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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission File No. 1-6571
Merck & Co., Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey22-1918501
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
126 East Lincoln Avenue
RahwayNew Jersey07065
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (908) 740-4000
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report.)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.50 par value)MRKNew York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2024MRK 24New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2026MRK/26New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2034MRK/34New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2036MRK 36ANew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No 
The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of the close of business on July 31, 2023: 2,537,521,169





Table of Contents
Page No.
PART I
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.





Part I - Financial Information
Item 1. Financial Statements
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2023202220232022
Sales$15,035 $14,593 $29,522 $30,494 
Costs, Expenses and Other
Cost of sales4,024 4,216 7,951 9,596 
Selling, general and administrative2,702 2,512 5,182 4,834 
Research and development13,321 2,798 17,597 5,374 
Restructuring costs151 142 218 194 
Other (income) expense, net172 438 259 1,148 
 20,370 10,106 31,207 21,146 
(Loss) Income Before Taxes(5,335)4,487 (1,685)9,348 
Income Tax Provision637 538 1,462 1,092 
Net (Loss) Income(5,972)3,949 (3,147)8,256 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests3 5 7 2 
Net (Loss) Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$(5,975)$3,944 $(3,154)$8,254 
Basic (Loss) Earnings per Common Share Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$(2.35)$1.56 $(1.24)$3.26 
(Loss) Earnings per Common Share Assuming Dilution Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$(2.35)$1.55 $(1.24)$3.25 
 
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS) INCOME
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2023202220232022
Net (Loss) Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$(5,975)$3,944 $(3,154)$8,254 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income Net of Taxes:
Net unrealized gain on derivatives, net of reclassifications145 183 12 246 
Benefit plan net (loss) gain and prior service (cost) credit, net of amortization(25)246 (75)278 
Cumulative translation adjustment(137)(387)(69)(422)
 (17)42 (132)102 
Comprehensive (Loss) Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$(5,992)$3,986 $(3,286)$8,356 
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
- 3 -



MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$5,660 $12,694 
Short-term investments718 498 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $86 in 2023
 and $72 in 2022)
11,030 9,450 
Inventories (excludes inventories of $3,220 in 2023 and $2,938 in 2022
classified in Other assets - see Note 7)
5,930 5,911 
Other current assets6,639 7,169 
Total current assets29,977 35,722 
Investments1,214 1,015 
Property, Plant and Equipment, at cost, net of accumulated depreciation of $18,432
in 2023 and $17,985 in 2022
22,231 21,422 
Goodwill21,195 21,204 
Other Intangibles, Net19,665 20,269 
Other Assets10,187 9,528 
 $104,469 $109,160 
Liabilities and Equity
Current Liabilities
Loans payable and current portion of long-term debt$2,839 $1,946 
Trade accounts payable3,442 4,264 
Accrued and other current liabilities13,747 14,159 
Income taxes payable1,489 1,986 
Dividends payable1,877 1,884 
Total current liabilities23,394 24,239 
Long-Term Debt34,072 28,745 
Deferred Income Taxes996 1,795 
Other Noncurrent Liabilities7,265 8,323 
Merck & Co., Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Common stock, $0.50 par value
Authorized - 6,500,000,000 shares
Issued - 3,577,103,522 shares in 2023 and 2022
1,788 1,788 
Other paid-in capital44,219 44,379 
Retained earnings54,198 61,081 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(4,900)(4,768)
95,305 102,480 
Less treasury stock, at cost:
1,037,678,033 shares in 2023 and 1,039,269,638 shares in 2022
56,612 56,489 
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity38,693 45,991 
Noncontrolling Interests49 67 
Total equity38,742 46,058 
 $104,469 $109,160 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
- 4 -



MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 20232022
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net (loss) income$(3,147)$8,256 
Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Amortization1,020 1,163 
Depreciation874 895 
(Income) loss from investments in equity securities, net(274)991 
Charge for the acquisition of Prometheus Biosciences, Inc.10,217  
Charge for the acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc.1,192  
Deferred income taxes(632)(600)
Share-based compensation314 257 
Other5 799 
Net changes in assets and liabilities(4,526)(2,698)
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities 5,043 9,063 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(1,972)(2,113)
Purchases of securities and other investments(587)(705)
Proceeds from sales of securities and other investments785 374 
Acquisition of Prometheus Biosciences, Inc., net of cash acquired(10,705) 
Acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc., net of cash acquired(1,327) 
Other4 194 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities (13,802)(2,250)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Net change in short-term borrowings1,937  
Proceeds from issuance of debt5,946  
Payments on debt(1,751)(1,250)
Purchases of treasury stock(487) 
Dividends paid to stockholders(3,738)(3,515)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options112 109 
Other(315)(207)
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Financing Activities1,704 (4,863)
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash(6)(364)
Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash(7,061)1,586 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at Beginning of Year (includes restricted cash of
$79 and $71 at January 1, 2023 and 2022, respectively, included in Other current assets)
12,773 8,167 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at End of Period (includes restricted cash of $52
and $78 at June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, included in Other current assets)
$5,712 $9,753 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck or the Company) have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations for reporting on Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S.) (GAAP) for complete consolidated financial statements are not included herein. These interim statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto included in Merck’s Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2023.
The results of operations of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for the full year. In the Company’s opinion, all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of these interim statements have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year presentation.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In October 2021, the FASB issued amended guidance that requires acquiring entities to recognize and measure contract assets and liabilities in a business combination in accordance with existing revenue recognition guidance. The Company adopted the guidance effective January 1, 2023. The adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for prior acquisitions; however, the impact in future periods will be dependent upon the contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in future business combinations.
In June 2022, the FASB issued guidance related to the fair value measurement of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of the equity security. The new guidance also introduces new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value. The Company adopted the guidance effective July 1, 2023. There was no impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
2.    Acquisitions, Research Collaborations and Licensing Agreements
The Company continues to pursue acquisitions and the establishment of external alliances such as research collaborations and licensing agreements to complement its internal research capabilities. These arrangements often include upfront payments, as well as expense reimbursements or payments to the third party, and milestone, royalty or profit share arrangements, contingent upon the occurrence of certain future events linked to the success of the asset in development. The Company also reviews its marketed products and pipeline to examine candidates which may provide more value through out-licensing and, as part of its portfolio assessment process, may also divest certain assets. Pro forma financial information for acquired businesses is not presented if the historical financial results of the acquired entity are not significant when compared with the Company’s financial results.
In June 2023, Merck acquired Prometheus Biosciences, Inc. (Prometheus), a clinical-stage biotechnology company pioneering a precision medicine approach for the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel therapeutic and companion diagnostic products for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Total consideration paid of $11.0 billion included $1.2 billion of costs to settle share-based equity awards (including $700 million to settle unvested equity awards). Prometheus’ lead candidate, MK-7240 (formerly PRA023), is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed to tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A, a target associated with both intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. MK-7240 is being developed for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and other autoimmune conditions. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset since MK-7240 accounted for substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $877 million, including cash of $368 million, investments of $296 million, deferred tax assets of $218 million and other net liabilities of $5 million, as well as Research and development expenses of $10.2 billion in the second quarter and first six months of 2023 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
In February 2023, Merck and Kelun-Biotech (a holding subsidiary of Sichuan Kelun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) closed a license and collaboration agreement expanding their relationship in which Merck gained exclusive rights for the research, development, manufacture and commercialization of up to seven investigational preclinical antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) for the treatment of cancer. Kelun-Biotech retained the right to research, develop, manufacture and commercialize certain licensed and option ADCs for Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau. Merck made an upfront payment of $175 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the first six months of 2023. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive future contingent development-related payments aggregating up to $1.0 billion, $2.8 billion in regulatory milestones, and $5.5 billion in sales-based milestones if Kelun-Biotech does not retain Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau rights for the option ADCs and all candidates achieve regulatory approval. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales for any commercialized ADC product. Also, in connection with the agreement, Merck invested $100 million in Kelun-Biotech’s Series B preferred shares in January 2023.
In January 2023, Merck acquired Imago BioSciences, Inc. (Imago), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing new medicines for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other bone marrow diseases, for $1.35 billion (including payments to settle share-based equity awards) and also incurred approximately $60 million of transaction costs. Imago’s lead candidate bomedemstat, MK-3543 (formerly IMG-7289), is an investigational orally available lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of essential
- 6 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis, and polycythemia vera, in addition to other indications. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset since bomedemstat represented substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $219 million, as well as Research and development expenses of $1.2 billion in the first six months of 2023 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
In May 2022, in connection with an existing arrangement, Merck exercised its option to obtain an exclusive license outside of Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan for the development, manufacture and commercialization of Kelun-Biotech’s trophoblast antigen 2 (TROP2)-targeting ADC programs, including its lead compound, SKB-264 (MK-2870), which is currently in Phase 2 clinical development. Under the terms of the agreement, Merck and Kelun-Biotech will collaborate on certain early clinical development plans, including evaluating the potential of MK-2870 as a monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda for advanced solid tumors. Upon option exercise, Merck made a payment of $30 million, which was recorded in Research and development expenses in the second quarter and first six months of 2022, and agreed to make additional payments of $30 million upon completion of specified project activities and $25 million upon technology transfer. Merck also agreed to make quarterly payments in 2022 and 2023 aggregating up to $111 million to fund Kelun-Biotech’s ongoing research and development activities, of which $81 million has been paid through June 2023. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive future contingent milestone payments (which include all program compounds) aggregating up to $90 million in developmental milestones, $290 million in first commercial sale milestones, and $780 million in sales-based milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to pay tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales.
3.    Collaborative Arrangements
Merck has entered into collaborative arrangements that provide the Company with varying rights to develop, produce and market products together with its collaborative partners. Both parties in these arrangements are active participants and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of the activities of the collaboration. Merck’s more significant collaborative arrangements are discussed below.
AstraZeneca PLC
In 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca PLC (AstraZeneca) entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza (olaparib) for multiple cancer types. Independently, Merck and AstraZeneca will develop and commercialize Lynparza in combinations with their respective PD-1 and PD-L1 medicines, Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Imfinzi. The companies are also jointly developing and commercializing AstraZeneca’s Koselugo (selumetinib) for multiple indications. Under the terms of the agreement, AstraZeneca and Merck will share the development and commercialization costs for Lynparza and Koselugo monotherapy and non-PD-L1/PD-1 combination therapy opportunities.
Profits from Lynparza and Koselugo product sales generated through monotherapies or combination therapies are shared equally. AstraZeneca is the principal on Lynparza and Koselugo sales transactions. Merck records its share of Lynparza and Koselugo product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue and its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses. Reimbursements received from AstraZeneca for research and development expenses are recognized as reductions to Research and development costs.
As part of the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to AstraZeneca and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain license options. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to AstraZeneca related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In the first quarter of 2022, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lynparza in the future would trigger a $600 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to AstraZeneca. Accordingly, Merck recorded a $600 million liability (which remained accrued at June 30, 2023) and a corresponding increase to the intangible asset related to Lynparza. Merck also recognized $250 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense related to the recognition of this milestone in the first six months of 2022. Additionally, in the first six months of 2022, Merck made a sales-based milestone payment to AstraZeneca (which had been previously accrued for) of $400 million. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.1 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. In the first quarter of 2023, Merck made a regulatory milestone payment to AstraZeneca of $105 million (which had been previously accrued for). In the second quarter of 2023, Lynparza received a regulatory approval triggering a future milestone payment of up to $245 million from Merck to AstraZeneca. In 2022, Lynparza received regulatory approvals triggering capitalized milestone payments of $250 million from Merck to AstraZeneca (of which $175 million was paid in the first six months of 2022). Potential future regulatory milestone payments of $850 million remain under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lynparza (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $1.7 billion at June 30, 2023 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2028 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.

- 7 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Lynparza$310 $275 $585 $541 
Alliance revenue - Koselugo25 24 48 33 
Total alliance revenue$335 $299 $633 $574 
Cost of sales (1)
78 62 148 361 
Selling, general and administrative51 46 98 90 
Research and development22 25 43 51 
($ in millions)June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from AstraZeneca included in Other current assets
$332 $303 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
260 123 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Other Noncurrent Liabilities (2)
600 600 
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments. Amount in the first six months of 2022 includes $250 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense as noted above.
(2)    Includes accrued milestone payments.
Eisai Co., Ltd.
In 2018, Merck and Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) announced a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima (lenvatinib), an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. Eisai records Lenvima product sales globally (Eisai is the principal on Lenvima sales transactions) and Merck and Eisai share applicable profits equally. Merck records its share of Lenvima product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue. Expenses incurred during co-development are shared by the two companies in accordance with the collaboration agreement and reflected in Research and development expenses. Certain expenses incurred solely by Merck or Eisai are not shareable under the collaboration agreement, including costs incurred in excess of agreed upon caps and costs related to certain combination studies of Keytruda and Lenvima.
Under the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to Eisai and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain option rights. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to Eisai related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In the first quarter of 2023, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lenvima in the future would trigger a $125 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to Eisai. Accordingly, Merck recorded a $125 million liability and a corresponding increase to the intangible asset related to Lenvima. Merck also recognized $72 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense related to the recognition of this milestone in the first six months of 2023. The Company made this sales-based milestone payment to Eisai in the second quarter of 2023. In the first six months of 2022, Merck made sales-based milestone payments to Eisai (which had been previously accrued for) aggregating $600 million. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.4 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. In 2022, Lenvima received regulatory approvals triggering capitalized milestone payments of $50 million from Merck to Eisai (of which $25 million was paid in the first six months of 2022). There are no regulatory milestone payments remaining under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lenvima (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $756 million at June 30, 2023 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2026 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.

- 8 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Lenvima$242 $231 $474 $459 
Cost of sales (1)
57 53 183 106 
Selling, general and administrative48 42 99 73 
Research and development17 47 56 104 
($ in millions)June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from Eisai included in Other current assets
$242 $214 
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments. Amount in the first six months of 2023 includes $72 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense as noted above.
Bayer AG
In 2014, the Company entered into a worldwide clinical development collaboration with Bayer AG (Bayer) to market and develop soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) modulators including Bayer’s Adempas (riociguat). The two companies have implemented a joint development and commercialization strategy. The collaboration also includes development of Bayer’s Verquvo (vericiguat), which was approved in the U.S., the European Union (EU) and Japan in 2021, and has since been approved in several other markets. Under the agreement, Bayer commercializes Adempas in the Americas, while Merck commercializes in the rest of the world. For Verquvo, Merck commercializes in the U.S. and Bayer commercializes in the rest of the world. Both companies share in development costs and profits on sales. Merck records sales of Adempas and Verquvo in its marketing territories, as well as alliance revenue. Alliance revenue represents Merck’s share of profits from sales of Adempas and Verquvo in Bayer’s marketing territories, which are product sales net of cost of sales and commercialization costs. Cost of sales includes Bayer’s share of profits from sales in Merck’s marketing territories.
In addition, the agreement provided for contingent payments from Merck to Bayer related to the successful achievement of sales-based milestones. In the first six months of 2022, Merck made the final $400 million sales-based milestone payment under this collaboration to Bayer.
The intangible asset balances related to Adempas (which includes the acquired intangible asset balance, as well as capitalized sales-based milestone payments attributed to Adempas) and Verquvo (which reflects the portion of the final sales-based milestone payment that was attributed to Verquvo) were $586 million and $55 million, respectively, at June 30, 2023 and are included in Other Intangibles, Net. The assets are being amortized over their estimated useful lives (through 2027 for Adempas and through 2031 for Verquvo) as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Alliance revenue - Adempas/Verquvo$68 $98 $167 $170 
Net sales of Adempas recorded by Merck65 63 125 124 
Net sales of Verquvo recorded by Merck9 6 16 9 
Total sales$142 $167 $308 $303 
Cost of sales (1)
56 54 113 103 
Selling, general and administrative34 42 67 65 
Research and development25 17 50 34 
($ in millions)June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from Bayer included in Other current assets
$144 $143 
Payables to Bayer included in Accrued and other current liabilities
82 80 
(1)    Includes amortization of intangible assets.
Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP
In 2020, Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP (Ridgeback), a closely held biotechnology company, entered into a collaboration agreement to develop Lagevrio (molnupiravir), an investigational orally available antiviral candidate for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Merck gained exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize Lagevrio and related molecules. Following initial authorizations in certain markets in the fourth quarter of 2021, Lagevrio has since received multiple additional authorizations worldwide.
- 9 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Under the terms of the agreement, Ridgeback received an upfront payment and is eligible to receive future contingent payments dependent upon the achievement of certain developmental and regulatory approval milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to reimburse Ridgeback for a portion of certain third-party contingent milestone payments and royalties on net sales, which is part of the profit-sharing calculation. Merck is the principal on sales transactions, recognizing sales and related costs, with profit-sharing amounts recorded within Cost of sales. Profits from the collaboration are split equally between the partners. Reimbursements from Ridgeback for its share of research and development costs (deducted from Ridgeback’s share of profits) are reflected as decreases to Research and development expenses.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
($ in millions)2023202220232022
Net sales of Lagevrio recorded by Merck
$203 $1,177 $595 $4,424 
Cost of sales (1)(2)
193 615 414 2,341 
Selling, general and administrative (2)
24 34 51 69 
Research and development (2)
10 30 26 56 
($ in millions)June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Receivables from Ridgeback included in Other current assets (3)
$51 $ 
Payables to Ridgeback included in Accrued and other current liabilities (4)
30 348 
(1)    Includes royalty expense, amortization of capitalized milestone payments and inventory reserves.
(2)    Expenses include an allocation for overhead charges.
(3)    Includes partner advances.
(4)    Includes accrued royalties. Amount at December 31, 2022 also includes an accrued milestone payment.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Reblozyl (luspatercept-aamt) is a first-in-class erythroid maturation recombinant fusion protein that is being commercialized through a global collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS). Reblozyl is approved in the U.S., Europe and certain other markets for the treatment of anemia in certain rare blood disorders and is also being evaluated for additional indications for hematology therapies. BMS is the principal on sales transactions for Reblozyl; however, Merck co-promotes Reblozyl (and will co-promote all future products approved under this collaboration) in North America, which is reimbursed by BMS. Merck receives a 20% sales royalty from BMS which could increase to a maximum of 24% based on sales levels. This royalty will be reduced by 50% upon the earlier of patent expiry or generic entry on an indication-by-indication basis in each market. Additionally, Merck is eligible to receive future contingent sales-based milestone payments of up to $80 million. Alliance revenue related to this collaboration (recorded within Sales) consists of royalties and, for the first six months of 2022, also includes the receipt of a regulatory approval milestone payment of $20 million. Merck recorded alliance revenue related to this collaboration of $47 million and $90 million in the second quarter and first six months of 2023, respectively, compared with $33 million and $86 million in the second quarter and first six months of 2022, respectively.
4. Spin-Off of Organon & Co.
On June 2, 2021, Merck completed the spin-off of Organon through a distribution of Organon’s publicly traded stock to Company shareholders. In connection with the spin-off, Merck and Organon entered into a separation and distribution agreement and also entered into various other agreements to effect the spin-off and provide a framework for the relationship between Merck and Organon after the spin-off, including a transition services agreement (TSA), manufacturing and supply agreements (MSAs), trademark license agreements, intellectual property license agreements, an employee matters agreement, a tax matters agreement and certain other commercial agreements. Under the TSA, Merck is providing Organon various services and, similarly, Organon is providing Merck various services. A majority of the services provided under the TSA terminated within 25 months following the spin-off; a majority of the remaining services will terminate within 35 months following the spin-off. Merck and Organon also entered into a series of interim operating agreements pursuant to which in various jurisdictions where Merck held licenses, permits and other rights in connection with marketing, import and/or distribution of Organon products prior to the separation, Merck is continuing to market, import and distribute such products until such time as the relevant licenses and permits are transferred to Organon. Under such interim operating agreements and in accordance with the separation and distribution agreement, Merck is continuing operations in the affected markets on behalf of Organon, with Organon receiving all of the economic benefits and burdens of such activities. Additionally, Merck and Organon entered into a number of MSAs pursuant to which Merck is (a) manufacturing and supplying certain active pharmaceutical ingredients for Organon, (b) manufacturing and supplying certain formulated pharmaceutical products for Organon, and (c) packaging and labeling certain finished pharmaceutical products for Organon. Similarly, Organon and Merck entered into a number of MSAs pursuant to which Organon is (a) manufacturing and supplying certain formulated pharmaceutical products for Merck, and (b) packaging and labeling certain finished pharmaceutical products for Merck. The terms of the MSAs range in initial duration from four years to ten years.
- 10 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The amounts included in the condensed consolidated statement of operations for the above MSAs include sales of $96 million and $95 million and related cost of sales of $101 million and $103 million for the second quarter of 2023 and 2022, respectively, and sales of $191 million and $194 million and related cost of sales of $208 million and $208 million for the first six months of 2023 and 2022, respectively. Amounts included in the condensed consolidated statement of operations for the TSAs were immaterial for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022.
The amounts due from Organon under all of the above agreements were $539 million and $511 million at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and are reflected in Other current assets. The amounts due to Organon under these agreements were $351 million and $345 million at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and are included in Accrued and other current liabilities.
5.    Restructuring
In 2019, Merck approved a global restructuring program (Restructuring Program) as part of a worldwide initiative focused on optimizing the Company’s manufacturing and supply network, as well as reducing its global real estate footprint. The actions contemplated under the Restructuring Program are expected to be substantially completed by the end of 2023, with the cumulative pretax costs to be incurred by the Company to implement the program estimated to be approximately $3.9 billion. The Company estimates that approximately 70% of the cumulative pretax costs will result in cash outlays, primarily related to employee separation expense and facility shut-down costs. Approximately 30% of the cumulative pretax costs will be non-cash, relating primarily to the accelerated depreciation of facilities to be closed or divested.
The Company recorded total pretax costs of $236 million and $258 million in the second quarter of 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $333 million and $384 million for the first six months of 2023 and 2022, respectively, related to restructuring program activities. Since inception of the Restructuring Program through June 30, 2023, Merck has recorded total pretax accumulated costs of approximately $3.7 billion. For the full year of 2023, the Company expects to record charges of approximately $550 million related to the Restructuring Program. For segment reporting, restructuring charges are unallocated expenses.
The following tables summarize the charges related to restructuring program activities by type of cost:
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2023Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
($ in millions)Separation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotalSeparation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotal
Cost of sales$ $22 $10 $32 $ $43 $18 $61 
Selling, general and administrative  52 52   53 53 
Research and development  1 1   1 1 
Restructuring costs110  41 151 151  67 218 
$110 $22 $104 $236 $151 $43 $139 $333 
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2022Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
($ in millions)Separation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotalSeparation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotal
Cost of sales$ $17 $50 $67 $ $35 $78 $113 
Selling, general and administrative 8 19 27  12 36 48 
Research and development 22  22  29  29 
Restructuring costs106  36 142 132  62 194 
$106 $47 $105 $258 $132 $76 $176 $384 
Separation costs are associated with actual headcount reductions, as well as involuntary headcount reductions which were probable and could be reasonably estimated.
Accelerated depreciation costs primarily relate to manufacturing, research and administrative facilities and equipment to be sold or closed as part of the program. Accelerated depreciation costs represent the difference between the depreciation expense to be recognized over the revised useful life of the asset, based upon the anticipated date the site will be closed or divested or the equipment disposed of, and depreciation expense as determined utilizing the useful life prior to the restructuring actions. All the sites have and will continue to operate up through the respective closure dates and, since future undiscounted cash flows are sufficient to recover the respective book values, Merck is recording accelerated depreciation over the revised useful life of the site assets. Anticipated site closure dates, particularly related to manufacturing locations, have been and may continue to be adjusted to reflect changes resulting from regulatory or other factors.
Other activity in 2023 and 2022 includes asset abandonment, facility shut-down and other related costs, as well as pretax gains and losses resulting from the sales of facilities and related assets. Additionally, other activity includes certain employee-related costs associated with pension and other postretirement benefit plans (see Note 11) and share-based compensation.
- 11 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The following table summarizes the charges and spending relating to restructuring program activities for the six months ended June 30, 2023:
($ in millions)Separation
Costs
Accelerated
Depreciation
OtherTotal
Restructuring reserves January 1, 2023
$479 $ $34 $513 
Expenses151 43 139 333 
(Payments) receipts, net(84) (74)(158)
Non-cash activity (43)(68)(111)
Restructuring reserves June 30, 2023 (1)
$546 $ $31 $577 
(1)The remaining cash outlays are expected to be largely completed by the end of 2025.
6.    Financial Instruments
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
The Company manages the impact of foreign exchange rate movements and interest rate movements on its earnings, cash flows and fair values of assets and liabilities through operational means and through the use of various financial instruments, including derivative instruments.
A significant portion of the Company’s revenues and earnings in foreign affiliates is exposed to changes in foreign exchange rates. The objectives of and accounting related to the Company’s foreign currency risk management program, as well as its interest rate risk management activities are discussed below.
Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company has established revenue hedging, balance sheet risk management and net investment hedging programs to protect against volatility of future foreign currency cash flows and changes in fair value caused by changes in foreign exchange rates.
The objective of the revenue hedging program is to reduce the variability caused by changes in foreign exchange rates that would affect the U.S. dollar value of future cash flows derived from foreign currency denominated sales, primarily the euro, Japanese yen and Chinese renminbi. To achieve this objective, the Company will hedge a portion of its forecasted foreign currency denominated third-party and intercompany distributor entity sales (forecasted sales) that are expected to occur over its planning cycle, typically no more than two years into the future. The Company will layer in hedges over time, increasing the portion of forecasted sales hedged as it gets closer to the expected date of the forecasted sales. The portion of forecasted sales hedged is based on assessments of cost-benefit profiles that consider natural offsetting exposures, revenue and exchange rate volatilities and correlations, and the cost of hedging instruments. The Company manages its anticipated transaction exposure principally with purchased local currency put options, forward contracts, and purchased collar options.
The fair values of these derivative contracts are recorded as either assets (gain positions) or liabilities (loss positions) in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts are recorded each period in either current earnings or Other comprehensive income (OCI), depending on whether the derivative is designated as part of a hedge transaction and, if so, the type of hedge transaction. For derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges, the unrealized gains or losses on these contracts are recorded in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (AOCL) and reclassified into Sales when the hedged anticipated revenue is recognized. For those derivatives which are not designated as cash flow hedges, but serve as economic hedges of forecasted sales, unrealized gains or losses are recorded in Sales each period. The cash flows from both designated and non-designated contracts are reported as operating activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. The Company does not enter into derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.
The Company manages operating activities and net asset positions at each local subsidiary in order to mitigate the effects of exchange on monetary assets and liabilities. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of a given subsidiary are remeasured at spot rates in effect on the balance sheet date with the effects of changes in spot rates reported in Other (income) expense, net. The Company also uses a balance sheet risk management program to mitigate the exposure of such assets and liabilities from the effects of volatility in foreign exchange. Merck principally utilizes forward exchange contracts to offset the effects of exchange in developed country currencies, primarily the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, Canadian dollar, Australian dollar and Swiss franc. For exposures in developing country currencies, including the Chinese renminbi, the Company will enter into forward contracts to offset the effects of exchange on exposures when it is deemed economical to do so based on a cost-benefit analysis that considers the magnitude of the exposure, the volatility of the exchange rate and the cost of the hedging instrument. The forward contracts are not designated as hedges and are marked to market through Other (income) expense, net. Accordingly, fair value changes in the forward contracts help miti