In July 2015, the FASB finalized the delay of the effective date by one year, making the new standard effective for interim periods and annual period beginning after December 15, 2017. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, "Revenues from Contract with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net)," which clarifies the implementation guidance in ASU 2014-09 relating to principal versus agent considerations. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) - Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing," which further clarifies the implementation guidance relating to identifying performance obligations and the licensing implementation guidance. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606):  Narrow Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients," which clarifies the implementation guidance related to collectability, presentation of sales tax, noncash consideration, contract modifications and completed contracts at transition. These standards can be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of the change recognized at the date of the initial application. We will adopt the modified retrospective transition period, and reflecting cumulative changes, if any, in accumulated deficit. The adoption of the new standard is not expected to have an effect on the accounting treatment of many of our contractual arrangements. At this point in the evaluation, the best estimate for the effect that the adoption of the new standard will have on certain proprietary software arrangements is expected to result in a cumulative adjustment to decrease accumulated deficit in the first quarter of 2018 of approximately $3.8 million, which will reduce the balance of deferred revenue. The Company has substantially completed its evaluation of the effect on the  adoption of the new standard.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)." The guidance in this update supersedes the requirements in ASC Topic 840, Leases. The update will require business entities to recognize lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and to disclose key information about leasing arrangements. A lessee would recognize a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the leased asset for the lease term. For public companies, this update will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and is to be applied on a modified retrospective basis. We are currently assessing the impact the adoption of this ASU will have on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We expect to recognize increases in reported amounts for property and equipment, and related lease liabilities upon the adoption of this standard, and are still evaluating the impact it will have on results of operations.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which introduces new guidance for estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments based on expected losses and the timing of the recognition of such losses. The new standard will be effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. While we are currently assessing the impact the adoption of this ASU will have on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows, we do not believe the adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on our financial statements.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments," which intends to reduce the diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified on the statement of cash flows. This new standard will be effective retrospectively for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 31, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this ASU will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) – Restricted Cash," which requires the presentation of changes in restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. This standard will be effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this ASU will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment," which eliminates Step 2 of the current goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation to measure goodwill impairment. A goodwill impairment loss will instead be measured at the amount by which a reporting unit's carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the recorded amount of goodwill. The provisions of this ASU are effective for years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for any impairment test performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The adoption of this ASU will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting," which amends the scope of modification accounting for share-based payment arrangements, provides guidance on the types of changes to the terms or conditions of share-based payment awards to which an entity would be required to apply modification accounting under ASC 718. This ASU is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this ASU will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

 
Note 2.  Non-controlling Interests

On April 11, 2007, Telos ID was formed as a limited liability company under the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act. We contributed substantially all of the assets of our Identity Management business line and assigned our rights to perform under our U.S. Government contract with the Defense Manpower Data Center ("DMDC") to Telos ID at their stated book values. The net book value of assets we contributed totaled $17,000. Until April 19, 2007, we owned 99.999% of the membership interests of Telos ID and certain private equity investors ("Investors") owned 0.001% of the membership interests of Telos ID. On April 20, 2007, we sold an additional 39.999% of the membership interests to the Investors in exchange for $6 million in cash consideration. In accordance with ASC 505-10, "Equity-Overall," we recognized a gain of $5.8 million. As a result, we owned 60% of Telos ID, and therefore continue to account for the investment in Telos ID using the consolidation method.

On December 24, 2014 (the "Closing Date"), we entered into a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement (the "Purchase Agreement"), between the Company and the Investors, pursuant to which the Investors acquired from the Company an additional ten percent (10%) membership interest in Telos ID in exchange for $5 million (the "Transaction"). In connection with the Transaction, the Company and the Investors entered into the Second Amended and Restated Operating Agreement (the "Operating Agreement") governing the business, allocation of profits and losses and management of Telos ID. Under the Operating Agreement, Telos ID is managed by a board of directors comprised of five (5) members (the "Telos ID Board"). The Operating Agreement provides for two classes of membership units, Class A (owned by the Company) and Class B (owned by the Investors). The Class A member (the Company) owns 50% of Telos ID, is entitled to receive 50% of the profits of Telos ID, and may appoint three (3) members of the Telos ID Board. The Class B member (the Investors) owns 50% of Telos ID, is entitled to receive 50% of the profits of Telos ID, and may appoint two (2) members of the Telos ID Board.

As of December 31, 2014, we had received $3 million of the $5 million of consideration for the sale. The remaining $2 million was recorded as a receivable and received in January 2015. Despite the post-Transaction ownership of Telos ID being evenly split at 50% by each member, Telos maintains control of the subsidiary through its holding of three of the five Telos ID board of director seats.

Under the Operating Agreement, the Class A and Class B members each have certain options with regard to the ownership interests held by the other party including the following:

Upon the occurrence of a change in control of the Class A member (as defined in the Operating Agreement, a "Change in Control"), the Class A member has the option to purchase the entire membership interest of the Class B member.
Upon the occurrence of the following events: (i) the involuntary termination of John B. Wood as CEO and chairman of the Class A member; (ii) the bankruptcy of the Class A member; or (iii) unless the Class A member exercises its option to acquire the entire membership interest of the Class B member upon a Change in Control of the Class A member, the transfer or issuance of more than fifty-one percent (51%) of the outstanding voting securities of the Class A member to a third party, the Class B member has the option to purchase the membership interest of the Class A member; provided, however, that in the event that the Class B member exercises the foregoing option, the Class A Member may then choose to purchase the entire interest of the Class B member.
In the event that more than fifty percent (50%) of the ownership interests in the Class B member are transferred to persons or individuals (other than members of the immediate family of the initial owners of the Class B member) without the consent of Telos ID, the Class A member has the option to purchase the entire membership interest of the Class B member.
The Class B member has the option to sell its interest to the Class A member at any time if there is not a letter of intent to sell Telos ID, a binding contract to sell all of the assets or membership interests in Telos ID, or a standstill for due diligence with respect to a sale of Telos ID. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Class A member will not be obligated to purchase the interest of the Class B member if that purchase would constitute a violation of any existing line of credit available to the Company after giving effect to that purchase and the applicable lender refuses to consent to that purchase or to waive such violation.

If either the Class A member or the Class B member elects to sell its interest or buy the other member's interest upon the occurrence of any of the foregoing events, the purchase price for the interest will be based on an appraisal of Telos ID prepared by a nationally recognized investment banker. If the Class A member fails to satisfy its obligation, subject to the restrictions in the Purchase Agreement, to purchase the interest of the Class B member under the Operating Agreement, the Class B member may require Telos ID to initiate a sales process for the purpose of seeking an offer from a third party to purchase Telos ID that maximizes the value of Telos ID. The Telos ID Board must accept any offer from a bona fide third party to purchase Telos ID if that offer is approved by the Class B member, unless the purchase of Telos ID would violate the terms of any existing line of credit available to the Company and the applicable lender does not consent to that purchase or waive the violation. The sale process is the sole remedy available to the Class B member if the Class A member does not purchase its membership interest.  Under such a forced sale scenario, a sales process would result in both members receiving their proportionate membership interest share of the sales proceeds and both members would always be entitled to receive the same form of consideration.

Pursuant to the Transaction, the Class A and Class B members each owns 50% of Telos ID, as mentioned above, and as such was allocated 50% of the profits, which was $2.3 million, $3.5 million, and $2.4 million for 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. The Class B member was the non-controlling interest.

Distributions are made to the members only when and to the extent determined by the Telos ID's Board of Directors, in accordance with the Operating Agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, the Class B member received a total of $3.7 million, $1.9 million, and $2.4 million, respectively, of such distributions.

The following table details the changes in non-controlling interest for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 (in thousands):

   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
 
Non-controlling interest, beginning of period
 
$
2,229
   
$
635
   
$
584
 
Net income
   
2,335
     
3,506
     
2,438
 
Distributions
   
(3,651
)
   
(1,912
)
   
(2,387
)
 
Non-controlling interest, end of period
 
$
913
   
$
2,229
   
$
635
 

Note 3. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

The goodwill balance was $14.9 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.  Goodwill is subject to annual impairment tests and if triggering events are present before the annual tests, we will assess impairment. As of December 31, 2017, no impairment charges were taken.

Other intangible assets consist primarily of customer relationship enhancements. Other intangible assets were amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of 5 years. The amortization was based on a forecast of approximately equal annual customer orders over the 5-year period. The other intangible assets were fully amortized as of June 30, 2016. Amortization expense for 2016 and 2015 was $1.1 million, and $2.3 million, respectively.
 
Note 4. Fair Value Measurements

The accounting standard for fair value measurements provides a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. The framework requires the valuation of investments using a three-tiered approach. The statement requires fair value measurement to be classified and disclosed in one of the following categories:

Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets and liabilities;

Level 2: Quoted prices in the markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability; or

Level 3: Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e. supported by little or no market activity).

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we did not have any financial instruments with significant Level 3 inputs and we did not have any financial instruments that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the carrying value of the Company's 12% Cumulative Exchangeable Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share (the "Public Preferred Stock") was $131.6 million and $127.7 million, respectively, and the estimated fair market value was $42.2 million and $31.9 million, respectively, based on quoted market prices.

As of December 31, 2016, the carrying value of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was $2.1 million. We redeemed all outstanding shares of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock on April 18, 2017 for $2.1 million.

For certain of our non-derivative financial instruments, including receivables, accounts payable and other accrued liabilities, the carrying amount approximates fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.  The estimated fair value of the Credit Agreement (as defined below) and long-term debt is based primarily on borrowing rates currently available to the Company for similar debt issues. The fair value approximates the carrying value of long-term debt.

Note 5. Revenue and Accounts Receivable

Revenue resulting from contracts and subcontracts with the U.S. Government accounted for 94.2%, 96.7%, and 97.3% of consolidated revenue in 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. As our primary customer base includes agencies of the U.S. Government, we have a concentration of credit risk associated with our accounts receivable, as 96.5% of our billed accounts receivable were directly with U.S. Government customers. While we acknowledge the potentially material and adverse risk of such a significant concentration of credit risk, our past experience of collecting substantially all of such receivables provide us with an informed basis that such risk, if any, is manageable. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of all of our customers and generally do not require collateral or other guarantee from our customers.  We maintain allowances for potential losses.

On July 15, 2016, the Company entered into an accounts receivable purchase agreement under which the Company sells certain accounts receivable to a third party, or the "Factor", without recourse to the Company. The Factor initially pays the Company 90% of U.S. Federal government receivables or 85% of certain commercial prime contractors. The remaining payment is deferred and based on the amount the Factor receives from our customer, less a discount fee and a program access fee that is determined by the amount of time the receivable is outstanding before payment. The structure of the transaction provides for a true sale of the receivables transferred. Accordingly, upon transfer of the receivable to the Factor, the receivable is removed from the Company's consolidated balance sheet, a loss on the sale is recorded and the residual amount remains a deferred payment as an accounts receivable until payment is received from the Factor. The balance of the sold receivables may not exceed $10 million. During the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company sold approximately $23.4 million and $35.3 million of receivables, respectively, and recognized a related loss of approximately $0.1 million and $0.2 million in selling, general and administrative expenses, respectively, for the same period. As of December 31, 2017, there were no outstanding sold receivables. As of December 31, 2016, the balance of the sold receivables was approximately $1.0 million, and the related deferred price was approximately $0.1 million.

The components of accounts receivable are as follows (in thousands):

   
December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Billed accounts receivable
 
$
11,736
   
$
13,164
 
Unbilled receivables
   
13,195
     
6,352
 
Allowance for doubtful accounts
   
(411
)
   
(429
)
   
$
24,520
   
$
19,087
 


   The activities in the allowance for doubtful accounts are set forth below (in thousands):

   
Balance Beginning
of Year
   
Bad Debt
Expenses (1)
   
Recoveries (2)
   
Balance
End
of Year
 
                         
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
$
429
   
$
(18
)
 
$
--
   
$
411
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
$
485
   
$
(56
)
 
$
--
   
$
429
 
Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
$
372
   
$
113
   
$
--
   
$
485
 

(1) Accounts receivable reserves and reversal of allowance for subsequent collections, net
(2) Accounts receivable written-off and subsequent recoveries, net

Revenue by Major Market and Significant Customers

We derived substantially all of our revenues from contracts and subcontracts with the U.S. Government. Revenue by customer sector for the last three fiscal years is as follows:

   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
               
(dollar amounts in thousands)
             
                                     
Federal
 
$
101,519
     
94.2
%
 
$
130,415
     
96.7
%
 
$
117,328
     
97.3
%
State & Local, and Commercial
   
6,208
     
5.8
%
   
4,453
     
3.3
%
   
3,306
     
2.7
%
                                                 
Total
 
$
107,727
     
100.0
%
 
$
134,868
     
100.0
%
 
$
120,634
     
100.0
%

Note 6. Current Liabilities and Debt Obligations

Accounts Payable and Other Accrued Payables
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the accounts payable and other accrued payables consisted of $15.4 million and $12.1 million, respectively, in trade account payables and $10.3 million and $3.2 million, respectively, in accrued payables.

Deferred Revenue
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the deferred revenue primarily consisted of software license subscription services and product support services.

Enlightenment Capital Credit Agreement
On January 25, 2017, we entered into a Credit Agreement (the "Credit Agreement") with Enlightenment Capital Solutions Fund II, L.P., as agent (the "Agent"), and the lenders party thereto (the "Lenders"), (together referenced as "EnCap"). The Credit Agreement provides for an $11 million senior term loan (the "Loan") with a maturity date of January 25, 2022, subject to acceleration in the event of customary events of default.
 
   All borrowings under the Credit Agreement will accrue interest at the rate of 13.0% per annum (the "Accrual Rate"). If, at the request of the Company, the Agent executes an intercreditor agreement with another senior lender under which the Agent and the Lenders subordinate their liens (an "Alternative Interest Rate Event"), the interest rate will increase to 14.5% per annum. After the occurrence and during the continuance of any event of default, the interest rate will increase 2.0%. The Company is obligated to pay accrued interest in cash on a monthly basis at a rate of not less than 10.0% per annum or, during the continuance of an Alternate Interest Rate Event, 11.5% per annum. The Company may elect to pay the remaining interest in cash, by payment-in-kind (by addition to the principal amount of the Loan) or by combination of cash and payment-in-kind. Upon thirty days prior written notice, the Company may prepay any portion or the entire amount of the Loan.

An amount of approximately $1.1 million was netted from the proceeds on the Loan as a prepayment of all interest due and payable at the Accrual Rate during the period from January 25, 2017 to October 31, 2017. A separate fee letter executed by the Company and the Agent, dated January 25, 2017, sets forth the fees payable to the Agent in connection with the Credit Agreement.

The Credit Agreement contains representations, warranties, covenants, terms and conditions customary for transactions of this type. In connection with the Credit Agreement, the Agent has been granted, for the benefit of the Lenders, a security interest in and general lien upon various property of the Company, subject to certain permitted liens and any intercreditor agreement. The occurrence of an event of default under the Credit Agreement could result in the Loan and other obligations becoming immediately due and payable and allow the Lenders to exercise all rights and remedies available to them under the Credit Agreement or as a secured party under the UCC, in addition to all other rights and remedies available to them.  While we did not earn sufficient revenue to meet the revenue covenant in Section 7.15(d) of the Credit Agreement, the Lenders agreed to waive our compliance as of September 30, 2017.

In connection with the Credit Agreement, on January 25, 2017, the Company issued warrants (each, a "Warrant") to Agent and certain of the Lenders representing in the aggregate the right to purchase in accordance with their terms 1,135,284.333 shares of the Class A Common Stock of the Company, no par value per share, which is equivalent to approximately 2.5% of the common equity interests of the Company on a fully diluted basis. The exercise price is $1.321 per share and each Warrant expires on January 25, 2027. The value of the warrants was determined to be de minimis and no value was allocated to them on a relative fair value basis in accounting for the debt instrument.

Effective February 23, 2017, the Credit Agreement was amended to change the required timing of certain post-closing items, to allow for more time to complete the legal and administrative requirements around such items. On April 18, 2017, the Credit Agreement was further amended (the "Second Amendment") to incorporate the parties' agreement to subordinate certain debt owed by the Company to the affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (the "Subordinated Debt") and to redeem all outstanding shares of the Series A-1 Redeemable Preferred Stock and the Series A-2 Redeemable Preferred Stock, including those owned by Mr. John R.C. Porter and his affiliates, for an aggregate redemption price of $2.1 million.

In connection with the Second Amendment and that subordination of debt, on April 18, 2017, we also entered into Subordination and Intercreditor Agreements (the "Intercreditor Agreements") with affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (together referenced as "Porter"), in which Porter agreed that the Subordinated Debt is fully subordinated to the amended Credit Agreement and related documents, and that required payments, if any, under the Subordinated Debt are permitted only if certain conditions are met.

The Credit Agreement also includes an $825,000 exit fee, which is payable upon any repayment or prepayment of the loan. This amount has been included in the total principal due and treated as an unamortized discount on the debt, which will be amortized over the term of the loan, using the effective interest method at a rate of 15.0%. We incurred fees and transaction costs of approximately $374,000 related to the issuance of the Credit Agreement, which are being amortized over the life of the Credit Agreement. As of December 31, 2017, the carrying amount of the Credit Agreement consisted of the following (in thousands):

   
December 31, 2017
 
Senior term loan principal, including exit fee
 
$
11,825
 
Less:  Unamortized discount, debt issuance costs, and lender fees
   
(1,039
)
Senior term loan, net
 
$
10,786
 

We incurred interest expense in the amount of $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 on the Credit Agreement.

On March 30, 2018, the Credit Agreement was amended (the "Third Amendment") to waive certain covenant defaults and to reset the covenants for 2018 measurement periods to more accurately reflect the Company's projected performance for the year. The measurement against the covenants for consolidated leverage ratio and consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio were agreed to not be measured as of December 31, 2017 and were reset for 2018 measurement periods. Additionally, a minimum revenue covenant and a net working capital covenant were added. In consideration of these amendments, the interest rate on the loan was increased by 1%, which will revert back to the original rate upon achievement of two consecutive quarters of a specified fixed charge coverage ratio as defined in the agreement.  The Company may elect to pay the increase in interest expense in cash or by payment-in-kind (by addition to the principal amount of the Loan).   Contemporaneously with the Third Amendment, Mr. Wood agreed to transfer 50,000 shares of the Company's Class A Common Stock owned by him to EnCap.

Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement
On July 15, 2016, we entered into an Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") with Republic Capital Access, LLC ("RCA" or "Buyer"), pursuant to which we may offer for sale, and RCA, in its sole discretion, may purchase, eligible accounts receivable relating to U.S. government prime contracts or subcontracts of the Company (collectively, the "Purchased Receivables"). Upon purchase, RCA becomes the absolute owner of any such Purchased Receivables, which are payable directly to RCA, subject to certain repurchase obligations of the Company. The total amount of Purchased Receivables is subject to a maximum limit of $10 million of outstanding Purchased Receivables (the "Maximum Amount") at any given time. The Purchase Agreement had an initial term expiring on June 30, 2018 and automatically renews for successive 12-month renewal periods unless terminated in writing by either the Company or RCA.On March 2, 2018, the term of the Purchase Agreement was extended to June 30, 2020. No fee or consideration of any kind was paid in connection with this extension.

The initial purchase price of a Purchased Receivable is equal to 90% of the face value of the receivable if the account debtor is an agency of the U.S. government, and 85% if the account debtor is not an agency of the U.S. government; provided, however, that RCA has the right to adjust these initial purchase price rates in its sole discretion. After collection by RCA of the portion of a Purchased Receivable in excess of the initial purchase price, RCA shall pay the Company the residual 10% or 15% of such Purchased Receivable, as appropriate, less (i) a discount factor equal to 0.30%, for federal government prime contracts (or 0.56% for non-federal government investment grade account obligors or 0.62% for non-federal government non-investment grade account obligors) of the face amounts of Purchased Receivables; (ii) a program access fee equal to 0.008% of the daily ending account balance for each day that Purchased Receivable are outstanding; (iii) a commitment fee equal to 1% per annum of Maximum Amount minus the amount of Purchased Receivables outstanding; and (iv) fees, costs and expenses relating to the preparation, administration and enforcement of the Purchase Agreement and any other related agreements. At the time the Purchase Agreement was signed, the Company received proceeds in an amount equal to $6.3 million, net of an initial enrollment fee equal to $25,000. Those proceeds were used to repay the outstanding amount under the Facility to Wells Fargo as described below.

The Purchase Agreement provides that in the event, but only to the extent, that the conveyance of Purchased Receivables by the Company is characterized by a court or other governmental authority as a loan rather than a sale, the Company shall be deemed to have granted RCA, effective as of the date of the first purchase under the Purchase Agreement, a security interest in all of the Company's right, title and interest in, to and under all of the Purchased Receivables, whether now or hereafter owned, existing or arising.

The Company provides a power of attorney to RCA to take certain actions in the Company's stead, including (a) to sell, assign or transfer in whole or in part any of the Purchased Receivables; (b) to demand, receive and give releases to any account debtor with respect to amounts due under any Purchased Receivables; (c) to notify all account debtors with respect to the Purchased Receivables; and (d) to take any actions necessary to perfect RCA's interests in the Purchased Receivables.

The Company is liable to Buyer for any fraudulent statements and all representations, warranties, covenants, and indemnities made by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement. It is considered an event of default if (a) the Company fails to pay any amounts it owes to RCA when due (subject to a cure period); (b) the Company has voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy proceedings commenced by or against it; (c) the Company is no longer solvent or is generally not paying its debts as they become due; (d) any voluntary liens, garnishments, attachments, or the like are issued against or attach to the Purchased Receivables; (e) the Company breaches any warranty, representation, or covenant (subject to a cure period); (f) the Company is not in compliance or has otherwise defaulted under any document or obligation in favor of RCA or an RCA affiliate; or (g) the Purchase Agreement or any material provision terminates (other than in accordance with the terms of the Purchase Agreement) or ceases to be effective or to be a binding obligation of the Company. If any such event of default occurs, then RCA may take certain actions, including ceasing to buy any eligible receivables, declaring any indebtedness or other obligations immediately due and payable, or terminating the Purchase Agreement.

Financing and Security Agreement
On July 15, 2016, we entered into a Financing and Security Agreement (the "Financing Agreement") with Action Capital Corporation ("Action Capital"), pursuant to which Action Capital agreed to provide the Company with advances of up to 90% of the net amount of certain acceptable customer accounts of the Company that have been assigned as collateral to Action Capital (the "Acceptable Accounts"). The maximum outstanding principal amount of advances under the Financing Agreement was $5 million. The Financing Agreement has a term of two years, provided that the Company may terminate it at any time without penalty upon written notice. At the time the Financing Agreement was signed, the Company did not borrow any amounts under the Financing Agreement.

The Company shall pay Action Capital interest on the advances outstanding under the Financing Agreement at a rate equal to the prime rate of Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. in effect on the last business day of the prior month plus 2%, and a monthly fee equal to 0.50%. All interest calculations are based on a year of 360 days. The Company's obligations under the Financing Agreement are secured by certain assets of the Company pertaining to the Acceptable Accounts, including all accounts, accounts receivable, earned and unbilled revenue, contract rights, chattel paper, documents, instruments, general intangibles, reserves, reserve accounts, rebates, books and records, and all proceeds of the foregoing.

Pursuant to the terms of the Financing Agreement, Action Capital shall have full recourse against the Company when an Acceptable Account is not paid in full by the respective customer within 90 days of the date of purchase or if for any reason it ceases to be an Acceptable Account, including the right to charge-back any such Acceptable Account. It is considered an event of default if the Company breaches any covenant or warranty, knowingly provides false or incorrect material information to Action Capital, or otherwise defaults on any of its material obligations under the Financing Agreement or any other material agreements with Action Capital (subject to a cure period). If any such events of default occur, then Action Capital may take certain actions, including declaring any indebtedness immediately due and payable, requiring any customers with Acceptable Accounts to make payments directly to Action Capital, exercising its power of attorney from the Company to take actions in the Company's stead with respect to any of Company's Acceptable Accounts, or terminating the Financing Agreement.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were no outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement.

Senior Revolving Credit Facility
As of December 31, 2015, the interest rate on the Facility was 5.75%. We incurred interest expense in the amount of $0.2 million and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, on the Facility. The effective weighted average interest rates on the outstanding borrowings under the Facility was 6.7% for the year ended December 31, 2015.

On March 30, 2016 the Facility was amended (the "Seventeenth Amendment") to extend the maturity date to January 1, 2017. The Seventeenth Amendment also amended the terms of the Facility, reducing the total credit available from $20 million to $10 million effective as of the date of the amendment, which more appropriately reflected the Company's projected utilization of the Facility. The Seventeenth Amendment fixed the interest rate at the higher of the Wells Fargo Bank "prime rate" plus 2.25%, the Federal Funds rate plus 2.75%, or the 3-month LIBOR rate plus 3.25%.  The Seventeenth Amendment also increased the minimum excess availability requirement under the revolving component from $1.25 million to $2.0 million, effective as of the date of the amendment, and increased the requirement to $2.5 million, effective July 1, 2016, and $3.0 million, effective November 1, 2016, if the Company did not receive $5 million of equity or subordinated debt investment by June 1, 2016. If such capital investment was not received by June 1, 2016, we would pay a fee of $100,000 to Wells Fargo, which was paid in June 2016. In consideration for the closing of the Seventeenth Amendment, we paid Wells Fargo a fee of $100,000, plus expenses related to the closing.

On May 16, 2016, the Facility was amended to extend the maturity date to April 1, 2017. In connection with the Purchase Agreement and the Financing Agreement, we terminated the Facility with Wells Fargo, effective as of July 15, 2016, prior to its maturity date of April 1, 2017, and repaid all amounts outstanding under the Facility; other than (1) the obligations of the Company under the Facility and related loan documents with respect to letters of credits and fees, charges, costs and expenses related thereto, (2) the obligations of the Company under the Facility and related loan documents to reimburse Wells Fargo for costs and expenses that may become due and payable after the date of the termination of the Facility, and (3) any customary contingent indemnification obligations. The Company paid an early termination fee of $100,000, and no other early termination fees or prepayment penalties were incurred by the Company in connection with the termination of the Facility.

Subordinated Debt
On March 31, 2015, the Company entered into Subordinated Loan Agreements and Subordinated Promissory Notes ("Porter Notes") with affiliated entities of Mr. John R. C. Porter (together referenced as "Porter").  Mr. Porter and Toxford Corporation, of which Mr. Porter is the sole shareholder, own 34.9% of our Class A Common Stock. Under the terms of the Porter Notes, Porter lent the Company $2.5 million on or about March 31, 2015. Telos also entered into Subordination and Intercreditor Agreements (the "Subordination Agreements") with Porter and Wells Fargo, in which the Porter Notes are fully subordinated to the Facility and any subsequent senior lenders (including Action Capital), and payments under the Porter Notes are permitted only if certain conditions specified by Wells Fargo are met. According to the terms of the Porter Notes, the outstanding principal sum bears interest at the fixed rate of twelve percent (12%) per annum which would be payable in arrears in cash on the 20th day of each May, August, November and February, with the first interest payment date due on August 20, 2015. The Porter Notes do not call for amortization payments and are unsecured. The Porter Notes, in whole or in part, may be repaid at any time without premium or penalty. The unpaid principal, together with interest, was originally due and payable in full on July 1, 2017. 

On April 18, 2017, we amended and restated the Porter Notes to reduce the interest rate from twelve percent (12%) to six percent (6%) per annum, to be accrued, and extended the maturity date from July 1, 2017 to July 25, 2022. Telos also entered into the Intercreditor Agreements with Porter and EnCap, in which the Porter Notes are fully subordinated to the Credit Agreement and any subsequent senior lenders (including Action Capital), and payments under the Porter Notes are permitted only if certain conditions are met. All other terms remain in full force and effect. We incurred interest expense in the amount of $292,000, $300,000, and $229,000 for 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively, on the Porter Notes. As a result of the amendment and restatement of the Porter Notes, we recorded a gain on extinguishment of debt of approximately $1 million, which consisted of the remeasurement of the debt at fair value. As the extinguishment was with a related party, the transaction was deemed to be a capital transaction and the gain was recorded in the Company's stockholders' deficit as of December 31, 2017.
Note 7. Redeemable Preferred Stock

Public Preferred Stock
A maximum of 6,000,000 shares of the Public Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share, has been authorized for issuance. We initially issued 2,858,723 shares of the Public Preferred Stock pursuant to the acquisition of the Company during fiscal year 1990. The Public Preferred Stock was recorded at fair value on the date of original issue, November 21, 1989, and we made periodic accretions under the interest method of the excess of the redemption value over the recorded value. We adjusted our estimate of accrued accretion in the amount of $1.5 million in the second quarter of 2006.  The Public Preferred Stock was fully accreted as of December 2008.  We declared stock dividends totaling 736,863 shares in 1990 and 1991. Since 1991, no other dividends, in stock or cash, have been declared. In November 1998, we retired 410,000 shares of the Public Preferred Stock. The total number of shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016, was 3,185,586. The Public Preferred Stock is quoted as "TLSRP" on the OTCQB marketplace and the OTC Bulletin Board.

Since 1991, no dividends were declared or paid on our Public Preferred Stock, based upon our interpretation of restrictions in our Articles of Amendment and Restatement, limitations in the terms of the Public Preferred Stock instrument, specific dividend payment restrictions in the Facility and the Porter Notes to which the Public Preferred Stock is subject, other senior obligations currently or previously in existence, and Maryland law limitations in existence prior to October 1, 2009. Subsequent to the 2009 Maryland law change, dividend payments continue to be prohibited except under certain specific circumstances as set forth in Maryland Code Section 2-311, which the Company did not satisfy as of the measurement dates. Pursuant to the terms of the Articles of Amendment and Restatement, we were scheduled, but not required, to redeem the Public Preferred Stock in five annual tranches during the period 2005 through 2009. However, due to our substantial senior obligations currently or previously in existence, limitations set forth in the covenants in the Credit Agreement and the Porter Notes, foreseeable capital and operational requirements, and restrictions and prohibitions of our Articles of Amendment and Restatement, we were and remain unable to meet the redemption schedule set forth in the terms of the Public Preferred Stock as of the measurement dates. Moreover, the Public Preferred Stock is not payable on demand, nor callable, for failure to redeem the Public Preferred Stock in accordance with the redemption schedule set forth in the instrument. Therefore, we classify these securities as noncurrent liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.

On January 25, 2017, we became parties with certain of our subsidiaries to the Credit Agreement with EnCap. Under the Credit Agreement, we agreed that, until full and final payment of the obligations under the Credit Agreement, we would not make any distribution or declare or pay any dividends (other than common stock) on our stock, or purchase, acquire, or redeem any stock, or exchange any stock for indebtedness, or retire any stock. Additionally, the Porter Notes contain similar prohibitions on dividend payments or stock redemptions.

Accordingly, as stated above, we will continue to classify the entirety of our obligation to redeem the Public Preferred Stock as a long-term obligation. The Credit Agreement and the Porter Notes prohibit, among other things, the redemption of any stock, common or preferred, other than as described above. The Public Preferred Stock by its terms cannot be redeemed if doing so would violate the terms of an agreement regarding the borrowing of funds or the extension of credit which is binding upon us or any of our subsidiaries, and it does not include any other provisions that would otherwise require any acceleration of the redemption of or amortization payments with respect to the Public Preferred Stock.  Thus, the Public Preferred Stock is not and will not be due on demand, nor callable, within 12 months from December 31, 2017. This classification is consistent with ASC 210-10, "Balance Sheet" and 470-10, "Debt" and the FASB ASC Master Glossary definition of "Current Liabilities."

ASC 210-10 and the FASB ASC Master Glossary define current liabilities as follows: The term current liabilities is used principally to designate obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require the use of existing resources properly classifiable as current assets, or the creation of other current liabilities. As a balance sheet category, the classification is intended to include obligations for items which have entered into the operating cycle, such as payables incurred in the acquisition of materials and supplies to be used in the production of goods or in providing services to be offered for sale; collections received in advance of the delivery of goods or performance of services; and debts that arise from operations directly related to the operating cycle, such as accruals for wages, salaries, commissions, rentals, royalties, and income and other taxes. Other liabilities whose regular and ordinary liquidation is expected to occur within a relatively short period of time, usually twelve months, are also intended for inclusion, such as short-term debts arising from the acquisition of capital assets, serial maturities of long-term obligations, amounts required to be expended within one year under sinking fund provisions, and agency obligations arising from the collection or acceptance of cash or other assets for the account of third persons.

ASC 470-10 provides the following: The current liability classification is also intended to include obligations that, by their terms, are due on demand or will be due on demand within one year (or operating cycle, if longer) from the balance sheet date, even though liquidation may not be expected within that period. It is also intended to include long-term obligations that are or will be callable by the creditor either because the debtor's violation of a provision of the debt agreement at the balance sheet date makes the obligation callable or because the violation, if not cured within a specified grace period, will make the obligation callable.

If, pursuant to the terms of the Public Preferred Stock, we do not redeem the Public Preferred Stock in accordance with the scheduled redemptions described above, the terms of the Public Preferred Stock require us to discharge our obligation to redeem the Public Preferred Stock as soon as we are financially capable and legally permitted to do so. Therefore, by its very terms, the Public Preferred Stock is not due on demand or callable for failure to make a scheduled payment pursuant to its redemption provisions and is properly classified as a noncurrent liability.

We pay dividends on the Public Preferred Stock when and if declared by the Board of Directors. The Public Preferred Stock accrues a semi-annual dividend at the annual rate of 12% ($1.20) per share, based on the liquidation preference of $10 per share and is fully cumulative. Dividends in additional shares of the Public Preferred Stock for 1990 and 1991 were paid at the rate of 6% of a share for each $.60 of such dividends not paid in cash. For the cash dividends payable since December 1, 1995, we have accrued $99.7 million and $95.9 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We accrued dividends on the Public Preferred Stock of $3.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, which was recorded as interest expense. Prior to the effective date of ASC 480-10 on July 1, 2003, such dividends were charged to stockholders' accumulated deficit.

Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock
The Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was senior to all other outstanding equity of the Company, including the Public Preferred Stock. The Series A-1 ranked on a parity with the Series A-2. The components of the authorized Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock were 1,250 shares of Series A-1 and 1,750 shares of Series A-2 Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, each with $.01 par value. The Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock carried a cumulative per annum dividend rate of 14.125% of its liquidation value of $1,000 per share. The dividends were payable semiannually on June 30 and December 31 of each year. We had not declared dividends on our Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock since its issuance, other than in connection with the redemptions from 2010 to 2013. The liquidation preference of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was the face amount of the Series A-1 and A-2 ($1,000 per share), plus all accrued and unpaid dividends.

Due to the terms of the Credit Agreement, the Porter Notes, other senior obligations currently or previously in existence, the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock and applicable provisions of Maryland law governing the payment of distributions, we had been precluded from redeeming the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock and paying any accrued and unpaid dividends on the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, other than the redemptions that occurred from 2010 to 2013. In addition, certain holders of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock had entered into standby agreements whereby, among other things, those holders would not demand any payments in respect of dividends or redemptions of their instruments and the maturity dates of the instruments had been extended. As a result of such standby agreements, as of December 31, 2016, instruments held by Toxford Corporation ("Toxford"), the holder of 76.4% of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock, would mature on May 31, 2018. 

At December 31, 2016, the total number of shares of Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock issued and outstanding was 197 shares and 276 shares for Series A-1 and Series A-2, respectively. Due to the limitations, contractual restrictions, and agreements described above, the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock was classified as noncurrent as of December 31, 2016.

At December 31, 2016, cumulative undeclared, unpaid dividends relating to Senior Redeemable Preferred stock totaled $1.6 million. In accordance with the requirements of the Second Amendment to the EnCap Credit Agreement, we redeemed all outstanding shares of the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock on April 18, 2017 for $2.1 million.
 
We accrued dividends on the Senior Redeemable Preferred Stock of $20,000, $67,000, and $67,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively, which were reported as interest expense. Prior to the effective date of ASC 480-10, "Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity," on July 1, 2003, such dividends were charged to stockholders' deficit.
Note 8. Stockholders' Deficit and Employee Benefit Plan

Common Stock
The relative rights, preferences, and limitations of the Class A common stock and the Class B common stock are in all respects identical. The holders of the common stock have one vote for each share of common stock held.  Subject to the priority rights of the Public Preferred Stock and any series of the Senior Preferred Stock, holders of Class A and Class B common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared.

Restricted Stock Grants
Since June 2008, we have issued restricted stock (Class A common) to our executive officers, directors and employees. In May 2017, we granted 5,005,000 shares of restricted stock to our executive officers and employees. Such stock is subject to a vesting schedule as follows:  25% of the restricted stock vests immediately on the date of grant, thereafter, an additional 25% will vest annually on the anniversary of the date of grant subject to continued employment or services. As of December 31, 2017, there were 3,723,750 shares of restricted stock that remained subject to vesting. In the event of death of the employee or a change in control, as defined by the Telos Corporation 2008 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan or the 2013 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Omnibus Long-Term Incentive Plan, all unvested shares shall automatically vest in full. In accordance with ASC 718, we recorded immaterial compensation expense for any of the issuances as the value of the common stock was nominal, based on the deduction of our outstanding debt, capital lease obligations, and preferred stock from an estimated enterprise value, which was estimated based on discounted cash flow analysis, comparable public company analysis, and comparable transaction analysis.  Additionally, we determined that a significant change in the valuation estimate for common stock would not have a significant effect on the consolidated financial statements.
 
Telos Shared Savings Plan

We sponsor a defined contribution employee savings plan (the "Plan") under which substantially all full-time employees are eligible to participate. The Plan holds 3,658,536 shares of Telos Class A common stock. Since no public market exists for Telos Class A common stock, the Trustees of the Plan and their professional advisors undertake an annual evaluation, based upon the most recent audited financial statements. To date, the Plan's trustees have priced the stock at the exact midpoint of the evaluated range of the value of the stock.  We match one-half of employee contributions to the Plan up to a maximum of 2% of such employee's eligible annual base salary. Participant contributions vest immediately, and Company contributions vest at the rate of 20% for each year, with full vesting occurring after completion of  years of service. The Company's matching contributions to the Plan were suspended for 2015. Our total contributions to this Plan for 2017, 2016, and 2015 were $617,000, $575,000, and $0, respectively.

Additionally, effective September 1, 2007, Telos ID sponsors a defined contribution savings plan (the "Telos ID Plan") under which substantially all full-time employees are eligible to participate.   Telos ID matches one-half of employee contributions to the Plan up to a maximum of 2% of such employee's eligible annual base salary. Telos ID's matching contributions to the Telos ID Plan were suspended for 2015. The total 2017, 2016, and 2015 Telos ID contributions to this plan were $105,000, $96,000, and $0, respectively.

Note 9.  Income Taxes

U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Act") was enacted.  The Tax Act made significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code including a number of changes that impact the Company, most notably a reduction to the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, and an indefinite carryforward period for net operating losses generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. As a result, we will be able to use our hanging credit deferred tax liability as a source of taxable income to support the indefinite-lived net operating losses created by the future reversal of our temporary differences.  Accordingly, we have re-measured our existing deferred tax assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rate, and adjusted the valuation allowance on our deferred taxes and recorded a decrease in deferred tax liabilities of $3.0 million, with a corresponding adjustment to deferred tax benefit for the same amount for the year ended December 31, 2017.

On December 22, 2017, Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, "Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" ("SAB 118") was issued to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act.  The Company has re-measured its deferred tax assets and liabilities and adjusted the valuation allowance related to the hanging credit deferred tax liability and included these amounts in its consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. During 2018, we will continue to evaluate the impact of the Tax Act, which may impact our current conclusions. Any subsequent adjustment to these amounts will be recorded to current tax expense in 2018 in the quarter the analysis is completed.
The (benefit) provision for income taxes attributable to income from operations includes the following (in thousands):

   
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Current (benefit) provision
                 
Federal
 
$
(86
)
 
$
114
   
$
(902
)
State
   
29
     
28
     
54
 
Total current
   
(57
)
   
142
     
(848
)
                         
Deferred (benefit) provision
                       
Federal
   
(2,622
)
   
155
     
4,333
 
State
   
(88
)
   
37
     
780
 
Total deferred
   
(2,710
)
   
192
     
5,113
 
Total provision (benefit)
 
$
(2,767
)
 
$
334
   
$
4,265
 

The provision for income taxes related to operations varies from the amount determined by applying the federal income tax statutory rate to the income or loss before income taxes, exclusive of net income attributable to non-controlling interest. The reconciliation of these differences is as follows:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Computed expected income tax provision
34.0%
 
34.0%
 
34.0%
State income taxes, net of federal income tax benefit
0.9
 
0.8
 
2.1
Change in valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, exclusive of impact of Tax Act
(26.9)
 
(21.5)
 
(61.3)
Cumulative deferred adjustments
--
 
(0.3)
 
(0.1)
Provision to return adjustments
--
 
(0.4)
 
1.3
Other permanent differences
(1.3)
 
(1.8)
 
(1.1)
Dividend and accretion on preferred stock
(15.2)
 
(19.3)
 
(11.3)
FIN 48 liability
(0.9)
 
0.7
 
(0.8)
R&D credit
4.6
 
3.3
 
1.6
Impact of Tax Act
35.5
 
--
 
--
Other
1.5
 
(0.4)
 
(0.9)
 
32.2%
 
(4.9)%
 
(36.5)%

The tax effects of temporary differences that give rise to significant portions of the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities at December 31, 2017 and 2016 are as follows (in thousands):

   
December 31,
 
   
2017
   
2016
 
Deferred tax assets:
           
Accounts receivable, principally due to allowance for doubtful accounts
 
$
108
   
$
161
 
Allowance for inventory obsolescence and amortization
   
818
     
778
 
Accrued liabilities not currently deductible
   
1,657
     
2,234
 
Accrued compensation
   
735
     
1,006
 
Deferred rent
   
5,134
     
7,682
 
Telos ID basis difference
   
65
     
--
 
Net operating loss carryforwards - federal
   
2,453
     
1,301
 
Net operating loss carryforwards - state
   
848
     
405
 
Federal tax credit
   
666
     
533
 
Total gross deferred tax assets
   
12,484
     
14,100
 
Less valuation allowance
   
(7,219
)
   
(10,499
)
Total deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowance
   
5,265
     
3,601
 
Deferred tax liabilities:
               
Amortization and depreciation
   
(2,127
)
   
(2,696
)
Unbilled accounts receivable, deferred for tax purposes
   
(1,282
)
   
(787
)
Goodwill basis adjustment and amortization
   
(2,597
)
   
(3,451
)
Telos ID basis difference
   
--
     
(58
)
Total deferred tax liabilities
   
(6,006
)
   
(6,992
)
                 
Net deferred tax liabilities
 
$
(741
)
 
$
(3,391
)

The components of the valuation allowance are as follows (in thousands):

   
Balance Beginning of Period
   
Additions
   
Recoveries
   
Balance End
of Period
 
                         
December 31, 2017
 
$
10,499
   
$
--
   
$
(3,280
)
 
$
7,219
 
December 31, 2016
 
$
9,027
   
$
1,472
   
$
--
   
$
10,499
 
December 31, 2015
 
$
1,868
   
$
7,159
   
$
--
   
$
9,027
 

We are required to establish a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Based on available evidence, realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income.  We considered projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and reversal of taxable temporary differences in making this assessment. As such, we have determined that a full valuation allowance is required as of December 31, 2017 and 2016. We were not able to use temporary taxable differences related to goodwill, as a source of future taxable income. As a result of a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, a deferred tax liability (hanging credit) related to goodwill remains on our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2017 and 2016. Under the Tax Act, we will be able to use hanging credit deferred tax liabilities as a source of taxable income to support the indefinite-lived net operating losses created by the future reversal of our temporary differences. Accordingly, we have re-measured our existing deferred tax assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rate, and adjusted the valuation allowance on our deferred taxes and recorded a decrease in deferred tax liabilities of $3.0 million, with a corresponding adjustment to deferred tax benefit for the same amount for the year ended December 31, 2017.
 
At December 31, 2017, for federal income tax purposes there was approximately $11.7 million net operating loss available to be carried forward to offset future taxable income. These net operating loss carryforwards expire in 2037. In addition, there was approximately $60,000 of alternative minimum tax credit available to be carried forward indefinitely to reduce future regular tax liabilities until 2020, after which time it will be fully refundable in 2021, in accordance with the Tax Act.

Under the provisions of ASC 740-10, we determined that there were approximately $677,000 and $762,000 of unrecognized tax benefits, including $266,000 and $233,000 of related interest and penalties, required to be recorded in other liabilities as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We believe that the total amounts of unrecognized tax benefits will not significantly increase or decrease within the next 12 months. The period for which tax years are open, 2014 to 2017, has not been extended beyond the applicable statute of limitations.

A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits is as follows (in thousands):

   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Unrecognized tax benefits, beginning of period
 
$
762
   
$
803
   
$
708
 
Gross (decreases) increases—tax positions in prior period
   
(127
)
   
(66
)
   
92
 
Gross increases—tax positions in current period
   
77
     
46
     
38
 
Settlements
   
(35
)
   
(21
)
   
(35
)
Unrecognized tax benefits, end of period
 
$
677
   
$
762
   
$
803
 

Note 10. Commitments

Leases
We lease office space and equipment under noncancelable operating and capital leases with various expiration dates, some of which contain renewal options.

On March 1, 1996, we entered into a 20-year capital lease for a building in Ashburn, Virginia, that serves as our corporate headquarters. We had accounted for this transaction as a capital lease and had accordingly recorded assets and a corresponding liability of approximately $12.3 million. Effective November 1, 2013, this lease was terminated and we entered into a 13-year lease (the "2013 lease") that would have expired in October 31, 2026. The 2013 lease was treated as a modification in accordance with ASC 840, "Leases". As a result of the 2013 lease, the corresponding capital asset and liability increased by $11.7 million, resulting in a net book value of the capital asset of $13.1 million, and capital obligation of $15.5 million. The 2013 lease included an option to purchase, assign to, or designate a purchaser on June 1, 2014, which required notice of intent to exercise the option by not later than March 31, 2014.

On March 28, 2014, we entered into a definitive agreement with an unrelated third party to assign the purchase option to that third party in return for cash consideration of $1.7 million, payable upon the closing of the purchase transaction, and certain obligations under the agreement, including entering into a new 15-year lease with the third party upon the third party's exercise of the purchase option and purchase of the building from the prior landlord. On March 28, 2014, we provided the prior landlord notice of our assignment and exercise of the purchase option. On May 28, 2014 the third party completed the purchase transaction and the 2013 lease was terminated, with no ongoing obligations, by mutual agreement between us and the prior landlord. On the same day we entered into a new lease (the "2014 lease") with the third party that expires on May 31, 2029. The 2014 lease was treated as a modification of the prior lease on the property in accordance with ASC 840, and determined to be a capital lease. As a result of the new lease, the corresponding capital asset increased by $5.7 million, resulting in a net book value of the capital asset of $18.3 million and the liability increased by $6.7 million, resulting in a capital obligation of $22.0 million. As part of this treatment, the net cash consideration received in connection with the definitive agreement was treated as a lease incentive that will be amortized over the life of the lease.

The following is a schedule by years of future minimum payments under capital leases together with the present value of the net minimum lease payments as of December 31, 2017 (in thousands):

   
Property
   
Equipment
   
Total
 
2018
 
$
1,947
     $
1
     $
1,948
 
2019
   
1,995
     
1
     
1,996
 
2020
   
2,045
     
1
     
2,046