10-K 1 dhr-20181231x10xk.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
 
For the transition period from         to    
Commission File Number: 1-8089
 ____________________________________
DANAHER CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
59-1995548
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
2200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 800W
Washington, D.C.
 
20037-1701
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 202-828-0850
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Stock $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
€600,000,000 1.000% Senior Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
€250,000,000 Floating Rate Senior Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
€800,000,000 1.700% Senior Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
€800,000,000 2.500% Senior Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
€600,000,000 1.200% Senior Notes due 2027
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
NONE
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes   ý     No  ¨



Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes   ¨     No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes   ý     No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes   ý     No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
ý
 
 
Accelerated filer
o
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
o
 
 
Smaller reporting company
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act)
Yes   ¨     No  ý
As of February 7, 2019, the number of shares of Registrant’s common stock outstanding was 701,875,340. The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 29, 2018 was $61.0 billion, based upon the closing price of the Registrant’s common stock as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange on such date.
 ____________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III incorporates certain information by reference from the Registrant’s proxy statement for its 2019 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after Registrant’s fiscal year-end. With the exception of the sections of the 2019 Proxy Statement specifically incorporated herein by reference, the 2019 Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
Item 1A.
 
Item 1B.
 
Item 2.
 
Item 3.
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
Item 6.
 
Item 7.
 
Item 7A.
 
Item 8.
 
Item 9.
 
Item 9A.
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
Item 11.
 
Item 12.
 
Item 13.
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
Item 16.




INFORMATION RELATING TO FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, in other documents we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), in our press releases, webcasts, conference calls, materials delivered to shareholders and other communications, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the U.S. federal securities laws. All statements other than historical factual information are forward-looking statements, including without limitation statements regarding: projections of revenue, expenses, profit, profit margins, tax rates, tax provisions, cash flows, pension and benefit obligations and funding requirements, our liquidity position or other projected financial measures; management’s plans and strategies for future operations, including statements relating to anticipated operating performance, cost reductions, restructuring activities, new product and service developments, competitive strengths or market position, acquisitions and the integration thereof, divestitures, spin-offs, split-offs or other distributions, strategic opportunities, securities offerings, stock repurchases, dividends and executive compensation; growth, declines and other trends in markets we sell into; new or modified laws, regulations and accounting pronouncements; future regulatory approvals and the timing thereof; outstanding claims, legal proceedings, tax audits and assessments and other contingent liabilities; future foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates; general economic and capital markets conditions; the anticipated timing of any of the foregoing; assumptions underlying any of the foregoing; and any other statements that address events or developments that Danaher intends or believes will or may occur in the future. Terminology such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “should,” “could,” “intend,” “will,” “plan,” “expect,” “estimate,” “project,” “target,” “may,” “possible,” “potential,” “forecast” and “positioned” and similar references to future periods are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements are accompanied by such words. Forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and assessments made by our management in light of their experience and perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors they believe to be appropriate. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to the risks and uncertainties set forth under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results may differ materially from the results, developments and business decisions contemplated by our forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the report, document, press release, webcast, call, materials or other communication in which they are made. Except to the extent required by applicable law, we do not assume any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events and developments or otherwise.
In this Annual Report, the terms “Danaher” or the “Company” refer to Danaher Corporation, Danaher Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries or the consolidated subsidiaries of Danaher Corporation, as the context requires. Unless otherwise indicated, all financial data in this Annual Report refer to continuing operations only.

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
Danaher Corporation designs, manufactures and markets professional, medical, industrial and commercial products and services, which are typically characterized by strong brand names, innovative technology and major market positions. We are committed to innovating and developing forward-looking technologies that solve our customers’ most complex challenges. Danaher’s research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, service and administrative facilities are located in more than 60 countries. Our business consists of four segments: Life Sciences; Diagnostics; Dental; and Environmental & Applied Solutions. Danaher strives to create shareholder value primarily through three strategic priorities:
enhancing its portfolio in attractive science and technology markets through strategic capital allocation;
strengthening its competitive advantage through consistent application of the DANAHER BUSINESS SYSTEM (“DBS”) tools; and
consistently attracting and retaining exceptional talent.
Danaher measures its progress against these strategic priorities over the long-term based primarily on financial metrics relating to revenue growth, profitability, cash flow and capital returns.
The Company’s businesses use a set of growth, lean and leadership tools and processes, known as the DANAHER BUSINESS SYSTEM, which are designed to continuously improve business performance in the critical areas of quality, delivery, cost, growth and innovation. Within the DBS framework, the Company pursues a number of ongoing strategic initiatives relating to

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customer insight generation, product development and commercialization, global sourcing of materials and services, manufacturing improvement and sales and marketing impact.
To further these objectives, the Company also acquires businesses that either strategically fit within its existing business portfolio or expand its portfolio into a new and attractive business area. For example, the Company’s acquisition of Integrated DNA Technologies, or “IDT”, in 2018 provides additional sales and earnings growth opportunities for the Company’s Life Sciences segment by expanding the segment’s product line diversity, including new product and service offerings in the area of genomics consumables and through the potential future acquisition of complementary businesses. Given the rapid pace of technological development and the specialized expertise typical of Danaher’s served markets, acquisitions, strategic alliances and investments provide the Company access to important new technologies and domain expertise. Danaher believes there are many acquisition and investment opportunities available within its targeted markets. The extent to which Danaher consummates and effectively integrates appropriate acquisitions will affect its overall growth and operating results. Danaher also continually assesses the strategic fit of its existing businesses and may dispose of businesses that are deemed not to fit with its strategic plan or are not achieving the desired return on investment.
Danaher Corporation, originally DMG, Inc., was organized in 1969 as a Massachusetts real estate investment trust. In 1978 it was reorganized as a Florida corporation under the name Diversified Mortgage Investors, Inc. which in a second reorganization in 1980 became a subsidiary of a newly created holding company named DMG, Inc. DMG, Inc. adopted the name Danaher in 1984 and was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1986.
We have announced our intention to spin-off Danaher’s Dental business into an independent, publicly-traded company (the “Dental Separation”). The Dental business had sales for the year ended December 31, 2018 of approximately $2.8 billion.  The transaction is expected to be tax-free to the Company’s shareholders. The Company is targeting to complete the Dental Separation in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final approval from the Danaher Board of Directors, satisfactory completion of financing, receipt of tax opinions, receipt of favorable rulings from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and receipt of other regulatory approvals.
Sales in 2018 by geographic destination (geographic destination refers to the geographic area where the final sale to the Company’s unaffiliated customer is made) were: North America, 39% (including 37% in the United States); Western Europe, 24%; other developed markets, 6% and high-growth markets, 31%. The Company defines high-growth markets as developing markets of the world experiencing extended periods of accelerated growth in gross domestic product and infrastructure which include Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Asia (with the exception of Japan and Australia). The Company defines developed markets as all markets of the world that are not high-growth markets.
LIFE SCIENCES
The Company’s Life Sciences segment offers a broad range of research tools that scientists use to study the basic building blocks of life, including genes, proteins, metabolites and cells, in order to understand the causes of disease, identify new therapies and test new drugs and vaccines.  The segment is also a leading provider of filtration, separation and purification technologies to the biopharmaceutical, food and beverage, medical, aerospace, microelectronics and general industrial sectors. Sales in 2018 for this segment by geographic destination were: North America, 35%; Western Europe, 29%; other developed markets, 9% and high-growth markets, 27%.
Danaher established the life sciences business in 2005 through the acquisition of Leica Microsystems and has expanded the business through numerous subsequent acquisitions, including the acquisitions of AB Sciex and Molecular Devices in 2010, Beckman Coulter in 2011, Pall in 2015, Phenomenex in 2016 and IDT in 2018. The Life Sciences segment consists of the following businesses:
Filtration—The filtration, separation and purification technologies business (from the Company’s acquisition of Pall in 2015) is a leading provider of products used to remove solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants from a variety of liquids and gases, primarily through the sale of filtration consumables and to a lesser extent systems that incorporate filtration consumables and associated hardware. Pall’s core materials and technologies can be applied in many ways to solve complex fluid separation challenges, and are sold across a wide array of applications in two primary business groups:
Life Sciences. The Company’s life sciences technologies facilitate the process of drug discovery, development, regulatory validation and production and are sold to biopharmaceutical, food and beverage and medical customers. In the biopharmaceutical area, the business sells a broad line of filtration and purification technologies, single use bioreactors and associated accessories, hardware and engineered systems primarily to pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies for use in the development and commercialization of chemically synthesized and biologically derived drugs, plasma and vaccines. Biotechnology drugs, plasma and biologically derived vaccines in particular are filtration and purification intensive and represent a significant opportunity for growth for Pall in the

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biopharmaceutical area. The business also serves the filtration needs of the food and beverage markets, helping customers ensure the quality and safety of their products while lowering operating costs and minimizing waste. In the medical area, hospitals use the Company’s breathing circuit and intravenous filters and water filters to help control the spread of infections.
Industrial. Virtually all of the raw materials, process fluids and waste streams that flow through industry are candidates for multiple stages of filtration, separation and purification. In addition, most of the machines used in complex production processes require filtration to protect sensitive parts from degradation due to contamination. Pall’s industrial technologies enhance the quality and efficiency of manufacturing processes and prolong equipment life in applications such as semiconductor equipment, airplanes, oil refineries, power generation turbines, petrochemical plants, municipal water plants and mobile mining equipment. Within these end-markets, demand is driven by end-users and original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) seeking to improve product performance, increase production and efficiency, reduce operating costs, extend the life of their equipment, conserve water and meet environmental regulations.
Mass Spectrometry—The mass spectrometry business is a leading global provider of high-end mass spectrometers as well as related consumable chromatography columns and sample preparation extraction products. Mass spectrometry is a technique for identifying, analyzing and quantifying elements, chemical compounds and biological molecules, individually or in complex mixtures. The mass spectrometers utilize various combinations of quadrupole, time-of-flight and ion trap technologies. The business’ mass spectrometer systems and related products are used in numerous applications such as drug discovery and clinical development of therapeutics as well as in basic research, clinical testing, food and beverage quality testing and environmental testing. The business’ global services network provides implementation, validation, training and maintenance to support customer installations around the world. Typical users of these mass spectrometry and related products include molecular biologists, bioanalytical chemists, toxicologists and forensic scientists as well as quality assurance and quality control technicians. The business also provides high-performance bioanalytical measurement systems, including microplate readers, automated cellular screening products and associated reagents and imaging software. Typical users of these products include biologists and chemists engaged in research and drug discovery, who use these products to determine electrical or chemical activity in cell samples.
Cellular Analysis, Lab Automation and Centrifugation—The business offers workflow instruments and consumables that help researchers analyze genomic, protein and cellular information. Key product areas include sample preparation equipment such as centrifugation and capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and consumables; liquid handling automation instruments and associated consumables; flow cytometry instrumentation and associated antibodies and reagents; and particle characterization instrumentation. Researchers use these products to study biological function in the pursuit of basic research, as well as therapeutic and diagnostic development. Typical users include pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, universities, medical schools and research institutions and in some cases industrial manufacturers.
Microscopy—The microscopy business is a leading global provider of professional microscopes designed to capture, manipulate and preserve images and enhance the user’s visualization and analysis of microscopic structures. The Company’s microscopy products include laser scanning (confocal) microscopes, compound microscopes and related equipment, surgical and other stereo microscopes and specimen preparation products for electron microscopy. Typical users of these products include research, medical and surgical professionals operating in research and pathology laboratories, academic settings and surgical theaters.
Genomics Consumables—The genomics consumables business is a leading provider of custom nucleic acid products for the life sciences industry, primarily through the manufacture of custom DNA and RNA oligonucleotides and gene fragments utilizing a proprietary manufacturing ecosystem.  The business has developed proprietary technologies for genomics applications such as next generation sequencing, CRISPR genome editing, qPCR, and RNA interference.  The business also manufactures products used in diagnostic tests for many forms of cancer, as well as inherited and infectious diseases.  Typical users of these products include professionals in the areas of academic and commercial research, agriculture, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical development.
Customers served by the Life Sciences segment select products based on a number of factors, including product quality and reliability, the product’s capacity to enhance productivity, innovation (particularly productivity and sensitivity improvements), product performance and ergonomics, access to a service and support network and the other factors described under “—Competition.” The life sciences business generally markets its products under the BECKMAN COULTER, IDT, LEICA MICROSYSTEMS, MOLECULAR DEVICES, PALL, PHENOMENEX and SCIEX brands. Manufacturing facilities are located in North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The business sells to customers through direct sales personnel and independent distributors.

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DIAGNOSTICS
The Company’s Diagnostics segment offers analytical instruments, reagents, consumables, software and services that hospitals, physicians’ offices, reference laboratories and other critical care settings use to diagnose disease and make treatment decisions. Sales in 2018 for this segment by geographic destination were: North America, 38%; Western Europe, 19%; other developed markets, 6% and high-growth markets, 37%.
Danaher established the diagnostics business in 2004 through the acquisition of Radiometer and expanded the business through numerous subsequent acquisitions, including the acquisitions of Vision Systems in 2006, Genetix in 2009, Beckman Coulter in 2011, Iris International and Aperio Technologies in 2012, HemoCue in 2013, Devicor Medical Products in 2014, the clinical microbiology business of Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics in 2015 and Cepheid in 2016. The diagnostics business consists of the following businesses:
Clinical Lab Diagnostics—The clinical lab business is a leading manufacturer and marketer of biomedical testing instruments, systems and related consumables that are used to evaluate and analyze samples made up of body fluids, cells and other substances. The information generated is used to diagnose disease, monitor and guide treatment and therapy, assist in managing chronic disease and assess patient status in hospital, outpatient and physicians’ office settings. The business offers the following products:
chemistry systems use electrochemical detection and chemical reactions with patient samples to detect and quantify substances of diagnostic interest in blood, urine and other body fluids. Commonly performed tests include glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, electrolytes, proteins and enzymes, as well as tests to detect urinary tract infections and kidney and bladder disease.
immunoassay systems also detect and quantify biochemicals of diagnostic interest (such as proteins and hormones) in body fluids, particularly in circumstances where more specialized diagnosis is required. Commonly performed immunoassay tests assess thyroid function, screen and monitor for cancer and cardiac risk and provide important information in fertility and reproductive testing.
hematology products are used for cellular analysis. The business’ hematology systems use principles of physics, optics, electronics and chemistry to separate cells of diagnostic interest and then quantify and characterize them, allowing clinicians to study formed elements in blood (such as red and white blood cells and platelets).
microbiology systems are used for the identification of bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (ID/AST) from human clinical samples, to detect and quantify bacteria related to microbial infections in urine, blood, and other body fluids, and to detect infections such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia and wound infections. The business’ technology enables direct testing of clinical isolates to ensure reliable detection of resistance to antibiotics.
automation systems reduce manual operation and associated cost and errors from the pre-analytical through post-analytical stages including sample barcoding/information tracking, centrifugation, aliquotting, storage and conveyance. These systems along with the analyzers described above are controlled through laboratory level software that enables laboratory managers to monitor samples, results and lab efficiency.
molecular diagnostics products, which are derived from Danaher’s acquisition of Cepheid in 2016, including biomedical testing instruments, systems and related consumables that enable DNA-based testing for organisms and genetic-based diseases in both clinical and non-clinical markets. These products integrate and automate the complicated and time-intensive steps associated with DNA-based testing (including sample preparation and DNA amplification and detection) to allow the testing to be performed in both laboratory and non-laboratory environments with minimal training and infrastructure. These products also include systems which commonly test for health care-associated infections, respiratory disease, sexual health and virology.
Typical users of the segment’s clinical lab products include hospitals, physician’s offices, veterinary laboratories, reference laboratories and pharmaceutical clinical trial laboratories.
Critical Care Diagnostics—The critical care diagnostics business is a leading worldwide provider of instruments, software and related consumables and services that are used in both laboratory and point-of-care environments to rapidly measure critical parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites and cardiac markers, as well as for anemia and high-sensitivity glucose testing. Typical users of these products include hospital central laboratories, intensive care units, hospital operating rooms, hospital emergency rooms, physician’s office laboratories and blood banks.
Anatomical Pathology Diagnostics—The anatomical pathology diagnostics business is a leader in the anatomical pathology industry, offering a comprehensive suite of instrumentation and related consumables used across the entire workflow of a

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pathology laboratory. The anatomical pathology diagnostics products include chemical and immuno-staining instruments, reagents, antibodies and consumables; tissue embedding, processing and slicing (microtomes) instruments and related reagents and consumables; slide coverslipping and slide/cassette marking instruments; imaging instrumentation including slide scanners, microscopes, cameras; software solutions to store, share and analyze pathology images digitally and minimally invasive, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy collection instruments. Typical users of these products include pathologists, lab managers and researchers.
Customers in the diagnostics industry select products based on a number of factors, including product quality and reliability, the scope of tests that can be performed, the accuracy and speed of the product, the product’s ability to enhance productivity, ease of use, total cost of ownership and access to a highly qualified service and support network as well as the other factors described under “—Competition.” The diagnostics business generally markets its products under the APERIO, BECKMAN COULTER, CEPHEID, HEMOCUE, IRIS, LEICA BIOSYSTEMS, MAMMATOME, RADIOMETER and SURGIPATH brands. Manufacturing facilities are located in North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The business sells to customers primarily through direct sales personnel and, to a lesser extent, through independent distributors.
DENTAL
The Company’s Dental segment offers products and services that are used to diagnose, treat and prevent disease and ailments of the teeth, gums and supporting bone, as well as to improve the aesthetics of the human smile. With leading brand names, innovative technology and significant market positions, the Company is a leading worldwide provider of a broad range of dental consumables, equipment and services, and is dedicated to driving technological innovations that help dental professionals improve clinical outcomes and enhance productivity. Sales in 2018 for this segment by geographic destination were: North America, 48%; Western Europe, 23%; other developed markets, 6% and high-growth markets, 23%.
As noted above, we have announced our intention to spin-off Danaher’s Dental business into an independent, publicly-traded company. The Company is targeting to complete the Dental Separation in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final approval from the Danaher Board of Directors, satisfactory completion of financing, receipt of tax opinions, receipt of favorable rulings from the IRS and receipt of other regulatory approvals.
Danaher entered the dental business in 2004 through the acquisitions of KaVo and Gendex and has enhanced its geographic coverage and product and service breadth through subsequent acquisitions, including the acquisition of Sybron Dental Specialties in 2006, PaloDEx Group Oy in 2009, Nobel Biocare Holding AG (“Nobel Biocare”) in 2014 and Implant Direct, as to which Danaher acquired a controlling interest in 2010 and acquired the remaining noncontrolling interest in 2017. Today, the dental businesses develop, manufacture and market the following dental consumables and dental equipment:
implant systems, dental prosthetics and associated treatment planning software;
orthodontic bracket systems, aligners and lab products;
endodontic systems and related consumables;
restorative materials and instruments including rotary burs, impression materials, bonding agents and cements;
infection prevention products;
digital imaging systems and software and other visualization and magnification systems;
air and electric powered handpieces and associated consumables; and
treatment units and other dental practice equipment.
Typical customers and users of these products include general dentists, dental specialists, dental hygienists, dental laboratories and other oral health professionals, as well as educational, medical and governmental entities. These professionals choose dental products based on a number of factors including product performance, innovation, the product’s capacity to enhance productivity and the other factors described under “—Competition.” The dental products are marketed primarily under the ABT, DEXIS, iCAT, IMPLANT DIRECT, KAVO, KERR, METREX, NOBEL BIOCARE, NOBEL PROCERA, ORASCOPTIC, ORMCO, PELTON & CRANE, PENTRON, SYBRON ENDO and TOTAL CARE brands. Manufacturing facilities are located in North America, Europe, Middle East, Latin America, Asia and Australia. Sales are primarily made through independent distributors, and to a lesser extent through direct sales personnel.

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ENVIRONMENTAL & APPLIED SOLUTIONS
The Company’s Environmental & Applied Solutions segment offers products and services that help protect important resources and keep global food and water supplies safe. Sales in 2018 for this segment by geographic destination were: North America, 41%; Western Europe, 24%; other developed markets, 3% and high-growth markets, 32%. The Company’s Environmental & Applied Solutions segment consists of the following lines of business.
Water QualityThe Company’s water quality business provides instrumentation, services and disinfection systems to help analyze, treat and manage the quality of ultra-pure, potable, industrial, waste, ground, source and ocean water in residential, commercial, municipal, industrial and natural resource applications. Danaher entered the water quality sector in the late 1990’s through the acquisitions of Dr. Lange and Hach Company, and has enhanced the geographic coverage and capabilities of its products and services through subsequent acquisitions, including the acquisition of Trojan Technologies Inc. in 2004 and ChemTreat, Inc. in 2007. The water quality business designs, manufactures and markets:
a wide range of analytical instruments, software and related consumables and services that detect and measure chemical, physical and microbiological parameters in ultra-pure, potable, industrial, waste, ground, source and ocean water;
ultraviolet disinfection systems, consumables and services, which disinfect billions of gallons of municipal, industrial and consumer water every day; and
industrial water treatment solutions, including chemical treatment solutions intended to address corrosion, scaling and biological growth problems in boiler, cooling water and industrial wastewater applications as well as associated analytical services.
Typical users of these products and services include professionals in municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment plants and industrial process water and wastewater treatment facilities, third-party testing laboratories and environmental operations. Customers in these industries choose suppliers based on a number of factors including the customer’s existing supplier relationships, application expertise, product performance and ease of use, the comprehensiveness of the supplier’s solutions offering, after-sales service and support and the other factors described under “—Competition.” The water quality business provides products under a variety of brands, including AGUASIN, AQUAFINE, CHEMTREAT, HACH, LIPESA, MCCROMETER, OTT HYDROMET, PALL WATER, SEABIRD, TROJAN AND VIQUA. Manufacturing facilities are primarily located in North America, Europe and Asia. Sales are made through the business’ direct sales personnel, e-commerce, independent representatives and independent distributors.
Product IdentificationThe Company’s product identification business provides equipment, software, services and consumables for various color and appearance management, packaging design and quality management, packaging converting, printing, marking, coding and traceability applications for consumer, pharmaceutical and industrial products. Danaher entered the product identification market through the acquisition of Videojet in 2002, and has expanded the product and geographic coverage through various subsequent acquisitions, including the acquisitions of Willett International Limited in 2003, Linx Printing Technologies PLC in 2005, EskoArtwork in 2011, X-Rite in 2012, Laetus in 2015, Advanced Vision Technology Limited (“AVT”) in 2017 and Blue Software in 2018. The product identification businesses innovate, design, manufacture, and market the following products and services:
the business provides innovative color and appearance solutions through standards, software, measurement devices and related services. The business’ expertise in inspiring, virtualizing, selecting, specifying, formulating and measuring color and appearance helps users improve the quality and relevance of their products and reduces costs.
the business is a leading global provider of software for online collaboration, three-dimensional virtualization, workflow automation, quality approvals and prepress processes to manage structural design, artwork creation, color and product information for branded packaging and marketing materials. Its packaging solutions help consumer goods manufacturers improve their business processes, shorten time to market and reduce costs across internal departments and external suppliers.
the business provides flexographic computer-to-plate imaging equipment, solutions for print process control, press control, quality assurance and digital finishing systems for the packaging, labels and commercial print industries. Its automation, print process and press control solutions help packaging manufacturers reduce lead time and satisfy their customers’ demands for smaller, more frequent print jobs.
the business provides a variety of equipment and solutions used to give products unique identities by printing date, lot and bar codes and other information on primary and secondary packaging, applying high-quality alphanumeric codes, logos and graphics to a wide range of surfaces at a variety of production line speeds, angles and locations on a product

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or package. Its vision inspection and track-and-trace solutions also help pharmaceutical and consumer goods manufacturers safeguard the authenticity of their products through supply chains.
Typical users of these products include manufacturers of consumer goods, pharmaceuticals, paints, plastics and textiles, retailers, graphic design firms and packaging printers and converters. Customers in these industries choose suppliers based on a number of factors, including domain experience, speed and accuracy, ease of connection to the internet and other software systems, equipment uptime and reliable operation without interruption, ease of maintenance, service coverage and the other factors described under “—Competition.” The product identification products are primarily marketed under the AVT, BLUE, ESKO, LAETUS, LINX, MEDIABEACON, PANTONE, VIDEOJET and X-RITE brands. Manufacturing and software development facilities are located in North America, Europe, Latin America and Asia. Sales are generally made through the business’ direct sales personnel, independent distributors and e-commerce.
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The following discussion includes information common to all of Danaher’s segments.
Materials
The Company’s manufacturing operations employ a wide variety of raw materials, including metallic-based components, electronic components, chemicals, plastics and other petroleum-based products. Prices of oil and gas also affect the Company’s costs for freight and utilities. The Company purchases raw materials from a large number of independent sources around the world. No single supplier is material; although for some components that require particular specifications or regulatory or other qualifications there may be a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers that can readily provide such components. The Company utilizes a number of techniques to address potential disruption in and other risks relating to its supply chain, including in certain cases the use of safety stock, alternative materials and qualification of multiple supply sources. During 2018 the Company had no raw material shortages that had a material effect on the business. For a further discussion of risks related to the materials and components required for the Company’s operations, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Intellectual Property
The Company owns numerous patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and licenses to intellectual property owned by others. Although in aggregate the Company’s intellectual property is important to its operations, the Company does not consider any single patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or license (or any related group of any such items) to be of material importance to any segment or to the business as a whole. From time to time the Company engages in litigation to protect its intellectual property rights. For a discussion of risks related to the Company’s intellectual property, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” All capitalized brands and product names throughout this document are trademarks owned by, or licensed to, Danaher.
Competition
Although the Company’s businesses generally operate in highly competitive markets, the Company’s competitive position cannot be determined accurately in the aggregate or by segment since none of its competitors offer all of the same product and service lines or serve all of the same markets as the Company does. Because of the range of the products and services the Company sells and the variety of markets it serves, the Company encounters a wide variety of competitors, including well-established regional competitors, competitors who are more specialized than it is in particular markets, as well as larger companies or divisions of larger companies with substantial sales, marketing, research and financial capabilities. The Company is facing increased competition in a number of its served markets as a result of the entry of new, large companies into certain markets, the entry of competitors based in low-cost manufacturing locations, and increasing consolidation in particular markets. The number of competitors varies by product and service line. Management believes that the Company has a market leadership position in many of the markets it serves. Key competitive factors vary among the Company’s businesses and product and service lines, but include the specific factors noted above with respect to each particular business and typically also include price, quality, delivery speed, service and support, innovation, distribution network, breadth of product, service and software offerings and brand name recognition. For a discussion of risks related to competition, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Working Capital
The Company maintains an adequate level of working capital to support its business needs. There are no unusual industry practices or requirements relating to working capital items. In addition, the Company’s sales and payment terms are generally similar to those of its competitors.


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Backlog
The Company defines backlog as firm orders from customers for products and services where the order will be fulfilled in the next 12 months. Backlog as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 was approximately $2.9 billion and $2.7 billion, respectively. The Company expects that a large majority of the backlog as of December 31, 2018 will be delivered to customers within three to four months of such date. Given the relatively short delivery periods and rapid inventory turnover that are characteristic of most of the Company’s products and the shortening of product life cycles, the Company believes that backlog is indicative of short-term revenue performance but not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.

Employee Relations
As of December 31, 2018, the Company employed approximately 71,000 persons, of whom approximately 24,000 were employed in the United States and approximately 47,000 were employed outside of the United States. Of the United States employees, approximately 400 were hourly-rated, unionized employees. Outside the United States, the Company has government-mandated collective bargaining arrangements and union contracts in certain countries, particularly in Europe where many of the Company’s employees are represented by unions and/or works councils. For a discussion of risks related to employee relations, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Research and Development
The Company conducts R&D activities for the purpose of developing new products, enhancing the functionality, effectiveness, ease of use and reliability of its existing products and expanding the applications for which uses of its products are appropriate. The Company’s R&D efforts include internal initiatives and those that use licensed or acquired technology, and we work with a number of leading research institutions, universities and clinicians around the world to develop, evaluate and clinically test our products. The Company generally conducts R&D activities on a business-by-business basis, primarily in North America, Europe and Asia, although it does conduct certain R&D activities on a centralized basis. The Company anticipates that it will continue to make significant expenditures for R&D as it seeks to provide a continuing flow of innovative products to maintain and improve its competitive position. For a discussion of the risks related to the need to develop and commercialize new products and product enhancements, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Government Contracts
Although the substantial majority of the Company’s revenue in 2018 was from customers other than governmental entities, each of Danaher’s segments has agreements relating to the sale of products to government entities. As a result, the Company is subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with governments. For a discussion of risks related to government contracting requirements, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” No material portion of Danaher’s business is subject to renegotiation of profits or termination of contracts at the election of a government entity.
Regulatory Matters
The Company faces extensive government regulation both within and outside the United States relating to the development, manufacture, marketing, sale and distribution of its products and services. The following sections describe certain significant regulations that the Company is subject to. These are not the only regulations that the Company’s businesses must comply with. For a description of the risks related to the regulations that the Company’s businesses are subject to, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Environmental Laws and Regulations
For a discussion of the environmental laws and regulations that the Company’s operations, products and services are subject to and other environmental contingencies, refer to Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report. For a discussion of risks related to compliance with environmental and health and safety laws and risks related to past or future releases of, or exposures to, hazardous substances, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Medical Device and Other Health Care Regulations
Certain of the products of the Company’s subsidiaries are classified as medical devices under the United States Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the “FDCA”). The FDCA requires these products, when sold in the United States, to be safe and effective for their intended use and to comply with the regulations administered by the United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). These medical device products are also regulated by comparable agencies in other countries where such products are sold.

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The FDA’s regulatory requirements include:
Establishment Registration. The Company’s applicable subsidiaries must register with the FDA each facility where regulated products are developed or manufactured. The FDA periodically inspects these facilities.
Marketing Authorization. The Company’s applicable subsidiaries must obtain FDA clearance or approval to begin marketing a regulated, non-510(k)-exempted product in the United States. For some products, this clearance is obtained by submitting a 510(k) pre-market notification, which generally provides data on the design and performance of the product to allow the FDA to determine substantial equivalence to a product already in commercial distribution in the United States. Other products must go through a formal pre-market approval process which includes the review of non-clinical laboratory studies, clinical investigations, and information on the design and manufacture of the device as well as the successful completion of a pre-market approval inspection by the FDA.
Quality Systems. The Company’s applicable subsidiaries are required to establish a quality management system that includes clearly defined processes and procedures for ensuring regulated products are developed, manufactured and distributed in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements and international standards. These subsidiaries also must establish processes and procedures for investigating and responding to customer complaints regarding the performance of regulated products and are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA for compliance with the quality management system requirements.
Labeling. The labeling for regulated products must contain specified information and in some cases, the FDA reviews and approves the labeling and any quality assurance protocols specified in the labeling. The FDA and other federal, state and non-U.S. regulatory bodies (including the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Justice and various state Attorneys General) also monitor the manner in which the Company’s subsidiaries promote and advertise their products. Although physicians may use their medical judgment to employ medical devices for indications other than those cleared or approved by the FDA, the FDA prohibits manufacturers from promoting products for such “off-label” uses.
Imports and Exports. The FDCA establishes requirements for importing products into and exporting products from the United States. In general, any limitations on importing and exporting products apply only to products that have not received U.S. marketing clearance or approval.
Post-market Reporting. After regulated products have been distributed to customers, the Company’s applicable subsidiaries may receive product complaints requiring them to investigate and report to the FDA certain events involving the products. These subsidiaries also must notify the FDA when they conduct recalls (known as field actions) involving their products.
Conformity with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is monitored rigorously through periodic inspections by the FDA which may result in observations on Form 483 and in some cases warning letters that require corrective action.
In the European Union (“EU”), the Company is required to comply with applicable Medical Device Directives and affix a CE Mark on medical devices that will be placed on the market within the EU. To obtain a CE mark, medical devices must meet minimum standards of performance, safety and quality (known as the Essential Requirements), and then, according to their classification, comply with one or more of a selection of conformity assessment routes. An organization accredited by an EU Member State to certify whether a product meets the Essential Requirements, also known as a Notified Body, assesses the quality management systems of the device’s manufacturer and the device’s conformity to the essential and other requirements within the EU Medical Device or In Vitro Diagnostic (“IVD”) Directives. These EU Directives are being replaced by new sets of pan-EU regulations, which will reclassify medical device and IVD products and require more of those products to go through a formal Notified Body review of the product’s technical files in order to obtain CE marking in the future. Danaher’s medical device companies are also subject to quality system audits by Notified Bodies for compliance and certification to the EU standards. The national regulatory agencies of the EU countries (otherwise known as Competent Authorities), generally in the form of their ministries or departments of health, also oversee clinical research for medical devices, can conduct their own compliance audits and are responsible for postmarket surveillance of products once they are placed on the EU market. The Company’s applicable subsidiaries are required to report device failures and injuries potentially related to product use to these authorities in a timely manner.
A number of other countries, including but not limited to Australia, Brazil, Canada, China and Japan, have also adopted or are in the process of adopting regulations and standards for medical devices sold in those countries.

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In addition to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti-bribery laws, the Company is also subject to various health care related laws regulating fraud and abuse, pricing and sales and marketing practices and the privacy and security of health information, including the United States federal regulations described below. Many states, foreign countries and supranational bodies have also adopted laws and regulations similar to, and in some cases more stringent than, the U.S. federal regulations discussed above and below.
The Federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal health care program, such as Medicare or Medicaid.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) prohibits knowingly and willfully (1) executing a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program, including private payors, or (2) falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for health care benefits, items or services. In addition, HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, also restricts the use and disclosure of patient-identifiable health information, mandates the adoption of standards relating to the privacy and security of patient-identifiable health information and requires the reporting of certain security breaches with respect to such information.
The False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal health care program. The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has submitted a false claim to the federal government, and to share in any monetary recovery.
The Open Payments Act requires manufacturers of medical devices covered under Medicare and Medicaid to record payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals and to report this data to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for subsequent public disclosure. Similar reporting requirements have also been enacted on the state level, and an increasing number of countries worldwide either have adopted or are considering similar laws requiring transparency of interactions with health care professionals.
In addition:
certain products of the Company’s subsidiaries utilize radioactive material, and the Company is subject to federal, state, local and non-U.S. regulations governing the management, storage, handling and disposal of these materials; and
some of the in vitro diagnostic drugs-of-abuse assays and reagents of the Company’s subsidiaries contain small amounts of controlled substances, and as a result some of the Company’s facilities are inspected periodically by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration to ensure that the Company properly handles, stores, and disposes of controlled substances in the manufacture of those products.
For a discussion of risks related to regulation by the FDA and comparable agencies of other countries, and the other regulatory regimes referenced above, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Export/Import Compliance
The Company is required to comply with various U.S. export/import control and economic sanctions laws, including:
the International Traffic in Arms Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, which, among other things, imposes license requirements on the export from the United States of defense articles and defense services listed on the U.S. Munitions List;
the Export Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, which, among other things, impose licensing requirements on the export, in-country transfer and re-export of certain dual-use goods, technology and software (which are items that have both commercial and military, or proliferation applications);
the regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, which implement economic sanctions imposed against designated countries, governments and persons based on United States foreign policy and national security considerations; and
the import regulatory activities of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection and other U.S. government agencies.

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Other nations’ governments have implemented similar export/import control and economic sanction regulations, which may affect the Company’s operations or transactions subject to their jurisdictions. For a discussion of risks related to export/import control and economic sanctions laws, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

International Operations
The Company’s products and services are available worldwide, and its principal markets outside the United States are in Europe and Asia. The Company also has operations around the world, and this geographic diversity allows the Company to draw on the skills of a worldwide workforce, provides greater stability to its operations, allows the Company to drive economies of scale, provides revenue streams that may help offset economic trends that are specific to individual economies and offers the Company an opportunity to access new markets for products. In addition, the Company believes that future growth depends in part on its ability to continue developing products and sales models that successfully target high-growth markets.
The manner in which the Company’s products and services are sold outside the United States differs by business and by region. Most of the Company’s sales in non-U.S. markets are made by its subsidiaries located outside the United States, though the Company also sells directly from the United States into non-U.S. markets through various representatives and distributors and, in some cases, directly. In countries with low sales volumes, the Company generally sells through representatives and distributors.
Information about the effects of foreign currency fluctuations on the Company’s business is set forth in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in this Annual Report. For a discussion of risks related to the Company’s non-U.S. operations and foreign currency exchange, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Major Customers
No customer accounted for more than 10% of consolidated sales in 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Available Information
The Company maintains an internet website at www.danaher.com. The Company makes available free of charge on the website its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material with, or furnishing such material to, the SEC. Danaher’s internet site and the information contained on or connected to that site are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other documents we file with the SEC. The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we have identified as material, but are not the only risks and uncertainties facing us. Our business is also subject to general risks and uncertainties that affect many other companies, such as market conditions, economic conditions, geopolitical events, changes in laws, regulations or accounting rules, fluctuations in interest rates, terrorism, wars or conflicts, major health concerns, natural disasters or other disruptions of expected business conditions. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial also may impair our business, including our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
We intend to spin-off our Dental business into an independent, publicly-traded company in the second half of 2019. The proposed transaction may not be completed on the currently contemplated timeline or at all and may not achieve the intended benefits.
We have announced our intention to spin-off Danaher’s Dental business into an independent, publicly-traded company in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final approval from the Danaher Board of Directors, satisfactory completion of financing, receipt of tax opinions, receipt of favorable rulings from the IRS and receipt of other regulatory approvals. Unanticipated developments, including possible delays in obtaining various tax rulings, regulatory approvals or clearances and trade qualifications, uncertainty of the financial markets or changes in the Company’s cash requirements and challenges in establishing infrastructure or processes, could delay or prevent the proposed separation or cause the proposed separation to occur on terms or conditions that are less favorable and/or different than expected. Even if the transaction is completed, we may not realize some or all of the anticipated benefits from the spin-off. Expenses incurred to accomplish the proposed separation may be significantly higher than what we currently anticipate. Executing the proposed separation also requires significant time and attention from management, which could distract them from other tasks in

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operating our business. Following the proposed separation, the combined value of the common stock of the two publicly-traded companies may not be equal to or greater than what the value of our common stock would have been had the proposed separation not occurred.
Conditions in the global economy, the particular markets we serve and the financial markets may adversely affect our business and financial statements.
Our business is sensitive to general economic conditions. Slower global economic growth, actual or anticipated default on sovereign debt, volatility in the currency and credit markets, high levels of unemployment or underemployment, reduced levels of capital expenditures, changes or anticipation of potential changes in government trade, fiscal, tax and monetary policies, changes in capital requirements for financial institutions, government deficit reduction and budget negotiation dynamics, sequestration, austerity measures and other challenges that affect the global economy may adversely affect the Company and its distributors, customers and suppliers, including having the effect of:
reducing demand for our products and services (in this Annual Report, references to products and services also includes software), limiting the financing available to our customers and suppliers, increasing order cancellations and resulting in longer sales cycles and slower adoption of new technologies;
increasing the difficulty in collecting accounts receivable and the risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
increasing price competition in our served markets;
supply interruptions, which could disrupt our ability to produce our products;
increasing the risk of impairment of goodwill and other long-lived assets, and the risk that we may not be able to fully recover the value of other assets such as real estate and tax assets;
increasing the risk that counterparties to our contractual arrangements will become insolvent or otherwise unable to fulfill their contractual obligations which, in addition to increasing the risks identified above, could result in preference actions against us; and
adversely impacting market sizes and growth rates.
Although we have been able to access the commercial paper and other capital markets through the date of this report, there can be no assurances that such markets will remain available to us or that the lenders participating in our revolving credit facility will be able to provide financing in accordance with their contractual obligations.
If growth in the global economy or in any of the markets we serve slows for a significant period, if there is significant deterioration in the global economy or such markets or if improvements in the global economy do not benefit the markets we serve, our business and financial statements could be adversely affected.
Significant developments or uncertainties stemming from the U.S. administration, including changes in U.S. trade policies, tariffs and the reaction of other countries thereto, could have an adverse effect on our business.
Changes, potential changes or uncertainties in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, and development and investment in the territories and countries where we or our customers operate, or governing the health care system and drug prices could adversely affect our business and financial statements. For example, the U.S. administration has increased tariffs on certain goods imported into the United States, raised the possibility of imposing significant, additional tariff increases and called for substantial changes to trade agreements. These factors have adversely affected, and in the future could further adversely affect, our business and financial statements.
Our growth could suffer if the markets into which we sell our products and services decline, do not grow as anticipated or experience cyclicality.
Our growth depends in part on the growth of the markets which we serve, and visibility into our markets is limited (particularly for markets into which we sell through distribution). Our quarterly sales and profits depend substantially on the volume and timing of orders received during the fiscal quarter, which are difficult to forecast. Any decline or lower than expected growth in our served markets could diminish demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our financial statements. Certain of our businesses operate in industries that may experience periodic, cyclical downturns. In addition, in certain of our businesses demand depends on customers’ capital spending budgets as well as government funding policies, and matters of public policy and government budget dynamics as well as product and economic cycles can affect the spending decisions of these entities. Demand for our products and services is also sensitive to changes in customer order patterns, which

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may be affected by announced price changes, marketing or promotional programs, new product introductions, the timing of industry trade shows and changes in distributor or customer inventory levels due to distributor or customer management thereof or other factors. Any of these factors could adversely affect our growth and results of operations in any given period.
We face intense competition and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may experience decreased demand and decreased market share. Even if we compete effectively, we may be required to reduce prices for our products and services.
Our businesses operate in industries that are intensely competitive and have been subject to increasing consolidation. Because of the range of the products and services we sell and the variety of markets we serve, we encounter a wide variety of competitors; refer to “Item 1. Business—Competition” for additional details. In order to compete effectively, we must retain longstanding relationships with major customers and continue to grow our business by establishing relationships with new customers, continually developing new products and services to maintain and expand our brand recognition and leadership position in various product and service categories and penetrating new markets, including high-growth markets. In addition, significant shifts in industry market share have occurred and may in the future occur in connection with product problems, safety alerts and publications about products, reflecting the competitive significance of product quality, product efficacy and quality systems in our industry. Our failure to compete effectively and/or pricing pressures resulting from competition may adversely impact our financial statements, and our expansion into new markets may result in greater-than-expected risks, liabilities and expenses. In addition, the Company is exposed to the risk that its competitors or its customers may introduce private label, generic or low-cost products that compete with the Company’s products at lower price points. If these competitors’ products capture significant market share or result in a decrease in market prices overall, this could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Our growth depends in part on the timely development and commercialization, and customer acceptance, of new and enhanced products and services based on technological innovation.
We generally sell our products and services in industries that are characterized by rapid technological changes, frequent new product introductions and changing industry standards. If we do not develop innovative new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis, our offerings will become obsolete over time and our competitive position and financial statements will suffer. Our success will depend on several factors, including our ability to:
correctly identify customer needs and preferences and predict future needs and preferences;
allocate our R&D funding to products and services with higher growth prospects;
anticipate and respond to our competitors’ development of new products and services and technological innovations;
differentiate our offerings from our competitors’ offerings and avoid commoditization;
innovate and develop new technologies and applications, and acquire or obtain rights to third-party technologies that may have valuable applications in our served markets;
obtain adequate intellectual property rights with respect to key technologies before our competitors do;
successfully commercialize new technologies in a timely manner, price them competitively and cost-effectively manufacture and deliver sufficient volumes of new products of appropriate quality on time;
obtain necessary regulatory approvals of appropriate scope (including with respect to medical device products by demonstrating satisfactory clinical results where applicable, as well as achieving third-party reimbursement); and
stimulate customer demand for and convince customers to adopt new technologies.
If we fail to accurately predict future customer needs and preferences or fail to produce viable technologies, we may invest heavily in R&D of products and services that do not lead to significant revenue, which would adversely affect our profitability. Even if we successfully innovate and develop new and enhanced products and services, we may incur substantial costs in doing so, and our profitability may suffer. In addition, promising new offerings may fail to reach the market or realize only limited commercial success because of real or perceived efficacy or safety concerns, failure to achieve positive clinical outcomes, uncertainty over third-party reimbursement or entrenched patterns of clinical practice. Competitors may also develop after-market services and parts for our products which attract customers and adversely affect our return on investment for new products.

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Our reputation, ability to do business and financial statements may be impaired by improper conduct by any of our employees, agents or business partners.
We cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from acts committed by employees, agents or business partners of ours (or of businesses we acquire or partner with) that would violate U.S. and/or non-U.S. laws, including the laws governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, kickbacks and false claims, pricing, sales and marketing practices, conflicts of interest, competition, employment practices and workplace behavior, export and import compliance, money laundering and data privacy. In particular, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, and we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could damage our reputation and subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the United States and in other jurisdictions and related shareholder lawsuits, could lead to substantial civil and criminal, monetary and nonmonetary penalties and could cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees. In addition, the government may seek to hold us liable for violations committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire. We also rely on our suppliers to adhere to our supplier standards of conduct, and material violations of such standards of conduct could occur that could have a material effect on our business, reputation and financial statements.
Certain of our businesses are subject to extensive regulation by the U.S. FDA and by comparable agencies of other countries, as well as laws regulating fraud and abuse in the health care industry and the privacy and security of health information. Failure to comply with those regulations could adversely affect our reputation, ability to do business and financial statements.
Certain of our products are medical devices and other products that are subject to regulation by the U.S. FDA, by other federal and state governmental agencies, by comparable agencies of other countries and regions, by certain accrediting bodies and by regulations governing hazardous materials and drugs-of abuse (or the manufacture and sale of products containing any such materials). The global regulatory environment has become increasingly stringent and unpredictable. Several countries that did not have regulatory requirements for medical devices have established such requirements in recent years, and other countries have expanded, or plan to expand, their existing regulations. For example, the EU has adopted the EU Medical Device Regulation (the “EU MDR”) and the In Vitro Diagnostic Regulation (the “EU IVDR”), each of which impose stricter requirements for the marketing and sale of medical devices, including in the area of clinical evaluation requirements, quality systems and post-market surveillance. Manufacturers of currently approved medical devices will have until May 2020 to meet the requirements of the EU MDR and until May 2022 to meet the EU IVDR. Failure to meet these requirements could adversely impact our business in the EU and other regions that tie their product registrations to the EU requirements.
To varying degrees, these regulators require us to comply with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing, distribution and post-marketing surveillance of our products. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain regulatory clearance (such as 510(k) clearance) or approvals for our new products or modifications to (or additional indications or uses of) existing products within our anticipated timeframe or at all, and if we do obtain such clearance or approval it may be time-consuming, costly and subject to restrictions. Our ability to obtain such regulatory clearances or approvals will depend on many factors, for example our ability to obtain the necessary clinical trial results, and the process for obtaining such clearances or approvals could change over time and may require the withdrawal of products from the market until such clearances are obtained. Even after initial regulatory clearance or approval, we are subject to periodic inspection by these regulatory authorities, and if safety issues arise we may be required to amend conditions for use of a product, such as providing additional warnings on the product’s label or narrowing its approved intended use, which could reduce the product’s market acceptance. Failure to obtain required regulatory clearances or approvals before marketing our products (or before implementing modifications to or promoting additional indications or uses of our products), other violations of these regulations, failure to remediate inspectional observations to the satisfaction of these regulatory authorities, real or perceived efficacy or safety concerns or trends of adverse events with respect to our products (even after obtaining clearance for distribution) and unfavorable or inconsistent clinical data from existing or future clinical trials can lead to FDA Form 483 Inspectional Observations, warning letters, notices to customers, declining sales, loss of customers, loss of market share, remediation and increased compliance costs, recalls, seizures of adulterated or misbranded products, injunctions, administrative detentions, refusals to permit importations, partial or total shutdown of production facilities or the implementation of operating restrictions, narrowing of permitted uses for a product, suspension or withdrawal of approvals and pre-market notification rescissions. We are also subject to various laws regulating fraud and abuse, pricing and sales and marketing practices in the health care industry and the privacy and security of health information, including the federal regulations described in “Item 1. Business—Regulatory Matters.”

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Failure to comply with applicable regulations could result in the adverse effects referenced below under “Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation; failure to comply with those regulations could adversely affect our financial statements and our business, including our reputation.” Compliance with regulations may also require us to incur significant expenses.
Our products are subject to clinical trials, the results of which may be unexpected, or perceived as unfavorable by the market, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
As a part of the regulatory process of obtaining marketing clearance for new products and new indications for existing products, we conduct and participate in numerous clinical trials with a variety of study designs, patient populations and trial endpoints. Unexpected or inconsistent clinical data from existing or future clinical trials, or a regulator’s or the market’s perception of this clinical data, may adversely impact our ability to obtain product approvals, our position in, and share of, the markets in which we participate and our business and financial statements.
The health care industry and related industries that we serve have undergone, and are in the process of undergoing, significant changes in an effort to reduce costs, which could adversely affect our financial statements.
The health care industry and related industries that we serve have undergone, and are in the process of undergoing, significant changes in an effort to reduce costs, including the following:
many of our customers, and the end-users to whom our customers supply products, rely on government funding of and reimbursement for health care products and services and research activities. The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “PPACA”), health care austerity measures in other countries and other potential health care reform changes and government austerity measures have reduced and may further reduce the amount of government funding or reimbursement available to customers or end-users of our products and services and/or the volume of medical procedures using our products and services. For example, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, or PAMA, introduced a multi-year pricing program for services payable under the Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule (“CLFS”) that is designed to bring Medicare allowable amounts in line with the amounts paid by private payers.  It is still unclear whether and to what extent these new rates will affect overall pricing and reimbursement for clinical laboratory testing services, but if our customers conclude that Medicare reimbursement for these services is inadequate, it could in turn adversely impact the prices at which we sell our products. Other countries, as well as some private payors also control the price of health care products, directly or indirectly, through reimbursement, payment, pricing or coverage limitations, tying reimbursement to outcomes or (in the case of governmental entities) through compulsory licensing. Global economic uncertainty or deterioration can also adversely impact government funding and reimbursement.
the PPACA imposes on medical device manufacturers, such as Danaher, a 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of certain medical devices. The excise tax has been suspended until the end of 2019, but the Company would be subject to the tax beginning in 2020.
governmental and private health care providers and payors around the world are increasingly utilizing managed care for the delivery of health care services, centralizing purchasing, limiting the number of vendors that may participate in purchasing programs, forming group purchasing organizations and integrated health delivery networks and pursuing consolidation to improve their purchasing leverage and using competitive bid processes to procure health care products and services.
These changes as well as other impacts from market demand, government regulations, third-party coverage and reimbursement policies and societal pressures have started changing the way healthcare is delivered, reimbursed and funded and may cause participants in the health care industry and related industries that we serve to purchase fewer of our products and services, reduce the prices they are willing to pay for our products or services, reduce the amounts of reimbursement and funding available for our products and services from governmental agencies or third-party payors, heighten clinical data requirements, reduce the volume of medical procedures that use our products and services, affect the acceptance rate of new technologies and products and increase our compliance and other costs. In addition, we may be excluded from important market segments or unable to enter into contracts with group purchasing organizations and integrated health networks on terms acceptable to us, and even if we do enter into such contracts they may be on terms that negatively affect our current or future profitability. All of the factors described above could adversely affect our business and financial statements.

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Any inability to consummate acquisitions at our historical rate and at appropriate prices, and to make appropriate investments that support our long-term strategy, could negatively impact our growth rate and stock price.
Our ability to grow revenues, earnings and cash flow at or above our historic rates depends in part upon our ability to identify and successfully acquire and integrate businesses at appropriate prices and realize anticipated synergies, and to make appropriate investments that support our long-term strategy. We may not be able to consummate acquisitions at rates similar to the past, which could adversely impact our growth rate and our stock price. Promising acquisitions and investments are difficult to identify and complete for a number of reasons, including high valuations, competition among prospective buyers, the availability of affordable funding in the capital markets and the need to satisfy applicable closing conditions and obtain applicable antitrust and other regulatory approvals on acceptable terms. In addition, competition for acquisitions and investments may result in higher purchase prices. Changes in accounting or regulatory requirements or instability in the credit markets could also adversely impact our ability to consummate acquisitions and investments.
Our acquisition of businesses, investments, joint ventures and other strategic relationships could negatively impact our financial statements.
As part of our business strategy we acquire businesses, make investments and enter into joint ventures and other strategic relationships in the ordinary course, and we also from time to time complete more significant transactions; refer to “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (“MD&A”) for additional details. Acquisitions, investments, joint ventures and strategic relationships involve a number of financial, accounting, managerial, operational, legal, compliance and other risks and challenges, including the following, any of which could adversely affect our business and our financial statements:
any business, technology, service or product that we acquire or invest in could under-perform relative to our expectations and the price that we paid or not perform in accordance with our anticipated timetable, or we could fail to operate any such business profitably.
we may incur or assume significant debt in connection with our acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic relationships, which could also cause a deterioration of Danaher’s credit ratings, result in increased borrowing costs and interest expense and diminish our future access to the capital markets.
acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic relationships could cause our financial results to differ from our own or the investment community’s expectations in any given period, or over the long-term.
pre-closing and post-closing earnings charges could adversely impact operating results in any given period, and the impact may be substantially different from period-to-period.
acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic relationships could create demands on our management, operational resources and financial and internal control systems that we are unable to effectively address.
we could experience difficulty in integrating personnel, operations and financial and other controls and systems and retaining key employees and customers.
we may be unable to achieve cost savings or other synergies anticipated in connection with an acquisition, investment, joint venture or strategic relationship.
we may assume unknown liabilities, known contingent liabilities that become realized, known liabilities that prove greater than anticipated, internal control deficiencies or exposure to regulatory sanctions resulting from the acquired company’s or investee’s activities and the realization of any of these liabilities or deficiencies may increase our expenses, adversely affect our financial position or cause us to fail to meet our public financial reporting obligations.
in connection with acquisitions and joint ventures, we often enter into post-closing financial arrangements such as purchase price adjustments, earn-out obligations and indemnification obligations, which may have unpredictable financial results.
as a result of our acquisitions and investments, we have recorded significant goodwill and other assets on our balance sheet and if we are not able to realize the value of these assets, or if the fair value of our investments declines, we may be required to incur impairment charges.
we may have interests that diverge from those of our joint venture partners or other strategic partners and we may not be able to direct the management and operations of the joint venture or other strategic relationship in the manner we believe is most appropriate, exposing us to additional risk.

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investing in or making loans to early-stage companies often entails a high degree of risk, and we may not achieve the strategic, technological, financial or commercial benefits we anticipate; we may lose our investment or fail to recoup our loan; or our investment may be illiquid for a greater-than-expected period of time.
The indemnification provisions of acquisition agreements by which we have acquired companies may not fully protect us and as a result we may face unexpected liabilities.
Certain of the acquisition agreements by which we have acquired companies require the former owners to indemnify us against certain liabilities related to the operation of the company before we acquired it. In most of these agreements, however, the liability of the former owners is limited and certain former owners may be unable to meet their indemnification responsibilities. We cannot assure you that these indemnification provisions will protect us fully or at all, and as a result we may face unexpected liabilities that adversely affect our financial statements.
Divestitures or other dispositions could negatively impact our business, and contingent liabilities from businesses that we have sold could adversely affect our financial statements.
We continually assess the strategic fit of our existing businesses and may divest, spin-off, split-off or otherwise dispose of businesses that are deemed not to fit with our strategic plan or are not achieving the desired return on investment. For example, we split-off our communications business in 2015, spun-off our Fortive business in 2016 and have announced our intention to spin-off our Dental business in 2019. Transactions such as these pose risks and challenges that could negatively impact our business and financial statements. For example, when we decide to sell or otherwise dispose of a business or assets, we may be unable to do so on satisfactory terms within our anticipated timeframe or at all, and even after reaching a definitive agreement to sell or dispose a business the sale is typically subject to satisfaction of pre-closing conditions which may not become satisfied. In addition, divestitures or other dispositions may dilute the Company’s earnings per share, have other adverse financial, tax and accounting impacts and distract management, and disputes may arise with buyers. In addition, we have retained responsibility for and/or have agreed to indemnify buyers against some known and unknown contingent liabilities related to a number of businesses we have sold or disposed. The resolution of these contingencies has not had a material effect on our financial statements but we cannot be certain that this favorable pattern will continue.
We could incur significant liability if the anticipated spin-off of our Dental business, 2016 spin-off of Fortive Corporation (“Fortive”) or the 2015 split-off of our communications business is determined to be a taxable transaction.
In July 2015, the Company consummated the split-off of the majority of its former communications business to Danaher shareholders who elected to exchange Danaher shares for ownership interests in the communications business, and the subsequent merger of the communications business with a subsidiary of NetScout Systems, Inc. Danaher shareholders who participated in the exchange offer tendered 26 million shares of Danaher common stock (approximately $2.3 billion on the date of tender) and received 62.5 million shares of NetScout common stock which represented approximately 60% of the shares of NetScout common stock outstanding following the combination.
On July 2, 2016, Danaher completed the separation (the “Fortive Separation”) of its former Test & Measurement segment, Industrial Technologies segment (excluding the product identification businesses) and retail/commercial petroleum business by distributing to Danaher stockholders on a pro rata basis all of the issued and outstanding common stock of Fortive, the entity Danaher incorporated to hold such businesses. To effect the Fortive Separation, Danaher distributed to its stockholders one share of Fortive common stock for every two shares of Danaher common stock outstanding as of June 15, 2016, the record date for the distribution.
As noted above, we have also announced our intention to spin-off Danaher’s Dental business into an independent, publicly-traded company in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions.
We have received opinions from outside tax counsel to the effect that each of the Fortive Separation in 2016 and the split-off of our communications business in 2015 qualifies as a transaction that is described in Sections 355(a) and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code, and we anticipate receiving a similar opinion with respect to the planned Dental spin-off. The opinions relating to the Fortive spin-off and communications split-off rely (and we anticipate the opinion related to the Dental spin-off will rely) on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not satisfied, our stockholders and we may not be able to rely on the respective opinion of tax counsel and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the opinion of tax counsel, the IRS could determine on audit that any such separations are taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the respective opinion. If any such transaction is determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our stockholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax and we could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities.

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Potential indemnification liabilities pursuant to the 2016 spin-off of Fortive and the 2015 split-off of our communications business could materially and adversely affect our business and financial statements.
We entered into a separation and distribution agreement and related agreements with Fortive to govern the Fortive Separation and the relationship between the two companies going forward. We entered into similar agreements with NetScout Systems, Inc. in connection with the split-off of our communications business and anticipate entering into similar agreements in connection with the spin-off of our Dental business. These agreements provide for specific indemnity and liability obligations of each party and could lead to disputes between us. If we are required to indemnify the other parties under the circumstances set forth in these agreements, we may be subject to substantial liabilities. In addition, with respect to the liabilities for which the other parties have agreed to indemnify us under these agreements, there can be no assurance that the indemnity rights we have against such other parties will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of the liabilities, or that such other parties will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. It is also possible that a court could disregard the allocation of assets and liabilities agreed to between Danaher and such other parties and require Danaher to assume responsibility for obligations allocated to such other parties. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business and financial statements.
A significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our information technology systems or data or violation of data privacy laws could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
We rely on information technology systems, some of which are provided and/or managed by third-parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information (including sensitive data such as confidential business information and personally identifiable data relating to employees, customers, other business partners and patients), and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities (such as receiving and fulfilling orders, billing, collecting and making payments, shipping products, providing services and support to customers and fulfilling contractual obligations). In addition, some of our remote monitoring products and services incorporate software and information technology that may house personal data and some products or software we sell to customers may connect to our systems for maintenance or other purposes. These systems, products and services (including those we acquire through business acquisitions) may be damaged, disrupted or shut down due to attacks by computer hackers, computer viruses, ransomware, human error or malfeasance, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication or utility failures, catastrophes or other unforeseen events, and in any such circumstances our system redundancy and other disaster recovery planning may be ineffective or inadequate. Attacks may also target hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted in our products after such products have been purchased and incorporated into third-party products, facilities or infrastructure. Security breaches of systems provided or enabled by us, regardless of whether the breach is attributable to a vulnerability in our products or services, could result in the misappropriation, destruction or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or personal data belonging to us or to our employees, partners, customers, patients or suppliers. Like most multinational corporations, our information technology systems have been subject to computer viruses, malicious codes, unauthorized access and other cyber-attacks and we expect the sophistication and frequency of such attacks to continue to increase. Unauthorized tampering, adulteration or interference with our products may also adversely affect product functionality and result in loss of data, risk to patient safety and product recalls or field actions. Any of the attacks, breaches or other disruptions or damage described above could interrupt our operations or the operations of our customers and partners, delay production and shipments, result in theft of our and our customers’ intellectual property and trade secrets, damage customer, patient, business partner and employee relationships and our reputation or result in defective products or services, legal claims and proceedings, liability and penalties under privacy laws and increased costs for security and remediation, each of which could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
If we are unable to maintain reliable information technology systems and appropriate controls with respect to global data privacy and security requirements and prevent data breaches, we may suffer adverse regulatory consequences, business consequences and litigation. As a global organization, we are subject to data privacy and security laws, regulations, and customer-imposed controls in numerous jurisdictions as a result of having access to and processing confidential, personal and/or sensitive data in the course of our business. For example, in the United States, HIPAA privacy and security rules require certain of our operations to maintain controls to protect the availability and confidentiality of patient health information, individual states regulate data breach and security requirements and multiple governmental bodies assert authority over aspects of the protection of personal privacy. The new EU General Data Protection Regulation, which became effective in May 2018, has imposed significantly stricter requirements in how we collect and process personal data, including, among other things, a requirement for prompt notice of data breaches to data subjects and supervisory authorities in certain circumstances and significant fines for non-compliance. Several other countries such as China and Russia have passed, and other countries are considering passing, laws that require personal data relating to their citizens to be maintained on local servers and impose additional data transfer restrictions. Government enforcement actions can be costly and interrupt the regular operation of our business, and data breaches or violations of data privacy laws can result in fines, reputational damage and civil lawsuits, any of which may adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements. In addition, compliance with the varying data privacy regulations around the world has required significant expenditures and may require additional expenditures, and may require changes in our products or business models that increase competition or reduce revenue.

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Our operations, products and services expose us to the risk of environmental, health and safety liabilities, costs and violations that could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Our operations, products and services are subject to environmental laws and regulations, which impose limitations on the discharge of pollutants into the environment, establish standards for the use, generation, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes and impose end-of-life disposal and take-back programs. We must also comply with various health and safety regulations in the United States and abroad in connection with our operations. We cannot assure you that our environmental, health and safety compliance program (or the compliance programs of businesses we acquire) have been or will at all times be effective. Failure to comply with any of these laws could result in civil and criminal, monetary and nonmonetary penalties and damage to our reputation. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that our costs of complying with current or future environmental protection and health and safety laws will not exceed our estimates or adversely affect our financial statements.
In addition, we may incur costs related to remedial efforts or alleged environmental damage associated with past or current waste disposal practices or other hazardous materials handling practices. We are also from time to time party to personal injury, property damage or other claims brought by private parties alleging injury or damage due to the presence of or exposure to hazardous substances. We may also become subject to additional remedial, compliance or personal injury costs due to future events such as changes in existing laws or regulations, changes in agency direction or enforcement policies, developments in remediation technologies, changes in the conduct of our operations and changes in accounting rules. For additional information regarding these risks, refer to Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report. We cannot assure you that our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposures to, hazardous substances will not exceed our estimates or adversely affect our reputation and financial statements or that we will not be subject to additional claims for personal injury or remediation in the future based on our past, present or future business activities. However, based on the information we currently have we do not believe that it is reasonably possible that any amounts we may be required to pay in connection with environmental matters in excess of our reserves as of December 31, 2018 will have a material effect on our financial statements.
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation; failure to comply with those regulations could adversely affect our financial statements and our business, including our reputation.
In addition to the environmental, health, safety, health care, medical device, anticorruption, data privacy and other regulations noted elsewhere in this Annual Report, our businesses are subject to extensive regulation by U.S. and non-U.S. governmental and self-regulatory entities at the supranational, federal, state, local and other jurisdictional levels, including the following:
we are required to comply with various import laws and export control and economic sanctions laws, which may affect our transactions with certain customers, business partners and other persons and dealings between our employees and between our subsidiaries. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations may prohibit the export of certain products, services and technologies. In other circumstances, we may be required to obtain an export license before exporting the controlled item. Compliance with the various import laws that apply to our businesses can restrict our access to, and increase the cost of obtaining, certain products and at times can interrupt our supply of imported inventory.
we also have agreements to sell products and services to government entities and are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with government entities. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts. For example, many government contracts contain pricing and other terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. Our agreements with government entities may be subject to termination, reduction or modification at the convenience of the government or in the event of changes in government requirements, reductions in federal spending and other factors, and we may underestimate our costs of performing under the contract.  In certain cases, a governmental entity may require us to pay back amounts it has paid to us. Government contracts that have been awarded to us following a bid process could become the subject of a bid protest by a losing bidder, which could result in loss of the contract. We are also subject to investigation and audit for compliance with the requirements governing government contracts.
These are not the only regulations that our businesses must comply with. The regulations we are subject to have tended to become more stringent over time and may be inconsistent across jurisdictions. We, our representatives and the industries in which we operate may at times be under review and/or investigation by regulatory authorities. Failure to comply (or any alleged or perceived failure to comply) with the regulations referenced above or any other regulations could result in civil and criminal, monetary and nonmonetary penalties, and any such failure or alleged failure (or becoming subject to a regulatory enforcement investigation) could also damage our reputation, disrupt our business, limit our ability to manufacture, import, export and sell products and services, result in loss of customers and disbarment from selling to certain federal agencies and

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cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees. Compliance with these and other regulations may also affect our returns on investment, require us to incur significant expenses or modify our business model or impair our flexibility in modifying product, marketing, pricing or other strategies for growing our business. Our products and operations are also often subject to the rules of industrial standards bodies such as the International Standards Organization, and failure to comply with these rules could result in withdrawal of certifications needed to sell our products and services and otherwise adversely impact our business and financial statements. For additional information regarding these risks, refer to “Item 1. Business—Regulatory Matters.”
Our restructuring actions could have long-term adverse effects on our business.
In recent years, we have implemented significant restructuring activities across our businesses to adjust our cost structure, and we may engage in similar restructuring activities in the future. These restructuring activities and our regular ongoing cost reduction activities (including in connection with the integration of acquired businesses) reduce our available talent, assets and other resources and could slow improvements in our products and services, adversely affect our ability to respond to customers, limit our ability to increase production quickly if demand for our products increases and trigger adverse public attention. In addition, delays in implementing planned restructuring activities or other productivity improvements, unexpected costs or failure to meet targeted improvements may diminish the operational or financial benefits we expect to realize from such actions. Any of the circumstances described above could adversely impact our business and financial statements.
We may be required to recognize impairment charges for our goodwill and other intangible assets.
As of December 31, 2018, the net carrying value of our goodwill and other intangible assets totaled approximately $37.6 billion. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, we periodically assess these assets to determine if they are impaired. Significant negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business, inability to effectively integrate acquired businesses, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in use of our assets, changes in the structure of our business, divestitures, market capitalization declines, or increases in associated discount rates may impair our goodwill and other intangible assets. Any charges relating to such impairments would adversely affect our results of operations in the periods recognized.
Foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our financial statements.
Sales and purchases in currencies other than the U.S. dollar expose us to fluctuations in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar and may adversely affect our financial statements. Increased strength of the U.S. dollar increases the effective price of our products sold in U.S. dollars into other countries, which may require us to lower our prices or adversely affect sales to the extent we do not increase local currency prices. Decreased strength of the U.S. dollar could adversely affect the cost of materials, products and services we purchase overseas. Sales and expenses of our non-U.S. businesses are also translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes and the strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar could result in unfavorable translation effects. In addition, certain of our businesses may invoice customers in a currency other than the business’ functional currency, and movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could also result in unfavorable translation effects. The Company also faces exchange rate risk from its investments in subsidiaries owned and operated in foreign countries.
Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional income tax liabilities or assessments could affect our profitability. In addition, audits by tax authorities could result in additional tax payments for prior periods.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and in numerous non-U.S. jurisdictions.  On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was enacted.  The TCJA significantly revised the U.S. federal corporate income tax law by, among other things, lowering the corporate income tax rate to 21.0%, implementing a territorial tax system, and imposing a one-time tax on unremitted cumulative non-U.S. earnings of foreign subsidiaries (“Transition Tax”).  The U.S. Treasury Department and IRS continue to issue regulations with respect to implementing the TCJA and further regulations are expected to be issued.
Due to the potential for changes to tax laws and regulations or changes to the interpretation thereof (including regulations and interpretations pertaining to the TCJA), the ambiguity of tax laws and regulations, the subjectivity of factual interpretations, the complexity of our intercompany arrangements, uncertainties regarding the geographic mix of earnings in any particular period, and other factors, our estimates of effective tax rate and income tax assets and liabilities may be incorrect and our financial statements could be adversely affected; please refer to MD&A for a discussion of additional factors that may adversely affect our effective tax rate and decrease our profitability in any period.  The impact of these factors referenced in the first sentence of this paragraph may be substantially different from period-to-period. 
In addition, the amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits by U.S. federal, state and local tax authorities and by non-U.S. tax authorities, such as the audits described in MD&A and the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.  If audits result in payments or assessments different from our reserves, our future results may include unfavorable adjustments to

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our tax liabilities and our financial statements could be adversely affected.  Any further significant changes to the tax system in the United States or in other jurisdictions (including changes in the taxation of international income as further described below) could adversely affect our financial statements.
Changes in tax law relating to multinational corporations could adversely affect our tax position.
The U.S. Congress, government agencies in non-U.S. jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) have recently focused on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. One example is in the area of “base erosion and profit shifting,” where profits are claimed to be earned for tax purposes in low-tax jurisdictions, or payments are made between affiliates from a jurisdiction with high tax rates to a jurisdiction with lower tax rates. The OECD has released several components of its comprehensive plan to create an agreed set of international rules for addressing base erosion and profit shifting. As a result, the tax laws in the United States and other countries in which we do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could adversely affect our business and financial statements.
We are subject to a variety of litigation and other legal and regulatory proceedings in the course of our business that could adversely affect our business and financial statements.
We are subject to a variety of litigation and other legal and regulatory proceedings incidental to our business (or the business operations of previously owned entities), including claims or counterclaims for damages arising out of the use of products or services and claims relating to intellectual property matters, employment matters, tax matters, commercial disputes, breach of contract claims, competition and sales and trading practices, environmental matters, personal injury, insurance coverage and acquisition or divestiture-related matters, as well as regulatory subpoenas, requests for information, investigations and enforcement. We may also become subject to lawsuits as a result of past or future acquisitions or as a result of liabilities retained from, or representations, warranties or indemnities provided in connection with, divested businesses. The types of claims made in lawsuits include claims for compensatory damages, punitive and consequential damages (and in some cases, treble damages) and/or injunctive relief. The defense of these lawsuits may divert our management’s attention, we may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits, and we may be required to pay damage awards or settlements or become subject to equitable remedies that could adversely affect our operations and financial statements. Moreover, any insurance or indemnification rights that we may have may be insufficient or unavailable to protect us against such losses. In addition, developments in proceedings in any given period may require us to adjust the loss contingency estimates that we have recorded in our financial statements, record estimates for liabilities or assets previously not susceptible of reasonable estimates or pay cash settlements or judgments. Any of these developments could adversely affect our financial statements in any particular period. We cannot assure you that our liabilities in connection with litigation and other legal and regulatory proceedings will not exceed our estimates or adversely affect our financial statements and business. However, based on our experience, current information and applicable law, we do not believe that it is reasonably possible that any amounts we may be required to pay in connection with litigation and other legal and regulatory proceedings in excess of our reserves as of December 31, 2018 will have a material effect on our financial statements.
If we do not or cannot adequately protect our intellectual property, or if third-parties infringe our intellectual property rights, we may suffer competitive injury or expend significant resources enforcing our rights.
Many of the markets we serve are technology-driven, and as a result intellectual property rights play a significant role in product development and differentiation. We own numerous patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property and licenses to intellectual property owned by others, which in aggregate are important to our business. The intellectual property rights that we obtain, however, may not be sufficiently broad or otherwise may not provide us a significant competitive advantage, and patents may not be issued for pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us. In addition, the steps that we and our licensors have taken to maintain and protect our intellectual property may not prevent it from being challenged, invalidated, circumvented, designed-around or becoming subject to compulsory licensing, particularly in countries where intellectual property rights are not highly developed or protected. In some circumstances, enforcement may not be available to us because an infringer has a dominant intellectual property position or for other business reasons, or countries may require compulsory licensing of our intellectual property. We also rely on nondisclosure and noncompetition agreements with employees, consultants and other parties to protect, in part, trade secrets and other proprietary rights. There can be no assurance that these agreements will adequately protect our trade secrets and other proprietary rights and will not be breached, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information or that third-parties will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or other proprietary rights. Our failure to obtain or maintain intellectual property rights that convey competitive advantage, adequately protect our intellectual property or detect or prevent circumvention or unauthorized use of such property and the cost of enforcing our intellectual property rights could adversely impact our business, including our competitive position, and financial statements.

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Third-parties may claim that we are infringing or misappropriating their intellectual property rights and we could suffer significant litigation expenses, losses or licensing expenses or be prevented from selling products or services.
From time to time, we receive notices from third-parties alleging intellectual property infringement or misappropriation. Any dispute or litigation regarding intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming due to the complexity of many of our technologies and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation. Our intellectual property portfolio may not be useful in asserting a counterclaim, or negotiating a license, in response to a claim of infringement or misappropriation. In addition, as a result of such claims of infringement or misappropriation, we could lose our rights to critical technology, be unable to license critical technology or sell critical products and services, be required to pay substantial damages or license fees with respect to the infringed rights or be required to redesign our products at substantial cost, any of which could adversely impact our business, including our competitive position, and financial statements. Even if we successfully defend against claims of infringement or misappropriation, we may incur significant costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business and financial statements.
The U.S. government has certain rights to use and disclose some of the intellectual property that we license and could exclusively license it to a third-party if we fail to achieve practical application of the intellectual property.
Certain technology licensed by us under agreements with third-party licensors may be subject to government rights. Government rights in inventions conceived or reduced to practice under a government-funded program may include a nonexclusive, royalty-free worldwide license to practice or have practiced such inventions for any governmental purpose. In addition, the U.S. government has the right to require us or our licensors (as applicable) to grant licenses which would be exclusive under any of such inventions to a third-party if they determine that: (1) adequate steps have not been taken to commercialize such inventions in a particular field of use; (2) such action is necessary to meet public health or safety needs; or (3) such action is necessary to meet requirements for public use under federal regulations. Further, the government rights include the right to use and disclose, without limitation, technical data relating to licensed technology that was developed in whole or in part at government expense.
Defects and unanticipated use or inadequate disclosure with respect to our products or services (including software), or allegations thereof, could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Manufacturing or design defects or “bugs” in, unanticipated use of, safety or quality issues (or the perception of such issues) with respect to, “off label” use of, or inadequate disclosure of risks relating to the use of products and services that we make or sell (including items that we source from third-parties) can lead to personal injury, death, property damage, loss of profits or other liability. These events could lead to recalls or safety alerts, result in the removal of a product or service from the market and result in product liability or similar claims being brought against us. Recalls, removals and product liability and similar claims (regardless of their validity or ultimate outcome) can result in significant costs, as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products and services. Our business can also be affected by studies of the utilization, safety and efficacy of medical device products and components that are conducted by industry participants, government agencies and others. Any of the above can result in the discontinuation of marketing of such products in one or more countries, and may give rise to claims for damages from persons who believe they have been injured as a result of product issues, including claims by individuals or groups seeking to represent a class.
The manufacture of many of our products is a highly exacting and complex process, and if we directly or indirectly encounter problems manufacturing products, our reputation, business and financial statements could suffer.
The manufacture of many of our products is a highly exacting and complex process, due in part to strict regulatory requirements. Problems may arise during manufacturing for a variety of reasons, including equipment malfunction, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, problems with raw materials, natural disasters and environmental factors, and if not discovered before the product is released to market could result in recalls and product liability exposure. Because of the time required to approve and license certain regulated manufacturing facilities and other stringent regulations of the FDA and similar agencies regarding the manufacture of certain of our products, an alternative manufacturer may not be available on a timely basis to replace such production capacity. Any of these manufacturing problems could result in significant costs, liability and lost revenue, loss of market share as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products.
Our indebtedness may limit our operations and our use of our cash flow, and any failure to comply with the covenants that apply to our indebtedness could adversely affect our liquidity and financial statements.
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $9.7 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we had the ability to incur approximately an additional $1.5 billion of indebtedness in direct borrowings or under the outstanding commercial paper facility based on the amounts available under the Company’s $4.0 billion credit facility which

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were not being used to backstop outstanding commercial paper balances. Our debt level and related debt service obligations can have negative consequences, including (1) requiring us to dedicate significant cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, which reduces the funds we have available for other purposes such as acquisitions and capital investment; (2) reducing our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions; and (3) exposing us to interest rate risk since a portion of our debt obligations are at variable rates. We may incur significantly more debt in the future, particularly to finance acquisitions, and there can be no assurance that our cost of funding will not substantially increase.
Our current revolving credit facility and long-term debt obligations also impose certain restrictions on us; for more information refer to MD&A. If we breach any of these restrictions and cannot obtain a waiver from the lenders on favorable terms, subject to applicable cure periods, the outstanding indebtedness (and any other indebtedness with cross-default provisions) could be declared immediately due and payable, which would adversely affect our liquidity and financial statements. In addition, any failure to maintain the credit ratings assigned to us by independent rating agencies would adversely affect our cost of funds and could adversely affect our liquidity and access to the capital markets. If we add new debt, the risks described above could increase.
Adverse changes in our relationships with, or the financial condition, performance, purchasing patterns or inventory levels of, key distributors and other channel partners could adversely affect our financial statements.
Certain of our businesses sell a significant amount of their products to or through key distributors and other channel partners that have valuable relationships with customers and end-users. Some of these distributors and other partners also sell our competitors’ products or compete with us directly, and if they favor competing products for any reason they may fail to market our products effectively. Adverse changes in our relationships with these distributors and other partners, reduction or discontinuation of their purchases from us or adverse developments in their financial condition, performance or purchasing patterns, could adversely affect our business and financial statements. The levels of inventory maintained by our distributors and other channel partners, and changes in those levels, can also significantly impact our results of operations in any given period. In addition, the consolidation of distributors and customers in certain of our served industries could adversely impact our business and financial statements.
Certain of our businesses rely on relationships with collaborative partners and other third-parties for development, supply and marketing of certain products and potential products, and such collaborative partners or other third-parties could fail to perform sufficiently.
We believe that for certain of our businesses, success in penetrating target markets depends in part on their ability to develop and maintain collaborative relationships with other companies. Relying on collaborative relationships is risky because, among other things, our collaborative partners may (1) not devote sufficient resources to the success of our collaborations; (2) fail to obtain regulatory approvals necessary to continue the collaborations in a timely manner; (3) be acquired by other companies and terminate our collaborative partnership or become insolvent; (4) compete with us; (5) disagree with us on key details of the collaborative relationship; (6) have insufficient capital resources; and (7) decline to renew existing collaborations on acceptable terms. Because these and other factors may be beyond our control, the development or commercialization of our products involved in collaborative partnerships may be delayed or otherwise adversely affected. If we or any of our collaborative partners terminate a collaborative arrangement, we may be required to devote additional resources to product development and commercialization or we may need to cancel some development programs, which could adversely affect our business and financial statements.
Our financial results are subject to fluctuations in the cost and availability of commodities that we use in our operations.
As discussed in “Item 1. Business—Materials,” our manufacturing and other operations employ a wide variety of components, raw materials and other commodities, including metallic-based components, electronic components, chemicals, plastics and other petroleum-based products. Prices for and availability of these components, raw materials and other commodities have fluctuated significantly in the past. Any sustained interruption in the supply of these items could adversely affect our business. In addition, due to the highly competitive nature of the industries that we serve, the cost-containment efforts of our customers and the terms of certain contracts we are party to, if commodity prices rise we may be unable to pass along cost increases through higher prices. If we are unable to fully recover higher commodity costs through price increases or offset these increases through cost reductions, or if there is a time delay between the increase in costs and our ability to recover or offset these costs, our margins and profitability could decline and our financial statements could be adversely affected.

23


If we cannot adjust our manufacturing capacity or the purchases required for our manufacturing activities to reflect changes in market conditions and customer demand, our profitability may suffer. In addition, our reliance upon sole or limited sources of supply for certain materials, components and services could cause production interruptions, delays and inefficiencies.
We purchase materials, components and equipment from third-parties for use in our manufacturing operations, including metallic-based components, electronic components, chemicals, plastics and other petroleum-based products. Our income could be adversely impacted if we are unable to adjust our purchases to reflect changes in customer demand and market fluctuations, including those caused by seasonality or cyclicality. During a market upturn, suppliers may extend lead times, limit supplies or increase prices. If we cannot purchase sufficient products at competitive prices and quality and on a timely enough basis to meet increasing demand, we may not be able to satisfy market demand, product shipments may be delayed, our costs may increase or we may breach our contractual commitments and incur liabilities. Conversely, in order to secure supplies for the production of products, we sometimes enter into noncancelable purchase commitments with vendors, which could impact our ability to adjust our inventory to reflect declining market demands. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges and our profitability may suffer.
In addition, some of our businesses purchase certain requirements from sole or limited source suppliers for reasons of quality assurance, regulatory requirements, cost effectiveness, availability or uniqueness of design. If these or other suppliers encounter financial, operating or other difficulties or if our relationship with them changes, we might not be able to quickly establish or qualify replacement sources of supply. The supply chains for our businesses could also be disrupted by supplier capacity constraints, bankruptcy or exiting of the business for other reasons, decreased availability of key raw materials or commodities and external events such as natural disasters, pandemic health issues, war, terrorist actions, governmental actions and legislative or regulatory changes. Any of these factors could result in production interruptions, delays, extended lead times and inefficiencies.
Because we cannot always immediately adapt our production capacity and related cost structures to changing market conditions, our manufacturing capacity may at times exceed or fall short of our production requirements. Any or all of these problems could result in the loss of customers, provide an opportunity for competing products to gain market acceptance and otherwise adversely affect our financial statements.
Changes in governmental regulations may reduce demand for our products or services or increase our expenses.
We compete in markets in which we and our customers must comply with supranational, federal, state, local and other jurisdictional regulations, such as regulations governing health and safety, the environment, food and drugs, privacy and electronic communications. We develop, configure and market our products and services to meet customer needs created by these regulations. These regulations are complex, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent over time and may be inconsistent across jurisdictions. Any significant change in any of these regulations (or in the interpretation or application thereof) could reduce demand for, increase our costs of producing or delay the introduction of new or modified products and services, or could restrict our existing activities, products and services. For example, a number of our products and services are marketed to the pharmaceutical and related industries for use in discovering and developing drugs and therapies. Changes in the U.S. FDA’s regulation of the drug discovery and development process could have an adverse effect on the demand for these products and services. In addition, in certain of our markets our growth depends in part upon the introduction of new regulations. In these markets, the delay or failure of governmental and other entities to adopt or enforce new regulations, the adoption of new regulations which our products and services are not positioned to address or the repeal of existing regulations, could adversely affect demand. In addition, regulatory deadlines may result in substantially different levels of demand for our products and services from period-to-period.
Work stoppages, union and works council campaigns and other labor disputes could adversely impact our productivity and results of operations.
We have certain U.S. and non-U.S. collective labor arrangements. We are subject to potential work stoppages, union and works council campaigns and other labor disputes, any of which could adversely impact our financial statements and business, including our productivity and reputation.

24


International economic, political, legal, compliance and business factors could negatively affect our financial statements.
In 2018, approximately 63% of our sales were derived from customers outside the United States. In addition, many of our manufacturing operations, suppliers and employees are located outside the United States. Since our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to further penetrate markets outside the United States and increase the localization of our products and services, we expect to continue to increase our sales and presence outside the United States, particularly in the high-growth markets. Our international business (and particularly our business in high-growth markets) is subject to risks that are customarily encountered in non-U.S. operations, including:
interruption in the transportation of materials to us and finished goods to our customers;
differences in terms of sale, including payment terms;
local product preferences and product requirements;
changes in a country’s or region’s political or economic conditions, such as the devaluation of particular currencies;
trade protection measures, embargoes and import or export restrictions and requirements;
unexpected changes in laws or regulatory requirements, including changes in tax laws;
capital controls and limitations on ownership and on repatriation of earnings and cash;
the potential for nationalization of enterprises;
changes in medical reimbursement policies and programs;
limitations on legal rights and our ability to enforce such rights;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
difficulties in implementing restructuring actions on a timely or comprehensive basis;
differing protection of intellectual property; and
greater uncertainty, risk, expense and delay in commercializing products in certain foreign jurisdictions, including with respect to product and other regulatory approvals.
Any of these risks could negatively affect our financial statements and business, including our growth rate.
Significant developments stemming from the United Kingdom’s referendum decision to exit the EU could have an adverse effect on us.
In a referendum on June 23, 2016, voters in the United Kingdom (“UK”) voted for the UK to exit the EU (referred to as Brexit). As it stands, the UK is expected to depart the EU on March 29, 2019 but the terms of its withdrawal and the nature of its future relationship with the EU are still being decided. This referendum has caused and may continue to cause political and economic uncertainty, including significant volatility in global stock markets and currency exchange rate fluctuations. Even if no agreement is reached, the UK’s separation still becomes effective unless all EU members unanimously agree on an extension. Negotiations have commenced to determine the future terms of the UK relationship with the EU, including, among other things, the terms of trade between the UK and the EU. If no agreement is reached by March 29, 2019, the UK’s membership in the EU could terminate under a so-called “hard Brexit”. The effects of Brexit will depend on many factors, including any agreements that the UK makes to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or more permanently.  Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. In a “hard Brexit” scenario, there could be increased costs from re-imposition of tariffs on trade between the UK and EU, shipping delays because of the need for customs inspections and procedures, and temporary shortages of certain goods. In addition, trade and investment between the UK, the EU, the United States and other countries will be impacted by the fact that the UK currently operates under the EU’s tax treaties. The UK will need to negotiate its own tax and trade treaties with countries all over the world, which could take years to complete. We have manufacturing facilities in the UK, and, depending on the terms of Brexit, we could become subject to export tariffs and regulatory restrictions that could increase the costs and time related to doing business in Europe. Additionally, Brexit could result in the UK or the European Union significantly altering its regulations affecting the clearance or approval of our products

25


that are developed or manufactured in the UK. Any new regulations could add time and expense to the conduct of our business, as well as the process by which our products receive regulatory approval in the UK, the EU and elsewhere. Any of these factors could adversely affect customer demand, our relationships with customers and suppliers and our business and financial statements. As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s net investment in plant, property and equipment in the UK was $157 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, less than 3% of our sales were derived from customers located in the UK, however, the impact of Brexit could also impact our sales and operations outside the UK.
If we suffer loss to our facilities, supply chains, distribution systems or information technology systems due to catastrophe or other events, our operations could be seriously harmed.
Our facilities, supply chains, distribution systems and information technology systems are subject to catastrophic loss due to fire, flood, earthquake, hurricane, public health crisis, war, terrorism or other natural or man-made disasters, such as the damage caused to our facilities by Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico in September 2017. If any of these facilities, supply chains or systems were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay production and shipments, result in defective products or services, damage customer relationships and our reputation and result in legal exposure and large repair or replacement expenses. The third-party insurance coverage that we maintain will vary from time to time in both type and amount depending on cost, availability and our decisions regarding risk retention, and may be unavailable or insufficient to protect us against such losses.
Our defined benefit pension plans are subject to financial market risks that could adversely affect our financial statements.
The performance of the financial markets and interest rates impact our defined benefit pension plan expenses and funding obligations. Significant changes in market interest rates, decreases in the fair value of plan assets, investment losses on plan assets and changes in discount rates may increase our funding obligations and adversely impact our financial statements. In addition, upward pressure on the cost of providing health care coverage to current employees and retirees may increase our future funding obligations and adversely affect our financial statements.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Danaher’s corporate headquarters are located in Washington, D.C. in a facility that the Company leases. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had facilities in over 60 countries, including approximately 261 significant office, research and development, manufacturing and distribution facilities. 109 of these facilities are located in the United States in over 25 states and 152 are located outside the United States in over 30 other countries, primarily in Europe and to a lesser extent in Asia, South America, the rest of North America and Australia. These facilities cover approximately 23 million square feet, of which approximately 11 million square feet are owned and approximately 12 million square feet are leased. Particularly outside the United States, facilities often serve more than one business segment and may be used for multiple purposes, such as administrative, sales, manufacturing, warehousing and/or distribution. In addition to three significant corporate locations, the number of significant administrative, sales, research and development, manufacturing and distribution facilities by business segment is:
Life Sciences, 80;
Diagnostics, 75;
Dental, 42; and
Environmental & Applied Solutions, 61.
The Company considers its facilities suitable and adequate for the purposes for which they are used and does not anticipate difficulty in renewing existing leases as they expire or in finding alternative facilities. The Company believes its properties and equipment have been well-maintained. Refer to Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information with respect to the Company’s lease commitments.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For information regarding legal proceedings, refer to the section titled “Legal Proceedings” in MD&A.


26


ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Set forth below are the names, ages, positions and experience of Danaher’s executive officers as of February 7, 2019. All of Danaher’s executive officers hold office at the pleasure of Danaher’s Board of Directors. Unless otherwise stated, the positions indicated are Danaher positions.
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
Officer Since
Steven M. Rales
 
67
 
Chairman of the Board
 
1984
Mitchell P. Rales
 
62
 
Chairman of the Executive Committee
 
1984
Thomas P. Joyce, Jr.
 
58
 
Chief Executive Officer and President
 
2002
Matthew R. McGrew
 
47
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
2019
Daniel L. Comas
 
55
 
Executive Vice President
 
1996
Rainer M. Blair
 
54
 
Executive Vice President
 
2014
William K. Daniel II
 
54
 
Executive Vice President
 
2006
Joakim Weidemanis
 
49
 
Executive Vice President
 
2017
Brian W. Ellis
 
52
 
Senior Vice President – General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer
 
2016
William H. King
 
51
 
Senior Vice President – Strategic Development
 
2005
Angela S. Lalor
 
53
 
Senior Vice President – Human Resources
 
2012
Robert S. Lutz
 
61
 
Senior Vice President – Chief Accounting Officer
 
2002
Daniel A. Raskas
 
52
 
Senior Vice President – Corporate Development
 
2004
Steven M. Rales is a co-founder of Danaher and has served on Danaher’s Board of Directors since 1983, serving as Danaher’s Chairman of the Board since 1984. He was also CEO of the Company from 1984 to 1990. Mr. Rales is also a member of the board of directors of Fortive Corporation, and is a brother of Mitchell P. Rales.
Mitchell P. Rales is a co-founder of Danaher and has served on Danaher’s Board of Directors since 1983, serving as Chairman of the Executive Committee of Danaher since 1984. He was also President of the Company from 1984 to 1990.  Mr. Rales is also a member of the board of directors of Colfax Corporation and of Fortive Corporation, and is a brother of Steven M. Rales.
Thomas P. Joyce, Jr. has served on Danaher’s Board of Directors and as Danaher’s President and Chief Executive Officer since September 2014 after serving as Executive Vice President – CEO Designate from April 2014 to September 2014 and as Executive Vice President from 2006 to April 2014.
Matthew R. McGrew has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since January 2019, after serving as Group CFO of Danaher from 2012 until December 2018.
Daniel L. Comas has served as Executive Vice President since January 2019, after serving as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from 2005 until December 2018.
Rainer M. Blair has served as Executive Vice President since January 2017 after serving as Vice President – Group Executive from March 2014 until January 2017 and as President of Danaher’s Sciex business from January 2011 to March 2014.
William K. Daniel II has served as Executive Vice President since 2008.
Joakim Weidemanis has served as Executive Vice President since December 2017 after serving as Vice President – Group Executive from March 2014 until December 2017 and as Group President – Marking and Coding from January 2013 to March 2014.
Brian W. Ellis has served as Senior Vice President – General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer since joining Danaher in January 2016. Prior to joining Danaher, Mr. Ellis served for over five years in progressively more responsible positions in the legal department of Medtronic, Inc., a medical device company, including most recently as Vice President and General Counsel of Medtronic’s Restorative Therapies Group.

27


William H. King has served as Senior Vice President – Strategic Development since May 2014 after serving as Vice President – Strategic Development from 2005 to May 2014.
Angela S. Lalor has served as Senior Vice President – Human Resources since joining Danaher in April 2012.
Robert S. Lutz has served as Senior Vice President – Chief Accounting Officer since February 2010.
Daniel A. Raskas has served as Senior Vice President – Corporate Development since February 2010.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DHR. As of February 7, 2019, there were approximately 2,500 holders of record of Danaher’s common stock.
Our payment of dividends in the future will be determined by Danaher’s Board of Directors and will depend on business conditions, Danaher’s earnings and other factors Danaher’s Board deems relevant.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On July 16, 2013, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a repurchase program (the “Repurchase Program”) authorizing the repurchase of up to 20 million shares of the Company’s common stock from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. There is no expiration date for the Repurchase Program, and the timing and amount of any shares repurchased under the program will be determined by the Company’s management based on its evaluation of market conditions and other factors. The Repurchase Program may be suspended or discontinued at any time. Any repurchased shares will be available for use in connection with the Company’s equity compensation plans (or any successor plan) and for other corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2018, 20 million shares remained available for repurchase pursuant to the Repurchase Program. The Company expects to fund any future stock repurchases using the Company’s available cash balances or proceeds from the issuance of debt.
Neither the Company nor any “affiliated purchaser” repurchased any shares of Company common stock during 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Recent Issuances of Unregistered Securities
During the fourth quarter of 2018, holders of certain of the Company’s Liquid Yield Option Notes due 2021 (“LYONs”) converted such LYONs into an aggregate of 97 thousand shares of Danaher common stock, par value $0.01 per share. In each case, the shares of common stock were issued solely to existing security holders upon conversion of the LYONs pursuant to the exemption from registration provided under Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.


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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
($ in millions, except per share information)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Sales
$
19,893.0

 
$
18,329.7

 
$
16,882.4

 
$
14,433.7

 
$
12,866.9

 
Operating profit
3,403.8

 
2,990.4

 
2,735.2

 
2,157.4

 
2,044.5

 
Net earnings from continuing operations
2,650.9

 
2,469.8

(a)(b) 
2,153.4

(c)(d) 
1,746.7

(f) 
1,638.7

(h) 
Earnings from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 
22.3

 
400.3

 
1,610.7

(e) 
959.7

(g) 
Net earnings
$
2,650.9

 
$
2,492.1

(a)(b) 
$
2,553.7

(c)(d) 
$
3,357.4

(e)(f) 
$
2,598.4

(g)(h) 
Net earnings per share from continuing operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.78

 
$
3.55

(a)(b) 
$
3.12

(c)(d) 
$
2.50

(f) 
$
2.33

(h) 
Diluted
$
3.74

 
$
3.50

(a)(b) 
$
3.08

(c)(d) 
$
2.47

(f) 
$
2.29

(h) 
Net earnings per share from discontinued operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$

 
$
0.03

 
$
0.58

 
$
2.31

(e) 
$
1.37

(g) 
Diluted
$

 
$
0.03

 
$
0.57

 
$
2.27

(e) 
$
1.34

(g) 
Net earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.78

 
$
3.58

(a)(b) 
$
3.69

(c)(d) * 
$
4.81

(e)(f) 
$
3.70

(g)(h) 
Diluted
$
3.74

 
$
3.53

(a)(b) 
$
3.65

(c)(d) 
$
4.74

(e)(f) 
$
3.63

(g)(h) 
Dividends declared per share
$
0.64

(i) 
$
0.56

(j) 
$
0.57

(k) 
$
0.54

(l) 
$
0.40

(m) 
Total assets
$
47,832.5

 
$
46,648.6

 
$
45,295.3

 
$
48,222.2

 
$
36,991.7

 
Total debt
$
9,740.3

 
$
10,522.1

 
$
12,269.0

 
$
12,870.4

 
$
3,473.4

 
(a) 
Includes $73 million ($46 million after-tax or $0.06 per diluted share) gain on sale of certain marketable equity securities. Refer to Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information.
(b) 
Includes $146 million ($0.21 per diluted share) of discrete tax benefits associated with the resolution of uncertain tax positions as well as the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities and the Transition Tax from the TCJA. Refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information.
(c) 
Includes $223 million ($140 million after-tax or $0.20 per diluted share) gain on sale of certain marketable equity securities. Refer to Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information.
(d) 
Includes $179 million ($112 million after-tax or $0.16 per diluted share) loss on extinguishment of borrowings, net of certain deferred gains. Refer to Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information.
(e) 
Includes $767 million after-tax gain ($1.08 per diluted share) on disposition of the Company’s communications business.
(f) 
Includes $12 million ($8 million after-tax or $0.01 per diluted share) gain on sale of certain marketable equity securities.
(g) 
Includes $34 million ($26 million after-tax or $0.04 per diluted share) gain on sale of the Company’s electric vehicle systems/hybrid product line.
(h) 
Includes $123 million ($77 million after-tax or $0.11 per diluted share) gain on sale of certain marketable equity securities.
(i) 
The Company increased its quarterly dividend rate in 2018 to $0.16 per share.
(j) 
The Company increased its quarterly dividend rate in 2017 to $0.14 per share.
(k) 
The Company increased its quarterly dividend rate in the first quarter of 2016 to $0.16 per share and subsequently reduced its quarterly dividend rate to $0.125 per share as a result of the Fortive Separation in the third quarter of 2016.
(l) 
The Company increased its quarterly dividend rate in 2015 to $0.135 per share.
(m) 
The Company increased its quarterly dividend rate in 2014 to $0.10 per share.
*
Net earnings per share amount does not add due to rounding.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is designed to provide a reader of Danaher’s financial statements with a narrative from the perspective of Company management. The Company’s MD&A is divided into five sections:
Overview
Results of Operations
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Critical Accounting Estimates
New Accounting Standards
This discussion and analysis should be read along with Danaher’s audited financial statements and related Notes thereto as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 included in this Annual Report.
OVERVIEW
General
Refer to “Item 1. Business—General” for a discussion of Danaher’s strategic objectives and methodologies for delivering long-term shareholder value. Danaher is a multinational business with global operations. During 2018, approximately 63% of Danaher’s sales were derived from customers outside the United States. As a diversified, global business, Danaher’s operations are affected by worldwide, regional and industry-specific economic and political factors. Danaher’s geographic and industry diversity, as well as the range of its products, software and services, help limit the impact of any one industry or the economy of any single country on its consolidated operating results. Given the broad range of products manufactured, software and services provided and geographies served, management does not use any indices other than general economic trends to predict the overall outlook for the Company. The Company’s individual businesses monitor key competitors and customers, including to the extent possible their sales, to gauge relative performance and the outlook for the future.
As a result of the Company’s geographic and industry diversity, the Company faces a variety of opportunities and challenges, including rapid technological development (particularly with respect to computing, automation, artificial intelligence, mobile connectivity, communications and digitization) in most of the Company’s served markets, the expansion and evolution of opportunities in high-growth markets, trends and costs associated with a global labor force, consolidation of the Company’s competitors and increasing regulation. The Company operates in a highly competitive business environment in most markets, and the Company’s long-term growth and profitability will depend in particular on its ability to expand its business in high-growth geographies and high-growth market segments, identify, consummate and integrate appropriate acquisitions, develop innovative and differentiated new products and services with higher gross profit margins, expand and improve the effectiveness of the Company’s sales force, continue to reduce costs and improve operating efficiency and quality, and effectively address the demands of an increasingly regulated global environment. The Company is making significant investments, organically and through acquisitions, to address the rapid pace of technological change in its served markets and to globalize its manufacturing, research and development and customer-facing resources (particularly in high-growth markets) in order to be responsive to the Company’s customers throughout the world and improve the efficiency of the Company’s operations.
Business Performance
Consolidated sales for the year ended December 31, 2018 increased 8.5% as compared to 2017. While differences exist among the Company’s businesses, on an overall basis, demand for the Company’s products and services increased on a year-over-year basis in 2018 as compared to 2017. This demand, together with the Company’s continued investments in sales growth initiatives and the other business-specific factors discussed below, contributed to year-over-year core sales growth of 6.0% (for the definition of “core sales,” refer to “—Results of Operations” below). Geographically, both high-growth and developed markets contributed to year-over-year core sales growth during 2018. Core sales growth rates in high-growth markets grew at a high-single digit rate in 2018 as compared to 2017 led by strength in Asia, particularly China. High-growth markets represented approximately 31% of the Company’s total sales in 2018. Core sales in developed markets grew at a mid-single digit rate in 2018 as compared to 2017 and were driven by North America and Western Europe.

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The Company’s net earnings from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled approximately $2.7 billion, or $3.74 per diluted share, compared to approximately $2.5 billion, or $3.50 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2017.
The Company recorded a net increase to beginning retained earnings of $3 million as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The impact to beginning retained earnings was primarily driven by the capitalization of certain costs to obtain a contract, primarily sales-related commissions, partially offset by the deferral of revenue for unfulfilled performance obligations. The adoption of this ASU did not have a significant impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018 and, as a result, comparisons of revenues and operating profit performance between periods are not affected by the adoption of this ASU. Refer to Note 2 to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Acquisitions
During 2018, the Company acquired two businesses for total consideration of approximately $2.2 billion in cash, net of cash acquired. The businesses acquired complement existing units of the Company’s Life Sciences and Environmental & Applied Solutions segments. The aggregate annual sales of these two businesses at the time of their respective acquisitions, in each case based on the company’s revenues for its last completed fiscal year prior to the acquisition, were $313 million.
For a discussion of the Company’s 2017 and 2016 acquisition and disposition activity, refer to “Liquidity and Capital Resources—Investing Activities”.
Fortive Separation and Proposed Dental Separation
On July 2, 2016, Danaher completed the Separation of its former Test & Measurement segment, Industrial Technologies segment (excluding the product identification businesses) and retail/commercial petroleum business by distributing to Danaher stockholders on a pro rata basis all of the issued and outstanding common stock of Fortive, the entity Danaher incorporated to hold such businesses. To effect the Fortive Separation, Danaher distributed to its stockholders one share of Fortive common stock for every two shares of Danaher common stock outstanding as of June 15, 2016, the record date for the distribution.
During the second quarter of 2016, the Company received net cash distributions of approximately $3.0 billion from Fortive as consideration for the Company’s contribution of assets to Fortive in connection with the Separation (“Fortive Distribution”). Danaher used a portion of the cash distribution proceeds to repay the $500 million aggregate principal amount of 2.3% senior unsecured notes that matured in June 2016 and to redeem approximately $1.9 billion in aggregate principal amount of outstanding indebtedness in August 2016 (consisting of the Company’s 5.625% senior unsecured notes due 2018, 5.4% senior unsecured notes due 2019 and 3.9% senior unsecured notes due 2021 (collectively the “Redeemed Notes”)). Danaher also paid an aggregate of $188 million in make-whole premiums in connection with the August 2016 redemptions, plus accrued and unpaid interest. The Company used the balance of the Fortive Distribution to fund certain of the Company’s regular, quarterly cash dividends to shareholders.
The accounting requirements for reporting the Fortive Separation as a discontinued operation were met when the separation was completed. Accordingly, the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for all periods presented reflect this business as a discontinued operation. The Company allocated a portion of the consolidated interest expense and income to discontinued operations based on the ratio of the discontinued business’ net assets to the Company’s consolidated net assets. Fortive had revenues of approximately $3.0 billion in 2016 prior to the Fortive Separation.
As a result of the Fortive Separation, the Company incurred $48 million in Fortive Separation-related costs during the year ended December 31, 2016 which are included in earnings from discontinued operations, net of income taxes in the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Earnings. These Fortive Separation costs primarily relate to professional fees associated with preparation of regulatory filings and Separation activities within finance, tax, legal and information system functions as well as certain investment banking fees incurred upon the Fortive Separation.
In 2017, Danaher recorded a $22 million income tax benefit related to the release of previously provided reserves associated with uncertain tax positions on certain Danaher tax returns which were jointly filed with Fortive entities. These reserves were released due to the expiration of statutes of limitations for those returns. All Fortive entity-related balances were included in the income tax benefit related to discontinued operations.
In July 2018, the Company announced its intention to spin-off its Dental business into an independent publicly-traded company. The transaction is expected to be tax-free to the Company’s shareholders. The Company is targeting to complete the Dental Separation in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final

32


approval from the Danaher Board of Directors, satisfactory completion of financing, receipt of tax opinions, receipt of favorable rulings from the IRS and receipt of other regulatory approvals.
Sale of Investments
For a discussion of the Company’s 2017 and 2016 sales of investments activity, refer to “Liquidity and Capital Resources—Investing Activities”.
U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
On December 22, 2017, the TCJA was enacted, which substantially changed the U.S. tax system, including lowering the corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% (beginning in 2018). As a result of the TCJA, the Company recognized a provisional tax liability of approximately $1.2 billion in 2017 for the Transition Tax, which, after the application of available tax credits of approximately $1.0 billion, is payable over a period of eight years. The net Transition Tax payable as of December 31, 2018 of approximately $180 million is not expected to significantly impact the Company’s cash flows from operations. The Company also remeasured U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the income tax rates at which the deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to reverse in the future (generally 21.0%), resulting in an income tax benefit of approximately $1.2 billion. In 2018, the Company recorded an additional charge related to finalizing the provisional accounting for the enactment of the TCJA of $6 million. For further discussion of the TCJA, refer to “—Income Taxes.”
UK’s referendum decision to exit the EU (“Brexit”)
In a referendum on June 23, 2016, voters approved for the UK to exit the EU and the UK is expected to depart the EU on March 29, 2019. With the terms of the UK’s withdrawal and the nature of its future relationship with the EU still being decided, the Company continues to monitor the status of the negotiations and plan for any impact. The ultimate impact of Brexit on the Company’s financial results is uncertain. For additional information, refer to the “Item 1A—Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
In this report, references to the non-GAAP measure of core sales (also referred to as core revenues or sales/revenues from existing businesses) refer to sales from continuing operations calculated according to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) but excluding:
sales from acquired businesses; and
the impact of currency translation.
References to sales or operating profit attributable to acquisitions or acquired businesses refer to sales or operating profit, as applicable, from acquired businesses recorded prior to the first anniversary of the acquisition less the amount of sales and operating profit, as applicable, attributable to divested product lines not considered discontinued operations. The portion of revenue attributable to currency translation is calculated as the difference between:
the period-to-period change in revenue (excluding sales from acquired businesses); and
the period-to-period change in revenue (excluding sales from acquired businesses) after applying current period foreign exchange rates to the prior year period.
Core sales growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for or superior to, sales, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Management believes that reporting the non-GAAP financial measure of core sales growth provides useful information to investors by helping identify underlying growth trends in Danaher’s business and facilitating comparisons of Danaher’s revenue performance with its performance in prior and future periods and to Danaher’s peers. Management also uses core sales growth to measure the Company’s operating and financial performance. The Company excludes the effect of currency translation from core sales because currency translation is not under management’s control, is subject to volatility and can obscure underlying business trends, and excludes the effect of acquisitions and divestiture-related items because the nature, size, timing and number of acquisitions and divestitures can vary dramatically from period-to-period and between the Company and its peers and can also obscure underlying business trends and make comparisons of long-term performance difficult.
Throughout this discussion, references to sales volume refer to the impact of both price and unit sales and references to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies resulting from the ongoing application of DBS.

33


Core Revenue
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total sales growth (GAAP)
8.5
 %

8.5
 %
Less the impact of:
 
 
 
Acquisitions and other
(2.0
)%
 
(4.5
)%
Currency exchange rates
(0.5
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Core revenue growth (non-GAAP)
6.0
 %
 
3.5
 %
Core sales grew on a year-over-year basis in both 2018 and 2017. Sales from acquired businesses increased on a year-over-year basis in 2018 due primarily to the acquisition of IDT in the second quarter of 2018 and in 2017 due primarily to the acquisition of Cepheid in the fourth quarter of 2016. Currency translation increased reported sales on a year-over-year basis in 2018 primarily due to the U.S. dollar weakening against other major currencies in the first half of 2018, partially offset by the U.S. dollar strengthening in the second half of 2018. Currency translation increased reported sales on a year-over-year basis in 2017 primarily due to the U.S. dollar weakening against the euro, partially offset by the U.S. dollar strengthening against the Japanese yen and Chinese renminbi.
Operating profit margins were 17.1% for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 16.3% in 2017. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2018 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2018 and 2017, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various product development, sales and marketing growth investments and the impact of foreign exchange rates - 70 basis points
Restructuring, impairment and other related charges related to discontinuing a product line in the second quarter of 2017 related to the Diagnostic segment - 40 basis points
Trade name impairments and related productivity improvement initiatives in 2017 related to the Dental segment - 5 basis points
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2018 of acquired businesses - 20 basis points
Costs incurred in the fourth quarter of 2018 related to the anticipated separation of the Dental business - 5 basis points
Acquisition-related charges consisting of transaction costs and fair value adjustments to inventory for the acquisition of IDT in the second quarter of 2018 - 10 basis points
Operating profit margins were 16.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 16.2% in 2016. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2017 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2017 and 2016, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various product development, sales and marketing growth investments in 2017 - 60 basis points
Acquisition-related charges consisting of transaction costs and fair value adjustments to inventory and deferred revenue for the acquisition of Cepheid in 2016 - 50 basis points
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
Restructuring, impairment and other related charges related to discontinuing a product line in the second quarter of 2017 related to the Diagnostic segment - 40 basis points
Trade name impairments and related productivity improvement initiatives in the fourth quarter of 2017 related to the Dental segment - 5 basis points

34


Third quarter 2016 gain on resolution of acquisition-related matters less the fourth quarter 2017 net gain on resolution of acquisition-related matters - 5 basis points
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2017 of acquired businesses - 50 basis points
Business Segments
Sales by business segment for the years ended December 31 are as follows ($ in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Life Sciences
$
6,471.4

 
$
5,710.1

 
$
5,365.9

Diagnostics
6,257.6

 
5,839.9

 
5,038.3

Dental
2,844.5

 
2,810.9

 
2,785.4

Environmental & Applied Solutions
4,319.5

 
3,968.8

 
3,692.8

Total
$
19,893.0

 
$
18,329.7

 
$
16,882.4


LIFE SCIENCES
The Company’s Life Sciences segment offers a broad range of research tools that scientists use to study the basic building blocks of life, including genes, proteins, metabolites and cells, in order to understand the causes of disease, identify new therapies and test new drugs and vaccines.  The segment is also a leading provider of filtration, separation and purification technologies to the biopharmaceutical, food and beverage, medical, aerospace, microelectronics and general industrial sectors.
Life Sciences Selected Financial Data
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
6,471.4

 
$
5,710.1

 
$
5,365.9

Operating profit
1,229.3

 
1,004.3

 
818.9

Depreciation
127.4

 
119.0

 
126.8

Amortization
343.8

 
308.9

 
299.4

Operating profit as a % of sales
19.0
%
 
17.6
%
 
15.3
%
Depreciation as a % of sales
2.0
%
 
2.1
%
 
2.4
%
Amortization as a % of sales
5.3
%
 
5.4
%
 
5.6
%
Core Revenue
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total sales growth (GAAP)
13.5
 %

6.5
 %
Less the impact of:
 
 
 
Acquisitions and other
(5.0
)%
 
(2.0
)%
Currency exchange rates
(1.0
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Core revenue growth (non-GAAP)
7.5
 %
 
4.0
 %
2018 Compared to 2017
Price increases in the segment contributed 0.5% to revenue growth on a year-over-year basis during 2018 as compared with 2017 and are reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales of the business’ broad range of mass spectrometers continued to grow on a year-over-year basis led by strong sales growth in high-growth markets, particularly China and the rest of Asia, and in North America. This growth was led by demand in the clinical, applied and pharmaceutical end-markets and by demand for service offerings. Core sales of microscopy products continued to grow on a year-over-year basis with growth in demand across most major end-markets partially driven by recent new product releases. Geographically, demand for microscopy products increased in North America and high-growth markets, particularly China. Year-over-year core sales for the business’ flow cytometry and particle counting products

35


continued to grow in 2018 across most major end-markets, led by increases in sales in North America, China and Western Europe. New product launches in 2018 also contributed to the increased demand in these markets. Core sales for filtration, separation and purification technologies grew on a year-over-year basis led by growth in biopharmaceuticals, microelectronics and fluid technology and asset protection end-markets. Geographically, core sales in filtration, separation and purification technologies were led by growth in Western Europe, North America and high-growth markets.
Sales growth from acquisitions is primarily due to the acquisition of IDT in April 2018. IDT provides additional sales and earnings growth opportunities for the segment by expanding the segment’s product line diversity, including new product and service offerings in the area of genomics consumables. During 2018, IDT’s revenues grew on a year-over-year basis with growth across all major geographies and product lines.
Operating profit margins increased 140 basis points during 2018 as compared to 2017. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2018 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2018 and 2017, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various new product development, sales and marketing growth investments - 180 basis points
2018 gain on resolution of acquisition-related matters - 20 basis points
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2018 of acquired businesses - 35 basis points
Acquisition-related charges consisting of transaction costs and fair value adjustments to inventory for the acquisition of IDT in the second quarter of 2018 - 25 basis points
2017 Compared to 2016
During the first quarter of 2017, a product line was transferred from the Life Sciences segment to the Environmental & Applied Solutions segment. While this change is not material to segment results in total, the resulting change in sales growth has been included in the “Acquisitions and other” line in the table above.
Price increases in the segment contributed 0.5% to revenue growth on a year-over-year basis during 2017 as compared with 2016 and are reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales of the business’ broad range of mass spectrometers continued to grow on a year-over-year basis led by strong sales growth in the pharmaceutical market across Asia and North America as well as sales growth in the food and forensics markets across all major regions. This growth was partially offset by continuing declines in demand in the clinical market in North America. Core sales of microscopy products increased on a year-over-year basis with growth in demand across most end-markets particularly in Western Europe and the high-growth markets. Year-over-year sales for the business’ flow cytometry and particle counting products grew in 2017, primarily due to new product introductions and were led by increases in sales in North America, Western Europe and China. Core sales for filtration, separation and purification technologies grew on a year-over-year basis led by continued growth in biopharmaceuticals and microelectronics, partially offset by declines in the process, industrial and medical products particularly in the first half of 2017. Geographically, core sales in filtration, separation and purification technologies were primarily led by growth in North America and Asia, partially offset by declines in the Middle East largely due to a major project in 2016 which did not repeat in 2017.
Operating profit margins increased 230 basis points during 2017 as compared to 2016. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2017 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2017 and 2016, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various product development, sales and marketing growth investments and the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates - 205 basis points
Acquisition-related charges including transaction costs deemed significant, change in control and restructuring payments, and fair value adjustment to acquired inventory and deferred revenue - 10 basis points

36


The incremental net accretive effect in 2017 of acquired businesses and intersegment product line transfers - 20 basis points
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
Fourth quarter 2017 loss on resolution of acquisition-related matters - 5 basis points

DIAGNOSTICS
The Company’s Diagnostics segment offers analytical instruments, reagents, consumables, software and services that hospitals, physicians’ offices, reference laboratories and other critical care settings use to diagnose disease and make treatment decisions.
Diagnostics Selected Financial Data
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
6,257.6

 
$
5,839.9

 
$
5,038.3

Operating profit
1,073.8

 
871.6

 
786.4

Depreciation
379.2

 
368.1

 
332.1

Amortization
209.8

 
213.4

 
149.4

Operating profit as a % of sales
17.2
%
 
14.9
%
 
15.6
%
Depreciation as a % of sales
6.1
%
 
6.3
%
 
6.6
%
Amortization as a % of sales
3.4
%
 
3.7
%
 
3.0
%
Core Revenue
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total sales growth (GAAP)
7.0
 %

16.0
 %
Less the impact of:
 
 
 
Acquisitions and other
 %
 
(12.0
)%
Currency exchange rates
(0.5
)%
 
 %
Core revenue growth (non-GAAP)
6.5
 %
 
4.0
 %
2018 Compared to 2017
Price in the segment negatively impacted sales growth by 0.5% on a year-over-year basis during 2018 as compared with 2017 and is reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales in the molecular diagnostics business increased on a year-over-year basis, driven by strong growth in both developed and high-growth markets. The molecular diagnostics business experienced particularly strong growth in the infectious disease product line driven in part by the severity of the flu season during the first quarter of 2018. Core sales in the clinical lab business increased on a year-over-year basis due to increased demand in the high-growth markets, led by China, partially offset by lower sales in Western Europe. The increased demand in the clinical lab business was driven by the immunoassay product line. Core sales in the acute care diagnostic business increased, driven by continued strong sales of blood gas and immunoassay product lines across most major geographies, led by the high-growth markets. Core sales in the pathology diagnostics business increased across most major geographies, led by North America, Western Europe and China. Demand for new products in the advanced staining and core histology product lines drove the increased core sales in the pathology diagnostics business.
Operating profit margins increased 230 basis points during 2018 as compared to 2017. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2018 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2018 and 2017, net of incremental year-over-year costs

37


associated with various new product development, sales and marketing growth investments and the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates - 125 basis points
Restructuring, impairment and other related charges related to discontinuing a product line in 2017 - 130 basis points
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
2017 gain on resolution of acquisition-related matters - 25 basis points
2017 Compared to 2016
Price increases in the segment contributed 0.5% to sales growth on a year-over-year basis during 2017 as compared with 2016 and are reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales in the clinical lab business increased on a year-over-year basis. Geographically, continued strong demand in high-growth markets for the clinical lab business was partially offset by declines in Western Europe and Japan. Increased demand in the immunoassay product line drove the majority of the growth for the year in the clinical lab business. Growth in the acute care diagnostic business was driven by continued strong consumable sales in 2017 across most major geographies. Increased demand for advanced staining and core histology instruments and related consumables across most major geographies drove the majority of the year-over-year core sales growth in the pathology diagnostics business.
The acquisition of Cepheid in November 2016 contributed the majority of the increase in sales from acquisitions. During 2017, Cepheid’s revenues compared to the business’ 2016 results grew on a year-over-year basis in most major geographies and product lines. As Cepheid is integrated into the Company, a process that will continue over the next several years, the Company has realized and expects to realize cost savings and other business process improvements through the application of DBS.
During 2017, the Company made the strategic decision to discontinue a molecular diagnostic product line in its Diagnostics segment. As a result, the Company recorded $76 million of pretax restructuring, impairment and other related charges ($51 million after-tax or $0.07 per diluted share). These charges included $49 million of noncash charges for the impairment of certain technology-related intangible assets as well as related inventory and property, plant and equipment with no further use. In addition, the Company incurred $27 million of cash restructuring costs primarily related to employee severance and related charges. Substantially all restructuring activities related to this discontinued product line were completed in 2017.
Operating profit margins declined 70 basis points during 2017 as compared to 2016. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2017 sales volumes from existing businesses and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2017 and 2016, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various new product development, sales and marketing growth investments and the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates - 35 basis points
Acquisition-related charges in 2016 associated with the acquisition of Cepheid, including transaction costs deemed significant, change in control and restructuring payments, and fair value adjustments to acquired inventory and deferred revenue - 150 basis points
2017 gain on resolution of acquisition-related matters - 25 basis points
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
Restructuring, impairment and other related charges related to discontinuing a product line in 2017 - 130 basis points
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2017 of acquired businesses - 150 basis points
Depreciation and amortization increased during 2017 as compared with 2016 primarily due to the impact of recently acquired businesses, primarily Cepheid, and the resulting increase in depreciable and amortizable assets.

DENTAL
The Company’s Dental segment offers products and services that are used to diagnose, treat and prevent disease and ailments of the teeth, gums and supporting bone, as well as to improve the aesthetics of the human smile. With leading brand names,

38


innovative technology and significant market positions, the Company is a leading worldwide provider of a broad range of dental consumables, equipment and services, and is dedicated to driving technological innovations that help dental professionals improve clinical outcomes and enhance productivity.
Dental Selected Financial Data
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
2,844.5

 
$
2,810.9

 
$
2,785.4

Operating profit
346.7

 
400.7

 
419.4

Depreciation
39.4

 
39.7

 
43.8

Amortization
90.6

 
81.7

 
83.4

Operating profit as a % of sales
12.2
%
 
14.3
%
 
15.1
%
Depreciation as a % of sales
1.4
%
 
1.4
%
 
1.6
%
Amortization as a % of sales
3.2
%
 
2.9
%
 
3.0
%
Core Revenue
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total sales growth (GAAP)
1.0
 %

1.0
 %
Less the impact of:
 
 
 
Currency exchange rates
(0.5
)%
 
(1.0
)%
Core revenue growth (non-GAAP)
0.5
 %
 
 %
2018 Compared to 2017
Price in the segment negatively impacted sales growth by 0.5% on a year-over-year basis during 2018 as compared with 2017 and is reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Geographically, year-over-year core revenue growth was driven by growth in the high-growth markets, primarily China and Russia, which was partially offset by declines in North America and Western Europe. Core revenue growth for the specialty consumables business, which consists of implant solutions and orthodontic products, was led by the high-growth markets, primarily China, and North America. Dental equipment and traditional dental consumables core sales declined during 2018, primarily due to declines in North America, offset partially by growth in the high-growth markets, primarily China and Russia. Lower core sales of dental equipment and traditional dental consumables product lines in North America partially offset the core revenue growth in the specialty consumables business, primarily reflecting the impact of inventory reductions at several distribution partners as well as the impact from realignment of distributors and manufacturers in the dental industry. The Company has begun to see stability in the North America end-markets for dental equipment and traditional dental consumables.
Operating profit margins declined 210 basis points during 2018 as compared to 2017. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons.
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Trade name impairments and related productivity improvement initiatives in 2017 - 45 basis points
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
Lower 2018 core sales volumes of traditional dental equipment and consumables, incremental year-over-year costs associated with sales and marketing growth investments, lower overall pricing, and the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates, net of incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2018 and 2017 and higher sales volumes in specialty consumables - 245 basis points
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2018 of acquired businesses - 10 basis points

39


In July 2018, the Company announced its intention to spin-off its Dental business into an independent publicly-traded company. The transaction is expected to be tax-free to the Company’s shareholders. The Company is targeting to complete the Dental Separation in the second half of 2019, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final approval from the Danaher Board of Directors, satisfactory completion of financing, receipt of tax opinions, receipt of favorable rulings from the IRS and receipt of other regulatory approvals.
2017 Compared to 2016
Price increases in the segment did not have a significant impact on sales growth on a year-over-year basis during 2017 as compared with 2016.
Geographically, year-over-year core revenue growth was strong in China, Russia and other high-growth markets, offset by lower demand in the United States and Western Europe. Strong year-over-year growth continued during 2017 for the specialty consumables business, which consists of implant solutions and orthodontic products. Core sales growth for the specialty consumables business was led by high-growth markets and North America. Dental equipment core sales were essentially flat during 2017, as increased demand in high-growth markets was offset by weaker demand in the United States and Western Europe, particularly later in the year for North America due to the realignment of dental equipment distributors and manufacturers. Demand was lower for traditional dental consumable product lines in North America and Western Europe reflecting inventory destocking by several distribution partners.
Operating profit margins declined 80 basis points during 2017 as compared to 2016. The following factors unfavorably impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons:
Incremental year-over-year costs associated with various new product development, sales and marketing growth investments, the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates and unfavorable product mix due to lower sales of dental consumables in 2017, net of incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2017 and 2016 - 35 basis points
Trade name impairments and related productivity improvement initiatives in 2017 - 35 basis points
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2017 of acquired businesses - 10 basis points

ENVIRONMENTAL & APPLIED SOLUTIONS
The Company’s Environmental & Applied Solutions segment offers products and services that help protect important resources and keep global food and water supplies safe. The Company’s water quality business provides instrumentation, services and disinfection systems to help analyze, treat and manage the quality of ultra-pure, potable, industrial, waste, ground, source and ocean water in residential, commercial, municipal, industrial and natural resource applications. The Company’s product identification business provides equipment, software, services and consumables for various color and appearance management, packaging design and quality management, packaging converting, printing, marking, coding and traceability applications for consumer, pharmaceutical and industrial products.
Environmental & Applied Solutions Selected Financial Data
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
4,319.5

 
$
3,968.8

 
$
3,692.8

Operating profit
988.0

 
914.6

 
870.0

Depreciation
47.0

 
43.4

 
35.8

Amortization
62.0

 
56.5

 
50.9

Operating profit as a % of sales
22.9
%
 
23.0
%
 
23.6
%
Depreciation as a % of sales
1.1
%
 
1.1
%
 
1.0
%
Amortization as a % of sales
1.4
%
 
1.4
%
 
1.4
%

40


Core Revenue
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
2017 vs. 2016
Total sales growth (GAAP)
9.0
 %

7.5
 %
Less the impact of:
 
 
 
Acquisitions and other
(2.0
)%
 
(3.0
)%
Currency exchange rates
(1.0
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Core revenue growth (non-GAAP)
6.0
 %
 
4.0
 %
2018 Compared to 2017
Price increases in the segment contributed 1.5% to sales growth on a year-over-year basis during 2018 as compared with 2017 and are reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales in the segment’s water quality businesses grew at a high-single digit rate during 2018 as compared with 2017. Year-over-year core sales in the analytical instrumentation product line increased, led by continued demand in the industrial and municipal end-markets. Geographically, year-over-year core revenue growth in the analytical instrumentation product line was driven by increased demand across all major geographies, led by China, North America and Western Europe. Year-over-year core revenue growth in the business’ chemical treatment solutions product line was driven by demand in the commercial and industrial, mining and primary metals end-markets. Geographically, year-over-year core revenue growth in the chemical treatment solutions product line was driven by North America and Latin America. Core sales in the business’ ultraviolet water disinfection product line grew on a year-over-year basis due primarily to demand in the municipal and consumer end-markets. Geographically, year-over year core revenue growth in the ultraviolet water disinfection product line was led by North America and China, partially offset by softer demand in Western Europe.
Core sales in the segment’s product identification businesses grew at a mid-single digit rate during 2018 as compared with 2017. Year-over-year core revenue growth for marking and coding equipment and related consumables was driven by demand across all major end-markets and in all major geographies, particularly Western Europe, North America and high-growth markets. Demand for the business’ packaging and color solutions decreased slightly year-over-year. Geographically, core sales for packaging and color solutions decreased in North America and high-growth markets, partially offset by increased demand in Western Europe.
Operating profit margins declined 10 basis points during 2018 as compared to 2017. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons:
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2018 sales volumes, incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2018 and 2017, and improved pricing, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various new product development and sales and marketing growth investments - 35 basis points
2018 vs. 2017 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2018 of acquired businesses - 45 basis points
2017 Compared to 2016
During the first quarter of 2017, a product line was transferred from the Life Sciences segment to the Environmental & Applied Solutions segment. While this change is not material to segment results in total, the resulting change in sales growth has been included in the “Acquisitions and other” line in the table above.
Price increases in the segment contributed 1.0% to sales growth on a year-over-year basis during 2017 as compared with 2016 and are reflected as a component of the change in core revenue growth.
Core sales in the segment’s water quality businesses grew at a low-single digit rate during 2017 as compared with 2016. Year-over-year core sales in the analytical instrumentation product line grew, as increased demand in the industrial and municipal end-markets was partially offset by lower demand in the environmental end-markets. Geographically, year-over-year core revenue growth in the analytical instrumentation product line was driven by increased demand in China, Western Europe and North America, partially offset by lower demand in the Middle East and Latin America. Year-over-year core revenue growth in the business’ chemical treatment solutions product line was due primarily to an expansion of the customer base in the United

41


States, driven by higher demand in food, steel and oil and gas-related end-markets. Core sales in the business’ ultraviolet water disinfection product line grew on a year-over-year basis due primarily to higher demand in municipal and industrial end-markets in North America, Western Europe and Asia.
Core sales in the segment’s product identification businesses grew at a mid-single digit rate during 2017 as compared with 2016. Continued strong year-over-year demand for marking and coding equipment and related consumables in most major geographies, led by North America and Western Europe, drove the majority of the core revenue growth. Demand for the business’ packaging and color solutions also increased year-over-year. Geographically, core revenue growth for packaging and color solutions was led by North America, Western Europe and Asia.
Operating profit margins declined 60 basis points during 2017 as compared to 2016. The following factors impacted year-over-year operating profit margin comparisons:
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were favorably impacted by:
Higher 2017 sales volumes, incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvement initiatives taken in 2017 and 2016, improved pricing and the effect of year-over-year changes in currency exchange rates, net of incremental year-over-year costs associated with various new product development and sales and marketing growth investments - 5 basis points
2017 vs. 2016 operating profit margin comparisons were unfavorably impacted by:
The incremental net dilutive effect in 2017 of acquired businesses - 65 basis points

COST OF SALES AND GROSS PROFIT
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
19,893.0

 
$
18,329.7

 
$
16,882.4

Cost of sales
(8,785.9
)
 
(8,137.2
)
 
(7,547.8
)
Gross profit
$
11,107.1

 
$
10,192.5

 
$
9,334.6

Gross profit margin
55.8
%
 
55.6
%
 
55.3
%
The year-over-year increase in cost of sales during 2018 as compared with 2017 is due primarily to the impact of higher year-over-year sales volumes, including sales from recently acquired businesses, partially offset by incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continued productivity improvement actions taken in 2018 and 2017 and charges associated with the Company’s strategic decision to discontinue a product line in its Diagnostics segment in 2017. Cost of goods sold also increased as a result of tariffs in 2018, and tariffs are estimated to have a modest impact on cost of goods sold in 2019.
The year-over-year increase in cost of sales during 2017 as compared with 2016, is due primarily to the impact of higher year-over-year sales volumes, including sales from recently acquired businesses and the impact of restructuring, impairment and other related charges associated with the Company’s strategic decision to discontinue a product line in its Diagnostics segment. This increase in cost of sales was partially offset by year-over-year cost savings at recently acquired businesses, incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continued productivity improvement actions taken in 2017 and 2016, and the year-over-year decrease in acquisition-related charges associated with fair value adjustments to acquired inventory which decreased cost of sales by $21 million during 2017 as compared to 2016.
The year-over-year increase in gross profit margins during 2018 as compared with 2017 is due primarily to the favorable impact of higher year-over-year sales volumes, including sales from recently acquired businesses, increased leverage of certain manufacturing costs and incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvements taken in 2018 and 2017. Gross margin improvements were partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange rates in 2018.
The year-over-year increase in gross profit margins during 2017 as compared with 2016 is due primarily to the favorable impact of higher year-over-year sales volumes, incremental year-over-year cost savings associated with the continuing productivity improvements taken in 2017 and 2016. In addition, the acquisition-related charges associated with fair value adjustments to acquired inventory and deferred revenue were higher in 2016 than 2017, which improved gross profit margins by 10 basis points during 2017 as compared with 2016.


42


OPERATING EXPENSES
 
For the Year Ended December 31
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sales
$
19,893.0

 
$
18,329.7

 
$
16,882.4

Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses
(6,472.1
)
 
(6,073.3
)
 
(5,624.3
)
Research and development (“R&D”) expenses
(1,231.2
)
 
(1,128.8
)
 
(975.1
)
SG&A as a % of sales
32.5
%
 
33.1
%
 
33.3
%
R&D as a % of sales
6.2
%
 
6.2
%
 
5.8
%
SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales declined 60 basis points on a year-over-year basis for 2018 compared with 2017. The decline was driven by increased leverage of the Company’s general and administrative cost base resulting from higher 2018 sales volumes, continuing productivity improvements taken in 2018 and 2017, and the impact of the restructuring, impairment and other related charges incurred in 2017 associated with the Company’s strategic decision to discontinue a product line in its Diagnostics segment. The decline in SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales was partially offset by higher relative spending levels at recently acquired companies and continued investments in sales and marketing growth initiatives.
SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales declined 20 basis points on a year-over-year basis for 2017 compared with 2016. The decline was driven by increased leverage of the Company’s general and administrative cost base resulting from higher 2017 sales volumes, continuing productivity improvements taken in 2017 and 2016 as well as the benefit of lower acquisition charges in 2017 compared to 2016, particularly change in control payments and restructuring costs in connection with the acquisition of Cepheid. The decline in SG&A expenses as a percentage of sales was partially offset by restructuring, impairment and other related charges associated with the Company’s strategic decision to discontinue a product line in its Diagnostics segment, higher relative spending levels at recently acquired companies, primarily Cepheid, and continued investments in sales and marketing growth initiatives.
R&D expenses (consisting principally of internal and contract engineering personnel costs) as a percentage of sales remained consistent in 2018 as compared with 2017 as year-over-year increases in spending in the Company’s new product development initiatives corresponded to the increase in sales. R&D expenses as a percentage of sales increased in 2017 as compared to 2016 due primarily to higher R&D expenses as a percentage of sales in the businesses most recently acquired, primarily Cepheid, as well as year-over-year increases in spending in the Company’s new product development initiatives.

NONOPERATING INCOME (EXPENSE)
As described in Note 1 and Note 11, in the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation— Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. The ASU requires the Company to disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net periodic benefit costs and requires the Company to present the other components of net periodic benefit cost in other income, net. The ASU also requires application on a retrospective basis. The other components of net periodic benefit costs included in other income, net for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were net gains of $37 million, $31 million and $16 million, respectively.
During 2017, the Company received $138 million of cash proceeds and recorded $22 million in short-term other receivables from the sale of certain marketable equity securities during 2017. The Company recorded a pretax gain related to this sale of $73 million ($46 million after-tax or $0.06 per diluted share).
During 2016, the Company received cash proceeds of $265 million from the sale of certain marketable equity securities and recorded a pretax gain related to this sale of $223 million ($140 million after-tax or $0.20 per diluted share).
During 2016, the Company also paid $188 million of make-whole premiums associated with the early extinguishment of the Redeemed Notes. The Company recorded a loss on extinguishment of these borrowings, net of certain deferred gains, of $179 million ($112 million after-tax or $0.16 per diluted share).
INTEREST COSTS
Interest expense of $157 million for 2018 was $5 million lower than in 2017, due primarily to the decrease in interest costs as a result of the repayment of certain outstanding borrowings in the third quarter of 2018 and the second and fourth quarters of 2017, lower average outstanding U.S. commercial paper borrowings during 2018 compared to 2017, and the impact of foreign currency exchange rates in 2018 as compared to 2017, partially offset by the cost of additional non-U.S. debt issued during

43


2017. For a further description of the Company’s debt as of December 31, 2018 refer to Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Interest expense of $163 million in 2017 was $21 million lower than the 2016 interest expense of $184 million due primarily to the decrease in interest costs as a result of the early extinguishment of certain outstanding borrowings in the third quarter of 2016 using the proceeds from the Fortive Distribution and lower commercial paper borrowings in 2017 compared to 2016, partially offset by the cost of additional long-term debt refinancing relating to the acquisition of Cepheid.
In January 2019, the Company entered into approximately $1.9 billion of cross-currency swap derivative contracts on its U.S. dollar-denominated bonds to effectively convert the Company’s U.S. dollar-denominated bonds to obligations denominated in Danish kroner, Japanese yen, euro and Swiss franc. Based on the interest rates of the swaps and current currency exchange rates, the Company expects these contracts to effectively reduce the Company’s interest expense in 2019 by approximately $35 million versus the stated interest rates on the U.S. dollar denominated debt.   

INCOME TAXES
General
Income tax expense and deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect management’s assessment of future taxes expected to be paid on items reflected in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company records the tax effect of discrete items and items that are reported net of their tax effects in the period in which they occur.
The Company’s effective tax rate can be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with different statutory tax rates (including as a result of business acquisitions and dispositions), changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, accruals related to contingent tax liabilities and period-to-period changes in such accruals, the results of audits and examinations of previously filed tax returns (as discussed below), the expiration of statutes of limitations, the implementation of tax planning strategies, tax rulings, court decisions, settlements with tax authorities and changes in tax laws and regulations, including the TCJA and legislative policy changes that may result from the OECD’s initiative on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. For a description of the tax treatment of earnings that are planned to be reinvested indefinitely outside the United States, refer to “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Cash and Cash Requirements” below.
The amount of income taxes the Company pays is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities, which often result in proposed assessments. Management performs a comprehensive review of its global tax positions on a quarterly basis. Based on these reviews, the results of discussions and resolutions of matters with certain tax authorities, tax rulings and court decisions and the expiration of statutes of limitations, reserves for contingent tax liabilities are accrued or adjusted as necessary. For a discussion of risks related to these and other tax matters, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors”.
On December 22, 2017, the TCJA was enacted, substantially changing the U.S. tax system and affecting the Company in a number of ways. Notably, the TCJA:
established a flat corporate income tax rate of 21.0% on U.S. earnings;
imposed a one-time tax on unremitted cumulative non-U.S. earnings of foreign subsidiaries, which we refer to in this Annual Report as the Transition Tax;
imposes a new minimum tax on certain non-U.S. earnings, irrespective of the territorial system of taxation, and generally allows for the repatriation of future earnings of foreign subsidiaries without incurring additional U.S. taxes by transitioning to a territorial system of taxation;
subjects certain payments made by a U.S. company to a related foreign company to certain minimum taxes (Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Tax);
eliminated certain prior tax incentives for manufacturing in the United States and creates an incentive for U.S. companies to sell, lease or license goods and services abroad by allowing for a reduction in taxes owed on earnings related to such sales;
allows the cost of investments in certain depreciable assets acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017 to be immediately expensed; and
reduces deductions with respect to certain compensation paid to specified executive officers.
While the changes from the TCJA were generally effective beginning in 2018, GAAP accounting for income taxes requires the effect of a change in tax laws or rates to be recognized in income from continuing operations for the period that includes the enactment date. Due to the complexities involved in accounting for the enactment of the TCJA, SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB No. 118”) allowed the Company to record provisional amounts in earnings for the year ended December 31,

44


2017. Where reasonable estimates could be made, the provisional accounting was based on such estimates. When no reasonable estimate could be made, SAB No. 118 required the accounting to be based on the tax law in effect before the TCJA. The Company was required to complete its tax accounting for the TCJA when it had obtained, prepared and analyzed the information to complete the income tax accounting but no later than December 22, 2018.
Accordingly, during 2018, the Company completed its accounting for the tax effects of the enactment of the TCJA based on the Company’s interpretation of the new tax regulations and related guidance issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the IRS.
The Transition Tax is based on the Company’s post-1986 earnings and profits that were previously deferred from U.S. income taxes. In the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recorded a provision amount for the Transition Tax expense resulting in an increase in income tax expense of approximately $1.2 billion. During 2018, the Company finalized the calculations of the Transition Tax liability and increased the provisional amount recorded in 2017 by $40 million, with the increase included as a component of income tax expense from continuing operations in 2018. Regulations allow the Company to reduce the Transition Tax payable by applying available foreign tax credits and other tax attributes. The Company has elected to pay the net Transition Tax payable over an eight-year period as permitted by the TCJA. As of December 31, 2018, the remaining Transition Tax balance to be paid over the next seven years is approximately $180 million.
In connection with finalizing the calculation of tax credits available to reduce the Transition Tax and other U.S. taxable income, the Company recorded an additional provision of $13 million related to net unrealizable credits which is included as a component of income tax expense from continuing operations in 2018.
U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities were remeasured as of December 31, 2017 based upon the tax rates at which the assets and liabilities are expected to reverse in the future, which is generally 21.0%, resulting in an income tax benefit of approximately $1.2 billion in 2017. Upon finalizing the provisional accounting for the remeasurement of U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities in 2018, the Company recorded an additional tax benefit of $47 million, which is included as a component of income tax expense from continuing operations.
The TCJA imposes tax on U.S. shareholders for global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) earned by certain foreign subsidiaries. The Company is required to make an accounting policy election of either: (1) treating taxes due on future amounts included in U.S. taxable income related to GILTI as a current period tax expense when incurred (the “period cost method”); or (2) factoring such amounts into the Company’s measurement of its deferred tax expense (the “deferred method”). As of December 31, 2017, the Company was still analyzing its global income and did not record a GILTI-related deferred tax amount. In 2018, the Company elected the period cost method for its accounting for GILTI.
Due to the complexity and recent issuance of these tax regulations, management’s interpretations of the impact of these rules could be subject to challenge by the taxing authorities.
Year-Over-Year Changes in the Tax Provision and Effective Tax Rate
 
Year Ended December 31
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Effective tax rate from continuing operations
19.5
%
 
16.0
%
 
17.5
%
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2018, 2017 and 2016 differs from the U.S. federal statutory rates of 21.0% for 2018 and 35.0% for 2017 and 2016, due principally to the Company’s earnings outside the United States that are indefinitely reinvested and taxed at rates different than the U.S. federal statutory rate. In addition:
The effective tax rate of 19.5% in 2018 includes 70 basis points of tax benefits primarily related to the release of reserves upon the expiration of statutes of limitation, audit settlements and release of valuation allowance in a certain foreign tax jurisdiction. These tax benefits were partially offset by additional provisions related to completing the accounting for the enactment of the TCJA as summarized above and tax costs directly related to reorganization activities associated with preparing for the Dental Separation.
The effective tax rate of 16.0% in 2017 includes 500 basis points of net tax benefits due to the revaluation of deferred tax liabilities from 35.0% to 21.0% due to the TCJA and the release of reserves upon statute of limitation expiration, partially offset by income tax expense related to the Transition Tax on foreign earnings due to the TCJA and changes in estimates associated with prior period uncertain tax positions.

45


The effective tax rate of 17.5% in 2016 includes 350 basis points of net tax benefits from permanent foreign exchange losses and the release of reserves upon the expiration of statutes of limitation and audit settlements, partially offset by income tax expense related to repatriation of earnings and legal entity realignments associated with the Fortive Separation and changes in estimates associated with prior period uncertain tax positions.
The Company conducts business globally, and files numerous consolidated and separate income tax returns in the U.S. federal, state and foreign jurisdictions. The non-U.S. countries in which the Company has a significant presence include China, Denmark, Germany, Singapore, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Company believes that a change in the statutory tax rate of any individual foreign country would not have a material effect on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements given the geographic dispersion of the Company’s taxable income.
The Company and its subsidiaries are routinely examined by various domestic and international taxing authorities. The IRS has completed substantially all of the examinations of the Company’s federal income tax returns through 2011 and is currently examining certain of the Company’s federal income tax returns for 2012 through 2015. In addition, the Company has subsidiaries in Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and various other countries, states and provinces that are currently under audit for years ranging from 2004 through 2017.
In the fourth quarter of 2018, the IRS proposed significant adjustments to the Company’s taxable income for the years 2012 through 2015 with respect to the deferral of tax on certain premium income related to the Company’s self-insurance programs. The proposed adjustments would increase the Company’s taxable income over the 2012 through 2015 period by approximately $960 million. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, the IRS has notified the Company that it is considering additional taxable income adjustments related to other aspects of the Company’s self-insurance programs for the years 2012 through 2015. These additional proposed adjustments would increase the Company’s taxable income by approximately $1.7 billion. Management believes the positions the Company has taken in its U.S. tax returns are in accordance with the relevant tax laws, intends to vigorously defend these positions and is currently considering all of its alternatives. Due to the enactment of the TCJA in 2017 and the resulting reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate for years after 2017, the Company revalued its deferred tax liabilities related to the temporary differences associated with this deferred premium income from 35.0% to 21.0%. If the Company is not successful in defending these assessments, the taxes owed to the IRS may be computed under the previous 35.0% statutory tax rate and the Company may be required to revalue the related deferred tax liabilities from 21.0% to 35.0%, which in addition to any interest due on the amounts assessed, would require a charge to future earnings. The ultimate resolution of this matter is uncertain, could take many years and could result in a material adverse impact to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including its cash flows and effective tax rate.
Tax authorities in Denmark have raised significant issues related to interest accrued by certain of the Company’s subsidiaries. On December 10, 2013, the Company received assessments from the Danish tax authority (“SKAT”) totaling approximately DKK 1.6 billion (approximately $247 million based on exchange rates as of December 31, 2018) including interest through December 31, 2018, imposing withholding tax relating to interest accrued in Denmark on borrowings from certain of the Company’s subsidiaries for the years 2004 through 2009. The Company is currently in discussions with SKAT and anticipates receiving an assessment for years 2010 through 2012 totaling approximately DKK 954 million (approximately $146 million based on exchange rates as of December 31, 2018) including interest through December 31, 2018. Management believes the positions the Company has taken in Denmark are in accordance with the relevant tax laws and is vigorously defending its positions. The Company appealed these assessments with the National Tax Tribunal in 2014 and intends on pursuing this matter through the European Court of Justice should this appeal be unsuccessful. The ultimate resolution of this matter is uncertain, could take many years, and could result in a material adverse impact to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including its cash flows and effective tax rate.
After considering the effect of the TCJA, the Company expects its 2019 effective tax rate to be approximately 19.5%. Any future legislative changes in the United States including new regulations related to the TCJA or potential tax reform in other jurisdictions, could cause the Company’s effective tax rate to differ from this estimate. Refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to income taxes.

DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
As further discussed in Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, discontinued operations include the results of the Fortive businesses which were disposed of during the third quarter of 2016.
In 2017, Danaher recorded a $22 million income tax benefit related to the release of previously provided reserves associated with uncertain tax positions on certain Danaher tax returns which were jointly filed with Fortive entities. These reserves were released due to the expiration of statutes of limitations for those returns. All Fortive entity-related balances were included in

46


the income tax benefit related to discontinued operations.
In 2016, earnings from discontinued operations, net of income taxes, were $400 million and reflected the operating results of the Fortive businesses prior to the Fortive Separation.

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Comprehensive income decreased by approximately $1.5 billion in 2018 as compared to 2017, primarily due to a loss from foreign currency translation adjustments in 2018 compared to a gain in 2017 and a loss from pension and postretirement plan benefit adjustments as compared to a gain in 2017, partially offset by higher net earnings from continuing operations and a decrease in unrealized losses on available-for-sale securities in 2018 compared to 2017.  The Company recorded a foreign currency translation loss of $632 million for 2018 compared to a translation gain of $976 million for 2017. The Company recorded a pension and postretirement plan benefit loss of $13 million for 2018 compared to a gain of $71 million for 2017. These negative impacts were partially offset by higher net earnings in 2018 compared to 2017.
Comprehensive income increased by approximately $1.7 billion in 2017 as compared to 2016, primarily due to increased earnings from continuing operations, an increased gain from foreign currency translation adjustments compared to 2016, pension and postretirement plan benefit adjustments and the decrease in unrealized losses on available-for-sale securities, partially offset by lower net earnings attributable to discontinued operations in 2017 compared to 2016. The Company recorded a foreign currency translation gain of $976 million for 2017 compared to a translation loss of $517 million for 2016. The Company recorded a pension and postretirement plan benefit gain of $71 million in 2017 compared to a loss of $58 million in 2016.
INFLATION
The effect of inflation on the Company’s revenues and net earnings was not significant in any of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 or 2016.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT
The Company is exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, equity prices and commodity prices as well as credit risk, each of which could impact its Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company generally addresses its exposure to these risks through its normal operating and financing activities. The Company may periodically use derivative financial instruments to manage foreign exchange risks. In addition, the Company’s broad-based business activities help to reduce the impact that volatility in any particular area or related areas may have on its operating profit as a whole.
Interest Rate Risk
The Company manages interest cost using a mixture of fixed-rate and variable-rate debt. A change in interest rates on long-term debt impacts the fair value of the Company’s fixed-rate long-term debt but not the Company’s earnings or cash flow because the interest on such debt is fixed. Generally, the fair market value of fixed-rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. As of December 31, 2018, an increase of 100 basis points in interest rates would have decreased the fair value of the Company’s fixed-rate long-term debt (excluding the LYONs, which have not been included in this calculation as the value of this convertible debt is primarily derived from the value of its underlying common stock) by $460 million.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s variable-rate debt obligations consisted primarily of U.S. dollar and euro-based commercial paper borrowings (refer to Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the Company’s outstanding commercial paper balances as of December 31, 2018). As a result, the Company’s primary interest rate exposure results from changes in short-term interest rates. As these shorter duration obligations mature, the Company may issue additional short-term commercial paper obligations to refinance all or part of these borrowings. In 2018, the average annual interest rate associated with outstanding commercial paper borrowings was approximately negative 18 basis points. A hypothetical increase of this average to negative eight basis points would have increased the Company’s annual interest expense by $3 million. The hypothetical increase used is the actual amount by which the Company’s commercial paper interest rates fluctuated during 2018.
In January 2019, the Company entered into approximately $1.9 billion of cross-currency swap derivative contracts on its U.S. dollar denominated bonds to effectively convert the Company’s U.S. dollar denominated bonds to obligations denominated in Danish kroner, Japanese yen, euro and Swiss franc. Based on the interest rates of the swaps and current currency exchange

47


rates, the Company expects these contracts to reduce the Company’s interest expense in 2019 by approximately $35 million versus the stated interest rates on the U.S. dollar denominated debt.   
Currency Exchange Rate Risk
The Company faces transactional exchange rate risk from transactions with customers in countries outside the United States and from intercompany transactions between affiliates. Transactional exchange rate risk arises from the purchase and sale of goods and services in currencies other than Danaher’s functional currency or the functional currency of its applicable subsidiary. The Company also faces translational exchange rate risk related to the translation of financial statements of its foreign operations into U.S. dollars, Danaher’s functional currency. Costs incurred and sales recorded by subsidiaries operating outside of the United States are translated into U.S. dollars using exchange rates effective during the respective period. As a result, the Company is exposed to movements in the exchange rates of various currencies against the U.S. dollar. In particular, the Company has more sales in European currencies than it has expenses in those currencies. Therefore, when European currencies strengthen or weaken against the U.S. dollar, operating profits are increased or decreased, respectively. The effect of a change in currency exchange rates on the Company’s net investment in international subsidiaries is reflected in the accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) component of stockholders’ equity.
Currency exchange rates positively impacted 2018 reported sales by 0.5% on a year-over-year basis, primarily as a result of the U.S. dollar weakening against other major currencies in the first half of 2018. The U.S. dollar strengthened in the second half of 2018 which mitigated some of the benefit recorded in early 2018. If the exchange rates in effect as of December 31, 2018 were to prevail throughout 2019, currency exchange rates would adversely impact 2019 estimated sales by 1.5% relative to the Company’s performance in 2018. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar against other major currencies would adversely impact the Company’s sales and results of operations on an overall basis. Any weakening of the U.S. dollar against other major currencies would positively impact the Company’s sales and results of operations.
The Company has generally accepted the exposure to exchange rate movements without using derivative financial instruments to manage this transactional exchange risk. Both positive and negative movements in currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar will therefore continue to affect the reported amount of sales and net earnings in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, the Company has assets and liabilities held in foreign currencies. The Company may also use foreign currency-denominated debt and cross-currency swaps to partially hedge its net investments in foreign operations against adverse movements in exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in major currencies relative to the U.S. dollar as of December 31, 2018 would have reduced foreign currency-denominated net assets and stockholders’ equity by $860 million. In 2019, the Company entered into approximately $1.9 billion of cross-currency swap derivative contracts on its U.S. dollar-denominated bonds to hedge its net investment in foreign operations against adverse changes in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the Danish kroner, Japanese yen, euro and the Swiss franc. These contracts effectively convert the Company’s U.S. dollar-denominated bonds to obligations denominated in Danish kroner, Japanese yen, euro and Swiss franc, and will partially offset the impact of changes in currency rates on foreign currency-denominated net assets in future periods.
Equity Price Risk
The Company’s investment portfolio has in the past included publicly-traded equity securities that are sensitive to fluctuations in market price. However, during 2017 the Company sold substantially all of its available-for-sale marketable equity securities. The Company also holds investments in non-marketable equity instruments in privately held companies that may be impacted by equity price risks or other factors. These non-marketable equity investments are accounted for under the Fair Value Alternative method with changes in fair value recorded in earnings. Volatility in the equity markets or other fair value considerations could affect the value of these investments and require charges or gains to be recognized in earnings.
Commodity Price Risk
For a discussion of risks relating to commodity prices, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Credit Risk
The Company is exposed to potential credit losses in the event of nonperformance by counterparties to its financial instruments. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist of cash and temporary investments, receivables from customers and derivatives. The Company places cash and temporary investments with various high-quality financial institutions throughout the world and exposure is limited at any one institution. Although the Company typically does not obtain collateral or other security to secure these obligations, it does regularly monitor the third-party depository institutions that hold its cash and cash equivalents. The Company’s emphasis is primarily on safety and liquidity of principal and secondarily on maximizing yield on those funds.

48


In addition, concentrations of credit risk arising from receivables from customers are limited due to the diversity of the Company’s customers. The Company’s businesses perform credit evaluations of their customers’ financial conditions as appropriate and also obtain collateral or other security when appropriate.
The Company enters into derivative transactions infrequently and such transactions are generally insignificant to the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. These transactions are typically entered into with high-quality financial institutions and exposure at any one institution is limited.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Management assesses the Company’s liquidity in terms of its ability to generate cash to fund its operating, investing and financing requirements. The Company continues to generate substantial cash from operating activities and believes that its operating cash flow and other sources of liquidity will be sufficient to allow it to continue investing in existing businesses, consummating strategic acquisitions and investments, paying interest and servicing debt and managing its capital structure on a short and long-term basis.

Following is an overview of the Company’s cash flows and liquidity for the years ended December 31:
Overview of Cash Flows and Liquidity
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Total operating cash flows provided by continuing operations
$
4,022.0

 
$
3,477.8

 
$
3,087.5

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash paid for acquisitions
$
(2,173.3
)
 
$
(385.8
)
 
$
(4,880.1
)
Payments for additions to property, plant and equipment
(655.7
)
 
(619.6
)
 
(589.6
)
Proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment
6.3

 
32.6

 
9.8

Payments for purchases of investments
(148.9
)
 

 

Proceeds from sales of investments
22.2

 
137.9

 
264.8

All other investing activities

 
(8.5
)
 
21.9

Total investing cash used in discontinued operations

 

 
(69.8
)
Net cash used in investing activities
$
(2,949.4
)
 
$
(843.4
)
 
$
(5,243.0
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from the issuance of common stock
$
96.0

 
$
68.8

 
$
164.5

Payment of dividends
(433.4
)
 
(378.3
)
 
(399.8
)
Payment for purchase of noncontrolling interest

 
(64.4
)
 

Make-whole premiums to redeem borrowings prior to maturity

 

 
(188.1
)
Net proceeds from (repayments of) borrowings (maturities of 90 days or less)
65.7

 
(3,778.5
)
 
2,218.1

Proceeds from borrowings (maturities longer than 90 days)

 
1,782.1

 
3,240.9

Repayments of borrowings (maturities longer than 90 days)
(507.8
)
 
(668.4
)
 
(2,480.6
)
All other financing activities
(17.9
)
 
(59.8
)
 
(27.0
)
Cash distributions to Fortive, net

 

 
(485.3
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
$
(797.4
)
 
$
(3,098.5
)
 
$
2,042.7

Operating cash flows from continuing operations increased $544 million, or 16%, during 2018 as compared to 2017, due primarily to higher net earnings, which included higher noncash charges for depreciation and amortization, the impact of a noncash gain from the sale of marketable equity securities in 2017, and lower cash used for funding trade accounts receivable, inventories and trade accounts payable in 2018 compared to 2017. This increase was partially offset by higher cash used for payments for various employee-related liabilities, customer funding and accrued expenses during 2018.
Net cash used in investing activities during 2018 consisted primarily of cash paid for acquisitions, additions to property, plant and equipment and payments for purchases of investments. The Company acquired two businesses during 2018 for total consideration (including assumed debt and net of cash acquired) of approximately $2.2 billion.

49


Payments for additions to property, plant and equipment increased $36 million in 2018 compared to 2017 and included investments in operating assets, and new facilities across the Company. In addition, in 2018, the Company invested $149 million in non-marketable equity securities.
The Company repaid the $500 million aggregate principal amount of 2018 U.S. Notes (plus accrued interest) upon their maturity in September 2018 using available cash and proceeds from the issuance of commercial paper.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company held $788 million of cash and cash equivalents.

Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities can fluctuate significantly from period-to-period as working capital needs and the timing of payments for income taxes, restructuring activities and productivity improvement initiatives, pension funding and other items impact reported cash flows.
Operating cash flows from continuing operations were approximately $4.0 billion for 2018, an increase of $544 million, or 16%, as compared to 2017. The year-over-year change in operating cash flows from 2017 to 2018 was primarily attributable to the following factors:
2018 operating cash flows benefited from higher net earnings in 2018 as compared to 2017. Net earnings in 2017 also included a $73 million gain on sale of marketable equity securities for which the proceeds were reflected in the investing activities section of the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows, and therefore, did not contribute to operating cash flows.
Net earnings from continuing operations for 2018 reflected an increase of $69 million of depreciation and amortization expense as compared to 2017. Amortization expense primarily relates to the amortization of intangible assets acquired in connection with acquisitions and increased due to recently acquired businesses. Depreciation expense relates to both the Company’s manufacturing and operating facilities as well as instrumentation leased to customers under operating-type lease arrangements and increased due primarily to the impact of increased capital expenditures. Depreciation and amortization are noncash expenses that decrease earnings without a corresponding impact to operating cash flows.
The aggregate of trade accounts receivable, inventories and trade accounts payable provided $24 million in operating cash flows during 2018, compared to $243 million of operating cash flows used in 2017. The amount of cash flow generated from or used by the aggregate of trade accounts receivable, inventories and trade accounts payable depends upon how effectively the Company manages the cash conversion cycle, which effectively represents the number of days that elapse from the day it pays for the purchase of raw materials and components to the collection of cash from its customers and can be significantly impacted by the timing of collections and payments in a period.
The aggregate of prepaid expenses and other assets, deferred income taxes and accrued expenses and other liabilities used $114 million in operating cash flows during 2018, compared to $110 million used in 2017. The timing of various employee-related liabilities, customer funding and accrued expenses drove the majority of this change.
Operating cash flows from continuing operations were approximately $3.5 billion for 2017, an increase of $390 million, or 13%, as compared to 2016. This increase was primarily attributable to the increase in net earnings from continuing operations in 2017 as compared to 2016.

Investing Activities
Cash flows relating to investing activities consist primarily of cash used for acquisitions and capital expenditures, including instruments leased to customers, cash used for investments and cash proceeds from divestitures of businesses or assets.
Net cash used in investing activities was approximately $2.9 billion during 2018 compared to $843 million and approximately $5.2 billion of net cash used in 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Acquisitions, Divestitures and Sale of Investments
2018 Acquisitions and Sale of Investments
For a discussion of the Company’s 2018 acquisitions refer to “—Overview.” In addition, in 2018, the Company invested $149 million in non-marketable equity securities and partnerships. The Company received cash proceeds of $22 million from the collection of short-term other receivables related to the sale of certain marketable equity securities during 2017.

50


2017 Acquisitions and Sale of Investments
During 2017, the Company acquired ten businesses for total consideration of $386 million in cash, net of cash acquired. The businesses acquired complement existing units of the Life Sciences, Dental and Environmental & Applied Solutions segments. The aggregate annual sales of these ten businesses at the time of their respective acquisitions, in each case based on the company’s revenues for its last completed fiscal year prior to the acquisition, were $160 million.
The Company received $138 million of cash proceeds and recorded $22 million in short-term other receivables from the sale of certain marketable equity securities during 2017. The Company recorded a pretax gain related to this sale of $73 million ($46 million after-tax or $0.06 per diluted share).
2016 Acquisitions, Divestitures and Sale of Investments
For a discussion of the Company’s 2016 Separation of its former Test & Measurement segment, Industrial Technologies segment (excluding the product identification businesses) and retail/commercial petroleum business, refer to “—Overview.”
On November 4, 2016, Copper Merger Sub, Inc., a California corporation and an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of common stock of Cepheid, a California corporation, for $53.00 per share in cash, for a total purchase price of approximately $4.0 billion, net of assumed debt and acquired cash (the “Cepheid Acquisition”). Cepheid is now part of the Company’s Diagnostics segment. Cepheid generated revenues of $539 million in 2015. The Company initially financed the Cepheid acquisition price with available cash and proceeds from the issuance of U.S. dollar and euro-denominated commercial paper.
In addition to the Cepheid Acquisition, during 2016 the Company acquired seven businesses for total consideration of $882 million in cash, net of cash acquired. The businesses acquired complement existing units of each of the Company’s four segments. The aggregate annual sales of these seven businesses at the time of their respective acquisitions, in each case based on the company’s revenues for its last completed fiscal year prior to the acquisition, were $237 million.
In addition, during 2016, the Company received cash proceeds of $265 million from the sale of certain marketable equity securities and recorded a pretax gain related to this sale of $223 million ($140 million after-tax or $0.20 per diluted share).
Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures are made primarily for increasing capacity, replacing equipment, supporting new product development, improving information technology systems and the manufacture of instruments that are used in operating-type lease arrangements that certain of the Company’s businesses enter into with customers. Capital expenditures totaled $656 million in 2018, $620 million in 2017 and $590 million in 2016. The increase in capital spending in both 2018 and 2017 was due to increased investments in operating assets and new facilities across the Company. In 2019, the Company expects capital spending to be approximately $750 million, though actual expenditures will ultimately depend on business conditions.

Financing Activities
Cash flows from financing activities consist primarily of cash flows associated with the issuance and repayments of commercial paper and other debt, issuances and repurchases of common stock, excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation and payments of cash dividends to shareholders. Financing activities used cash of $797 million during 2018 compared to approximately $3.1 billion of cash used during 2017. The year-over-year decrease in cash used in financing activities was due primarily to lower net repayments of commercial paper borrowings in 2018, as the Company decreased its commercial paper borrowings in 2017 after increasing commercial paper borrowings for the Cepheid acquisition. The Company issued commercial paper early in 2018 to pay for a portion of the acquisition price of IDT and repaid substantially all of such commercial paper borrowings later in 2018. The cash outflow in 2017 for the net repayment of commercial paper was partially offset by proceeds from the issuance of long-term notes. In both 2018 and 2017, the Company repaid long-term debt, with slightly lower repayments in 2018 compared to 2017, as the Company repaid the $500 million aggregate principal amount of 2018 U.S. Notes with accrued interest upon their maturity in September 2018.
Financing activities used cash of approximately $3.1 billion during 2017 compared to approximately $2.0 billion of cash provided during 2016. Cash provided by financing activities in 2017 primarily related to higher net repayments of commercial paper borrowings in 2017 as compared to 2016 (as the Company increased its commercial paper borrowings in 2016 for the Cepheid acquisition) as well as lower proceeds from the issuance of debt in 2017 as compared to 2016. These impacts were partially offset by lower repayments of long-term debt in 2017 as compared to 2016 as the Company used a portion of the proceeds from the Fortive Distribution to repay outstanding long-term indebtedness in August 2016.

51


Total debt was approximately $9.7 billion and $10.5 billion as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company had the ability to incur approximately an additional $1.5 billion of indebtedness in direct borrowings or under the outstanding commercial paper facility based on the amounts available under the Company’s $4.0 billion credit facility which were not being used to backstop outstanding commercial paper balances as of December 31, 2018. The Company has classified the 2019 Euronotes and approximately $2.5 billion of its borrowings outstanding under the commercial paper programs as of December 31, 2018 as long-term debt in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as the Company had the intent and ability, as supported by availability under the Credit Facility, to refinance these borrowings for at least one year from the balance sheet date. As commercial paper obligations mature, the Company may issue additional short-term commercial paper obligations to refinance all or part of these borrowings.
Under the Company’s U.S. and euro-denominated commercial paper program, the notes are typically issued at a discount from par, generally based on the ratings assigned to the Company by credit rating agencies at the time of the issuance and prevailing market rates measured by reference to LIBOR or EURIBOR. Additionally, the Company’s floating rate senior unsecured notes due 2022 pay interest based upon the three-month EURIBOR plus 0.3%. In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. The Company has evaluated the immediate impact of the transition from LIBOR and does not expect the transition to be material.
Refer to Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the Company’s financing activities and indebtedness, including the Company’s outstanding debt as of December 31, 2018, and the Company’s commercial paper program and related credit facility.

Shelf Registration Statement
The Company has filed a “well-known seasoned issuer” shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC that registers an indeterminate amount of debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, warrants, depositary shares, purchase contracts and units for future issuance. The Company expects to use net proceeds realized by the Company from future securities sales off this shelf registration statement for general corporate purposes, including without limitation repayment or refinancing of debt or other corporate obligations, acquisitions, capital expenditures, share repurchases and dividends and/or working capital.
Stock Repurchase Program
Please see “Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” in Item 5 of Part II of this Annual Report for a description of the Company’s stock repurchase program.
Dividends
The Company declared a regular quarterly dividend of $0.16 per share that was paid on January 25, 2019 to holders of record on December 28, 2018. Aggregate cash payments for dividends during 2018 were $433 million. Dividend payments were higher in 2018 as compared to 2017 due to increases in the quarterly dividend rate effective with respect to the dividend paid in the second quarter of 2017 and with respect to the dividend paid in the second quarter of 2018.
Cash and Cash Requirements
As of December 31, 2018, the Company held $788 million of cash and cash equivalents that were invested in highly liquid investment-grade debt instruments with a maturity of 90 days or less with an approximate weighted average annual interest rate of 1.3%. Of this amount, $38 million was held within the United States and $750 million was held outside of the United States. The Company will continue to have cash requirements to support working capital needs, capital expenditures, acquisitions and investments, pay interest and service debt, pay taxes and any related interest or penalties, fund its restructuring activities and pension plans as required, pay dividends to shareholders, repurchase shares of the Company’s common stock and support other business needs. The Company generally intends to use available cash and internally generated funds to meet these cash requirements, but in the event that additional liquidity is required, particularly in connection with acquisitions, the Company may also borrow under its commercial paper programs or credit facility, enter into new credit facilities and either borrow directly thereunder or use such credit facilities to backstop additional borrowing capacity under its commercial paper programs and/or issue debt and/or equity in the capital markets. The Company also may from time to time access the capital markets to take advantage of favorable interest rate environments or other market conditions.
While repatriation of some cash held outside the United States may be restricted by local laws, most of the Company’s foreign cash could be repatriated to the United States. Following enactment of the TCJA and the associated Transition Tax, in general,

52


repatriation of cash to the United States can be completed with no incremental U.S. tax; however, repatriation of cash could subject the Company to non-U.S. jurisdictional taxes on distributions. The cash that the Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries hold for indefinite reinvestment is generally used to finance foreign operations, investments and acquisitions. The income taxes applicable to such earnings are not readily determinable. As of December 31, 2018, the Company continues to assert that principally all of its non-U.S. earnings are indefinitely reinvested and management believes that the Company has sufficient liquidity to satisfy its cash needs, including its cash needs in the United States.
During 2018, the Company contributed $55 million to its U.S. defined benefit pension plans and $52 million to its non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans. During 2019, the Company’s cash contribution requirements for its U.S. and its non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans are expected to be approximately $10 million and $50 million, respectively. The ultimate amounts to be contributed depend upon, among other things, legal requirements, underlying asset returns, the plan’s funded status, the anticipated tax deductibility of the contribution, local practices, market conditions, interest rates and other factors.

Contractual Obligations
The following table sets forth, by period due or year of expected expiration, as applicable, a summary of the Company’s contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018 under (1) debt obligations, (2) leases, (3) purchase obligations and (4) other long-term liabilities reflected on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet. The amounts presented in the “Other long-term liabilities” line in the table below include $911 million of noncurrent gross unrecognized tax benefits and related interest (and do not include $75 million of current gross unrecognized tax benefits which are included in the “Accrued expenses and other liabilities” line on the Consolidated Balance Sheet). However, the timing of the long-term portion of these tax liabilities is uncertain, and therefore, they have been included in the “More Than 5 Years” column in the table below. Refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on unrecognized tax benefits. Certain of the Company’s acquisitions also involve the potential payment of contingent consideration. The table below does not reflect any such obligations, as the timing and amounts of any such payments are uncertain. Refer to “—Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements” for a discussion of other contractual obligations that are not reflected in the table below.
($ in millions)
Total
 
Less Than
One Year
 
1-3 Years
 
4-5 Years
 
More Than
5 Years
Debt and leases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Debt obligations (a)(b)
$
9,724.8

 
$
50.6

 
$
4,346.5

 
$
1,748.5

 
$
3,579.2

Capital lease obligations (b)
15.5

 
1.2

 
2.8

 
11.5

 

Total debt and leases
9,740.3

 
51.8

 
4,349.3

 
1,760.0

 
3,579.2

Interest payments on debt and capital lease obligations (c)
1,105.6

 
128.9

 
210.0

 
158.4

 
608.3

Operating lease obligations (d)
1,009.9

 
203.0

 
301.0

 
218.7

 
287.2

Other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase obligations (e)
659.1

 
610.2

 
45.7

 
3.0

 
0.2

Other long-term liabilities reflected on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet (f)
5,075.8

 

 
621.5

 
515.2

 
3,939.1

Total
$
17,590.7

 
$
993.9

 
$
5,527.5

 
$
2,655.3

 
$
8,414.0

(a) 
As described in Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(b) 
Amounts do not include interest payments. Interest on debt and capital lease obligations is reflected in a separate line in the table.
(c) 
Interest payments on debt are projected for future periods using the interest rates in effect as of December 31, 2018. Certain of these projected interest payments may differ in the future based on changes in market interest rates.
(d) 
As described in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, certain leases require the Company to pay real estate taxes, insurance, maintenance and other operating expenses associated with the leased premises. These future costs are not included in the table above. As discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company adopted ASC 842 related to lease accounting on January 1, 2019. Future minimum lease payments differ from the future lease liability recognized under ASC 842, as the lease liability recognized under ASC 842 discounts the lease payments while the minimum lease payments are not discounted. Additionally, ASC 842 allows a lessee to elect to combine or separate any non-lease components in an arrangement with the lease components for the calculation of the lease liability while the minimum lease payments exclude any non-lease components.
(e) 
Consist of agreements to purchase goods or services that are enforceable and legally binding on the Company and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions and the approximate timing of the transaction.
(f) 
Primarily consist of obligations under product service and warranty policies and allowances, performance and operating cost guarantees, estimated environmental remediation costs, self-insurance and litigation claims, postretirement benefits, pension obligations, deferred tax

53


liabilities and deferred compensation obligations. The timing of cash flows associated with these obligations is based upon management’s estimates over the terms of these arrangements and is largely based upon historical experience.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Guarantees and Related Instruments
The following table sets forth, by period due or year of expected expiration, as applicable, a summary of guarantees and related instruments of the Company as of December 31, 2018.
 
Amount of Commitment Expiration per Period
($ in millions)
Total
 
Less Than
One Year
 
1-3 Years
 
4-5 Years
 
More Than
5 Years
Guarantees and related instruments
$
667.8

 
$
572.1

 
$
51.2

 
$
21.9

 
$
22.6

Guarantees and related instruments consist primarily of outstanding standby letters of credit, bank guarantees and performance and bid bonds. These have been provided in connection with certain arrangements with vendors, customers, insurance providers, financing counterparties and governmental entities to secure the Company’s obligations and/or performance requirements related to specific transactions.
Other Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company has from time to time divested certain of its businesses and assets. In connection with these divestitures, the Company often provides representations, warranties and/or indemnities to cover various risks and unknown liabilities, such as claims for damages arising out of the use of products or relating to intellectual property matters, commercial disputes, environmental matters or tax matters. In particular, in connection with the 2016 Fortive Separation and the 2015 split-off of the Company’s communications business, Danaher entered into separation and distribution and related agreements pursuant to which Danaher agreed to indemnify the other parties against certain damages and expenses that might occur in the future. These indemnification obligations cover a variety of liabilities, including, but not limited to, employee, tax and environmental matters. The Company has not included any such items in the contractual obligations table above because they relate to unknown conditions and the Company cannot estimate the potential liabilities from such matters, but the Company does not believe it is reasonably possible that any such liability will have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements. In addition, as a result of these divestitures, as well as restructuring activities, certain properties leased by the Company have been sublet to third-parties. In the event any of these third-parties vacate any of these premises, the Company would be legally obligated under master lease arrangements. The Company believes that the financial risk of default by such sub-lessors is individually and in the aggregate not material to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
In the normal course of business, the Company periodically enters into agreements that require it to indemnify customers, suppliers or other business partners for specific risks, such as claims for injury or property damage arising out of the Company’s products, software or services or claims alleging that Company products or services infringe third-party intellectual property. The Company has not included any such indemnification provisions in the contractual obligations table above. Historically, the Company has not experienced significant losses on these types of indemnification obligations.
The Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation requires it to indemnify to the full extent authorized or permitted by law any person made, or threatened to be made a party to any action or proceeding by reason of his or her service as a director or officer of the Company, or by reason of serving at the request of the Company as a director or officer of any other entity, subject to limited exceptions. Danaher’s Amended and Restated By-laws provide for similar indemnification rights. In addition, Danaher has executed with each director and executive officer of Danaher Corporation an indemnification agreement which provides for substantially similar indemnification rights and under which Danaher has agreed to pay expenses in advance of the final disposition of any such indemnifiable proceeding. While the Company maintains insurance for this type of liability, a significant deductible applies to this coverage and any such liability could exceed the amount of the insurance coverage.
Legal Proceedings
Refer to “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” and Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding legal proceedings and contingencies, and for a discussion of risks related to legal proceedings and contingencies, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”


54


CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Management’s discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations is based upon the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The Company bases these estimates and judgments on historical experience, the current economic environment and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates and judgments.
The Company believes the following accounting estimates are most critical to an understanding of its financial statements. Estimates are considered to be critical if they meet both of the following criteria: (1) the estimate requires assumptions about material matters that are uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and (2) material changes in the estimate are reasonably likely from period-to-period. For a detailed discussion on the application of these and other accounting estimates, refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Acquired Intangibles—The Company’s business acquisitions typically result in the recognition of goodwill, in-process R&D and other intangible assets, which affect the amount of future period amortization expense and possible impairment charges that the Company may incur. Refer to Notes 1, 3 and 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of the Company’s policies relating to goodwill, acquired intangibles and acquisitions.
In performing its goodwill impairment testing, the Company estimates the fair value of its reporting units primarily using a market-based approach. In evaluating the estimates derived by the market-based approach, management makes judgments about the relevance and reliability of the multiples by considering factors unique to its reporting units, including operating results, business plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, and transactions and marketplace data as well as judgments about the comparability of the market proxies selected. In certain circumstances the Company also estimates fair value utilizing a discounted cash flow analysis (i.e., an income approach) in order to validate the results of the market approach. The discounted cash flow model requires judgmental assumptions about projected revenue growth, future operating margins, discount rates and terminal values. There are inherent uncertainties related to these assumptions and management’s judgment in applying them to the analysis of goodwill impairment.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had eight reporting units for goodwill impairment testing. Reporting units resulting from recent acquisitions generally present the highest risk of impairment. Management believes the impairment risk associated with these reporting units generally decreases as these businesses are integrated into the Company and better positioned for potential future earnings growth. The Company’s annual goodwill impairment analysis in 2018 indicated that in all instances, the fair values of the Company’s reporting units exceeded their carrying values and consequently did not result in an impairment charge. The excess of the estimated fair value over carrying value (expressed as a percentage of carrying value for the respective reporting unit) for each of the Company’s reporting units as of the annual testing date ranged from approximately 15% to approximately 600%. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the fair value calculations used in the goodwill impairment test, the Company applied a hypothetical 10% decrease to the fair values of each reporting unit and compared those hypothetical values to the reporting unit carrying values. Based on this hypothetical 10% decrease, the excess of the estimated fair value over carrying value (expressed as a percentage of carrying value for the respective reporting unit) for each of the Company’s reporting units ranged from approximately 5% to approximately 530%.
The Company reviews identified intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The Company also tests intangible assets with indefinite lives at least annually for impairment. Determining whether an impairment loss occurred requires a comparison of the carrying amount to the sum of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. These analyses require management to make judgments and estimates about future revenues, expenses, market conditions and discount rates related to these assets.
If actual results are not consistent with management’s estimates and assumptions, goodwill and other intangible assets may be overstated and a charge would need to be taken against net earnings which would adversely affect the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. Historically, the Company’s estimates of goodwill and intangible assets have been materially correct.
Contingent Liabilities—As discussed in “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” and Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company is, from time to time, subject to a variety of litigation and similar contingent liabilities incidental to its business (or the business operations of previously owned entities). The Company recognizes a liability for any legal contingency that is known or probable of occurrence and reasonably estimable. These assessments require judgments concerning matters such as litigation developments and outcomes, the anticipated outcome of negotiations, the number of future claims and the cost of both pending and future claims. In addition, because most contingencies are resolved over long periods of time, liabilities may change in the future due to various factors, including those discussed in Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. If

55


the reserves established by the Company with respect to these contingent liabilities are inadequate, the Company would be required to incur an expense equal to the amount of the loss incurred in excess of the reserves, which would adversely affect the Company’s financial statements.
Revenue RecognitionOn January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes nearly all previous revenue recognition guidance. Refer to Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the Company’s adoption of this ASU.
The Company derives revenues from the sale of products and services. Revenue is recognized when control over the promised products or services is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration that the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining if control has transferred, the Company considers whether certain indicators of the transfer of control are present, such as the transfer of title, present right to payment, significant risks and rewards of ownership and customer acceptance when acceptance is not a formality. To determine the consideration that the customer owes the Company, the Company must make judgments regarding the amount of customer allowances and rebates, as well as an estimate for product returns. The Company also enters into lease arrangements with customers, which requires the Company to determine whether the arrangements are operating or sales-type leases. Certain of the Company’s lease contracts are customized for larger customers and often result in complex terms and conditions that typically require significant judgment in applying the lease accounting criteria. Refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of the Company’s revenue recognition policies.
If the Company’s judgments regarding revenue recognition prove incorrect, the Company’s reported revenues in particular periods may be incorrect. Historically, the Company’s estimates of revenue have been materially correct.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits—For a description of the Company’s pension and other postretirement benefit accounting practices, refer to Notes 11 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Calculations of the amount of pension and other postretirement benefit costs and obligations depend on the assumptions used in the actuarial valuations, including assumptions regarding discount rates, expected return on plan assets, rates of salary increases, health care cost trend rates, mortality rates and other factors. If the assumptions used in calculating pension and other postretirement benefits costs and obligations are incorrect or if the factors underlying the assumptions change (as a result of differences in actual experience, changes in key economic indicators or other factors) the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements could be materially affected. A 50 basis point reduction in the discount rates used for the plans would have increased the U.S. net obligation by $121 million ($92 million on an after-tax basis) and the non-U.S. net obligation by $125 million ($96 million on an after-tax basis) from the amounts recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2018. A 50 basis point increase in the discount rates used for the plans would have decreased the U.S. net obligation by $111 million ($84 million on an after-tax basis) and the non-U.S. net obligation by $120 million ($93 million on an after-tax basis) from the amounts recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2018.
For 2018, the estimated long-term rate of return for the U.S. plans is 7.0%, and the Company intends to continue to use an assumption of 7.0% for 2019. The estimated long-term rate of return for the non-U.S. plans was determined on a plan-by-plan basis based on the nature of the plan assets and ranged from 1.0% to 5.8%. If the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets for 2018 was reduced by 50 basis points, pension expense for the U.S. and non-U.S. plans for 2018 would have increased $10 million ($8 million on an after-tax basis) and $6 million ($5 million on an after-tax basis), respectively.
For a discussion of the Company’s 2018 and anticipated 2019 defined benefit pension plan contributions, refer to “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Cash and Cash Requirements”.
Income Taxes—For a description of the Company’s income tax accounting policies, refer to Notes 1 and 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company establishes valuation allowances for its deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. This requires management to make judgments and estimates regarding: (1) the timing and amount of the reversal of taxable temporary differences, (2) expected future taxable income, and (3) the impact of tax planning strategies. Future changes to tax rates would also impact the amounts of deferred tax assets and liabilities and could have an adverse impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company provides for unrecognized tax benefits when, based upon the technical merits, it is “more likely than not” that an uncertain tax position will not be sustained upon examination. Judgment is required in evaluating tax positions and determining income tax provisions. The Company re-evaluates the technical merits of its tax positions and may recognize an uncertain tax benefit in certain circumstances, including when: (1) a tax audit is completed; (2) applicable tax laws change, including a tax case ruling or legislative guidance; or (3) the applicable statute of limitations expires.
On December 22, 2017, the TCJA was enacted, which substantially changed the U.S. tax system, including lowering the corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% (beginning in 2018). While the changes from the TCJA were generally effective

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beginning in 2018, GAAP accounting for income taxes requires the effect of a change in tax laws or rates to be recognized in income from continuing operations for the period that includes the enactment date. Due to the complexities involved in accounting for the enactment of the TCJA, SAB No. 118 allowed the Company to record provisional amounts in earnings for the year ended December 31, 2017. Where reasonable estimates could be made, the provisional accounting was based on such estimates. When no reasonable estimate could be made, SAB No. 118 required the accounting to be based on the tax law in effect before the TCJA. The Company was required to complete its tax accounting for the TCJA when it had obtained, prepared and analyzed the information to complete the income tax accounting but no later than December 22, 2018. The Company completed its accounting for the tax effects of the enactment of the TCJA based on the Company’s interpretation of the new tax regulations and related guidance. The net tax effect to adjust the prior year provisional amounts was not material to the Company’s financial statements. Due to the complexity and recent issuance of these tax regulations, management’s interpretations of the impact of these rules could be subject to challenge by the taxing authorities. Some or all of these judgments are also subject to review by the IRS. If the IRS were to successfully challenge the Company’s right to realize some or all of the tax benefit the Company has recorded, or its interpretation of the law regarding certain items, or if the amount of the Transition Tax or other tax liabilities are understated, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial statements.
In addition, certain of the Company’s tax returns are currently under review by tax authorities including in Denmark and the United States (refer to “—Results of Operations—Income Taxes” and Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). Management believes the positions taken in these returns are in accordance with the relevant tax laws. However, the outcome of these audits is uncertain and could result in the Company being required to record charges for prior year tax obligations which could have a material adverse impact to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including its effective tax rate.
An increase of 1.0% in the Company’s 2018 nominal tax rate would have resulted in an additional income tax provision for continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 of $33 million.

NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
For a discussion of the new accounting standards impacting the Company, refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The information required by this item is included under “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”


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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Report of Management on Danaher Corporation’s Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting for the Company. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The Company’s management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018. In making this assessment, the Company’s management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) in “Internal Control-Integrated Framework” (2013 framework). Based on this assessment, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2018, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective.
The Company completed the acquisition of Integrated DNA Technologies (“IDT”) on April 13, 2018. Since the Company has not yet fully incorporated the internal controls and procedures of IDT into the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, management excluded IDT from its assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018. IDT constituted less than 5% of the Company’s total assets as of December 31, 2018 and approximately 1% of the Company’s total revenues for the year then ended.
The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm has issued an audit report on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. This report dated February 20, 2019 appears on page 59 of this Form 10-K.


58


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Danaher Corporation
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited Danaher Corporation and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Danaher Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on the COSO criteria.
As indicated in the accompanying Report of Management on Danaher Corporation’s Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, management’s assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of Integrated DNA Technologies, which is included in the 2018 consolidated financial statements of the Company and constituted less than 5% of total assets as of December 31, 2018 and approximately 1% of the Company’s total revenue for the year then ended. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of the Company also did not include an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of Integrated DNA Technologies.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) and our report dated February 20, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Report of Management on Danaher Corporation’s Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

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Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Tysons, Virginia
February 20, 2019

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Danaher Corporation
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Danaher Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 20, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.
Tysons, Virginia
February 20, 2019

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DANAHER CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
($ and shares in millions, except per share amount)
 
As of December 31
 
2018
 
2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and equivalents
$
787.8

 
$
630.3

Trade accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $120.4 and $116.1, respectively
3,489.6

 
3,521.8

Inventories
1,910.1

 
1,840.8

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
906.3

 
857.1

Total current assets
7,093.8

 
6,850.0

Property, plant and equipment, net
2,511.2

 
2,454.6

Other long-term assets
648.4

 
538.3

Goodwill
25,906.0

 
25,138.6

Other intangible assets, net
11,673.1

 
11,667.1

Total assets
$
47,832.5

 
$
46,648.6

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Notes payable and current portion of long-term debt
$
51.8

 
$
194.7

Trade accounts payable
1,712.8

 
1,509.9

Accrued expenses and other liabilities
3,076.9

 
3,087.7

Total current liabilities
4,841.5

 
4,792.3

Other long-term liabilities
5,075.8

 
5,161.1

Long-term debt
9,688.5

 
10,327.4

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock - $0.01 par value, 2.0 billion shares authorized; 817.9 and 812.5 issued; 701.5 and 696.6 outstanding, respectively
8.2

 
8.1

Additional paid-in capital
5,834.3

 
5,538.2

Retained earnings
25,163.0

 
22,806.1

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
(2,791.1
)
 
(1,994.2
)
Total Danaher stockholders’ equity
28,214.4

 
26,358.2

Noncontrolling interests
12.3

 
9.6

Total stockholders’ equity
28,226.7

 
26,367.8

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
47,832.5

 
$
46,648.6

See the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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DANAHER CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
($ and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
 
Year Ended December 31
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Sales
$
19,893.0

 
$
18,329.7

 
$
16,882.4

 
Cost of sales
(8,785.9
)
 
(8,137.2
)
 
(7,547.8
)
 
Gross profit
11,107.1