10-K 1 dco10-k2018.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 _________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
 _________________________________________________________
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 1-8174
 _________________________________________________________
DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 _________________________________________________________
Delaware
 
95-0693330
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
200 Sandpointe Avenue, Suite 700, Santa Ana, California
 
92707-5759
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (657) 335-3665
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
 _________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
¨
Accelerated filer
 
x
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price of which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2018 was $377 million.
The number of shares of common stock outstanding on February 14, 2019 was 11,425,954.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents are incorporated by reference:
(a) Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the “2019 Proxy Statement”), incorporated partially in Part III hereof.
 



DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “could,” “may,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “estimate,” “expect,” or similar expressions. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Generally, forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future actions, events or results of operations. Forward-looking statements specifically include, without limitation, the information in this Form 10-K regarding: future sales, earnings, cash flow, uses of cash and other measures of financial performance, projections or expectations for future operations, our plans with respect to restructuring activities, completed acquisitions, future acquisitions and dispositions and expected business opportunities that may be available to us.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual outcomes and results to be materially different from those projected. We cannot guarantee future results, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. All written and oral forward-looking statements made in connection with this Form 10-K that are attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and other cautionary statements included herein. We are under no duty to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to conform such statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.
The information in this Form 10-K is not a complete description of our business. There can be no assurance that other factors will not affect the accuracy of these forward-looking statements or that our actual results will not differ materially from the results anticipated in such forward-looking statements. While it is impossible to identify all such factors, some factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated by us include, but are not limited to, those factors or conditions described under Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and the following:
our ability to manage and otherwise comply with our covenants with respect to our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to service our indebtedness;
our acquisitions, business combinations, joint ventures, divestitures, or restructuring activities may entail certain operational and financial risks;
the cyclicality of our end-use markets and the level of new commercial and military aircraft orders;
industry and customer concentration;
production rates for various commercial and military aircraft programs;
the level of U.S. Government defense spending;
compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and changes in regulatory requirements, including regulatory requirements applicable to government contracts and sub-contracts;
further consolidation of customers and suppliers in our markets;
product performance and delivery;
start-up costs, manufacturing inefficiencies and possible overruns on contracts;
increased design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain and other risks and uncertainties associated with our growth strategy to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies;
our ability to manage the risks associated with international operations and sales;
possible goodwill and other asset impairments;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions;
unfavorable developments in the global credit markets;
our ability to operate within highly competitive markets;
technology changes and evolving industry and regulatory standards;
the risk of environmental liabilities;
the risk of cyber security attacks; and

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litigation with respect to us.
We caution the reader that undue reliance should not be placed on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We do not undertake any duty or responsibility to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K or to reflect actual outcomes.

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace and defense (“A&D”), industrial, medical and other industries (collectively, “Industrial”). Ducommun differentiates itself as a full-service solution-based provider, offering a wide range of value-added advanced products and services in our primary businesses of electronics, structures, and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. We are the successor to a business that was founded in California in 1849 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1970.
ACQUISITIONS
Acquisitions have been an important element of our growth strategy. We have supplemented our organic growth by identifying, acquiring and integrating acquisition opportunities that result in broader, more sophisticated product and service offerings while diversifying and expanding our customer base and markets.
For example, on April 23, 2018, we acquired all the outstanding equity interests of Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (the “CTP Acquisition”), a privately-held leader in precision profile extrusions and extruded assemblies of engineered thermoplastic resins, compounds, and alloys for a wide range of commercial aerospace, defense, medical, and industrial applications for $30.7 million (net of cash acquired), funded by drawing down on our revolving credit facility. The CTP Acquisition is part of our strategy to diversify towards more customized, higher value, engineered products with greater aftermarket potential.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Business Segment Information
We operate through two primary strategic businesses Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment. The results of operations among our operating segments vary due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. Electronic Systems designs, engineers and manufactures high-reliability electronic and electromechanical products used in worldwide technology-driven markets including A&D and Industrial end-use markets. Electronic Systems’ product offerings primarily range from prototype development to complex assemblies as discussed in more detail below. Structural Systems designs, engineers and manufactures large, complex contoured aerostructure components and assemblies and supplies composite and metal bonded structures and assemblies. Structural Systems’ products are primarily used on commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft.
Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems has multiple major product offerings in electronics manufacturing for diverse, high-reliability applications: complex cable assemblies and interconnect systems, printed circuit board assemblies, higher-level electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical components and assemblies, and lightning diversion systems. Components, assemblies, and lightning diversion products are provided principally for domestic and foreign commercial and military fixed-wing aircraft, military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft and space programs. Further, we provide select industrial high-reliability applications for the industrial, medical, and other end-use markets. We build custom, high-performance electronics and electromechanical systems. Our products include sophisticated radar enclosures, aircraft avionics racks and shipboard communications and control enclosures, printed circuit board assemblies, cable assemblies, wire harnesses, and interconnect systems, lightning diversion strips, surge suppressors, conformal shields and other high-level complex assemblies. Electronic Systems utilizes a highly-integrated production process, including manufacturing, engineering, fabrication, machining, assembly, electronic integration, and related processes. Engineering, technical and program management services are provided to a wide range of customers.
In response to customer needs and utilizing our in-depth engineering expertise, Electronic Systems is also considered a leading supplier of engineered products including, illuminated pushbutton switches and panels for aviation and test systems, microwave and millimeter switches and filters for radio frequency systems and test instrumentation, and motors and resolvers for motion control.

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Electronic Systems also provides engineering expertise for aerospace system design, development, integration, and testing. We leverage the knowledge base, capabilities, talent, and technologies of this focused capability into direct support of our customers.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems has three major product offerings to support a global customer base: commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft, and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft. Our applications include structural components, structural assemblies, bonded (metal and composite) components, and precision profile extrusions and extruded assemblies. In the structural components products, Structural Systems provides design services, engineers, and manufacturing of large complex contoured aluminum, titanium and Inconel aerostructure components for the aerospace industry. Structural assembly products include winglets, engine components, and fuselage structural panels for aircraft. Metal and composite bonded structures and assemblies products include aircraft wing spoilers, large fuselage skins, rotor blades on rotary-wing aircraft and components, flight control surfaces and engine components. To support these products, Structural Systems maintains advanced machine milling, stretch-forming, hot-forming, metal bonding, composite layup, and chemical milling capabilities and has an extensive engineering capability to support both design services and manufacturing.
AEROSPACE AND DEFENSE END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our largest end-use markets are the aerospace and defense markets and our revenues from these markets represented 92% of our total net revenues in 2018. These markets are serviced by suppliers which are stratified, from the lowest value provided to the highest, into four tiers: Tier Three, Tier Two, Tier One and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”). The OEMs provide the highest value and are also known as prime contractors (“Primes”). We derive a significant portion of our revenues from subcontracts with OEMs. As the prime contractor for various programs and platforms, the OEMs sell to their customers, who may include, depending upon the application, the U.S. Federal Government, foreign, state and local governments, global commercial airline carriers, regional jet carriers and various other customers. The OEMs also sell to global leasing companies that lease commercial aircraft. A significant portion of our revenues is earned from subcontracts with the Primes. Tier Three suppliers principally provide components or detailed parts. Tier Two suppliers provide more complex, value-added parts and may also assume more design risk, manufacturing risk, supply chain risk and project management risk than Tier Three suppliers. Tier One suppliers manufacture aircraft sections and purchase assemblies. We currently compete primarily with Tier Two and Tier Three suppliers. Our business growth strategy is to differentiate ourselves from competitors by providing more complex assemblies to our customers as a higher value added supplier.
Commercial Aerospace End-Use Market
The commercial aerospace end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of global air passenger traffic in general, which in turn is influenced by global economic conditions, fleet fuel and maintenance costs and geopolitical developments. Revenues from the commercial aerospace end-use market represented 48% of our total net revenues for 2018.
Global economic growth, a primary driver for air travel, was above the long-term average of three percent in 2018. Passenger traffic in 2018 is estimated to grow by almost seven percent, exceeding the long-term average of approximately five percent. While growth was strong across all major world regions, there continues to be variation between regions and airline business models. Airlines operating in Asia Pacific, Europe, and North America, as well as low-cost-carriers globally, are currently leading the growth in passenger traffic.
In addition, airline financial performance also plays a role in the demand for new capacity. Airlines continue to focus on increasing revenue through alliances, partnerships, new marketing initiatives, and effective leveraging of ancillary services and related revenues. Airlines are also focusing on reducing costs and renewing fleets to leverage more efficient airplanes. Net profits in 2018 are expected to approximate $32 billion.
Further, the availability of internal or external funding impacts commercial aircraft build rates. Failure of our customers to obtain financing may result in cancellation or deferral of orders.
The long-term outlook for the industry continues to remain positive due to the fundamental drivers of air travel demand: economic growth and the increasing propensity to travel due to increased trade, globalization, and improved airline services driven by liberalization of air traffic rights between countries. The Boeing Company’s (“Boeing”) 20 year forecast projections in their 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) projects a long-term average growth rate of almost five percent per year for passenger traffic and more than four percent for cargo traffic. This is based on long-term global economic growth projections of almost three percent average annual gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, Boeing projects a $6 trillion market for more than 42,000 new airplanes over the next 20 years. We believe we are well positioned given our product capabilities to participate in the steady projected growth rate for commercial air traffic and build rates for large commercial aircraft for the airframe manufacturing industry.

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Defense End-Use Market
Our defense end-use market includes products used in military and space, including technologies and structures applications. The defense end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of government defense spending. Government defense spending is impacted by national defense policies and priorities, political climates, fiscal budgetary constraints, U.S. Federal budget deficits, projected economic growth and the level of global military or security threats, or other conflicts. Revenues from the military and space end-use market in 2018 represented 44% of our total net revenues during 2018.
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, passed in February 2018, raised the 2011 Budget Control Act spending caps for fiscal years 2018 (“FY2018”), and 2019 (“FY2019”). The consolidated spending bills signed into law in September 2018 provide defense funding for FY2019, in compliance with the revised caps. These bills also provide FY2019 appropriations for most of the federal government.
In addition, there continues to be uncertainty with respect to program-level appropriations for the U.S. DoD and other government agencies, including NASA. The 2011 Budget Control Act continues to mandate limits on U.S. government discretionary spending for fiscal years 2020 (“FY2020”) and 2021 (“FY2021”). The lower budget caps will take effect again in FY2020 and FY2021 unless Congress acts to raise the spending caps or to repeal or suspend the law. As a result, continued budget uncertainty and the risk of future sequestration cuts remain. Future budget cuts or investment priority changes could result in reductions, cancellations, and/or delays of existing contracts or programs. Any of these impacts could have a material effect on the results of our operations, financial position, and/or cash flows. For additional information related to our revenues from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government and our direct sales to the U.S. Government, see “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).
INDUSTRIAL END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our industrial, medical and other (collectively, “Industrial”) end-use markets are diverse and are impacted by the customers’ needs for increasing electronic content and a desire to outsource. Factors expected to impact these markets include capital and industrial goods spending and general economic conditions. Our products are used in heavy industrial manufacturing systems and certain medical applications. Revenues from the Industrial end-use markets were 8% of our total net revenues during 2018.
We believe our business in these markets is stable and we are well positioned in these markets.
SALES AND MARKETING
Our commercial revenues are substantially dependent on airframe manufacturers’ production rates of new aircraft. Deliveries of new aircraft by airframe manufacturers are dependent on the financial capacity of its customers, primarily airlines and leasing companies, to purchase the aircraft. Thus, revenues from commercial aircraft could be affected as a result of changes in new aircraft orders, or the cancellation or deferral by airlines of purchases of ordered aircraft. Further, our revenues from commercial aircraft programs could be affected by changes in our customers’ inventory levels and changes in our customers’ aircraft production build rates. In recent years, both major large aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus, have announced higher build rates due to increases in production of existing programs, including more fully-developed models, and by the introduction of new platforms.
Military components manufactured by us are employed in many of the country’s front-line fighters, bombers, rotary-wing aircraft and support aircraft, as well as land and sea-based applications. Our defense business is diversified among a number of military manufacturers and programs. In the space sector, we continue to support various unmanned launch vehicle and satellite programs.
Our sales into the Industrial end-use markets are customer focused in the various markets and driven primarily by their capital spending and manufacturing outsourcing demands.
We continue to broaden and diversify our customer base in the end-use markets we serve by providing innovative product and service solutions through drawing on our core competencies, experience and technical expertise. Net revenues related to military and space, commercial aerospace, and Industrial end-use markets in 2018 and 2017 were as follows:

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netrevenues22119.jpg
Many of our contracts are fixed price contracts subject to termination at the convenience of the customer (as well as for default). In the event of termination for convenience, the customer generally is required to pay the costs we have incurred and certain other fees through the date of termination. Larger, long-term government subcontracts may have provisions for milestone payments, progress payments or cash advances for purchase of inventory.
Our marketing efforts primarily consist of developing strong, long-term relationships with our customers, which provide the basis for future sales. These close relationships allow us to gain a better insight into each customer’s business needs, identify ways to provide greater value to the customer, and allow us to be designed in early in various products and/or high volume products.
SEASONALITY
The timing of our revenues is governed by the purchasing patterns of our customers, and, as a result, we may not generate revenues equally during the year. However, no material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal.
MAJOR CUSTOMERS
We currently generate the majority of our revenues from the aerospace and defense industries. As a result, we have significant revenues from certain customers. Boeing and Raytheon Company (“Raytheon”) were each greater than 10 percent and Lockheed Martin Corporation (“Lockheed Martin”) and Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”) each were five percent or greater of our 2018 or 2017 net revenues. Revenues from our top ten customers, including Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and Spirit were 63% of total net revenues during 2018. Net revenues by major customer for 2018 and 2017 were as follows: 
revbymajorcustomers21819a01.jpg
Net revenues from our customers, except the U.S. Government, are diversified over a number of different military and space, commercial aerospace, industrial, medical and other products. For additional information on revenues from major customers, see Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We perform concurrent engineering with our customers and product development activities under our self-funded programs, as well as under contracts with others. Concurrent engineering and product development activities are performed for commercial, military and space applications.

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RAW MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
Raw materials and components used in the manufacturing of our products include aluminum, titanium, steel and carbon fibers, as well as a wide variety of electronic interconnect and circuit card assemblies and components. These raw materials are generally available from a number of suppliers and are generally in adequate supply. However, from time to time, we have experienced increases in lead times for and limited availability of, aluminum, titanium and certain other raw materials and/or components. Moreover, certain components, supplies and raw materials for our operations are purchased from single source suppliers and occasionally, directed by our customers. In such instances, we strive to develop alternative sources and design modifications to minimize the potential for business interruptions.
COMPETITION
The markets we serve are highly competitive, and our products and services are affected by varying degrees of competition. We compete worldwide with domestic and international companies in most markets. These companies may have competitive advantages as a result of greater financial resources, economies of scale and bundled products and services that we do not offer. Additional information related to competition is discussed in Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K. Our ability to compete depends principally upon the breadth of our technical capabilities, the quality of our goods and services, competitive pricing, product performance, design and engineering capabilities, new product innovation, the ability to solve specific customer needs, and customer relationships.
PATENTS AND LICENSES
We have several patents, but we do not believe that our operations are dependent upon any single patent or group of patents. In general, we rely on technical superiority, continual product improvement, exclusive product features, superior lead time, on-time delivery performance, quality, and customer relationships to maintain our competitive advantage.
BACKLOG AND REMAINING PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS
We define backlog as potential revenue that is based on customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) and long-term agreements (“LTAs”) with firm fixed price and firm delivery dates of 24 months or less. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer orders and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent than our net revenues. Backlog in Industrial markets tends to be of a shorter duration and is generally fulfilled within a three month period. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues. Backlog was $864.4 million at December 31, 2018, compared to $726.5 million at December 31, 2017. The increase in backlog was primarily in the commercial aerospace and military and space end-use markets.
We define remaining performance obligations as customer placed POs with firm fixed price and firm delivery dates. The majority of the LTAs do not meet the definition of a contract under Accounting Standards Codification 606 (“ASC 606”) and thus, the backlog amount is greater than the remaining performance obligations amount as defined under ASC 606. Similar to backlog, revenue based on remaining performance obligations is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Remaining performance obligations were $722.8 million at December 31, 2018.We anticipate recognizing an estimated $505.0 million of our remaining performance obligations during 2019.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations issued by government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). Among other matters, these regulatory authorities impose requirements that regulate the emission, discharge, generation, management, transport and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, pollutants and contaminants. These regulations govern public and private response actions to hazardous or regulated substances that threaten to release or have been released to the environment, or endanger human health, and they require us to obtain and maintain licenses and permits in connection with our operations. We may also be required to investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at sites associated with past and present operations. Additionally, this extensive regulatory framework imposes significant compliance burdens and risks on us. We anticipate that capital expenditures will continue to be required for the foreseeable future to upgrade and maintain our environmental compliance efforts, however, we do not expect such expenditures to be material in 2019 and the foreseeable future.
Structural Systems has been directed by California environmental agencies to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater contamination at its facilities located in Adelanto (a.k.a., El Mirage) and Monrovia, California. Based on currently available information, we have accrued $1.5 million at December 31, 2018 for our estimated liabilities related to these sites. For further information, see Note 16 in the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item

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15(a) of this Form 10-K. In addition, see Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for certain risks related to environmental matters.
EMPLOYEES
As of December 31, 2018, we employed 2,600 people, of which 350 are subject to collective bargaining agreements expiring in June 2021 and April 2022. We believe our relations with our employees are good. See Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding certain risks related to our employees.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
General information about us can be obtained from our website address at www.ducommun.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, if any, are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information included in our website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including our company.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be affected by known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. We have summarized below the significant, known material risks to our business. Additional risk factors not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Any of these risks, uncertainties and other factors could cause our future financial results to differ materially from recent financial results or from currently anticipated future financial results. The risk factors below should be considered together with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) as well as other required filings by us with the SEC.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR CAPITAL STRUCTURE
Our indebtedness could limit our financing options, adversely affect our financial condition, and prevent us from fulfilling our debt obligations.
On November 21, 2018, we completed the refinancing of our existing debt by entering into new credit facilities (“New Credit Facilities”) to replace the existing credit facilities (“Existing Credit Facilities”). The New Credit Facilities consist of a $240.0 million senior secured term loan, which matures on November 21, 2025 (“New Term Loan”), and a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility (“New Revolving Credit Facility”), which matures on November 21, 2023 (collectively, the “New Credit Facilities”).
At December 31, 2018, we had a total of $233.0 million of outstanding long-term debt. The total long-term debt was primarily the result of our acquisitions, LaBarge, Inc. in 2011, Lightning Diversion Systems, LLC (“LDS”) in September 2017, and CTP on April 23, 2018.
Our ability to complete a reasonable debt refinancing in the future may be limited, as discussed below in this risk factor. We may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as selling assets; reducing or delaying scheduled expansions and/or capital investments; or seeking various forms of capital. Our ability to complete reasonable alternative financing plans may be affected by circumstances and economic events outside of our control. We cannot ensure that we would be able to refinance our debt or enter into alternative financing plans in adequate amounts on commercially reasonable terms, terms acceptable to us or at all, or that such plans guarantee that we would be able to meet our debt obligations.
Our level of debt could:
limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
require a portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate purposes;
increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
place us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors;

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expose us to the risk of increased borrowing costs and higher interest rates as almost 60% of our borrowings under our New Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates, which could further adversely impact our cash flows;
limit our flexibility to plan for and react to changes in our business and the industry in which we compete;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions;
expose us to risk of unfavorable changes in the global credit markets; and
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the New Credit Facilities and our other debt.
The occurrence of any one of these events could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to satisfy our obligations in respect of our outstanding debt.
We require a considerable amount of cash to run our business.
Our ability to make payments on our debt in the future and to fund planned capital expenditures and working capital needs, will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. Our ability to generate cash is subject to economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that may be beyond our control.
On November 21, 2018, we completed New Credit Facilities to replace the Existing Credit Facilities. The New Credit Facilities consists of a $240.0 million senior secured term loan, which matures on November 21, 2025, and a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility, which matures on November 21, 2023. We are required to make installment payments of 0.25% of the outstanding principal balance of the New Term Loan amount on a quarterly basis. In addition, if we meet the annual excess cash flow threshold, we will be required to make excess flow payments on an annual basis. Further, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the New Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.200% to 0.300%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio. In October 2015, we entered into interest rate cap hedges designated as cash flow hedges, with a portion of these interest rate cap hedges maturing on a quarterly basis, and a final quarterly maturity date of June 2020 with notional value in aggregate, totaling $135.0 million. At December 31, 2018, the outstanding balance on the New Credit Facilities was $233.0 million with an average interest rate of 4.71%. Should interest rates increase significantly, even though $102.0 million of our debt was hedged, our debt service cost will increase. Any inability to generate sufficient cash flow could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
While we expect to meet all of our financial obligations, we cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs.
We require a considerable amount of cash to fund our anticipated voluntary principal prepayments on our Credit Facilities.
Our ability to continue to reduce the debt outstanding under our New Credit Facilities through voluntary principal prepayments will be a contributing factor to our ability to keep our interest rate towards the lower end of the interest rate range as defined in the New Credit Facilities. Our ability to make such prepayments will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. We cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund any such prepayments.
The covenants in the credit agreement to our Credit Facilities impose restrictions that may limit our operating and financial flexibility.
We are required to comply with a leverage covenant as defined in the revolving credit agreement to the New Credit Facilities. The leverage covenant is defined as Consolidated Funded Indebtedness less unrestricted cash and cash equivalents in excess of $5.0 million, divided by consolidated earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”).
At December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with the leverage covenant under the New Credit Facilities. However, there is no assurance that we will continue to be in compliance with the leverage covenant in future periods.
The New Credit Facilities' agreement contains a number of significant restrictions and covenants that limit our ability, among other things, to incur additional indebtedness, to create liens, to make certain payments, investments, to engage in transactions with affiliates, to sell certain assets or enter into mergers.
These covenants could materially and adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs. Furthermore, they may restrict our ability to expand, pursue our business strategies and otherwise conduct our business. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by circumstances and events beyond our control, such as prevailing economic conditions and changes in regulations, and we cannot ensure that we will be able to comply with such covenants.

10


These restrictions also limit our ability to obtain future financings to withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general.
A breach of any covenant in credit agreement to the New Credit Facilities could result in a default under the New Credit Facilities agreement. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the debt outstanding under the agreement. A default could permit our lenders to foreclose on any of our assets securing such debt. Even if new financing were available at that time, it may not be on terms or amounts that are acceptable to us or terms as favorable as our current agreements. If our debt is in default for any reason, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
The typical trading volume of our common stock may affect an investor’s ability to sell significant stock holdings in the future without negatively impacting stock price.
The level of trading activity may vary daily and typically represents only a small percentage of outstanding shares. As a result, a stockholder who sells a significant amount of shares in a short period of time could negatively affect our share price.
Our amount of debt may require us to raise additional capital to fund acquisitions.
We may sell additional shares of common stock or other equity securities to raise capital in the future, which could dilute the value of an investor’s holdings.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
Our end-use markets are cyclical.
We sell our products into aerospace, defense, and industrial end-use markets, which are cyclical and have experienced periodic declines. Our sales are, therefore, unpredictable and may tend to fluctuate based on a number of factors, including global economic conditions, geopolitical developments and conditions, and other developments affecting our end-use markets and the customers served. Consequently, results of operations in any period should not be considered indicative of the operating results that may be experienced in any future period.
We depend upon a selected base of industries and customers, which subjects us to unique risks which may adversely affect us.
We currently generate a majority of our revenues from customers in the aerospace and defense industry. Our business depends, in part, on the level of new military and commercial aircraft orders. As a result, we have significant sales to certain customers. Sales to the Boeing Company and Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. comprise the majority of our commercial aerospace end-use market. A significant portion of our net sales in our military and space end-use markets are made under subcontracts with OEMs, under their prime contracts with the U. S. Government. We had significant sales to Lockheed Martin Corporation and Raytheon Company in 2018 in our defense technologies end-use market.
Our customers may experience delays in the launch of new products, labor strikes, diminished liquidity or credit unavailability, weak demand for their products, or other difficulties in their business. In addition, shifts in government spending priorities have caused and may continue to cause additional uncertainty in the placement of orders.
Our sales to our top ten customers, which represented 63% of our total 2018 net revenues, were diversified over a number of different aerospace and defense products. Any significant change in production rates by these customers would have a material effect on our results of operations and cash flows. There is no assurance that our current significant customers will continue to buy products from us at current levels, or that we will retain any or all of our existing customers, or that we will be able to form new relationships with customers upon the loss of one or more of our existing customers. This risk may be further complicated by pricing pressures, intense competition prevalent in our industry and other factors. A significant reduction in sales to any of our major customers, the loss of a major customer, or a default of a major customer on accounts receivable could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
In addition, we generally make sales under purchase orders and contracts that are subject to cancellation, modification or rescheduling. Changes in the economic environment and the financial condition of the industries we serve could result in customer cancellation of contractual orders or requests for rescheduling. Some of our contracts have specific provisions relating to schedule and performance, and failure to deliver in accordance with such provisions could result in cancellations, modifications, rescheduling and/or penalties, in some cases at the customers’ convenience and without prior notice. While we have normally recovered our direct and indirect costs, such cancellations, modifications, or rescheduling that cannot be replaced in a timely fashion, could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

11


A significant portion of our business depends upon U.S. Government defense spending.
We derive a significant portion of our business from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government. Accordingly, the success of our business depends upon government spending generally or for specific departments or agencies in particular. Such spending, among other factors, is subject to the uncertainties of governmental appropriations and national defense policies and priorities, constraints of the budgetary process, timing and potential changes in these policies and priorities, and the adoption of new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws or regulations.
These and other factors could cause the government and government agencies, or prime contractors that use us as a subcontractor, to reduce their purchases under existing contracts, to exercise their rights to terminate contracts for convenience or to abstain from exercising options to renew contracts, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the levels of U.S. Department of Defense (“U.S. DoD”) spending in future periods are difficult to predict and are impacted by numerous factors such as the political environment, U.S. foreign policy, macroeconomic conditions and the ability of the U.S. Government to enact relevant legislation such as the authorization and appropriations bills. The Budget Control Act (“2011 Act”) established limits on U.S. government discretionary spending, including a reduction of defense spending between the 2012 and 2021 U.S. Government fiscal years. Accordingly, long-term uncertainty remains with respect to overall levels of defense spending and it is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels will continue to be subject to pressure.
We are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.
The accuracy and appropriateness of certain costs and expenses used to substantiate our direct and indirect costs for the U.S. Government contracts are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency, an arm of the U.S. DoD. Such audits and reviews could result in adjustments to our contract costs and profitability. However, we cannot ensure the outcome of any future audits and adjustments may be required to reduce net sales or profits upon completion and final negotiation of audits. If any audit or review were to uncover inaccurate costs or improper activities, we could be subject to penalties and sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from conducting future business with the U.S. Government. Any such outcome could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We are subject to a number of procurement laws and regulations. Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected if we fail to comply with these laws.
We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and impose certain risks and costs on our business. A violation of specific laws and regulations, by us, our employees, or others working on our behalf, such as a supplier or a venture partner, could harm our reputation and result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the termination of our contracts, suspension or debarment from bidding on or being awarded contracts, loss of our ability to export products or services and civil or criminal investigations or proceedings.
In some instances, these laws and regulations impose terms or rights that are different from those typically found in commercial transactions. For example, the U.S. Government may terminate any of our customers’ government contracts and subcontracts either at its convenience or for default based on our performance. Upon termination for convenience of a fixed-price type contract, we normally are entitled to receive the purchase price for delivered items, reimbursement for allowable costs for work-in-process and an allowance for profit on the contract or adjustment for loss if completion of performance would have resulted in a loss.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions which give our customers a variety of rights that are unfavorable to us and the OEMs to whom we provide products and services, including the ability to terminate a contract at any time for convenience.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions and are subject to laws and regulations that provide rights and remedies not typically found in commercial contracts. These provisions may allow our customers to:
terminate existing contracts, in whole or in part, for convenience, as well as for default, or if funds for contract performance for any subsequent year become unavailable;
terminate existing contracts if we are suspended or debarred from doing business with the federal government or with a governmental agency;

12


prohibit future procurement awards with a particular agency as a result of a finding of an organizational conflict of interest based upon prior related work performed for the agency that would give a contractor an unfair advantage over competing contractors; and
claim rights in products and systems produced by us.
If the U.S. Government terminates a contract for convenience, the counterparty with whom we have contracted on a subcontract may terminate its contract with us. As a result of any such termination, whether on a direct government contract or subcontract, we may recover only our incurred or committed costs, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the U.S. Government terminates a direct contract with us for default, we may not even recover those amounts and instead may be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items and services from another source.
In addition, the U.S. Government is typically required to open all programs to competitive bidding and, therefore, may not automatically renew any of its prime contracts. If one or more of our customers’ government prime or subcontracts is terminated or canceled, our failure to replace sales generated from such contracts would result in lower sales and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Further consolidation in the aerospace industry could adversely affect our business and financial results.
The aerospace and defense industry is experiencing significant consolidation, including our customers, competitors and suppliers. Consolidation among our customers may result in delays in the awarding of new contracts and losses of existing business. Consolidation among our competitors may result in larger competitors with greater resources and market share, which could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully. Consolidation among our suppliers may result in fewer sources of supply and increased cost to us.
Our growth strategy includes evaluating selected acquisitions, which entails certain risks to our business and financial performance.
We have historically achieved a portion of our growth through acquisitions and expect to evaluate selected future acquisitions as part of our strategy for growth. Any acquisition of another business entails risks and it is possible that we may not realize the expected benefits from an acquisition or that an acquisition could adversely affect our existing operations. Acquisitions entail certain risks, including:
difficulty in integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired company within our existing operations or in maintaining uniform standards;
loss of key employees or customers of the acquired company;
the failure to achieve anticipated synergies;
unrecorded liabilities of acquired companies that we fail to discover during our due diligence investigations or that are not subject to indemnification or reimbursement by the seller; and
management and other personnel having their time and resources diverted to evaluate, negotiate and integrate acquisitions.
We may not be successful in achieving expected operating efficiencies and sustaining or improving operating expense reductions, and may experience business disruptions associated with restructuring, facility consolidations, realignment, cost reduction, and other strategic initiatives.
Over the past year, we have implemented a number of restructuring, realignment, and cost reduction initiatives, including facility consolidations, organizational realignments, and reductions in our workforce. While we have realized some efficiencies from these actions, we may not realize the benefits of these initiatives to the extent we anticipated. Further, such benefits may be realized later than expected, and the ongoing difficulties in implementing these measures may be greater than anticipated, which could cause us to incur additional costs or result in business disruptions. In addition, if these measures are not successful or sustainable, we may have to undertake additional realignment and cost reduction efforts, which could result in significant additional charges. Moreover, if our restructuring and realignment efforts prove ineffective, our ability to achieve our other strategic and business plan goals may be adversely affected.

13


We rely on our suppliers to meet the quality and delivery expectations of our customers.
Our ability to deliver our products and services on schedule and to satisfy specific quality levels is dependent upon a variety of factors, including execution of internal performance plans, availability of raw materials, internal and supplier produced parts and structures, conversion of raw materials into parts and assemblies, and performance of suppliers and others.
We rely on numerous third-party suppliers for raw materials and a large proportion of the components used in our production process. Certain of these raw materials and components are available only from single sources or a limited number of suppliers, or similarly, customers’ specifications may require us to obtain raw materials and/or components from a single source or certain suppliers. Many of our suppliers are small companies with limited financial resources and manufacturing capabilities. We do not currently have the ability to manufacture these components ourselves. These and other factors, including import tariffs, the loss of a critical supplier or raw materials and/or component shortages, could cause disruptions or cost inefficiencies in our operations. Additionally, our competitors that have greater direct purchasing power, may have product cost advantages which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We use estimates when bidding on fixed-price contracts. Changes in our estimates could adversely affect our financial results.
We enter into contracts providing for a firm, fixed-price for the sale of some of our products regardless of the production costs incurred by us. In many cases, we make multi-year firm, fixed-price commitments to our customers, without assurance that our anticipated production costs will be achieved. Contract bidding and accounting require judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract net sales and costs, including estimating cost increases over time and efficiencies to be gained, and making assumptions for supplier sourcing and quality, manufacturing scheduling and technical issues over the life of the contract. Such assumptions can be particularly difficult to estimate for contracts with new customers. Inaccurate estimates of these costs could result in reduced profits or incurred losses. Due to the significance of the judgments and estimates involved, it is possible that materially different amounts could be obtained if different assumptions were used or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Therefore, any changes in our underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
As we move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier, enhanced design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain project management and other skills will be required.
We may encounter difficulties as we execute our growth strategy to move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier of more complex assemblies. Difficulties we may encounter include, but are not limited to, the need for enhanced and expanded product design skills, enhanced ability to control and influence our suppliers, enhanced quality control systems and infrastructure, enhanced large-scale project management skills, and expanded industry certifications. Assuming incremental project design responsibilities would require us to assume additional risk in developing cost estimates and could expose us to increased risk of losses. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining the enhanced skills required to move up the value chain or that our customers will outsource such functions to us.
Risks associated with operating and conducting our business outside the United States could adversely impact us.
We have manufacturing facilities in Thailand and Mexico and also derive a portion of our net revenues from direct foreign sales. Further, our customers may derive portions of their revenues from non-U.S. customers. As a result, we are subject to the risks of conducting and operating our business internationally, including:
political instability;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions;
compliance with a variety of international laws, as well as U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies conducting business abroad, including, but not limited to, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
imposition of taxes, export controls, tariffs, embargoes and other trade restrictions;
difficulties repatriating funds or restrictions on cash transfers; and
potential for new tariffs imposed on imports by the U.S. administration.
While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, we believe any one or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

14


Goodwill and/or other assets could be impaired in the future, which could result in substantial charges.
Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis during our fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances occur which could indicate potential impairment. In assessing the recoverability of goodwill, management is required to make certain critical estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include projected sales levels, including the addition of new customers, programs or platforms and increased content on existing programs or platforms, improvements in manufacturing efficiency, and reductions in operating costs. Due to many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’s fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, differences in estimates and assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis. If any of these or other estimates and assumptions are not realized in the future, or if market multiples decline, we may be required to record an impairment charge for goodwill.
We also test intangible assets with indefinite life periods for potential impairment annually and on an interim basis if there are indicators of potential impairment.
In addition, we evaluate amortizable intangible assets, fixed assets, and production cost of contracts for impairment if there are indicators of a potential impairment.
Further, impairment charges may be incurred against other intangible assets or long-term assets if asset utilization declines, customer demand declines or other circumstances indicate that the asset carrying value may not be recoverable.
Our production cost of contracts as of December 31, 2018 was $11.7 million or 2% of total assets. Our goodwill and other intangible assets as of December 31, 2018 were $248.1 million, or 38% of total assets. See “Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets” and “Production Cost of Contracts” in Note 7 of our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
OTHER RISKS
Our operations are subject to numerous extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, and failure to comply with these laws, regulations and restrictions could subject us to penalties and sanctions that could harm our business.
Prime contracts with our major customers that have contracts with various agencies of the U.S. Government are subject to numerous laws and regulations which affect how we do business with our customers and may impose added costs to our business. As a result, our contracts and operations are subject to numerous, extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, principally by the U.S. Government or their agencies. These laws, regulations and restrictions govern items including, but not limited to, the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts, disclosure of cost and pricing data, civil penalties for violations of false claims to the U.S. Government for payment, defining reimbursable costs, establishing ethical standards for the procurement process and controlling the import and export of defense articles and services.
Noncompliance could expose us to liability for penalties, including termination of our contracts and subcontracts, disqualification from bidding on future U.S. Government contracts and subcontracts, suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting and various other fines and penalties. Noncompliance found by any one agency could result in fines, penalties, debarment or suspension from receiving additional contracts with all U.S. Government agencies. Given our dependence on U.S. Government business, suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
In addition, the U.S. Government may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations, at any time, including increased usage of fixed-price contracts and procurement reform. Such changes could impair our ability to obtain new contracts or subcontracts or renew contracts or subcontracts under which we currently perform when those contracts are put up for competitive bidding. Any new contracting methods could be costly or administratively difficult for us to implement and could adversely affect our future net revenues.
In addition, our international operations subject us to numerous U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act. Changes in regulations or political environments may affect our ability to conduct business in foreign markets including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings. Failure by us or our sales representatives or consultants to comply with these laws and regulations could result in certain liabilities and could possibly result in suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

15


Customer pricing pressures could reduce the demand and/or price for our products and services.
The markets we serve are highly competitive and price sensitive. We compete worldwide with a number of domestic and international companies that have substantially greater manufacturing, purchasing, marketing and financial resources than we do. Many of our customers have the in-house capability to fulfill their manufacturing requirements. Our larger competitors may be able to compete more effectively for very large-scale contracts than we can by providing different or greater capabilities or benefits such as technical qualifications, past performance on large-scale contracts, geographic presence, price and availability of key professional personnel. If we are unable to successfully compete for new business, our net revenues growth and operating margins may decline.
Several of our major customers have completed extensive cost containment efforts and we expect continued pricing pressures in 2019 and beyond. Competitive pricing pressures may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. Further, there can be no assurance that competition from existing or potential competitors in other segments of our business will not have a material adverse effect on our financial results. If we do not continue to compete effectively and win contracts, our future business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations may be materially compromised.
Our products and processes are subject to risk of obsolescence as a result of changes in technology and evolving industry and regulatory standards.
The future success of our business depends in large part upon our and our customers’ ability to maintain and enhance technological capabilities, develop and market manufacturing services that meet changing customer needs and successfully anticipate or respond to technological advances in manufacturing processes on a cost-effective and timely basis, while meeting evolving industry and regulatory standards. To address these risks, we invest in product design and development, and incur related capital expenditures. There can be no guarantee that our product design and development efforts will be successful, or that funds required to be invested in product design and development or incurred as capital expenditures will not increase materially in the future.
Environmental liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
We are subject to various federal, local, and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to the use, storage, transport, discharge and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous chemicals and materials used and emissions generated during our manufacturing process. We do not carry insurance for these potential environmental liabilities. Any failure by us to comply with present or future regulations could subject us to future liabilities or the suspension of production, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. Moreover, some environmental laws relating to contaminated sites can impose joint and several liability retroactively regardless of fault or the legality of the activities giving rise to the contamination. Compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations may require extensive capital expenditures, increase our cost or impact our production capabilities. Even if such expenditures are made, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply. We have been directed to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater contamination at certain site and our ultimate liability for such matters will depend upon a number of factors. See Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
Cyber security attacks, internal system or service failures may adversely impact our business and operations.
Any system or service disruptions, including those caused by projects to improve our information technology systems, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide products and related services to our customers and could have a material adverse effect on our business. We could also be subject to systems failures, including network, software or hardware failures, whether caused by us, third-party service providers, intruders or hackers, computer viruses, natural disasters, power shortages or terrorist attacks. Cyber security threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, unauthorized attempts to gain access to sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected information related to us or our products, our employees, customers or suppliers, or other acts that could lead to disruptions in our business. Any such failures could cause loss of data and interruptions or delays in our business, cause us to incur remediation costs, subject us to claims and damage our reputation. In addition, the failure or disruption of our communications or utilities could cause us to interrupt or suspend our operations or otherwise adversely affect our business. Our property and business interruption insurance may be inadequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur as a result of any system or operational failure or disruption which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

16


We may not have the ability to renew facilities leases on terms favorable to us and relocation of operations presents risks due to business interruption.
Certain of our manufacturing facilities and offices are leased and have lease terms that expire between 2019 and 2025. The majority of these leases provide renewal options at the fair market rental rate at the time of renewal, which, if renewed, could be significantly higher than our current rental rates. We may be unable to offset these cost increases by charging more for our products and services. Furthermore, continued economic conditions may continue to negatively impact and create greater pressure in the commercial real estate market, causing higher incidences of landlord default and/or lender foreclosure of properties, including properties occupied by us. While we maintain certain non-disturbance rights in most cases, it is not certain that such rights will in all cases be upheld and our continued right of occupancy in such instances could be potentially jeopardized. An occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Additionally, if we choose to move any of our operations, those operations may be subject to additional relocation costs and associated risks of business interruption.
The occurrence of litigation in which we could be named as a defendant is unpredictable.
From time to time, we and our subsidiaries are involved in various legal and other proceedings that are incidental to the conduct of our business. While we believe no current proceedings, if adversely determined, could have a material adverse effect on our financial results, no assurances can be given. Any such claims may divert financial and management resources that would otherwise be used to benefit our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Product liability claims in excess of insurance could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We face potential liability for property damage, personal injury, or death as a result of the failure of products designed or manufactured by us. Although we currently maintain product liability insurance (including aircraft product liability insurance), any material product liability not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Damage or destruction of our facilities caused by storms, earthquake, fires or other causes could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We have operations located in regions of the U.S. that may be exposed to damaging storms, earthquakes, fires and other natural disasters. Although we maintain standard property casualty insurance covering our properties and may be able to recover costs associated with certain natural disasters through insurance, we do not carry any earthquake insurance because of the cost of such insurance. Many of our properties are located in Southern California, an area subject to earthquake activity. Our California facilities generated $211.0 million in net revenues during 2018. Even if covered by insurance, any significant damage or destruction of our facilities due to storms, earthquakes or other natural disasters could result in our inability to meet customer delivery schedules and may result in the loss of customers and significant additional costs to us. Thus, any significant damage or destruction of our properties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are dependent upon our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
Our success depends in part upon our ability to attract and retain key engineering, technical and managerial personnel, at both the executive and plant level. We face competition for management, engineering and technical personnel from other companies and organizations. The loss of members of our senior management group, or key engineering and technical personnel, could negatively impact our ability to grow and remain competitive in the future and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Labor disruptions by our employees could adversely affect our business.
As of December 31, 2018, we employed 2,600 people. Two of our operating facilities are parties to collective bargaining agreements, covering 140 full time hourly employees in one of those facilities and 210 full time hourly employees in the other facility, and will expire in June 2021 and April 2022, respectively. Although we have not experienced any material labor-related work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good, labor stoppages may occur in the future. If the unionized workers were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, if we are unable to negotiate acceptable collective bargaining agreements with the unions or if other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations, higher ongoing labor costs and possible loss of customer contracts, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

17


Unanticipated changes in our tax provision or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our profitability.
Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Furthermore, changes in income tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation, could result in higher or lower income tax rates assessed or changes in the taxability of certain sales or the deductibility of certain expenses, thereby affecting our income tax expense and profitability. For example, we recorded provisional estimates of the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”) enacted on December 22, 2017 in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) in our 2017 consolidated financial statements. During 2018, these estimates were subject to further analysis and review which could have required adjustments, but no adjustments were required to be made in 2018. In addition, we are regularly under audit by tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
 
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We occupy 27 owned or leased facilities, totaling 2.0 million square feet of manufacturing area and office space. At December 31, 2018, facilities which were in excess of 50,000 square feet each were occupied as follows:
 
Location
 
Segment
 
Square
Feet
 
Expiration
of Lease
Carson, California
 
Structural Systems
 
299,000
 
Owned
Monrovia, California
 
Structural Systems
 
274,000
 
Owned
Parsons, Kansas
 
Structural Systems
 
176,000
 
Owned
Coxsackie, New York
 
Structural Systems
 
151,000
 
Owned
Carson, California
 
Electronic Systems
 
117,000
 
2021
Phoenix, Arizona
 
Electronic Systems
 
100,000
 
2022
Joplin, Missouri
 
Electronic Systems
 
92,000
 
Owned
Adelanto, California
 
Structural Systems
 
88,000
 
Owned
Orange, California
 
Structural Systems
 
80,000
 
Owned
Appleton, Wisconsin
 
Electronic Systems
 
77,000
 
Owned
Carson, California
 
Structural Systems
 
77,000
 
2019
Huntsville, Arkansas
 
Electronic Systems
 
69,000
 
2020
Joplin, Missouri
 
Electronic Systems
 
55,000
 
2021
Tulsa, Oklahoma
 
Electronic Systems
 
55,000
 
Owned
Orange, California
 
Structural Systems
 
53,000
 
2019
Berryville, Arkansas
 
Electronic Systems
 
50,000
 
Owned
Management believes these properties are adequate to meet our current requirements, are in good condition and are suitable for their present use.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of our legal proceedings.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II


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ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DCO. As of December 31, 2018, we had 189 holders of record of our common stock. We have not paid any dividends since the first quarter of 2011 and we do not expect to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. The following table sets forth the high and low closing prices per share of our common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange for the fiscal periods indicated:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
 
$
30.84

 
$
26.30

 
$
32.18

 
$
24.35

Second Quarter
 
$
35.43

 
$
28.17

 
$
34.46

 
$
28.12

Third Quarter
 
$
40.84

 
$
31.63

 
$
32.55

 
$
26.24

Fourth Quarter
 
$
44.23

 
$
33.83

 
$
35.02

 
$
25.81

See “Part III, Item 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS” for information relating to shares to be issued under equity compensation plans.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.

19


Performance Graph
The following graph compares the yearly percentage change in our cumulative total shareholder return with the cumulative total return of the Russell 2000 Index and the median of our 2019 Proxy Statement peers (“Median of Proxy Peers”) over a five year period, assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. A modified version of this graph over a three year period will be used in our 2019 Proxy Statement, assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. The graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance:
a5yeargraph2819.jpg


20


ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7 and Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”):
 
 
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018(a)(b)
 
2017(b)(c)(d)
 
2016(e)
 
2015(f)(g)
 
2014
Net Revenues
 
$
629,307

 
$
558,183

 
$
550,642

 
$
666,011

 
$
742,045

Gross Profit as a Percentage of Net Revenues
 
19.5
%
 
18.5
%
 
19.3
%
 
15.1
%
 
18.9
%
Income (Loss) Before Taxes
 
10,271

 
7,609

 
38,113

 
(106,590
)
 
26,240

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
 
1,236

 
(12,468
)
 
12,852

 
(31,711
)
 
6,373

Net Income (Loss)
 
$
9,035

 
$
20,077

 
$
25,261

 
$
(74,879
)
 
$
19,867

Per Common Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share
 
$
0.79

 
$
1.78

 
$
2.27

 
$
(6.78
)
 
$
1.82

Diluted earnings (loss) per share
 
$
0.77

 
$
1.74

 
$
2.24

 
$
(6.78
)
 
$
1.79

Working Capital
 
$
160,855

 
$
140,778

 
$
139,635

 
$
179,655

 
$
217,670

Total Assets (h)
 
$
648,143

 
$
566,753

 
$
515,429

 
$
557,081

 
$
747,599

Long-Term Debt, Including Current Portion (h)
 
$
226,961

 
$
216,055

 
$
166,899

 
$
240,687

 
$
290,052

Total Shareholders’ Equity
 
$
256,825

 
$
235,583

 
$
212,103

 
$
185,734

 
$
256,570


(a)
The results for 2018 included CTP’s results of operations since the date of acquisition of April 23, 2018.
(b)
The results for 2018 and 2017 included restructuring charges of $14.8 million and $8.8 million, respectively. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
(c)
The results for 2017 included LDS’ results of operations since the date of acquisition in September 2017.
(d)
The results for 2017 included the adoption of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and as a result, we recorded a provisional deferred income tax benefit of $13.0 million related to the re-measurement for the year ended December 31, 2017. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
(e)
The results for 2016 included a gain on divestitures, net in our Electronic Systems operating segment of $17.6 million related to the divestitures of our Pittsburgh and Miltec operations.
(f)
The results for 2015 included a goodwill impairment charge in our Structural Systems operating segment and an indefinite-lived trade name intangible asset impairment charge in our Electronic Systems operating segment of $57.2 million and $32.9 million, respectively, resulting from our annual impairment testing.
(g)
The results for 2015 included a loss on extinguishment of debt of $14.7 million related to the retirement of the $200.0 million senior unsecured notes and existing credit facility.
(h)
Total assets and long-term debt for 2014 have not been recasted for the impact of the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2015-03, as amended by Accounting Standards Update 2015-15, which required the reclassification of certain debt issuance costs from an asset to a liability. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.


21


Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace, defense, industrial, natural resources, medical and other industries. We differentiate ourselves as a full-service solution-based provider, offering a wide range of value-added products and services in our primary businesses of electronics, structures and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment.
Highlights for the year ended December 31, 2018:
Net revenues of $629.3 million
Net income of $9.0 million, or $0.77 per diluted share
Adjusted EBITDA of $70.7 million
Completed the acquisition of Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation expense, restructuring charges, inventory purchase accounting adjustments, gain on divestitures, net, and loss on extinguishment of debt (“Adjusted EBITDA”) was $70.7 million and $54.1 million for years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
When viewed with our financial results prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and accompanying reconciliations, we believe Adjusted EBITDA provides additional useful information to clarify and enhance the understanding of the factors and trends affecting our past performance and future prospects. We define these measures, explain how they are calculated, and provide reconciliations of these measures to the most comparable GAAP measure in the table below. Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), are supplemental measures of our performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. They are not a measurement of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP, or as an alternative to net cash provided by operating activities as measures of our liquidity. The presentation of these measures should not be interpreted to mean that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items.
We use Adjusted EBITDA non-GAAP operating performance measures internally as complementary financial measures to evaluate the performance and trends of our businesses. We present Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as applicable, because we believe that measures such as these provide useful information with respect to our ability to meet our operating commitments.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
They do not reflect our cash expenditures, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
They do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
They do not reflect the significant interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
They are not adjusted for all non-cash income or expense items that are reflected in our statements of cash flows;
They do not reflect the impact on earnings of charges resulting from matters unrelated to our ongoing operations; and
Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently from us, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.

22


Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business or as a measure of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations. You should compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only as supplemental information. See our consolidated financial statements contained in this Form 10-K.
However, in spite of the above limitations, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to an investor in evaluating our results of operations because these measures:
Are widely used by investors to measure a company’s operating performance without regard to items excluded from the calculation of such terms, which can vary substantially from company to company depending upon accounting methods and book value of assets, capital structure and the method by which assets were acquired, among other factors;
Help investors to evaluate and compare the results of our operations from period to period by removing the effect of our capital structure from our operating performance; and
Are used by our management team for various other purposes in presentations to our Board of Directors as a basis for strategic planning and forecasting.
The following financial items have been added back to or subtracted from our net income when calculating Adjusted EBITDA:
Interest expense may be useful to investors for determining current cash flow;
Income tax expense may be useful to investors because it represents the taxes which may be payable for the period and the change in deferred taxes during the period, and may reduce cash flow available for use in our business;
Depreciation may be useful to investors because it generally represents the wear and tear on our property and equipment used in our operations;
Amortization expense may be useful to investors because it represents the estimated attrition of our acquired customer base and the diminishing value of product rights;
Stock-based compensation may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow;
Restructuring charges may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Purchase accounting inventory step-ups may be useful to our investors as they do not necessarily reflect the current or on-going cash charges related to our core operating performance;
Net gain on divestitures may be useful to our investors in evaluating our on-going operating performance; and
Loss on extinguishment of debt may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow.

23


Reconciliations of net income to Adjusted EBITDA and the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenues were as follows:

 
 
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net income
 
$
9,035

 
$
20,077

 
$
25,261

Interest expense
 
13,024

 
8,870

 
8,922

Income tax expense (benefit)
 
1,236

 
(12,468
)
 
12,852

Depreciation
 
13,501

 
13,162

 
13,326

Amortization
 
11,795

 
9,683

 
9,534

Stock-based compensation expense
 
5,040

 
4,675

 
3,007

Restructuring charges (1)
 
14,792

 
8,838

 
182

Inventory purchase accounting adjustments (2)
 
622

 
1,235

 

Gain on divestitures, net (3)
 

 

 
(17,604
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
 
926

 

 

Other debt refinancing costs
 
697

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
70,668

 
$
54,072

 
$
55,480

% of net revenues
 
11.2
%
 
9.7
%
 
10.1
%

(1)
2018 and 2017 included $0.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively, of restructuring charges that were recorded as cost of goods sold.
(2)
2018 and 2017 included inventory purchase accounting adjustments of inventory that was stepped up as part of our purchase price allocation from our acquisitions of Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) and Lightning Diversion Systems, LLC (“LDS”) on April 23, 2018 and September 2017, respectively, and is part of our Structural Systems and Electronic Systems operating segment, respectively.
(3)
2016 included gain on divestitures, net in our Electronic Systems operating segment related to the divestitures of our Pittsburgh and Miltec operations.


24


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2018 Compared to 2017
The following table sets forth net revenues, selected financial data, the effective tax (benefit) rate and diluted earnings per share:

 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
%
of Net Revenues
 
2017
 
%
of Net Revenues
Net Revenues
 
$
629,307

 
100.0
 %
 
$
558,183

 
100.0
 %
Cost of Sales
 
506,711

 
80.5
 %
 
455,050

 
81.5
 %
Gross Profit
 
122,596

 
19.5
 %
 
103,133

 
18.5
 %
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
84,007

 
13.3
 %
 
79,139

 
14.2
 %
Restructuring Charges
 
14,671

 
2.3
 %
 
8,360

 
1.5
 %
Operating Income
 
23,918

 
3.9
 %
 
15,634

 
2.8
 %
Interest Expense
 
(13,024
)
 
(2.1
)%
 
(8,870
)
 
(1.6
)%
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
 
(926
)
 
(0.1
)%
 

 
 %
Other Income, Net
 
303

 
 %
 
845

 
0.2
 %
Income Before Taxes
 
10,271

 
1.7
 %
 
7,609

 
1.4
 %
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
 
1,236

 
nm

 
(12,468
)
 
nm

Net Income
 
$
9,035

 
1.4
 %
 
$
20,077

 
3.6
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effective Tax (Benefit) Rate
 
12.0
%
 
nm

 
(163.8
)%
 
nm

Diluted Earnings Per Share
 
$
0.77

 
nm

 
$
1.74

 
nm

nm = not meaningful
Net Revenues by End-Use Market and Operating Segment
Net revenues by end-use market and operating segment during 2018 and 2017, respectively, were as follows:

 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
% of Net Revenues
 
 
Change
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Consolidated Ducommun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
8,901

 
$
276,659

 
$
267,758

 
44.0
%
 
48.0
%
Commercial aerospace
 
68,101

 
304,455

 
236,354

 
48.4
%
 
42.3
%
Industrial
 
(5,878
)
 
48,193

 
54,071

 
7.6
%
 
9.7
%
Total
 
$
71,124

 
$
629,307

 
$
558,183

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
3,684

 
$
214,786

 
$
211,102

 
63.6
%
 
66.6
%
Commercial aerospace
 
23,339

 
74,889

 
51,550

 
22.2
%
 
16.3
%
Industrial
 
(5,878
)
 
48,193

 
54,071

 
14.2
%
 
17.1
%
Total
 
$
21,145

 
$
337,868

 
$
316,723

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Structural Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
5,217

 
$
61,873

 
$
56,656

 
21.2
%
 
23.5
%
Commercial aerospace
 
44,762

 
229,566

 
184,804

 
78.8
%
 
76.5
%
Total
 
$
49,979

 
$
291,439

 
$
241,460

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Net revenues for 2018 were $629.3 million compared to $558.2 million for 2017. The year-over-year increase was due to the following:

25


$68.1 million higher revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to additional content and higher build rates on large aircraft platforms; and
$8.9 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to increased shipments on various missile platforms; partially offset by
$5.9 million lower revenues in our industrial end-use markets.
Net Revenues by Major Customers
A significant portion of our net revenues are from our top ten customers as follows:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
Boeing Company
 
17.0
%
 
16.3
%
Lockheed Martin Corporation
 
4.4
%
 
5.5
%
Raytheon Company
 
11.7
%
 
13.5
%
Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc.
 
9.5
%
 
8.2
%
Top ten customers (1)
 
62.9
%
 
62.5
%
(1) Includes The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), Lockheed Martin Corporation (“Lockheed Martin”), Raytheon Company (“Raytheon”), and Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”).
The revenues from Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and Spirit are diversified over a number of commercial, military and space programs and were made by both operating segments.
Gross Profit
Gross profit consists of net revenues less cost of sales. Cost of sales includes the cost of production of finished products and other expenses related to inventory management, manufacturing quality, and order fulfillment. Gross profit margin increased to 19.5% in 2018 compared to 18.5% in 2017 due to favorable product mix and favorable manufacturing volume, partially offset by higher other manufacturing costs.
Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
SG&A expenses increased $4.9 million in 2018 compared to 2017 due to higher professional services fees of $2.1 million, which includes refinancing of our existing credit facilities related costs of $0.7 million and acquisition related costs of $0.6 million, higher amortization of intangibles of $1.4 million, and higher compensation and benefit costs of $0.9 million.
Restructuring Charges
Restructuring charges increased $6.0 million (of which $0.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively, was included in cost of sales) in 2018 compared to 2017 due to the restructuring plan that began in 2017 that is expected to increase operating efficiencies. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on restructuring activities.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased in 2018 compared to 2017 due to a higher outstanding balance on the Revolving Credit Facility, reflecting the acquisitions of Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) in April 2018 and Lightning Diversion Systems, LLC (“LDS”) during September 2017, and higher interest rates. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our long-term debt.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt for 2018 was related to the refinancing of our existing Credit Facilities in November 2018 which resulted in writing off the majority of the unamortized debt issuance costs associated with the existing Credit Facilities of $0.9 million. The New Credit Facilities were utilized to pay off the existing Credit Facilities. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our long-term debt.

26


Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
We recorded an income tax expense of $1.2 million (an effective tax rate of 12.0%) in 2018, compared to income tax benefit of $12.5 million (an effective tax benefit rate of 163.8%) in 2017. The increase in the effective tax rate for 2018 compared to 2017 was primarily due to $13.0 million of deferred income tax benefit recorded in connection with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”) in 2017. The reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% required the federal portion of our deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 to be re-measured at the enacted tax rate expected to apply when the temporary differences are to be realized or settled using 21.0%. Also in connection with the 2017 Act, income tax expense increased due to the repeal of the qualified domestic production deduction and higher nondeductible expenses related to officers compensation. Additional items which increased income tax expense were lower excess tax benefits from share-based payments and lower state tax credits.
Our unrecognized tax benefits were $5.3 million in both 2018 and 2017. We record interest and penalty charge, if any, related to uncertain tax positions as a component of tax expense and unrecognized tax benefits. The amounts accrued for interest and penalty charges as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were not significant. If recognized, $3.6 million would affect the effective tax rate. We do not reasonably expect significant increases or decreases to our unrecognized tax benefits in the next twelve months.
We file U.S. Federal and state income tax returns. During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) completed the audit of tax years 2013, 2014, and 2015. Consequently, Federal income tax returns after 2015 are subject to examination. California franchise (income) tax returns after 2013 and other state income tax returns after 2013 are subject to examination. While we are no longer subject to examination prior to those periods, carryforwards generated prior to those periods may still be adjusted upon examination by the IRS or state taxing authority if they either have been or will be used in a subsequent period. We believe we have adequately accrued for tax deficiencies or reductions in tax benefits, if any, that could result from the examination and all open audit years.
Net Income and Earnings per Diluted Share
Net income and earnings per diluted share for 2018 were $9.0 million, or $0.77, compared to net income and earnings per diluted share for 2017 of $20.1 million, or $1.74. The decrease in net income in 2018 compared to 2017 was due to higher income tax expense of $13.7 million, higher restructuring charges of $6.0 million, higher interest expense of $4.2 million, higher selling, general and administrative expenses of $4.9 million, and loss on extinguishment of debt of $0.9 million. The decreases were partially offset by an increase of $19.5 million in gross profit that was due to higher revenues and improved operating performance.

27


Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based upon the two reportable operating segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. The results of operations differ between our reportable operating segments due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. The following table summarizes our business segment performance for 2018 and 2017:
 
 
 
%
 
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
of Net  Revenues
 
%
of Net  Revenues
 
 
Change
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Net Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
6.7
%
 
$
337,868

 
$
316,723

 
53.7
 %
 
56.7
 %
Structural Systems
 
20.7
%
 
291,439

 
241,460

 
46.3
 %
 
43.3
 %
Total Net Revenues
 
12.7
%
 
$
629,307

 
$
558,183

 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %
Segment Operating Income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
$
30,916

 
$
31,236

 
9.2
 %
 
9.9
 %
Structural Systems
 
 
 
19,063

 
5,790

 
6.5
 %
 
2.4
 %
 
 
 
 
49,979

 
37,026

 
 
 
 
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
 
 
 
(26,061
)
 
(21,392
)
 
(4.1
)%
 
(3.8
)%
Total Operating Income
 
 
 
$
23,918

 
$
15,634

 
3.8
 %
 
2.8
 %
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
 
 
 
$
30,916

 
$
31,236

 
 
 
 
Other Income
 
 
 
119

 
645

 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
14,223

 
13,888

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
4,776

 
1,190

 
 
 
 
Inventory purchase accounting adjustments
 
 
 

 
1,235

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
50,034

 
48,194

 
14.8
 %
 
15.2
 %
Structural Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
 
 
 
19,063

 
5,790

 
 
 
 
Other Income
 
 
 
184

 
200

 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
10,525

 
8,860

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
7,897

 
5,866

 
 
 
 
Inventory purchase accounting adjustments
 
 
 
622

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
38,291

 
20,716

 
13.1
 %
 
8.6
 %
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Loss
 
 
 
(26,061
)
 
(21,392
)
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
548

 
97

 
 
 
 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
 
 
 
5,040

 
4,675

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
2,119

 
1,782

 
 
 
 
Other Debt Refinancing Costs
 
 
 
697

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(17,657
)
 
(14,838
)
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
$
70,668

 
$
54,072

 
11.2
 %
 
9.7
 %
Capital Expenditures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
$
6,719

 
$
5,019

 
 
 
 
Structural Systems
 
 
 
9,104

 
20,679

 
 
 
 
Corporate Administration
 
 
 
514

 
775

 
 
 
 
Total Capital Expenditures
 
 
 
$
16,337

 
$
26,473

 
 
 
 

28


(1)
Includes costs not allocated to either the Structural Systems or Electronic Systems operating segments.
Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems’ net revenues in 2018 compared to 2017 increased $21.1 million due to the following:
$23.3 million higher revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to additional content and higher build rates on large aircraft platforms; and
$3.7 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to increased shipments on various missile platforms; partially offset by
$5.9 million lower revenues in our Industrial end-use markets.
Electronic Systems segment operating income in 2018 compared to 2017 decreased $0.3 million due to unfavorable product mix and restructuring charges, partially offset by favorable manufacturing volume.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems’ net revenues in 2018 compared to 2017 increased $50.0 million due to the following:
$44.8 million higher revenues in commercial aerospace end-use markets due to higher build rates on large aircraft platforms; and
$5.2 million higher revenues in military and space end-use markets due to increased shipments on military rotary-wing aircraft platforms.
The Structural Systems operating income in 2018 compared to 2017 increased $13.3 million due to favorable product mix, favorable manufacturing volume, and improved operating performance, partially offset by higher restructuring charges and lack of forward loss reserve release in the current year.
Corporate General and Administrative (“CG&A”) Expenses
CG&A expenses in 2018 compared to 2017 increased $4.7 million due to higher compensation and benefit costs of $1.9 million and higher professional services fees of $1.8 million, which includes refinancing of our existing credit facilities related costs of $0.7 million and acquisition related costs of $0.6 million.
Backlog
We define backlog as customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) and long-term agreements (“LTAs”) with firm fixed price and firm delivery dates of 24 months or less. The majority of the LTAs do not meet the definition of a contract under ASC 606 and thus, the backlog amount disclosed below is greater than the remaining performance obligations amount disclosed in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer orders and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent than our net revenues. Backlog in industrial markets tends to be of a shorter duration and is generally fulfilled within a three month period. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues.

29


The increase in backlog was primarily in the commercial aerospace end-use markets and defense technologies end-use markets. The following table summarizes our backlog for 2018 and 2017:

 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
December 31,
 
 
Change
 
2018
 
2017
Consolidated Ducommun
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
63,784

 
$
339,443

 
$
275,659

Commercial aerospace
 
69,159

 
487,232

 
418,073

Industrial
 
5,028

 
37,774

 
32,746

Total
 
$
137,971

 
$
864,449

 
$
726,478

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
26,621

 
$
241,196

 
$
214,575

Commercial aerospace
 
(8,618
)
 
48,032

 
56,650

Industrial
 
5,028

 
37,774

 
32,746

Total
 
$
23,031

 
$
327,002

 
$
303,971

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Structural Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
37,163

 
$
98,247

 
$
61,084

Commercial aerospace
 
77,777

 
439,200

 
361,423

Total
 
$
114,940

 
$
537,447

 
$
422,507



30


2017 Compared to 2016
The following table sets forth net revenues, selected financial data, the effective (benefit) tax rate and diluted earnings per share:

 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2017
 
%
of Net Revenues 2017
 
2016
 
%
of Net Revenues 2016
Net Revenues
 
$
558,183

 
100.0
 %
 
$
550,642

 
100.0
 %
Cost of Sales
 
455,050

 
81.5
 %
 
444,102

 
80.7
 %
Gross Profit
 
103,133

 
18.5
 %
 
106,540

 
19.3
 %
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
79,139

 
14.2
 %
 
77,142

 
14.0
 %
Restructuring Charges
 
8,360

 
1.5
 %
 
182

 
 %
Operating Income
 
15,634

 
2.8
 %
 
29,216

 
5.3
 %
Interest Expense
 
(8,870
)
 
(1.6
)%
 
(8,922
)
 
(1.6
)%
Gain on Divestitures, Net
 

 
 %
 
17,604

 
3.2
 %
Other Income, Net
 
845

 
0.2
 %
 
215

 
 %
Income Before Taxes
 
7,609

 
1.4
 %
 
38,113

 
6.9
 %
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense
 
(12,468
)
 
nm

 
12,852

 
nm

Net Income
 
$
20,077

 
3.6
 %
 
$
25,261

 
4.6
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effective (Benefit) Tax Rate
 
(163.8
)%
 
nm

 
33.7
%
 
nm

Diluted Earnings Per Share
 
$
1.74

 
nm

 
$
2.24

 
nm

nm = not meaningful

31


Net Revenues by End-Use Market and Operating Segment
Net revenues by end-use market and operating segment during 2017 and 2016, respectively, were as follows:

 
 
 
 
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
% of Net Revenues
 
 
Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Consolidated Ducommun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
38,843

 
$
267,758

 
$
228,915

 
48.0
%
 
41.6
%
Commercial aerospace
 
(20,280
)
 
236,354

 
256,634

 
42.3
%
 
46.6
%
Industrial
 
(11,022
)
 
54,071

 
65,093

 
9.7
%
 
11.8
%
Total
 
$
7,541

 
$
558,183

 
$
550,642

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
33,917

 
$
211,102

 
$
177,185

 
66.6
%
 
58.3
%
Commercial aerospace
 
(10,349
)
 
51,550

 
61,899

 
16.3
%
 
20.3
%
Industrial
 
(11,022
)
 
54,071

 
65,093

 
17.1
%
 
21.4
%
Total
 
$
12,546

 
$
316,723

 
$
304,177

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Structural Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military and space
 
$
4,926

 
$
56,656

 
$
51,730

 
23.5
%
 
21.0
%
Commercial aerospace
 
(9,931
)
 
184,804

 
194,735

 
76.5
%
 
79.0
%
Total
 
$
(5,005
)
 
$
241,460

 
$
246,465

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Net revenues for 2017 were $558.2 million compared to $550.6 million for 2016. The year-over-year increase was primarily due to the following:
$38.8 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets mainly due to increased demand, which favorably impacted our helicopter, missile, and fixed-wing platforms that was partially offset by the divestiture of our Miltec operations in March 2016; partially offset by
$20.3 million lower revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets mainly due to the winding down of a regional jet program and continued softness in demand within the regional and business jet end-use markets; and
$11.0 million lower revenues in our industrial end-use markets.
Net Revenues by Major Customers
A significant portion of our net revenues are from our top ten customers as follows:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2017
 
2016
Boeing
 
16.3
%
 
17.3
%
Lockheed Martin
 
5.5
%
 
5.6
%
Raytheon
 
13.5
%
 
8.4
%
Spirit
 
8.2
%
 
8.2
%
United Technologies Corporation
 
4.7
%
 
5.3
%
Top ten customers (1)
 
62.5
%
 
58.7
%
(1) Includes Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Spirit, and United Technologies Corporation (“United Technologies”).
The revenues from Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Spirit, and United Technologies are diversified over a number of commercial, military and space programs and were made by both operating segments.

32


Gross Profit
Gross profit consists of net revenues less cost of sales. Cost of sales includes the cost of production of finished products and other expenses related to inventory management, manufacturing quality, and order fulfillment. Gross profit margin decreased to 18.5% in 2017 compared to 19.3% in 2016 primarily due to unfavorable product mix, partially offset by higher volume.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
SG&A expenses increased $2.0 million in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily due to the higher compensation and benefit costs of $3.1 million, partially offset by a decrease due to the divestitures of our Pittsburgh and Miltec operations and closure of certain facilities of $1.3 million.
Restructuring Charges
Restructuring charges increased $8.7 million (of which $0.5 million was included in cost of sales) in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily due to the restructuring plan that was implemented in 2017 that is expected to increase operating efficiencies. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on restructuring activities.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was essentially flat in 2017 compared to 2016 primarily due to a lower outstanding Term Loan balance a result of voluntary principal prepayments on our credit facilities, offset by higher utilization of the Revolving Credit Facility, including the acquisition of LDS. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our long-term debt.
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense
We recorded an income tax benefit of $12.5 million (an effective tax benefit rate of 163.8%) in 2017, compared to income tax expense of $12.9 million (an effective tax rate of 33.7%) in 2016. The decrease in the effective tax rate for 2017 compared to 2016 was primarily due to $13.0 million of provisional deferred income tax benefit recorded in connection with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”). The reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% required the federal portion of our deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 to be re-measured at the enacted tax rate expected to apply when the temporary differences are to be realized or settled using 21.0%. In addition, the pre-tax income in 2017 was lower compared to 2016 pre-tax income which caused tax incentives such as research and development tax credits and discrete items to have a greater impact on our effective tax rate.
Our unrecognized tax benefits were $5.3 million and $3.0 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively. We record interest and penalty charge, if any, related to uncertain tax positions as a component of tax expense and unrecognized tax benefits. The amounts accrued for interest and penalty charges as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 were not significant. If recognized, $3.4 million would affect the effective tax rate.
We file U.S. Federal and state income tax returns. During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) completed the audit of tax years 2013, 2014, and 2015. Consequently, Federal income tax returns after 2015 are subject to examination. California franchise (income) tax returns after 2012 and other state income tax returns after 2012 are subject to examination. While we are no longer subject to examination prior to those periods, carryforwards generated prior to those periods may still be adjusted upon examination by the IRS or state taxing authority if they either have been or will be used in a subsequent period.
Net Income and Earnings per Diluted Share
Net income and earnings per diluted share for 2017 were $20.1 million, or $1.74 per diluted share, compared to net income and earnings per diluted share for 2016 were $25.3 million, or $2.24. The decrease in net income in 2017 compared to 2016 was primarily due to the following:
Prior year included a pre-tax gain on divestitures, net of our Pittsburgh and Miltec operations of $17.6 million;
Higher restructuring charges of $8.7 million (of which $0.5 million is included in cost of sales);
Lower gross profit of $2.9 million (which excludes $0.5 million of restructuring charges in cost of sales); and
Higher SG&A expenses of $2.0 million; partially offset by
Lower income tax expense of $25.3 million.

33


Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based upon the two reportable operating segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. The results of operations differ between our reportable operating segments due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. The following table summarizes our business segment performance for 2017 and 2016:
 
 
%
 
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
of Net  Revenues
 
%
of Net  Revenues
 
 
Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Net Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
4.1
 %
 
$
316,723

 
$
304,177

 
56.7
 %
 
55.2
 %
Structural Systems
 
(2.0
)%
 
241,460

 
246,465

 
43.3
 %
 
44.8
 %
Total Net Revenues
 
1.4
 %
 
$
558,183

 
$
550,642

 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %
Segment Operating Income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
$
31,236

 
$
29,284

 
9.9
 %
 
9.6
 %
Structural Systems
 
 
 
5,790

 
16,844

 
2.4
 %
 
6.8
 %
 
 
 
 
37,026

 
46,128

 
 
 
 
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
 
 
 
(21,392
)
 
(16,912
)
 
(3.8
)%
 
(3.1
)%
Total Operating Income
 
 
 
$
15,634

 
$
29,216

 
2.8
 %
 
5.3
 %
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
 
 
 
$
31,236

 
$
29,284

 
 
 
 
Other Income
 
 
 
645

 

 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
13,888

 
14,087

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
1,190

 
182

 
 
 
 
Inventory Purchase Accounting Adjustments
 
 
 
1,235

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
48,194

 
43,553

 
15.2
 %
 
14.3
 %
Structural Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
 
 
 
5,790

 
16,844

 
 
 
 
Other Income
 
 
 
200

 
141

 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
8,860

 
8,688

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
5,866

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20,716

 
25,673

 
8.6
 %
 
10.4
 %
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Loss
 
 
 
(21,392
)
 
(16,912
)
 
 
 
 
Other Income
 
 
 

 
74

 
 
 
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
 
 
97

 
85

 
 
 
 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
 
 
 
4,675

 
3,007

 
 
 
 
Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
1,782

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(14,838
)
 
(13,746
)
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
$
54,072

 
$
55,480

 
9.7
 %
 
10.1
 %
Capital Expenditures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic Systems
 
 
 
$
5,019

 
$
3,032

 
 
 
 
Structural Systems
 
 
 
20,679

 
15,661

 
 
 
 
Corporate Administration
 
 
 
775

 

 
 
 
 
Total Capital Expenditures
 
 
 
$
26,473

 
$
18,693

 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes costs not allocated to either the Electronic Systems or Structural Systems operating segments.

34


Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems’ net revenues in 2017 compared to 2016 increased $12.5 million primarily due to the following:
$33.9 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets mainly due to increased demand, which favorably impacted our missile, fixed-wing, and helicopter platforms; partially offset by
$11.0 million lower revenues in our Industrial end-use markets; and
$10.3 million lower revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets mainly due to continued softness in demand in the business jet market.
Electronic Systems segment operating income in 2017 compared to 2016 increased primarily due to higher manufacturing volume, partially offset by restructuring charges of $1.2 million and unfavorable product mix.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems’ net revenues in 2017 compared to 2016 decreased $5.0 million primarily due to the following:
$9.9 million lower revenues in commercial aerospace end-use markets mainly due to the wind down of a regional jet program and continued softness in demand within the regional and business jet end-use markets; partially offset by
$4.9 million higher revenues in military and space end-use markets mainly due to increased demand which favorably impacted our helicopter platforms.
The Structural Systems operating income in 2017 compared to 2016 decreased primarily due to restructuring charges of $5.9 million, the impact of new program development on large airframe platforms, and lower manufacturing volume.
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses
CG&A expenses in 2017 compared to 2016 increased primarily due to higher compensation and benefit costs of $3.1 million and restructuring charges of $1.8 million.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Available Liquidity
Total debt, the weighted-average interest rate, cash and cash equivalents and available credit facilities were as follows:

 
 
(In millions)
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
Total debt, including long-term portion
 
$
233.0

 
$
218.1

Weighted-average interest rate on debt
 
4.71
%
 
3.73
%
Term Loan interest rate
 
4.15
%
 
3.74
%
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
10.3

 
$
2.2

Unused Revolving Credit Facility
 
$
99.7

 
$
141.6

On November 21, 2018, we completed new credit facilities to replace the Existing Credit Facilities. The new credit facilities consist of a $240.0 million senior secured term loan, which matures on November 21, 2025 (“New Term Loan”), and a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility (“New Revolving Credit Facility”), which matures on November 21, 2023 (collectively, the “New Credit Facilities”). We are required to make installment payments of 0.25% of the outstanding principal balance of the New Term Loan amount on a quarterly basis. In addition, if we meet the annual excess cash flow threshold, we will be required to make excess flow payments on an annual basis. Further, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the New Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.200% to 0.300%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all covenants required under the New Credit Facilities. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

35


In October 2015, we entered into interest rate cap hedges designated as cash flow hedges with a portion of these interest rate cap hedges maturing on a quarterly basis, and a final quarterly maturity date of June 2020, in aggregate, totaling $135.0 million of our debt. We paid a total of $1.0 million in connection with entering into the interest rate cap hedges.
On April 23, 2018, we acquired Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) for a purchase price of $30.7 million, net of cash acquired, all payable in cash. We paid an aggregate of $30.8 million in cash by drawing down on the Revolving Credit Facility. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
In September 2017, we acquired all the outstanding interests of LDS for a purchase price of $60.0 million, net of cash acquired, all payable in cash. Upon the closing of the transaction, we paid $61.4 million in cash by drawing down on the Revolving Credit Facility. The remaining $0.6 million was paid in October 2017 in cash, also by drawing down on the Revolving Credit Facility. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
In November 2017, management approved and commenced a restructuring plan that was intended to increase operating efficiencies. On an annualized basis, beginning in 2019, we anticipate these restructuring actions will result in estimated total savings of $14.0 million.
We expect to spend a total of $15.0 million to $17.0 million for capital expenditures in 2019 financed by cash generated from operations, principally to support new contract awards at Structural Systems and Electronic Systems. As part of our strategic plan to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies and win new contract awards, additional up-front investment in tooling will be required for newer programs which have higher engineering content and higher levels of complexity in assemblies.
We believe the ongoing aerospace and defense subcontractor consolidation makes acquisitions an increasingly important component of our future growth. We will continue to make prudent acquisitions and capital expenditures for manufacturing equipment and facilities to support long-term contracts for commercial and military aircraft and defense programs.
We continue to depend on operating cash flow and the availability of our New Credit Facilities to provide short-term liquidity. Cash generated from operations and bank borrowing capacity is expected to provide sufficient liquidity to meet our obligations during the next twelve months.
Cash Flow Summary
2018 Compared to 2017
Net cash provided by operating activities during 2018 increased to $46.2 million compared to $35.4 million during 2017 due to improved working capital management, partially offset by lower net income.
Net cash used in investing activities in 2018 was $47.9 million compared to $86.2 million in 2017 due to lower payments for acquisition and lower purchases of property and equipment.
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2018 was $9.8 million compared to $45.5 million during 2017 due to lower net borrowings on the credit facilities.
2017 Compared to 2016
Net cash provided by operating activities during 2017 decreased to $35.4 million compared to $43.3 million during 2016 due to lower net income as a result of restructuring charges and lower gross margin, and lower accounts payable.
Net cash used in investing activities in 2017 of $86.2 million compared to cash provided by of $34.9 million in 2016 due to the payments for the purchase of LDS, net of cash acquired of $59.8 million in the current year. In addition, the prior year included proceeds from the divestiture of our Pittsburgh and Miltec operations of $51.9 million. Further, 2017 included higher purchases of property and equipment to support the expansion of our Parsons, Kansas facility.
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2017 was $45.5 million compared to cash used of $76.2 million during 2016 due to net borrowings from the Existing Revolving Credit Facility that was used for the purchase of LDS, partially offset by repayments on the credit facilities.

36


Contractual Obligations
A summary of our contractual obligations at December 31, 2018 was as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Payments Due by Period
 
 
Total
 
Less Than
1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
More Than
5 Years
Long-term debt, including current portion
 
$
233,000

 
$
2,330

 
$
4,660

 
$
4,660

 
$
221,350

Future interest on long-term debt
 
71,910

 
16,200

 
26,310

 
18,860

 
10,540

Operating leases
 
12,838

 
3,680

 
6,194

 
2,384

 
580

Pension liability
 
20,274

 
1,787

 
3,759

 
3,996

 
10,732

Total(1)
 
$
338,022

 
$
23,997

 
$
40,923

 
$
29,900

 
$
243,202

(1)
As of December 31, 2018, we have recorded $5.3 million in long-term liabilities related to uncertain tax positions. We are not able to reasonably estimate the timing of the long-term payments, or the amount by which our liability may increase or decrease over time, therefore, the liability or uncertain tax positions has not been included in the contractual obligations table.
We have estimated that the fair value of our indemnification obligations as insignificant based upon our history with such obligations and insurance coverage and have included no such obligation in the table above.
Our ultimate liability with respect to groundwater contamination at certain Structural Systems facilities will depend upon a number of factors, including changes in existing laws and regulations, the design and cost of construction, operation and maintenance activities, and the allocation of liability among potentially responsible parties. The above table does not include obligations related to these matters. See Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for discussion of our environmental liabilities.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Our off-balance sheet arrangements consist of operating leases and indemnities.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that can have a significant impact on the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and that require the use of subjective estimates based upon past experience and management’s judgment. Because of the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates. Below are those policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are the most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
Our customers typically engage us to manufacture products based on designs and specifications provided by the end-use customer. This will require the building of tooling and manufacturing first article inspection products (prototypes) before volume manufacturing. Contracts with our customers generally include a termination for convenience clause.
We have a significant number of contracts that are derived from long-term agreements and programs that can span several years, as well as contracts that are started and completed within the same year. We recognize revenue under ASC 606, which utilizes a five-step model. Further, we utilized the modified retrospective method (also known as the cumulative effect method) of adoption of ASC 606. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The definition of a contract under ASC 606 for us is typically defined as a customer purchase order as this is when we achieve enforceable right to payment. The majority of our contracts are firm fixed-price contracts. The deliverables within a customer purchase order are analyzed to determine the number of performance obligations. In addition, at times, in order to achieve economies of scale and based on our customer’s forecasted demand, we may build in advance of receiving a purchase order from our customers and in which case, we would not recognize revenue until we have received the customer purchase order.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account under ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The majority of our contracts have a single performance obligation as the promise to transfer the individual goods or services is highly interrelated or met the Series guidance. For contracts with

37


multiple performance obligations, we allocate the contract transaction price to each performance obligation using our best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. The primary method used to estimate the standalone selling price is the expected cost plus a margin approach, under which we forecast our expected costs of satisfying a performance obligation and then add an appropriate margin for that distinct good or service.
The majority of our performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using an input measure (i.e., costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion, also known as cost-to-cost plus reasonable profit) to measure progress. Our typical revenue contract is a firm fixed price contract, and the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred. As such, we believe using the total costs incurred input method would be the most appropriate method. While the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred, there is a direct relationship between our inputs and the transfer of control of goods or services to the customer as in the event the customer invokes the termination for convenience clause, we would be entitled to costs incurred to date plus a reasonable profit. The majority of our revenues are recognized over time. Contract costs typically include labor, materials, and overhead.
Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that can span multiple months or years. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability; the complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; and the performance of subcontractors.
As a significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of our contracts, we review and update our contract-related estimates on a regular basis. We recognize adjustments in estimated profit on contracts under the cumulative catch-up method. Under this method, the impact of the adjustment on profit recorded to date is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. Revenue and profit in future periods of contract performance is recognized using the adjusted estimate. If at any time the estimate of contract profitability indicates an anticipated loss on the contract, we recognize the total loss in the quarter it is identified.
The impact of adjustments in contract estimates on our operating earnings can be reflected in either operating costs and expenses or revenue. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the net impact of these adjustments to our consolidated financial statements for 2018.
Provision for Estimated Losses on Contracts
We record provisions for the total anticipated losses on contracts, considering total estimated costs to complete the contract compared to total anticipated revenues, in the period in which such losses are identified. The provisions for estimated losses on contracts require us to make certain estimates and assumptions, including those with respect to the future revenue under a contract and the future cost to complete the contract. Our estimate of the future cost to complete a contract may include assumptions as to changes in manufacturing efficiency, operating and material costs, and our ability to resolve claims and assertions with our customers. If any of these or other assumptions and estimates do not materialize in the future, we may be required to adjust the provisions for estimated losses on contracts. As a result of the adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, the definition of a revenue contract with a customer for us now has changed and is typically defined as a customer purchase order. As such, in certain scenarios such as at the inception of a long-term agreement where our customer may be issuing purchase orders over the duration of the long-term agreement, we may be required to recognize anticipated losses on contracts that would not have occurred under ASC 605. In addition, provision for estimated losses on contracts are now included as part of contract liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Production Cost of Contracts
Production cost of contracts includes non-recurring production costs, such as design and engineering costs, and tooling and other special-purpose machinery necessary to build parts as specified in a contract. Production costs of contracts are recorded to cost of sales using the over time revenue recognition model. We review the value of the production cost of contracts on a quarterly basis to ensure when added to the estimated cost to complete, the value is not greater than the estimated realizable value of the related contracts.
Goodwill
Our business acquisitions have resulted in the recognition of goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is subject to annual evaluation for impairment (which we perform based on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter). If certain factors occur, including significant under performance of our business relative to expected operating results, significant adverse economic and industry trends, significant decline in our market capitalization for an extended period of time relative to net book value, a decision to divest individual businesses within a reporting unit, or a decision to group individual businesses differently, we may perform an impairment test prior to the fourth quarter.

38


In the fourth quarter of 2018, the carrying amount of goodwill at the date of the most recent annual impairment evaluation for Electronic Systems and Structural Systems was $117.5 million and $18.6 million, respectively. As of the date of our 2018 annual evaluation for goodwill impairment, we used a qualitative assessment including 1) margin of passing most recent step 1 analysis, 2) earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, 3) long-term growth rate, 4) analyzing material adverse factors/changes between valuation dates, 5) general macroeconomic factors, and 6) industry and market conditions, noting it was not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount and thus, goodwill was not deemed impaired.
Other Intangible Assets
We amortize acquired other intangible assets with finite lives over the estimated economic lives of the assets, ranging from 10 years to 18 years generally using the straight-line method. The value of other intangibles acquired through business combinations has been estimated using present value techniques which involve estimates of future cash flows. We evaluate other intangible assets for recoverability utilizing undiscounted cash flows or when significant changes in conditions occur, and recognize impairment losses, if any, based upon the estimated fair value of the assets.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
We measure and recognize compensation expense for share-based payment transactions to our employees and non-employees at their estimated fair value. The expense is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the share-based award, and is recognized over the requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity award). The fair value of stock options are determined using the Black-Scholes-Merton (“Black-Scholes”) valuation model, which requires assumptions and judgments regarding stock price volatility, risk-free interest rates, and expected options terms. Management’s estimates could differ from actual results. The fair value of unvested stock awards is determined based on the closing price of the underlying common stock on the date of grant except for market condition awards for which the fair value was based on a Monte Carlo simulation model.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost being determined using a moving average cost basis for raw materials and actual cost for work-in-process and finished goods. The majority of our inventory is charged to cost of sales as raw materials are placed into production and the related revenue is recognized. Inventoried costs include raw materials, outside processing, direct labor and allocated overhead, adjusted for any abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, and wasted materials (spoilage) incurred. We assess the inventory carrying value and reduce it, if necessary, to its net realizable value based on customer orders on hand, and internal demand forecasts using management’s best estimates given information currently available. As a result of adopting ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, where we utilized the modified retrospective method of adoption and we changed our revenue recognition for the majority of our revenue from point in time to over time, our inventory balance decreased significantly. For revenue contracts where revenue is recognized using the point in time method, inventory is not reduced until it is shipped or transfer of control to the customer has occurred. Our ending inventory consists of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes is determined using an estimated annual effective tax rate, which is generally less than the United States (“U.S.”) federal statutory rate, primarily as a result of research and development (“R&D”) tax credits available in the United States. Our effective tax rate may be subject to fluctuations during the year as new information is obtained, which may affect the assumptions used to estimate the annual effective tax rate, including factors such as valuation allowances against deferred tax assets, the recognition or derecognition of tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions, expected utilization of R&D tax credits and changes in or the interpretation of tax laws in jurisdictions where we conduct business.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized, using enacted tax rates, for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities, operating losses, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are evaluated quarterly and are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return are recognized when it is more-likely-than-not, based on technical merits, to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement, including resolution of related appeals and/or litigation process, if any.

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On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”). The 2017 Tax Act represented major tax reform legislation that, among other provisions, reduced the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0% effective January 1, 2018. In our consolidated financial statements included in our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K, we recognized provisional amounts for the income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act which included $13.0 million of deferred income tax benefit recorded principally due to the re-measurement of the federal portion of our deferred tax assets and liabilities in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”). SAB 118 provided SEC staff guidance regarding the application of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 740, “Income Taxes,” in the reporting period in which the 2017 Tax Act became law and allowed a measurement period to make refinements and finalize the tax effects not exceed one year from the enactment date. During the fourth quarter of 2018, we finalized our accounting for the tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
Environmental Liabilities
Environmental liabilities are recorded when environmental assessments and/or remedial efforts are probable and costs can be reasonably estimated. Generally, the timing of these accruals coincides with the completion of a feasibility study or our commitment to a formal plan of action. Further, we review and update our environmental accruals as circumstances change and/or additional information is obtained that reasonably could be expected to have a meaningful effect on the outcome of a matter or the estimated cost thereof.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting pronouncements.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our main market risk exposure relates to changes in U.S. and U.K. interest rates on our outstanding long-term debt. At December 31, 2018, we had borrowings of $233.0 million under our New Credit Facilities.
The New Term Loan bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) the Eurodollar Rate (defined as the London Interbank Offered Rate [“LIBOR”]) plus an applicable margin ranging from 3.75% to 4.00% per year or (ii) the Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] the Eurodollar Rate plus 1.00%) plus an applicable margin ranging from 3.75% to 4.00% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
The New Revolving Credit Facility bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) the Eurodollar Rate (defined as LIBOR) plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.75% to 2.75% per year or (ii) the Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] the Eurodollar Rate plus 1.00%) plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.75% to 1.75% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
A hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in the interest rate would have an immaterial impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The financial statements and supplementary data together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP included in Part IV, Item 15(a) 1 and 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are included herein by reference.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
 
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”)) are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in

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