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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission File No. 1-6571
Merck & Co., Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey22-1918501
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
126 East Lincoln Avenue
RahwayNew Jersey07065
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (908) 740-4000
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report.)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.50 par value)MRKNew York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2024MRK 24New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2026MRK/26New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2034MRK/34New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2036MRK 36ANew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No 
The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of the close of business on October 31, 2023: 2,534,023,084





Table of Contents
Page No.
PART I
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.





Part I - Financial Information
Item 1. Financial Statements
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
 Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 2023202220232022
Sales$15,962 $14,959 $45,485 $45,453 
Costs, Expenses and Other
Cost of sales4,264 3,934 12,214 13,530 
Selling, general and administrative2,519 2,520 7,700 7,355 
Research and development3,307 4,399 20,904 9,773 
Restructuring costs126 94 344 288 
Other (income) expense, net126 429 388 1,576 
 10,342 11,376 41,550 32,522 
Income Before Taxes5,620 3,583 3,935 12,931 
Taxes on Income
870 330 2,332 1,423 
Net Income4,750 3,253 1,603 11,508 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests5 5 12 6 
Net Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,745 $3,248 $1,591 $11,502 
Basic Earnings per Common Share Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$1.87 $1.28 $0.63 $4.55 
Earnings per Common Share Assuming Dilution Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$1.86 $1.28 $0.62 $4.53 
 
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 2023202220232022
Net Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,745 $3,248 $1,591 $11,502 
Other Comprehensive Loss Net of Taxes:
Net unrealized gain on derivatives, net of reclassifications159 338 171 584 
Benefit plan net (loss) gain and prior service (cost) credit, net of amortization (186)(75)92 
Cumulative translation adjustment(175)(568)(244)(990)
 (16)(416)(148)(314)
Comprehensive Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,729 $2,832 $1,443 $11,188 
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
- 3 -



MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$8,605 $12,694 
Short-term investments168 498 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $85 in 2023
 and $72 in 2022)
10,394 9,450 
Inventories (excludes inventories of $3,151 in 2023 and $2,938 in 2022
classified in Other assets - see Note 7)
6,131 5,911 
Other current assets6,656 7,169 
Total current assets31,954 35,722 
Investments1,306 1,015 
Property, Plant and Equipment, at cost, net of accumulated depreciation of $18,446
in 2023 and $17,985 in 2022
22,526 21,422 
Goodwill21,183 21,204 
Other Intangibles, Net19,199 20,269 
Other Assets10,559 9,528 
 $106,727 $109,160 
Liabilities and Equity
Current Liabilities
Loans payable and current portion of long-term debt$887 $1,946 
Trade accounts payable3,509 4,264 
Accrued and other current liabilities14,840 14,159 
Income taxes payable1,981 1,986 
Dividends payable1,877 1,884 
Total current liabilities23,094 24,239 
Long-Term Debt33,972 28,745 
Deferred Income Taxes1,018 1,795 
Other Noncurrent Liabilities7,343 8,323 
Merck & Co., Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Common stock, $0.50 par value
Authorized - 6,500,000,000 shares
Issued - 3,577,103,522 shares in 2023 and 2022
1,788 1,788 
Other paid-in capital44,358 44,379 
Retained earnings57,082 61,081 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(4,916)(4,768)
98,312 102,480 
Less treasury stock, at cost:
1,041,809,729 shares in 2023 and 1,039,269,638 shares in 2022
57,066 56,489 
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity41,246 45,991 
Noncontrolling Interests54 67 
Total equity41,300 46,058 
 $106,727 $109,160 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
- 4 -



MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 20232022
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net income
$1,603 $11,508 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Amortization1,582 1,623 
Depreciation1,326 1,394 
Intangible asset impairment charges13 910 
(Income) loss from investments in equity securities, net(240)1,361 
Charge for the acquisition of Prometheus Biosciences, Inc.10,217  
Charge for the acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc.1,192  
Deferred income taxes(968)(1,261)
Share-based compensation478 396 
Other(94)1,169 
Net changes in assets and liabilities(2,349)(2,435)
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities 12,760 14,665 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(2,874)(3,239)
Purchases of securities and other investments(704)(710)
Proceeds from sales of securities and other investments1,489 709 
Acquisition of Prometheus Biosciences, Inc., net of cash acquired(10,705) 
Acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc., net of cash acquired(1,327) 
Other acquisitions, net of cash acquired (121)
Other(15)149 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities (14,136)(3,212)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Proceeds from issuance of debt5,939  
Payments on debt(1,752)(2,250)
Purchases of treasury stock(953) 
Dividends paid to stockholders(5,593)(5,262)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options119 119 
Other(325)(172)
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities
(2,565)(7,565)
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash(163)(776)
Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash(4,104)3,112 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at Beginning of Year (includes restricted cash of
$79 and $71 at January 1, 2023 and 2022, respectively, included in Other current assets)
12,773 8,167 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at End of Period (includes restricted cash of $64
and $134 at September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, included in Other current assets)
$8,669 $11,279 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
- 5 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck or the Company) have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations for reporting on Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S.) (GAAP) for complete consolidated financial statements are not included herein. These interim statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto included in Merck’s Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2023.
The results of operations of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for the full year. In the Company’s opinion, all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of these interim statements have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year presentation.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In October 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued amended guidance that requires acquiring entities to recognize and measure contract assets and liabilities in a business combination in accordance with existing revenue recognition guidance. The Company adopted the guidance effective January 1, 2023. The adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for prior acquisitions; however, the impact in future periods will be dependent upon the contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in future business combinations.
In June 2022, the FASB issued guidance related to the fair value measurement of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of the equity security. The new guidance also introduces new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value. The Company adopted the guidance effective July 1, 2023. There was no impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
Recently Issued Accounting Standard Not Yet Adopted
In August 2023, the FASB issued amended guidance that requires a newly formed joint venture to recognize and initially measure its assets and liabilities at fair value upon formation. The amended guidance includes exceptions to fair value measurement that are consistent with the accounting for business combinations guidance. The amended guidance is effective prospectively for all joint ventures with a formation date on or after January 1, 2025, however existing joint ventures have the option to apply the guidance retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted for both interim and annual periods. The Company anticipates there will be no impact to its consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
2.    Acquisitions, Research Collaborations and Licensing Agreements
The Company continues to pursue acquisitions and the establishment of external alliances such as research collaborations and licensing agreements to complement its internal research capabilities. These arrangements often include upfront payments; expense reimbursements or payments to the third party; milestone, royalty or profit share arrangements contingent upon the occurrence of certain future events linked to the success of the asset in development; and can also include option and continuation payments. The Company also reviews its marketed products and pipeline to examine candidates which may provide more value through out-licensing and, as part of its portfolio assessment process, may also divest certain assets. Pro forma financial information for acquired businesses is not presented if the historical financial results of the acquired entity are not significant when compared with the Company’s financial results.
2023 Transactions
In October 2023, Merck and Daiichi Sankyo entered into a global development and commercialization agreement for three of Daiichi Sankyo’s deruxtecan (DXd) antibody drug conjugate (ADC) candidates: patritumab deruxtecan (HER3-DXd) (MK-1022), ifinatamab deruxtecan (I-DXd) (MK-2400) and raludotatug deruxtecan (R-DXd) (MK-5909). See Note 3 for additional information related to this collaboration.
In June 2023, Merck acquired Prometheus Biosciences, Inc. (Prometheus), a clinical-stage biotechnology company pioneering a precision medicine approach for the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel therapeutic and companion diagnostic products for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Total consideration paid of $11.0 billion included $1.2 billion of costs to settle share-based equity awards (including $700 million to settle unvested equity awards). Prometheus’ lead candidate, MK-7240 (formerly PRA023), is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed to tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A, a target associated with both intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. MK-7240 is being developed for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and other autoimmune conditions. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset since MK-7240 accounted for substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $877 million, including cash of $368 million, investments of $296 million, deferred tax assets of $218 million and other net liabilities of $5 million, as well as a charge of $10.2 billion to Research and development expenses in the first nine months of 2023 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
In February 2023, Merck and Kelun-Biotech (a holding subsidiary of Sichuan Kelun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) closed a license and collaboration agreement expanding their relationship in which Merck gained exclusive rights for the research, development, manufacture and commercialization of up to seven investigational preclinical ADCs for the treatment of cancer.
- 6 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Kelun-Biotech retained the right to research, develop, manufacture and commercialize certain licensed and option ADCs for Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau. Merck made an upfront payment of $175 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the first nine months of 2023. In October 2023, Merck notified Kelun-Biotech it was terminating two of the seven candidates under the agreement. Kelun-Biotech remains eligible to receive future contingent payments aggregating up to $725 million in development-related payments, $1.95 billion in regulatory milestones, and $3.9 billion in sales-based milestones if Kelun-Biotech does not retain Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau rights for the option ADCs and all remaining candidates achieve regulatory approval. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales for any commercialized ADC product. Also, in connection with the agreement, Merck invested $100 million in Kelun-Biotech’s shares in January 2023.
In January 2023, Merck acquired Imago BioSciences, Inc. (Imago), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing new medicines for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other bone marrow diseases, for $1.35 billion (including payments to settle share-based equity awards) and also incurred approximately $60 million of transaction costs. Imago’s lead candidate bomedemstat, MK-3543 (formerly IMG-7289), is an investigational orally available lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis, and polycythemia vera, in addition to other indications. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset since bomedemstat represented substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $219 million, as well as a charge of $1.2 billion to Research and development expenses in the first nine months of 2023 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
2022 Transactions
In October 2022, Merck and Royalty Pharma plc (Royalty Pharma) entered into a funding arrangement under which Royalty Pharma paid Merck $50 million to co-fund Merck’s development costs for a Phase 2b trial of MK-8189, an investigational oral phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor, which is being evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia. As Royalty Pharma is sharing the risk of technical and regulatory success with Merck, the development funding was recognized by Merck as an obligation to perform contractual services. Accordingly, the payment received is being recognized by Merck as a reduction to Research and development expenses ratably over the estimated Phase 2b research period. Under the agreement, Royalty Pharma has no rights to MK-8189 and has no decision-making authority over the program. If Merck elects to advance MK-8189 into a Phase 3 study, Royalty Pharma has the option to provide additional funding of 50% of the development costs up to $375 million. Royalty Pharma is eligible to receive royalties on future sales. If Royalty Pharma elects to provide the additional funding noted above, Royalty Pharma becomes eligible to receive future regulatory milestone payments contingent upon certain marketing approvals, as well as a higher royalty rate. Merck will record the milestone payments as an expense within Other (income) expense, net upon receipt of the related approvals.
In September 2022, Merck exercised its option to jointly develop and commercialize V940 (mRNA-4157), an investigational individualized neoantigen therapy, pursuant to the terms of an existing collaboration and license agreement with Moderna, Inc. (Moderna), which resulted in a $250 million charge to Research and development expenses in the third quarter and first nine months of 2022. Merck and Moderna will collaborate on development and commercialization and will share costs and any profits equally under this worldwide collaboration. V940 (mRNA-4157) is currently being evaluated in combination with Keytruda (pembrolizumab), Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, as an adjuvant treatment in patients with resected high-risk (Stage IIB-IV) melanoma in a Phase 3 clinical trial being conducted by Moderna.
In August 2022, Merck and Orna Therapeutics (Orna), a biotechnology company pioneering a new investigational class of engineered circular RNA (oRNA) therapies, entered into a collaboration agreement to discover, develop, and commercialize multiple programs, including vaccines and therapeutics in the areas of infectious disease and oncology. Under the terms of the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to Orna of $150 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the third quarter and first nine months of 2022. In addition, Orna is eligible to receive future contingent payments aggregating up to $440 million in development-related payments, $675 million in regulatory milestones, and $2.4 billion in sales-based milestones associated with the progress of the multiple vaccine and therapeutic programs, as well as royalties ranging from a high-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on any approved products derived from the collaboration. Merck also invested $100 million in Orna’s Series B preferred shares in fourth quarter of 2022.
In July 2022, Merck and Orion Corporation (Orion) announced a global co-development and co-commercialization agreement for Orion’s investigational candidate ODM-208 (MK-5684) and other drugs targeting cytochrome P450 11A1 (CYP11A1), an enzyme important in steroid production. MK-5684 is an oral, non-steroidal inhibitor of CYP11A1 currently being evaluated in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Merck made an upfront payment to Orion of $290 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the third quarter and first nine months of 2022. Orion is responsible for the manufacture of clinical and commercial supply of MK-5684. In addition, the contract provides both parties with an option to convert the initial co-development and co-commercialization agreement into a global exclusive license to Merck. If the option is exercised, Merck would assume full responsibility for all past development and commercialization expenses associated with the program since inception of the agreement, as well as all future development and commercialization expenses. In addition, Orion would be eligible to receive milestone payments associated with progress in the development and commercialization of MK-5684, as well as tiered double-digit royalties on sales if the product is approved.
Also in July 2022, Merck and Kelun-Biotech closed a license and collaboration agreement in which Merck gained exclusive worldwide rights for the development, manufacture and commercialization of an investigational ADC (MK-1200) for the treatment of solid tumors. Under the terms of the agreement, Merck and Kelun-Biotech will collaborate on the early clinical
- 7 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
development of the investigational ADC. Merck made an upfront payment of $35 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the third quarter and first nine months of 2022. Kelun-Biotech is also eligible to receive future contingent milestone payments aggregating up to $82 million in developmental milestones, $334 million in regulatory milestones, and $485 million in sales-based milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to pay tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales.
In May 2022, in connection with an existing arrangement, Merck exercised its option to obtain an exclusive license outside of Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan for the development, manufacture and commercialization of Kelun-Biotech’s trophoblast antigen 2 (TROP2)-targeting ADC programs, including its lead compound, SKB-264 (MK-2870), which is currently in Phase 2 clinical development. Under the terms of the agreement, Merck and Kelun-Biotech will collaborate on certain early clinical development plans, including evaluating the potential of MK-2870 as a monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda for advanced solid tumors. Upon option exercise, Merck made a payment of $30 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the first nine months of 2022. Additionally, Merck agreed to make an additional payment of $25 million upon technology transfer, which occurred in the third quarter of 2023 and will be paid in the fourth quarter of 2023. Merck also agreed to make quarterly payments in 2022 and 2023 aggregating up to $111 million to fund Kelun-Biotech’s ongoing research and development activities, of which $95 million has been paid through September 2023. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive future contingent milestone payments (which include all program compounds) aggregating up to $90 million in developmental milestones, $290 million in first commercial sale milestones, and $780 million in sales-based milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to pay tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales.
3.    Collaborative Arrangements
Merck has entered into collaborative arrangements that provide the Company with varying rights to develop, produce and market products together with its collaborative partners. Both parties in these arrangements are active participants and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of the activities of the collaboration. Merck’s more significant collaborative arrangements are discussed below.
AstraZeneca PLC
In 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca PLC (AstraZeneca) entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza (olaparib) for multiple cancer types. Independently, Merck and AstraZeneca will develop and commercialize Lynparza in combinations with their respective PD-1 and PD-L1 medicines, Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Imfinzi. The companies are also jointly developing and commercializing AstraZeneca’s Koselugo (selumetinib) for multiple indications. Under the terms of the agreement, AstraZeneca and Merck will share the development and commercialization costs for Lynparza and Koselugo monotherapy and non-PD-L1/PD-1 combination therapy opportunities.
Profits from Lynparza and Koselugo product sales generated through monotherapies or combination therapies are shared equally. AstraZeneca is the principal on Lynparza and Koselugo sales transactions. Merck records its share of Lynparza and Koselugo product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue and its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses. Reimbursements received from AstraZeneca for research and development expenses are recognized as reductions to Research and development costs.
As part of the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to AstraZeneca and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain license options. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to AstraZeneca related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In the first quarter of 2022, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lynparza in the future would trigger a $600 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to AstraZeneca. Accordingly, Merck recorded a $600 million liability (which remained accrued at September 30, 2023) and a corresponding increase to the intangible asset related to Lynparza. Merck also recognized $250 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense related to the recognition of this milestone in the first nine months of 2022. Additionally, in the first nine months of 2022, Merck made a sales-based milestone payment to AstraZeneca (which had been previously accrued for) of $400 million. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.1 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. In the first quarter of 2023, Merck made a regulatory milestone payment to AstraZeneca of $105 million (which had been previously accrued for). In the second quarter of 2023, Lynparza received a regulatory approval triggering a future milestone payment of up to $245 million from Merck to AstraZeneca. In 2022, Lynparza received regulatory approvals triggering capitalized milestone payments of $250 million from Merck to AstraZeneca (all of which were paid in the first nine months of 2022). Potential future regulatory milestone payments of $850 million remain under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lynparza (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $1.6 billion at September 30, 2023 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2028 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.

- 8 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Lynparza$299 $284 $884 $825 
Alliance revenue - Koselugo26 10 74 43 
Total alliance revenue$325 $294 $958 $868 
Cost of sales (1)
82 64 230 425 
Selling, general and administrative44 45 143 135 
Research and development23 28 65 79 
($ in millions)September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from AstraZeneca included in Other current assets
$337 $303 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
257 123 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Other Noncurrent Liabilities (2)
600 600 
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments. Amount in the first nine months of 2022 includes $250 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense as noted above.
(2)    Includes accrued milestone payments.
Eisai Co., Ltd.
In 2018, Merck and Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) announced a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima (lenvatinib), an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. Eisai records Lenvima product sales globally (Eisai is the principal on Lenvima sales transactions) and Merck and Eisai share applicable profits equally. Merck records its share of Lenvima product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue. Expenses incurred during co-development are shared by the two companies in accordance with the collaboration agreement and reflected in Research and development expenses. Certain expenses incurred solely by Merck or Eisai are not shareable under the collaboration agreement, including costs incurred in excess of agreed upon caps and costs related to certain combination studies of Keytruda and Lenvima.
Under the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to Eisai and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain option rights. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to Eisai related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In the first quarter of 2023, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lenvima in the future would trigger a $125 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to Eisai. Similarly, in the third quarter of 2023 an additional $125 million sales-based milestone payment to Eisai was deemed to be probable of payment. Accordingly, Merck recorded $250 million of liabilities for these payments and corresponding increases to the intangible asset related to Lenvima. Merck also recognized $81 million and $154 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense related to the recognition of these milestones in the third quarter and first nine months of 2023, respectively. The sales-based milestone payment that was accrued in the first quarter of 2023 was paid to Eisai in the second quarter of 2023. In the first nine months of 2022, Merck made sales-based milestone payments to Eisai (which had been previously accrued for) aggregating $600 million. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.3 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. In 2022, Lenvima received regulatory approvals triggering capitalized milestone payments of $50 million from Merck to Eisai (all of which were paid in the first nine months of 2022). There are no regulatory milestone payments remaining under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lenvima (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $743 million at September 30, 2023 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2026 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.

- 9 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Lenvima$260 $202 $734 $660 
Cost of sales (1)
137 53 320 159 
Selling, general and administrative46 42 145 115 
Research and development5 24 61 128 
($ in millions)September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from Eisai included in Other current assets
$260 $214 
Payables to Eisai included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
125  
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments. Amounts in the third quarter and first nine months of 2023 include $81 million and $154 million, respectively, of cumulative amortization catch-up expense as noted above.
(2)    Represents an accrued milestone payment.
Bayer AG
In 2014, the Company entered into a worldwide clinical development collaboration with Bayer AG (Bayer) to market and develop soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) modulators including Bayer’s Adempas (riociguat). The two companies have implemented a joint development and commercialization strategy. The collaboration also includes development of Bayer’s Verquvo (vericiguat), which was approved in the U.S., the European Union (EU) and Japan in 2021 and has since been approved in several other markets. Under the agreement, Bayer commercializes Adempas in the Americas, while Merck commercializes in the rest of the world. For Verquvo, Merck commercializes in the U.S. and Bayer commercializes in the rest of the world. Both companies share in development costs and profits on sales. Merck records sales of Adempas and Verquvo in its marketing territories, as well as alliance revenue. Alliance revenue represents Merck’s share of profits from sales of Adempas and Verquvo in Bayer’s marketing territories, which are product sales net of cost of sales and commercialization costs. Cost of sales includes Bayer’s share of profits from sales in Merck’s marketing territories.
In addition, the agreement provided for contingent payments from Merck to Bayer related to the successful achievement of sales-based milestones. In the first nine months of 2022, Merck made the final $400 million sales-based milestone payment under this collaboration to Bayer.
The intangible asset balances related to Adempas (which includes the acquired intangible asset balance, as well as capitalized sales-based milestone payments attributed to Adempas) and Verquvo (which reflects the portion of the final sales-based milestone payment that was attributed to Verquvo) were $533 million and $51 million, respectively, at September 30, 2023 and are included in Other Intangibles, Net. The assets are being amortized over their estimated useful lives (through 2027 for Adempas and through 2031 for Verquvo) as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Adempas/Verquvo$92 $88 $259 $258 
Net sales of Adempas recorded by Merck65 57 189 181 
Net sales of Verquvo recorded by Merck8 6 24 15 
Total sales$165 $151 $472 $454 
Cost of sales (1)
53 55 165 158 
Selling, general and administrative33 42 100 107 
Research and development26 18 76 52 
($ in millions)September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from Bayer included in Other current assets
$157 $143 
Payables to Bayer included in Accrued and other current liabilities
82 80 
(1)    Includes amortization of intangible assets.
Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP
In 2020, Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP (Ridgeback), a closely held biotechnology company, entered into a collaboration agreement to develop Lagevrio (molnupiravir), an investigational orally available antiviral candidate for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Merck gained exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize Lagevrio and
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
related molecules. Following initial authorizations in certain markets in the fourth quarter of 2021, Lagevrio has since received multiple additional authorizations worldwide.
Under the terms of the agreement, Ridgeback received an upfront payment and is eligible to receive future contingent payments dependent upon the achievement of certain developmental and regulatory approval milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to reimburse Ridgeback for a portion of certain third-party contingent milestone payments and royalties on net sales, which is part of the profit-sharing calculation. Merck is the principal on sales transactions, recognizing sales and related costs, with profit-sharing amounts recorded within Cost of sales. Profits from the collaboration are split equally between the partners. Reimbursements from Ridgeback for its share of research and development costs (deducted from Ridgeback’s share of profits) are reflected as decreases to Research and development expenses.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Net sales of Lagevrio recorded by Merck
$640 $436 $1,236 $4,859 
Cost of sales (1)(2)
348 244 762 2,586 
Selling, general and administrative (2)
21 48 72 117 
Research and development (2)
8 18 33 74 
($ in millions)September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Payables to Ridgeback included in Accrued and other current liabilities (3)
$242 $348 
(1)    Includes royalty expense, amortization of capitalized milestone payments and inventory reserves.
(2)    Expenses include an allocation for overhead charges.
(3)    Includes accrued royalties. Amount at December 31, 2022 also includes an accrued milestone payment.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Reblozyl (luspatercept-aamt) is a first-in-class erythroid maturation recombinant fusion protein that is being commercialized through a global collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS). Reblozyl is approved in the U.S., Europe and certain other markets for the treatment of anemia in certain rare blood disorders and is also being evaluated for additional indications for hematology therapies. BMS is the principal on sales transactions for Reblozyl; however, Merck co-promotes Reblozyl (and will co-promote all future products approved under this collaboration) in North America, which is reimbursed by BMS. Merck receives a 20% sales royalty from BMS which could increase to a maximum of 24% based on sales levels. This royalty will be reduced by 50% upon the earlier of patent expiry or generic entry on an indication-by-indication basis in each market. Additionally, Merck is eligible to receive future contingent sales-based milestone payments of up to $80 million. Alliance revenue related to this collaboration (recorded within Sales) consists of royalties and, for the first nine months of 2022, also includes the receipt of a regulatory approval milestone payment of $20 million. Merck recorded alliance revenue related to this collaboration of $52 million and $142 million in the third quarter and first nine months of 2023, respectively, compared with $39 million and $124 million in the third quarter and first nine months of 2022, respectively.
Daiichi Sankyo
In October 2023, Merck and Daiichi Sankyo entered into a global development and commercialization agreement for three of Daiichi Sankyo’s DXd ADC candidates: patritumab deruxtecan (HER3-DXd) (MK-1022), ifinatamab deruxtecan (I-DXd) (MK-2400) and raludotatug deruxtecan (R-DXd) (MK-5909). All three potentially first-in-class DXd ADCs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of multiple solid tumors both as monotherapy and/or in combination with other treatments. The companies will jointly develop and potentially commercialize these ADC candidates worldwide, except in Japan where Daiichi Sankyo will maintain exclusive rights. Daiichi Sankyo will be solely responsible for manufacturing and supply.
Under the terms of the agreement, Merck made payments to Daiichi Sankyo totaling $4.0 billion. These payments included $1.0 billion ($500 million each for patritumab deruxtecan and ifinatamab deruxtecan) which may be refundable on a pro-rated basis in the event of early termination of development with respect to either program. In addition, the agreement provides for a continuation payment of $750 million related to patritumab deruxtecan due from Merck in October 2024 and a continuation payment of $750 million related to raludotatug deruxtecan due from Merck in October 2025. Merck may opt out of the collaboration for patritumab deruxtecan and/or raludotatug deruxtecan by electing not to pay the applicable continuation payment. If Merck opts out of patritumab deruxtecan and/or raludotatug deruxtecan, the non-refundable upfront payments already paid will be retained by Daiichi Sankyo and rights related to such DXd ADCs will be returned to Daiichi Sankyo. The agreement also provides for contingent payments from Merck to Daiichi Sankyo of up to an additional $5.5 billion for each DXd ADC upon the successful achievement of certain sales-based milestones.
Following regulatory approval, Daiichi Sankyo will generally record sales worldwide (Daiichi Sankyo will be the principal on sales transactions) and the companies will equally share expenses as well as profits worldwide except for Japan where Daiichi Sankyo retains exclusive rights and Merck will receive a sales-based royalty. Merck will record its share of product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue. For raludotatug deruxtecan, Merck will be responsible for 75% of the first $2.0 billion of research and development expenses; the companies will share equally all other
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
expenses as well as profits worldwide. Merck will include its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses.
In conjunction with this transaction, Merck will record an aggregate pretax charge of $5.5 billion to Research and development expenses in the fourth quarter of 2023 for the $4.0 billion upfront payments and the $1.5 billion in continuation payments.
4. Spin-Off of Organon & Co.
On June 2, 2021, Merck completed the spin-off of Organon through a distribution of Organon’s publicly traded stock to Company shareholders. In connection with the spin-off, Merck and Organon entered into a separation and distribution agreement and also entered into various other agreements to effect the spin-off and provide a framework for the relationship between Merck and Organon after the spin-off, including a transition services agreement (TSA), manufacturing and supply agreements (MSAs), trademark license agreements, intellectual property license agreements, an employee matters agreement, a tax matters agreement and certain other commercial agreements. Under the TSA, Merck is providing Organon various services and, similarly, Organon is providing Merck various services. A majority of the services provided under the TSA terminated within 25 months following the spin-off; a majority of the remaining services will terminate within 35 months following the spin-off. Merck and Organon also entered into a series of interim operating agreements pursuant to which in various jurisdictions where Merck held licenses, permits and other rights in connection with marketing, import and/or distribution of Organon products prior to the separation, Merck is continuing to market, import and distribute such products until such time as the relevant licenses and permits are transferred to Organon. Under such interim operating agreements and in accordance with the separation and distribution agreement, Merck is continuing operations in the affected markets on behalf of Organon, with Organon receiving all of the economic benefits and burdens of such activities. Additionally, Merck and Organon entered into a number of MSAs pursuant to which Merck is (a) manufacturing and supplying certain active pharmaceutical ingredients for Organon, (b) manufacturing and supplying certain formulated pharmaceutical products for Organon, and (c) packaging and labeling certain finished pharmaceutical products for Organon. Similarly, Organon and Merck entered into a number of MSAs pursuant to which Organon is (a) manufacturing and supplying certain formulated pharmaceutical products for Merck, and (b) packaging and labeling certain finished pharmaceutical products for Merck. The terms of the MSAs range in initial duration from four years to ten years.
The amounts included in the condensed consolidated statement of income for the above MSAs include sales of $100 million and $100 million and related cost of sales of $106 million and $104 million for the third quarter of 2023 and 2022, respectively, and sales of $290 million and $293 million and related cost of sales of $314 million and $312 million for the first nine months of 2023 and 2022, respectively. Amounts included in the condensed consolidated statement of income for the TSAs were immaterial for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022.
The amounts due from Organon under all of the above agreements were $526 million and $511 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and are reflected in Other current assets. The amounts due to Organon under these agreements were $385 million and $345 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and are included in Accrued and other current liabilities.
5.    Restructuring
In 2019, Merck approved a global restructuring program (Restructuring Program) as part of a worldwide initiative focused on optimizing the Company’s manufacturing and supply network, as well as reducing its global real estate footprint. The actions contemplated under the Restructuring Program are expected to be substantially completed by the end of 2023, with the cumulative pretax costs to be incurred by the Company to implement the program estimated to be approximately $4.0 billion. The Company estimates that approximately 70% of the cumulative pretax costs will result in cash outlays, primarily related to employee separation expense and facility shut-down costs. Approximately 30% of the cumulative pretax costs will be non-cash, relating primarily to the accelerated depreciation of facilities to be closed or divested.
The Company recorded total pretax costs of $199 million and $175 million in the third quarter of 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $532 million and $559 million for the first nine months of 2023 and 2022, respectively, related to restructuring program activities. Since inception of the Restructuring Program through September 30, 2023, Merck has recorded total pretax accumulated costs of approximately $3.9 billion. For the full year of 2023, the Company expects to record charges of approximately $650 million related to the Restructuring Program. For segment reporting, restructuring charges are unallocated expenses.

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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The following tables summarize the charges related to restructuring program activities by type of cost:
 Three Months Ended September 30, 2023Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
($ in millions)Separation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotalSeparation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotal
Cost of sales$ $31 $2 $33 $ $74 $20 $94 
Selling, general and administrative 5 35 40  5 88 93 
Research and development      1 1 
Restructuring costs95  31 126 246  98 344 
$95 $36 $68 $199 $246 $79 $207 $532 
 Three Months Ended September 30, 2022Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
($ in millions)Separation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotalSeparation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotal
Cost of sales$ $16 $38 $54 $ $51 $116 $167 
Selling, general and administrative 5 21 26  17 57 74